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Sample records for a-axis oriented prba

  1. Growth and characterization of a-axis oriented Cr-doped AlN films by DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Padmalochan; Ramaseshan, R., E-mail: seshan@igcar.gov.in; Dash, S.

    2016-05-23

    Wurtzite type Cr-doped AlN thin films were grown on Si (100) substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering with a function of N{sub 2} concentration (15 to 25%). Evolution of crystal structure of these films was studied by GIXRD where a-axis preferred orientation was observed. The electronic binding energy and concentration of Cr in these films were estimated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). We have observed indentation hardness (H{sub IT}) of around 28.2 GPa for a nitrogen concentration of 25%.

  2. Growth and characterization of a-axis oriented Cr-doped AlN films by DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Padmalochan; Ramaseshan, R.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Dash, S.

    2016-05-01

    Wurtzite type Cr-doped AlN thin films were grown on Si (100) substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering with a function of N2 concentration (15 to 25%). Evolution of crystal structure of these films was studied by GIXRD where a-axis preferred orientation was observed. The electronic binding energy and concentration of Cr in these films were estimated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). We have observed indentation hardness (HIT) of around 28.2 GPa for a nitrogen concentration of 25%.

  3. Indium hexagonal island as seed-layer to boost a-axis orientation of AlN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redjdal, N.; Salah, H.; Azzaz, M.; Menari, H.; Manseri, A.; Guedouar, B.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Chérif, S. M.

    2018-06-01

    Highly a-axis oriented aluminum nitride films have been grown on Indium coated (100) Si substrate by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. It is shown that In incorporated layer improve the extent of preferential growth along (100) axis and form dense AlN films with uniform surface and large grains, devoid of micro-cracks. As revealed by SEM cross section images, AlN structure consists of oriented columnar grains perpendicular to the Si surface, while AlN/In structure results in uniformely tilted column. SEM images also revealed the presence of In hexagonal islands persistent throughout the entire growth. Micro -Raman spectroscopy of the surface and the cross section of the AlN/In grown films evidenced their high degree of homogeneity and cristallinity.

  4. Studies of anisotropic in-plane aligned a-axis oriented YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajanovic, Zoran

    1997-12-01

    Due to their layered planar structure, cuprate oxide superconductors possess remarkable anisotropic properties which may be related to their high transition temperatures. In-plane aligned a-axis YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) films are good candidates for such anisotropic studies. Furthermore, the full advantage of favorable material characteristics can be then utilized in applications such as vertical SNS junctions with the leads along the b-direction of YBCO and other novel junction configurations. High quality, smooth, in-plane aligned films are obtained on (100) LaSrGaO4. Form x-ray data, the films show complete b- and c-axes separation for the measured a-axis orientation. The anisotropic resistivity ratio (ρ c/ρ b), measured along the two crystallographic axes of single films gives ρ c/ρ b of ≈20 near the transition, with T cs near 90 K. In such films the grain boundary effects can be decoupled from the intrinsic anisotropic properties of YBCO. From oxygen annealing studies it was estimated that the CuO chains supply about 60% of the carriers. From J c measurements it is determined that the orientation of magnetic field with respect to the crystallographic film axes is the primary factor governing the J c values. The angular dependence of J c on the applied magnetic field is compared against various theoretical models showing the best agreement with the modified Ginzburg-Landau's anisotropic mass model (at T ≈ T c) and Tinkham's thin film model (at T < T c). By utilizing the Co-dopant, the coupling between CuO2 planes and the resulting enhancement of the intrinsic anisotropy of YBCO can be studied. Deposition and cooling conditions are shown to be the primary factor that influence the quality of dopant incorporation and the resulting oxygen ordering within the YBCO lattice. Various complex structures and devices utilizing in-plane aligned, a-axis films are presented. Other materials exhibiting in-plane alignment and a-axis growth are described. Optional substrates

  5. Testing the Accuracy of Different A-Axis Types for Measuring the Orientation of Bones in the Archaeological and Paleontological Record

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; García-Pérez, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Orientation of archaeological and paleontological materials plays a prominent role in the interpretation of site formation processes. Allochthony and authochthony are frequently assumed from orientation patterns or lack thereof. Although it is still debated to what extent orientation of items can be produced in original depositional contexts, the recent use of GIS tools to measure orientations has highlighted several ways of reproducing A-axes with which to address these taphonomic issues. In the present study, the three most relevant A-axis types are compared to test their accuracy in reproducing water current direction. Although results may be similar in specific bone shapes, differences are important in other shapes. As known in engineering working with wind and fluid mechanics (developing shape optimization), longitudinal symmetrical axes (LSA) are the one that best orient structures against or in the same direction of wind and water. The present work shows that this is also the case for bones (regardless of shape), since LSA produce the most accurate estimates of flow direction. This has important consequences for the interpretation of orientation patterns at sites, since this type of axis is still not properly reproduced by GIS available tools. PMID:23874825

  6. Thickness and Nb-doping effects on ferro- and piezoelectric properties of highly a-axis-oriented Nb-doped Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhi-Xiang; Ruangchalermwong, C.; Li, Jing-Feng

    2008-09-01

    Tetragonal Nb-doped Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 (PNZT) films with a lead oxide seeding layer were deposited on the Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates by sol-gel processing. The as-grown PNZT films with thicknesses ranging from about 0.08 to 0.78 μm show highly a-axis preferential orientation, and their ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties improved with increasing film thickness. Due to the combined effects of Nb doping and a-axis texturing as well as reduced substrate constraint, a high d33 constant up to 196 pm/V was obtained for PNZT film at 0.78 μm in addition to a large remnant polarization of 69 μC/cm2. This well a-axis-oriented PNZT films on platinized Si with a high piezoresponse are suitable for the fabrication of microelectromechanical devices.

  7. Flux pinning forces in irradiated a-axis oriented EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} films

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J. I.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Kwok, W.-K

    1999-10-12

    {alpha}-axis oriented EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} films have been irradiated with high energy heavy ions in different configurations to study the possible pinning role of the artificial defects in this kind of samples. The original pinning limiting mechanism of the samples is not essentially altered what the irradiation is parallel to the CuO{sub 2} planes. However, when it is deviated from this direction, an increase in critical current density and a change in pinning force are observed when the magnetic field is parallel to the columnar defects at values around the matching field.

  8. Electronic structure of PrBa2Cu3O7: A local-spin-density approximation with on-site Coulomb interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagini, M.; Calandra, C.; Ossicini, Stefano

    1995-10-01

    Electronic structure calculations based on the local-spin-density approximation (LSDA) fail to reproduce the antiferromagnetic ground state of PrBa2Cu3O7 (PBCO). We have performed linear muffin-tin orbital-atomic sphere approximation calculations, based on the local-spin-density approximation with on-site Coulomb correlation applied to Cu(1) and Cu(2) 3d states. We have found that inclusion of the on-site Coulomb interaction modifies qualitatively the electronic structure of PBCO with respect to the LSDA results, and gives Cu spin moments in good agreement with the experimental values. The Cu(2) upper Hubbard band lies about 1 eV above the Fermi energy, indicating a CuII oxidation state. On the other hand, the Cu(1) upper Hubbard band is located across the Fermi level, which implies an intermediate oxidation state for the Cu(1) ion, between CuI and CuII. The metallic character of the CuO chains is preserved, in agreement with optical reflectivity [K. Takenaka et al., Phys. Rev. B 46, 5833 (1992)] and positron annihilation experiments [L. Hoffmann et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4047 (1993)]. These results support the view of an extrinsic origin of the insulating character of PrBa2Cu3O7.

  9. Highly efficient and robust cathode materials for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells: PrBa0.5Sr0.5Co2−xFexO5+δ

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sihyuk; Yoo, Seonyoung; Kim, Jiyoun; Park, Seonhye; Jun, Areum; Sengodan, Sivaprakash; Kim, Junyoung; Shin, Jeeyoung; Jeong, Hu Young; Choi, YongMan; Kim, Guntae; Liu, Meilin

    2013-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are the cleanest, most efficient, and cost-effective option for direct conversion to electricity of a wide variety of fuels. While significant progress has been made in anode materials with enhanced tolerance to coking and contaminant poisoning, cathodic polarization still contributes considerably to energy loss, more so at lower operating temperatures. Here we report a synergistic effect of co-doping in a cation-ordered double-perovskite material, PrBa0.5Sr0.5Co2−xFexO5+δ, which has created pore channels that dramatically enhance oxygen ion diffusion and surface oxygen exchange while maintaining excellent compatibility and stability under operating conditions. Test cells based on these cathode materials demonstrate peak power densities ~2.2 W cm−2 at 600°C, representing an important step toward commercially viable SOFC technologies. PMID:23945630

  10. Highly efficient and robust cathode materials for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells: PrBa0.5Sr0.5Co(2-x)Fe(x)O(5+δ).

    PubMed

    Choi, Sihyuk; Yoo, Seonyoung; Kim, Jiyoun; Park, Seonhye; Jun, Areum; Sengodan, Sivaprakash; Kim, Junyoung; Shin, Jeeyoung; Jeong, Hu Young; Choi, YongMan; Kim, Guntae; Liu, Meilin

    2013-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are the cleanest, most efficient, and cost-effective option for direct conversion to electricity of a wide variety of fuels. While significant progress has been made in anode materials with enhanced tolerance to coking and contaminant poisoning, cathodic polarization still contributes considerably to energy loss, more so at lower operating temperatures. Here we report a synergistic effect of co-doping in a cation-ordered double-perovskite material, PrBa0.5Sr0.5Co(2-x)Fe(x)O(5+δ), which has created pore channels that dramatically enhance oxygen ion diffusion and surface oxygen exchange while maintaining excellent compatibility and stability under operating conditions. Test cells based on these cathode materials demonstrate peak power densities ~2.2 W cm(-2) at 600°C, representing an important step toward commercially viable SOFC technologies.

  11. Atom-replaced pins in a Y-based superconductor—single-crystalline perovskite structure including both PrBa2Cu3O7‑x and YBa2Cu3O7‑y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Mariko; Araki, Takeshi; Ishii, Hirotaka; Nishijima, Gen; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi

    2018-05-01

    Metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) provides many uniform superconductors on long metal tapes. The large numbers of long wires have been applied for power grids or superconducting fault current limiters. The related applications worked for a long time without fatal trouble. The quasi-liquid produced during the firing process assisted the perfectly uniform structure in TFA-MOD. On the other hand, when it was desired to introduce artificial pinning centers, the quasi-liquid also enlarged the diameter of the artificial pinning centers to several tens of nanometers. In other words, due to the nature of TFA-MOD, there is very little chance of using TFA-MOD to prepare several nm-sized artificial pinning centers. By proposing atom-replaced pins (ARPs), we aim to overcome the impasse. ARPs are realized by replacing yttrium (Y) with praseodymium (Pr) whose valence number changes from 3+ to approximately 4+. Analytical results suggested that Pr makes pinning centers on a PrBa2Cu3O7‑x (PrBCO) unit cell, and the weak-linked superconductivity derived from PrBCO extends to the adjacent unit cells in the a/b-plane. J c decrease by Pr is five times as large as the volume fraction of Pr in the Y-site of the perovskite structure. On the other hand, T c does not show large degradation in YBCO including 10% PrBCO. These results suggest that PrBCO unit cells are fully dispersed in YBa2Cu3O7‑y matrix. With regard to J c in the magnetic field, (Y0.98, Pr0.02)BCO has been slightly improved compared with pure YBCO only in the region of high temperature and low magnetic field of less than 1 T.

  12. Domain structures and Prco antisite point defects in double-perovskite PrBaCo2O5+δ and PrBa0.8Ca0.2Co2O5+δ.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yong; Chen, Yu; Pradel, Ken C; Zhang, Weilin; Liu, Meilin; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-06-15

    Owing to the excellent mixed-ionic and electronic conductivity and fast oxygen kinetics at reduced temperature (<800 °C), double-perovskite oxides such as PrBaCo 2 O 5+δ exhibit excellent properties as an oxygen electrode for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we revealed high-density antiphase domain boundaries (APBs) and 90° domain walls in PrBaCo 2 O 5+δ grains. Besides the regular lamellar 90° domain walls in {021} planes, irregular fine 90° domains are attached to the curved APBs. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) reveals the composition variation across some of the 90° domain walls. There are fewer Co and more Ba ions approaching the 90° domain walls, while the changes in Pr and O ions are not detectable. We assume that the extra Ba 2+ cations replace the Pr 3+ cations, while the Pr 3+ cations go to the Co site to form Pr Co antisite point defects and become Pr 4+ . In this case, the Pr 4+ cations will help to balance the local charges and have compatible ionic radius with that of Co 3+ . The local strain field around the 90° domain walls play a crucial role in the stabilization of such Pr Co antisite point defects. The antisite point defects have been observed in our high-resolution TEM images and aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) scanning TEM images. After Ca 2+ doped into PrBaCo 2 O 5+δ to improve the structure stability, we observed tweed structures in the PrBa 0.8 Ca 0.2 Co 2 O 5+δ grain. The tweed structure is composed of high-density intersected needle-shaped 90° domain walls, which is linked to a strong local strain field and composition variation. Even when the temperature is increased to 750 °C, the domain structures are still stable as revealed by our in situ TEM investigation. Therefore, the influence of the domain structures and the Pr Co antisite defects on the ionic and electric conductivities must be considered. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier

  13. Whose Orientations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutoff, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." While the "menu" Levisohn describes in his groundbreaking work on orientations to the teaching of rabbinic texts will almost certainly be refined over time, even as it stands this article should be of…

  14. Temporal orientation.

    PubMed

    Maglio, Sam J; Trope, Yaacov

    2018-05-18

    Time in the mind orients people in one of two directions. An inward orientation points to the present, contracting the scope of thought to immediate concerns. An outward orientation, in contrast, points away from the present to the past or the future, expanding the scope of thought to a wider consideration set. These oriented arrows need not solely be used for mental time travel, as a similar inward/outward orientation can apply to social distance, spatial distance, and probability. We review recent findings illuminated by this broad form distancing, as illustrated in how people learn from and compare themselves to others, before concluding with a discussion of how change necessarily transpires over time, providing opportunities for future research at the intersection of future thought and present behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Orientation diffusions.

    PubMed

    Perona, P

    1998-01-01

    Diffusions are useful for image processing and computer vision because they provide a convenient way of smoothing noisy data, analyzing images at multiple scales, and enhancing discontinuities. A number of diffusions of image brightness have been defined and studied so far; they may be applied to scalar and vector-valued quantities that are naturally associated with intervals of either the real line, or other flat manifolds. Some quantities of interest in computer vision, and other areas of engineering that deal with images, are defined on curved manifolds;typical examples are orientation and hue that are defined on the circle. Generalizing brightness diffusions to orientation is not straightforward, especially in the case where a discrete implementation is sought. An example of what may go wrong is presented.A method is proposed to define diffusions of orientation-like quantities. First a definition in the continuum is discussed, then a discrete orientation diffusion is proposed. The behavior of such diffusions is explored both analytically and experimentally. It is shown how such orientation diffusions contain a nonlinearity that is reminiscent of edge-process and anisotropic diffusion. A number of open questions are proposed at the end.

  16. Industrial Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

    These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

  17. Orienting hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  18. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  19. Microstructure optimization for high-performance PrBa0.5Sr0.5Co1.5Fe0.5O5+δ-La2NiO4+δ core-shell cathode of solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin; Qiu, Peng; Xia, Meng; Jia, Lichao; Chi, Bo; Pu, Jian; Li, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Four PrBa0.5Sr0.5Co1.5Fe0.5O5+δ (PBSCF)-La2NiO4+δ (LN) core-shell cathodes, designated as PL-0, PL-1, PL-3 and PL-5, are prepared by infiltrating LN solution into PBSCF scaffold, and they are investigated in terms of the effect of LN thickness on their electrochemical performance. PL-3 with a continuous LN coating of a moderate average thickness (∼9 nm) demonstrates the lowest initial polarization resistance (0.51 Ω cm2) and highest power density (0.71 W cm-2) among all the cathodes. Polarized at 400 mA cm-2 and 700 °C for up to 40 h, the polarization resistance of all the prepared cathodes increases to approach a stable level after early stage decrease due to current activation, and PL-3 exhibits a slower average rate of performance degradation (25%). The electrochemical performance improvement is mainly attributed to that LN has a relatively high oxygen surface exchange coefficient and continuous LN coating depresses Sr segregation at PBSCF/LN interface.

  20. Shock compression and release of a-axis magnesium single crystals: Anisotropy and time dependent inelastic response

    DOE PAGES

    Renganathan, P.; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2017-01-19

    Here, to gain insight into inelastic deformation mechanisms for shocked hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals, particularly the role of crystal anisotropy, magnesium (Mg) single crystals were subjected to shock compression and release along the a-axis to 3.0 and 4.8 GPa elastic impact stresses. Wave profiles measured at several thicknesses, using laser interferometry, show a sharply peaked elastic wave followed by the plastic wave. Additionally, a smooth and featureless release wave is observed following peak compression. When compared to wave profiles measured previously for c-axis Mg, the elastic wave amplitudes for a-axis Mg are lower for the same propagation distance, and less attenuation of elastic wave amplitude is observed for a given peak stress. The featureless release wave for a-axis Mg is in marked contrast to the structured features observed for c-axis unloading. Numerical simulations, using a time-dependent anisotropic modeling framework, showed that the wave profiles calculated using prismatic slip or (10more » $$\\bar{1}$$2) twinning, individually, do not match the measured compression profiles for a-axis Mg. However, a combination of slip and twinning provides a good overall match to the measured compression profiles. In contrast to compression,prismatic slip alone provides a reasonable match to the measured release wave profiles; (10$$\\bar{1}$$2) twinning due to its uni-directionality is not activated during release. The experimental results and wave profile simulations for a-axis Mg presented here are quite different from the previously published c-axis results, demonstrating the important role of crystal anisotropy on the time-dependent inelastic deformation of Mg single crystals under shock compression and release.« less

  1. Shock compression and release of a-axis magnesium single crystals: Anisotropy and time dependent inelastic response

    SciTech Connect

    Renganathan, P.; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    Here, to gain insight into inelastic deformation mechanisms for shocked hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals, particularly the role of crystal anisotropy, magnesium (Mg) single crystals were subjected to shock compression and release along the a-axis to 3.0 and 4.8 GPa elastic impact stresses. Wave profiles measured at several thicknesses, using laser interferometry, show a sharply peaked elastic wave followed by the plastic wave. Additionally, a smooth and featureless release wave is observed following peak compression. When compared to wave profiles measured previously for c-axis Mg, the elastic wave amplitudes for a-axis Mg are lower for the same propagation distance, and less attenuation of elastic wave amplitude is observed for a given peak stress. The featureless release wave for a-axis Mg is in marked contrast to the structured features observed for c-axis unloading. Numerical simulations, using a time-dependent anisotropic modeling framework, showed that the wave profiles calculated using prismatic slip or (10more » $$\\bar{1}$$2) twinning, individually, do not match the measured compression profiles for a-axis Mg. However, a combination of slip and twinning provides a good overall match to the measured compression profiles. In contrast to compression,prismatic slip alone provides a reasonable match to the measured release wave profiles; (10$$\\bar{1}$$2) twinning due to its uni-directionality is not activated during release. The experimental results and wave profile simulations for a-axis Mg presented here are quite different from the previously published c-axis results, demonstrating the important role of crystal anisotropy on the time-dependent inelastic deformation of Mg single crystals under shock compression and release.« less

  2. Mechanical responses of a-axis GaN nanowires under axial loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. J.; Wang, C. Y.; Feng, Y. T.; Tang, Chun

    2018-03-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) hold technological significance as functional components in emergent nano-piezotronics. However, the examination of their mechanical responses, especially the mechanistic understanding of behavior beyond elasticity (at failure) remains limited due to the constraints of in situ experimentation. We therefore performed simulations of the molecular dynamics (MD) of the mechanical behavior of [1\\bar{2}10]-oriented GaN NWs subjected to tension or compression loading until failure. The mechanical properties and critical deformation processes are characterized in relation to NW sizes and loading conditions. Detailed examinations revealed that the failure mechanisms are size-dependent and controlled by the dislocation mobility on shuffle-set pyramidal planes. The size dependence of the elastic behavior is also examined in terms of the surface structure determined modification of Young’s modulus. In addition, a comparison with c-axis NWs is made to show how size-effect trends vary with the growth orientation of NWs.

  3. Thinking in Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Bjorn Tore

    1997-01-01

    A think-aloud technique, in which 20 orienteers verbalized their exact thoughts during orienteering, was used to examine the phenomenon of cognition during orienteering. Results indicate that orienteering is experienced as a task to be accomplished, a physical movement, and a dynamic process, and that thinking involves attuning perceptions to…

  4. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  5. They Call it Orienteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Mark

    1977-01-01

    Through the use of personal anecdotes, the author details his initial experience with orienteering, a sport rapidly increasing in popularity that teaches people not to get lost in the woods. Sources of information about orienteering are provided. (BT)

  6. Edward Said and "Orientalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the nearly 30 years since Edward Said published the hugely influential Orientalism, his indictment of racism and imperialism in Western scholarship on the Orient has had its share of plaudits and condemnations. Now Robert Irwin, the Middle East editor of The Times Literary Supplement, has reignited the controversy with his broadside against the…

  7. Interactive Computerized Video Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesacker, Jeanie

    In response to California State Assembly Bill (AB) 3, which requires the state's community colleges to implement orientations and other specified matriculation services, Fullerton College (FC) developed two orientation videos in 1989 for native speakers of English and English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) students. The videos were used by counselors…

  8. Teaching Orienteering. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Carol; Cory-Wright, Jean; Renfrew, Tom

    The educational value provided by orienteering's blend of navigational and physical skills has given it a permanent place in the primary and secondary school curriculum in the United Kingdom. This book is a reference to orienteering for teachers, leaders, and coaches. It provides a "how to" approach to introducing and developing the…

  9. Orientation of Hittite Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    The possible astronomical or topographical orientations of the Hittite monuments of the Bronze Age has remained unexplored until recently. This would provide an important insight into how temporality was imprinted by this culture in sacred spaces and in the landscape. The authors' analysis of a statistically significant sample of Hittite temples - and a few monumental gates - has demonstrated that ancient Hittite monuments were not randomly orientated as previously thought. On the contrary, there were well-defined patterns of orientation that can be interpreted within the context of Hittite culture and religion.

  10. Passive orientation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Martinez, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

  11. Implementing Strategic Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Arthur K.; Brownback, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    An HRM case dealing with problems and issues of setting up orientation programs which align with corporate strategy. Discussion concerns how such a case can be used to exhibit the alignment between HRM and business strategy.

  12. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  13. Nurse manager orientation.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Anne; Carter, Kelly; Nugent, Mary

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the principles of management and leadership, our organization has worked over the years to formalize the orientation program for new nurse managers. This program meets the needs of new nurse managers and responds to today's complex health care system needs. This article describes the components of a nurse manager orientation program for the novice nurse manager and methods for evaluating nurse manager effectiveness.

  14. Trainable multiscript orientation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Beusekom, Joost; Rangoni, Yves; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Detecting the correct orientation of document images is an important step in large scale digitization processes, as most subsequent document analysis and optical character recognition methods assume upright position of the document page. Many methods have been proposed to solve the problem, most of which base on ascender to descender ratio computation. Unfortunately, this cannot be used for scripts having no descenders nor ascenders. Therefore, we present a trainable method using character similarity to compute the correct orientation. A connected component based distance measure is computed to compare the characters of the document image to characters whose orientation is known. This allows to detect the orientation for which the distance is lowest as the correct orientation. Training is easily achieved by exchanging the reference characters by characters of the script to be analyzed. Evaluation of the proposed approach showed accuracy of above 99% for Latin and Japanese script from the public UW-III and UW-II datasets. An accuracy of 98.9% was obtained for Fraktur on a non-public dataset. Comparison of the proposed method to two methods using ascender / descender ratio based orientation detection shows a significant improvement.

  15. Developing an orientation program.

    PubMed

    Edwards, K

    1999-01-01

    When the local area experienced tremendous growth and change, the radiology department at Maury Hospital in Columbia, Tennessee looked seriously at its orientation process in preparation for hiring additional personnel. It was an appropriate time for the department to review its orientation process and to develop a manual to serve as both a tool for supervisors and an ongoing reference for new employees. To gather information for the manual, supervisors were asked to identify information they considered vital for new employees to know concerning the daily operations of the department, its policies and procedures, the organizational structure of the hospital, and hospital and departmental computer systems. That information became the basis of the orientation manual, and provided an introduction to the hospital and radiology department; the structure of the organization; an overview of the radiology department; personnel information; operating procedures and computer systems; and various policies and procedures. With the manual complete, the radiology department concentrated on an orientation process that would meet the needs of supervisors who said they had trouble remembering the many details necessary to teach new employees. A pre-orientation checklist was developed, which contained the many details supervisors must handle between the time an employee is hired and arrives for work. The next step was the creation of a checklist for use by the supervisor during a new employee's first week on the job. A final step in the hospital's orientation program is to have each new employee evaluate the entire orientation process. That information is then used to update and revise the manual.

  16. Concealment of sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Sylva, David; Rieger, Gerulf; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Bailey, J Michael

    2010-02-01

    Sex-atypical behaviors may be used to identify a person as homosexual. To shield themselves from prejudice, homosexual people may attempt to conceal these behaviors. It is not clear how effectively they can do so. In Study 1, we asked homosexual participants to conceal their sex-atypical behaviors while talking about the weather. Raters watched videos of the participants and judged the likelihood that each participant was homosexual. Homosexual participants were able to partially conceal signs of their orientation, but they remained distinguishable from heterosexual participants. In Study 2, we tested the ability to conceal signs of one's sexual orientation in a more demanding situation: a mock job interview. In this scenario, homosexual men were even less effective at concealing their orientation. Higher cognitive demands in this new situation may have interfered with their ability to conceal.

  17. Oriental upper blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chau-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Aesthetic surgery of the upper eyelids is a very common procedure performed in cosmetic practices around the world. The word blepharoplasty, however, has a different meaning in Asia than it does elsewhere. Orientals have different periorbital anatomic characteristics, their motivations for seeking eyelid treatment are different, and operative techniques have been adapted consequently. There are also many eyelid shapes among Orientals, mostly with regard to the presence and location of the supratarsal fold and/or presence of an epicanthal fold. The surgeon must therefore master a range of surgical procedures to treat these variations adequately. It is critical to know the indications for each blepharoplasty technique as well as their complications to select the right surgery and avoid unfavorable results. Epicanthoplasty performed on the right patient can greatly improve aesthetic results while retaining ethnic characteristics. This article will discuss Oriental eyelid characteristics, preoperative patient assessment, commonly used corrective techniques for the "double-eyelid" creation, and complications and how to avoid them.

  18. Orientation of Christian Churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, Stephen C.

    The orientation of Christian churches reflects the historically documented concepts that one should turn eastward to pray and the architectural and liturgical principle that temples and churches should be constructed facing east (often specified as equinoctial east). Since many churches do not face equinoctial east, various attempts have been made to explain this deviation. Among them are the idea that those churches were incorrectly built or that they were oriented toward sunrise on the date their foundation was laid or on the feast or the saint to whom the church was dedicated.

  19. Distributed Object Oriented Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    of the object oriented model of computation. Therefore, object oriented programming can provide the programmer with good conceptual tools to divide his...LABOR SALES-COMMISSION). The symbol + refers to the addition function and takes any number of numeric arguments. The third subtype of list forms is the...2) ’(:SEND-DONE) (SEWF (AREF OBJECT-i1-MESSAGES-SENT 2) ’(PROGN (FORMAT T "-s methd completely executed instr-ptr -s-V NAME %INSTR-PTR%) (INCF

  20. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with — one's sexual orientation can take some time. Thinking sexually about both the same sex and the opposite sex is quite common as teens sort through their emerging sexual feelings. Some teens may experiment with sexual experiences, including those with members of ...

  1. Sexual orientation and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Barbara L

    2004-06-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics issued its first statement on homosexuality and adolescents in 1983, with a revision in 1993. This report reflects the growing understanding of youth of differing sexual orientations. Young people are recognizing their sexual orientation earlier than in the past, making this a topic of importance to pediatricians. Pediatricians should be aware that some youths in their care may have concerns about their sexual orientation or that of siblings, friends, parents, relatives, or others. Health care professionals should provide factual, current, nonjudgmental information in a confidential manner. All youths, including those who know or wonder whether they are not heterosexual, may seek information from physicians about sexual orientation, sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse, or various psychosocial difficulties. The pediatrician should be attentive to various potential psychosocial difficulties, offer counseling or refer for counseling when necessary and ensure that every sexually active youth receives a thorough medical history, physical examination, immunizations, appropriate laboratory tests, and counseling about sexually transmitted diseases (including human immunodeficiency virus infection) and appropriate treatment if necessary. Not all pediatricians may feel able to provide the type of care described in this report. Any pediatrician who is unable to care for and counsel nonheterosexual youth should refer these patients to an appropriate colleague.

  2. Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico (26.5N, 102.0W) west of Monclova, shows a mining region of northern Mexico. Mine tailings can be seen on the mountain slopes and in the valley floor. In addition to mining activity, several irrigated agricultural areas supporting the local communities can be seen in the area.

  3. An Orientable Search Coil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, P. J.; Poblocki, M.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a design for a low cost orientable search coil that can be used to investigate the variation of magnetic flux with angle. This experiment is one of the required practical activities in the current A level physics specification for the AQA examination board in the UK. We demonstrate its performance and suggest other suitable…

  4. A Philological Orientation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonrobert, Charlotte Elisheva

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." As someone who is experimenting not only with how to teach rabbinic texts but with which texts to select in virtually every course the author teaches for American undergraduate as well as graduate…

  5. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  6. Geography and Orienteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, W. P.

    1972-01-01

    Orienteering is a rapidly growing sport, developed in Sweden, which has great possibilities for education in geography. It can be conceived as an organizing device for outdoor work and as a basis for developing map skills and for map construction. (Author)

  7. Personality and Medical Specialty Choice: Technique Orientation versus People Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Osmon, William R.

    2001-01-01

    Results of the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire completed by 161 physicians indicated that role consciousness, abstractedness, and tough mindedness differentiated medical specialties (surgeons, anesthesiologists, family practitioners). Results correlated with the use of differences between person orientation and technique orientation to…

  8. Context Oriented Information Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohania, Mukesh; Bhide, Manish; Roy, Prasan; Chakaravarthy, Venkatesan T.; Gupta, Himanshu

    Faced with growing knowledge management needs, enterprises are increasingly realizing the importance of seamlessly integrating critical business information distributed across both structured and unstructured data sources. Academicians have focused on this problem but there still remain a lot of obstacles for its widespread use in practice. One of the key problems is the absence of schema in unstructured text. In this paper we present a new paradigm for integrating information which overcomes this problem - that of Context Oriented Information Integration. The goal is to integrate unstructured data with the structured data present in the enterprise and use the extracted information to generate actionable insights for the enterprise. We present two techniques which enable context oriented information integration and show how they can be used for solving real world problems.

  9. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and

  10. Sacral orientation revisited.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Steinberg, Nili; Peled, Nathan; Hershkovitz, Israel; Masharawi, Youssef

    2007-07-01

    A descriptive study of the sacral anatomic orientation (SAO) and its association with pelvic incidence (PI). To introduce the concept of SAO, establish a method for measuring it, and evaluate its association with pelvic orientation. Pelvic orientation (PO) is considered a key factor in spinal shape and balance. Sacral slope (SS), PI, and pelvic tilt (PT) are the most frequently used parameters for evaluating PO. Nevertheless, the association between the anatomic orientation of the sacrum and these parameters has never been established. The aim of the present study is to define the anatomic orientation of the sacrum, to establish a reliable method for measuring it, and to examine its association with PI. SAO was defined as the angle created between the intersection of a line running parallel to the superior endplate surface of the sacrum and a line running between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the anterior-superior edge of the symphysis pubis. Methods for measuring SAO and PI on both skeletal populations and living individuals are described. The study was carried out on 424 skeletons (articulated pelves) using a three-dimensional digitizer and on 20 adult individuals using CT three-dimensional images (volume-rendering method). Reliability (intratester and intertester) was assessed using intraclass correlation test. A regression analysis was carried out to evaluate the association between the two measurements. The mean SAO and PI in the human skeletal population were found to be 48.46 degrees +/- 10.17 degrees and 54.08 degrees +/- 12.64 degrees , respectively and of the living individuals (CT) 52.76 degrees +/- 10.31 degrees and 57.14 degrees +/- 13.08 degrees , respectively. SAO and PI measurements were highly correlated (r = -0.824, and r = -0.828, P < 0.001 for skeletal material and living individuals, respectively). PI can be predicted via SAO, i.e., PI = [-0.971 x SAO] + 101.16 degrees . The newly suggested parameter (SAO) may be an important

  11. Evaluation of trauma service orientation.

    PubMed

    Schott, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Orientation of residents to clinical services may be criticized as cumbersome, dull, and simplytoo much information. With the mandated resident-hour restrictions, the question arose: Do residents perceive the orientation to our trauma service as worthwhile? Residents attend a standardized orientation lecture on the first day of the rotation. Three weeks later, an eight-item, five-point Likert-scale survey is distributed to assess the residents' perceptions of the value of the orientation. Responses to each item were examined. Fifty-four (92%) of the residents completed the questionnaire between September 2005 and August 2006. Most indicated that orientation was helpful (85%), the Trauma Resuscitation DVD was informative (82%), the review of procedures was helpful (82%), and the instructor's knowledge was adequate (94%). Most (92%) disagreed with the statement that orientation should not be offered. Careful attention to orientation content and format is important to the perception that the orientation is worthwhile.

  12. Curriculum Orientations of Virtual Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Nicole Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the curriculum orientation preferences of K-12 public school teachers who provided instruction in virtual settings (n = 47) in a midwestern state. Curriculum orientations were explored using a mixed-methods design. Quantitative assessments data revealed a pattern of curriculum orientations similar to teachers working in…

  13. Moral Orientation, Gender, and Salary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Roger W.

    A study examined the relationship among gender, moral orientation, and pay. Although the participants were about equal in terms of gender, 48 males and 53 females, males tended to hold higher degrees. The researcher hypothesized that salaries would be differentiated based on gender and moral orientation. Assumptions were that care-oriented males…

  14. Sex Role and Dating Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Collins, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    Male and female subjects from three age groups completed questionnaires on sex roles and dating orientations. Males approached dating from both a psychoaffectional and psychobiological orientation, while females approached it from a psychoaffectional orientation. Significant differences were found in dating attitudes between male and female…

  15. Community Orientation and Media Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuwirth, Kurt; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship among media use, participation in local shopping and leisure activities, and orientation toward the local community. Reexamines Robert Merton's Cosmopolitan scale, finding it to have both localite (exclusively local orientation) and cosmopolite (orientation to events outside the local community) dimensions. (MM)

  16. Earth Orientation - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov Websites

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › USNO › Earth Orientation USNO Logo USNO Navigation Earth Orientation Products GPS -based Products VLBI-based Products EO Information Center Publications about Products Software Info Earth

  17. Orienteering for Sport and Pleasure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtsson, Hans; Atkinson, George

    This text presents the principles of the sport of orienteering (navigating through an unknown area using a map and compass as guide) and is useful to beginners, experienced orienteers, and "armchair" orienteers. Included in the text are: (1) a glossary of key words; (2) a basic introduction to, and history of, the sport; (3) description of the…

  18. Incorporating Orienteering in School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Douglas

    Orienteering has been described as being "either a serious sport, or a relaxing recreation". Orienteering can be a family affair or an individual fight against the clock. In its simplest form, orienteering can be described as a cross-country run, jog, or walk on a predetermined course, using a map and a compass to find several control points on…

  19. Swedish Orienteers: A Survey Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottosson, Torgny

    1995-01-01

    A survey questionnaire was sent to 1,200 members of Swedish orienteering clubs. Some common beliefs about orienteers were verified. Respondents identifying themselves as active orienteers were often well educated and in the upper middle class, had a healthy lifestyle, and tended to participate as families. (Author/TD)

  20. Is pedophilia a sexual orientation?

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C

    2012-02-01

    In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy. I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males.

  1. Design oriented structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Desirable characteristics and benefits of design oriented analysis methods are described and illustrated by presenting a synoptic description of the development and uses of the Equivalent Laminated Plate Solution (ELAPS) computer code. ELAPS is a design oriented structural analysis method which is intended for use in the early design of aircraft wing structures. Model preparation is minimized by using a few large plate segments to model the wing box structure. Computational efficiency is achieved by using a limited number of global displacement functions that encompass all segments over the wing planform. Coupling with other codes is facilitated since the output quantities such as deflections and stresses are calculated as continuous functions over the plate segments. Various aspects of the ELAPS development are discussed including the analytical formulation, verification of results by comparison with finite element analysis results, coupling with other codes, and calculation of sensitivity derivatives. The effectiveness of ELAPS for multidisciplinary design application is illustrated by describing its use in design studies of high speed civil transport wing structures.

  2. Orientation distribution of sheared isotactic polypropylene plates through thickness in the presence of sodium benzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peng-wei; Phillips, Andrew; Tung, Jason; Edward, Graham

    2005-05-01

    The orientation distribution of sheared isotactic polypropylene (iPP) containing different amount of sodium benzoate (SB) has been investigated through the gradient of shear flow field using microbeam of synchrotron wide-angle x-ray techniques. The degree of the overall orientation of α-phase crystal is found to increase with increasing concentration of SB. Compared with the sheared iPP in the absence of SB, the orientation of α-phase crystal is found to distribute over a broader range of shear flow field in the presence of SB. The overall orientation of α-phase crystal is explained in terms of a parent-daughter model or lamella-branched shish-kebab structure. As the concentration of SB increases, the contribution from the c-axis orientation of parent lamellae decreases in the flow direction. The contribution from the a*-axis orientation of daughter lamellae is developed to be dominant in the flow direction when the concentration of SB exceeds a critical value.

  3. Oriental mystery: ginseng

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, T.K.; Cho, H.O.; Yun, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    As a mysterious cure-all medicine Korea ginseng has been, since four or five thousand years ago, used as a tonic in the orient. Ginseng has been known to have a tonic effect and it is the general opinion of many investigators that ginseng has the effect of normalization of physical conditions, that is; maintaining individual homeostasis. On the other hand, the authors have found that ginseng extract inhibits the incidence and also the proliferation of tumors induced by carcinogens such as urethane, DMBA and aflatoxin B. The anticarcinogenic effect of ginseng was due to its ability to enhance the naturalmore » killer activity of the host. Korea ginseng is highly effective in preventing or curing various disease such as diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, etc.« less

  4. [Market oriented occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Rurik, Imre; Cseh, Károly

    2012-09-09

    The history and the recent state of occupational medicine in Hungary, and its relation with governmental labor organizations are analyzed. In the past 20 years, large "socialist" factories were replaced by smaller companies employing fewer workers. They have been forced to establish contract with occupational health providers. Many of them offer primary care services, whereas family physicians having a board examination in occupational medicine are allowed to work in this field as well. The market of occupational medicine is less regulated, and ethical rules are not always considered. Undercutting prices is a common practice. The recent system could be improved by some regulations which should be respected. There is no reason to make rough changes establishing a new market for profit oriented insurance companies, and to allow employees and employers to work without specification neglecting international agreements. Occupational medicine should be supervised again by the health authorities instead of economists who have quite different, short-term priorities.

  5. Diffusion orientation transform revisited.

    PubMed

    Canales-Rodríguez, Erick Jorge; Lin, Ching-Po; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Yeh, Chun-Hung; Cho, Kuan-Hung; Melie-García, Lester

    2010-01-15

    Diffusion orientation transform (DOT) is a powerful imaging technique that allows the reconstruction of the microgeometry of fibrous tissues based on diffusion MRI data. The three main error sources involving this methodology are the finite sampling of the q-space, the practical truncation of the series of spherical harmonics and the use of a mono-exponential model for the attenuation of the measured signal. In this work, a detailed mathematical description that provides an extension to the DOT methodology is presented. In particular, the limitations implied by the use of measurements with a finite support in q-space are investigated and clarified as well as the impact of the harmonic series truncation. Near- and far-field analytical patterns for the diffusion propagator are examined. The near-field pattern makes available the direct computation of the probability of return to the origin. The far-field pattern allows probing the limitations of the mono-exponential model, which suggests the existence of a limit of validity for DOT. In the regimen from moderate to large displacement lengths the isosurfaces of the diffusion propagator reveal aberrations in form of artifactual peaks. Finally, the major contribution of this work is the derivation of analytical equations that facilitate the accurate reconstruction of some orientational distribution functions (ODFs) and skewness ODFs that are relatively immune to these artifacts. The new formalism was tested using synthetic and real data from a phantom of intersecting capillaries. The results support the hypothesis that the revisited DOT methodology could enhance the estimation of the microgeometry of fiber tissues.

  6. Lunar orientation in a beetle.

    PubMed

    Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus J; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J

    2004-02-22

    Many animals use the sun's polarization pattern to orientate, but the dung beetle Scarabaeus zambesianus is the only animal so far known to orientate using the million times dimmer polarization pattern of the moonlit sky. We demonstrate the relative roles of the moon and the nocturnal polarized-light pattern for orientation. We find that artificially changing the position of the moon, or hiding the moon's disc from the beetle's field of view, generally did not influence its orientation performance. We thus conclude that the moon does not serve as the primary cue for orientation. The effective cue is the polarization pattern formed around the moon, which is more reliable for orientation. Polarization sensitivity ratios in two photoreceptors in the dorsal eye were found to be 7.7 and 12.9, similar to values recorded in diurnal navigators. These results agree with earlier results suggesting that the detection and analysis of polarized skylight is similar in diurnal and nocturnal insects.

  7. The measurement of threat orientations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Suzanne C; Schlehofer, Michèle M; Bovin, Michelle J

    2006-01-01

    To develop measures of 3 threat orientations that affect responses to health behavior messages. In Study 1, college students (N = 47) completed items assessing threat orientations and health behaviors. In Study 2, college students and community adults (N = 110) completed the threat orientation items and measures of convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 1, the control-based, denial-based, and heightened-sensitivity-based threat orientation scales demonstrated good internal consistency and correlated with engagement in health behaviors. In Study 2, the convergent and discriminant validity of the 3 measures was established. The 3 scales have good internal reliability and construct validity.

  8. Orientation filtering for crystalline films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Henry I.; Atwater, Harry A.; Thompson, Carl V.; Geis, Michael W.

    1986-12-30

    A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations.

  9. Orientation filtering for crystalline films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Thompson, C.V.; Geis, M.W.

    1986-12-30

    A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations. 7 figs.

  10. Orientation decoding: Sense in spirals?

    PubMed

    Clifford, Colin W G; Mannion, Damien J

    2015-04-15

    The orientation of a visual stimulus can be successfully decoded from the multivariate pattern of fMRI activity in human visual cortex. Whether this capacity requires coarse-scale orientation biases is controversial. We and others have advocated the use of spiral stimuli to eliminate a potential coarse-scale bias-the radial bias toward local orientations that are collinear with the centre of gaze-and hence narrow down the potential coarse-scale biases that could contribute to orientation decoding. The usefulness of this strategy is challenged by the computational simulations of Carlson (2014), who reported the ability to successfully decode spirals of opposite sense (opening clockwise or counter-clockwise) from the pooled output of purportedly unbiased orientation filters. Here, we elaborate the mathematical relationship between spirals of opposite sense to confirm that they cannot be discriminated on the basis of the pooled output of unbiased or radially biased orientation filters. We then demonstrate that Carlson's (2014) reported decoding ability is consistent with the presence of inadvertent biases in the set of orientation filters; biases introduced by their digital implementation and unrelated to the brain's processing of orientation. These analyses demonstrate that spirals must be processed with an orientation bias other than the radial bias for successful decoding of spiral sense. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Praseodymium Cuprate Thin Film Cathodes for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Roles of Doping, Orientation, and Crystal Structure.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kunal; Hayamizu, Yoshiaki; Kim, Chang Sub; Kolchina, Liudmila M; Mazo, Galina N; Istomin, Sergey Ya; Bishop, Sean R; Tuller, Harry L

    2016-12-21

    Highly textured thin films of undoped, Ce-doped, and Sr-doped Pr 2 CuO 4 were synthesized on single crystal YSZ substrates using pulsed laser deposition to investigate their area-specific resistance (ASR) as cathodes in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The effects of T' and T* crystal structures, donor and acceptor doping, and a-axis and c-axis orientation on ASR were systematically studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on half cells. The addition of both Ce and Sr dopants resulted in improvements in ASR in c-axis oriented films, as did the T* crystal structure with the a-axis orientation. Pr 1.6 Sr 0.4 CuO 4 is identified as a potential cathode material with nearly an order of magnitude faster oxygen reduction reaction kinetics at 600 °C compared to thin films of the commonly studied cathode material La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.8 Fe 0.2 O 3-δ . Orientation control of the cuprate films on YSZ was achieved using seed layers, and the anisotropy in the ASR was found to be less than an order of magnitude. The rare-earth doped cuprate was found to be a versatile system for study of relationships between bulk properties and the oxygen reduction reaction, critical for improving SOFC performance.

  12. Subcortical orientation biases explain orientation selectivity of visual cortical cells.

    PubMed

    Vidyasagar, Trichur R; Jayakumar, Jaikishan; Lloyd, Errol; Levichkina, Ekaterina V

    2015-04-01

    The primary visual cortex of carnivores and primates shows an orderly progression of domains of neurons that are selective to a particular orientation of visual stimuli such as bars and gratings. We recorded from single-thalamic afferent fibers that terminate in these domains to address the issue whether the orientation sensitivity of these fibers could form the basis of the remarkable orientation selectivity exhibited by most cortical cells. We first performed optical imaging of intrinsic signals to obtain a map of orientation domains on the dorsal aspect of the anaesthetized cat's area 17. After confirming using electrophysiological recordings the orientation preferences of single neurons within one or two domains in each animal, we pharmacologically silenced the cortex to leave only the afferent terminals active. The inactivation of cortical neurons was achieved by the superfusion of either kainic acid or muscimol. Responses of single geniculate afferents were then recorded by the use of high impedance electrodes. We found that the orientation preferences of the afferents matched closely with those of the cells in the orientation domains that they terminated in (Pearson's r = 0.633, n = 22, P = 0.002). This suggests a possible subcortical origin for cortical orientation selectivity. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  13. Orientation of liquid crystalline blue phases on unidirectionally orienting surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Misaki; Ohkawa, Takuma; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Jun-ichi; Kikuchi, Hirostugu; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-03-01

    Liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases (BPs) continue to attract interest due to their fast response times and quasi-polarization-independent phase modulation capabilities. Various approaches have recently been proposed to control the crystal orientation of BPs on substrates; however, their basic orientation properties on standard, unidirectionally orienting alignment layers have not been investigated in detail. Through analysis of the azimuthal orientation of Kossel diagrams, we study the 3D crystal orientation of a BP material—with a phase sequence of cholesteric, BP I, and BP II—on unidirectionally orienting surfaces prepared using two methods: rubbing and photoalignment. BP II grown from the isotropic phase is sensitive to surface conditions, with different crystal planes orienting on the two substrates. On the other hand, strong thermal hysteresis is observed in BPs grown through a different liquid crystal phase, implying that the preceding structure determines the orientation. More specifically, the BP II-I transition is accompanied by a rotation of the crystal such that the crystal direction defined by certain low-value Miller indices transform into different directions, and within the allowed rotations, different azimuthal configurations are obtained in the same cell depending on the thermal process. Our findings demonstrate that, for the alignment control of BPs, the thermal process is as important as the properties of the alignment layer.

  14. Device Oriented Project Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions havemore » been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.« less

  15. Theme-Oriented Group Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, R. Lynn; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes the three major influences on theme-oriented groups: theme-centered interactional, structured, and behavioral groups. Provides a comparison of the composition and structure of theme groups during the current decade. Summarizes the general principles thought to be important in the construction and development of theme-oriented groups.…

  16. Assessing New Employee Orientation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Jose M.; Yancey, George B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the importance of new employee orientation (NEO) programs, the quality of typical NEOs, and how to improve NEOs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides a viewpoint of the importance of new employee orientation programs, the quality of typical NEOs, and how to improve NEOs. Findings: Although western…

  17. Industrial Technology Orientation Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    The four courses in this guide were designed to meet the specifications for the career orientation level of Illinois' Education for Employment Curriculum Model. These orientation-level courses can be taken by high school students in any sequence: (1) communication technology; (2) energy utilization technology; (3) production technology; and (4)…

  18. Orientation-crowding within contours.

    PubMed

    Glen, James C; Dakin, Steven C

    2013-07-15

    We examined how crowding (the breakdown of object recognition in the periphery caused by interference from "clutter") depends on the global arrangement of target and distracting flanker elements. Specifically we probed orientation discrimination using a near-vertical target Gabor flanked by two vertical distractor Gabors (one above and one below the target). By applying variable (opposite-sign) horizontal offsets to the positions of the two flankers we arranged the elements so that on some trials they formed contours with the target and on others they did not. While the presence of flankers generally elevated orientation discrimination thresholds for the target we observe maximal crowding not when flanker and targets were co-aligned but when a small spatial offset was applied to flanker location, so that contours formed between flanker and targets only when the target orientation was cued. We also report that observers' orientation judgments are biased, with target orientation appearing either attracted or repulsed by the global/contour orientation. A second experiment reveals that the sign of this effect is dependent both on observer and on eccentricity. In general, the magnitude of repulsion is reduced with eccentricity but whether this becomes attraction (of element orientation to contour orientation) is dependent on observer. We note however that across observers and eccentricities, the magnitude of repulsion correlates positively with the amount of release from crowding observed with co-aligned targets and flankers, supporting the notion of fluctuating bias as the basis for elevated crowding within contours.

  19. Postdictive modulation of visual orientation.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated how visual orientation is modulated by subsequent orientation inputs. Observers were presented a near-vertical Gabor patch as a target, followed by a left- or right-tilted second Gabor patch as a distracter in the spatial vicinity of the target. The task of the observers was to judge whether the target was right- or left-tilted (Experiment 1) or whether the target was vertical or not (Supplementary experiment). The judgment was biased toward the orientation of the distracter (the postdictive modulation of visual orientation). The judgment bias peaked when the target and distracter were temporally separated by 100 ms, indicating a specific temporal mechanism for this phenomenon. However, when the visibility of the distracter was reduced via backward masking, the judgment bias disappeared. On the other hand, the low-visibility distracter could still cause a simultaneous orientation contrast, indicating that the distracter orientation is still processed in the visual system (Experiment 2). Our results suggest that the postdictive modulation of visual orientation stems from spatiotemporal integration of visual orientation on the basis of a slow feature matching process.

  20. Patterns of Wildlife Value Orientations

    Treesearch

    Harry C. Zinn; Michael J. Manfredo; Susan C. Barro

    2002-01-01

    Public value orientations toward wildlife may be growing less utilitarian and more protectionist. To better understand one aspect of this trend, we investigated patterns of wildlife value orientations within families. Using a mail survey, we sampled Pennsylvania and Colorado hunting license holders 50 or older; obtaining a 54% response rate (n = 599). Males (94% of...

  1. Concentration of Swiss Elite Orienteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Roland; Wetzel, Jorg

    1997-01-01

    A visual discrimination task was used to measure concentration among 43 members of Swiss national orienteering teams. Subjects were above average in the number of target objects dealt with and in duration of continuous concentration. For females only, ranking in orienteering performance was related to quality of concentration (ratio of correct to…

  2. Acoustic positioning and orientation prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Aveni, Glenn (Inventor); Putterman, Seth (Inventor); Rudnick, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for use with an acoustic positioner, which enables a determination of the equilibrium position and orientation which an object assumes in a zero gravity environment, as well as restoring forces and torques of an object in an acoustic standing wave field. An acoustic standing wave field is established in the chamber, and the object is held at several different positions near the expected equilibrium position. While the object is held at each position, the center resonant frequency of the chamber is determined, by noting which frequency results in the greatest pressure of the acoustic field. The object position which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium position. The orientation of a nonspherical object is similarly determined, by holding the object in a plurality of different orientations at its equilibrium position, and noting the center resonant frequency for each orientation. The orientation which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium orientation. Where the acoustic frequency is constant, but the chamber length is variable, the equilibrium position or orientation is that which results in the greatest chamber length at the center resonant frequency.

  3. Binocular combination of stimulus orientation.

    PubMed

    Yehezkel, O; Ding, J; Sterkin, A; Polat, U; Levi, D M

    2016-11-01

    When two sine waves that differ slightly in orientation are presented to the two eyes separately, a single cyclopean sine wave is perceived. However, it is unclear how the brain calculates its orientation. Here, we used a signal detection rating method to estimate the perceived orientation when the two eyes were presented with Gabor patches that differed in both orientation and contrast. We found a nearly linear combination of orientation when both targets had the same contrast. However, the binocular percept shifted away from the linear prediction towards the orientation with the higher contrast, depending on both the base contrast and the contrast ratio. We found that stimuli that differ slightly in orientation are combined into a single percept, similarly for monocular and binocular presentation, with a bias that depends on the interocular contrast ratio. Our results are well fitted by gain-control models, and are consistent with a previous study that favoured the DSKL model that successfully predicts binocular phase and contrast combination and binocular contrast discrimination. In this model, the departures from linearity may be explained on the basis of mutual suppression and mutual enhancement, both of which are stronger under dichoptic than monocular conditions.

  4. Oriented active shape models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K

    2009-04-01

    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  5. Deconstructing sexual orientation: understanding the phenomena of sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Stein, T S

    1997-01-01

    The very terms of a debate about whether or not sexual orientation is primarily a biological phenomenon fail to consider the complex origins of the phenomenon. Deconstruction of the term "homosexuality" shows that it refers to multiple factors which cannot be studied as or subsumed under a unitary concept. Adequate understanding of sexual orientation must consider the developmental, interpersonal, experiential, and cultural dimensions of sexuality, as well as any biological contributions to sexual attraction, behavior, and identity.

  6. Freely oriented portable superconducting magnet

    DOEpatents

    Schmierer, Eric N [Los Alamos, NM; Prenger, F Coyne [Los Alamos, NM; Hill, Dallas D [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-01-12

    A freely oriented portable superconducting magnet is disclosed. Coolant is supplied to the superconducting magnet from a repository separate from the magnet, enabling portability of the magnet. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the magnet within a thermal shield. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the thermal shield within a vacuum vessel. The support assemblies restrain movement of the magnet resulting from energizing and cooldown, as well as from changes in orientation, enabling the magnet to be freely orientable.

  7. Correlates of a Taoist orientation.

    PubMed

    McCollaum, Webster; Zeyrek, Emek Yüce; Lester, David

    2006-12-01

    Using rating scales no associations were found between having a Taoist orientation to life, death anxiety, and the perception that one's self is unified (versus fragmented) in a sample of southeastern Asian students (18 women and 12 men).

  8. Object-oriented productivity metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John L.; Eller, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    Software productivity metrics are useful for sizing and costing proposed software and for measuring development productivity. Estimating and measuring source lines of code (SLOC) has proven to be a bad idea because it encourages writing more lines of code and using lower level languages. Function Point Analysis is an improved software metric system, but it is not compatible with newer rapid prototyping and object-oriented approaches to software development. A process is presented here for counting object-oriented effort points, based on a preliminary object-oriented analysis. It is proposed that this approach is compatible with object-oriented analysis, design, programming, and rapid prototyping. Statistics gathered on actual projects are presented to validate the approach.

  9. Grain orientation in lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahmood, A.; Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III

    1974-01-01

    Orientation of lunar soil particles in a vertical plane, as seen in the radiographs of core tubes was characterized by preparing orientation diagrams for the different stratigraphic units. Radiographs of double-core drive tubes 64001/64002, 60009/60010, and 60013/60014 were used. The orientation results reinforced the stratigraphic differences. Another source of fabric data was the laboratory-deposited sample 14163,148. The artificial deposition results showed that the grain arrangements were dependent upon the method of deposition. These results from lunar soil and other data from a crushed basalt simulant can be a basis for the inference that lunar soil grain orientation and properties are useful in interpreting lunar surface history.

  10. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, Barry L.; DePiero, Fred W.; Armstrong, Gary A.; Jansen, John F.; Muller, Richard C.; Gee, Timothy F.

    1998-01-01

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning appaus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle.

  11. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Muller, R.C.; Gee, T.F.

    1998-05-05

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning apparatus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle. 14 figs.

  12. Centralized orientation: retaining graduate nurses.

    PubMed

    Gavlak, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Graduate nurses (GNs) are an integral part of the medical-surgical nursing team. Focused GN orientation is one aspect of a program to promote retention, can be the initial link to support systems in the hospital, provides confidence in newly acquired skills, and builds a foundation for the role transition to becoming a registered nurse. A large metropolitan hospital provides a 1-week GN orientation program to provide new graduates with the skills necessary to ensure success entering the nursing field.

  13. Building transit oriented development in established communities

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-11-01

    This report provides a synthesis of the steps that established car oriented communities have taken to transform into transit oriented communities. The report identifies several approaches, such as the use of transit oriented design, focusing transit ...

  14. Orientation selective deep brain stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehto, Lauri J.; Slopsema, Julia P.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Shatillo, Artem; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Utecht, Lynn; Adriany, Gregor; Mangia, Silvia; Sierra, Alejandra; Low, Walter C.; Gröhn, Olli; Michaeli, Shalom

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Target selectivity of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is critical, as the precise locus and pattern of the stimulation dictates the degree to which desired treatment responses are achieved and adverse side effects are avoided. There is a clear clinical need to improve DBS technology beyond currently available stimulation steering and shaping approaches. We introduce orientation selective neural stimulation as a concept to increase the specificity of target selection in DBS. Approach. This concept, which involves orienting the electric field along an axonal pathway, was tested in the corpus callosum of the rat brain by freely controlling the direction of the electric field on a plane using a three-electrode bundle, and monitoring the response of the neurons using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Computational models were developed to further analyze axonal excitability for varied electric field orientation. Main results. Our results demonstrated that the strongest fMRI response was observed when the electric field was oriented parallel to the axons, while almost no response was detected with the perpendicular orientation of the electric field relative to the primary fiber tract. These results were confirmed by computational models of the experimental paradigm quantifying the activation of radially distributed axons while varying the primary direction of the electric field. Significance. The described strategies identify a new course for selective neuromodulation paradigms in DBS based on axonal fiber orientation.

  15. Task-oriented rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Choi, Younggeun; Winstein, Carolee; Gordon, James

    2012-11-01

    Task-oriented training is emerging as the dominant and most effective approach to motor rehabilitation of upper extremity function after stroke. Here, the authors propose that the task-oriented training framework provides an evidence-based blueprint for the design of task-oriented robots for the rehabilitation of upper extremity function in the form of three design principles: skill acquisition of functional tasks, active participation training, and individualized adaptive training. The previous robotic systems that incorporate elements of task-oriented trainings are then reviewed. Finally, the authors critically analyze their own attempt to design and test the feasibility of a TOR robot, ADAPT (Adaptive and Automatic Presentation of Tasks), which incorporates the three design principles. Because of its task-oriented training-based design, ADAPT departs from most other current rehabilitation robotic systems: it presents realistic functional tasks in which the task goal is constantly adapted, so that the individual actively performs doable but challenging tasks without physical assistance. To maximize efficacy for a large clinical population, the authors propose that future task-oriented robots need to incorporate yet-to-be developed adaptive task presentation algorithms that emphasize acquisition of fine motor coordination skills while minimizing compensatory movements.

  16. Orientation perception in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masumi

    2008-07-01

    It was previously demonstrated that monkeys divide the orientation continuum into cardinal and oblique categories. However, it is still unclear how monkeys perceive within-category orientations. To better understand monkeys' perception of orientation, two experiments were conducted using five monkeys. In experiment 1, they were trained to identify either one cardinal or one oblique target orientation out of six orientations. The results showed that they readily identified the cardinal target whether it was oriented horizontally or vertically. However, a longer training period was needed to identify the oblique target orientation regardless of its degree and direction of tilt. In experiment 2, the same monkeys were trained to identify two-oblique target orientations out of six orientations. These orientations were paired, either sharing the degree of tilt, direction of tilt, or neither property. The results showed that the monkeys readily identified oblique orientations when they had either the same degree or direction of tilt. However, when the target orientations had neither the same degree nor direction of tilt, the animals had difficulty in identifying them. In summary, horizontal and vertical orientations are individually processed, indicating that monkeys do not have a category for cardinal orientation, but they may recognize cardinal orientations as non-obliques. In addition, monkeys efficiently abstract either the degree or the direction of tilt from oblique orientations, but they have difficulty combining these features to identify an oblique orientation. Thus, not all orientations within the oblique category are equally perceived.

  17. Monetary rewards influence retrieval orientations.

    PubMed

    Halsband, Teresa M; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Bridger, Emma K; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-09-01

    Reward anticipation during learning is known to support memory formation, but its role in retrieval processes is so far unclear. Retrieval orientations, as a reflection of controlled retrieval processing, are one aspect of retrieval that might be modulated by reward. These processes can be measured using the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by retrieval cues from tasks with different retrieval requirements, such as via changes in the class of targeted memory information. To determine whether retrieval orientations of this kind are modulated by reward during learning, we investigated the effects of high and low reward expectancy on the ERP correlates of retrieval orientation in two separate experiments. The reward manipulation at study in Experiment 1 was associated with later memory performance, whereas in Experiment 2, reward was directly linked to accuracy in the study task. In both studies, the participants encoded mixed lists of pictures and words preceded by high- or low-reward cues. After 24 h, they performed a recognition memory exclusion task, with words as the test items. In addition to a previously reported material-specific effect of retrieval orientation, a frontally distributed, reward-associated retrieval orientation effect was found in both experiments. These findings suggest that reward motivation during learning leads to the adoption of a reward-associated retrieval orientation to support the retrieval of highly motivational information. Thus, ERP retrieval orientation effects not only reflect retrieval processes related to the sought-for materials, but also relate to the reward conditions with which items were combined during encoding.

  18. Sexual orientation and spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Cánovas, Ma Rosa; Cimadevilla, José Manuel

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed at determining the influence of sexual orientation in human spatial learning and memory. Participants performed the Boxes Room, a virtual reality version of the Holeboard. In Experiment I, a reference memory task, the position of the hidden rewards remained constant during the whole experiment. In Experiment II, a working memory task, the position of rewards changed between blocks. Each block consisted of two trials: One trial for acquisition and another for retrieval. The results of Experiment I showed that heterosexual men performed better than homosexual men and heterosexual women. They found the rewarded boxes faster. Moreover, homosexual participants committed more errors than heterosexuals. Experiment II showed that working memory abilities are the same in groups of different sexual orientation. These results suggest that sexual orientation is related to spatial navigation abilities, but mostly in men, and limited to reference memory, which depends more on the function of the hippocampal system.

  19. Layer-oriented simulation tool.

    PubMed

    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Tordi, Massimiliano; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Vernet, Elise; Marchetti, Enrico

    2004-08-01

    The Layer-Oriented Simulation Tool (LOST) is a numerical simulation code developed for analysis of the performance of multiconjugate adaptive optics modules following a layer-oriented approach. The LOST code computes the atmospheric layers in terms of phase screens and then propagates the phase delays introduced in the natural guide stars' wave fronts by using geometrical optics approximations. These wave fronts are combined in an optical or numerical way, including the effects of wave-front sensors on measurements in terms of phase noise. The LOST code is described, and two applications to layer-oriented modules are briefly presented. We have focus on the Multiconjugate adaptive optics demonstrator to be mounted upon the Very Large Telescope and on the Near-IR-Visible Adaptive Interferometer for Astronomy (NIRVANA) interferometric system to be installed on the combined focus of the Large Binocular Telescope.

  20. Sexual orientation and professional dance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J M; Oberschneider, M

    1997-08-01

    The stereotypical professional male dancer is a gay man. However, little if any systematic research has investigated the validity of this stereotype, much less the reasons why male sexual orientation would be associated with interest in dance. We interviewed 136 professional dancers about the prevalence of homosexuality among dancers, the dancers' own sexual development, and relationships between dancers of different sexual orientations. Dancers estimated that over half of male dancers are gay, but that only a small minority of female dancers are lesbian. Gay men recalled more intense early interest in dance compared to heterosexual men and women, and were more feminine as boys than were heterosexual men. Gay men's homosexual feelings typically preceded their dance experience, and only one gay man felt that his dance experiences may have influenced his sexual orientation. Heterosexual men voiced some mild complaints about gay male dancers, but these were balanced by positive sentiments.

  1. Competing strategically through market orientation.

    PubMed

    Rapert, M I; Yarbrough, L

    1997-01-01

    As organizations seek to better understand their customers, competitors, and environments, the marketing function effectively serves as the support mechanism for these activities in many industries. Accordingly, in many organizations the marketing concept has been elevated to the stature of a strategic weapon, manifested in the form of market orientation. Market-oriented firms emphasize the collection, organization, and dissemination of information regarding both customers and competitors. This strategy is especially well-suited for the health care industry where customer knowledge is of paramount importance, customer interaction is instantaneous, and customer satisfaction is essential. Results of a national study of general service hospitals suggest that firms which embrace a market orientation benefit through enhanced customer satisfaction and quality.

  2. Social Dominance Orientation, Language Orientation, and Deaf Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The notion of the Deaf community as a linguistic-cultural minority has been increasingly recognized and studied over the last two decades. However, significant differences of opinion and perspective within that population typically have been neglected in the literature. Social dominance orientation (SDO), a theoretical construct, typically…

  3. Surgery clerkship orientation: evaluating temporal changes in student orientation needs.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Conor; Moore, Jesse; Callas, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Surgery clerkship students at our institution receive a standardized orientation covering objectives, requirements, grading, and expectations. Limited data exist regarding the student perceptions of this approach. Surveys were provided to students to rate the importance of orientation topics and their satisfaction with topic conclusion. Scores between student groupings over the clerkship year were analyzed with Student t tests and analysis of variance with Scheffe adjustments. Significant differences in the mean importance rating between topics exists (P < .0001) as well as among satisfaction scores for topics (P < .0005). Early clerkship students value course expectations higher than later students (P = .03). Early clerkship students want more time devoted to hospital tours and expectations compared with later students (31% vs 8%). Orientation needs for students change over the clerkship year. Beginning students prefer basic direction for time spent on the ward. Later students prefer information regarding shelf preparation. Surgery course directors can adapt the orientation based on the experience of clerkship students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Methylation-mediated miR-155-FAM133A axis contributes to the attenuated invasion and migration of IDH mutant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Hao; Du, Lei; Li, Ningning; Zhang, Ying; Xiang, Yan; Tang, Jun-Hai; Xia, Shuli; Zhang, Eric Erquan; Lv, Sheng-Qing

    2018-06-06

    Gliomas with isocitrate dehydrogenases genes mutation (IDH MT ) were found to be less aggressive than their wildtype (IDH WT ) counterparts. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The current study aims to investigate the role of silenced oncogenic microRNAs in IDH MT gliomas, which were largely ignored and may contribute to the less aggressive behavior of IDH MT gliomas. Microarrays, bioinformatics analysis of the data from TCGA and qPCR analysis of samples from our experimental cohort (LGG: IDH WT =10, IDH MT =31; GBM: IDH WT =34, IDH MT =9) were performed. The results show that miR-155 was consistently down-regulated in IDH MT gliomas. Establishment of IDH1 R132H overexpressing glioma cell line and bisulfite sequencing PCR suggested that miR-155 down-regulation was associated with IDH1 R132H mutation induced promoter CpG islands methylation. The cancer testis antigen FAM133A is a direct downstream target of miR-155 and is a negative regulator of glioma invasion and migration possibly by regulating matrix metallopeptidase 14 (MMP14). Together, we found that methylation-regulated miR-155-FAM133A axis may contribute to the attenuated invasion and migration of IDH MT gliomas by targeting MMP14. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Autophagy induction by leptin contributes to suppression of apoptosis in cancer cells and xenograft model: Involvement of p53/FoxO3A axis

    PubMed Central

    Nepal, Saroj; Kim, Mi Jin; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Sang Hyun; Sohn, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Sung Hee; Song, Kyung; Choi, Dong Young; Lee, Eung Seok; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Leptin, a hormone mainly produced from adipose tissue, has been shown to induce proliferation of cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying leptin-induced tumor progression have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of autophagy in leptin-induced cancer cell proliferation using human hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and tumor growth in a xenograft model. Herein, we showed that leptin treatment caused autophagy induction as assessed by increase in expression of autophagy-related genes, including beclin-1, Atg5 and LC3 II, further induction of autophagosome formation and autophagic flux. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagic process by treatment with inhibitors and LC3B gene silencing blocked leptin-induced increase in cell number and suppression of apoptosis, indicating a crucial role of autophagy in leptin-induced tumor progression. Moreover, gene silencing of p53 or FoxO3A prevented leptin-induced LC3 II protein expression, suggesting an involvement of p53/FoxO3A axis in leptin-induced autophagy activation. Leptin administration also accelerated tumor growth in BALB/c nude mice, which was found to be autophagy dependent. Taken together, our results demonstrate that leptin-induced tumor growth is mediated by autophagy induction and autophagic process would be a promising target to regulate development of cancer caused by leptin production. PMID:25704884

  6. Photoinduced orientation in natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Nara C.; Cavalheri, Adriana S.; Brito, Jackeline B.; Job, Aldo E.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Giacometti, José A.; Silva, Josmary R.

    2012-04-01

    Azobenzene molecules and their derivatives have been widely investigated for their potential applications in optical and electrooptical devices. We have prepared a new guest-host system from natural rubber (NR) impregnated with azobenzene derivative Sudan Red B (SRB). The effects of stretching and immersion time on photoinduced orientation were investigated by birefringence signal measurements. We have found that the molecular orientation increase when the samples are stretched and decrease with the increase of immersion time. The first behavior was explained by using the random coil model and the latter was attributed to increase of the aggregation of SRB into NR matrix.

  7. Strategic orientations of small multihospital systems.

    PubMed Central

    Luke, R D; Begun, J W

    1988-01-01

    Strategic behaviors of organizations can be classified along two dimensions--growth orientations, or patterns of evolution over time, and action orientations, or strategic aggressiveness in undertaking a particular growth orientation. We create measures of growth and action orientations for small multihospital systems and test the validity of the growth and action orientation typologies, using data from a sample of small multihospital systems. Growth and action orientations do appear to exist independently of each other, and they are related to the ownership status of the systems. Not-for-profit and church-other systems exhibit similar strategic orientations, unlike those of Catholic and investor-owned systems. PMID:3060448

  8. Communication Apprehension and People Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Bob

    Assuming that different programs for communication apprehensive/avoidant students attract different types of students according to their needs and apprehension types, a study examined the relationship between communication apprehension (CA) and general people orientations, as measured by the Personal Record of Communication Apprehension-24…

  9. Pedagogical Issues in Object Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerur, Sridhar; Ramanujan, Sam; Kesh, Someswar

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for people with object-oriented (OO) skills, explains benefits of OO in software development, and addresses some of the difficulties in teaching OO. Topics include the evolution of programming languages; differences between OO and traditional approaches; differences from data modeling; and Unified Modeling Language (UML) and…

  10. Political Orientations, Intelligence and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Woodley, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The social sciences have traditionally assumed that education is a major determinant of citizens' political orientations and behavior. Several studies have also shown that intelligence has an impact. According to a theory that conceptualizes intelligence as a "burgher" (middle-class, civil) phenomenon--intelligence should promote civil…

  11. The Context Oriented Training Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavrini, Andrea

    The Context Oriented Training (COT) method is introduced and explored in this paper. COT is a means of improving the training process, beginning with the observation and analysis of current corporate experiences in the field. The learning context lies between the development of professional competencies in training and the operational side in the…

  12. Context Orientated Teaching in Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikos, Klaoudatos; Stavros, Papastavridis

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the skeleton of two teaching units, based on a Model for teaching mathematics, Context Orientated Teaching (COT). The first teaching unit concerns the proof of a mathematical proposition, while the second one concerns the solution of an open problem. Both are taught in the 10th grade, under the specific conditions of the…

  13. Vocationally Oriented Language Learning Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Karin; Kantelinen, Ritva

    2013-01-01

    Vocationally oriented language learning (VOLL) is often seen as a part of English for Specific Purposes/Language for Specific Purposes (ESP/LSP), which it is not in every case. The diverging characteristics and lines of development that these two branches of ELT have undergone are outlined and contrasted. Then, a discussion of the added value of a…

  14. Dimensionality of Women's Career Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sandra J.; Wijting, Jan P.

    1982-01-01

    Factor analysis of data from two samples identified nine indices of women's career orientation. Two factors accounted for significant variance common to the indices: career centeredness, which reflects the importance attached to a career relative to other life activities, and career commitment, which implies a commitment to lifetime employment.…

  15. Netlist Oriented Sensitivity Evaluation (NOSE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    developing methodologies to assess sensitivities of alternative chip design netlist implementations. The research is somewhat foundational in that such...Netlist-Oriented Sensitivity Evaluation (NOSE) project was to develop methodologies to assess sensitivities of alternative chip design netlist...analysis to devise a methodology for scoring the sensitivity of circuit nodes in a netlist and thus providing the raw data for any meaningful

  16. Teacher's Guide to Occupational Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This guide is specifically designed to accompany materials developed for occupational orientation (particularly in Illinois) in the following five cluster areas: Applied biological and agricultural occupations; personal and public service occupations; health occupations; business, marketing, and management occupations; and industrial oriented…

  17. Never Too Young to Orienteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavine, Carolyn

    1992-01-01

    Describes orienteering courses for children, including courses that introduce young children to the idea of navigating in the outdoors and courses that teach map and compass skills and problem-solving techniques to older children. Lists sources of information and references. (SV)

  18. Retention-Oriented Curricular Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanovic, Ivana; Eppes, Tom A.; Girouard, Janice; Townsend, Lee

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a retention-oriented approach to the educational value stream within the STEM undergraduate area. Faced with several strategic challenges and opportunities, a Flex Advantage Plan was developed to enhance the undergraduate engineering technology programs and better utilize the curricular flexibilities inherent in the current…

  19. Visual Search for Object Orientation Can Be Modulated by Canonical Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballaz, Cecile; Boutsen, Luc; Peyrin, Carole; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Marendaz, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The authors studied the influence of canonical orientation on visual search for object orientation. Displays consisted of pictures of animals whose axis of elongation was either vertical or tilted in their canonical orientation. Target orientation could be either congruent or incongruent with the object's canonical orientation. In Experiment 1,…

  20. A long-acting FGF21 alleviates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in NASH mice partly through an FGF21- adiponectin- IL17A axis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lichen; Yin, Jun; Gao, Wen; Wang, Qun; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong

    2018-06-02

    NASH is the most severe form of NAFLD and is a serious public health problem around the world. There are currently no approved treatments for NASH. FGF21 has recently emerged as a promising drug candidate for metabolic diseases. However, the challenges in developing FGF21 as a novel medicine include its short plasma half-life and poor drug-like properties. Here, we explored the therapeutic effects of PsTag600-FGF21, an engineered long-acting FGF21 fusion protein, in NASH mice and revealed some of the mechanisms responsible for this activity. A long-acting FGF21 was prepared by genetic fusion with a 600 residues polypeptide (PsTag600). We conducted our studies using a choline-deficient high-fat diet (CD-HFD) induced NASH mouse model. In NASH mice, the effects on body weight, insulin sensitivity, inflammation and levels of hormones and metabolites were studied first. We further investigated whether PsTag600-FGF21 attenuated inflammation through the Th17-IL17A axis and the associated mechanisms. PsTag600-FGF21 dose-dependently reduced body weight, blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels and reversed hepatic steatosis. PsTag600-FGF21 enhanced fatty acid activation and mitochondrial β-oxidation in the liver. The profound reduction in hepatic inflammation in NASH mice was associated with PsTag600-FGF21 inhibition of IL17A expression in Th17 cells. Furthermore, PsTag600-FGF21 depended on adiponectin to exert its suppression effects on Th17 cell differentiation and IL17A expression. Our data begin to uncover the indirect mechanism by which PsTag600-FGF21 suppresses hepatic inflammation and further suggest that PsTag600-FGF21 could be an effective approach in NASH treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Task-oriented situation recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Alexander; Fischer, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    From the advances in computer vision methods for the detection, tracking and recognition of objects in video streams, new opportunities for video surveillance arise: In the future, automated video surveillance systems will be able to detect critical situations early enough to enable an operator to take preventive actions, instead of using video material merely for forensic investigations. However, problems such as limited computational resources, privacy regulations and a constant change in potential threads have to be addressed by a practical automated video surveillance system. In this paper, we show how these problems can be addressed using a task-oriented approach. The system architecture of the task-oriented video surveillance system NEST and an algorithm for the detection of abnormal behavior as part of the system are presented and illustrated for the surveillance of guests inside a video-monitored building.

  2. Line-oriented flight training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, B. E.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the concepts related to a line-oriented flight training program are discussed. The need to shift from training in manipulative skills to something closer to management skills is emphasized. The program is evaluated in terms of its realistic approaches which include the simulator's optimized motion and visual capabilities. The value of standard operating procedures as they affect the line pilot in everyday operations are also illustrated.

  3. Interactions of form and orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittelstaedt, Horst

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that the orientation of an optical pattern relative to egocentric or extraneous references affects its figural quality, that is, alters its perceived form and concomitantly delays or quickens its identification (Rock 1973). A square presented in the frontal plane to an upright person (S), for instance, changes from a box to a diamond when it is rotated with respect to the S's median plane by 45 deg. This angle, that is, the angle between the orientations of the pattern in which the two apparent figures (Gestalten) attain a summit of purity and distinctness, will be called the figural disparity of the pattern. If, as in this case, the S is upright, the retinal meridian and the subjective vertical (SV) are both in the viewer's median plane. The question arises with respect to which of these orientation references the two figures are identified. The answer may be found when the pattern and the S are oriented in such a way that the projections of the retinal meridian and the SV into the plane of the pattern diverge by the pattern's figural disparity or its periodic multiples: that is, in this case of a square by 45 or 135 deg, respectively. Similarly, which reference determines whether an equilateral triangle is seen as a pyramid or a traffic warning sign may be revealed at a divergence of SV and retinal meridian of 60 or 180 deg, respectively. It is generally found that for head roll tilts (Rho) and figural disparities of up to 90 deg, the figure whose axis coincides with the SV is seen. At head tilts of Rho=180 deg, however, the retinal reference dominates, as a rule independently of the figural disparity.

  4. A structurally oriented simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aran, Z.

    1973-01-01

    The computer program SOSS (Structurally Oriented Simulation System) is designed to be used as an experimental aid in the study of reliable systems. Basically, SOSS can simulate the structure and behavior of a discrete-time, finite-state, time-invariant system at various levels of structural definition. A general description of the program is given along with its modes of operation, command language of the basic system, future features to be incorporated in SOSS, and an example of usage.

  5. Time Orientation and Human Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Work with Computing Systems 2004. H.M. Khalid, M.G. Helander, A.W. Yeo (Editors) . Kuala Lumpur: Damai Sciences. 1 Time Orientation and Human...Multi-tasking. 1 . Introduction With increased globalization, understanding the various cultures and people’s attitudes and behaviours is crucial...reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  6. Architecting Service-Oriented Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Abstract Service orientation is an approach to software systems development that has become a popular way to implement distributed, loosely coupled...runtime. The later you defer binding the more flexibility service providers and service consumers have to develop their software systems independently...Enterprise Service Bus An Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is a software pattern that can be part of a SOA infrastructure and acts as an intermediary

  7. Cross-orientation interactions in human vision.

    PubMed

    Roeber, Urte; Wong, Elaine M Y; Freeman, Alan W

    2008-03-18

    Humans can discriminate one visual contour from another on the basis of small differences in orientation. This capability depends on cortical detectors that are selective for a small range of orientations. We have measured this orientation bandwidth and the suppression that helps to shape it, with a reverse correlation technique. Human subjects were presented with a stream of randomly oriented gratings at a rate of 30 per second. Their task was to press a key whenever they saw an orientation nominated as the target. We analyzed the data by finding the probability density of two orientations: One preceded the key-press by the reaction time, and the second preceded the first by up to 100 ms. The results were as follows: (1) One grating facilitated the following one in producing a key-press when the gratings differed little in orientation. The estimate of orientation bandwidth resulting from this facilitation was 38 degrees . (2) A large angle between the two orientations reduced the probability of a key-press. This finding was best modelled as a suppression that did not vary with orientation, consistent with the idea that cross-orientation suppression is non-oriented. (3) Analysis of non-consecutive grating pairs showed that cross-orientation interactions lasted no longer than 67 ms.

  8. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Optimally resolving Lambertian surface orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsatos, Ioannis; Makris, Nicholas C.

    2003-10-01

    Sonar images of remote surfaces are typically corrupted by signal-dependent noise known as speckle. Relative motion between source, surface, and receiver causes the received field to fluctuate over time with circular complex Gaussian random (CCGR) statistics. In many cases of practical importance, Lambert's law is appropriate to model radiant intensity from the surface. In a previous paper, maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) for Lambertian surface orientation have been derived based on CCGR measurements [N. C. Makris, SACLANT Conference Proceedings Series CP-45, 1997, pp. 339-346]. A Lambertian surface needs to be observed from more than one illumination direction for its orientation to be properly constrained. It is found, however, that MLE performance varies significantly with illumination direction due to the inherently nonlinear nature of this problem. It is shown that a large number of samples is often required to optimally resolve surface orientation using the optimality criteria of the MLE derived in Naftali and Makris [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 1917-1930 (2001)].

  10. Object Oriented Modeling and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Object Oriented Modeling and Design seminar is intended for software professionals and students, it covers the concepts and a language-independent graphical notation that can be used to analyze problem requirements, and design a solution to the problem. The seminar discusses the three kinds of object-oriented models class, state, and interaction. The class model represents the static structure of a system, the state model describes the aspects of a system that change over time as well as control behavior and the interaction model describes how objects collaborate to achieve overall results. Existing knowledge of object oriented programming may benefit the learning of modeling and good design. Specific expectations are: Create a class model, Read, recognize, and describe a class model, Describe association and link, Show abstract classes used with multiple inheritance, Explain metadata, reification and constraints, Group classes into a package, Read, recognize, and describe a state model, Explain states and transitions, Read, recognize, and describe interaction model, Explain Use cases and use case relationships, Show concurrency in activity diagram, Object interactions in sequence diagram.

  11. [Customer orientation in ambulant medicine].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, M

    2014-07-01

    Due to developments of the health market, economic aspects of the health system are more relevant. In this upcoming market the patient is regarded as customer and the doctor as provider of medical services. Studies on customer orientation in the ambulant medicine lag behind this dynamic. An aim of the study is to comprehend the attitudes of the doctors referring to the customer orientation. In a second step the findings are discussed according to statements of health-care paticipants. Developments in role comprehension of doctor and patient are focused to gain results in scientific and practical applications. Guideline-supported, partly narrative interviews with n=9 gynaecologists and n=11 general practitioners in Freiburg/Germany are recorded, transcribed and reviewed in a qualitative analysis. The statements of the doctors show patient satisfaction has an incremental meaning sspecially regarding the sequence of patient relationship and economic management of the doctor's workplace. The doctor's role comprehension meets with a refusal of the role of salesman and the patient as customer. The method of interviews is suitable to gather empirical impressions of the doctors. The control sample is adequate, however a bias due to inhomogeneous thematic affinitiy and local social-demographics might be possible. The customer orientation has become an important factor in doctor-patient relationtships. The relevance of the doctor-patient conversation and the risk of misuse of the patient confidence are mentioned by the doctors. The doctor as paternalistic care provider gives way to the customer-focused service provider. The doctor's necessity of autonomyssss and dependency on patient satisfaction have potential for conflict. Intensive mention of customer orientation in medicine in the media emphasises its importance. Rational handling with the possibilities of individual health markets is a prospective challange. Further research could be established in all aspects of

  12. The Situation Oriented Approach to Preschool Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oertel, Frithjof M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes preschool education in West Germany in terms of the various aspects of reform that changed function-oriented classrooms to situation-oriented learning environments. Argues for the priority of social education in early childhood. (BSR)

  13. Oriented molecular sieve membranes by heteroepitaxial growth.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae-Kwon; Krohn, John; Sujaoti, Khristina; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2002-11-06

    Heteroepitaxial growth of titanosilicates (ETS-10 and ETS-4) is reported. Using this heteroepitaxial growth, oriented ETS-10/-4 membranes have been fabricated, demonstrating a novel way to achieve preferred orientation of molecular sieve films.

  14. DIORAMA Model of Satellite Body Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Werley, Kenneth Alan

    2016-03-04

    The DIORAMA GPS satellite platform orientation model is described. Satellites need to keep sensors pointed towards the earth and solar panels oriented to face the sun (when not in the earth’s shadow) while they orbit the earth.

  15. Black Curriculum Orientations: A Preliminary Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Six curriculum orientations predominate in African-American educational experience: functionalism, accommodation, liberalism, Black Nationalism, Afrocentrism, and social reconstruction. Tied to the history of slavery and oppression, these orientations will continue to develop separate from the mainstream. (SK)

  16. Object-oriented numerical computing C++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanrosendale, John

    1994-01-01

    An object oriented language is one allowing users to create a set of related types and then intermix and manipulate values of these related types. This paper discusses object oriented numerical computing using C++.

  17. ENGAGE: A Different New Nurse Orientation Program.

    PubMed

    Green, Vivian Barnes

    2016-01-01

    General new nurse orientation is often perceived as a program consisting of several long days of passively receiving information about an institution's policies, procedures, and other regulatory matters. As a result, orientation may be viewed as something to endure and not enjoy. The purpose of redesigning the new nurse orientation into ENGAGE (Essential Nursing Guidance and Growth Experience) was to make the general new nurse orientation program more engaging and meaningful, as well as fun. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. General object-oriented software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidewitz, Edwin V.; Stark, Mike

    1986-01-01

    Object-oriented design techniques are gaining increasing popularity for use with the Ada programming language. A general approach to object-oriented design which synthesizes the principles of previous object-oriented methods into the overall software life-cycle, providing transitions from specification to design and from design to code. It therefore provides the basis for a general object-oriented development methodology.

  19. Earth Orientation Help - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov Websites

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › Help › Earth Orientation Help USNO Logo USNO Info Earth Orientation Help Send an e-mail regarding Earth Orientation products. Privacy Advisory Your E-Mail Address Subject ■ Select

  20. Critical Role of AMPK/FoxO3A Axis in Globular Adiponectin-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Anup; Nepal, Saroj; Kim, Mi Jin; Chang, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Jeong, Gil-Saeng; Jeong, Chul-Ho; Park, Gyu Hwan; Jung, Sunghee; Lim, Jaecheong; Cho, Eunha; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Adiponectin predominantly secreted from adipose tissue has exhibited potent anti-proliferative properties in cancer cells via modulating cell cycle and apoptosis. FoxO3A, a Forkhead box O member of the transcription factor, plays a critical role in modulating expression of genes involved in cell death and/or survival. In this study, we investigated the role of FoxO3A signaling in anti-cancer activities of adiponectin. Herein, we have shown that treatment with globular adiponectin (gAcrp) increases p27 but decreases cyclinD1 expression in human hepatoma (HepG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. Gene ablation of FoxO3A prevented gAcrp-induced increase in p27 and decreased in cyclin D1 expression, and further ameliorated cell cycle arrest by gAcrp, indicating a critical role of FoxO3A in gAcrp-induced cell cycle arrest of cancer cells. Moreover, treatment with gAcrp also induced caspase-3/7 activation and increased Fas ligand (FasL) expression in both HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. Transfection with FoxO3A siRNA inhibited gAcrp-induced caspase-3/7 activation and FasL expression, suggesting that FoxO3A signaling also plays an important role in gAcrp-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. We also found that gene silencing of AMPK prevented gAcrp-induced nuclear translocation of FoxO3A in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. In addition, suppression of AMPK also blocked gAcrp-induced cell cycle arrest and further attenuated gAcrp-induced caspase-3/7 activation, indicating that AMPK signaling plays a pivotal role in both gAcrp-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via acting as an upstream signaling of FoxO3A. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that AMPK/FoxO3A axis plays a cardinal role in anti-proliferative effect of adiponectin in cancer cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Web Based Profession Orientation in Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulbul, Halil Ibrahim; Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Yildiz, Turker Turan; Ercan, Tuncay

    2007-01-01

    In Turkey, the profession orientation programs for elementary education students have a critical importance. In the aspect of profession orientation application, the least dealt population is unfortunately the elementary school students. In this study, the problems caused by insufficient orientation and guidance of profession for those students…

  2. Outcomes of a College Wilderness Orientation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Matt; Goldenberg, Marni

    2012-01-01

    Wilderness orientation programs have been utilized by colleges and universities in the United States for nearly 75 years. This study, using means-end theory, reveals the outcomes of a wilderness orientation program for incoming students. A retroactive study was conducted for all participants who had taken part in a wilderness orientation program…

  3. Orienteering: Growth Patterns in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Charles F.

    The history of orienteering in the United States includes both military and civilian interest, with the period of greatest growth between 1970 and 1980. To investigate growth patterns in orienteering, questionnaires were mailed to 42 civilian orienteering clubs and 286 universities supporting senior Reserve Office Training Corps (ROTC)…

  4. Organizational Orientations in an Instructional Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibbles, David; Richmond, Virginia P.; McCroskey, James C.; Weber, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Research on organizational orientations has determined that workers can be categorized into three groups on the basis of their trait orientations toward working in organizations: "upward mobiles," "indifferents," and "ambivalents." Because workers' organizational orientation is predictive of their success, we reasoned that students' orientation…

  5. Orienteering: A Swedish Way of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rick

    1984-01-01

    Orienteering involves navigating over an unfamiliar route with a map and a compass and locating control markers as quickly as possible. Originating in Sweden, orienting began primarily as a military event and has grown into "a sport for all." Suggested activities in orienteering to conduct in school conclude the article. (ERB)

  6. Block Oriented Simulation System (BOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, Jaimie

    1988-01-01

    Computer simulation is assuming greater importance as a flexible and expedient approach to modeling system and subsystem behavior. Simulation has played a key role in the growth of complex, multiple access space communications such as those used by the space shuttle and the TRW-built Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). A powerful new simulator for use in designing and modeling the communication system of NASA's planned Space Station is being developed. Progress to date on the Block (Diagram) Oriented Simulation System (BOSS) is described.

  7. Object-oriented Persistent Homology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  8. Sexual orientation of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Barbara L

    2002-12-01

    It is important for healthcare providers to have a clear understanding of sexual orientation and other components of sexual identity (genetic gender, anatomic gender, gender identity, gender role, and sexual behavior). Knowledge of how a lesbian identity is formed will aide providers in guiding these girls through adolescence. Societal stigma often forces isolation that leads to many risky behaviors that affect health (alcohol and drug use; risky sexual behaviors; truancy and dropping out; running away and homelessness; and depression and suicide). Health providers need to ensure a safe and understanding environment for these girls, to enhance their physical, emotional, and social development to healthy adulthood.

  9. Presentation-Oriented Visualization Techniques.

    PubMed

    Kosara, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Data visualization research focuses on data exploration and analysis, yet the vast majority of visualizations people see were created for a different purpose: presentation. Whether we are talking about charts showing data to help make a presenter's point, data visuals created to accompany a news story, or the ubiquitous infographics, many more people consume charts than make them. Traditional visualization techniques treat presentation as an afterthought, but are there techniques uniquely suited to data presentation but not necessarily ideal for exploration and analysis? This article focuses on presentation-oriented techniques, considering their usefulness for presentation first and any other purposes as secondary.

  10. Tribological investigation of oriented HDPE.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Mohammed; Lausmaa, Jukka; Boldizar, Antal

    2002-09-15

    The possibility to control the wear properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) material at an early processing stage is explored. Wear measurements of cold roll-drawn HDPE with two different draw ratios were carried out for three sliding planes, each in two directions. The dependence of the wear properties on the degree and direction of orientation was investigated. The experiments were performed in a pin-on-disc machine in a dry environment. The tribo-couple consisted of HDPE plates versus a standardised diamond coated steel disc. The results show that the wear resistance of cold roll-drawn HDPE differ widely, by a factor up to 6, depending on the sliding direction relative to the drawing direction. The material has a significantly better wear resistance when the sliding direction was perpendicular to the processing direction. The best wear resistance was in the end plane and it was improved by a factor up to 3.6 when the draw ratio was increased from 2 to 4. These results indicate that molecular orientation by polymer processing is a promising method to improve the wear properties and decrease the wear debris production of HDPE. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Orientation and disorientation in aviation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    On the ground, the essential requirement to remain orientated is a largely unconscious activity. In flight, orientation requires a conscious effort by the pilot particularly when the visual environment becomes degraded and a deceptive force environment becomes the frame of reference. Furthermore, an unusual force environment can determine the apparent location of objects within a limited visual scene, sometimes with disastrous consequences. This review outlines the sources of pilot disorientation that arise from the visual and force environment of flight and their interaction. It challenges the value of the traditional illusion-based approach to the subject both to aircrew and to surveys of disorientation. Also, it questions the emphasis on the shortcomings of vestibular function as the physiological basis for disorientation. While military accidents from all causes have shown a decline, there has been no corresponding reduction in accidents involving disorientation, 85% of which are the results of unrecognised disorientation. This finding has implications for the way in which pilots are taught about disorientation in the interest of enhanced flight safety. It argues for a greater use of conventional fixed base simulators to create disorientating scenarios rather than complex motion devices to create unusual sensations. PMID:23849216

  12. Omniview motionless camera orientation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmermann, Steven D. (Inventor); Martin, H. Lee (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A device for omnidirectional image viewing providing pan-and-tilt orientation, rotation, and magnification within a hemispherical field-of-view that utilizes no moving parts. The imaging device is based on the effect that the image from a fisheye lens, which produces a circular image of at entire hemispherical field-of-view, which can be mathematically corrected using high speed electronic circuitry. More specifically, an incoming fisheye image from any image acquisition source is captured in memory of the device, a transformation is performed for the viewing region of interest and viewing direction, and a corrected image is output as a video image signal for viewing, recording, or analysis. As a result, this device can accomplish the functions of pan, tilt, rotation, and zoom throughout a hemispherical field-of-view without the need for any mechanical mechanisms. The preferred embodiment of the image transformation device can provide corrected images at real-time rates, compatible with standard video equipment. The device can be used for any application where a conventional pan-and-tilt or orientation mechanism might be considered including inspection, monitoring, surveillance, and target acquisition.

  13. Multisensory guidance of orienting behavior.

    PubMed

    Maier, Joost X; Groh, Jennifer M

    2009-12-01

    We use both vision and audition when localizing objects and events in our environment. However, these sensory systems receive spatial information in different coordinate systems: sounds are localized using inter-aural and spectral cues, yielding a head-centered representation of space, whereas the visual system uses an eye-centered representation of space, based on the site of activation on the retina. In addition, the visual system employs a place-coded, retinotopic map of space, whereas the auditory system's representational format is characterized by broad spatial tuning and a lack of topographical organization. A common view is that the brain needs to reconcile these differences in order to control behavior, such as orienting gaze to the location of a sound source. To accomplish this, it seems that either auditory spatial information must be transformed from a head-centered rate code to an eye-centered map to match the frame of reference used by the visual system, or vice versa. Here, we review a number of studies that have focused on the neural basis underlying such transformations in the primate auditory system. Although, these studies have found some evidence for such transformations, many differences in the way the auditory and visual system encode space exist throughout the auditory pathway. We will review these differences at the neural level, and will discuss them in relation to differences in the way auditory and visual information is used in guiding orienting movements.

  14. Lunar Rotation, Orientation and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. G.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Boggs, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    The Moon is the most familiar example of the many satellites that exhibit synchronous rotation. For the Moon there is Lunar Laser Ranging measurements of tides and three-dimensional rotation variations plus supporting theoretical understanding of both effects. Compared to uniform rotation and precession the lunar rotational variations are up to 1 km, while tidal variations are about 0.1 m. Analysis of the lunar variations in pole direction and rotation about the pole gives moment of inertia differences, third-degree gravity harmonics, tidal Love number k2, tidal dissipation Q vs. frequency, dissipation at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and emerging evidence for an oblate boundary. The last two indicate a fluid core, but a solid inner core is not ruled out. Four retroreflectors provide very accurate positions on the Moon. The experience with the Moon is a starting point for exploring the tides, rotation and orientation of the other synchronous bodies of the solar system.

  15. Torture, sex and military Orientalism.

    PubMed

    Owens, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This article revisits the debate about recent American torture practices, particularly the use of discredited anthropological texts to validate long-held Orientalist assumptions about the sexual vulnerability of Muslim males. Such practices are placed in an historical context of older imperial constructions of sexually deviant Muslims as well as of more general forms of gendered and sexual subordination required for war. American torturers intended to produce very particular objects of torture—ones willing and able to confess their 'true' orientation in terms of a binary hetero/homo sexual code established in 19th-century Europe. The torturers had the power to confirm through confession and re-enactment their crude assumptions, irrespective of the actual sexualities of those being tortured, with consequences for the transnational and reactionary politics of sexual identity.

  16. Acoustic controlled rotation and orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Allen, James L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic energy is applied to a pair of locations spaced about a chamber, to control rotation of an object levitated in the chamber. Two acoustic transducers applying energy of a single acoustic mode, one at each location, can (one or both) serve to levitate the object in three dimensions as well as control its rotation. Slow rotation is achieved by initially establishing a large phase difference and/or pressure ratio of the acoustic waves, which is sufficient to turn the object by more than 45 deg, which is immediately followed by reducing the phase difference and/or pressure ratio to maintain slow rotation. A small phase difference and/or pressure ratio enables control of the angular orientation of the object without rotating it. The sphericity of an object can be measured by its response to the acoustic energy.

  17. Perceptions of Sexual Orientation From Minimal Cues.

    PubMed

    Rule, Nicholas O

    2017-01-01

    People derive considerable amounts of information about each other from minimal nonverbal cues. Apart from characteristics typically regarded as obvious when encountering another person (e.g., age, race, and sex), perceivers can identify many other qualities about a person that are typically rather subtle. One such feature is sexual orientation. Here, I review the literature documenting the accurate perception of sexual orientation from nonverbal cues related to one's adornment, acoustics, actions, and appearance. In addition to chronicling studies that have demonstrated how people express and extract sexual orientation in each of these domains, I discuss some of the basic cognitive and perceptual processes that support these judgments, including how cues to sexual orientation manifest in behavioral (e.g., clothing choices) and structural (e.g., facial morphology) signals. Finally, I attend to boundary conditions in the accurate perception of sexual orientation, such as the states, traits, and group memberships that moderate individuals' ability to reliably decipher others' sexual orientation.

  18. Navigations: The Road to a Better Orientation.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Leah Heather

    2016-01-01

    A team of nursing professional development specialists from a large Magnet® healthcare network transformed new employee orientation using a themed, interdisciplinary, learner-centered approach. Guided by project management principles, the nursing professional development team created an engaging program that serves as an interactive guide for new hires' orientation journey. This unique approach differs from traditional orientation programs through its incorporation of gaming, video clips, and group discussions.

  19. Biaxially oriented film on flexible polymeric substrate

    DOEpatents

    Finkikoglu, Alp T [Los Alamos, NM; Matias, Vladimir [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-10-13

    A flexible polymer-based template having a biaxially oriented film grown on the surface of a polymeric substrate. The template having the biaxially oriented film can be used for further epitaxial growth of films of interest for applications such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, and the like. Methods of forming such a flexible template and providing the polymeric substrate with a biaxially oriented film deposited thereon are also described.

  20. Radiology image orientation processing for workstation display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chung-Fu; Hu, Kermit; Wilson, Dennis L.

    1998-06-01

    Radiology images are acquired electronically using phosphor plates that are read in Computed Radiology (CR) readers. An automated radiology image orientation processor (RIOP) for determining the orientation for chest images and for abdomen images has been devised. In addition, the chest images are differentiated as front (AP or PA) or side (Lateral). Using the processing scheme outlined, hospitals will improve the efficiency of quality assurance (QA) technicians who orient images and prepare the images for presentation to the radiologists.

  1. A biologic perspective on sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Pillard, R C; Bailey, J M

    1995-03-01

    Sexual orientation may be defined as the sustained erotic attraction to members of one's own gender, the opposite gender, or both--homosexual, heterosexual, or bisexual, respectively. Interest in sexual orientation is as old as the science of psychology, yet many fundamental issues remain unresolved. This article reviews research in the development and psychopathology of sexual orientation as well as the results of family and twin studies. Research in genetic linkage, sex hormones, and brain differences also is discussed.

  2. Aesthetic judgement of orientation in modern art.

    PubMed

    Mather, George

    2012-01-01

    When creating an artwork, the artist makes a decision regarding the orientation at which the work is to be hung based on their aesthetic judgement and the message conveyed by the piece. Is the impact or aesthetic appeal of a work diminished when it is hung at an incorrect orientation? To investigate this question, Experiment 1 asked whether naïve observers can appreciate the correct orientation (as defined by the artist) of 40 modern artworks, some of which are entirely abstract. Eighteen participants were shown 40 paintings in a series of trials. Each trial presented all four cardinal orientations on a computer screen, and the participant was asked to select the orientation that was most attractive or meaningful. Results showed that the correct orientation was selected in 48% of trials on average, significantly above the 25% chance level, but well below perfect performance. A second experiment investigated the extent to which the 40 paintings contained recognisable content, which may have mediated orientation judgements. Recognition rates varied from 0% for seven of the paintings to 100% for five paintings. Orientation judgements in Experiment 1 correlated significantly with "meaningful" content judgements in Experiment 2: 42% of the variance in orientation judgements in Experiment 1 was shared with recognition of meaningful content in Experiment 2. For the seven paintings in which no meaningful content at all was detected, 41% of the variance in orientation judgements was shared with variance in a physical measure of image content, Fourier amplitude spectrum slope. For some paintings, orientation judgements were quite consistent, despite a lack of meaningful content. The origin of these orientation judgements remains to be identified.

  3. Gravity orientation tuning in macaque anterior thalamus.

    PubMed

    Laurens, Jean; Kim, Byounghoon; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2016-12-01

    Gravity may provide a ubiquitous allocentric reference to the brain's spatial orientation circuits. Here we describe neurons in the macaque anterior thalamus tuned to pitch and roll orientation relative to gravity, independently of visual landmarks. We show that individual cells exhibit two-dimensional tuning curves, with peak firing rates at a preferred vertical orientation. These results identify a thalamic pathway for gravity cues to influence perception, action and spatial cognition.

  4. Azimuth orientation of the dragonfly (Sympetrum)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hisada, M.

    1972-01-01

    Evidence is presented of directional orientation by an alighting dragonfly relative to the azimuth of the sun. The effects of wind direction on this orientation are analyzed. It was concluded that wind does not play a major role in orientation but may have some secondary function in helping greater numbers of dragonflies face windward more often than leeward. A search was made to find the principle sensory receptor for orientation. Two possibilities, the large compound eye and the frontal ocelli, were noted; however, no conclusive evidence could be found.

  5. Spatial attention can modulate unconscious orientation processing.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Bahador; Carmel, David; Walsh, Vincent; Rees, Geraint; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that visual spatial attention can only affect consciously perceived events. We measured the effects of sustained spatial attention on orientation-selective adaptation to gratings, rendered invisible by prolonged interocular suppression. Spatial attention augmented the orientation-selective adaptation to invisible adaptor orientation. The effect of attention was clearest for test stimuli at peri-threshold, intermediate contrast levels, suggesting that previous negative results were due to assessing orientation discrimination at maximum contrast. On the basis of these findings we propose a constrained hypothesis for the difference between neuronal mechanisms of spatial attention in the presence versus absence of awareness.

  6. Bioinspired orientation-dependent friction.

    PubMed

    Xue, Longjian; Iturri, Jagoba; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; del Campo, Aránzazu

    2014-09-23

    Spatular terminals on the toe pads of a gecko play an important role in directional adhesion and friction required for reversible attachment. Inspired by the toe pad design of a gecko, we study friction of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars terminated with asymmetric (spatular-shaped) overhangs. Friction forces in the direction of and against the spatular end were evaluated and compared to friction forces on symmetric T-shaped pillars and pillars without overhangs. The shape of friction curves and the values of friction forces on spatula-terminated pillars were orientation-dependent. Kinetic friction forces were enhanced when shearing against the spatular end, while static friction was stronger in the direction toward the spatular end. The overall friction force was higher in the direction against the spatula end. The maximum value was limited by the mechanical stability of the overhangs during shear. The aspect ratio of the pillar had a strong influence on the magnitude of the friction force, and its contribution surpassed and masked that of the spatular tip for aspect ratios of >2.

  7. Plenoptic background oriented schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemkowsky, Jenna N.; Fahringer, Timothy W.; Clifford, Christopher J.; Bathel, Brett F.; Thurow, Brian S.

    2017-09-01

    The combination of the background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique with the unique imaging capabilities of a plenoptic camera, termed plenoptic BOS, is introduced as a new addition to the family of schlieren techniques. Compared to conventional single camera BOS, plenoptic BOS is capable of sampling multiple lines-of-sight simultaneously. Displacements from each line-of-sight are collectively used to build a four-dimensional displacement field, which is a vector function structured similarly to the original light field captured in a raw plenoptic image. The displacement field is used to render focused BOS images, which qualitatively are narrow depth of field slices of the density gradient field. Unlike focused schlieren methods that require manually changing the focal plane during data collection, plenoptic BOS synthetically changes the focal plane position during post-processing, such that all focal planes are captured in a single snapshot. Through two different experiments, this work demonstrates that plenoptic BOS is capable of isolating narrow depth of field features, qualitatively inferring depth, and quantitatively estimating the location of disturbances in 3D space. Such results motivate future work to transition this single-camera technique towards quantitative reconstructions of 3D density fields.

  8. Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment

    SciTech Connect

    The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) software library developed at Idaho National Laboratory is a tool. MOOSE, like other tools, doesn't actually complete a task. Instead, MOOSE seeks to reduce the effort required to create engineering simulation applications. MOOSE itself is a software library: a blank canvas upon which you write equations and then MOOSE can help you solve them. MOOSE is comparable to a spreadsheet application. A spreadsheet, by itself, doesn't do anything. Only once equations are entered into it will a spreadsheet application compute anything. Such is the same for MOOSE. An engineer or scientist can utilizemore » the equation solvers within MOOSE to solve equations related to their area of study. For instance, a geomechanical scientist can input equations related to water flow in underground reservoirs and MOOSE can solve those equations to give the scientist an idea of how water could move over time. An engineer might input equations related to the forces in steel beams in order to understand the load bearing capacity of a bridge. Because MOOSE is a blank canvas it can be useful in many scientific and engineering pursuits.« less

  9. Consumer oriented product noise testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, Les

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the need for product noise measurements and how best to meet that need in the near future. Currently there is only a small market place for quieter consumer products. This is not because of lack of interest. No one really wants to announce to everyone in their house that they just flushed the toilet, few really want the entire neighborhood to know they are mowing their yard, etc. The small market place is primarily due to a lack of regulations on product noise, a lack of information easily available to consumers about which products are quieter, and market consolidation resulting in fewer manufacturers, most of whom are unwilling to emphasize their quieter products at the risk of eroding sales of their noisier ones (that currently have greater market share). In the absence of the EPA fulfilling its statutory requirement to regulate and label product noise under the Noise Control Act of 1972, and with the unwillingness of most industries to voluntarily publish accurate product noise data, there is a significant role for ``Consumer Oriented Product Noise Testing.'' This paper explores the Noise Pollution Clearinghouse's ongoing and planned product noise testing, evaluating its advantages, disadvantages, and limitations.

  10. Socio-Emotional Orientations and Teacher Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaasila, Raimo; Hannula, Markku S.; Laine, Anu; Pehkonen, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    In this article we consider how elementary education students' views of mathematics changed during their mathematics methods course. We focus on four female students: two started the course with mainly positive views of mathematics and a task orientation, two with negative views of the subject and an ego-defensive orientation. The biggest change…

  11. Program Evaluation: Two Management-Oriented Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Kenneth Ray

    2010-01-01

    Two Management-Oriented Samples details two examples of the management-oriented approach to program evaluation. Kenneth Alford, a doctorate candidate at the University of the Cumberlands, details two separate program evaluations conducted in his school district and seeks to compare and contrast the two evaluations based upon the characteristics of…

  12. Wilderness Orientation Programs. AEE White Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Experiential Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Wilderness orientation programs (sometimes referred to as outdoor orientation programs) use adventure programming for incoming college/university students to aid students' adjustment to college. These experiences usually occur in the days or weeks immediately prior to the first semester of the students' college coursework. They are typically…

  13. Use of inertial properties to orient tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent theoretical and experimental results have demonstrated that it is possible to orient quasi-round objects such as apples by taking advantage of inertial-effects during rotation. In practice, an apple rolled down a track consisting of two parallel rails tends to move to an orientation where the...

  14. Training Older Workers: Resource-Oriented Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeske, Debora; Stamov Roßnagel, Christian; Strack, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to outline resource-oriented strategies which may help practitioners provide training that caters for the needs of older workers. Building on resource-oriented frameworks, we review research that directly or indirectly examines the relationship between age and training performance. We identify three personal and three…

  15. Sexual Orientation and Violations of Civil Liberties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Marcy R.

    1977-01-01

    This study determined that sexual orientation is frequently assumed rather than known. Bases for assumption include gossip and rumor, appearance and behavior, and association with others. Sexual orientation was most frequently assumed on the basis of appearance and behavior. Presented at the American Psychological Association Convention,…

  16. Market Orientation and Its Measurement in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niculescu, Mihai; Xu, Bing; Hampton, Gerald M.; Peterson, Robin T.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the measurement of market orientation has proved to be difficult, due to the low external validity of the concept. Existing scales exhibit acceptable properties in measuring market orientation in business organizations, but are less accurate in the context of higher education institutions. This paper compares the performance of three…

  17. 20 CFR 638.500 - Orientation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orientation program. 638.500 Section 638.500 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.500 Orientation program. The...

  18. Millennium Graduates' Orientations to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Bond, C.; Buissink-Smith, N.; Grigg, G.

    2009-01-01

    This research examines graduates' orientations to higher education at the turn of the millennium. The focus is on "millennium graduates" since this cohort has experienced a time of radical reform in higher education. Twenty-four graduates were interviewed and four orientations to higher education were found: (A) gaining a qualification…

  19. Career Orientation Curriculum Guide: 7-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby-Eastlake School District, Willoughby, OH.

    The Ohio Career Development Model at the 7th and 8th grade level, the career orientation segment, states that students are to be exposed or oriented to the 15 USOE occupational clusters. Units are outlined relating each subject area to a specific cluster or clusters. Each unit includes a developmental objective, related behavioral objectives, and…

  20. Employee Orientation: A Process, Not a Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemke, Ron

    1989-01-01

    No or poor orientation can reduce new employees' effectiveness and contribute to dissatisfaction and turnover, costing the company money. The orientation programs of large companies such as Disney, Texas Instruments, and Corning Glass are successful due to high expectations, supervisor and senior management involvement, anxiety reduction, and…

  1. Value Orientation - A Strategy for Removing Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Allen Chuck; Brave Eagle, Dorothy

    Designed for use in curriculum development, this value orientation packet addresses the cultural value orientations of American Indians (specifically, the Lakota on the Pine Ridge reservation in South Dakota) and those of mainstream society in an effort to help individuals understand that values differ from culture to culture. Specifically, this…

  2. The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryhanen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,…

  3. A Comprehensive Cultural Orientation Program for Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Carol M.

    This paper presents the various components of the cultural orientation program as it has developed at the Bilingual Educational Institute (BEI), the organization that is currently awarded the grant for RSS in the Houston area by the state of Texas. This cultural orientation program's topics include the following: employment; healthcare; community…

  4. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  5. Marketing-oriented organizations: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Stensrud, R; Arrington, B

    1988-03-01

    Organizations can be oriented toward marketing from a production, product, sales, or marketing perspective. Strategies, structures, and cultures, which reflect a company's basic orientation, must be integrated to ensure that marketing efforts communicate a clear corporate position. In a study of 31 hospitals, the Center for Health Services Education Research, St. Louis University, found that no hospital's organization fit neatly into a single category. For example, a hospital may have some service lines that were marketing oriented while other lines were production oriented. The majority of hospitals, however, were product oriented, focusing on productivity and financial performance rather than on market factors. The most effective sales orientation was observed in the for-profits. Their selling efforts, however, tended to be internally focused, with product development activities divorced from the planning and marketing functions. Only the for-profit hospitals showed the beginning of a marketing orientation. Developing a marketing orientation, especially in line divisions, requires a careful, well-orchestrated effort and the presence of several key factors: Access to capital and an emphasis on long-range planning and strategic spending The availability of hospital-specific market research. Key distribution channels. Talented middle managers. Up-to-date systems and structures equipped to serve new values and strategies. Leaders capable of communicating to the organization a vision of its role in the community.

  6. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236 Section 13.1236 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear...

  7. Towards "Bildung"-Oriented Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also…

  8. Religious Orientation and Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Eileen K.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; McBride, Duane C.

    2011-01-01

    Religion is one of the major forces of control over sexuality, and many studies have observed an inverse relationship between religiosity and sexual permissiveness. The Religious Orientation Scale has been used to study the relationship between religious orientation and sexuality. It has been found that those with intrinsic views are more…

  9. Object-oriented design for accelerator control

    SciTech Connect

    Stok, P.D.V. van der; Berk, F. van den; Deckers, R.

    1994-02-01

    An object-oriented design for the distributed computer control system of the accelerator ring EUTERPE is presented. Because of the experimental nature of the ring, flexibility is of the utmost importance. The object-oriented principles have contributed considerably to the flexibility of the design incorporating multiple views, multi-level access and distributed surveillance.

  10. Market Orientation in University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuster, Ines; Aviles-Valenzuela, Maria Elena

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to analyse the relationship between market orientation (MO) and results in the field of higher education, considering the importance of university teaching staff MO in relation to satisfaction and establishing that this orientation is directly and positively affected by the MO of the upper hierarchical levels. The focus is…

  11. Interpersonal Orientations: A Review, Synthesis and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzberg, Brian H.; Lane, Shelley D.

    Defining interpersonal orientations as the characteristic and consistent ways in which individuals interact with others, this paper examines various conceptualizations and theories regarding such orientations in order to discover how they affect interpersonal communication. In particular, the paper (1) reviews work concerning psychological types;…

  12. Orienting to Eye Gaze and Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipples, Jason

    2005-01-01

    The author conducted 7 experiments to examine possible interactions between orienting to eye gaze and specific forms of face processing. Participants classified a letter following either an upright or inverted face with averted, uninformative eye gaze. Eye gaze orienting effects were recorded for upright and inverted faces, irrespective of whether…

  13. 7 CFR 29.3046 - Oriented.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Oriented. A term applied to Type 31 untied tobacco which denotes the arrangement of leaves in a straight and orderly manner. Oriented includes: (a) Any lot of baled tobacco in which the leaves are packed parallel to the length of the bale with the butts to the outside and the tips of the leaves overlapping...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3046 - Oriented.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Oriented. A term applied to Type 31 untied tobacco which denotes the arrangement of leaves in a straight and orderly manner. Oriented includes: (a) Any lot of baled tobacco in which the leaves are packed parallel to the length of the bale with the butts to the outside and the tips of the leaves overlapping...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3046 - Oriented.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Oriented. A term applied to Type 31 untied tobacco which denotes the arrangement of leaves in a straight and orderly manner. Oriented includes: (a) Any lot of baled tobacco in which the leaves are packed parallel to the length of the bale with the butts to the outside and the tips of the leaves overlapping...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3046 - Oriented.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Oriented. A term applied to Type 31 untied tobacco which denotes the arrangement of leaves in a straight and orderly manner. Oriented includes: (a) Any lot of baled tobacco in which the leaves are packed parallel to the length of the bale with the butts to the outside and the tips of the leaves overlapping...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3046 - Oriented.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Oriented. A term applied to Type 31 untied tobacco which denotes the arrangement of leaves in a straight and orderly manner. Oriented includes: (a) Any lot of baled tobacco in which the leaves are packed parallel to the length of the bale with the butts to the outside and the tips of the leaves overlapping...

  18. Human Resource Orientation and Corporate Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Long W.; White, Louis P.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 14 manufacturing firms found significantly better financial performance among those that strongly emphasized recruitment, compensation, and training and development (a human resource orientation). Human resource development that helped sustain competence combined with that orientation to form a valuable competitive advantage. (SK)

  19. Characteristics Orientation, Needs and Expectations. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on characteristics orientation, needs, and expectations. "Characteristics Orientation of Emerging Professions: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice of Continuing Professional Education" (William H. Young, Margot B. Weinstein) reports on a qualitative study that examined…

  20. Facing Off: Comparing an In-Person Library Orientation Lecture with an Asynchronous Online Library Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A study to compare the effectiveness of an in-person library orientation with an online asynchronous orientation was conducted with three sections of Social Work Research Methods, a required course in the University of Iowa's Master of Social Work program. Two sections of the course received an online orientation involving short videos, text and…

  1. Measuring Teacher Beliefs about Curriculum Orientations Using the Modified-Curriculum Orientations Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Sharon Billburg

    2009-01-01

    Although curriculum orientations are widely discussed in educational literature, the extent to which teachers and other educational specialists in the United States hold these curriculum orientations is neither well documented nor well known. The relationships between a teacher's beliefs and the five dominant curriculum orientations (Academic…

  2. Shifting from Sexual Orientation to Relational Orientation: A Discursive Move with Theoretical and Pedagogical Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Derek

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the term "sexual orientation" serves as a mechanism for preserving heteronormative hegemony, with the proposed concept of "relational orientation" encouraging a richer theoretical analysis of the factors that shape identity. The relational orientation approach establishes a more holistic representation of lesbian,…

  3. Comparison of fiber orientation and tensile-stiffness orientation measurements in paper

    Treesearch

    David W. Vahey; John M. Considine; Andy Kahra; Mark Scotch

    2008-01-01

    We have had the opportunity to subject cross-machine paper strips from two mills to both ultrasound and optical "fiber-orientation" tests to examine the relationships between the results. Both determine an orientation angle, in degrees. Both measure sheet anisotropy as an MD/CD orientation ratio. The optical test has no counterpart to the ultrasonic...

  4. Common arc method for diffraction pattern orientation.

    PubMed

    Bortel, Gábor; Tegze, Miklós

    2011-11-01

    Very short pulses of X-ray free-electron lasers opened the way to obtaining diffraction signal from single particles beyond the radiation dose limit. For three-dimensional structure reconstruction many patterns are recorded in the object's unknown orientation. A method is described for the orientation of continuous diffraction patterns of non-periodic objects, utilizing intensity correlations in the curved intersections of the corresponding Ewald spheres, and hence named the common arc orientation method. The present implementation of the algorithm optionally takes into account Friedel's law, handles missing data and is capable of determining the point group of symmetric objects. Its performance is demonstrated on simulated diffraction data sets and verification of the results indicates a high orientation accuracy even at low signal levels. The common arc method fills a gap in the wide palette of orientation methods. © 2011 International Union of Crystallography

  5. Spider texture and amphibole preferred orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelley, David

    1994-05-01

    Foliation in blueschist facies chert from California is defined by layers of oriented alkali-amphibole which consistently curve towards and converge on pyrite (and possibly pyrrhotite) crystals. These foliation nodes, not previously described, are called here 'spider texture'. The texture is interpreted in terms of perturbations of the stress field in a matrix undergoing strain about rigid pyrite (or pyrrhotite) crystals, and it has important implications for understanding the mechanisms of amphibole preferred orientation development. Geometrical relationships between spider texture, pressure shadows and quartz preferred orientations suggest that amphiboles grew with a strong preferred orientation along planes of maximum shearing stress. The mechanism of foliation and preferred orientation development probably involved competitive anisotropic growth of amphibole prisms within the small gaps that open at steps on shear planes, followed by additional (micro-) porphyroblastic growth. The first stage of the mechanism is similar to slickenfibre development.

  6. Orientational anisotropy and interfacial transport in polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, M. M.; Rickman, J. M.; Harmer, M. P.; Chan, H. M.

    2016-04-01

    Interfacial diffusion is governed to a large degree by geometric parameters that are determined by crystallographic orientation. In this study, we assess the impact of orientational anisotropy on mass transport at internal interfaces, focusing on the role of preferred crystallographic orientation (i.e., texture) on mass diffusion in a polycrystal. More specifically, we perform both numerical and analytical studies of steady-state diffusion for polycrystals having various grain-orientation distributions. By relating grain misorientation to grain-boundary energies and, via the Borisov relation, to the diffusivity, we link microstructure variability to kinetics. Our aim is to correlate shape features of the orientation distribution, such as the location and shapes of peaks, with the calculated effective diffusivity. Finally, we discuss the role of crystallographic constraints, such as those associated with grain junctions, in determining the effective diffusivity of a polycrystal.

  7. Linearly polarized pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for Ince-Gaussian laser modes with controllable orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-Sen; Zhang, Ming-Ming; Dong, Jun; Ueda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-12-01

    A tilted, linearly polarized laser diode end-pumped Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched a-cut Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for generating numerous Ince-Gaussian (IG) laser modes with controllable orientations has been demonstrated by selecting the crystalline orientation of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal. The same IG laser mode with different orientations has been achieved with the same absorbed pump power in a passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser under linearly polarized pumping when the incident pump power and the crystalline orientation of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal are both properly selected. The significant improvement of pulsed laser performance of controllable IG modes has been achieved by selecting the crystalline orientation of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal. The maximum pulse energy is obtained along the a-axis of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal and the highest peak power is achieved along the c-axis of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal, respectively, which has potential applications on quantum computation and optical manipulation. The generation of controllable IG laser modes in microchip lasers under linearly polarized pumping provides a convenient and universal way to control IG laser mode numbers with anisotropic crystal as a gain medium.

  8. Multiple groups of orientation-selective visual mechanisms underlying rapid orientated-line detection.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, D H; Westland, S

    1998-01-01

    Visual search for an edge or line element differing in orientation from a background of other edge or line elements can be performed rapidly and effortlessly. In this study, based on psychophysical measurements with ten human observers, threshold values of the angle between a target and background line elements were obtained as functions of background-element orientation, in brief masked displays. A repeated-loess analysis of the threshold functions suggested the existence of several groups of orientation-selective mechanisms contributing to rapid orientated-line detection; specifically, coarse, intermediate and fine mechanisms with preferred orientations spaced at angles of approximately 90 degrees, 35 degrees, and 10 degrees-25 degrees, respectively. The preferred orientations of coarse and some intermediate mechanisms coincided with the vertical or horizontal of the frontoparallel plane, but the preferred orientations of fine mechanisms varied randomly from observer to observer, possibly reflecting individual variations in neuronal sampling characteristics. PMID:9753784

  9. Gender role, sexual orientation and suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Euton, Stephanie J; Jones, Jamie N; Schmidt, Norman B

    2005-07-01

    There has been interest in the relationship between homosexuality, gender role and suicide risk. Though homosexuals are more likely to identify as cross-gender, research has not simultaneously examined sexual orientation and gender role in assessing suicide risk. In the current study, the unique and interactive effects of sexual orientation and gender role were assessed in regard to suicidal ideation, related psychopathology and measures of coping. 77 participants were recruited from an undergraduate psychology subject pool (n=47) or from gay, lesbian and transgender student organizations (n=30) and assessed on measures of gender role, homosexuality, and psychopathology. Consistent with expectations, cross-gender role (i.e., personality traits associated with the opposite sex) is a unique predictor of suicidal symptoms. Moreover, gender role accounted for more of the overall variance in suicidal symptoms, positive problem orientation, peer acceptance and support, than sexual orientation. After accounting for gender role, sexual orientation contributed little to the variance in suicidal symptoms, associated pathology and problem-solving deficits. There was no support for gender role by sexual orientation interaction effects. The cross-sectional nature of the data limits statements regarding causality. Cross-gendered individuals, regardless of sexual orientation, appear to have higher risk for suicidal symptoms. Researchers and clinicians should assess gender role in evaluations of youth samples.

  10. Electroluminescence from completely horizontally oriented dye molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Komino, Takeshi; Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395; Japan Science and Technology Agency, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395

    2016-06-13

    A complete horizontal molecular orientation of a linear-shaped thermally activated delayed fluorescent guest emitter 2,6-bis(4-(10Hphenoxazin-10-yl)phenyl)benzo[1,2-d:5,4-d′] bis(oxazole) (cis-BOX2) was obtained in a glassy host matrix by vapor deposition. The orientational order of cis-BOX2 depended on the combination of deposition temperature and the type of host matrix. Complete horizontal orientation was obtained when a thin film with cis-BOX2 doped in a 4,4′-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (CBP) host matrix was fabricated at 200 K. The ultimate orientation of guest molecules originates from not only the kinetic relaxation but also the kinetic stability of the deposited guest molecules on the film surface during film growth. Utilizing the ultimatemore » orientation, a highly efficient organic light-emitting diode with the external quantum efficiency of 33.4 ± 2.0% was realized. The thermal stability of the horizontal orientation of cis-BOX2 was governed by the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of the CBP host matrix; the horizontal orientation was stable unless the film was annealed above T{sub g}.« less

  11. Orbit orientation in didelphid marsupials (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pilatti, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Usually considered a morphologically conservative group, didelphid marsupials present considerable variation in ecology and body size, some of which were shown to relate to morphological structures. Thus, changes on orbit morphology are likely and could be related to that variation. We calculated orbit orientation in 873 specimens of 16 Didelphidae genera yielding estimates of orbits convergence (their position relative to midsagittal line) and verticality (their position relative to frontal plane). We then compared similarities in these variables across taxa to ecological, morphological and phylogenetic data to evaluate the influencing factors on orbit orientation in didelphids. We found an inverse relation between convergence and verticality. Didelphids orbits have low verticality but are highly convergent, yet orbit orientation differs significantly between taxa, and that variation is related to morphological aspects of the cranium. Rostral variables are the only morphological features correlated with orbit orientation: increasing snout length yields more convergent orbits, whereas increase on snout breadth imply in more vertical orbits. Size and encephalization quotients are uncorrelated with orbit orientation. Among ecological data, diet showed significant correlation whereas locomotion is the factor that less affects the position of orbits. Phylogeny is uncorrelated to any orbital parameters measured. Ecological factors seemingly play a more important role on orbit orientation than previously expected, and differentiation on orbit orientation seems to be more functional than inherited. Thus, despite the apparent homogeneity on didelphid morphology, there is subtle morphological variability that may be directly related to feeding behavior. PMID:29492000

  12. The relationship between temperament and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Guerim, Laura D; de Carvalho, Hudson W; Lara, Diogo R

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between temperament and sexual orientation has been poorly characterized. We have used the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament (AFECT) model to evaluate this association in a large population sample. Data from 16,571 subjects between 21 and 45 years old (mean age=29.1±6.3 yrs, 69.4% females) was collected anonymously through Internet in Brazil. Regarding affective temperaments, male cyclothymics and dysphorics had the lowest percentage of people with heterosexual orientation and the highest percentages of people with bisexual and homosexual orientations. The opposite profile was observed in hyperthymic and euthymic types. Among females, the volatile, cyclothymic, apathetic, disinhibited and euphoric types were less often observed in people with "pure" heterosexual orientation and more often in people with bisexual orientation. In men only, homosexuality was more common among the depressive, cyclothymic and dyphorics temperaments. Emotional trait analysis showed that heterosexual subjects differed statistically from all other groups by having higher scores of coping and stability and lower scores of sensitivity and desire. Overall, the effect sizes were small to moderate, with the largest differences between "pure" heterosexuals and people with bisexual orientation, particularly in women. Subjects with heterosexual orientation who have had homosexual experience and those with homosexual orientation presented intermediate scores. Cross-sectional design, lack of potentially important covariates (e.g., maltreatment) and data collected by Internet only. Externalized and unstable traits were associated mainly with bisexuality. The group of heterosexuals with homosexual fantasies or experiences offers a new approach for the study of sexual orientation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An outline of object-oriented philosophy.

    PubMed

    Harman, Graham

    2013-01-01

    This article summarises the principles of object-oriented philosophy and explains its similarities with, and differences from, the outlook of the natural sciences. Like science, the object-oriented position avoids the notion (quite common in philosophy) that the human-world relation is the ground of all others, such that scientific statements about the world would only be statements about the world as it is for humans. But unlike science, object-oriented metaphysics treats artificial, social, and fictional entities in the same way as natural ones, and also holds that the world can only be known allusively rather than directly.

  14. Three Object-Oriented enhancement for EPICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osberg, E. A.; Dohan, D. A.; Richter, R.; Biggs, R.; Chillara, K.; Wade, D.; Bossom, J.

    1994-12-01

    In line with our group's intention of producing software using, where possible, Object-Oriented methodologies and techniques in the development of RF control systems, we have undertaken three projects to enhance the EPICS software environment. Two of the projects involve interfaces to EPICs Channel Access from Object-Oriented languages. The third is an enhancement to the EPICS State Notation Language to better support the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology. This paper discusses the motivation, approaches, results and future directions of these three projects.

  15. Orientation selectivity based structure for texture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinjian; Lin, Weisi; Shi, Guangming; Zhang, Yazhong; Lu, Liu

    2014-10-01

    Local structure, e.g., local binary pattern (LBP), is widely used in texture classification. However, LBP is too sensitive to disturbance. In this paper, we introduce a novel structure for texture classification. Researches on cognitive neuroscience indicate that the primary visual cortex presents remarkable orientation selectivity for visual information extraction. Inspired by this, we investigate the orientation similarities among neighbor pixels, and propose an orientation selectivity based pattern for local structure description. Experimental results on texture classification demonstrate that the proposed structure descriptor is quite robust to disturbance.

  16. Bond-orientational order in liquid Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Z. Q.; Stroud, D.

    1991-01-01

    Bond-orientational order in liquid Si via Monte Carlo simulation in conjuncation with empirical two- and three-body potentials of the form proposed by Stillinger and Weber are studied. Bond-orientational order (BOO) is described in terms of combinations of spherical harmonic functions. Liquid Si is found to have pronounced short-range BOO corresponding to l = 3, as expected for a structure with local tetrahedral order. No long-range BOO is found either in the equilibrium or the supercooled liquid. When the three-body potential is artificially removed, the tetrahedral bond-orientation order disappears and the liquid assumes a close-packed structure.

  17. Orientation through chemo reception in fishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleerekoper, H.

    1972-01-01

    A system designed to acquire and process data describing locomotor behavior of fish is described. Data are recorded in relation to the fish's response to olfactory stimuli. It was concluded that fish orientation is based on rheataxis or chemotropotaxis.

  18. Natural selective attention: Orienting and emotion

    PubMed Central

    BRADLEY, MARGARET M.

    2013-01-01

    The foundations of orienting and attention are hypothesized to stem from activation of defensive and appetitive motivational systems that evolved to protect and sustain the life of the individual. Motivational activation initiates a cascade of perceptual and motor processes that facilitate the selection of appropriate behavior. Among these are detection of significance, indexed by a late centro-parietal positivity in the event-related potential, enhanced perceptual processing, indexed by a initial cardiac deceleration, and preparation for action, indexed by electrodermal changes. Data exploring the role of stimulus novelty and significance in orienting are presented that indicate different components of the orienting response habituate at different rates. Taken together, it is suggested that orienting is mediated by activation of fundamental motivational systems that have evolved to support survival. PMID:18778317

  19. Histological techniques for study of photoreceptor orientation.

    PubMed

    Laties, A M

    1969-01-01

    An histological method for the study of photoreceptor orientation in primate eyes is described. To preserve photoreceptor orientation it is necessary to protect the fragile rod and cone outer segments to the maximum extent possible from mechanical deformation and from injury by solvent extraction. To prevent mechanical deformation the eyes are freeze-dried and embedded in plastic with or without prior vapor fixation. Solvent extraction from the lipid-rich outer segment is limited by avoidance or restriction of organic solvents. When large segments of primate eyes are so treated, it is possible to section the plastic blocks along the visual axis, polish the block surface, and view photoreceptor orientation by epi-illumination microscopy. In such specimens a differential orientation of photoreceptors exists with the long axis of photoreceptor inner and outer segments in line with incoming light rays.

  20. Conservative orientation as a determinant of hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Cheung, C K; Kwok, S T

    1996-06-01

    Conservative orientation is identified with reference to authoritarianism, work ethic belief, just world belief, and endorsement of individualistic causes of social problems. This over-arching orientation is hypothesized to affect hopelessness and to be affected by self-esteem with reference to ego development theory and learned helplessness theory. Causal modeling of data obtained from 1st-year college students (N = 556) in Hong Kong supports the hypotheses, showing that a student's hopelessness relates to his or her conservative orientation, even when self-esteem is controlled. This relationship can be interpreted by ego development and learned helplessness theories and cannot be explained as a spurious effect. Through the theories, hopelessness is interpreted as a result of maladaptive development and fatalistic, alienated, and helpless outlooks. This maladaptive development and the outlooks in turn result from students' conservative and individualistic orientation.

  1. Anemomenotatic orientation in beetles and scorpions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsenmair, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Orientation, by beetles and scorpions, according to wind direction and force are analyzed. Major efforts were made to determine: (1) which physical qualities of the air current influence anemomenotaxis, (2) which physiological mechanism is responsible for such orientation, (3) which sense organs do beetles and scorpions use to perceive wind directions, and (4) what the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in the beetle and scorpion is. Experimental results show that the trichobothria in scorpions perceives wind direction; in the beetle it is perceived by sense organs excited by pendicellus-flagellum joint movements. A compensation mechanism is suggested as the basis for anemomenotactic orientation. It was also suggested that the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in scorpions is space orientation; while in beetles it was found to be part of the appetitive behavior used to search for olfactory sign stimuli.

  2. Dermatoglyphics, handedness, sex, and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian S; Bailey, J Michael; Kaspar, Sarah

    2002-02-01

    Both handedness and dermatoglyphic asymmetry reflect early, prenatal influences and both have been reported to be associated with male sexual orientation; handedness has been related to female sexual orientation as well. Neurohormonal and developmental perturbation are two competing hypothesis that attempt to explain these connections. We attempted to replicate these associations and to extend dermatoglyphic asymmetry findings to women. Dermatoglyphic directional asymmetry and fluctuating asymmetry were unrelated to sexual orientation. Homosexual women, but not homosexual men, had highly significant increases in non-right-handedness compared with same-sex heterosexual controls. Although this pattern of results does not allow resolution of the two competing models, it does lend additional support to a biological basis of sexual orientation.

  3. Wanted: A Developmentally Oriented Alcohol Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoth, Richard; Rosenthal, David

    1980-01-01

    Describes an alcohol prevention program with a comprehensive developmental skills orientation. The program includes values clarification, decision making, career planning and communication skills, assertiveness and relaxation training, and relationship with parents and peers. (Author/JAC)

  4. Were Greek temples oriented towards aurorae?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, Ioannis; Vassiliou, Helen

    2006-02-01

    Two ancient Greek temples of Apollo at Bassae (Phigaleia, western Peloponnese, Greece), and Thermon at Aetolia, (Aetoloacarnania, western central Greece), have a north-south orientation of their main entrances. This is a rather rare alignment of temples in general and specifically of Apollo in classical Greece, where most of them have broadly an east-west orientation. Based on historical and mythological accounts, as well as astronomical orientation measurements, the northern direction orientation of these constructions may relate to the rare, albeit impressive, occurrence of aurorae borealis, the northern lights. These strong lights are attributed to god Apollo by the epithet ``hyperborean'', meaning to the northern lands. Attribution is supported by archaeomagnetic directional data accompanied by auroral occurrence during those times.

  5. Performance-oriented: toward a successful strategy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K; Subramanian, R; Yauger, C

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the health care industry have profoundly affected hospital management and have caused severe declines in hospital profitability. In 1993, Health Care Management Review reported that the average operating profit margin, around 2% in 1984, had declined to a 0.2% loss by 1990. In the past, hospitals were buffered by entry regulations and cost reimbursement; thus, they rarely dealt with traditional market pressures. But the changed terrain means that competitive factors now underscore all strategic decisions. This study examines the strategic significance of market orientation in the health care industry. The authors identified forms of market orientation by emphasizing different components, and discovered that hospitals fell into four distinct clusters or groups. They also found a critical relationship between market orientation and performance scores on a number of criteria. Finally, the authors suggest that different forms of market orientation should be employed to target specific performance measures.

  6. Orientation decoding depends on maps, not columns

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jeremy; Brouwer, Gijs Joost; Heeger, David J.; Merriam, Elisha P.

    2011-01-01

    The representation of orientation in primary visual cortex (V1) has been examined at a fine spatial scale corresponding to the columnar architecture. We present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements providing evidence for a topographic map of orientation preference in human V1 at a much coarser scale, in register with the angular-position component of the retinotopic map of V1. This coarse-scale orientation map provides a parsimonious explanation for why multivariate pattern analysis methods succeed in decoding stimulus orientation from fMRI measurements, challenging the widely-held assumption that decoding results reflect sampling of spatial irregularities in the fine-scale columnar architecture. Decoding stimulus attributes and cognitive states from fMRI measurements has proven useful for a number of applications, but our results demonstrate that the interpretation cannot assume decoding reflects or exploits columnar organization. PMID:21451017

  7. Object orientation affects spatial language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Burigo, Michele; Sacchi, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Typical spatial descriptions, such as "The car is in front of the house," describe the position of a located object (LO; e.g., the car) in space relative to a reference object (RO) whose location is known (e.g., the house). The orientation of the RO affects spatial language comprehension via the reference frame selection process. However, the effects of the LO's orientation on spatial language have not received great attention. This study explores whether the pure geometric information of the LO (e.g., its orientation) affects spatial language comprehension using placing and production tasks. Our results suggest that the orientation of the LO influences spatial language comprehension even in the absence of functional relationships. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Orienteering: The Race With a Compass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Ellsworth

    1978-01-01

    Orienteering, a Scandinavian sport that has recently become popular in the United States, combines outdoor adventure, practical skills, physical fitness and fun. Here it is used to help young students develop survival skills using a compass. (Author/RK)

  9. Bibliography. Computer-Oriented Projects, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard L., Comp.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of references on computer-oriented projects. Includes information on computers; hands-on versus simulations; games; instruction; students' attitudes and learning styles; artificial intelligence; tutoring; and application of spreadsheets. (RT)

  10. Exposure fluctuations of astronauts due to orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Wood, James S.; Qualls, Gary; Atwell, William; Shinn, Judy L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    1993-01-01

    The dose incurred in an anisotropic environment depends on the orientation of the astronaut's body relative to the direction of the radiation field. The fluctuations in exposure of specific organs due to astronaut orientation are found to be a factor of 2 or more in a typical space habitation module and typical space radiations. An approximation function is found that overestimates astronaut exposure in most cases studied and is recommended as a shield design guide for future space missions.

  11. Object-oriented models of cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Mather, G

    2001-05-01

    Information-processing models of vision and cognition are inspired by procedural programming languages. Models that emphasize object-based representations are closely related to object-oriented programming languages. The concepts underlying object-oriented languages provide a theoretical framework for cognitive processing that differs markedly from that offered by procedural languages. This framework is well-suited to a system designed to deal flexibly with discrete objects and unpredictable events in the world.

  12. Job Oriented Training ’Lessons Learned’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Job Oriented Training ’Lessons Learned’ Job Oriented Training (JOT), een vorm van trainen waarbij de cursist zelfstandig, zonder theorie vooraf...39 77 lnfo-DenV@tno.nl TNO-rapportnummer TNO-DV 2008 A447 Opdrachtnummer Datum november 2008 Auteur (s) drs. H.E. Stubbe dr. A.H. van der...onderlinge discussie over achterliggende overwegingen te stimuleren. Zij hebben op dat moment nog geen theorie aangeboden gekregen en zijn niet op de hoogte

  13. Embedded sensor having an identifiable orientation

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is described wherein a sensor, such as a mechanical strain sensor, embedded in a fiber core, is "flagged" to identify a preferred orientation of the sensor. The identifying "flag" is a composite material, comprising a plurality of non-woven filaments distributed in a resin matrix, forming a small planar tab. The fiber is first subjected to a stimulus to identify the orientation providing the desired signal response, and then sandwiched between first and second layers of the composite material. The fiber, and therefore, the sensor orientation is thereby captured and fixed in place. The process for achieving the oriented fiber includes, after identifying the fiber orientation, carefully laying the oriented fiber onto the first layer of composite, moderately heating the assembled layer for a short period in order to bring the composite resin to a "tacky" state, heating the second composite layer as the first, and assembling the two layers together such that they merge to form a single consolidated block. The consolidated block achieving a roughly uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin is prevented from "pooling" around the periphery of the fiber.

  14. Measuring the Recovery Orientation of ACT

    PubMed Central

    Salyers, Michelle P.; Stull, Laura G.; Rollins, Angela L.; McGrew, John H.; Hicks, Lia J.; Thomas, Dave; Strieter, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Background Approaches to measuring recovery orientation are needed, particularly for programs that may struggle with implementing recovery-oriented treatment. Objective A mixed methods comparative study was conducted to explore effective approaches to measuring recovery orientation of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams. Design Two ACT teams exhibiting high and low recovery orientation were compared using surveys, treatment plan ratings, diaries of treatment visits, and team-leader-reported treatment control mechanisms. Results The recovery-oriented team differed on one survey measure (higher expectations for consumer recovery), treatment planning (greater consumer involvement and goal-directed content), and use of control mechanisms (less use of representative payee, agency-held lease, daily medication delivery, and family involvement). Staff and consumer diaries showed the most consistent differences (e.g., conveying hope and choice) and were the least susceptible to observer bias, but had the lowest response rates. Conclusions Several practices differentiate recovery orientation on ACT teams, and a mixed-methods assessment approach is feasible. PMID:23690285

  15. Selective enhancement of orientation tuning before saccades.

    PubMed

    Ohl, Sven; Kuper, Clara; Rolfs, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Saccadic eye movements cause a rapid sweep of the visual image across the retina and bring the saccade's target into high-acuity foveal vision. Even before saccade onset, visual processing is selectively prioritized at the saccade target. To determine how this presaccadic attention shift exerts its influence on visual selection, we compare the dynamics of perceptual tuning curves before movement onset at the saccade target and in the opposite hemifield. Participants monitored a 30-Hz sequence of randomly oriented gratings for a target orientation. Combining a reverse correlation technique previously used to study orientation tuning in neurons and general additive mixed modeling, we found that perceptual reports were tuned to the target orientation. The gain of orientation tuning increased markedly within the last 100 ms before saccade onset. In addition, we observed finer orientation tuning right before saccade onset. This increase in gain and tuning occurred at the saccade target location and was not observed at the incongruent location in the opposite hemifield. The present findings suggest, therefore, that presaccadic attention exerts its influence on vision in a spatially and feature-selective manner, enhancing performance and sharpening feature tuning at the future gaze location before the eyes start moving.

  16. Market orientation: a concept for health libraries.

    PubMed

    Sen, Barbara

    2006-03-01

    This paper is the result of exploratory research forming part of ongoing study into the value and relevance of market orientation as a strategic option for library managers. The aim of the study is to gain an understanding of the concept of market orientation relative to the health library sector. A focus group was used to gather data from health librarians working at different levels in the sector. The data was coded and categorized by an expert panel and analysed using a taxonomic map developed during the study. Health library professionals define and understand market orientation in the same way as the concept is defined in the management literature. Their understanding of the concept is developing. A greater emphasis is given to some aspects of market orientation than others. There are implications for further research. Methods used to measure market orientation in other domains are likely to be relevant for libraries. Research should be extended to different sectors to explore any cross-sector differences. Fostering an organizational culture that supports market orientation has implications for service management and development.

  17. Rigorous theory of molecular orientational nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Chong Hoon, E-mail: chkwak@ynu.ac.kr; Kim, Gun Yeup

    2015-01-15

    Classical statistical mechanics of the molecular optics theory proposed by Buckingham [A. D. Buckingham and J. A. Pople, Proc. Phys. Soc. A 68, 905 (1955)] has been extended to describe the field induced molecular orientational polarization effects on nonlinear optics. In this paper, we present the generalized molecular orientational nonlinear optical processes (MONLO) through the calculation of the classical orientational averaging using the Boltzmann type time-averaged orientational interaction energy in the randomly oriented molecular system under the influence of applied electric fields. The focal points of the calculation are (1) the derivation of rigorous tensorial components of the effective molecularmore » hyperpolarizabilities, (2) the molecular orientational polarizations and the electronic polarizations including the well-known third-order dc polarization, dc electric field induced Kerr effect (dc Kerr effect), optical Kerr effect (OKE), dc electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH), degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) and third harmonic generation (THG). We also present some of the new predictive MONLO processes. For second-order MONLO, second-order optical rectification (SOR), Pockels effect and difference frequency generation (DFG) are described in terms of the anisotropic coefficients of first hyperpolarizability. And, for third-order MONLO, third-order optical rectification (TOR), dc electric field induced difference frequency generation (EFIDFG) and pump-probe transmission are presented.« less

  18. Endogenous orienting in the archer fish.

    PubMed

    Saban, William; Sekely, Liora; Klein, Raymond M; Gabay, Shai

    2017-07-18

    The literature has long emphasized the neocortex's role in volitional processes. In this work, we examined endogenous orienting in an evolutionarily older species, the archer fish, which lacks neocortex-like cells. We used Posner's classic endogenous cuing task, in which a centrally presented, spatially informative cue is followed by a target. The fish responded to the target by shooting a stream of water at it. Interestingly, the fish demonstrated a human-like "volitional" facilitation effect: their reaction times to targets that appeared on the side indicated by the precue were faster than their reaction times to targets on the opposite side. The fish also exhibited inhibition of return, an aftermath of orienting that commonly emerges only in reflexive orienting tasks in human participants. We believe that this pattern demonstrates the acquisition of an arbitrary connection between spatial orienting and a nonspatial feature of a centrally presented stimulus in nonprimate species. In the literature on human attention, orienting in response to such contingencies has been strongly associated with volitional control. We discuss the implications of these results for the evolution of orienting, and for the study of volitional processes in all species, including humans.

  19. Endogenous orienting in the archer fish

    PubMed Central

    Sekely, Liora; Klein, Raymond M.; Gabay, Shai

    2017-01-01

    The literature has long emphasized the neocortex’s role in volitional processes. In this work, we examined endogenous orienting in an evolutionarily older species, the archer fish, which lacks neocortex-like cells. We used Posner’s classic endogenous cuing task, in which a centrally presented, spatially informative cue is followed by a target. The fish responded to the target by shooting a stream of water at it. Interestingly, the fish demonstrated a human-like “volitional” facilitation effect: their reaction times to targets that appeared on the side indicated by the precue were faster than their reaction times to targets on the opposite side. The fish also exhibited inhibition of return, an aftermath of orienting that commonly emerges only in reflexive orienting tasks in human participants. We believe that this pattern demonstrates the acquisition of an arbitrary connection between spatial orienting and a nonspatial feature of a centrally presented stimulus in nonprimate species. In the literature on human attention, orienting in response to such contingencies has been strongly associated with volitional control. We discuss the implications of these results for the evolution of orienting, and for the study of volitional processes in all species, including humans. PMID:28673997

  20. The neurodevelopment of human sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Qazi

    2005-01-01

    One of the most enduring and controversial questions in the neuroscience of sexual behaviour surrounds the mechanisms which produce sexual attraction to either males or females. Here, evidence is reviewed which supports the proposal that sexual orientation in humans may be laid down in neural circuitry during early foetal development. Behaviour genetic investigations provide strong evidence for a heritable component to male and female sexual orientation. Linkage studies are partly suggestive of X-linked loci although candidate gene studies have produced null findings. Further evidence demonstrates a role for prenatal sex hormones which may influence the development of a putative network of sexual-orientation-related neural substrates. However, hormonal effects are often inconsistent and investigations rely heavily on 'proxy markers'. A consistent fraternal birth order effect in male sexual orientation also provides support for a model of maternal immunization processes affecting prenatal sexual differentiation. The notion that non-heterosexual preferences may reflect generalized neurodevelopmental perturbations is not supported by available data. These current theories have left little room for learning models of sexual orientation. Future investigations, across the neurosciences, should focus to elucidate the fundamental neural architecture underlying the target-specific direction of human sexual orientation, and their antecedents in developmental neurobiology.

  1. Neurobiology of Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Charles E

    2017-12-06

    Sexual identity and sexual orientation are independent components of a person's sexual identity. These dimensions are most often in harmony with each other and with an individual's genital sex, but not always. This review discusses the relationship of sexual identity and sexual orientation to prenatal factors that act to shape the development of the brain and the expression of sexual behaviors in animals and humans. One major influence discussed relates to organizational effects that the early hormone environment exerts on both gender identity and sexual orientation. Evidence that gender identity and sexual orientation are masculinized by prenatal exposure to testosterone and feminized in it absence is drawn from basic research in animals, correlations of biometric indices of androgen exposure and studies of clinical conditions associated with disorders in sexual development. There are, however, important exceptions to this theory that have yet to be resolved. Family and twin studies indicate that genes play a role, but no specific candidate genes have been identified. Evidence that relates to the number of older brothers implicates maternal immune responses as a contributing factor for male sexual orientation. It remains speculative how these influences might relate to each other and interact with postnatal socialization. Nonetheless, despite the many challenges to research in this area, existing empirical evidence makes it clear that there is a significant biological contribution to the development of an individual's sexual identity and sexual orientation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Machine Learning and Infrared Thermography for Fiber Orientation Assessment on Randomly-Oriented Strands Parts.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Henrique; Zhang, Hai; Figueiredo, Alisson; Malheiros, Fernando; Ignacio, Luis Henrique; Sfarra, Stefano; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Guimaraes, Gilmar; Maldague, Xavier

    2018-01-19

    The use of fiber reinforced materials such as randomly-oriented strands has grown in recent years, especially for manufacturing of aerospace composite structures. This growth is mainly due to their advantageous properties: they are lighter and more resistant to corrosion when compared to metals and are more easily shaped than continuous fiber composites. The resistance and stiffness of these materials are directly related to their fiber orientation. Thus, efficient approaches to assess their fiber orientation are in demand. In this paper, a non-destructive evaluation method is applied to assess the fiber orientation on laminates reinforced with randomly-oriented strands. More specifically, a method called pulsed thermal ellipsometry combined with an artificial neural network, a machine learning technique, is used in order to estimate the fiber orientation on the surface of inspected parts. Results showed that the method can be potentially used to inspect large areas with good accuracy and speed.

  3. Machine Learning and Infrared Thermography for Fiber Orientation Assessment on Randomly-Oriented Strands Parts

    PubMed Central

    Maldague, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    The use of fiber reinforced materials such as randomly-oriented strands has grown in recent years, especially for manufacturing of aerospace composite structures. This growth is mainly due to their advantageous properties: they are lighter and more resistant to corrosion when compared to metals and are more easily shaped than continuous fiber composites. The resistance and stiffness of these materials are directly related to their fiber orientation. Thus, efficient approaches to assess their fiber orientation are in demand. In this paper, a non-destructive evaluation method is applied to assess the fiber orientation on laminates reinforced with randomly-oriented strands. More specifically, a method called pulsed thermal ellipsometry combined with an artificial neural network, a machine learning technique, is used in order to estimate the fiber orientation on the surface of inspected parts. Results showed that the method can be potentially used to inspect large areas with good accuracy and speed. PMID:29351240

  4. The relationship between operative and radiographic acetabular component orientation: which factors influence resultant cup orientation?

    PubMed

    Grammatopoulos, G; Pandit, H G; da Assunção, R; McLardy-Smith, P; De Smet, K A; Gill, H S; Murray, D W

    2014-10-01

    There is great variability in acetabular component orientation following hip replacement. The aims of this study were to compare the component orientation at impaction with the orientation measured on post-operative radiographs and identify factors that influence the difference between the two. A total of 67 hip replacements (52 total hip replacements and 15 hip resurfacings) were prospectively studied. Intra-operatively, the orientation of the acetabular component after impaction relative to the operating table was measured using a validated stereo-photogrammetry protocol. Post-operatively, the radiographic orientation was measured; the mean inclination/anteversion was 43° (sd 6°)/ 19° (sd 7°). A simulated radiographic orientation was calculated based on how the orientation would have appeared had an on-table radiograph been taken intra-operatively. The mean difference between radiographic and intra-operative inclination/anteversion was 5° (sd 5°)/ -8° (sd 8°). The mean difference between simulated radiographic and intra-operative inclination/anteversion, which quantifies the effect of the different way acetabular orientation is measured, was 3°/-6° (sd 2°). The mean difference between radiographic and simulated radiographic orientation inclination/anteversion, which is a manifestation of the change in pelvic position between component impaction and radiograph, was 1°/-2° (sd 7°). This study demonstrated that in order to achieve a specific radiographic orientation target, surgeons should implant the acetabular component 5° less inclined and 8° more anteverted than their target. Great variability (2 sd about ± 15°) in the post-operative radiographic cup orientation was seen. The two equally contributing causes for this are variability in the orientation at which the cup is implanted, and the change in pelvic position between impaction and post-operative radiograph. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  5. Improving Orientation Outcomes: Implementation of Phased Orientation Process in an Intermediate Special Care Nursery.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Emily K; Shedenhelm, Heidi J; Gibbs, Ardyce L

    2015-01-01

    In response to changing needs of registered nurse orientees, the staff education committee in the Intermediate Special Care Nursery has implemented a phased orientation process. This phased process includes a mentoring experience postorientation to support a new nurse through the first year of employment. Since implementing the phased orientation process in the Intermediate Special Care Nursery, orientee satisfaction and preparation to practice have increased, and length of orientation has decreased.

  6. Orientation relationship between diamond and magnesiochromite inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvaro, Matteo; Angel, Ross; Nimis, Paolo; Milani, Sula; Harris, Jeff; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    The correct determination of the relative crystallographic orientations of single crystals has many applications. When single crystals undergo phase transitions, especially at high pressures, the relative orientations of the two phases yields insights into transition mechanisms (Dobson et al 2013). On the other hand, determination of the crystallographic orientations of minerals included in diamonds can provide insights into the mechanisms of their entrapment and the timing of their formation relative to the host diamond (e.g. Nestola et al. 2014, Milani et al. 2016). The reported occurrence of non-trivial orientations for some minerals in diamonds, suggesting an epitaxial relationship, has long been considered to reflect contemporaneous growth of the diamond and the inclusion (e.g. syngenesis). Correct interpretation of such orientations requires (i) a statistically significant crystallographic data set for single and multiple inclusions in a large number of diamonds, and (ii) a robust data-processing method, capable of removing ambiguities derived from the high symmetry of the diamond and the inclusion. We have developed a software to perform such processing (OrientXplot, Angel et al. 2015), starting from crystallographic orientation matrixes obtained by X-ray diffractometry or EBSD data. Previous studies of inclusions in lithospheric diamonds, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and EBSD, indicate a wide variety in the orientations of different inclusion phases with respect to their diamond host (Futergendler & Frank-Kamenetsky 1961; Frank-Kamenetsky 1964; Wiggers de Vries et al. 2011; Nestola et al. 2014, Milani et al. 2016). For example, olivine inclusions in lithospheric diamonds from Udachnaya do not show any preferred orientations with respect to their diamond hosts, but multiple inclusions in a single diamond often show very similar orientations within few degrees. In the present work on magnesiochromite inclusions in diamonds from Udachnaya, there is a

  7. Magnetic Compass Orientation in the European Eel

    PubMed Central

    Durif, Caroline M. F.; Browman, Howard I.; Phillips, John B.; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; Vøllestad, L. Asbjørn; Stockhausen, Hans H.

    2013-01-01

    European eel migrate from freshwater or coastal habitats throughout Europe to their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea. However, their route (∼ 6000 km) and orientation mechanisms are unknown. Several attempts have been made to prove the existence of magnetoreception in Anguilla sp., but none of these studies have demonstrated magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. We tested eels in four altered magnetic field conditions where magnetic North was set at geographic North, South, East, or West. Eels oriented in a manner that was related to the tank in which they were housed before the test. At lower temperature (under 12°C), their orientation relative to magnetic North corresponded to the direction of their displacement from the holding tank. At higher temperatures (12–17°C), eels showed bimodal orientation along an axis perpendicular to the axis of their displacement. These temperature-related shifts in orientation may be linked to the changes in behavior that occur between the warm season (during which eels are foraging) and the colder fall and winter (during which eels undertake their migrations). These observations support the conclusion that 1. eels have a magnetic compass, and 2. they use this sense to orient in a direction that they have registered moments before they are displaced. The adaptive advantage of having a magnetic compass and learning the direction in which they have been displaced becomes clear when set in the context of the eel’s seaward migration. For example, if their migration is halted or blocked, as it is the case when environmental conditions become unfavorable or when they encounter a barrier, eels would be able to resume their movements along their old bearing when conditions become favorable again or when they pass by the barrier. PMID:23554997

  8. Inertial Orientation Trackers with Drift Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxlin, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    A class of inertial-sensor systems with drift compensation has been invented for use in measuring the orientations of human heads (and perhaps other, similarly sized objects). These systems can be designed to overcome some of the limitations of prior orientation-measuring systems that are based, variously, on magnetic, optical, mechanical-linkage, and acoustical principles. The orientation signals generated by the systems of this invention could be used for diverse purposes, including controlling head-orientation-dependent virtual reality visual displays or enabling persons whose limbs are paralyzed to control machinery by means of head motions. The inventive concept admits to variations too numerous to describe here, making it necessary to limit this description to a typical system, the selected aspects of which are illustrated in the figure. A set of sensors is mounted on a bracket on a band or a cap that gently but firmly grips the wearer s head to be tracked. Among the sensors are three drift-sensitive rotationrate sensors (e.g., integrated-circuit angular- rate-measuring gyroscopes), which put out DC voltages nominally proportional to the rates of rotation about their sensory axes. These sensors are mounted in mutually orthogonal orientations for measuring rates of rotation about the roll, pitch, and yaw axes of the wearer s head. The outputs of these rate sensors are conditioned and digitized, and the resulting data are fed to an integrator module implemented in software in a digital computer. In the integrator module, the angular-rate signals are jointly integrated by any of several established methods to obtain a set of angles that represent approximately the orientation of the head in an external, inertial coordinate system. Because some drift is always present as a component of an angular position computed by integrating the outputs of angular-rate sensors, the orientation signal is processed further in a drift-compensator software module.

  9. Magnetic compass orientation in the European eel.

    PubMed

    Durif, Caroline M F; Browman, Howard I; Phillips, John B; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn; Stockhausen, Hans H

    2013-01-01

    European eel migrate from freshwater or coastal habitats throughout Europe to their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea. However, their route (~ 6000 km) and orientation mechanisms are unknown. Several attempts have been made to prove the existence of magnetoreception in Anguilla sp., but none of these studies have demonstrated magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. We tested eels in four altered magnetic field conditions where magnetic North was set at geographic North, South, East, or West. Eels oriented in a manner that was related to the tank in which they were housed before the test. At lower temperature (under 12°C), their orientation relative to magnetic North corresponded to the direction of their displacement from the holding tank. At higher temperatures (12-17°C), eels showed bimodal orientation along an axis perpendicular to the axis of their displacement. These temperature-related shifts in orientation may be linked to the changes in behavior that occur between the warm season (during which eels are foraging) and the colder fall and winter (during which eels undertake their migrations). These observations support the conclusion that 1. eels have a magnetic compass, and 2. they use this sense to orient in a direction that they have registered moments before they are displaced. The adaptive advantage of having a magnetic compass and learning the direction in which they have been displaced becomes clear when set in the context of the eel's seaward migration. For example, if their migration is halted or blocked, as it is the case when environmental conditions become unfavorable or when they encounter a barrier, eels would be able to resume their movements along their old bearing when conditions become favorable again or when they pass by the barrier.

  10. Contour-based object orientation estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpatov, Boris; Babayan, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Real-time object orientation estimation is an actual problem of computer vision nowadays. In this paper we propose an approach to estimate an orientation of objects lacking axial symmetry. Proposed algorithm is intended to estimate orientation of a specific known 3D object, so 3D model is required for learning. The proposed orientation estimation algorithm consists of 2 stages: learning and estimation. Learning stage is devoted to the exploring of studied object. Using 3D model we can gather set of training images by capturing 3D model from viewpoints evenly distributed on a sphere. Sphere points distribution is made by the geosphere principle. It minimizes the training image set. Gathered training image set is used for calculating descriptors, which will be used in the estimation stage of the algorithm. The estimation stage is focusing on matching process between an observed image descriptor and the training image descriptors. The experimental research was performed using a set of images of Airbus A380. The proposed orientation estimation algorithm showed good accuracy (mean error value less than 6°) in all case studies. The real-time performance of the algorithm was also demonstrated.

  11. Metacarpophalangeal joint orientation in anthropoid manual phalanges.

    PubMed

    Rein, Thomas R; McCarty, Laura A

    2012-12-01

    The proximal articular surface angle of orientation (AO) of proximal phalanges of the hand and foot has been used to infer the locomotor profile of extinct Miocene catarrhines and early hominins. Previous work has found that joint orientation distinguishes quadrupedal from suspensory anthropoids. The purpose of this study is to expand on previous research by examining this feature within and across several primate clades, allowing us to investigate the potential influences of locomotion, substrate usage, hand posture, and phylogeny. We also report AO measurements in human proximal hand phalanges, allowing us to examine human skeletal variation within a wide comparative context. The angle of orientation was measured on manual proximal third phalanges of 21 extant anthropoid species using a Microscribe digitizer. Comparisons were made between locomotor groups within hominoids, platyrrhines, and cercopithecoids. Proximal phalanges of quadrupedal species were characterized by greater dorsal orientation than those of suspensory taxa in hominoids and atelids. In addition, arboreal quadrupeds had greater AO values than terrestrial quadrupeds within the Cercopithecoidea. However, within the terrestrial locomotor group, mean AO values did not differ between palmigrade and digitigrade taxa. Thus, while there appears to be a functional signal related to substrate usage, differences in use of hand postures when moving on the ground were not reflected in proximal joint orientation of the proximal phalanx. Finally, we measured relatively low AO values in human phalanges, which might be related to integration with serially homologous pedal phalanges that are under strong selective pressure related to bipedalism. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Measuring Achievement Goal Orientations of Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Muthart, Thomas; Khan, Ghous M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To measure the achievement goal orientations of pharmacy students attending a 3-year (accelerated) doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Methods. A 16-item survey based on the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) was administered to first-year (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students at the Appalachian College of Pharmacy (ACP). Students were instructed to indicate to what degree each statement was true for them using a 7-point Likert scale (1=not true of me, 7=very true of me). Results. One hundred twenty of the 155 students (77%) completed the survey. Most students had mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and/or performance-avoidance goal orientations; few had work-avoidance goal orientations. Second-year students and male students had higher work-avoidance mean scores than did P1 students and female students (p<0.05). Conclusion. Pharmacy students were mastery- and performance-oriented learners, and most did not have work-avoidance goal orientations. Male students and P2 students had higher work-avoidance than did female students and P1 students, respectively. More longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24761015

  13. Object-oriented Technology for Compressor Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, C. K.; Follen, G. J.; Cannon, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    An object-oriented basis for interdisciplinary compressor simulation can, in principle, overcome several barriers associated with the traditional structured (procedural) development approach. This paper presents the results of a research effort with the objective to explore the repercussions on design, analysis, and implementation of a compressor model in an object oriented (OO) language, and to examine the ability of the OO system design to accommodate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for compressor performance prediction. Three fundamental results are that: (1) the selection of the object oriented language is not the central issue; enhanced (interdisciplinary) analysis capability derives from a broader focus on object-oriented technology; (2) object-oriented designs will produce more effective and reusable computer programs when the technology is applied to issues involving complex system inter-relationships (more so than when addressing the complex physics of an isolated discipline); and (3) the concept of disposable prototypes is effective for exploratory research programs, but this requires organizations to have a commensurate long-term perspective. This work also suggests that interdisciplinary simulation can be effectively accomplished (over several levels of fidelity) with a mixed language treatment (i.e., FORTRAN-C++), reinforcing the notion the OO technology implementation into simulations is a 'journey' in which the syntax can, by design, continuously evolve.

  14. The capacity limitations of orientation summary statistics

    PubMed Central

    Attarha, Mouna; Moore, Cathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous–sequential method was used to test the processing capacity of establishing mean orientation summaries. Four clusters of oriented Gabor patches were presented in the peripheral visual field. One of the clusters had a mean orientation that was tilted either left or right while the mean orientations of the other three clusters were roughly vertical. All four clusters were presented at the same time in the simultaneous condition whereas the clusters appeared in temporal subsets of two in the sequential condition. Performance was lower when the means of all four clusters had to be processed concurrently than when only two had to be processed in the same amount of time. The advantage for establishing fewer summaries at a given time indicates that the processing of mean orientation engages limited-capacity processes (Experiment 1). This limitation cannot be attributed to crowding, low target-distractor discriminability, or a limited-capacity comparison process (Experiments 2 and 3). In contrast to the limitations of establishing multiple summary representations, establishing a single summary representation unfolds without interference (Experiment 4). When interpreted in the context of recent work on the capacity of summary statistics, these findings encourage reevaluation of the view that early visual perception consists of summary statistic representations that unfold independently across multiple areas of the visual field. PMID:25810160

  15. Minireview: Hormones and Human Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined. PMID:21693676

  16. Minireview: Hormones and human sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined.

  17. Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhengrong R; Voigt, James A; Liu, Jun; McKenzie, Bonnie; McDermott, Matthew J; Rodriguez, Mark A; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang

    2003-12-01

    Extended and oriented nanostructures are desirable for many applications, but direct fabrication of complex nanostructures with controlled crystalline morphology, orientation and surface architectures remains a significant challenge. Here we report a low-temperature, environmentally benign, solution-based approach for the preparation of complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures, and the systematic modification of their crystal morphology. Using controlled seeded growth and citrate anions that selectively adsorb on ZnO basal planes as the structure-directing agent, we prepared large arrays of oriented ZnO nanorods with controlled aspect ratios, complex film morphologies made of oriented nanocolumns and nanoplates (remarkably similar to biomineral structures in red abalone shells) and complex bilayers showing in situ column-to-rod morphological transitions. The advantages of some of these ZnO structures for photocatalytic decompositions of volatile organic compounds were demonstrated. The novel ZnO nanostructures are expected to have great potential for sensing, catalysis, optical emission, piezoelectric transduction, and actuations.

  18. Orientation-Selective Retinal Circuits in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Antinucci, Paride; Hindges, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Visual information is already processed in the retina before it is transmitted to higher visual centers in the brain. This includes the extraction of salient features from visual scenes, such as motion directionality or contrast, through neurons belonging to distinct neural circuits. Some retinal neurons are tuned to the orientation of elongated visual stimuli. Such ‘orientation-selective’ neurons are present in the retinae of most, if not all, vertebrate species analyzed to date, with species-specific differences in frequency and degree of tuning. In some cases, orientation-selective neurons have very stereotyped functional and morphological properties suggesting that they represent distinct cell types. In this review, we describe the retinal cell types underlying orientation selectivity found in various vertebrate species, and highlight their commonalities and differences. In addition, we discuss recent studies that revealed the cellular, synaptic and circuit mechanisms at the basis of retinal orientation selectivity. Finally, we outline the significance of these findings in shaping our current understanding of how this fundamental neural computation is implemented in the visual systems of vertebrates. PMID:29467629

  19. Orientation-Selective Retinal Circuits in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Antinucci, Paride; Hindges, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Visual information is already processed in the retina before it is transmitted to higher visual centers in the brain. This includes the extraction of salient features from visual scenes, such as motion directionality or contrast, through neurons belonging to distinct neural circuits. Some retinal neurons are tuned to the orientation of elongated visual stimuli. Such 'orientation-selective' neurons are present in the retinae of most, if not all, vertebrate species analyzed to date, with species-specific differences in frequency and degree of tuning. In some cases, orientation-selective neurons have very stereotyped functional and morphological properties suggesting that they represent distinct cell types. In this review, we describe the retinal cell types underlying orientation selectivity found in various vertebrate species, and highlight their commonalities and differences. In addition, we discuss recent studies that revealed the cellular, synaptic and circuit mechanisms at the basis of retinal orientation selectivity. Finally, we outline the significance of these findings in shaping our current understanding of how this fundamental neural computation is implemented in the visual systems of vertebrates.

  20. Designing an orientation program for new faculty.

    PubMed

    Holyfield, Lavern J; Berry, Charles W

    2008-12-01

    The Faculty Development Committee (FDC) at Baylor College of Dentistry (BCD) is charged with providing programs and activities that facilitate the success of existing faculty in the constantly changing environment of academia. In response to concerns regarding the challenges wrought by current and projected shortages of dental faculty across the nation, the FDC was prompted to assess development opportunities available to BCD faculty. A professional development resource that we found deficient was a formal, comprehensive orientation program for newly hired faculty. To guide the efforts of the committee in developing this program, a survey was designed and administered during an annual faculty retreat. Respondents were new and junior faculty, senior faculty, and some administrators. The results of the survey to determine requirements for new faculty orientation became the basis for formalizing BCD's new faculty orientation program. This article provides an overview of the new faculty orientation process from design to program implementation and describes the development and use of a faculty survey to determine the fundamental elements of a faculty development program, identification of essential individuals for designing/implementing the program, and implementation of a new faculty orientation program at BCD.

  1. Personality Patterns of Physicians in Person-Oriented and Technique-Oriented Specialties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Gibson, Denise D.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated differences in personality patterns between person-oriented and technique-oriented physicians. It tested an integrative framework by converting the scores on the Personality Research Form (PRF) to the Big-Five factors and built a predictive model of group membership in clinical specialty area. PRF scores from 238 physicians…

  2. Organic Photovoltaic Devices Based on Oriented n-Type Molecular Films Deposited on Oriented Polythiophene Films.

    PubMed

    Mizokuro, Toshiko; Tanigaki, Nobutaka; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Shibata, Yousei; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki

    2018-04-01

    The molecular orientation of π-conjugated molecules has been reported to significantly affect the performance of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) based on molecular films. Hence, the control of molecular orientation is a key issue toward the improvement of OPV performance. In this research, oriented thin films of an n-type molecule, 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Bisbenzimida-zole (PTCBI), were formed by deposition on in-plane oriented polythiophene (PT) films. Orientation of the PTCBI films was evaluated by polarized UV-vis spectroscopy and 2D-Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Results indicated that PTCBI molecules on PT film exhibit nearly edge-on and in-plane orientation (with molecular long axis along the substrate), whereas PTCBI molecules without PT film exhibit neither. OPVs composed of PTCBI molecular film with and without PT were fabricated and evaluated for correlation of orientation with performance. The OPVs composed of PTCBI film with PT showed higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of film without PT. The experiment indicated that in-plane orientation of PTCBI molecules absorbs incident light more efficiently, leading to increase in PCE.

  3. Integrating traditional nursing service orientation content with electronic medical record orientation.

    PubMed

    Harton, Brenda B; Borrelli, Larry; Knupp, Ann; Rogers, Necolen; West, Vickie R

    2009-01-01

    Traditional nursing service orientation classes at an acute care hospital were integrated with orientation to the electronic medical record to blend the two components in a user-friendly format so that the learner is introduced to the culture, processes, and documentation methods of the organization, with an opportunity to document online in a practice domain while lecture and discussion information is fresh.

  4. Parental selection of children's sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, A S; Bailey, J M

    2001-08-01

    As we learn more about the causes of sexual orientation, the likelihood increases that parents will one day be able to select the orientation of their children. This possibility (at least that of selecting for heterosexuality) has generated a great deal of concern among supporters of homosexual rights, with such selection being widely condemned as harmful and morally repugnant. Notwithstanding this widespread condemnation, and even assuming, as we do, that homosexuality is entirely acceptable morally, allowing parents, by means morally unproblematic in themselves, to select for heterosexuality would be morally acceptable. This is because allowing parents to select their children's sexual orientation would further parent's freedom to raise the sort of children they wish to raise and because selection for heterosexuality may benefit parents and children and is unlikely to cause significant harm.

  5. Pegylation of Magnetically Oriented Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Valencia; Parker, Margaret; Howard, Kathleen P.

    2000-01-01

    We report NMR data for magnetically oriented phospholipid bilayers which have been doped with a lipid derivatized with a polyethylene glycol polymer headgroup to stabilize samples against aggregation. 13C, 31P, and 2H NMR data indicate that the incorporation of PEG2000-PE (1% molar to DMPC) does not interfere with the orientation properties of bicelles prepared at 25% w/v with or without the presence of lanthanide. Bicelles prepared at 10% w/v are also shown to orient when PEG2000-PE is added. The addition of PEG2000-PE to cholesterol-containing, lanthanide-flipped bicelles is shown to inhibit sample phase separation and improve spectral quality. Furthermore, the addition of PEG2000-PE to high w/v bicelles (40% w/v) is demonstrated to lead to an increase in overall sample order.

  6. Earth Orientation Effects on Mobile VLBI Baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    Improvements in data quality for the mobile VLBI systems have placed higher accuracy requirements on Earth orientation calibrations. Errors in these calibrations may give rise to systematic effects in the nonlength components of the baselines. Various sources of Earth orientation data were investigated for calibration of Mobile VLBI baselines. Significant differences in quality between the several available sources of UT1-UTC were found. It was shown that the JPL Kalman filtered space technology data were at least as good as any other and adequate to the needs of current Mobile VLBI systems and observing plans. For polar motion, the values from all service suffice. The effect of Earth orientation errors on the accuracy of differenced baselines was also investigated. It is shown that the effect is negligible for the current mobile systems and observing plan.

  7. Optimal estimator model for human spatial orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borah, J.; Young, L. R.; Curry, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A model is being developed to predict pilot dynamic spatial orientation in response to multisensory stimuli. Motion stimuli are first processed by dynamic models of the visual, vestibular, tactile, and proprioceptive sensors. Central nervous system function is then modeled as a steady-state Kalman filter which blends information from the various sensors to form an estimate of spatial orientation. Where necessary, this linear central estimator has been augmented with nonlinear elements to reflect more accurately some highly nonlinear human response characteristics. Computer implementation of the model has shown agreement with several important qualitative characteristics of human spatial orientation, and it is felt that with further modification and additional experimental data the model can be improved and extended. Possible means are described for extending the model to better represent the active pilot with varying skill and work load levels.

  8. Object-oriented programming for the biosciences.

    PubMed

    Wiechert, W; Joksch, B; Wittig, R; Hartbrich, A; Höner, T; Möllney, M

    1995-10-01

    The development of software systems for the biosciences is always closely connected to experimental practice. Programs must be able to handle the inherent complexity and heterogeneous structure of biological systems in combination with the measuring equipment. Moreover, a high degree of flexibility is required to treat rapidly changing experimental conditions. Object-oriented methodology seems to be well suited for this purpose. It enables an evolutionary approach to software development that still maintains a high degree of modularity. This paper presents experience with object-oriented technology gathered during several years of programming in the fields of bioprocess development and metabolic engineering. It concentrates on the aspects of experimental support, data analysis, interaction and visualization. Several examples are presented and discussed in the general context of the experimental cycle of knowledge acquisition, thus pointing out the benefits and problems of object-oriented technology in the specific application field of the biosciences. Finally, some strategies for future development are described.

  9. Optical orientation of electrons in compensated semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kokurin, I. A., E-mail: kokorinia@math.mrsu.ru; Petrov, P. V.; Averkiev, N. S.

    2013-09-15

    The theory of the optical orientation of charge carriers in compensated III-V semiconductors and quantum wells for the case where electrons are excited to the conduction band from Mn-charged acceptor states is presented. It is shown that, in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells, the degree of the spin orientation of conduction-band electrons in this excitation scheme can be as high as 85%. This spin-orientation enhancement results from an increase in the heavy-hole contribution to the acceptor state in the vicinity of the defect center rather than from level splitting caused by quantum confinement. It is shown that the degree of circular polarizationmore » of the photoluminescence emitted upon the recombination of electrons thermalized at the bottom of the band with holes occupying the acceptor ground state in a quantum well can exceed 70%.« less

  10. Orientation selectivity sharpens motion detection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Yvette E.; Silies, Marion; Clandinin, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Detecting the orientation and movement of edges in a scene is critical to visually guided behaviors of many animals. What are the circuit algorithms that allow the brain to extract such behaviorally vital visual cues? Using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging in Drosophila, we describe direction selective signals in the dendrites of T4 and T5 neurons, detectors of local motion. We demonstrate that this circuit performs selective amplification of local light inputs, an observation that constrains motion detection models and confirms a core prediction of the Hassenstein-Reichardt Correlator (HRC). These neurons are also orientation selective, responding strongly to static features that are orthogonal to their preferred axis of motion, a tuning property not predicted by the HRC. This coincident extraction of orientation and direction sharpens directional tuning through surround inhibition and reveals a striking parallel between visual processing in flies and vertebrate cortex, suggesting a universal strategy for motion processing. PMID:26456048

  11. Human spatial orientation in the pitch dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.; Larson, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment I, each of eight Ss attempted to place himself at 13 different goal orientations between prone and supine. Deviations of achieved body pitch angles from goal orientations were determined. In Experiment II, each of eight Ss attempted to align a visual target with his morphological horizon while he was placed at each of the 13 goal orientations. Changes in settings of the target were examined. Results indicate that Ss underestimate body pitch when they are tilted less than 60 deg backward or forward from the vertical, overestimate body pitch when they are nearly prone, and accurately estimate body pitch when they are nearly supine. In contrast, Ss set the visual target maximally above the morphological horizon when they are tilted 30 deg forward from the vertical. The findings are discussed in terms of common and different physiological mechanism that may underlie judgments of these types.

  12. Parabolic flight - Loss of sense of orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1979-01-01

    On the earth, or in level flight, a blindfolded subject being rotated at constant velocity about his recumbent long body axis experiences illusory orbital motion of his body in the opposite direction. By contrast, during comparable rotation in the free-fall phase of parabolic flight, no body motion is perceived and all sense of external orientation may be lost; when touch and pressure stimulation is applied to the body surface, a sense of orientation is reestablished immediately. The increased gravitoinertial force period of a parabola produces an exaggeration of the orbital motion experienced in level flight. These observations reveal an important influence of touch, pressure, and kinesthetic information on spatial orientation and provide a basis for understanding many of the postural illusions reported by astronauts in space flight.

  13. Sexual orientation and gender: stereotypes and beyond.

    PubMed

    Sandfort, Theo G M

    2005-12-01

    In this essay, I explore empirical research about the relationship between sexual orientation and gender. Both concepts have multiple meanings, which hinder an unequivocal understanding of the relationship between the two concepts. One of the first studies assumed to establish a relationship between male homosexuality and femininity was conducted by L. M. Terman and C. C. Miles (1936). The study actually gives a much more complicated picture of the relationship. Terman and Miles actually found two groups of homosexual men with, respectively, extremely high masculinity and extremely high femininity scores. Subsequently, various other studies examined the relationship between sexual orientation and gender, introducing the concept of androgyNY. While these studies were executed, major changes took place in the homosexual world, which have been characterized as the masculinization of culture. It is unclear how these changes relate to the masculine and feminine properties of the men involved. Various suggestions are made for further research on the relation between gender and sexual orientation.

  14. Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

  15. Preferential orientation of NV defects in CVD diamond films grown on (113)-oriented substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesik, M.; Plays, T.; Tallaire, A.; Achard, J.; Brinza, O.; William, L.; Chipaux, M.; Toraille, L.; Debuisschert, T.; Gicquel, A.; Roch, J. F.; Jacques, V.

    2015-06-01

    Thick CVD diamond layers were successfully grown on (113)-oriented substrates. They exhibited smooth surface morphologies and a crystalline quality comparable to (100) electronic grade material, and much better than (111)-grown layers. High growth rates (15-50 {\\mu}m/h) were obtained while nitrogen doping could be achieved in a fairly wide range without seriously imparting crystalline quality. Electron spin resonance measurements were carried out to determine NV centers orientation and concluded that one specific orientation has an occurrence probability of 73 % when (100)-grown layers show an equal distribution in the 4 possible directions. A spin coherence time of around 270 {\\mu}s was measured which is equivalent to that reported for material with similar isotopic purity. Although a higher degree of preferential orientation was achieved with (111)-grown layers (almost 100 %), the ease of growth and post-processing of the (113) orientation make it a potentially useful material for magnetometry or other quantum mechanical applications.

  16. Orienting attention to locations in internal representations.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Ivan C; Nobre, Anna C

    2003-11-15

    Three experiments investigated whether it is possible to orient selective spatial attention to internal representations held in working memory in a similar fashion to orienting to perceptual stimuli. In the first experiment, subjects were either cued to orient to a spatial location before a stimulus array was presented (pre-cue), cued to orient to a spatial location in working memory after the array was presented (retro-cue), or given no cueing information (neutral cue). The stimulus array consisted of four differently colored crosses, one in each quadrant. At the end of a trial, a colored cross (probe) was presented centrally, and subjects responded according to whether it had occurred in the array. There were equivalent patterns of behavioral costs and benefits of cueing for both pre-cues and retro-cues. A follow-up experiment used a peripheral probe stimulus requiring a decision about whether its color matched that of the item presented at the same location in the array. Replication of the behavioral costs and benefits of pre-cues and retro-cues in this experiment ruled out changes in response criteria as the only explanation for the effects. The third experiment used event-related potentials (ERPs) to compare the neural processes involved in orienting attention to a spatial location in an external versus an internal spatial representation. In this task, subjects responded according to whether a central probe stimulus occurred at the cued location in the array. There were both similarities and differences between ERPs to spatial cues toward a perception versus an internal spatial representation. Lateralized early posterior and later frontal negativities were observed for both pre- and retro-cues. Retro-cues also showed additional neural processes to be involved in orienting to an internal representation, including early effects over frontal electrodes.

  17. Future Time Orientation and Student Expectations: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amyx, Douglas; Bristow, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    Navajo and Anglo college students' time orientation scores from the Future Time Orientation (FTO) Scale (Bristol & Amyx, 1996) were analyzed and compared. Anglo students were found to be significantly more future time oriented in two of the three dimensions: temporal distance and involvement with time. Future time orientation was used to explain…

  18. Under the Microscope: Looking at Libraries and Online Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannady, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Orientations ease students' transition into institutions of higher learning. Most published literature focuses on orientations that occur on the physical campus, but online orientations are equally, if not more, important in engaging a geographically diverse student body. Via online orientations, academic libraries have an excellent opportunity to…

  19. What is "Object-Oriented Programming"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroustrup, Bjarne

    "Object-Oriented Programming" and "Data Abstraction" have become very common terms. Unfortunately, few people agree on what they mean. I will offer informal definitions that appear to make sense in the context of languages like Ada, C++, Modula-2, Simula67, and Smalltalk. The general idea is to equate "support for data abstraction" with the ability to define and use new types and equate "support for object-oriented programming" with the ability to express type hierarchies. Features necessary to support these programming styles in a general purpose programming language will be discussed. The presentation centers around C++ but is not limited to facilities provided by that language.

  20. A user-oriented synthetic workload generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Wei-Lun

    1991-01-01

    A user oriented synthetic workload generator that simulates users' file access behavior based on real workload characterization is described. The model for this workload generator is user oriented and job specific, represents file I/O operations at the system call level, allows general distributions for the usage measures, and assumes independence in the file I/O operation stream. The workload generator consists of three parts which handle specification of distributions, creation of an initial file system, and selection and execution of file I/O operations. Experiments on SUN NFS are shown to demonstrate the usage of the workload generator.

  1. Orientation specific deposition of mesoporous particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellman, Tomas; Bodén, Niklas; Wennerström, Hâkan; Edler, Karen J.; Alfredsson, Viveka

    2014-11-01

    We present a protocol for a facile orientation specific deposition of plate-like mesoporous SBA-15 silica particles onto a surface (mesopores oriented normal to surface). A drop of an aqueous dispersion of particles is placed on the surface and water vaporizes under controlled relative humidity. Three requirements are essential for uniform coverage: particle dispersion should not contain aggregates, a weak attraction between particles and surface is needed, and evaporation rate should be low. Aggregates are removed by stirring/sonication. Weak attraction is realized by introducing cationic groups to the surface. Insight into the mechanisms of the so-called coffee stain effect is also provided.

  2. Orientational alignment in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, Jonathan; Kirton, Peter G.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the orientational alignment of dipoles due to strong matter-light coupling for a nonvanishing density of excitations. We compare various approaches to this problem in the limit of large numbers of emitters and show that direct Monte Carlo integration, mean-field theory, and large deviation methods match exactly in this limit. All three results show that orientational alignment develops in the presence of a macroscopically occupied polariton mode and that the dipoles asymptotically approach perfect alignment in the limit of high density or low temperature.

  3. Magnetically guiding and orienting integrated chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anker, Jeffrey N.; Lee, Yong-Eun Koo; Kopelman, Raoul

    2014-08-01

    Fluorescent microsensors for detecting pH and oxygen were positioned and oriented using magnetic tweezers. These multifunctional integrated microsensors were fabricated by physically linking together nano-components including magnetic nanoparticles, fluorescent nanoparticles, and metal hemisphere-shells. Two such microsensors are magnetic roll-shaped polystyrene particles with 120 nm fluorescent oxygen-sensing ormosil nanospheres that are physically pressed ("breaded") into the roll surface, and 4-5 µm fluorescent microspheres that are capped with a 50 nm thick metal hemispherical shell. The magnetic tweezers consisted of an iron wire that was magnetized in an external magnetic field. Rotating this external field oriented and rotated the microsensors.

  4. An Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    therefore it is an ot ject-oriented program and 7 are (sic) an c~ect-oriented programm.er" 3.1 "BUILT-IN" LANGUAGES Sprevously def nei, a b’:i1t-in languaje ...machines. 8 3.1.2 EIFFEL Eiffel [Meye87, Meye88a, Meye88b, Meye88c] was developed by Bertrand Meyer at Interactive Software Engineering Inc. It is a...is intended to serve as both a language and environment for designing software that is easily reusable and extendible. The notion of programming as

  5. Leading a Recovery-oriented Social Enterprise.

    PubMed

    Raeburn, Toby; Hungerford, Catherine; Sayers, Jan; Escott, Phil; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Recovery-oriented mental health services promote the principles of recovery, such as hope and optimism, and are characterized by a personalized approach to developing consumer self-determination. Nurse leaders are increasingly developing such services as social enterprises, but there is limited research on the leadership of these programs. Leading a recovery-oriented mental health nurse social enterprise requires visionary leadership, collaboration with consumers and local health providers, financial viability, and commitment to recovery-focused practice. This article describes the framework of an Australian mental health nursing social enterprise, including the service attributes and leadership lessons that have been learned from developing program sustainability.

  6. Flow theory – goal orientation theory: positive experience is related to athlete’s goal orientation

    PubMed Central

    Stavrou, Nektarios A. M.; Psychountaki, Maria; Georgiadis, Emmanouil; Karteroliotis, Konstantinos; Zervas, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between flow experience and goal orientation theory, as well as, the differences in flow experience based on the orthogonal model of goal orientation theory. Two hundred and seventy eight athletes completed the Task and Ego Orientation Sport Questionnaire based on how they usually feel. The challenge and skills ratings were completed 1 h before the competition, based on how they felt at the exact time of answering. In the following, the Flow State Scale-2 was completed up to 30 min after the competition they just participated, along with the challenge-skill ratings, based on how athletes felt during the competition. The results indicated that the athletes’ task orientation may be an important factor for attaining flow in competitive sport, feeling more skillful and estimating the upcoming competition as challenging, while low ego and low task oriented athletes lack these elements, which are important for them to get into flow. Additionally, not the level of task and ego orientation per se, but the balance between athletes’ goal orientation preferences seems important for the formation of flow experience, indicating that high task – high ego and high task – low ego athletes are experiencing the most positive mental state. PMID:26500577

  7. [Action-oriented versus state-oriented reactions to experimenter-induced failures].

    PubMed

    Brunstein, J C

    1989-01-01

    The present study assessed different effects of action-oriented versus state-oriented styles of coping with failure on achievement-related performance and cognition. In a learned helplessness experiment, students were exposed to an academic failure situation and were then tested on a series of problem-solving tasks, either immediately after the pretreatment or after a delay of 24 hours. Performance and cognitive concomitants were measured during both experimental periods. Results demonstrated that action orientation was associated with self-immunizing cognitions during helplessness training. Action-oriented participants improved their performance level even after repeated failure feedbacks. Moreover, action-oriented students assigned to the delayed test condition responded with increased striving for success and showed performance increments, even in comparison with control subjects. In contrast, state-oriented participants developed symptoms of helplessness and showed impaired performance during failure inductions. In later tests on problem-solving tasks, state-oriented groups responded with increased fear of failure. Independent of immediate or delayed test conditions, they soon lapsed into new performance decrements.

  8. Body orientation and face orientation: two factors controlling apes' behavior from humans.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Juliane; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2004-10-01

    A number of animal species have evolved the cognitive ability to detect when they are being watched by other individuals. Precisely what kind of information they use to make this determination is unknown. There is particular controversy in the case of the great apes because different studies report conflicting results. In experiment 1, we presented chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos with a situation in which they had to request food from a human observer who was in one of various attentional states. She either stared at the ape, faced the ape with her eyes closed, sat with her back towards the ape, or left the room. In experiment 2, we systematically crossed the observer's body and face orientation so that the observer could have her body and/or face oriented either towards or away from the subject. Results indicated that apes produced more behaviors when they were being watched. They did this not only on the basis of whether they could see the experimenter as a whole, but they were sensitive to her body and face orientation separately. These results suggest that body and face orientation encode two different types of information. Whereas face orientation encodes the observer's perceptual access, body orientation encodes the observer's disposition to transfer food. In contrast to the results on body and face orientation, only two of the tested subjects responded to the state of the observer's eyes.

  9. Values Orientations of Hong Kong's Reform Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Che, Fok Shui

    2004-01-01

    Hong Kong has put forward a package of education reform proposals in 2000. The education reform is to set the blueprint for Hong Kong's development of education for the 21st century. An analysis of the values orientation of the reform proposals shows that the impact of globalization and the economic restructuring are the guiding forces. The main…

  10. Levisohn's Orientations: A Response from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." Levisohn has made a significant contribution to the scholarship of teaching in his article proposing that the teaching of rabbinic literature is most successfully accomplished when teachers think about…

  11. An Evolutionary History of Oriented Strandboard (OSB)

    Treesearch

    John I. Zerbe; Zhiyong Cai; George B. Harpole

    2015-01-01

    To improve wood utilization efficiency, oriented strandboard (OSB) was developed; 80% of the wood removed from the forest can now be processed into marketable products. This manuscript describes the history of developing this most profitable wood product, OSB, and the early FPL contribution in development.

  12. Z-direction fiber orientation in paperboard

    Treesearch

    John M. Considine; David W. Vahey; Roland Gleisner; Alan Rudie; Sabine Rolland du Roscoat; Jean-Francis Bloch

    2010-01-01

    This work evaluated the use of conventional tests to show beneficial attributes of z-direction fiber orientation (ZDFO) for structural paperboards. A survey of commercial linerboards indicated the presence of ZDFO in one material that had higher Taber stiffness, out-of-plane shear strength, directional dependence of Scott internal bond strength and directional...

  13. Warrant Officer Orientation Course (WOOC) Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    Army Mainte- nance Management System, Security Awareness, Organizational Effectiveness, Introduction to Management , Enlisted Personnel Management...Orientation Introduction to Management Professional Ethics USA Officer Evaluation Reporting System (OES) Military Correspondence Military...Organizational Effectiveness, Introduction to Management , Enlisted Personnal Management System, and The Army Functional Files System and The Army

  14. Subject Preference Regarding Three Psychotherapy Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Thomas G.

    Research has shown that therapy preference affects both the quality of the initial therapy session and treatment outcome. To determine personality characteristics which would affect subjects' preference of therapeutic orientation and to obtain qualitative information about subjects' therapy preferences, 203 community college students indicated…

  15. The Personal Service Cluster. Career Orientation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Developed to provide seventh and eighth grade students information about careers in the personal service occupational cluster, this booklet may be used to integrate career information with various subject areas. (It is one of several student booklets developed for use in the Ohio Career Orientation Program at grades 7 and 8 to assist students in…

  16. Service Learning: An Action Oriented Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, George

    2013-01-01

    Service learning is an academic discipline that provides students with "hands-on" opportunities for developing skills in real-world, community-based projects that serve and benefit community members. This dissertation reflects an action-oriented process for improving the quality of the Service Learning Program at City University of…

  17. Only Children, Achievement, and Interpersonal Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    Many psychological theories point to the importance of siblings in individual personality development. The impact of sibling status on interpersonal and achievement orientation was examined with undergraduates (N=1782) who completed a series of objective personality measures and a background questionnaire. Sibling status was defined in terms of…

  18. Industrialism and Modernity: Economic and Noneconomic Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofranko, Andrew J.; Fliegel, Frederick C.

    1977-01-01

    The impact of employment at four different levels of industry on workers' value orientations in Ghana, India, Brazil, and the United States were assessed. Using data from workers in the different work settings, two modernity indexes were developed to test hypotheses on value change and on cross-cultural convergence. (Author/NQ)

  19. Visual-Spatial Orienting in Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainwright, J. Ann; Bryson, Susan E.

    1996-01-01

    Visual-spatial orienting in 10 high-functioning adults with autism was examined. Compared to controls, subjects responded faster to central than to lateral stimuli, and showed a left visual field advantage for stimulus detection only when laterally presented. Abnormalities in attention shifting and coordination of attentional and motor systems are…

  20. Image classification independent of orientation and scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Henri H.; Parent, Sebastien; Moisan, Sylvain

    1998-04-01

    The recognition of targets independently of orientation has become fairly well developed in recent years for in-plane rotation. The out-of-plane rotation problem is much less advanced. When both out-of-plane rotations and changes of scale are present, the problem becomes very difficult. In this paper we describe our research on the combined out-of- plane rotation problem and the scale invariance problem. The rotations were limited to rotations about an axis perpendicular to the line of sight. The objects to be classified were three kinds of military vehicles. The inputs used were infrared imagery and photographs. We used a variation of a method proposed by Neiberg and Casasent, where a neural network is trained with a subset of the database and a minimum distances from lines in feature space are used for classification instead of nearest neighbors. Each line in the feature space corresponds to one class of objects, and points on one line correspond to different orientations of the same target. We found that the training samples needed to be closer for some orientations than for others, and that the most difficult orientations are where the target is head-on to the observer. By means of some additional training of the neural network, we were able to achieve 100% correct classification for 360 degree rotation and a range of scales over a factor of five.

  1. The Work Orientations of Australian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jeannette; Pick, David

    2008-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to provide a better understanding of how university students in Australia are preparing for their future work in the labour market through their work orientations. It draws upon a survey of over 300 final-year undergraduates to present their rationales for engaging in paid work, and their preferences for different job…

  2. Spatially oriented plasmonic ‘nanograter’ structures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhe; Cui, Ajuan; Gong, Zhijie; Li, Hongqiang; Xia, Xiaoxiang; Shen, Tiehan H.; Li, Junjie; Yang, Haifang; Li, Wuxia; Gu, Changzhi

    2016-01-01

    One of the key motivations in producing 3D structures has always been the realization of metamaterials with effective constituent properties that can be tuned in all propagation directions at various frequencies. Here, we report the investigation of spatially oriented “Nanograter” structures with orientation-dependent responses over a wide spectrum by focused-ion-beam based patterning and folding of thin film nanostructures. Au nano units of different shapes, standing along specifically designated orientations, were fabricated. Experimental measurements and simulation results show that such structures offer an additional degree of freedom for adjusting optical properties with the angle of inclination, in additional to the size of the structures. The response frequency can be varied in a wide range (8 μm–14 μm) by the spatial orientation (0°–180°) of the structures, transforming the response from magnetic into electric coupling. This may open up prospects for the fabrication of 3D nanostructures as optical interconnects, focusing elements and logic elements, moving toward the realization of 3D optical circuits. PMID:27357610

  3. Recent statistical methods for orientation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batschelet, E.

    1972-01-01

    The application of statistical methods for determining the areas of animal orientation and navigation are discussed. The method employed is limited to the two-dimensional case. Various tests for determining the validity of the statistical analysis are presented. Mathematical models are included to support the theoretical considerations and tables of data are developed to show the value of information obtained by statistical analysis.

  4. Genetic interactions underlying tree branch orientation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Expanding our understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms behind branch orientation in trees both addresses a fundamental developmental phenomenon and can lead to significant impacts on tree crop agriculture and forestry. Using the p-nome (pooled genome) sequencing-based mapping approac...

  5. The Health Cluster. Career Orientation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Developed to provide seventh and eight grade students information about careers in the health occupational cluster, this booklet may be used to integrate career information with various subject areas. (It is one of several student booklets developed for use in the Ohio Career Orientation Program at grades 7 and 8 to assist students in making…

  6. Object Orientation Affects Spatial Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burigo, Michele; Sacchi, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Typical spatial descriptions, such as "The car is in front of the house," describe the position of a located object (LO; e.g., the car) in space relative to a reference object (RO) whose location is known (e.g., the house). The orientation of the RO affects spatial language comprehension via the reference frame selection process.…

  7. The Ideological Orientations of Canadian University Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakhaie, M. Reza; Brym, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the ideological orientations of Canadian university professors based on a unique 2000 study of a representative sample of Canadian academics (n=3,318). After summarizing methodological problems with extant research on this subject, and tentatively comparing the political views of Canadian and American academics, the paper…

  8. Action-Oriented Research: Models and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Stephen A.

    1995-01-01

    Four models of action-oriented research, a research approach that can inform policy and practice, are described: action, participatory, empowerment, and feminism research. Discusses historical roots, epistemological assumptions, agendas, and methodological strategies of each, and presents implications for family researchers. (JPS)

  9. Mobile Learning and Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asplund, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Students with different achievement goal orientations have different approaches towards learning and studying. There is a widespread interest to find an easy access into learning spaces for those students who have low motivation with fear of failure and academic withdrawal. Mobile learning offers an easily accessible chance with low threshold to…

  10. Developing Mathematical Concepts through Orientation and Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derrick W.

    2006-01-01

    The National Council for Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM; 2000) encourages students to experience mathematics in multiple contexts, including science, history, physical education, business sciences, and agricultural sciences. All educators, including professionals such as orientation and mobility specialists who work with students who are visually…

  11. Earth Orientation Products - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov Websites

    Earth Orientation Products Daily Solutions Weekly Solutions Long-term Delta T GPS-based Products VLBI report for contributed series. Long-term Delta T Monthly determination of Delta T (TT - UT1) since 1973 and long-term predictions. Determinations of Delta T are updated approximately quarterly, and long

  12. Some Personality Characteristics of Elite Orienteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zsheliaskova-Koynova, Zshivka

    1991-01-01

    Administered questionnaires to 80 Bulgarian orienteers (cross-country racers who navigate a course) measuring extroversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, social desirability, trait anxiety, need for achievement, and locus of control. Examined the effects of sex, age, sport experience, level of sport qualification, and kind of sport specialization on…

  13. Flexible, Mastery-Oriented Astrophysics Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeilik, Michael, II

    1981-01-01

    Describes the implementation and impact of a two-semester mastery-oriented astrophysics sequence for upper-level physics/astrophysics majors designed to handle flexibly a wide range of student backgrounds. A Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) format was used fostering frequent student-instructor interaction and role-modeling behavior in…

  14. GUI and Object Oriented Programming in COBOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorents, Alden C.

    Various schools are struggling with the introduction of Object Oriented (OO) programming concepts and GUI (graphical user interfaces) within the traditional COBOL sequence. OO programming has been introduced in some of the curricula with languages such as C++, Smalltalk, and Java. Introducing OO programming into a typical COBOL sequence presents…

  15. Practice-Oriented Teachers' Training: Innovative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukshina, Tatjana I.; Gorshenina, Svetlana N.; Buyanova, Irina B.; Neyasova, Irina A.

    2016-01-01

    Modernization of Russian education meets the global trend of professionalization of teachers' training which assumes strengthening the practical orientation of educational programs as a significant factor in increasing the competitiveness of the teacher in the modern educational environment. The purpose of the article is to identify and…

  16. Error Orientation and Reflection at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzner, Stefanie; Gartmeier, Martin; Heid, Helmut; Gruber, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Reflection on events at work, including errors is often as a means to learn effectively through work. In a cross-sectional field study in the banking sector, we investigated attitudes towards workplace errors (i.e. error orientation) as predictors of reflective activity. We assumed the organisational climate for psychological safety to have a…

  17. Design-Oriented Enhanced Robotics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, M.; Ozcelik, S.; Yilmazer, N.; Nekovei, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative two-course, laboratory-based, and design-oriented robotics educational model. The robotics curriculum exposed senior-level undergraduate students to major robotics concepts, and enhanced the student learning experience in hybrid learning environments by incorporating the IEEE Region-5 annual robotics competition…

  18. Transforming Space Missions into Service Oriented Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Cappelaere, Pat

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the vision of the sensor web enablement via a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). An generic example is given of a user finding a service through the Web, and initiating a request for the desired observation. The parts that comprise this system and how they interact are reviewed. The advantages of the use of SOA are reviewed.

  19. Youth Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Philip A.; Soucar, Emil

    2002-01-01

    Study examines the relationship between sexual orientation and youth suicide risk. The suicide risk demonstrated by sexual minorities in this study was no greater than that of their heterosexual peers. Youth who reported more external support demonstrated lower overall suicide risk and, specifically, lower levels of hostility, hopelessness, and…

  20. Conservative Orientation as a Determinant of Hopelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Kwok, Siu-Tong

    1996-01-01

    Hypothesizes that a conservative and individualistic orientation results in the fatalistic, alienated, and helpless outlook known as hopelessness. Provides extensive references to studies and theories characterizing conservatism and a work ethic belief as manifestations of an a maladaptive stage of psychological development. (MJP)

  1. Now's the Time: Online Library Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Sandy L.; Driver, Carol; Weathers, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly at West Kentucky Community and Technical College (WKCTC), English 101, English 102, and Enrichment 091 are taught online, allowing students more work availability and time with family, while decreasing commute time and expense. In order to meet the library orientation needs of these online students and provide other options for…

  2. Neurolinguistic Programming in Orientation and Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, M. F.; Jacobson, W. H.

    1989-01-01

    The article describes the neurolinguistic programing model and applies it to teaching orientation and mobility skills to congenitally blind students, who have access to only the auditory and kinesthetic primary systems. Understanding the effects on thought of limited representational systems can help trainers teach more effective cane or dog guide…

  3. Measuring benefits of transit oriented development.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-10-01

    Transit-oriented development (TOD) in New Jersey is evaluated using a variety of methods and different outcome measures. : Data was gathered from respondents residing around eight train stations in New Jersey and up to two miles away from those : sta...

  4. Multiple Goal Orientations and Foreign Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Ravinder; Roy, Laura; Kaewkuekool, Sittichai; Ploisawaschai, Suthee

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examines Thai college students' motivational goals for learning the English language. Thai student volunteers (N = 1387) from two types of educational institutions participated in this survey study which combined measures of goal orientations based on two different goal constructs and motivation models. Results of two-step…

  5. Technology-Oriented Job Preparation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    An extensive review of literature dealing with 263 technology-oriented vocational training programs was conducted to gather current information on the state of such training. Particular emphasis was placed on links between programs and government bodies or private sector entities and programs that could serve as models for those wishing to…

  6. Family Oriented Field Experience in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Karen A.

    A family-oriented geography field course about the southwestern United States was conducted in 1978 by a community college in Michigan (Delta College). Course activities took place in Colorado. The major purpose of the field experience was to offer learning experiences to family groups rather than to individual students. For purposes of the field…

  7. Visual orientation and navigation in nocturnal arthropods.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2010-01-01

    With their highly sensitive visual systems, the arthropods have evolved a remarkable capacity to orient and navigate at night. Whereas some navigate under the open sky, and take full advantage of the celestial cues available there, others navigate in more difficult conditions, such as through the dense understory of a tropical rainforest. Four major classes of orientation are performed by arthropods at night, some of which involve true navigation (i.e. travel to a distant goal that lies beyond the range of direct sensory contact): (1) simple straight-line orientation, typically for escape purposes; (2) nightly short-distance movements relative to a shoreline, typically in the context of feeding; (3) long-distance nocturnal migration at high altitude in the quest to locate favorable feeding or breeding sites, and (4) nocturnal excursions to and from a fixed nest or food site (i.e. homing), a task that in most species involves path integration and/or the learning and recollection of visual landmarks. These four classes of orientation--and their visual basis--are reviewed here, with special emphasis given to the best-understood animal systems that are representative of each. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The Role of New Hire Orientation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Steven; Jasinski, Dale

    2009-01-01

    A vital component of a firm's human resource management is its new hire orientation (NHO) program. The authors' review of extant literature suggests that NHO programs can be organized based on a reconceptualization of human capital. Using their typology, a firm can organize the role and scope of its NHO program, assign responsibility for the…

  9. Common Misconceptions About Service-Oriented Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    addition, the architect(s) must make decisions on how services are implemented. Service implementations may involve developing new software , wrapping a...legacy software system, incor- porating services provided by third par- ties, or a combination of these options. Information about the quality attrib...temperature. However, there 28 CROSSTALK The Journal of Defense Software Engineering November 2007 Common Misconceptions About Service -Oriented

  10. The Incidence of Ankle Sprains in Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrand, Jan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates relationship between ankle sprains and participation time in competitive orienteering. Examined 15,474 competitors in races in the Swedish O-ringen 5-day event in 1987. Injuries requiring medical attention were analyzed, showing 137 (23.9 percent) ankle sprains. Injury incidence was 8.4/10,000 hours. Incidence of ankle sprains was…

  11. First Aid for Orienteering in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Ian

    1990-01-01

    Compares injuries incurred by participants of Scottish six-day 1989 orienteering event, of 1990 Jan Kjellstrom memorial event, and previous events. Reports 2.21 injuries per 100 performances at 1989 event, and 1.42 injuries at Kjellstrom. Ankle sprains and cuts most common injuries. Injury differences described as season-related. Discusses…

  12. Pre-testing Orientation for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalka, Joseph A.

    A pre-testing orientation was incorporated into the Work Incentives Program, a pre-vocational program for disadvantaged youth. Test-taking skills were taught in seven and one half hours of instruction and a variety of methods were used to provide a sequential experience with distributed learning, positive reinforcement, and immediate feedback of…

  13. Biological Motion Cues Trigger Reflexive Attentional Orienting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Jinfu; Weng, Xuchu; He, Sheng; Jiang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The human visual system is extremely sensitive to biological signals around us. In the current study, we demonstrate that biological motion walking direction can induce robust reflexive attentional orienting. Following a brief presentation of a central point-light walker walking towards either the left or right direction, observers' performance…

  14. Cognitive Processes in Orienteering: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Roland

    1996-01-01

    Reviews recent research on information processing and decision making in orienteering. The main cognitive demands investigated were selection of relevant map information for route choice, comparison between map and terrain in map reading and in relocation, and quick awareness of mistakes. Presents a model of map reading based on results. Contains…

  15. Orientation to Careers in Transportation. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Tom

    One of a series devoted to the topic of career education in transportation, this guide is designed for elementary and junior high school students to use in gaining career orientation. The three units that comprise this guide provide student activities for the three program areas outlined in the teacher's guide, which is published separately (CE…

  16. Value Orientation, Organizational Rewards, and Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascio, Wayne F.

    The nationwide sales force (N=540) of a large food and beverage firm responded to a mail survey designed to investigate the role of value orientation as a moderator of the relationship between organizational rewards and job satisfaction. Of the two main elements in the investigation, the first was concerned with the predictive efficiency of two…

  17. Orientation to Health Occupations: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Elizabeth V.

    The teacher's guide to Orientation to Health Occupations is an outline for a course designed to create student awareness of the broad range of health occupations. It can be adapted for use at the junior high school through postsecondary levels and is designed to be used in a variety of ways. There are 18 units of instruction, each containing one…

  18. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236 Section 13.1236 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Katmai National Park and Preserve Brooks Camp...

  19. Exploring Learning-Oriented Assessment Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of learning-oriented assessment to inform assessment theory and practice. The model focuses on three interrelated processes: the assessment tasks which students undertake; students' development of self-evaluative capacities; and student engagement with feedback. These three strands are explored through the analysis of…

  20. Enceladus Jet Orientations: Effects of Surface Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfenstein, P.; Porco, C.; DiNino, D.

    2013-12-01

    Jetting activity across the South Polar Terrain (SPT) of Enceladus is now known to erupt directly from tiger-stripe rifts and associated fracture systems. However, details of the vent conduit geometry are hidden below the icy surface. The three-dimensional orientations of the erupting jets may provide important clues. Porco et al. (2013, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 44th, p.1775) surveyed jet locations and orientations as imaged at high resolution (< 1.3 km/pixel) by Cassini ISS from 2005 through May 2012. Ninety-eight (98) jets were identified either on the main trunks or branches of the 4 tiger-stripes. The azimuth angles of the jets are seen to vary across the SPT. Here, we use histogram analysis of the survey data to test if the jet azimuths are influenced by their placement relative to surface morphology and tectonic structures. Azimuths are measured positive counterclockwise with zero pointing along the fracture in the direction of the sub-Saturn hemisphere, and rosette histograms were binned in 30° increments. Overall, the jet azimuths are not random and only about 11% of them are co-aligned with the tiger stripe valley. There are preferred diagonal orientations between 105°-165° and again between 255°-345°. These trends are dominant along the Damascus and Baghdad tiger-stripes where more than half of the jets are found. Histograms for Cairo and Alexandria show less-distinct trends, fewer jets being measured there, but combining data from both suggests a different pattern of preferred orientations; from 45°-75° and 265°-280°. Many possible factors could affect the orientations of jets, for example, the conduit shape, the presence of obstacles like narrow medial ridges called 'shark-fins' along tiger-stripe valleys, the possibility that jets may breach the surface at some point other than the center of a tiger-stripe, and the presence of structural fabrics or mechanical weaknesses, such as patterns of cross-cutting fractures. The dominance of diagonally

  1. Anisotropy model for modern grain oriented electrical steel based on orientation distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fan; Rossi, Mathieu; Parent, Guillaume

    2018-05-01

    Accurately modeling the anisotropic behavior of electrical steel is mandatory in order to perform good end simulations. Several approaches can be found in the literature for that purpose but the more often those methods are not able to deal with grain oriented electrical steel. In this paper, a method based on orientation distribution function is applied to modern grain oriented laminations. In particular, two solutions are proposed in order to increase the results accuracy. The first one consists in increasing the decomposition number of the cosine series on which the method is based. The second one consists in modifying the determination method of the terms belonging to this cosine series.

  2. Object-orientated DBMS techniques for time-oriented medical record.

    PubMed

    Pinciroli, F; Combi, C; Pozzi, G

    1992-01-01

    In implementing time-orientated medical record (TOMR) management systems, use of a relational model played a big role. Many applications have been developed to extend query and data manipulation languages to temporal aspects of information. Our experience in developing TOMR revealed some deficiencies inside the relational model, such as: (a) abstract data type definition; (b) unified view of data, at a programming level; (c) management of temporal data; (d) management of signals and images. We identified some first topics to face by an object-orientated approach to database design. This paper describes the first steps in designing and implementing a TOMR by an object-orientated DBMS.

  3. Sexual Orientation and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Luk, Jeremy W; Gilman, Stephen E; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2018-05-01

    Sexual orientation disparities in adolescent depressive symptoms are well established, but reasons for these disparities are less well understood. We modeled sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into young adulthood and evaluated family satisfaction, peer support, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs as potential mediators. Data were from waves 2 to 6 of the NEXT Generation Health Study ( n = 2396), a population-based cohort of US adolescents. We used latent growth models to examine sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms in participants aged 17 to 21 years, conduct mediation analyses, and examine sex differences. Relative to heterosexual adolescents, sexual minority adolescents (those who are attracted to the same or both sexes or are questioning; 6.3% of the weighted sample) consistently reported higher depressive symptoms from 11th grade to 3 years after high school. Mediation analyses indicated that sexual minority adolescents reported lower family satisfaction, greater cyberbullying victimization, and increased likelihood of unmet medical needs, all of which were associated with higher depressive symptoms. The mediating role of cyberbullying victimization was more pronounced among male than female participants. Sexual minority adolescents reported higher depressive symptoms than heterosexual adolescents from late adolescence into young adulthood. Collectively, low family satisfaction, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs accounted for >45% of differences by sexual orientation. Future clinical research is needed to determine if interventions targeting these psychosocial and health care-related factors would reduce sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms and the optimal timing of such interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Orientation Transfer in Vernier and Stereoacuity Training

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Nathaniel; Kattner, Florian; Rokers, Bas; Green, C. Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Human performance on various visual tasks can be improved substantially via training. However, the enhancements are frequently specific to relatively low-level stimulus dimensions. While such specificity has often been thought to be indicative of a low-level neural locus of learning, recent research suggests that these same effects can be accounted for by changes in higher-level areas–in particular in the way higher-level areas read out information from lower-level areas in the service of highly practiced decisions. Here we contrast the degree of orientation transfer seen after training on two different tasks—vernier acuity and stereoacuity. Importantly, while the decision rule that could improve vernier acuity (i.e. a discriminant in the image plane) would not be transferable across orientations, the simplest rule that could be learned to solve the stereoacuity task (i.e. a discriminant in the depth plane) would be insensitive to changes in orientation. Thus, given a read-out hypothesis, more substantial transfer would be expected as a result of stereoacuity than vernier acuity training. To test this prediction, participants were trained (7500 total trials) on either a stereoacuity (N = 9) or vernier acuity (N = 7) task with the stimuli in either a vertical or horizontal configuration (balanced across participants). Following training, transfer to the untrained orientation was assessed. As predicted, evidence for relatively orientation specific learning was observed in vernier trained participants, while no evidence of specificity was observed in stereo trained participants. These results build upon the emerging view that perceptual learning (even very specific learning effects) may reflect changes in inferences made by high-level areas, rather than necessarily fully reflecting changes in the receptive field properties of low-level areas. PMID:26700311

  5. [Development of spatial orientation during pilot training].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V V; Vorob'ev, O A; Snipkov, Iu Iu

    1988-01-01

    The problem of spatial orientation of pilots flying high-altitude aircraft is in the focus of present-day aviation medicine because of a growing number of accidents in the air. One of the productive lines of research is to study spatial orientation in terms of active formation and maintenance of its imagery in a complex environment. However investigators usually emphasize the role of visual (instrumental) information in the image construction, almost ignoring the sensorimotor component of spatial orientation. The theoretical analysis of the process of spatial orientation has facilitated the development of the concept assuming that the pattern of space perception changes with growing professional experience. The concept is based on an active approach to the essence, emergence, formation and variation in the pattern of sensory perception of space in man's consciousness. This concept asserts that as pilot's professional expertise increases, the pattern of spatial orientation becomes geocentric because a new system of spatial perception evolves which is a result of the development of a new (instrumental) type of motor activity in space. This finds expression in the fact that perception of spatial position inflight occurs when man has to resolve a new motor task--movement along a complex trajectory in the three-dimensional space onboard a flying vehicle. The meaningful structure of this problem which is to be implemented through controlling movements of the pilot acts as a factor that forms this new system of perception. All this underlies the arrangement of meaningful collection of instrumental data and detection of noninstrumental signals in the comprehensive perception of changes in the spatial position of a flying vehicle.

  6. Orientation Transfer in Vernier and Stereoacuity Training.

    PubMed

    Snell, Nathaniel; Kattner, Florian; Rokers, Bas; Green, C Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Human performance on various visual tasks can be improved substantially via training. However, the enhancements are frequently specific to relatively low-level stimulus dimensions. While such specificity has often been thought to be indicative of a low-level neural locus of learning, recent research suggests that these same effects can be accounted for by changes in higher-level areas--in particular in the way higher-level areas read out information from lower-level areas in the service of highly practiced decisions. Here we contrast the degree of orientation transfer seen after training on two different tasks--vernier acuity and stereoacuity. Importantly, while the decision rule that could improve vernier acuity (i.e. a discriminant in the image plane) would not be transferable across orientations, the simplest rule that could be learned to solve the stereoacuity task (i.e. a discriminant in the depth plane) would be insensitive to changes in orientation. Thus, given a read-out hypothesis, more substantial transfer would be expected as a result of stereoacuity than vernier acuity training. To test this prediction, participants were trained (7500 total trials) on either a stereoacuity (N = 9) or vernier acuity (N = 7) task with the stimuli in either a vertical or horizontal configuration (balanced across participants). Following training, transfer to the untrained orientation was assessed. As predicted, evidence for relatively orientation specific learning was observed in vernier trained participants, while no evidence of specificity was observed in stereo trained participants. These results build upon the emerging view that perceptual learning (even very specific learning effects) may reflect changes in inferences made by high-level areas, rather than necessarily fully reflecting changes in the receptive field properties of low-level areas.

  7. Competitive region orientation code for palmprint verification and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wenliang

    2015-11-01

    Orientation features of the palmprint have been widely investigated in coding-based palmprint-recognition methods. Conventional orientation-based coding methods usually used discrete filters to extract the orientation feature of palmprint. However, in real operations, the orientations of the filter usually are not consistent with the lines of the palmprint. We thus propose a competitive region orientation-based coding method. Furthermore, an effective weighted balance scheme is proposed to improve the accuracy of the extracted region orientation. Compared with conventional methods, the region orientation of the palmprint extracted using the proposed method can precisely and robustly describe the orientation feature of the palmprint. Extensive experiments on the baseline PolyU and multispectral palmprint databases are performed and the results show that the proposed method achieves a promising performance in comparison to conventional state-of-the-art orientation-based coding methods in both palmprint verification and identification.

  8. A conditioned visual orientation requires the ellipsoid body in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chao; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Deliang; Li, Meixia; Gong, Haiyun; Gong, Zhefeng

    2015-01-01

    Orientation, the spatial organization of animal behavior, is an essential faculty of animals. Bacteria and lower animals such as insects exhibit taxis, innate orientation behavior, directly toward or away from a directional cue. Organisms can also orient themselves at a specific angle relative to the cues. In this study, using Drosophila as a model system, we established a visual orientation conditioning paradigm based on a flight simulator in which a stationary flying fly could control the rotation of a visual object. By coupling aversive heat shocks to a fly's orientation toward one side of the visual object, we found that the fly could be conditioned to orientate toward the left or right side of the frontal visual object and retain this conditioned visual orientation. The lower and upper visual fields have different roles in conditioned visual orientation. Transfer experiments showed that conditioned visual orientation could generalize between visual targets of different sizes, compactness, or vertical positions, but not of contour orientation. Rut—Type I adenylyl cyclase and Dnc—phosphodiesterase were dispensable for visual orientation conditioning. Normal activity and scb signaling in R3/R4d neurons of the ellipsoid body were required for visual orientation conditioning. Our studies established a visual orientation conditioning paradigm and examined the behavioral properties and neural circuitry of visual orientation, an important component of the insect's spatial navigation. PMID:25512578

  9. Orientation dependence of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Bi3.15Nd0.85Ti3O12 thin films on Pt(100)/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, G. D.

    2006-11-01

    Bi3.15Nd0.85Ti3O12 (BNT0.85) thin films with (100) [α(100)=87.8%], (117) [α(117)=77.1%], and (001) [α(001)=98.8%] preferred orientations were deposited on Pt(100)/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates using a metal organic decomposition process. The remanent polarization of (100)-predominant BNT0.85 film is about 50% and three times larger than those of (117)-preferred and (001)-oriented films, respectively, suggesting that the major polarization vector of BNT0.85 is close to the a axis rather than the c axis. This result can be further demonstrated by the piezoelectric measurements using an atomic force microscope in the piezoresponse mode.

  10. Elastic response of zone axis (001)-oriented PWA 1480 single crystal: The influence of secondary orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of secondary orientation on the elastic response of a zone axis (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical loading conditions by applying finite element techniques. Elastic stress analyses were performed with a commercially available finite element code. Secondary orientation of the single-crystal superalloy was offset with respect to the global coordinate system in increments from 0 to 90 deg and stresses developed within the single crystal were determined for each loading condition. The results indicated that the stresses were strongly influenced by the angular offset between the secondary crystal orientation and the global coordinate system. The degree of influence was found to vary with the type of loading condition (mechanical, thermal, or combined) imposed on the single-crystal superalloy.

  11. The individual-oriented and social-oriented Chinese bicultural self: testing the theory.

    PubMed

    Lu, Luo

    2008-06-01

    The author proposes a bicultural self theory for contemporary Chinese individuals, encompassing 2 main components: the individual-oriented self and the social-oriented self. The social orientation is rooted in traditional Chinese conceptualization of the self, whereas the individual orientation has evolved and developed under Western influences along with recent societal modernization. The author conducted a series of 5 studies to test the theory and relate the model to important issues in current personality and social psychological research, such as cultural individualism-collectivism, self-construals, motivation, cognition, emotion, and well-being. A total of 977 university students in Taiwan participated. The author found that contrasting self-aspects were differentially associated with the aforementioned constructs, as theoretically predicted. This evidence thus generally supported the bicultural self model.

  12. Elastic response of (001)-oriented PWA 1480 single crystal - The influence of secondary orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Abdul-Azis, Ali; Mcgaw, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The influence of secondary orientation on the elastic response of a zone axis (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical loading conditions by applying finite element techniques. Elastic stress analyses were performed with a commercially available finite element code. Secondary orientation of the single-crystal superalloy was offset with respect to the global coordinate system in increments from 0 to 90 deg and stresses developed within the single crystal were determined for each loading condition. The results indicated that the stresses were strongly influenced by the angular offset between the secondary crystal orientation and the global coordinate system. The degree of influence was found to vary with the type of loading condition (mechanical, thermal, or combined) imposed on the single-crystal superalloy.

  13. Supranormal orientation selectivity of visual neurons in orientation-restricted animals.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kota S; Kimura, Rui; Ninomiya, Taihei; Tabuchi, Yuka; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fukui, Masayuki; Asada, Yusuke C; Arai, Toshiya; Inagaki, Mikio; Nakazono, Takayuki; Baba, Mika; Kato, Daisuke; Nishimoto, Shinji; Sanada, Takahisa M; Tani, Toshiki; Imamura, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Shigeru; Ohzawa, Izumi

    2015-11-16

    Altered sensory experience in early life often leads to remarkable adaptations so that humans and animals can make the best use of the available information in a particular environment. By restricting visual input to a limited range of orientations in young animals, this investigation shows that stimulus selectivity, e.g., the sharpness of tuning of single neurons in the primary visual cortex, is modified to match a particular environment. Specifically, neurons tuned to an experienced orientation in orientation-restricted animals show sharper orientation tuning than neurons in normal animals, whereas the opposite was true for neurons tuned to non-experienced orientations. This sharpened tuning appears to be due to elongated receptive fields. Our results demonstrate that restricted sensory experiences can sculpt the supranormal functions of single neurons tailored for a particular environment. The above findings, in addition to the minimal population response to orientations close to the experienced one, agree with the predictions of a sparse coding hypothesis in which information is represented efficiently by a small number of activated neurons. This suggests that early brain areas adopt an efficient strategy for coding information even when animals are raised in a severely limited visual environment where sensory inputs have an unnatural statistical structure.

  14. Supranormal orientation selectivity of visual neurons in orientation-restricted animals

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kota S.; Kimura, Rui; Ninomiya, Taihei; Tabuchi, Yuka; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fukui, Masayuki; Asada, Yusuke C.; Arai, Toshiya; Inagaki, Mikio; Nakazono, Takayuki; Baba, Mika; Kato, Daisuke; Nishimoto, Shinji; Sanada, Takahisa M.; Tani, Toshiki; Imamura, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Shigeru; Ohzawa, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Altered sensory experience in early life often leads to remarkable adaptations so that humans and animals can make the best use of the available information in a particular environment. By restricting visual input to a limited range of orientations in young animals, this investigation shows that stimulus selectivity, e.g., the sharpness of tuning of single neurons in the primary visual cortex, is modified to match a particular environment. Specifically, neurons tuned to an experienced orientation in orientation-restricted animals show sharper orientation tuning than neurons in normal animals, whereas the opposite was true for neurons tuned to non-experienced orientations. This sharpened tuning appears to be due to elongated receptive fields. Our results demonstrate that restricted sensory experiences can sculpt the supranormal functions of single neurons tailored for a particular environment. The above findings, in addition to the minimal population response to orientations close to the experienced one, agree with the predictions of a sparse coding hypothesis in which information is represented efficiently by a small number of activated neurons. This suggests that early brain areas adopt an efficient strategy for coding information even when animals are raised in a severely limited visual environment where sensory inputs have an unnatural statistical structure. PMID:26567927

  15. Preferential orientation relationships in Ca{sub 2}MnO{sub 4} Ruddlesden-Popper thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lacotte, M.; David, A.; Prellier, W., E-mail: wilfrid.prellier@ensicaen.fr

    2015-07-28

    A high-throughput investigation of local epitaxy (called combinatorial substrate epitaxy) was carried out on Ca{sub 2}MnO{sub 4} Ruddlesden-Popper thin films of six thicknesses (from 20 to 400 nm), all deposited on isostructural polycrystalline Sr{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} substrates. Electron backscatter diffraction revealed grain-over-grain local epitaxial growth for all films, resulting in a single orientation relationship (OR) for each substrate-film grain pair. Two preferred epitaxial ORs accounted for more than 90% of all ORs on 300 different microcrystals, based on analyzing 50 grain pairs for each thickness. The unit cell over unit cell OR ([100][001]{sub film} ∥ [100][001]{sub substrate}, or OR1) accounted formore » approximately 30% of each film. The OR that accounted for 60% of each film ([100][001]{sub film} ∥ [100][010]{sub substrate}, or OR2) corresponds to a rotation from OR1 by 90° about the a-axis. OR2 is strongly favored for substrate orientations in the center of the stereographic triangle, and OR1 is observed for orientations very close to (001) or to those near the edge connecting (100) and (110). While OR1 should be lower in energy, the majority observation of OR2 implies kinetic hindrances decrease the frequency of OR1. Persistent grain over grain growth and the absence of variations of the OR frequencies with thickness implies that the growth competition is finished within the first few nm, and local epitaxy persists thereafter during growth.« less

  16. Friction Anisotropy with Respect to Topographic Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties. PMID:23248751

  17. Local orientational mobility in regular hyperbranched polymers.

    PubMed

    Dolgushev, Maxim; Markelov, Denis A; Fürstenberg, Florian; Guérin, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    We study the dynamics of local bond orientation in regular hyperbranched polymers modeled by Vicsek fractals. The local dynamics is investigated through the temporal autocorrelation functions of single bonds and the corresponding relaxation forms of the complex dielectric susceptibility. We show that the dynamic behavior of single segments depends on their remoteness from the periphery rather than on the size of the whole macromolecule. Remarkably, the dynamics of the core segments (which are most remote from the periphery) shows a scaling behavior that differs from the dynamics obtained after structural average. We analyze the most relevant processes of single segment motion and provide an analytic approximation for the corresponding relaxation times. Furthermore, we describe an iterative method to calculate the orientational dynamics in the case of very large macromolecular sizes.

  18. Controlled placement and orientation of nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alex K; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D; Fennimore, Adam M

    2014-04-08

    A method for controlled deposition and orientation of molecular sized nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) on substrates is disclosed. The method comprised: forming a thin layer of polymer coating on a substrate; exposing a selected portion of the thin layer of polymer to alter a selected portion of the thin layer of polymer; forming a suspension of nanostructures in a solvent, wherein the solvent suspends the nanostructures and activates the nanostructures in the solvent for deposition; and flowing a suspension of nanostructures across the layer of polymer in a flow direction; thereby: depositing a nanostructure in the suspension of nanostructures only to the selected portion of the thin layer of polymer coating on the substrate to form a deposited nanostructure oriented in the flow direction. By selectively employing portions of the method above, complex NEMS may be built of simpler NEMSs components.

  19. Aspect-Oriented Monitoring of C Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; VanWyk, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents current work on extending ASPECTC with state machines, resulting in a framework for aspect-oriented monitoring of C programs. Such a framework can be used for testing purposes, or it can be part of a fault protection strategy. The long term goal is to explore the synergy between the fields of runtime verification, focused on program monitoring, and aspect-oriented programming, focused on more general program development issues. The work is inspired by the observation that most work in this direction has been done for JAVA, partly due to the lack of easily accessible extensible compiler frameworks for C. The work is performed using the SILVER extensible attribute grammar compiler framework, in which C has been defined as a host language. Our work consists of extending C with ASPECTC, and subsequently to extend ASPECTC with state machines.

  20. Withdrawal-oriented therapy for smokers.

    PubMed

    Hajek, P

    1989-06-01

    The treatment approach of the Maudsley Hospital Smokers Clinic is described. It stems from the notion that smokers seeking help are dependent on nicotine, and that withdrawal discomfort is a major block to their success in quitting. Accordingly, therapy focuses on helping clients overcome nicotine deprivation. It uses nicotine replacement and a special format of group treatment. Details are given of preparation of clients, use of nicotine chewing gum, use of group-oriented groupwork, use of information about withdrawal, and training in withdrawal-oriented therapy. Data are presented concerning characteristics of the clientele, treatment adherence, and treatment results. A number of controversial issues are addressed, such as the optimal duration of treatment, timing of the quit date, the value of educational input, and the value of individualization of treatment goals.

  1. Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, E. H. T.; Kalish, R.; Kulik, J.

    2011-03-21

    Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphiticmore » planes under different conditions.« less

  2. Attitude orientation control for a spinning satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Gerald

    The Department of the Air Force, Headquarters Space Systems Division, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are currently involved in litigation with Hughes Aircraft Company over the alledged infringement of the 'Williams patent,' which describes a method for attitude control of a spin-stabilized vehicle. Summarized here is pre-1960 RAND work on this subject and information obtained from RAND personnel knowledgeable on this subject. It was concluded that there is no RAND documentation that directly parallels the 'Williams patent' concept. Also, the TIROS II magnetic torque attitude control method is reviewed. The TIROS II meteorological satellite, launched on November 23, 1960, incorporated a magnetic actuation system for spin axis orientation control. The activation system was ground controlled to orient the satellite spin axis to obtain the desired pointing direction for optical and infrared sensor subsystems.

  3. People-oriented Information Visualization Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Bolun

    2018-04-01

    In the 21st century with rapid development, in the wake of the continuous progress of science and technology, human society enters the information era and the era of big data, and the lifestyle and aesthetic system also change accordingly, so the emerging field of information visualization is increasingly popular. Information visualization design is the process of visualizing all kinds of tedious information data, so as to quickly accept information and save time-cost. Along with the development of the process of information visualization, information design, also becomes hotter and hotter, and emotional design, people-oriented design is an indispensable part of in the design of information. This paper probes information visualization design through emotional analysis of information design based on the social context of people-oriented experience from the perspective of art design. Based on the three levels of emotional information design: instinct level, behavior level and reflective level research, to explore and discuss information visualization design.

  4. Modelling Root Systems Using Oriented Density Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Lionel X.

    2011-09-01

    Root architectural models are essential tools to understand how plants access and utilize soil resources during their development. However, root architectural models use complex geometrical descriptions of the root system and this has limitations to model interactions with the soil. This paper presents the development of continuous models based on the concept of oriented density distribution function. The growth of the root system is built as a hierarchical system of partial differential equations (PDEs) that incorporate single root growth parameters such as elongation rate, gravitropism and branching rate which appear explicitly as coefficients of the PDE. Acquisition and transport of nutrients are then modelled by extending Darcy's law to oriented density distribution functions. This framework was applied to build a model of the growth and water uptake of barley root system. This study shows that simplified and computer effective continuous models of the root system development can be constructed. Such models will allow application of root growth models at field scale.

  5. Considering Object Oriented Technology in Aviation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Few developers of commercial aviation software products are using object-oriented technology (OOT), despite its popularity in some other industries. Safety concerns about using OOT in critical applications, uncertainty about how to comply with regulatory requirements, and basic conservatism within the aviation community have been factors behind this caution. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have sponsored research to investigate and workshops to discuss safety and certification concerns about OOT and to develop recommendations for safe use. Two Object Oriented Technology in Aviation (OOTiA) workshops have been held and numerous issues and comments about the effect of OOT features and languages have been collected. This paper gives a high level overview of the OOTiA project, and discusses selected specific results from the March 2003 workshop. In particular, results in the form of questions to consider before making the decision to use OOT are presented.

  6. Reuse Metrics for Object Oriented Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieman, James M.

    1998-01-01

    One way to increase the quality of software products and the productivity of software development is to reuse existing software components when building new software systems. In order to monitor improvements in reuse, the level of reuse must be measured. In this NASA supported project we (1) derived a suite of metrics which quantify reuse attributes for object oriented, object based, and procedural software, (2) designed prototype tools to take these measurements in Ada, C++, Java, and C software, (3) evaluated the reuse in available software, (4) analyzed the relationship between coupling, cohesion, inheritance, and reuse, (5) collected object oriented software systems for our empirical analyses, and (6) developed quantitative criteria and methods for restructuring software to improve reusability.

  7. Gravity and the orientation of cell division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstetter, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    A novel culture system for mammalian cells was used to investigate division orientations in populations of Chinese hamster ovary cells and the influence of gravity on the positioning of division axes. The cells were tethered to adhesive sites, smaller in diameter than a newborn cell, distributed over a nonadhesive substrate positioned vertically. The cells grew and divided while attached to the sites, and the angles and directions of elongation during anaphase, projected in the vertical plane, were found to be random with respect to gravity. However, consecutive divisions of individual cells were generally along the same axis or at 90 degrees to the previous division, with equal probability. Thus, successive divisions were restricted to orthogonal planes, but the choice of plane appeared to be random, unlike the ordered sequence of cleavage orientations seen during early embryo development.

  8. ORIENTING OF ATTENTION: THEN AND NOW1

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    It is nearly 35 years since I gave the 7th Sir Frederick Bartlett lecture at Oxford University. This was published as a paper entitled Orienting of Attention in the Quarterly Journal (1980, 32: 3–25). The topic was then primarily in Psychology, but now equally often in Neuroscience. This paper summarizes the background of the reaction time methods used in the original paper and findings that emerged later on the sensory consequences of orienting, mainly in the visual system. It then discusses the brain network which is the source of the sensory amplification and other brain networks that are involved in attention. Next, it reviews studies of the development of attentional networks in early life. Finally, it indicates how the new tools available to explore the human brain can lead to further progress. PMID:25176352

  9. Leveraging object-oriented development at Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenneson, Greg; Connell, John

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents lessons learned by the Software Engineering Process Group (SEPG) from results of supporting two projects at NASA Ames using an Object Oriented Rapid Prototyping (OORP) approach supported by a full featured visual development environment. Supplemental lessons learned from a large project in progress and a requirements definition are also incorporated. The paper demonstrates how productivity gains can be made by leveraging the developer with a rich development environment, correct and early requirements definition using rapid prototyping, and earlier and better effort estimation and software sizing through object-oriented methods and metrics. Although the individual elements of OO methods, RP approach and OO metrics had been used on other separate projects, the reported projects were the first integrated usage supported by a rich development environment. Overall the approach used was twice as productive (measured by hours per OO Unit) as a C++ development.

  10. Wetting morphologies on randomly oriented fibers.

    PubMed

    Sauret, Alban; Boulogne, François; Soh, Beatrice; Dressaire, Emilie; Stone, Howard A

    2015-06-01

    We characterize the different morphologies adopted by a drop of liquid placed on two randomly oriented fibers, which is a first step toward understanding the wetting of fibrous networks. The present work reviews previous modeling for parallel and touching crossed fibers and extends it to an arbitrary orientation of the fibers characterized by the tilting angle and the minimum spacing distance. Depending on the volume of liquid, the spacing distance between fibers and the angle between the fibers, we highlight that the liquid can adopt three different equilibrium morphologies: 1) a column morphology in which the liquid spreads between the fibers, 2) a mixed morphology where a drop grows at one end of the column or 3) a single drop located at the node. We capture the different morphologies observed using an analytical model that predicts the equilibrium configuration of the liquid based on the geometry of the fibers and the volume of liquid.

  11. AE Source Orientation by Plate Wave Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Michael R.; Prosser, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Lead breaks (Hsu-Neilsen source) were used to generate simulated acoustic emission signals in an aluminum plate at angles of 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees with respect to the plane of the plate. This was accomplished by breaking the lead on slots cut into the plate at the respective angles. The out-of-plane and in-plane displacement components of the resulting signals were detected by broad band transducers and digitized. Analysis of the waveforms showed them to consist of the extensional and flexural plate modes. The amplitude of both components of the two modes was dependent on the source orientation angle. This suggests that plate wave analysis may be used to determine the source orientation of acoustic emission sources.

  12. Optimum runway orientation relative to crosswinds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falls, L. W.; Brown, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Specific magnitudes of crosswinds may exist that could be constraints to the success of an aircraft mission such as the landing of the proposed space shuttle. A method is required to determine the orientation or azimuth of the proposed runway which will minimize the probability of certain critical crosswinds. Two procedures for obtaining the optimum runway orientation relative to minimizing a specified crosswind speed are described and illustrated with examples. The empirical procedure requires only hand calculations on an ordinary wind rose. The theoretical method utilizes wind statistics computed after the bivariate normal elliptical distribution is applied to a data sample of component winds. This method requires only the assumption that the wind components are bivariate normally distributed. This assumption seems to be reasonable. Studies are currently in progress for testing wind components for bivariate normality for various stations. The close agreement between the theoretical and empirical results for the example chosen substantiates the bivariate normal assumption.

  13. Isotopic orientational order in acetyl salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, P.; Prandl, W.; Papoular, R.; Paulus, W.; Detken, A.; Haeberlen, U.; Zimmermann, H.

    2000-03-01

    Isotopically mixed methyl groups CD xH 3- x with zero averaged deuteron/hydrogen scattering length 0=< a>= xaD+(3- x) aH are expected to be invisible in a neutron diffraction experiment. We find, indeed, in the scattering length density of aspirin-CD xH 3- x, reconstructed by maximum-entropy methods, at room temperature only three very week minima. At 10 K, however, one positive and two negative extrema are visible: unique evidence for orientational isotopic order. From a combination of 1-d-Fourier and algebraic methods we deconvolute < a> and derive the orientational distribution function f( φ) which has three equivalent maxima/minima at 300 K and loses this 3 φ periodicity at 10 K. f( φ) is the basis for the determination of the hindrance potential with cos( φ) as the leading term.

  14. Cooperative synchronized assemblies enhance orientation discrimination.

    PubMed

    Samonds, Jason M; Allison, John D; Brown, Heather A; Bonds, A B

    2004-04-27

    There is no clear link between the broad tuning of single neurons and the fine behavioral capabilities of orientation discrimination. We recorded from populations of cells in the cat visual cortex (area 17) to examine whether the joint activity of cells can support finer discrimination than found in individual responses. Analysis of joint firing yields a substantial advantage (i.e., cooperation) in fine-angle discrimination. This cooperation increases to more considerable levels as the population of an assembly is increased. The cooperation in a population of six cells provides encoding of orientation with an information advantage that is at least 2-fold in terms of requiring either fewer cells or less time than independent coding. This cooperation suggests that correlated or synchronized activity can increase information.

  15. Optical orientation in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2008-11-01

    The physics of optical pumping of semiconductor electrons in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids is discussed. Optically oriented semiconductor electrons detect the magnetic state of a ferromagnetic film. In turn, the ferromagnetism of the hybrid can be controlled optically with the help of a semiconductor. Spin-spin interactions near the ferromagnet/semiconductor interface play a crucial role in the optical readout and the manipulation of ferromagnetism.

  16. An object oriented extension to CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobkowicz, Clifford

    1990-01-01

    A presentation of software sub-system developed to augment C Language Production Systems (CLIPS) with facilities for object oriented Knowledge representation. Functions are provided to define classes, instantiate objects, access attributes, and assert object related facts. This extension is implemented via the CLIPS user function interface and does not require modification of any CLIPS code. It does rely on internal CLIPS functions for memory management and symbol representation.

  17. An Ada Object Oriented Missile Flight Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    identify by block number) This thesis uses the Ada programming language in the design and development of an air-to-air missile flight simulation with...object oriented techniques and sound software engineering principles. The simulation is designed to be more understandable, modifiable, efficient and...Department of Computer Science ii ABSTRACT This thesis uses the Ada programming language in the design and development of an air-to-air missile flight

  18. Introducing Object-Oriented Concepts into GSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Jing; Todling, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Enhancements are now being made to the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system to expand its capabilities. This effort opens the way for broadening the scope of GSI's applications by using some standard object-oriented features in Fortran, and represents a starting point for the so-called GSI refactoring, as a part of the Joint Effort for Data-assimilationI ntegration (JEDI) project of JCSDA.

  19. Sierra Madre Oriental in Coahuila, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This desolate landscape is part of the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range, on the border between the Coahuila and Nuevo Leon provinces of Mexico. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on November 28, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  20. Assessing orientations to learning to teach.

    PubMed

    Oosterheert, Ida E; Vermunt, Jan D; Denessen, E

    2002-03-01

    An important purpose of teacher education is that student teachers develop and change their existing knowledge on learning and teaching. Research on how student teachers variously engage in this process is scarce. In a previous study of 30 student teachers, we identified five different orientations to learning to teach. Our aim was to extend the results of the previous study by developing an instrument to assess orientations to learning to teach at a larger scale. The development and psychometric properties of the instrument are discussed. The results with respect to how student teachers learn are compared to the results of the qualitative study. Participants in this study were 169 secondary student teachers from three institutes which had all adopted an initial in-service model of learning to teach. On the basis of extensive qualitative study, a questionnaire was developed to assess individual differences in learning to teach. Factor-, reliability-, and nonparametric scalability analyses were performed to identify reliable scales. Cluster analysis was used to identify groups of students with similar orientations to learning to teach. Eight scales covering cognitive, regulative and affective aspects of student teachers' learning were identified. Cluster analysis indicates that the instrument discriminates well between student teachers. Four of the five previously found patterns were found again. The four orientations found in relatively uniform learning environments indicate that student teachers need differential support in their learning. Although the instrument measures individual differences in a reliable way, it is somewhat one-sided in the sense that items representing constructive ways of learning dominate. New items forming a broader range of scales should be created.

  1. Four Pillars of Service-Oriented Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    ic A lig n m e n t Figure 1: Pillars of SOA-Based Systems Development Service -Oriented Architectures 12 CROSSTALK The Journal of Defense Software ...et al. “On the Business Value and Technical Challenges of Adopting Web Services .” Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution 16 (2004): 16, 31-50...10 CROSSTALK The Journal of Defense Software Engineering September 2007 Acornerstone of DoD policy forfuture software and systems policy is the

  2. Reliability Engineering for Service Oriented Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Common Object Request Broker Architecture Ecosystem In software , an ecosystem is a set of applications and/or services that grad- ually build up over time...Enterprise Service Bus Foreign In an SOA context: Any SOA, service or software which the owners of the calling software do not have control of, either...SOA Service Oriented Architecture SRE Software Reliability Engineering System Mode Many systems exhibit different modes of operation. E.g. the cockpit

  3. Evaluating a Service-Oriented Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    See the description on page 13. SaaS Software as a service ( SaaS ) is a software delivery model where customers don’t own a copy of the application... serviceability REST Representational State Transfer RIA rich internet application RPC remote procedure call SaaS software as a service SAML Security...Evaluating a Service -Oriented Architecture Phil Bianco, Software Engineering Institute Rick Kotermanski, Summa Technologies Paulo Merson

  4. What is Aspect-Oriented Programming, Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the Advanced Separation of Concerns workshop at OOPSLA 2000 in Minneapolis, Dan Friedman and I wrote a paper that argued that the distinguishing characteristic of Aspect-Oriented Programming systems (qua programming systems) is that they provide quantification and obliviousness. In this paper, I expand on the themes of our Minneapolis workshop paper, respond to some of the comments we've received on that paper, and provide a computational formalization of the notion of quantification.

  5. Self-reflection Orients Visual Attention Downward

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Tong, Yu; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated abstract concepts associated with spatial location (e.g., God in the Heavens) could direct visual attention upward or downward, because thinking about the abstract concepts activates the corresponding vertical perceptual symbols. For self-concept, there are similar metaphors (e.g., “I am above others”). However, whether thinking about the self can induce visual attention orientation is still unknown. Therefore, the current study tested whether self-reflection can direct visual attention. Individuals often display the tendency of self-enhancement in social comparison, which reminds the individual of the higher position one possesses relative to others within the social environment. As the individual is the agent of the attention orientation, and high status tends to make an individual look down upon others to obtain a sense of pride, it was hypothesized that thinking about the self would lead to a downward attention orientation. Using reflection of personality traits and a target discrimination task, Study 1 found that, after self-reflection, visual attention was directed downward. Similar effects were also found after friend-reflection, with the level of downward attention being correlated with the likability rating scores of the friend. Thus, in Study 2, a disliked other was used as a control and the positive self-view was measured with above-average judgment task. We found downward attention orientation after self-reflection, but not after reflection upon the disliked other. Moreover, the attentional bias after self-reflection was correlated with above-average self-view. The current findings provide the first evidence that thinking about the self could direct visual-spatial attention downward, and suggest that this effect is probably derived from a positive self-view within the social context. PMID:28928694

  6. Self-reflection Orients Visual Attention Downward.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Tong, Yu; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated abstract concepts associated with spatial location (e.g., God in the Heavens) could direct visual attention upward or downward, because thinking about the abstract concepts activates the corresponding vertical perceptual symbols. For self-concept, there are similar metaphors (e.g., "I am above others"). However, whether thinking about the self can induce visual attention orientation is still unknown. Therefore, the current study tested whether self-reflection can direct visual attention. Individuals often display the tendency of self-enhancement in social comparison, which reminds the individual of the higher position one possesses relative to others within the social environment. As the individual is the agent of the attention orientation, and high status tends to make an individual look down upon others to obtain a sense of pride, it was hypothesized that thinking about the self would lead to a downward attention orientation. Using reflection of personality traits and a target discrimination task, Study 1 found that, after self-reflection, visual attention was directed downward. Similar effects were also found after friend-reflection, with the level of downward attention being correlated with the likability rating scores of the friend. Thus, in Study 2, a disliked other was used as a control and the positive self-view was measured with above-average judgment task. We found downward attention orientation after self-reflection, but not after reflection upon the disliked other. Moreover, the attentional bias after self-reflection was correlated with above-average self-view. The current findings provide the first evidence that thinking about the self could direct visual-spatial attention downward, and suggest that this effect is probably derived from a positive self-view within the social context.

  7. Generalized Orienteering Problem with Resource Dependent Rewards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-19

    School, Monterey, California February 19, 2013 Abstract We introduce a generalized Orienteering Problem where, as usual, a vehicle is routed from a ...prescribed start node, through a directed network, to a prescribed destination node, collecting rewards at each node visited, in order to maximize the...total reward along the path. In our generalization, transit on arcs in the network and reward collection at nodes both consume a variable amount of the

  8. Factors that influence nurses' customer orientation.

    PubMed

    Darby, D N; Daniel, K

    1999-09-01

    Hospital care mostly involves complex processes that are continuously adjusted to match individual client needs. As most patients cannot evaluate the technology used, they focus on personal interactions with care providers when making judgements about the care received. Nurses are the care team members that primarily provide ongoing care. This study aims to further understand factors that influence the way nursing staff relate to their patients. A model is presented of the contextual and self-perceptual factors that influence the level of customer/client orientation of nursing services in an Australian hospital setting along with details of a quantitative study. Nurses completed an anonymous questionnaire, which was then mailed directly to the researchers. Analysis of the data included factor analysis, regression and path analysis. The results show that contextual elements such as management commitment to service quality and self-perceptual factors such as role stress impact on the nurses' client service orientation. However, the variables being studied commonly have both direct and indirect effects with feelings about commitment to the organization having a notable mediating influence. The scales adapted from use in other industries are able to measure the perceptual and outcome variables in a health institutional setting. The managerial implications are that both a comprehensive programme of organizational culture and individual staff member development is needed if an enhanced customer orientation and the consequent improvement in client satisfaction with nursing care is to occur.

  9. Approach for Improving the Integrated Sensor Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitishita, E.; Ercolin Filho, L.; Graça, N.; Centeno, J.

    2016-06-01

    The direct determination of exterior orientation parameters (EOP) of aerial images via integration of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and GPS is often used in photogrammetric mapping nowadays. The accuracies of the EOP depend on the accurate parameters related to sensors mounting when the job is performed (offsets of the IMU relative to the projection centre and the angles of boresigth misalignment between the IMU and the photogrammetric coordinate system). In principle, when the EOP values do not achieve the required accuracies for the photogrammetric application, the approach, known as Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO), is used to refine the direct EOP. ISO approach requires accurate Interior Orientation Parameters (IOP) and standard deviation of the EOP under flight condition. This paper investigates the feasibility of use the in situ camera calibration to obtain these requirements. The camera calibration uses a small sub block of images, extracted from the entire block. A digital Vexcel UltraCam XP camera connected to APPLANIX POS AVTM system was used to get two small blocks of images that were use in this study. The blocks have different flight heights and opposite flight directions. The proposed methodology improved significantly the vertical and horizontal accuracies of the 3D point intersection. Using a minimum set of control points, the horizontal and vertical accuracies achieved nearly one image pixel of resolution on the ground (GSD). The experimental results are shown and discussed.

  10. Entrepreneurial Orientation Scale: Adaptation to Spanish.

    PubMed

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Sánchez-García, José Carlos; Viardot, Eric; Boada-Cuerva, Maria; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2016-07-25

    Entrepreneurship is linked to the perception of opportunities, to orientation, to attitudes, to the fear of failure and to entrepreneurial motivations. Entrepreneurial orientation is a fundamental construct for understanding the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. What is more, it is multidimensional and has attracted considerable attention from researchers in recent years. The objective of this study was to adapt the original 12-item English scale to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties. The participants in the present study were 925 Spanish employees (48.2% men, 51.5% women, M age = 42.49 years, SD age = 11.25) from the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Castilla-León. After applying an ESEM (RMSEA = .06; CFI = .97 and TLI = .95) a structure was determined made up of four factors which corroborated the structure of the original scale: Autonomy (α = .71 and CI = .68 - .73), Innovativeness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73), Risk Taking (α = .72 and CI = .68 - .74) and Competitive Aggressiveness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73). The four factors displayed suitable reliability. The study also found evidences of validity in relation to a series of external correlates and various scales which refer to workaholism, irritation and burnout. The scale presented here may prove useful for satisfactorily identifying, in Spanish, the entrepreneurial orientation of the working population.

  11. Sexual orientation and depression in Canada.

    PubMed

    Scott, Roger L; Lasiuk, Gerri; Norris, Colleen M

    2017-03-01

    Depression is a global concern and it is well known that certain segments of the population are at greater risk. Sexual minorities are recognized as being more likely to suffer from depression due to social stigma and prejudice. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between sexual orientation and depression in the Canadian population. The study used the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health data. The sample comprised 24,788 Canadians living in the ten provinces. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of depression and sexual orientation. After adjusting for known risk factors for depression, there was no difference in prevalence of past 12-month or lifetime major depressive episode between sexual minorities and heterosexuals. Bisexuals did have a near significant trend towards higher prevalence of both past 12-month and lifetime depression as a combined group, but there were not clear differences when stratified by sex. This study supports important emerging trends in the relationship between sexual orientation and depression. Research on the mental health of sexual minority people must take into account differences between sexual minority groups and avoid aggregating mental health disorders into broad categories. These findings have implications for public health planning and clinical recommendations.

  12. Honeybees use the skyline in orientation.

    PubMed

    Towne, William F; Ritrovato, Antoinette E; Esposto, Antonina; Brown, Duncan F

    2017-07-01

    In view-based navigation, animals acquire views of the landscape from various locations and then compare the learned views with current views in order to orient in certain directions or move toward certain destinations. One landscape feature of great potential usefulness in view-based navigation is the skyline, the silhouette of terrestrial objects against the sky, as it is distant, relatively stable and easy to detect. The skyline has been shown to be important in the view-based navigation of ants, but no flying insect has yet been shown definitively to use the skyline in this way. Here, we show that honeybees do indeed orient using the skyline. A feeder was surrounded with an artificial replica of the natural skyline there, and the bees' departures toward the nest were recorded from above with a video camera under overcast skies (to eliminate celestial cues). When the artificial skyline was rotated, the bees' departures were rotated correspondingly, showing that the bees oriented by the artificial skyline alone. We discuss these findings in the context of the likely importance of the skyline in long-range homing in bees, the likely importance of altitude in using the skyline, the likely role of ultraviolet light in detecting the skyline, and what we know about the bees' ability to resolve skyline features. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Orientation and metacognition in virtual space.

    PubMed

    Tenbrink, Thora; Salwiczek, Lucie H

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive scientists increasingly use virtual reality scenarios to address spatial perception, orientation, and navigation. If based on desktops rather than mobile immersive environments, this involves a discrepancy between the physically experienced static position and the visually perceived dynamic scene, leading to cognitive challenges that users of virtual worlds may or may not be aware of. The frequently reported loss of orientation and worse performance in point-to-origin tasks relate to the difficulty of establishing a consistent reference system on an allocentric or egocentric basis. We address the verbalizability of spatial concepts relevant in this regard, along with the conscious strategies reported by participants. Behavioral and verbal data were collected using a perceptually sparse virtual tunnel scenario that has frequently been used to differentiate between humans' preferred reference systems. Surprisingly, the linguistic data we collected relate to reference system verbalizations known from the earlier literature only to a limited extent, but instead reveal complex cognitive mechanisms and strategies. Orientation in desktop virtual reality appears to pose considerable challenges, which participants react to by conceptualizing the task in individual ways that do not systematically relate to the generic concepts of egocentric and allocentric reference frames. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Orientation masking and cross-orientation suppression (XOS): implications for estimates of filter bandwidth.

    PubMed

    Meese, Tim S; Holmes, David J

    2010-10-01

    Most contemporary models of spatial vision include a cross-oriented route to suppression (masking from a broadly tuned inhibitory pool), which is most potent at low spatial and high temporal frequencies (T. S. Meese & D. J. Holmes, 2007). The influence of this pathway can elevate orientation-masking functions without exciting the target mechanism, and because early psychophysical estimates of filter bandwidth did not accommodate this, it is likely that they have been overestimated for this corner of stimulus space. Here we show that a transient 40% contrast mask causes substantial binocular threshold elevation for a transient vertical target, and this declines from a mask orientation of 0° to about 40° (indicating tuning), and then more gently to 90°, where it remains at a factor of ∼4. We also confirm that cross-orientation masking is diminished or abolished at high spatial frequencies and for sustained temporal modulation. We fitted a simple model of pedestal masking and cross-orientation suppression (XOS) to our data and those of G. C. Phillips and H. R. Wilson (1984) and found the dependency of orientation bandwidth on spatial frequency to be much less than previously supposed. An extension of our linear spatial pooling model of contrast gain control and dilution masking (T. S. Meese & R. J. Summers, 2007) is also shown to be consistent with our results using filter bandwidths of ±20°. Both models include tightly and broadly tuned components of divisive suppression. More generally, because XOS and/or dilution masking can affect the shape of orientation-masking curves, we caution that variations in bandwidth estimates might reflect variations in processes that have nothing to do with filter bandwidth.

  15. Object-oriented requirements analysis: A quick tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berard, Edward V.

    1990-01-01

    Of all the approaches to software development, an object-oriented approach appears to be both the most beneficial and the most popular. The description of the object-oriented approach is presented in the form of the view graphs.

  16. Determining the orientation of depth-rotated familiar objects.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Ryosuke; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2008-02-01

    How does the human visual system determine the depth-orientation of familiar objects? We examined reaction times and errors in the detection of 15 degrees differences in the depth orientations of two simultaneously presented familiar objects, which were the same objects (Experiment 1) or different objects (Experiment 2). Detection of orientation differences was best for 0 degrees (front) and 180 degrees (back), while 45 degrees and 135 degrees yielded poorer results, and 90 degrees (side) showed intermediate results, suggesting that the visual system is tuned for front, side and back orientations. We further found that those advantages are due to orientation-specific features such as horizontal linear contours and symmetry, since the 90 degrees advantage was absent for objects with curvilinear contours, and asymmetric object diminished the 0 degrees and 180 degrees advantages. We conclude that the efficiency of visually determining object orientation is highly orientation-dependent, and object orientation may be perceived in favor of front-back axes.

  17. Orienting and Onboarding Clinical Nurse Specialists: A Process Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Mayra G; Watt, Jennifer L; Falder-Saeed, Karie; Lewis, Brennan; Patton, Lindsey

    Clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) have a unique advanced practice role. This article describes a process useful in establishing a comprehensive orientation and onboarding program for a newly hired CNS. The project team used the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists core competencies as a guide to construct a process for effectively onboarding and orienting newly hired CNSs. Standardized documents were created for the orientation process including a competency checklist, needs assessment template, and professional evaluation goals. In addition, other documents were revised to streamline the orientation process. Standardizing the onboarding and orientation process has demonstrated favorable results. As of 2016, 3 CNSs have successfully been oriented and onboarded using the new process. Unique healthcare roles require special focus when onboarding and orienting into a healthcare system. The use of the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists core competencies guided the project in establishing a successful orientation and onboarding process for newly hired CNSs.

  18. The Social and Lifestyle Characteristics of Australian Orienteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, David

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 1,296 members of the Orienteering Federation of Australia indicates that Australian orienteers are well educated, have well-paid professional jobs, possess a strong commitment to a healthy lifestyle, and are generally interested in outdoor activities. Most were introduced to orienteering through personal contact with family members and…

  19. Curriculum Orientation of Lecturers in Teacher Training College in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salleh, Halimatussaadiah; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Yahya, Fauziah; Jantan, Hafsah

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum development in teacher training college can be facilitated by indentifying the lecturers curriculum orientation. This study focuses on curriculum orientation of lecturer in Teacher Training Colleges (TTC) in Malaysia. Data were collected through questionnaire survey using the Curriculum Orientation Inventory, an instrument developed by…

  20. A Menu of Orientations to the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levisohn, Jon A.

    2010-01-01

    Following the work of Grossman (1991) in the teaching of English literature and Holtz (2003) in the teaching of Bible, this article develops a menu of orientations for the teaching of rabbinic literature. First, the author explores and clarifies the idea of orientations. Then, each of ten orientations to the teaching of rabbinic literature is…

  1. Validity of the Children's Orientation to Book Reading Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderavek, Joan N.; Guo, Ying; Justice, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the validity of a 4-point rating scale used to measure the level of preschool children's orientation to literacy during shared book reading. Validity was explored by (a) comparing the children's level of literacy orientation as measured with the "Children's Orientation to Book Reading Rating Scale" (COB)…

  2. Nursing department orientation: are we missing the mark?

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Julie Marie; Nichols, Amy A; Halamek, Louis P; Arafeh, Julie M R

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals routinely provide orientation for the new nurses they hire. The evolution of nursing practice is not reflected in the current teaching methods of nursing orientation. The authors examine the past 60 years of nursing department orientation and assert the need to move toward more effective and innovative teaching strategies.

  3. Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation: Development of a Measurement Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Dawn Langkamp; Lane, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a measurement instrument for individual entrepreneurial orientation to be used to measure the entrepreneurial orientation of students and other individuals. Design/methodology/approach: A measure of Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation (IEO) was generated, validated, and then tested on 1,100…

  4. Biochemical Parameters of Orienteers Competing in a Long Distance Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikan, Vladimir; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Measured important biochemical parameters in a group of orienteers two hours before beginning and immediately after an orienteering marathon. Found levels of dehydration. Suggests a drinking regimen which is designed for orienteering races. Concludes that no runner having kidney or liver abnormalities or changes in the urine should be allowed to…

  5. New Employee Orientation, Division of Personnel and Labor Relations,

    Science.gov Websites

    Employee Training Exit Survey HR Forms New Employee Orientation For Admin Staff Classification Form Packets State Officer Compensation Commission Administration / Personnel and Labor Relations / New Employee Orientation New Employee Orientation Last Updated: October 2013 Welcome to the State of Alaska As a new

  6. Orienting Task Effects on Text Recall in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Elliott W.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined the effects of orienting task-controlled processing on text recall of younger, middle-aged, and older adults. Younger adults recalled more when recall was intentional or when preceded by a deep-orienting task. Middle-aged and older adults recalled more when recall was intentional regardless of depth of orienting task. (Author)

  7. An Orientation & Leadership Training Handbook for International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, M. Eileen

    This handbook provides guidance for implementing orientation activities for international students at Middlesex County College (MCC), in New Jersey. An introduction describes the development of MCC's orientation plan, indicating that, in response to problems faced by international students, the college developed an overnight orientation and…

  8. A Conditioned Visual Orientation Requires the Ellipsoid Body in "Drosophila"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Chao; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Deliang; Li, Meixia; Gong, Haiyun; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Orientation, the spatial organization of animal behavior, is an essential faculty of animals. Bacteria and lower animals such as insects exhibit taxis, innate orientation behavior, directly toward or away from a directional cue. Organisms can also orient themselves at a specific angle relative to the cues. In this study, using…

  9. Faith and Sexual Orientation Identity Development in Gay College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily; Glassmann, Danny; Garrett, J. Matthew; Badaszewski, Philip; Jones, Ginny; Pierre, Darren; Fresk, Kara; Young, Dallin; Correll-Hughes, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the experiences of gay-identified college men related to their faith and sexual orientation identity development. The findings suggest that for gay-identified college men, faith and sexual orientation identity development includes examination of one's faith and sexual orientation identity, important relationships, and a desire…

  10. Look Here! The Development of Attentional Orienting to Symbolic Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Krisztina Varga; Frick, Janet E.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has examined the development of orienting to social directional cues (e.g., eye gaze), little is known about the development of orienting to nonsocial directional cues, such as arrows. Arrow cues have been used in numerous studies as a means to study attentional orienting, but the development of children's understanding of…

  11. Student Evaluation of Summer Orientation, Learning, Advising, and Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David F.

    Incoming freshmen at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington completed evaluations of their two-day orientation. The Orientation Evaluation is administered to freshmen who have chosen to participate in one of three sessions: Summer Orientation, Learning, Advising, and Registration sessions (SOLAR). A total of 166 students completed the…

  12. 48 CFR 752.7011 - Orientation and language training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Orientation and language....7011 Orientation and language training. For use in all USAID cost-reimbursement contracts involving performance overseas. Orientation and Language Training (APR 1984) (a) Regular employees shall receive a...

  13. 7 CFR 1944.72 - Application packaging orientation and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Application packaging orientation and training. 1944... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Grants § 1944.72 Application packaging orientation and training. Agency approval officials will orient...

  14. Focus for Area Development Analysis: Urban Orientation of Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Herman

    The orientation of counties to metropolitan systems and urban centers is identified by population density and percentage of urban population. This analytical framework differentiates 6 kinds of counties, ranging from most urban-oriented (group 1) to least urban-oriented (group 6). With this framework, it can be seen that the economic well-being of…

  15. Gender and Orientations toward the Future: Links to Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Barbara A.; DeBacker, Teresa K.

    2004-01-01

    Literature on future orientation and motivation was examined for gender differences. Research revealed gender differences from five theoretical orientations: achievement motivation, future time orientation, possible selves, expectancy-value, and social-cognitive. Some of those differences seemed best explained in terms of generational differences…

  16. Promotion of Students' Mastery Goal Orientations: Does TARGET Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lüftenegger, Marko; van de Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal orientations are important for students' ongoing motivation. Students with a mastery goal orientation show the most advantageous achievement and motivational patterns. Much research has been conducted to identify classroom structures which promote students' mastery goal orientation. The TARGET framework is one example of these…

  17. Object-Oriented Programming in High Schools the Turing Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Richard C.

    This paper proposes an approach to introducing object-oriented concepts to high school computer science students using the Object-Oriented Turing (OOT) language. Students can learn about basic object-oriented (OO) principles such as classes and inheritance by using and expanding a collection of classes that draw pictures like circles and happy…

  18. Quantitation of protein orientation in flow-oriented unilamellar liposomes by linear dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendra, Jascindra; Damianoglou, Angeliki; Hicks, Matthew; Booth, Paula; Rodger, P. Mark; Rodger, Alison

    2006-07-01

    The linear dichroism of the visible wavelength transitions of retinal have been used to analyse linear dichroism spectra to determine the orientation of aromatic and peptide structural motifs of Bacteriorhodopsin incorporated into unilamellar soy bean liposomes. The results are consistent with the available X-ray data. This proves that visible light absorbing chromophores can be used to analyse linear dichroism data to give the orientation of membrane proteins in membrane mimicking environments. The work has been extended by screening a wide range of hydrophobic molecules with high extinction coefficients in transitions above 300 nm to find molecules that could be used as independent probes of liposome orientation for experiments involving proteins incorporated into liposomes. Three probes were found to have potential for future work: bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)pentamethine oxonol (DiBAC 4), retinol and rhodamine B. All three can be used to determine the orientation of the porphyrin of cytochrome c, the aromatic residues of gramicidin and the helices of both proteins. The orientation parameter, S, for the liposomes varied from batch to batch of unilamellar liposomes prepared by extruding through a 100 nm membrane. The value and variation in S was 0.030 ± 0.010. Repeat experiments with the same batch of liposomes showed less variation. Film LD data were measured for DiBAC 4 and rhodamine B to determine the polarisations of their long wavelength transitions.

  19. Deficit of heat shock transcription factor 1-heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A axis determines the cell death vulnerability in a model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 6.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Saegusa, Hironao; Tanabe, Tsutomu

    2009-11-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is caused by a small expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ)-encoding CAG repeat in Ca(v)2.1 calcium channel gene. To gain insights into pathogenic mechanism of SCA6, we used HEK293 cells expressing fusion protein of enhanced green fluorescent protein and Ca(v)2.1 carboxyl terminal fragment (EGFP-Ca(v)2.1CT) [L24 and S13 cells containing 24 polyQ (disease range) and 13 polyQ (normal range), respectively] and examined their responses to some stressors. When exposed to CdCl(2), L24 cells showed lower viability than the control S13 cells and caspase-dependent apoptosis was enhanced more in L24 cells. Localization of EGFP-Ca(v)2.1CT was almost confined to the nucleus, where it existed as speckle-like structures. Interestingly, CdCl(2) treatment resulted in disruption of more promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) in L24 cells than in S13 cells and in cells where PML-NBs were disrupted, aggregates of EGFP-Ca(v)2.1CT became larger. Furthermore, a large number of aggregates were formed in L24 cells than in S13 cells. Results of RNAi experiments indicated that HSPA1A determined the difference against CdCl(2) toxicity. Furthermore, protein expression of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), which activates HSPA1A expression, was down-regulated in L24 cells. Therefore, HSF1-HSPA1A axis is critical for the vulnerability in L24 cells.

  20. Future orientation, school contexts, and problem behaviors: a multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0 % females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the present study examined the independent and interactive effects of adolescent future orientation and school contexts (school size, school location, school SES, school future orientation climate) on problem behaviors. Results provided evidence that adolescent future orientation was associated independently and negatively with problem behaviors. In addition, adolescents from large-size schools reported higher levels of problem behaviors than their age mates from small-size schools, controlling for individual-level covariates. Furthermore, an interaction effect between adolescent future orientation and school future orientation climate was found, suggesting influences of school future orientation climate on the link between adolescent future orientation and problem behaviors as well as variations in effects of school future orientation climate across different levels of adolescent future orientation. Specifically, the negative association between adolescent future orientation and problem behaviors was stronger at schools with a more positive climate of future orientation, whereas school future orientation climate had a significant and unexpectedly positive relationship with problem behaviors for adolescents with low levels of future orientation. Findings implicate the importance of comparing how the future orientation-problem behaviors link varies across different ecological contexts and the need to understand influences of school climate on problem behaviors in light of differences in psychological processes among adolescents.

  1. A Taxonomy of Object-Oriented Measures Modeling the Object-Oriented Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Ralph D.; Weistroffer, H. Roland; Coppins, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to control the quality of software and the software development process, it is important to understand the measurement of software. A first step toward a better comprehension of software measurement is the categorization of software measures by some meaningful taxonomy. The most worthwhile taxonomy would capture the fundamental nature of the object-oriented (O-O) space. The principal characteristics of object-oriented software offer a starting point for such a categorization of measures. This paper introduces a taxonomy of measures based upon fourteen characteristics of object-oriented software gathered from the literature. This taxonomy allows us to easily see gaps or redundancies in the existing O-O measures. The taxonomy also clearly differentiates among taxa so that there is no ambiguity as to the taxon to which a measure belongs. The taxonomy has been populated with measures taken from the literature.

  2. A Taxonomy of Object-Oriented Measures Modeling the Object Oriented Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Ralph D.; Weistroffer, H. Roland; Coppins, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to control the quality of software and the software development process, it is important to understand the measurement of software. A first step toward a better comprehension of software measurement is the categorization of software measures by some meaningful taxonomy. The most worthwhile taxonomy would capture the fundamental nature of the object-oriented (O-O) space. The principal characteristics of object-oriented software offer a starting point for such a categorization of measures. This paper introduces a taxonomy of measures based upon fourteen characteristics of object-oriented software gathered from the literature. This taxonomy allows us to easily see gaps or redundancies in the existing O-O measures. The taxonomy also clearly differentiates among taxa so that there is no ambiguity as to the taxon to which a measure belongs. The taxonomy has been populated with measures taken from the literature.

  3. The role of a-axis grains in the transition to the normal state of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} films and of 2G-coated conductors when induced by high electrical current densities

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, P., E-mail: pierre.bernstein@ensicaen.fr; Harnois, C.; Mc Loughlin, C.

    The influence of surface defects, in particular of a-axis grains, on the transition to the normal state induced by high current densities in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} (YBCO) thin films and in a commercial 2G-coated conductor is investigated. For that purpose, the surface of the samples is observed by scanning electron microscopy and isothermal current-voltage curves are measured at different temperatures with pulsed currents up to the quenching value I*. The results show that the ratio of I* to the critical current is large if a-axis grains are not visible at the surface of the YBCO films, while it ismore » much lower if the surface includes a-axis grains as this is the case for the coated conductor. The connection between the transition onset and the vortex dynamics, as well as the role of the a-axis grains in this process are discussed. The relation between the I* values obtained from thermal calculations and those resulting from vortex dynamics considerations is also discussed, as well as the possible consequences suggested by this work for the different applications of the coated conductors.« less

  4. Collagen Fiber Orientation in Primate Long Bones.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Johanna; Bromage, Timothy G; Terranova, Carl J; Enlow, Donald H

    2017-07-01

    Studies of variation in orientation of collagen fibers within bone have lead to the proposition that these are preferentially aligned to accommodate different kinds of load, with tension best resisted by fibers aligned longitudinally relative to the load, and compression best resisted by transversely aligned fibers. However, previous studies have often neglected to consider the effect of developmental processes, including constraints on collagen fiber orientation (CFO), particularly in primary bone. Here we use circularly polarized light microscopy to examine patterns of CFO in cross-sections from the midshaft femur, humerus, tibia, radius, and ulna in a range of living primate taxa with varied body sizes, phylogenetic relationships and positional behaviors. We find that a preponderance of longitudinally oriented collagen is characteristic of both periosteal primary and intracortically remodeled bone. Where variation does occur among groups, it is not simply understood via interpretations of mechanical loads, although prioritized adaptations to tension and/or shear are considered. While there is some suggestion that CFO may correlate with body size, this relationship is neither consistent nor easily explicable through consideration of size-related changes in mechanical adaptation. The results of our study indicate that there is no clear relationship between CFO and phylogenetic status. One of the principle factors accounting for the range of variation that does exist is primary tissue type, where slower depositing bone is more likely to comprise a larger proportion of oblique to transverse collagen fibers. Anat Rec, 300:1189-1207, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cerebral sex dimorphism and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Manzouri, Amirhossein; Savic, Ivanka

    2018-03-01

    The neurobiology of sexual orientation is frequently discussed in terms of cerebral sex dimorphism (defining both functional and structural sex differences). Yet, the information about possible cerebral differences between sex-matched homo and heterosexual persons is limited, particularly among women. In this multimodal MRI study, we addressed these issues by investigating possible cerebral differences between homo and heterosexual persons, and by asking whether there is any sex difference in this aspect. Measurements of cortical thickness (Cth), subcortical volumes, and functional and structural resting-state connections among 40 heterosexual males (HeM) and 40 heterosexual females (HeF) were compared with those of 30 homosexual males (HoM) and 30 homosexual females (HoF). Congruent with previous reports, sex differences were detected in heterosexual controls with regard to fractional anisotropy (FA), Cth, and several subcortical volumes. Homosexual groups did not display any sex differences in FA values. Furthermore, their functional connectivity was significantly less pronounced in the mesial prefrontal and precuneus regions. In these two particular regions, HoM also displayed thicker cerebral cortex than other groups, whereas HoF did not differ from HeF. In addition, in HoM the parietal Cth showed "sex-reversed" values, not observed in HoF. Homosexual orientation seems associated with a less pronounced sexual differentiation of white matter tracts and a less pronounced functional connectivity of the self-referential networks compared to heterosexual orientation. Analyses of Cth suggest that male and female homosexuality are not simple analogues of each other and that differences from heterosexual controls are more pronounced in HoM. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Longitudinal patient-oriented outcomes in neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M.; Banerjee, Mousumi; Rodgers, Ann; McCammon, Ryan; Burke, James; Feldman, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate longitudinal patient-oriented outcomes in peripheral neuropathy over a 14-year time period including time before and after diagnosis. Methods: The 1996–2007 Health and Retirement Study (HRS)–Medicare Claims linked database identified incident peripheral neuropathy cases (ICD-9 codes) in patients ≥65 years. Using detailed demographic information from the HRS and Medicare claims, a propensity score method identified a matched control group without neuropathy. Patient-oriented outcomes, with an emphasis on self-reported falls, pain, and self-rated health (HRS interview), were determined before and after neuropathy diagnosis. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess differences in longitudinal outcomes between cases and controls. Results: We identified 953 peripheral neuropathy cases and 953 propensity-matched controls. The mean (SD) age was 77.4 (6.7) years for cases, 76.9 (6.6) years for controls, and 42.1% had diabetes. Differences were detected in falls 3.0 years before neuropathy diagnosis (case vs control; 32% vs 25%, p = 0.008), 5.0 years for pain (36% vs 27%, p = 0.002), and 5.0 years for good to excellent self-rated health (61% vs 74%, p < 0.0001). Over time, the proportion of fallers increased more rapidly in neuropathy cases compared to controls (p = 0.002), but no differences in pain (p = 0.08) or self-rated health (p = 0.9) were observed. Conclusions: In older persons, differences in falls, pain, and self-rated health can be detected 3–5 years prior to peripheral neuropathy diagnosis, but only falls deteriorates more rapidly over time in neuropathy cases compared to controls. Interventions to improve early peripheral neuropathy detection are needed, and future clinical trials should incorporate falls as a key patient-oriented outcome. PMID:26019191

  7. Sexual Orientation Modulates Endocrine Stress Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167

  8. An object oriented generic controller using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nivens, Cody R.

    1990-01-01

    In today's applications, the need for the division of code and data has focused on the growth of object oriented programming. This philosophy gives software engineers greater control over the environment of an application. Yet the use of object oriented design does not exclude the need for greater understanding by the application of what the controller is doing. Such understanding is only possible by using expert systems. Providing a controller that is capable of controlling an object by using rule-based expertise would expedite the use of both object oriented design and expert knowledge of the dynamic of an environment in modern controllers. This project presents a model of a controller that uses the CLIPS expert system and objects in C++ to create a generic controller. The polymorphic abilities of C++ allow for the design of a generic component stored in individual data files. Accompanying the component is a set of rules written in CLIPS which provide the following: the control of individual components, the input of sensory data from components and the ability to find the status of a given component. Along with the data describing the application, a set of inference rules written in CLIPS allows the application to make use of sensory facts and status and control abilities. As a demonstration of this ability, the control of the environment of a house is provided. This demonstration includes the data files describing the rooms and their contents as far as devices, windows and doors. The rules used for the home consist of the flow of people in the house and the control of devices by the home owner.

  9. Sexual orientation modulates endocrine stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J; Pruessner, Jens C

    2015-04-01

    Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their "coming out"). Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published

  10. Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus): Spreading by fire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    In many forest ecosystems, fire is critical in maintaining indigenous plant communities, but can either promote or arrest the spread of invasive species depending on their regeneration niche and resprouting ability. We examined the effects of cutting and burning treatments on the vegetative response (cover, stem density) and root resources of Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), a liana invasive to North America that was introduced from East Asia. Treatments were control, spring cut, spring burn, spring cut & burn, summer cut, fall cut, fall burn, fall cut & burn, and fall herbicide. Cover was reduced the greatest by herbicide and summer cutting treatments, but increased more in the second year on moraine soils than on sandy soils. Burning and cutting & burning combined resulted in a resprout density four times greater than stem density prior to treatment for stems <2.5 mm diameter than cutting alone. For stems, across all diameter classes, there was a more than 100% increase in stem density with burning and almost a 300% increase in stem density with cutting & burning in the spring. Density of resprouts and root-suckers, and survival increased with increasing stem size. While cutting of C. orbiculatus during the growing season (summer) reduced total nonstructural carbohydrates by 50% below early growing season levels and 75% below dormant season levels, burning did not significantly reduce total nonstructural carbohydrates. Thus, Oriental bittersweet is quite responsive to burning as a disturbance and resprouting and root-suckering creates additional opportunities for growth and attainment of the forest canopy. The positive response of Oriental bittersweet to burning has important implications for management of invasive lianas in fire-dependent forest landscapes.

  11. The importance of a servant leader orientation.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Marjorie; Stewart, Alice C

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring a quality nursing workforce for the future in a time of increasing labor shortage and declining nurse satisfaction is a key challenge to the health care industry. Understanding what impacts job satisfaction is vital to solving the problem of nurse attrition. We suggest that the approach to supporting staff in the care giving role requires additional expectations of managers who supervise inpatient nursing staff. This study empirically tested the impact of nurse managers' servant leadership orientation on nurse job satisfaction. Nurses providing direct bedside patient care within inpatient departments of a five-hospital system were asked to respond to four questionnaires. Seventeen departments participated. There were 346 available nurses across the departments. The average response rate was 73% across all of the units surveyed. Hypotheses were tested using multivariate regression analysis of the nurse-nurse manager dyad. Statistical findings of this study provided evidence that behaviors and attitudes of the nurse manager do impact employee job satisfaction. Departments where staff perceived that managers had higher servant leadership orientation demonstrated significant positive impact on individual employee job satisfaction. Nursing is a unique occupation in that it requires both competence in professional service and compassion in patient caregiving. Hospitals are not factories dealing with inanimate objects or data. The results of this research suggested that the management approach in a health care environment might be enhanced by a more servant-oriented management approach. Specific policy changes that may be implied on the basis of findings of this research include key areas of management selection, management development, and management reward/evaluation.

  12. Ontology-Oriented Programming for Biomedical Informatics.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    Ontologies are now widely used in the biomedical domain. However, it is difficult to manipulate ontologies in a computer program and, consequently, it is not easy to integrate ontologies with databases or websites. Two main approaches have been proposed for accessing ontologies in a computer program: traditional API (Application Programming Interface) and ontology-oriented programming, either static or dynamic. In this paper, we will review these approaches and discuss their appropriateness for biomedical ontologies. We will also present an experience feedback about the integration of an ontology in a computer software during the VIIIP research project. Finally, we will present OwlReady, the solution we developed.

  13. A Linguistic Model in Component Oriented Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crăciunean, Daniel Cristian; Crăciunean, Vasile

    2016-12-01

    It is a fact that the component-oriented programming, well organized, can bring a large increase in efficiency in the development of large software systems. This paper proposes a model for building software systems by assembling components that can operate independently of each other. The model is based on a computing environment that runs parallel and distributed applications. This paper introduces concepts as: abstract aggregation scheme and aggregation application. Basically, an aggregation application is an application that is obtained by combining corresponding components. In our model an aggregation application is a word in a language.

  14. Subjective Straight Ahead Orientation in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Reschke, M. F.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    This joint ESA NASA study will address adaptive changes in spatial orientation related to the subjective straight ahead and the use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to reduce perceptual errors. The study will be conducted before and after long-duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how spatial processing of target location is altered following exposure to microgravity. This study addresses the sensorimotor research gap to "determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing."

  15. Service Discovery Oriented Management System Construction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huawei; Ren, Ying

    2017-10-01

    In order to solve the problem that there is no uniform method for design service quality management system in large-scale complex service environment, this paper proposes a distributed service-oriented discovery management system construction method. Three measurement functions are proposed to compute nearest neighbor user similarity at different levels. At present in view of the low efficiency of service quality management systems, three solutions are proposed to improve the efficiency of the system. Finally, the key technologies of distributed service quality management system based on service discovery are summarized through the factor addition and subtraction of quantitative experiment.

  16. Position and orientation determination system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Harpring, Lawrence J.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Gordon, John R.

    A position determination system and method is provided that may be used for obtaining position and orientation information of a detector in a contaminated room. The system includes a detector, a sensor operably coupled to the detector, and a motor coupled to the sensor to move the sensor around the detector. A CPU controls the operation of the motor to move the sensor around the detector and determines distance and angle data from the sensor to an object. The method includes moving a sensor around the detector and measuring distance and angle data from the sensor to an object atmore » incremental positions around the detector.« less

  17. Orientation-independent measures of ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Watson-Lamprey, Jennie; Abrahamson, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    The geometric mean of the response spectra for two orthogonal horizontal components of motion, commonly used as the response variable in predictions of strong ground motion, depends on the orientation of the sensors as installed in the field. This means that the measure of ground-motion intensity could differ for the same actual ground motion. This dependence on sensor orientation is most pronounced for strongly correlated motion (the extreme example being linearly polarized motion), such as often occurs at periods of 1 sec or longer. We propose two new measures of the geometric mean, GMRotDpp, and GMRotIpp, that are independent of the sensor orientations. Both are based on a set of geometric means computed from the as-recorded orthogonal horizontal motions rotated through all possible non-redundant rotation angles. GMRotDpp is determined as the ppth percentile of the set of geometric means for a given oscillator period. For example, GMRotDOO, GMRotD50, and GMRotD100 correspond to the minimum, median, and maximum values, respectively. The rotations that lead to GMRotDpp depend on period, whereas a single-period-independent rotation is used for GMRotIpp, the angle being chosen to minimize the spread of the rotation-dependent geometric mean (normalized by GMRotDpp) over the usable range of oscillator periods. GMRotI50 is the ground-motion intensity measure being used in the development of new ground-motion prediction equations by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Center Next Generation Attenuation project. Comparisons with as-recorded geometric means for a large dataset show that the new measures are systematically larger than the geometric-mean response spectra using the as-recorded values of ground acceleration, but only by a small amount (less than 3%). The theoretical advantage of the new measures is that they remove sensor orientation as a contributor to aleatory uncertainty. Whether the reduction is of practical significance awaits detailed studies of large

  18. Risk-Based Object Oriented Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda H.; Stapko, Ruth; Gallo, Albert

    2000-01-01

    Software testing is a well-defined phase of the software development life cycle. Functional ("black box") testing and structural ("white box") testing are two methods of test case design commonly used by software developers. A lesser known testing method is risk-based testing, which takes into account the probability of failure of a portion of code as determined by its complexity. For object oriented programs, a methodology is proposed for identification of risk-prone classes. Risk-based testing is a highly effective testing technique that can be used to find and fix the most important problems as quickly as possible.

  19. Deep Space Detection of Oriented Ice Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshak, A.; Varnai, T.; Kostinski, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    The deep space climate observatory (DSCOVR) spacecraft resides at the first Lagrangian point about one million miles from Earth. A polychromatic imaging camera onboard delivers nearly hourly observations of the entire sun-lit face of the Earth. Many images contain unexpected bright flashes of light over both ocean and land. We constructed a yearlong time series of flash latitudes, scattering angles and oxygen absorption to demonstrate conclusively that the flashes over land are specular reflections off tiny ice crystals floating in the air nearly horizontally. Such deep space detection of tropospheric ice can be used to constrain the likelihood of oriented crystals and their contribution to Earth albedo.

  20. The Astronomical Orientation of Ancient Greek Temples

    PubMed Central

    Salt, Alun M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity. PMID:19936239

  1. The astronomical orientation of ancient Greek temples.

    PubMed

    Salt, Alun M

    2009-11-19

    Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity.

  2. Object-oriented Tools for Distributed Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1993-01-01

    Distributed computing systems are proliferating, owing to the availability of powerful, affordable microcomputers and inexpensive communication networks. A critical problem in developing such systems is getting application programs to interact with one another across a computer network. Remote interprogram connectivity is particularly challenging across heterogeneous environments, where applications run on different kinds of computers and operating systems. NetWorks! (trademark) is an innovative software product that provides an object-oriented messaging solution to these problems. This paper describes the design and functionality of NetWorks! and illustrates how it is being used to build complex distributed applications for NASA and in the commercial sector.

  3. Golden proportion for maxillofacial surgery in Orientals.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, S; Tsukada, S; Hayashi, H; Takada, Y; Koubayashi, S

    1989-11-01

    The facial position and balance of eyes, nose, and mouth in typical Japanese individuals were investigated, based on the golden proportion for each of these relationships. We found that Japanese tend to have a longer upper lip and shorter chin length compared with Caucasians. We believe that this tendency represents a general facial characteristic of the Oriental population. Each ratio obtained from determinations by our method was used for preoperative and postoperative aesthetic analysis in maxillofacial surgery. This method is considered useful because it permitted us to understand quantitatively the positional relationship and the balance of eyes, nose, and mouth in the face and to make comparisons with typical subjects.

  4. Feature integration across space, time, and orientation

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Thomas U.; Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    The perception of a visual target can be strongly influenced by flanking stimuli. In static displays, performance on the target improves when the distance to the flanking elements increases- proposedly because feature pooling and integration vanishes with distance. Here, we studied feature integration with dynamic stimuli. We show that features of single elements presented within a continuous motion stream are integrated largely independent of spatial distance (and orientation). Hence, space based models of feature integration cannot be extended to dynamic stimuli. We suggest that feature integration is guided by perceptual grouping operations that maintain the identity of perceptual objects over space and time. PMID:19968428

  5. Navigation: bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Holland, Richard A; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J; Cochran, William W; Wikelski, Martin

    2006-12-07

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation, but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances. Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark.

  6. Orientation of doubly rotated quartz plates.

    PubMed

    Sherman, J R

    1989-01-01

    A derivation from classical spherical trigonometry of equations to compute the orientation of doubly-rotated quartz blanks from Bragg X-ray data is discussed. These are usually derived by compact and efficient vector methods, which are reviewed briefly. They are solved by generating a quadratic equation with numerical coefficients. Two methods exist for performing the computation from measurements against two planes: a direct solution by a quadratic equation and a process of convergent iteration. Both have a spurious solution. Measurement against three lattice planes yields a set of three linear equations the solution of which is an unambiguous result.

  7. Career orientation and burnout in French general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Truchot, Didier

    2008-12-01

    This study among 259 French general practitioners examined how Cherniss's four career orientations, Artisan, Social Activist, Careerist, and Self-investor, as recalled by these physicians, are related to their burnout scores. Data were collected using anonymous questionnaires. Initial and present career orientations were related to depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Those whose career orientation changed to Self-investor reported the highest despersonalization, while those who changed to the Artisan orientation reported the lowest depersonalization. Results are discussed regarding the fit between career orientation and the work setting of general practitioners, a professional group with high burnout.

  8. FIBER ORIENTATION IN INJECTION MOLDED LONG CARBON FIBER THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jin; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Mathur, Raj N.

    2015-03-23

    A set of edge-gated and center-gated plaques were injection molded with long carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites, and the fiber orientation was measured at different locations of the plaques. Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight (ASMI) software was used to simulate the injection molding of these plaques and to predict the fiber orientation, using the anisotropic rotary diffusion and the reduced strain closure models. The phenomenological parameters of the orientation models were carefully identified by fitting to the measured orientation data. The fiber orientation predictions show very good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Retinal constraints on orientation specificity in cat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Schall, J D; Vitek, D J; Leventhal, A G

    1986-03-01

    Most retinal ganglion cells (Levick and Thibos, 1982) and cortical cells (Leventhal, 1983; Leventhal et al., 1984) subserving peripheral vision respond best to stimuli that are oriented radially, i.e., like the spokes of a wheel with the area centralis at the hub. We have extended this work by comparing directly the distributions of orientations represented in topographically corresponding regions of retina and visual cortex. Both central and peripheral regions were studied. The relations between the orientations of neighboring ganglion cells and the manner in which the overrepresentation of radial orientations is accommodated in the functional architecture of visual cortex were also studied. Our results are based on an analysis of the orientations of the dendritic fields of 1296 ganglion cells throughout the retina and the preferred orientations of 1389 cells located in retinotopically corresponding regions of cortical areas 17, 18, and 19 in the cat. We find that horizontal and vertical orientations are overrepresented in regions of both retina and visual cortex subserving the central 5 degrees of vision. The distributions of the orientations of retinal ganglion cells and cortical cells subserving the horizontal, vertical, and diagonal meridians outside the area centralis differ significantly. The distribution of the preferred orientations of the S (simple) cells in areas 17, 18 and 19 subserving a given part of the retina corresponds to the distribution of the dendritic field orientations of the ganglion cells in that part of retina. The distribution of the preferred orientations of C (complex) cells with narrow receptive fields in area 17 but not C cells with wide receptive fields in areas 17, 18, or 19 subserving a given part of the retina matches the distribution of the orientations of the ganglion cells in that part of retina. The orientations of all of the alpha-cells in 5-9 mm2 patches of retina along the horizontal, vertical, and oblique meridians were

  10. Functional implications of orientation maps in primary visual cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Erin; Jin, Jianzhong; Alonso, Jose M.; Zaidi, Qasim

    2016-11-01

    Stimulus orientation in the primary visual cortex of primates and carnivores is mapped as iso-orientation domains radiating from pinwheel centres, where orientation preferences of neighbouring cells change circularly. Whether this orientation map has a function is currently debated, because many mammals, such as rodents, do not have such maps. Here we show that two fundamental properties of visual cortical responses, contrast saturation and cross-orientation suppression, are stronger within cat iso-orientation domains than at pinwheel centres. These differences develop when excitation (not normalization) from neighbouring oriented neurons is applied to different cortical orientation domains and then balanced by inhibition from un-oriented neurons. The functions of the pinwheel mosaic emerge from these local intra-cortical computations: Narrower tuning, greater cross-orientation suppression and higher contrast gain of iso-orientation cells facilitate extraction of object contours from images, whereas broader tuning, greater linearity and less suppression of pinwheel cells generate selectivity for surface patterns and textures.

  11. Dissociable processes for orientation discrimination learning and contextual illusion magnitude.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Charlotte Elizabeth Holmes; Rees, Geraint; Schwarzkopf, Dietrich Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests an inverse relationship between human orientation discrimination sensitivity and tilt illusion magnitude. To test whether these perceptual functions are inherently linked, we measured both orientation discrimination sensitivity and the magnitude of the tilt illusion before and after participants had been trained for three days on an orientation discrimination task. Discrimination sensitivity improved with training and this improvement remained one month after the initial learning. However, tilt illusion magnitude remained unchanged before and after orientation training, at either trained or untrained orientations. Our results suggest that orientation discrimination sensitivity and illusion magnitude are not inherently linked. They also provide further evidence that, at least for the training periods we employed, perceptual learning of orientation discrimination may involve high-level processes.

  12. Dissociable Processes for Orientation Discrimination Learning and Contextual Illusion Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Wilks, Charlotte Elizabeth Holmes; Rees, Geraint; Schwarzkopf, Dietrich Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests an inverse relationship between human orientation discrimination sensitivity and tilt illusion magnitude. To test whether these perceptual functions are inherently linked, we measured both orientation discrimination sensitivity and the magnitude of the tilt illusion before and after participants had been trained for three days on an orientation discrimination task. Discrimination sensitivity improved with training and this improvement remained one month after the initial learning. However, tilt illusion magnitude remained unchanged before and after orientation training, at either trained or untrained orientations. Our results suggest that orientation discrimination sensitivity and illusion magnitude are not inherently linked. They also provide further evidence that, at least for the training periods we employed, perceptual learning of orientation discrimination may involve high-level processes. PMID:25061816

  13. Outcome evaluation of a new model of critical care orientation.

    PubMed

    Morris, Linda L; Pfeifer, Pamela; Catalano, Rene; Fortney, Robert; Nelson, Greta; Rabito, Robb; Harap, Rebecca

    2009-05-01

    The shortage of critical care nurses and the service expansion of 2 intensive care units provided a unique opportunity to create a new model of critical care orientation. The goal was to design a program that assessed critical thinking, validated competence, and provided learning pathways that accommodated diverse experience. To determine the effect of a new model of critical care orientation on satisfaction, retention, turnover, vacancy, preparedness to manage patient care assignment, length of orientation, and cost of orientation. A prospective, quasi-experimental design with both quantitative and qualitative methods. The new model improved satisfaction scores, retention rates, and recruitment of critical care nurses. Length of orientation was unchanged. Cost was increased, primarily because a full-time education consultant was added. A new model for nurse orientation that was focused on critical thinking and competence validation improved retention and satisfaction and serves as a template for orientation of nurses throughout the medical center.

  14. A morphological basis for orientation tuning in primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Mooser, François; Bosking, William H; Fitzpatrick, David

    2004-08-01

    Feedforward connections are thought to be important in the generation of orientation-selective responses in visual cortex by establishing a bias in the sampling of information from regions of visual space that lie along a neuron's axis of preferred orientation. It remains unclear, however, which structural elements-dendrites or axons-are ultimately responsible for conveying this sampling bias. To explore this question, we have examined the spatial arrangement of feedforward axonal connections that link non-oriented neurons in layer 4 and orientation-selective neurons in layer 2/3 of visual cortex in the tree shrew. Target sites of labeled boutons in layer 2/3 resulting from focal injections of biocytin in layer 4 show an orientation-specific axial bias that is sufficient to confer orientation tuning to layer 2/3 neurons. We conclude that the anisotropic arrangement of axon terminals is the principal source of the orientation bias contributed by feedforward connections.

  15. Reprogramming of orientation columns in visual cortex: a domino effect

    PubMed Central

    Bachatene, Lyes; Bharmauria, Vishal; Cattan, Sarah; Rouat, Jean; Molotchnikoff, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Cortical organization rests upon the fundamental principle that neurons sharing similar properties are co-located. In the visual cortex, neurons are organized into orientation columns. In a column, most neurons respond optimally to the same axis of an oriented edge, that is, the preferred orientation. This orientation selectivity is believed to be absolute in adulthood. However, in a fully mature brain, it has been established that neurons change their selectivity following sensory experience or visual adaptation. Here, we show that after applying an adapter away from the tested cells, neurons whose receptive fields were located remotely from the adapted site also exhibit a novel selectivity in spite of the fact that they were not adapted. These results indicate a robust reconfiguration and remapping of the orientation domains with respect to each other thus removing the possibility of an orientation hole in the new hypercolumn. These data suggest that orientation columns transcend anatomy, and are almost strictly functionally dynamic. PMID:25801392

  16. fMRI orientation decoding in V1 does not require global maps or globally coherent orientation stimuli.

    PubMed

    Alink, Arjen; Krugliak, Alexandra; Walther, Alexander; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    The orientation of a large grating can be decoded from V1 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, even at low resolution (3-mm isotropic voxels). This finding has suggested that columnar-level neuronal information might be accessible to fMRI at 3T. However, orientation decodability might alternatively arise from global orientation-preference maps. Such global maps across V1 could result from bottom-up processing, if the preferences of V1 neurons were biased toward particular orientations (e.g., radial from fixation, or cardinal, i.e., vertical or horizontal). Global maps could also arise from local recurrent or top-down processing, reflecting pre-attentive perceptual grouping, attention spreading, or predictive coding of global form. Here we investigate whether fMRI orientation decoding with 2-mm voxels requires (a) globally coherent orientation stimuli and/or (b) global-scale patterns of V1 activity. We used opposite-orientation gratings (balanced about the cardinal orientations) and spirals (balanced about the radial orientation), along with novel patch-swapped variants of these stimuli. The two stimuli of a patch-swapped pair have opposite orientations everywhere (like their globally coherent parent stimuli). However, the two stimuli appear globally similar, a patchwork of opposite orientations. We find that all stimulus pairs are robustly decodable, demonstrating that fMRI orientation decoding does not require globally coherent orientation stimuli. Furthermore, decoding remained robust after spatial high-pass filtering for all stimuli, showing that fine-grained components of the fMRI patterns reflect visual orientations. Consistent with previous studies, we found evidence for global radial and vertical preference maps in V1. However, these were weak or absent for patch-swapped stimuli, suggesting that global preference maps depend on globally coherent orientations and might arise through recurrent or top-down processes related to the perception of

  17. Object oriented studies into artificial space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, J. M.; Marshall, G.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype simulation is being developed under contract to the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE), Farnborough, England, to assist in the discrimination of artificial space objects/debris. The methodology undertaken has been to link Object Oriented programming, intelligent knowledge based system (IKBS) techniques and advanced computer technology with numeric analysis to provide a graphical, symbolic simulation. The objective is to provide an additional layer of understanding on top of conventional classification methods. Use is being made of object and rule based knowledge representation, multiple reasoning, truth maintenance and uncertainty. Software tools being used include Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) and SymTactics for knowledge representation. Hooks are being developed within the SymTactics framework to incorporate mathematical models describing orbital motion and fragmentation. Penetration and structural analysis can also be incorporated. SymTactics is an Object Oriented discrete event simulation tool built as a domain specific extension to the KEE environment. The tool provides facilities for building, debugging and monitoring dynamic (military) simulations.

  18. Orienting attention to locations in mental representations

    PubMed Central

    Astle, Duncan Edward; Summerfield, Jennifer; Griffin, Ivan; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-01-01

    Many cognitive processes depend on our ability to hold information in mind, often well beyond the offset of the original sensory input. The capacity of this ‘visual short-term memory’ (VSTM) is limited to around three to four items. Recent research has demonstrated that the content of VSTM can be modulated by top-down attentional biases. This has been demonstrated using retrodictive spatial cues, termed ‘retro-cues’, which orient participants’ attention to spatial locations within VSTM. In the current paper, we tested whether the use of these cues is modulated by memory load and cue delay. There are a number of important conclusions: i) top-down biases can operate upon very brief iconic traces as well as older VSTM representations (Experiment 1); ii) when operating within capacity, subjects use the cue to prioritize where they initiate their memory search, rather than to discard un-cued items (Experiments 2 and 3); iii) when capacity is exceeded there is little benefit to top-down biasing relative to a neutral condition, however, unattended items are lost, with there being a substantial cost of invalid spatial cueing (Experiment 3); iv) these costs and benefits of orienting spatial attention differ across iconic memory and VSTM representations when VSTM capacity is exceeded (Experiment 4). PMID:21972046

  19. Oriented nanofibers embedded in a polymer matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrera, Enrique V. (Inventor); Lozano, Karen (Inventor); Rodriguez-Macias, Fernando J. (Inventor); Chibante, Luis Paulo Felipe (Inventor); Stewart, David Harris (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of forming a composite of embedded nanofibers in a polymer matrix is disclosed. The method includes incorporating nanofibers in a plastic matrix forming agglomerates, and uniformly distributing the nanofibers by exposing the agglomerates to hydrodynamic stresses. The hydrodynamic said stresses force the agglomerates to break apart. In combination or additionally elongational flow is used to achieve small diameters and alignment. A nanofiber reinforced polymer composite system is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of nanofibers that are embedded in polymer matrices in micron size fibers. A method for producing nanotube continuous fibers is disclosed. Nanofibers are fibrils with diameters of 100 nm, multiwall nanotubes, single wall nanotubes and their various functionalized and derivatized forms. The method includes mixing a nanofiber in a polymer; and inducing an orientation of the nanofibers that enables the nanofibers to be used to enhance mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Orientation is induced by high shear mixing and elongational flow, singly or in combination. The polymer may be removed from said nanofibers, leaving micron size fibers of aligned nanofibers.

  20. Orienting members in a preselected rotary alignment

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Ray E.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for orienting members and for maintaining their rotary alignment during orienting members. The apparatus comprises first and second cylindrical elements, a rotation prevention element, a collar and a retainer. Each element has an outside wall, and first and second ends, each end having an outside edge. The first element has portions defining a first plurality of notches located at the outside edge of its first end. An external threaded portion is on the outside wall of the first element and next to the first plurality of notches. The second element has portions defining a second plurality of notches located at the outside edge of its first end. The first plurality has a different number than the second plurality. The first ends of the first and second tubes have substantially the same outside diameter and are abutted during connection so that a cavity is formed whenever first and second tube notches substantially overlap. A rotation prevention element is placed in the cavity to prevent rotation of the first and second elements. A collar with an internal threaded portion is slidably disposed about the second element. The internal threaded portion engages the external threaded portion of the first element to connect the elements. A lip connected to the collar prevents separation of the collar from the second element.

  1. Viral assembly of oriented quantum dot nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chuanbin; Flynn, Christine E; Hayhurst, Andrew; Sweeney, Rozamond; Qi, Jifa; Georgiou, George; Iverson, Brent; Belcher, Angela M

    2003-06-10

    The highly organized structure of M13 bacteriophage was used as an evolved biological template for the nucleation and orientation of semiconductor nanowires. To create this organized template, peptides were selected by using a pIII phage display library for their ability to nucleate ZnS or CdS nanocrystals. The successful peptides were expressed as pVIII fusion proteins into the crystalline capsid of the virus. The engineered viruses were exposed to semiconductor precursor solutions, and the resultant nanocrystals that were templated along the viruses to form nanowires were extensively characterized by using high-resolution analytical electron microscopy and photoluminescence. ZnS nanocrystals were well crystallized on the viral capsid in a hexagonal wurtzite or a cubic zinc blende structure, depending on the peptide expressed on the viral capsid. Electron diffraction patterns showed single-crystal type behavior from a polynanocrystalline area of the nanowire formed, suggesting that the nanocrystals on the virus were preferentially oriented with their [001] perpendicular to the viral surface. Peptides that specifically directed CdS nanocrystal growth were also engineered into the viral capsid to create wurtzite CdS virus-based nanowires. Lastly, heterostructured nucleation was achieved with a dual-peptide virus engineered to express two distinct peptides within the same viral capsid. This work represents a genetically controlled biological synthesis route to a semiconductor nanoscale heterostructure.

  2. Orientations of dendritic growth during solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Nyung

    2017-03-01

    Dendrites are crystalline forms which grow far from the limit of stability of the plane front and adopt an orientation which is as close as possible to the heat flux direction. Dendritic growth orientations for cubic metals, bct Sn, and hcp Zn, can be controlled by thermal conductivity, Young's modulus, and surface energy. The control factors have been elaborated. Since the dendrite is a single crystal, its properties such as thermal conductivity that influences the heat flux direction, the minimum Young's modulus direction that influences the strain energy minimization, and the minimum surface energy plane that influences the crystal/liquid interface energy minimization have been proved to control the dendritic growth direction. The dendritic growth directions of cubic metals are determined by the minimum Young's modulus direction and/or axis direction of symmetry of the minimum crystal surface energy plane. The dendritic growth direction of bct Sn is determined by its maximum thermal conductivity direction and the minimum surface energy plane normal direction. The primary dendritic growth direction of hcp Zn is determined by its maximum thermal conductivity direction and the minimum surface energy plane normal direction and the secondary dendrite arm direction of hcp Zn is normal to the primary dendritic growth direction.

  3. Rotation of vertically oriented objects during earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinzen, Klaus-G.

    2012-10-01

    Vertically oriented objects, such as tombstones, monuments, columns, and stone lanterns, are often observed to shift and rotate during earthquake ground motion. Such observations are usually limited to the mesoseismal zone. Whether near-field rotational ground motion components are necessary in addition to pure translational movements to explain the observed rotations is an open question. We summarize rotation data from seven earthquakes between 1925 and 2009 and perform analog and numeric rotation testing with vertically oriented objects. The free-rocking motion of a marble block on a sliding table is disturbed by a pulse in the direction orthogonal to the rocking motion. When the impulse is sufficiently strong and occurs at the `right' moment, it induces significant rotation of the block. Numeric experiments of a free-rocking block show that the initiation of vertical block rotation by a cycloidal acceleration pulse applied orthogonal to the rocking axis depends on the amplitude of the pulse and its phase relation to the rocking cycle. Rotation occurs when the pulse acceleration exceeds the threshold necessary to provoke rocking of a resting block, and the rocking block approaches its equilibrium position. Experiments with blocks subjected to full 3D strong motion signals measured during the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake confirm the observations from the tests with analytic ground motions. Significant differences in the rotational behavior of a monolithic block and two stacked blocks exist.

  4. The Dung Beetle Dance: An Orientation Behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J.; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric J.; Dacke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    An interesting feature of dung beetle behaviour is that once they have formed a piece of dung into a ball, they roll it along a straight path away from the dung pile. This straight-line orientation ensures that the beetles depart along the most direct route, guaranteeing that they will not return to the intense competition (from other beetles) that occurs near the dung pile. Before rolling a new ball away from the dung pile, dung beetles perform a characteristic “dance,” in which they climb on top of the ball and rotate about their vertical axis. This dance behaviour can also be observed during the beetles' straight-line departure from the dung pile. The aim of the present study is to investigate the purpose of the dung beetle dance. To do this, we explored the circumstances that elicit dance behaviour in the diurnal ball-rolling dung beetle, Scarabaeus (Kheper) nigroaeneus. Our results reveal that dances are elicited when the beetles lose control of their ball or lose contact with it altogether. We also find that dances can be elicited by both active and passive deviations of course and by changes in visual cues alone. In light of these results, we hypothesise that the dung beetle dance is a visually mediated mechanism that facilitates straight-line orientation in ball-rolling dung beetles by allowing them to 1) establish a roll bearing and 2) return to this chosen bearing after experiencing a disturbance to the roll path. PMID:22279572

  5. Viral assembly of oriented quantum dot nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Chuanbin; Flynn, Christine E.; Hayhurst, Andrew; Sweeney, Rozamond; Qi, Jifa; Georgiou, George; Iverson, Brent; Belcher, Angela M.

    2003-06-01

    The highly organized structure of M13 bacteriophage was used as an evolved biological template for the nucleation and orientation of semiconductor nanowires. To create this organized template, peptides were selected by using a pIII phage display library for their ability to nucleate ZnS or CdS nanocrystals. The successful peptides were expressed as pVIII fusion proteins into the crystalline capsid of the virus. The engineered viruses were exposed to semiconductor precursor solutions, and the resultant nanocrystals that were templated along the viruses to form nanowires were extensively characterized by using high-resolution analytical electron microscopy and photoluminescence. ZnS nanocrystals were well crystallized on the viral capsid in a hexagonal wurtzite or a cubic zinc blende structure, depending on the peptide expressed on the viral capsid. Electron diffraction patterns showed single-crystal type behavior from a polynanocrystalline area of the nanowire formed, suggesting that the nanocrystals on the virus were preferentially oriented with their [001] perpendicular to the viral surface. Peptides that specifically directed CdS nanocrystal growth were also engineered into the viral capsid to create wurtzite CdS virus-based nanowires. Lastly, heterostructured nucleation was achieved with a dual-peptide virus engineered to express two distinct peptides within the same viral capsid. This work represents a genetically controlled biological synthesis route to a semiconductor nanoscale heterostructure.

  6. Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences

    DOEpatents

    Goodwin, Edwin H.; Meyne, Julianne

    2000-01-01

    Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences. A method by which fluorescence in situ hybridization can be made strand specific is described. Cell cultures are grown in a medium containing a halogenated nucleotide. The analog is partially incorporated in one DNA strand of each chromatid. This substitution takes place in opposite strands of the two sister chromatids. After staining with the fluorescent DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33258, cells are exposed to long-wavelength ultraviolet light which results in numerous strand nicks. These nicks enable the substituted strand to be denatured and solubilized by heat, treatment with high or low pH aqueous solutions, or by immersing the strands in 2.times.SSC (0.3M NaCl+0.03M sodium citrate), to name three procedures. It is unnecessary to enzymatically digest the strands using Exo III or another exonuclease in order to excise and solubilize nucleotides starting at the sites of the nicks. The denaturing/solubilizing process removes most of the substituted strand while leaving the prereplication strand largely intact. Hybridization of a single-stranded probe of a tandem repeat arranged in a head-to-tail orientation will result in hybridization only to the chromatid with the complementary strand present.

  7. Gender nonconformity, intelligence, and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Qazi; Bhanot, Suraj; Emrith-Small, Hanna; Ghafoor, Shilan; Roberts, Steven

    2012-06-01

    The present study explored whether there were relationships among gender nonconformity, intelligence, and sexual orientation. A total of 106 heterosexual men, 115 heterosexual women, and 103 gay men completed measures of demographic variables, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), and the National Adult Reading Test (NART). NART error scores were used to estimate Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and Verbal IQ (VIQ) scores. Gay men had significantly fewer NART errors than heterosexual men and women (controlling for years of education). In heterosexual men, correlational analysis revealed significant associations between CGN, NART, and FSIQ scores (elevated boyhood femininity correlated with higher IQ scores). In heterosexual women, the direction of the correlations between CGN and all IQ scores was reversed (elevated girlhood femininity correlating with lower IQ scores). There were no significant correlations among these variables in gay men. These data may indicate a "sexuality-specific" effect on general cognitive ability but with limitations. They also support growing evidence that quantitative measures of sex-atypicality are useful in the study of trait sexual orientation.

  8. Flying Drosophila orient to sky polarization.

    PubMed

    Weir, Peter T; Dickinson, Michael H

    2012-01-10

    Insects maintain a constant bearing across a wide range of spatial scales. Monarch butterflies and locusts traverse continents [1, 2], and foraging bees and ants travel hundreds of meters to return to their nests [1, 3, 4], whereas many other insects fly straight for only a few centimeters before changing direction. Despite this variation in spatial scale, the brain region thought to underlie long-distance navigation is remarkably conserved [5, 6], suggesting that the use of a celestial compass is a general and perhaps ancient capability of insects. Laboratory studies of Drosophila have identified a local search mode in which short, straight segments are interspersed with rapid turns [7, 8]. However, this flight mode is inconsistent with measured gene flow between geographically separated populations [9-11], and individual Drosophila can travel 10 km across desert terrain in a single night [9, 12, 13]-a feat that would be impossible without prolonged periods of straight flight. To directly examine orientation behavior under outdoor conditions, we built a portable flight arena in which a fly viewed the natural sky through a liquid crystal device that could experimentally rotate the polarization angle. Our findings indicate that Drosophila actively orient using the sky's natural polarization pattern. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Orientation-Enhanced Parallel Coordinate Plots.

    PubMed

    Raidou, Renata Georgia; Eisemann, Martin; Breeuwer, Marcel; Eisemann, Elmar; Vilanova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Parallel Coordinate Plots (PCPs) is one of the most powerful techniques for the visualization of multivariate data. However, for large datasets, the representation suffers from clutter due to overplotting. In this case, discerning the underlying data information and selecting specific interesting patterns can become difficult. We propose a new and simple technique to improve the display of PCPs by emphasizing the underlying data structure. Our Orientation-enhanced Parallel Coordinate Plots (OPCPs) improve pattern and outlier discernibility by visually enhancing parts of each PCP polyline with respect to its slope. This enhancement also allows us to introduce a novel and efficient selection method, the Orientation-enhanced Brushing (O-Brushing). Our solution is particularly useful when multiple patterns are present or when the view on certain patterns is obstructed by noise. We present the results of our approach with several synthetic and real-world datasets. Finally, we conducted a user evaluation, which verifies the advantages of the OPCPs in terms of discernibility of information in complex data. It also confirms that O-Brushing eases the selection of data patterns in PCPs and reduces the amount of necessary user interactions compared to state-of-the-art brushing techniques.

  10. Orienting in Virtual Environments: How Are Surface Features and Environmental Geometry Weighted in an Orientation Task?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Debbie M.; Bischof, Walter F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated how human adults orient in enclosed virtual environments, when discrete landmark information is not available and participants have to rely on geometric and featural information on the environmental surfaces. In contrast to earlier studies, where, for women, the featural information from discrete landmarks overshadowed the encoding…

  11. Understanding Student Goal Orientation Tendencies to Predict Student Performance: A 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark Alan

    2013-01-01

    The study tested the 2X2 model of the Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) theory in a military technical training environment while using the Air Force Officers Qualifying Test's academic aptitude score to control for the differences in the students' academic aptitude. The study method was quantitative and the design was correlational.…

  12. Contemplating Regretted Messages: Learning-Oriented, Repair-Oriented, and Emotion-Focused Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    Regretted messages provide speakers an opportunity to learn. Whether learning occurs should depend upon how the incident is processed. This study had two objectives: (a) to determine how the goal a message conflicts with and seriousness influence the emotion(s) evoked; and (b) to determine which variables predict adoption of learning-oriented,…

  13. Multiple Femininities in a "Single Sex" School: Re-Orienting Life Orientation to Learner Lifeworlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mthatyana, Andisiwe; Vincent, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Life Orientation sexuality education in South Africa faces many pedagogical challenges, not least among which is that it is sometimes perceived as irrelevant to learners' real interests and concerns. Learners report that the content is repetitive and that they learn more from peers than from the reiterated lessons of risk and disease avoidance…

  14. Have You Been Oriented? An Analysis of New Student Orientation and E-Orientation Programs at U.S. Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an overview and a snapshot of new student orientation (NSO) and new student e-orientation (NSEO) programs, with a focus on the content and feature analysis of the NSEOs. It offers an overview of currently available NSO programs of 100 randomly selected community colleges from a master list of nearly 900 community colleges in…

  15. Development of anticipatory orienting strategies and trajectory formation in goal-oriented locomotion.

    PubMed

    Belmonti, Vittorio; Cioni, Giovanni; Berthoz, Alain

    2013-05-01

    In goal-oriented locomotion, healthy adults generate highly stereotyped trajectories and a consistent anticipatory head orienting behaviour, both evidence of top-down, open-loop control. The aim of this study is to describe the typical development of anticipatory orienting strategies and trajectory formation. Our hypothesis is that full-blown anticipatory control requires advanced navigational skills. Twenty-six healthy subjects (14 children: 4-11 years; 6 adolescents: 13-17 years; 6 adults) were asked to walk freely towards one of the three visual targets, in a randomised order. Movement was captured via an optoelectronic system, with 15 body markers. The whole-body displacement, yaw orientation of head, trunk and pelvis, heading direction and foot placements were extracted. Head-heading anticipation, trajectory curvature, indexes of variability of trajectories, foot placements and kinematic profiles were studied. The mean head-heading anticipation time and trajectory curvature did not significantly differ among age groups. In children, however, head anticipation was more often lacking (χ2 = 9.55, p < 0.01), and there were significant intra- and inter-subject variations. Trajectory curvature was often very high in children, while it became consistently lower in adolescence (χ2 = 78.59, p < 10(-17)). The indexes of spatial and kinematic variability all followed a decreasing developmental trend (R (2) > 0.5, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, children under 11 do not perform curvilinear locomotor trajectories as adolescents and adults do. Anticipatory head orientation and trajectory formation develop in late childhood, well after gait maturation. Navigational skills, such as path planning and shifting from ego- to allocentric spatial reference frames, are proposed as necessary requisites for mature locomotor control.

  16. Orientation-selective Responses in the Mouse Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinyu; Chen, Hui; Liu, Xiaorong

    2013-01-01

    The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) receives visual information from the retina and transmits it to the cortex. In this study, we made extracellular recordings in the dLGN of both anesthetized and awake mice, and found that a surprisingly high proportion of cells were selective for stimulus orientation. The orientation selectivity of dLGN cells was unchanged after silencing the visual cortex pharmacologically, indicating that it is not due to cortical feedback. The orientation tuning of some dLGN cells correlated with their elongated receptive fields, while in others orientation selectivity was observed despite the fact that their receptive fields were circular, suggesting that their retinal input might already be orientation selective. Consistently, we revealed orientation/axis-selective ganglion cells in the mouse retina using multielectrode arrays in an in vitro preparation. Furthermore, the orientation tuning of dLGN cells was largely maintained at different stimulus contrasts, which could be sufficiently explained by a simple linear feedforward model. We also compared the degree of orientation selectivity in different visual structures under the same recording condition. Compared with the dLGN, orientation selectivity is greatly improved in the visual cortex, but is similar in the superior colliculus, another major retinal target. Together, our results demonstrate prominent orientation selectivity in the mouse dLGN, which may potentially contribute to visual processing in the cortex. PMID:23904611

  17. Brain system for mental orientation in space, time, and person

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Michael; Salomon, Roy; Goldberg, Ilan; Blanke, Olaf; Arzy, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    Orientation is a fundamental mental function that processes the relations between the behaving self to space (places), time (events), and person (people). Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have hinted at interrelations between processing of these three domains. To unravel the neurocognitive basis of orientation, we used high-resolution 7T functional MRI as 16 subjects compared their subjective distance to different places, events, or people. Analysis at the individual-subject level revealed cortical activation related to orientation in space, time, and person in a precisely localized set of structures in the precuneus, inferior parietal, and medial frontal cortex. Comparison of orientation domains revealed a consistent order of cortical activity inside the precuneus and inferior parietal lobes, with space orientation activating posterior regions, followed anteriorly by person and then time. Core regions at the precuneus and inferior parietal lobe were activated for multiple orientation domains, suggesting also common processing for orientation across domains. The medial prefrontal cortex showed a posterior activation for time and anterior for person. Finally, the default-mode network, identified in a separate resting-state scan, was active for all orientation domains and overlapped mostly with person-orientation regions. These findings suggest that mental orientation in space, time, and person is managed by a specific brain system with a highly ordered internal organization, closely related to the default-mode network. PMID:26283353

  18. Enhanced cellulose orientation analysis in complex model plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Rüggeberg, Markus; Saxe, Friederike; Metzger, Till H; Sundberg, Björn; Fratzl, Peter; Burgert, Ingo

    2013-09-01

    The orientation distribution of cellulose microfibrils in the plant cell wall is a key parameter for understanding anisotropic plant growth and mechanical behavior. However, precisely visualizing cellulose orientation in the plant cell wall has ever been a challenge due to the small size of the cellulose microfibrils and the complex network of polymers in the plant cell wall. X-ray diffraction is one of the most frequently used methods for analyzing cellulose orientation in single cells and plant tissues, but the interpretation of the diffraction images is complex. Traditionally, circular or square cells and Gaussian orientation of the cellulose microfibrils have been assumed to elucidate cellulose orientation from the diffraction images. However, the complex tissue structures of common model plant systems such as Arabidopsis or aspen (Populus) require a more sophisticated approach. We present an evaluation procedure which takes into account the precise cell geometry and is able to deal with complex microfibril orientation distributions. The evaluation procedure reveals the entire orientation distribution of the cellulose microfibrils, reflecting different orientations within the multi-layered cell wall. By analyzing aspen wood and Arabidopsis stems we demonstrate the versatility of this method and show that simplifying assumptions on geometry and orientation distributions can lead to errors in the calculated microfibril orientation pattern. The simulation routine is intended to be used as a valuable tool for nanostructural analysis of plant cell walls and is freely available from the authors on request. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain system for mental orientation in space, time, and person.

    PubMed

    Peer, Michael; Salomon, Roy; Goldberg, Ilan; Blanke, Olaf; Arzy, Shahar

    2015-09-01

    Orientation is a fundamental mental function that processes the relations between the behaving self to space (places), time (events), and person (people). Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have hinted at interrelations between processing of these three domains. To unravel the neurocognitive basis of orientation, we used high-resolution 7T functional MRI as 16 subjects compared their subjective distance to different places, events, or people. Analysis at the individual-subject level revealed cortical activation related to orientation in space, time, and person in a precisely localized set of structures in the precuneus, inferior parietal, and medial frontal cortex. Comparison of orientation domains revealed a consistent order of cortical activity inside the precuneus and inferior parietal lobes, with space orientation activating posterior regions, followed anteriorly by person and then time. Core regions at the precuneus and inferior parietal lobe were activated for multiple orientation domains, suggesting also common processing for orientation across domains. The medial prefrontal cortex showed a posterior activation for time and anterior for person. Finally, the default-mode network, identified in a separate resting-state scan, was active for all orientation domains and overlapped mostly with person-orientation regions. These findings suggest that mental orientation in space, time, and person is managed by a specific brain system with a highly ordered internal organization, closely related to the default-mode network.

  20. Discourses of student orientation to medical education programs

    PubMed Central

    Ellaway, Rachel H.; Cooper, Gerry; Al-Idrissi, Tracy; Dubé, Tim; Graves, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Although medical students’ initial orientation is an important point of transition in medical education, there is a paucity of literature on the subject and major variations in the ways that different institutions orient incoming medical students to their programs. Methods We conducted a discourse analysis of medical education orientation in the literature and on data from a survey of peer institutions’ approaches to orientation. Results These two discourses of orientation had clear similarities, in particular, the critical role of ceremony and symbols, and the focus on developing professionalism and physician identities. There were also differences between them, in particular, in the way that the discourse in the literature focused on the symbolic and professional aspects of orientation; something we have called ‘cultural orientation’. Meanwhile, those who were responsible for orientation in their own institutions tended to focus on the practical and social dimensions. Conclusion By examining how orientation has been described and discussed, we identify three domains of orientation: cultural, social, and practical. These domains are relatively distinct in terms of the activities associated with them, and in terms of who is involved in organizing and running these activities. We also describe orientation as a liminal activity system on the threshold of medical school where incoming students initially cross into the profession. Interestingly, this state of ambiguity also extends to the scholarship of orientation with only some of its aspects attracting formal enquiry, even though there is a growing interest in transitions in medical education as a whole. We hope, therefore, that this study can help to legitimize enquiry into orientation in all its forms and that it can begin to situate the role of orientation more firmly within the firmament of medical education practice and research. PMID:24646440

  1. Self-determination and goal orientation in track and field.

    PubMed

    Chin, Ngien-Siong; Khoo, Selina; Low, Wah-Yun

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated gender, age group and locality differences in adolescent athletes' self-determination motivation and goal orientations in track and field. It also examined the relationship between the self-determination theory and achievement goal theory. A total of 632 (349 boys, 283 girls) adolescent athletes (aged 13-18 years) completed the Sports Motivation Scale and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences between gender on intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation (t(630) = 4.10, p < 0.05) and ego orientation (t(630) = 2.48, p < 0.05). Male students reported higher intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation and ego orientation. A significant difference was found between age groups on task orientation (t(630) = 1.94, p < 0.05) and locality on ego orientation (t(630) = 1.94, p < 0.05). Older athletes showed significantly higher task orientation. Rural athletes had higher ego orientation whereas urban athletes have higher intrinsic motivation. Task orientation was related to intrinsic motivation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01), extrinsic motivation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01), but weakly related to amotivation (r = 0.10, p < 0.01). Ego orientation was related to intrinsic motivation (r = 0.30, p < 0.01), extrinsic motivation (r = 0.36, p < 0.01) and amotivaion (r = 0.36, p < 0.01). Task orientation was related to ego orientation (r = 0.29, p < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation accounted for 30.5% of the variances in task orientation.

  2. Self-Determination and Goal Orientation in Track and Field

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Ngien-Siong; Khoo, Selina; Low, Wah-Yun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender, age group and locality differences in adolescent athletes’ self-determination motivation and goal orientations in track and field. It also examined the relationship between the self-determination theory and achievement goal theory. A total of 632 (349 boys, 283 girls) adolescent athletes (aged 13–18 years) completed the Sports Motivation Scale and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences between gender on intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation (t(630) = 4.10, p < 0.05) and ego orientation (t(630) = 2.48, p < 0.05). Male students reported higher intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation and ego orientation. A significant difference was found between age groups on task orientation (t(630) = 1.94, p < 0.05) and locality on ego orientation (t(630) = 1.94, p < 0.05). Older athletes showed significantly higher task orientation. Rural athletes had higher ego orientation whereas urban athletes have higher intrinsic motivation. Task orientation was related to intrinsic motivation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01), extrinsic motivation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01), but weakly related to amotivation (r = 0.10, p < 0.01). Ego orientation was related to intrinsic motivation (r = 0.30, p < 0.01), extrinsic motivation (r = 0.36, p < 0.01) and amotivaion (r = 0.36, p < 0.01). Task orientation was related to ego orientation (r = 0.29, p < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation accounted for 30.5% of the variances in task orientation. PMID:23486244

  3. Transgender transitioning and change of self-reported sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Auer, Matthias K; Fuss, Johannes; Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K; Sievers, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM") patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. In total, 32.9% (n = 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10) FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05). In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.

  4. Using goal orientations to understand motivation in strength training.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Todd A; Chow, Graig M; Ewing, Martha E

    2008-07-01

    Despite the importance that today's athletics place on strength training, research exploring the motivation of athletes in this arena is sparse. It is known that not all athletes will use the same motivational cognitions as inspiration, and these differences can be explored through achievement goal orientations. Through questionnaire data and semistructured interviews, the present study investigated how collegiate athletes maintain high levels of motivation over a period of time during strength training and explored relationships among five goal orientations: task-orientation, self-enhancing ego-orientation, self-defeating ego-orientation, social-approval orientation, and work-avoidance orientation. Subjects (N = 133), comprising 90 men and 43 women, were current varsity collegiate athletes from 15 different sports at a major Midwestern university. In addition, using a screener survey to assess achievement goal orientations, 15 subjects from the sample group who demonstrated a stronger inclination to only one achievement goal orientation were interviewed to gain a more in-depth understanding of their motivation cognitions in strength training. Results showed that the strongest achievement goal orientations reported from all athletes were task-orientation and social-approval. Additionally, five higher-order themes (significant others, improvement, competitive demands, being stronger than others, and miscellaneous) were consistent among the interviewed athletes when describing how they stay motivated during strength training. Whereas all athletes were able to describe at least one motivational strategy they employed during strength training, the dominant achievement goal orientation of some athletes influenced their motivational strategy. By employing the T.A.R.G.E.T. model (), strength coaches can foster adaptive achievement goal orientations and thereby enhance intrinsic motivation for athletes engaging in strength training.

  5. A network-oriented business modeling environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisconti, Cristian; Storelli, Davide; Totaro, Salvatore; Arigliano, Francesco; Savarino, Vincenzo; Vicari, Claudia

    The development of formal models related to the organizational aspects of an enterprise is fundamental when these aspects must be re-engineered and digitalized, especially when the enterprise is involved in the dynamics and value flows of a business network. Business modeling provides an opportunity to synthesize and make business processes, business rules and the structural aspects of an organization explicit, allowing business managers to control their complexity and guide an enterprise through effective decisional and strategic activities. This chapter discusses the main results of the TEKNE project in terms of software components that enable enterprises to configure, store, search and share models of any aspects of their business while leveraging standard and business-oriented technologies and languages to bridge the gap between the world of business people and IT experts and to foster effective business-to-business collaborations.

  6. Receptors signaling gravity orientation in an insect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Displacement in any direction from primary orientation is found to evoke tonic activity from at least one of the four interneurons of a certain type of burrowing cockroach; the receptive field for each interneuron is slightly more than a quadrant. The receptive field of each interneuron is found to be the same as the row of receptors providing the input. Displacement about the least stable axis (0-180 deg) or roll, on the one hand, and the most stable axis (90-270 deg) or pitch, on the other, is found to be unambiguously signaled by pairs of interneurons. Indications are obtained that receptors in the lateral row drive a giant interneuron in a contralateral connective and those in the medial row drive one in an ipsilateral connective.

  7. Object-Oriented Simulation of EW Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    elix.- r’UATO. SY - ~ ow W ." --N I -SEL’ TD DEEICESESEC ETBLISKM - 1Eol~P7 TEST National Defense Deec ationale OBJECT-ORIENTED SIMULATION OF EW...C C- _ _ _4- 0 E (4. I o 0 ~1 . __ _ L c 0 0 i EnE- L-C( 1*c 0~~ N1 Ld 0- E, U, E 0 cu a 0* L L L C:c0 Yc 0 c aja, it) oO -.zz - VV1V 41-4- ia. ca...will retain a simultaneous capability to simulate signal processing at the pulse level. 10 ?1( N 0 .0O Ldk rW% o N1 0 4’-V - 54 - " As discussed

  8. Remembering Left–Right Orientation of Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, James C.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Till, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    In a study of recognition memory for pictures, we observed an asymmetry in classifying test items as “same” versus “different” in left–right orientation: Identical copies of previously viewed items were classified more accurately than left–right reversals of those items. Response bias could not explain this asymmetry, and, moreover, correct “same” and “different” classifications were independently manipulable: Whereas repetition of input pictures (one vs. two presentations) affected primarily correct “same” classifications, retention interval (3 hr vs. 1 week) affected primarily correct “different” classifications. In addition, repetition but not retention interval affected judgments that previously seen pictures (both identical and reversed) were “old”. These and additional findings supported a dual-process hypothesis that links “same” classifications to high familiarity, and “different” classifications to conscious sampling of images of previously viewed pictures. PMID:2949051

  9. Controlling laser emission by selecting crystal orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lijuan; Han, Shujuan; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Zhang, Huanjin; Yu, Haohai; Han, Shuo; Xu, Xinguang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anisotropy of laser crystal, we demonstrate a method of adjusting laser emission by selecting crystal orientation. When the light propagating direction varies from a to c axis of Nd:LiGd(MoO4)2 crystal, emission wavelength exhibits a sensitive change of 1061 nm → 1061/1062 + 1068 nm → 1068 nm. The experimental discipline is well explained by a theoretical study of simulating on the spatial distribution of stimulated emission cross-section. This letter manifests that the laser property along non-principal-axis direction is also valuable for research and application, which breaks through the traditional custom of using laser materials processed along principal-axis.

  10. [Management and orientation of a hand laceration].

    PubMed

    Masmejean, Emmanuel

    2013-11-01

    The good management and orientation of a hand laceration by the general physician is essential. Anatomical knowledge help to judge, after examination, the opportunity for surgery exploration with local anesthesia. Serious stakes are prognostic and economics. The conclusion identifies three clinical pictures : simple superf cial wound requiring a simple clinical control 2 days follow-up, the dubious wound that need to be sent to a specialized center, and the wound requiring care in an emergency hand unit. Extremely urgent wounds are devascularization, amputation and the pressure injection . Bites and wounds on a tendon way require surgical exploration. Bandage should be as simple as possible in order to allow early motion. No antibiotic is given preventively exept for bite, open fractures and/or delay of treatment. Outpatient surgery under loca anesthesia simplifies management.

  11. Task Oriented Evaluation of Module Extraction Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmisano, Ignazio; Tamma, Valentina; Payne, Terry; Doran, Paul

    Ontology Modularization techniques identify coherent and often reusable regions within an ontology. The ability to identify such modules, thus potentially reducing the size or complexity of an ontology for a given task or set of concepts is increasingly important in the Semantic Web as domain ontologies increase in terms of size, complexity and expressivity. To date, many techniques have been developed, but evaluation of the results of these techniques is sketchy and somewhat ad hoc. Theoretical properties of modularization algorithms have only been studied in a small number of cases. This paper presents an empirical analysis of a number of modularization techniques, and the modules they identify over a number of diverse ontologies, by utilizing objective, task-oriented measures to evaluate the fitness of the modules for a number of statistical classification problems.

  12. Field-Oriented Control Of Induction Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Zinger, Don S.

    1993-01-01

    Field-oriented control system provides for feedback control of torque or speed or both. Developed for use with commercial three-phase, 400-Hz, 208-V, 5-hp motor. Systems include resonant power supply operating at 20 kHz. Pulse-population-modulation subsystem selects individual pulses of 20-kHz single-phase waveform as needed to synthesize three waveforms of appropriate lower frequency applied to three phase windings of motor. Electric actuation systems using technology currently being built to peak powers of 70 kW. Amplitude of voltage of effective machine-frequency waveform determined by momentary frequency of pulses, while machine frequency determined by rate of repetition of overall temporal pattern of pulses. System enables independent control of both voltage and frequency.

  13. Multi-Axis Test Facility Orientation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-03-01

    Seven Astronauts and William North undergo Multi Axis Space Test Inertia Facility (MASTIF) orientation: This film contains footage Gus Grissom leaving "Astro-Penthouse" and beginning tests, pilot Joe Algranti explaining the MASTIF to Scott Carpenter, Walter Schirra testing the controls and being strapped in, Deke Slayton climbing into the rig, and John Glenn preparing for test and being briefed by Algranti. Also seen are Alan Shepherd talking with Algranti and James Useller prior to climbing into rig and beginning test, Gordon Cooper being strapped in and beginning his test, Cooper and Algranti briefing to William North prior to his test. North was a test pilot on the NASA committee which selected the Mercury 7 astronauts.

  14. Vertically oriented metamaterial broadband linear polariser

    DOE PAGES

    Campione, Salvatore; Burckel, David Bruce

    2018-03-14

    Control and manipulation of polarization is an important topic for imaging and light matter interactions. In the infrared regime, the large wavelengths make wire grid polarizers a viable option, as it is possible to create periodic arrays of metallic wires at that scale. The recent advent of metamaterials has spurred an increase in non-traditional polarizer motifs centred around more complicated repeat units, which potentially provide more functionality. In this paper we explore the use of two-dimensional (2D) arrays of single and back-to-back vertically oriented cross dipoles arranged in a cubic in-plane silicon matrix. Here, we show that both single andmore » back-to-back versions have higher rejection ratios and larger bandwidths than either wire grid polarizers or 2D arrays of linear dipoles.« less

  15. Preparation and characterization of oriented silica nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S. H.; Meng, G. W.; Zhang, M. G.; Tian, Y. T.; Xie, T.; Zhang, L. D.

    2003-11-01

    Large-scale of oriented closely packed silica nanowire bunches have been synthesized by using large size (1-10 μm in diameter), low melting point tin droplets as catalyst on silicon wafers at 980 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses show that the amorphous silica nanowires have lengths of 50-100 μm and diameters of 100-200 nm. Unlike any previous observed results using high melting point metal (such as gold and iron) as catalyst, the Sn catalyst growth exhibits many interesting phenomena. Each Sn ball can simultaneously catalyze the growth of many silica nanowires, which is quite different from the conventional vapor-liquid-solid process.

  16. Object-oriented model-driven control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, A.; Mcroberts, M.; Sager, J.; Wheeler, R.

    1994-01-01

    A monitoring and control subsystem architecture has been developed that capitalizes on the use of modeldriven monitoring and predictive control, knowledge-based data representation, and artificial reasoning in an operator support mode. We have developed an object-oriented model of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The model based on the NASA Kennedy Space Center CELSS breadboard data, tracks carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, carbodioxide, and water. It estimates and tracks resorce-related parameters such as mass, energy, and manpower measurements such as growing area required for balance. We are developing an interface with the breadboard systems that is compatible with artificial reasoning. Initial work is being done on use of expert systems and user interface development. This paper presents an approach to defining universally applicable CELSS monitor and control issues, and implementing appropriate monitor and control capability for a particular instance: the KSC CELSS Breadboard Facility.

  17. Solar Orientation of Irish Early Christian Oratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiede, V. R.

    2001-12-01

    The Hiberno-Latin literary metaphor of "Xpistus sol verus" (Christ the True Sun) finds an architectural analogue in the orientation of the single eastern window of Irish monastic stone chapels or oratories. The author's field surveys in Ireland, Hebrides, Orkney and Shetlands revealed that the window of Irish rectangular dry stone oratories framed the rising solar disk on the Feast Days of selected saints of the Celtic Early Christian Church, AD 800-1100. The most frequent target skyline declinations were to sunrise on the Feast Days of St. Patrick (March 17th) and St. Aidan of Lindisfarne (August 31st). During the Early Christian period, St. Patrick's Day coincided with the Vernal Equinox, and heralded the Paschal Full Moon (i.e., Passover crucifixion) and Easter Sunday as proclaimed by Emperor Constantine at the Council of Nicaea (AD 325). St. Aidan of Lindisfarne (d. AD 651) inspired the Irish monks who, at the Synod of Whitby (AD 664), remained loyal to the Jewish 84-year cycle determining Passover and refused to replace it with the new orthodox 19-year computus for Easter adopted by the Roman Catholic Church (AD 527). Hypothetical affiliation between monastic communities whose oratories share common solar orientation, interior length/width ratios (e.g., 4:3 and 3:2) and units of measurement (e.g., Scottish ell, Coptic cubit, or Roman pes) is discussed. Grateful acknowledgement is made to the Michael D. Coe Fund and Augusta Hazard Fund of Yale University for research grant support in 1999.

  18. Zeta potential orientation dependence of sapphire substrates.

    PubMed

    Kershner, Ryan J; Bullard, Joseph W; Cima, Michael J

    2004-05-11

    The zeta potential of planar sapphire substrates for three different crystallographic orientations was measured by a streaming potential technique in the presence of KCl and (CH3)4NCl electrolytes. The streaming potential was measured for large single crystalline C-plane (0001), A-plane (1120), and R-plane (1102) wafers over a full pH range at three or more ionic strengths ranging from 1 to 100 mM. The roughness of the epi-polished wafers was verified using atomic force microscopy to be on the order of atomic scale, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to ensure that the samples were free of silica and other contaminants. The results reveal a shift in the isoelectric point (iep) of the three samples by as much as two pH units, with the R-plane surface exhibiting the most acidic behavior and the C-plane samples having the highest iep. The iep at all ionic strengths was tightly centered around a single pH for each wafer. These values of iep are substantially different from the range of pH 8-10 consistently reported in the literature for alpha-Al2O3 particles. Particle zeta potential measurements were performed on a model powder using phase analysis light scattering, and the iep was confirmed to occur at pH 8. Modified Auger parameters (MAP) were calculated from XPS spectra of a monolayer of iridium metal deposited on the sapphire by electron beam deposition. A shift in MAP consistent with the observed differences in iep of the surfaces confirms the effect of surface structure on the transfer of charge between the Ir and sapphire, hence accounting for the changes in acidity as a function of crystallographic orientation.

  19. Strain dependence of In incorporation in m-oriented GaInN/GaN multi quantum well structures

    SciTech Connect

    Horenburg, Philipp, E-mail: p.horenburg@tu-braunschweig.de; Buß, Ernst Ronald; Rossow, Uwe

    We demonstrate a strong dependence of the indium incorporation efficiency on the strain state in m-oriented GaInN/GaN multi quantum well (MQW) structures. Insertion of a partially relaxed AlInN buffer layer opens up the opportunity to manipulate the strain situation in the MQW grown on top. By lattice-matching this AlInN layer to the c- or a-axis of the underlying GaN, relaxation towards larger a- or smaller c-lattice constants can be induced, respectively. This results in a modified template for the subsequent MQW growth. From X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements, we derive significant effects on the In incorporation efficiency and In concentrationsmore » in the quantum well (QW) up to x = 38% without additional accumulation of strain energy in the QW region. This makes strain manipulation a very promising method for growth of high In-containing MQW structures for efficient, long wavelength light-emitting devices.« less

  20. Crystallographic orientation of epitaxial BaTiO3 films: The role of thermal-expansion mismatch with the substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikant, V.; Tarsa, E. J.; Clarke, D. R.; Speck, J. S.

    1995-02-01

    Expitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films have been grown on (001) MgO and MgO-buffered (001) GaAs substrates by pulsed laser deposition to explore the effect of substrate lattice parameter. X-ray-diffraction studies showed that the BaTiO3 films on both MgO single-crystal substrates and MgO-buffered (001) GaAs substrates have a cube-on-cube epitaxy; however, for the BaTiO3 films grown on MgO the spacing of the planes parallel to the substrate was close to the c-axis dimension of the unconstrained tetragonal phase, whereas the BaTiO3 films on MgO/GaAs exhibited a spacing closer to the a-axis dimension of the unconstrained tetragonal phase. The cube-on-cube epitaxy was maintained through the heterostructures even when thin epitaxial intermediate buffer layers of SrTiO3 and La(0.5)Sr(0.5)CoO3 were used. The intermediate layers had no effect on the position of the BaTiO3 peak in theta - 2 theta scans. Together, these observations indicate that, for the materials combinations studied, it is the thermal-expansion mismatch between the film and the underlying substrate that determines the crystallographic orientation of the BaTiO3 film. Preliminary measurements indicate that the BaTiO3 films are 'weakly' ferroelectric.