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Sample records for a-binding protein acbp

  1. Evolution of the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP)

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Mark; Rose, Timothy M.; Færgeman, Nils J.; Knudsen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a 10 kDa protein that binds C12–C22 acyl-CoA esters with high affinity. In vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that it is involved in multiple cellular tasks including modulation of fatty acid biosynthesis, enzyme regulation, regulation of the intracellular acyl-CoA pool size, donation of acyl-CoA esters for β-oxidation, vesicular trafficking, complex lipid synthesis and gene regulation. In the present study, we delineate the evolutionary history of ACBP to get a complete picture of its evolution and distribution among species. ACBP homologues were identified in all four eukaryotic kingdoms, Animalia, Plantae, Fungi and Protista, and eleven eubacterial species. ACBP homologues were not detected in any other known bacterial species, or in archaea. Nearly all of the ACBP-containing bacteria are pathogenic to plants or animals, suggesting that an ACBP gene could have been acquired from a eukaryotic host by horizontal gene transfer. Many bacterial, fungal and higher eukaryotic species only harbour a single ACBP homologue. However, a number of species, ranging from protozoa to vertebrates, have evolved two to six lineage-specific paralogues through gene duplication and/or retrotransposition events. The ACBP protein is highly conserved across phylums, and the majority of ACBP genes are subjected to strong purifying selection. Experimental evidence indicates that the function of ACBP has been conserved from yeast to humans and that the multiple lineage-specific paralogues have evolved altered functions. The appearance of ACBP very early on in evolution points towards a fundamental role of ACBP in acyl-CoA metabolism, including ceramide synthesis and in signalling. PMID:16018771

  2. Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding proteins ACBP4 and ACBP5 are subcellularly localized to the cytosol and ACBP4 depletion affects membrane lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi; Li, Hong-Ye; Zhang, Jiao-Ping; Chan, Suk-Wah; Chye, Mee-Len

    2008-12-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are encoded by six genes, and they display varying affinities for acyl-CoA esters. Recombinant ACBP4 and ACBP5 have been shown to bind oleoyl-CoA esters in vitro. In this study, the subcellular localizations of ACBP4 and ACBP5 were determined by biochemical fractionation followed by western blot analyses using anti-ACBP4 and anti-ACBP5 antibodies and immuno-electron microscopy. Confocal microscopy of autofluorescence-tagged ACBP4 and ACBP5, expressed transiently in onion epidermal cells and in transgenic Arabidopsis, confirmed their expression in the cytosol. Taken together, ACBP4 and ACBP5 are available in the cytosol to bind and transfer cytosolic oleoyl-CoA esters. Lipid profile analysis further revealed that an acbp4 knockout mutant showed decreases in membrane lipids (digalactosyldiacylglycerol, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol) while acbp4-complemented lines attained levels similar to wild type, suggesting that ACBP4 plays a role in the biosynthesis of membrane lipids including galactolipids and phospholipids.

  3. Light-regulated Arabidopsis ACBP4 and ACBP5 encode cytosolic acyl-CoA-binding proteins that bind phosphatidylcholine and oleoyl-CoA ester.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi; Chen, Qin-Fang; Chye, Mee-Len

    2009-10-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, six genes encode acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) that show conservation of an acyl-CoA-binding domain. These ACBPs display varying affinities for acyl-CoA esters, suggesting of different cellular roles. We have recently reported that three members (ACBP4, ACBP5 and ACBP6) are subcellularly localized to the cytosol by biochemical fractionation, confocal microscopy of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing autofluorescence-tagged fusions and immuno-electron microscopy using ACBP-specific antibodies. In this study, we observed by Northern blot analysis that ACBP4 and ACBP5 mRNAs in rosettes were up-regulated by light and dampened-off in darkness, mimicking FAD7 which encodes omega-3-fatty acid desaturase, an enzyme involved in plastidial lipid metabolism. Results from in vitro binding assays indicate that recombinant ACBP4 and ACBP5 proteins bind [(14)C]oleoyl-CoA esters better than recombinant ACBP6, suggesting that light-regulated ACBP4 and ACBP5 encode cytosolic ACBPs that are potential candidates for the intracellular transport of oleoyl-CoA ester exported from the chloroplast to the endoplasmic reticulum for the biosynthesis of non-plastidial membrane lipids. Nonetheless, His-tagged ACBP4 and ACBP5 resemble ACBP6 in their ability to bind phosphatidylcholine suggesting that all three ACBPs are available for the intracellular transfer of phosphatidylcholine.

  4. Arabidopsis ACBP3 is an extracellularly targeted acyl-CoA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ka-Chun; Li, Hong-Ye; Xiao, Shi; Tse, Muk-Hei; Chye, Mee-Len

    2006-04-01

    Cytosolic 10-kDa acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) function in the storage and intracellular transport of acyl-CoA esters in eukaryotes. Fatty acids synthesized de novo in plant chloroplasts are exported as oleoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA esters. In Arabidopsis, other than the 10-kDa ACBP, there exists five larger ACBPs (ACBP1 to ACBP5) of which homologues have not been characterized in other organisms. To investigate the significance of this gene family, we have attempted to subcellularly localize them and compare their acyl-CoA-binding affinities. We have previously shown that Arabidopsis ACBP1 and ACBP2 are membrane-associated proteins while ACBP4 and ACBP5 contain kelch motifs. Here, to localize ACBP3, we have expressed ACBP3-red fluorescent protein (DsRed2) from the CaMV 35S promoter. ACBP3-DsRed was localized extracellularly in transiently expressed tobacco BY-2 cells and onion epidermal cells. The function of the acyl-CoA-binding domain in ACBP3 was investigated by in vitro binding assays using (His)(6)-ACBP3, which was observed to bind [(14)C]arachidonyl-CoA with high affinity in comparison to [(14)C]palmitoyl-CoA and [(14)C]oleoyl-CoA. To identify the residues functional in binding, five mutants with single amino acid substitutions in the acyl-CoA-binding domain of (His)(6)-ACBP3 and (His)(6)-ACBP1 (which also binds [(14)C]arachidonyl-CoA) were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. Binding assays with arachidonyl-CoA revealed that replacement of a conserved R residue (R150A in ACBP1 and R284A in ACBP3), disrupted binding. In contrast, other substitutions in ACBP1 (Y126A, K130A, K152A and Y171A) and in ACBP3 (F260A, K264A, K286A and Y305A) did not affect arachidonyl-CoA binding, unlike their equivalents in (His)(6)-ACBP2, (His)(6)-ACBP4 and (His)(6)-ACBP5, which had altered binding to palmitoyl-CoA or oleoyl-CoA.

  5. Acyl-CoA-Binding Protein ACBP1 Modulates Sterol Synthesis during Embryogenesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, An-Shan; Xue, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) and sterols are primary metabolites that exert interrelated functions as structural and signaling lipids. Despite their common syntheses from acetyl-coenzyme A, homeostatic cross talk remains enigmatic. Six Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) acyl-coenzyme A-binding proteins (ACBPs) are involved in FA metabolism. ACBP1 interacts with PHOSPHOLIPASE Dα1 and regulates phospholipid composition. Here, its specific role in the negative modulation of sterol synthesis during embryogenesis is reported. ACBP1, likely in a liganded state, interacts with STEROL C4-METHYL OXIDASE1-1 (SMO1-1), a rate-limiting enzyme in the sterol pathway. Proembryo abortion in the double mutant indicated that the ACBP1-SMO1-1 interaction is synthetic lethal, corroborating with their strong promoter activities in developing ovules. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed quantitative and compositional changes in FAs and sterols upon overexpression or mutation of ACBP1 and/or SMO1-1. Aberrant levels of these metabolites may account for the downstream defect in lipid signaling. GLABRA2 (GL2), encoding a phospholipid/sterol-binding homeodomain transcription factor, was up-regulated in developing seeds of acbp1, smo1-1, and ACBP1+/−smo1-1 in comparison with the wild type. Consistent with the corresponding transcriptional alteration of GL2 targets, high-oil, low-mucilage phenotypes of gl2 were phenocopied in ACBP1+/−smo1-1. Thus, ACBP1 appears to modulate the metabolism of two important lipid classes (FAs and sterols) influencing cellular signaling. PMID:28500265

  6. Characterization of a small acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from Helianthus annuus L. and its binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Du, Zhi-Yan; Garcés, Rafael; Tanner, Julian A; Chye, Mee-Len; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2016-05-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) bind to acyl-CoA esters and promote their interaction with other proteins, lipids and cell structures. Small class I ACBPs have been identified in different plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana (AtACBP6), Brassica napus (BnACBP) and Oryza sativa (OsACBP1, OsACBP2, OsACBP3), and they are capable of binding to different acyl-CoA esters and phospholipids. Here we characterize HaACBP6, a class I ACBP expressed in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) tissues, studying the specificity of its corresponding recombinant HaACBP6 protein towards various acyl-CoA esters and phospholipids in vitro, particularly using isothermal titration calorimetry and protein phospholipid binding assays. This protein binds with high affinity to de novo synthetized derivatives palmitoly-CoA, stearoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA (Kd 0.29, 0.14 and 0.15 μM respectively). On the contrary, it showed lower affinity towards linoleoyl-CoA (Kd 5.6 μM). Moreover, rHaACBP6 binds to different phosphatidylcholine species (dipalmitoyl-PC, dioleoyl-PC and dilinoleoyl-PC), yet it displays no affinity towards other phospholipids like lyso-PC, phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid derivatives. In the light of these results, the possible involvement of this protein in sunflower oil synthesis is considered.

  7. Arabidopsis Acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP2 interacts with an ethylene-responsive element-binding protein, AtEBP, via its ankyrin repeats.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Ye; Chye, Mee-Len

    2004-01-01

    Cytosolic acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBP) bind long-chain acyl-CoAs and act as intracellular acyl-CoA transporters and maintain acyl-CoA pools. Arabidopsis thaliana ACBP2 shows conservation at the acyl-CoA-binding domain to cytosolic ACBPs but is distinct by the presence of an N-terminal transmembrane domain and C-terminal ankyrin repeats. The function of the acyl-CoA-binding domain in ACBP2 has been confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and four conserved residues crucial for palmitoyl-CoA binding have been identified. Results from ACBP2:GFP fusions transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells have demonstrated that the transmembrane domain functions in plasma membrane targeting, suggesting that ACBP2 transfers acyl-CoA esters to this membrane. In this study, we investigated the significance of its ankyrin repeats in mediating protein-protein interactions by yeast two-hybrid analysis and in vitro protein-binding assays; we showed that ACBP2 interacts with the A. thaliana ethylene-responsive element-binding protein AtEBP via its ankyrin repeats. This interaction was lacking in yeast two-hybrid analysis upon removal of the ankyrin repeats. When the subcellular localizations of ACBP2 and AtEBP were further investigated using autofluorescent protein fusions in transient expression by agroinfiltration of tobacco leaves, the DsRed:ACBP2 fusion protein was localized to the plasma membrane while the GFP:AtEBP fusion protein was targeted to the nucleus and plasma membrane. Co-expression of DsRed:ACBP2 and GFP:AtEBP showed a common localization of both proteins at the plasma membrane, suggesting that ACBP2 likely interacts with AtEBP at the plasma membrane.

  8. Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP3 participates in plant response to hypoxia by modulating very-long-chain fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Juan; Yu, Lu-Jun; Chen, Qin-Fang; Wang, Feng-Zhu; Huang, Li; Xia, Fan-Nv; Zhu, Tian-Ren; Wu, Jian-Xin; Yin, Jian; Liao, Bin; Yao, Nan; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are encoded by a family of six genes (ACBP1 to ACBP6), and are essential for diverse cellular activities. Recent investigations suggest that the membrane-anchored ACBPs are involved in oxygen sensing by sequestration of group VII ethylene-responsive factors under normoxia. Here, we demonstrate the involvement of Arabidopsis ACBP3 in hypoxic tolerance. ACBP3 transcription was remarkably induced following submergence under both dark (DS) and light (LS) conditions. ACBP3-overexpressors (ACBP3-OEs) showed hypersensitivity to DS, LS and ethanolic stresses, with reduced transcription of hypoxia-responsive genes as well as accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the rosettes. In contrast, suppression of ACBP3 in ACBP3-KOs enhanced plant tolerance to DS, LS and ethanol treatments. By analyses of double combinations of OE-1 with npr1-5, coi1-2, ein3-1 as well as ctr1-1 mutants, we observed that the attenuated hypoxic tolerance in ACBP3-OEs was dependent on NPR1- and CTR1-mediated signaling pathways. Lipid profiling revealed that both the total amounts and very-long-chain species of phosphatidylserine (C42:2- and C42:3-PS) and glucosylinositolphosphorylceramides (C22:0-, C22:1-, C24:0-, C24:1-, and C26:1-GIPC) were significantly lower in ACBP3-OEs but increased in ACBP3-KOs upon LS exposure. By microscale thermophoresis analysis, the recombinant ACBP3 protein bound VLC acyl-CoA esters with high affinities in vitro. Further, a knockout mutant of MYB30, a master regulator of very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) biosynthesis, exhibited enhanced sensitivities to LS and ethanolic stresses, phenotypes that were ameliorated by ACBP3-RNAi. Taken together, these findings suggest that Arabidopsis ACBP3 participates in plant response to hypoxia by modulating VLCFA metabolism. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP6 localizes in the phloem and affects jasmonate composition.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zi-Wei; Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Hu, Tai-Hua; Chen, Qin-Fang; Suen, Yung-Lee; Wang, Mingfu; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne; Yeung, Edward; Chye, Mee-Len

    2016-12-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN6 (AtACBP6) encodes a cytosolic 10-kDa AtACBP. It confers freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis, possibly by its interaction with lipids as indicated by the binding of acyl-CoA esters and phosphatidylcholine to recombinant AtACBP6. Herein, transgenic Arabidopsis transformed with an AtACBP6 promoter-driven β-glucuronidase (GUS) construct exhibited strong GUS activity in the vascular tissues. Immunoelectron microscopy using anti-AtACBP6 antibodies showed AtACBP6 localization in the phloem especially in the companion cells and sieve elements. Also, the presence of gold grains in the plasmodesmata indicated its potential role in systemic trafficking. The AtACBP6 protein, but not its mRNA, was found in phloem exudate of wild-type Arabidopsis. Fatty acid profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed an increase in the jasmonic acid (JA) precursor, 12-oxo-cis,cis-10,15-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), and a reduction in JA and/or its derivatives in acbp6 phloem exudates in comparison to the wild type. Quantitative real-time PCR showed down-regulation of COMATOSE (CTS) in acbp6 rosettes suggesting that AtACBP6 affects CTS function. AtACBP6 appeared to affect the content of JA and/or its derivatives in the sieve tubes, which is consistent with its role in pathogen-defense and in its wound-inducibility of AtACBP6pro::GUS. Taken together, our results suggest the involvement of AtACBP6 in JA-biosynthesis in Arabidopsis phloem tissues.

  10. Loss of the acyl-CoA binding protein (Acbp) results in fatty acid metabolism abnormalities in mouse hair and skin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lance; DeBono, C Anthony; Campagna, Dean R; Young, David C; Moody, D Branch; Fleming, Mark D

    2007-01-01

    Proper fatty acid metabolism is critical for hair and skin development and maintenance. The acyl-CoA binding protein (Acbp) is a widely expressed protein that binds long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters and plays a role in fatty acyl-CoA transport and pool formation. However, loss of function of Acbp in the whole animal has not been investigated. Here, we show that deletion of Acbp in mouse results in sebocyte hyperplasia and sparse, matted hair with a greasy appearance. Consistent with these gross abnormalities, Acbp is highly expressed in the pilosebaceous units of mouse skin as determined by Northern analysis and in situ hybridization. Loss of Acbp also results in fatty acid metabolism abnormalities, with hair lipid profiles showing altered levels of triacylglycerols and nearly co-migrating lipids. These data suggest that Acbp plays a role in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, and that regulation of this process is important for proper hair and skin development and maintenance in the mouse.

  11. A 10-kDa acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from Brassica napus enhances acyl exchange between acyl-CoA and phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Olga P; Nykiforuk, Cory L; Moloney, Maurice M; Ståhl, Ulf; Banaś, Antoni; Stymne, Sten; Weselake, Randall J

    2009-09-01

    The gene encoding a 10-kDa acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from Brassica napus was over-expressed in developing seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochemical analysis of T(2) and T(3) A. thaliana seeds revealed a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) (18:2(cisDelta9,12) and 18:3(cisDelta9,12,15)) at the expense of very long monounsaturated FA (20:1(cisDelta11)) and saturated FAs. In vitro assays demonstrated that recombinant B. napus ACBP (rBnACBP) strongly increases the formation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the absence of added lysophosphatidylcholine in microsomes from DeltaYOR175c yeast expressing A. thaliana lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (AthLPCAT) cDNA or in microsomes from microspore-derived cell suspension cultures of B. napus L. cv. Jet Neuf. rBnACBP or bovine serum albumin (BSA) were also shown to be crucial for AthLPCAT to catalyse the transfer of acyl group from PC into acyl-CoA in vitro. These data suggest that the cytosolic 10-kDa ACBP has an effect on the equilibrium between metabolically active acyl pools (acyl-CoA and phospholipid pools) involved in FA modifications and triacylglycerol bioassembly in plants. Over-expression of ACBP during seed development may represent a useful biotechnological approach for altering the FA composition of seed oil.

  12. Specific regulation of low-abundance transcript variants encoding human Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Nitz, Inke; Kruse, Marie-Luise; Klapper, Maja; Döring, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Despite intensive efforts on annotation of eukaryotic transcriptoms, little is known about the regulation of low-abundance transcripts. To address this question, we analysed the regulation of novel low-abundance transcript variants of human acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP), an important multifunctional housekeeping protein, which we have identified by screening of human expressed sequence tags in combination with ab initio gene prediction. By using RT-, real-time RT- and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR in five human tissues, we find these transcripts, which are generated by a consequent use of alternative promoters and alternate first or first two exons, to be authentic ones. They show a tissue-specific distribution and intrinsic responsiveness to glucose and insulin. Promoter analyses of the corresponding transcripts revealed a differential regulation mediated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2, hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), central transcription factors of fat and glucose metabolism and inflammation. Subcellular localization studies of deduced isoforms in liver HepG2 cells showed that they are distributed in different compartments. By demonstrating that ACBP is a target of NF-κB, our findings link fatty acid metabolism with inflammation. Furthermore, our findings show that low-abundance transcripts are regulated in a similar mode than their high-abundance counterparts. PMID:20345851

  13. Arabidopsis membrane-associated acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP1 is involved in stem cuticle formation

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yan; Xiao, Shi; Kim, Juyoung; Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Chen, Liang; Tanner, Julian A.; Suh, Mi Chung; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-anchored Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (AtACBP1) plays important roles in embryogenesis and abiotic stress responses, and interacts with long-chain (LC) acyl-CoA esters. Here, AtACBP1 function in stem cuticle formation was investigated. Transgenic Arabidopsis transformed with an AtACBP1pro::GUS construct revealed β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression on the stem (but not leaf) surface, suggesting a specific role in stem cuticle formation. Isothermal titration calorimetry results revealed that (His)6-tagged recombinant AtACBP1 interacts with LC acyl-CoA esters (18:1-, 18:2-, and 18:3-CoAs) and very-long-chain (VLC) acyl-CoA esters (24:0-, 25:0-, and 26:0-CoAs). VLC fatty acids have been previously demonstrated to act as precursors in wax biosynthesis. Gas chromatography (GC)–flame ionization detector (FID) and GC–mass spectrometry (MS) analyses revealed that an acbp1 mutant showed a reduction in stem and leaf cuticular wax and stem cutin monomer composition in comparison with the wild type (Col-0). Consequently, the acbp1 mutant showed fewer wax crystals on the stem surface in scanning electron microscopy and an irregular stem cuticle layer in transmission electron microscopy in comparison with the wild type. Also, the mutant stems consistently showed a decline in expression of cuticular wax and cutin biosynthetic genes in comparison with the wild type, and the mutant leaves were more susceptible to infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, these findings suggest that AtACBP1 participates in Arabidopsis stem cuticle formation by trafficking VLC acyl-CoAs. PMID:25053648

  14. Arabidopsis membrane-associated acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP1 is involved in stem cuticle formation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yan; Xiao, Shi; Kim, Juyoung; Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Chen, Liang; Tanner, Julian A; Suh, Mi Chung; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-10-01

    The membrane-anchored Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (AtACBP1) plays important roles in embryogenesis and abiotic stress responses, and interacts with long-chain (LC) acyl-CoA esters. Here, AtACBP1 function in stem cuticle formation was investigated. Transgenic Arabidopsis transformed with an AtACBP1pro::GUS construct revealed β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression on the stem (but not leaf) surface, suggesting a specific role in stem cuticle formation. Isothermal titration calorimetry results revealed that (His)6-tagged recombinant AtACBP1 interacts with LC acyl-CoA esters (18:1-, 18:2-, and 18:3-CoAs) and very-long-chain (VLC) acyl-CoA esters (24:0-, 25:0-, and 26:0-CoAs). VLC fatty acids have been previously demonstrated to act as precursors in wax biosynthesis. Gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector (FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses revealed that an acbp1 mutant showed a reduction in stem and leaf cuticular wax and stem cutin monomer composition in comparison with the wild type (Col-0). Consequently, the acbp1 mutant showed fewer wax crystals on the stem surface in scanning electron microscopy and an irregular stem cuticle layer in transmission electron microscopy in comparison with the wild type. Also, the mutant stems consistently showed a decline in expression of cuticular wax and cutin biosynthetic genes in comparison with the wild type, and the mutant leaves were more susceptible to infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, these findings suggest that AtACBP1 participates in Arabidopsis stem cuticle formation by trafficking VLC acyl-CoAs.

  15. An Arabidopsis family of six acyl-CoA-binding proteins has three cytosolic members.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi; Chye, Mee-Len

    2009-06-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, a gene family of six members encodes acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs). These Arabidopsis ACBPs (designated ACBP1 to ACBP6) range in size from 10.4kDa to 73.1kDa and display varying affinities for acyl-CoA esters, suggesting that they have different roles in plant lipid metabolism. In contrast, only the 10-kDa ACBPs have been well-characterized from other eukaryote species. Our previous studies have revealed that ACBP1 and ACBP2 are membrane-associated proteins, while ACBP3 is extracellularly-targeted. More recently, we have reported that the remaining three members in this protein family (namely ACBP4, ACBP5 and ACBP6) are subcellularly localized to the cytosol in Arabidopsis. The subcellular localizations of ACBP4, ACBP5 and ACBP6 in the cytosol were demonstrated using a number of different approaches incorporating biochemical fractionation, confocal microscopy of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing autofluorescence-tagged fusions and immunoelectron microscopy using ACBP-specific antibodies. Our results indicate that all three ACBPs in the cytosol are potential candidates for acyl-CoA binding and trafficking in plant cells. In this review, the functional redundancy and differences among the three cytosolic ACBPs are discussed by comparison of their light-regulated expression and substrate affinities to acyl-CoA esters, and from biochemical analyses on their knockout mutants and/or overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis. The transcriptionally light-induced ACBP4 and ACBP5, which encode the two largest forms of Arabidopsis ACBPs, bind oleoyl-CoA esters and likely transfer oleoyl-CoAs from the plastids (the site of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis) to the endoplasmic reticulum for the biosynthesis of non-plastidial membrane lipids in Arabidopsis.

  16. Computational Prediction of acyl-coA Binding Proteins Structure in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Raboanatahiry, Nadia Haingotiana; Lu, Guangyuan; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Acyl-coA binding proteins could transport acyl-coA esters from plastid to endoplasmic reticulum, prior to fatty acid biosynthesis, leading to the formation of triacylglycerol. The structure and the subcellular localization of acyl-coA binding proteins (ACBP) in Brassica napus were computationally predicted in this study. Earlier, the structure analysis of ACBPs was limited to the small ACBPs, the current study focused on all four classes of ACBPs. Physicochemical parameters including the size and the length, the intron-exon structure, the isoelectric point, the hydrophobicity, and the amino acid composition were studied. Furthermore, identification of conserved residues and conserved domains were carried out. Secondary structure and tertiary structure of ACBPs were also studied. Finally, subcellular localization of ACBPs was predicted. The findings indicated that the physicochemical parameters and subcellular localizations of ACBPs in Brassica napus were identical to Arabidopsis thaliana. Conserved domain analysis indicated that ACBPs contain two or three kelch domains that belong to different families. Identical residues in acyl-coA binding domains corresponded to eight amino acid residues in all ACBPs of B. napus. However, conserved residues of common ACBPs in all species of animal, plant, bacteria and fungi were only inclusive in small ACBPs. Alpha-helixes were displayed and conserved in all the acyl-coA binding domains, representing almost the half of the protein structure. The findings confirm high similarities in ACBPs between A. thaliana and B. napus, they might share the same functions but loss or gain might be possible.

  17. Molecular properties of the class III subfamily of acyl-coenyzme A binding proteins from tung tree (Vernicia fordii)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Acyl-CoA binding proteins (ACBPs) have been identified in most branches of life. A single prototypical ACBP was first discovered in yeast, and was found to play a signficant role in lipid metabolism, among other functions. Plants also contain the prototype small, soluble ACBP, but have also evolve...

  18. The ACBP gene family in Rhodnius prolixus: Expression, characterization and function of RpACBP-1.

    PubMed

    Majerowicz, David; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K; Castro, Rodolfo S C; Bozaquel-Morais, Bruno L; Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Grillo, Luciano A M; Masuda, Claudio A; Færgeman, Nils J; Knudsen, Jens; Gondim, Katia C

    2016-05-01

    The acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBP) constitute a family of conserved proteins that bind acyl-CoA with high affinity and protect it from hydrolysis. Thus, ACBPs may have essential roles in basal cellular lipid metabolism. The genome of the insect Rhodnius prolixus encodes five ACBP genes similar to those described for other insect species. The qPCR analysis revealed that these genes have characteristic expression profiles in insect organs, suggesting that they have specific roles in insect physiology. Recombinant RpACBP-1 was able to bind acyl-CoA in an in vitro gel-shift assay. Moreover, heterologous RpACBP-1 expression in acb1Δ mutant yeast rescued the multi-lobed vacuole phenotype, indicating that RpACBP-1 acts as a bona fide acyl-CoA-binding protein. RpACBP-1 knockdown using RNAi caused triacylglycerol accumulation in the insect posterior midgut and a reduction in the number of deposited eggs. The amount of stored triacylglycerol was reduced in flight muscle, and the incorporation of fatty acids in cholesteryl esters was increased in the fat body. These results showed that RpACBP-1 participates in several lipid metabolism steps in R. prolixus.

  19. Overexpression of Arabidopsis ACBP3 enhances NPR1-dependent plant resistance to Pseudomonas syringe pv tomato DC3000.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi; Chye, Mee-Len

    2011-08-01

    ACBP3 is one of six Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes, designated ACBP1 to ACBP6, that encode acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-binding proteins (ACBPs). These ACBPs bind long-chain acyl-CoA esters and phospholipids and are involved in diverse cellular functions, including acyl-CoA homeostasis, development, and stress tolerance. Recombinant ACBP3 binds polyunsaturated acyl-CoA esters and phospholipids in vitro. Here, we show that ACBP3 plays a role in the plant defense response to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. ACBP3 mRNA was up-regulated upon pathogen infection and treatments using pathogen elicitors and defense-related phytohormones. Transgenic Arabidopsis ACBP3 overexpressors (ACBP3-OEs) showed constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related genes (PR1, PR2, and PR5), cell death, and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in leaves. Consequently, ACBP3-OEs displayed enhanced resistance to the bacterial pathogen P. syringae DC3000. In contrast, the acbp3 T-DNA insertional mutant was more susceptible and exhibited lower PR gene transcript levels upon infection. Using the ACBP3 OE-1 line in combination with nonexpressor of PR genes1 (npr1-5) or coronatine-insensitive1 (coi1-2), we concluded that the enhanced PR gene expression and P. syringae DC3000 resistance in the ACBP3-OEs are dependent on the NPR1-mediated, but not the COI1-mediated, signaling pathway. Given that ACBP3-OEs showed greater susceptibility to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea while the acbp3 mutant was less susceptible, we suggest that ACBP3 plays a role in the plant defense response against biotrophic pathogens that is distinct from necrotrophic pathogens. ACBP3 function in plant defense was supported further by bioinformatics data showing up-regulation of many biotic and abiotic stress-related genes in ACBP3 OE-1 in comparison with the wild type.

  20. Acyl CoA Binding Proteins are Required for Cuticle Formation and Plant Responses to Microbes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ye; Yu, Keshun; Gao, Qing-Ming; Wilson, Ella V; Navarre, Duroy; Kachroo, Pradeep; Kachroo, Aardra

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA) and lipids are well known regulators of plant defense. Our previous studies have shown that components of prokaryotic (plastidal) FA biosynthesis pathway regulate various aspects of plant defense. Here, we investigated the defense related roles of the soluble acyl CoA binding proteins (ACBPs), which are thought to facilitate the intracellular transport of FA/lipids. We show that ACBP3 and 4 are required for maintaining normal lipid levels and that ACBP3 contributes to the lipid flux between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways. We also show that loss of ACBP3, 4, or 6 impair normal development of the cuticle and affect both basal and resistance protein-mediated defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Loss of ACBP3, 4, or 6 also inhibits the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) due to the plants inability to generate SAR inducing signal(s). Together, these data show that ACBP3, ACBP4, and ACBP6 are required for cuticle development as well as defense against microbial pathogens.

  1. ACBP — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    DBI, diazepam binding inhibitor, was previously known as ACBP, acyl-coA binding protein. This protein is regulated by hormones, is involved in lipid metabolism, and is thought to act as a neuropeptide to regulate the action of the GABA receptor. DBI is conserved across species. The most highly conserved domain is the hydrophobic binding site for medium- and long-chain acyl-coA esters. DBI is involved in the regulation of pancreatic secretion and release of cholecystokinin. There are three pseudogenes for DBI on separate chromosomes. DBI has multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.

  2. Prediction of the most favorable configuration in the ACBP-membrane interaction based on electrostatic calculations.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Diego F; Zamarreño, Fernando; Guérin, Diego M A; Grigera, J Raul; Costabel, Marcelo D

    2009-03-01

    Acyl-CoA binding proteins (ACBPs) are highly conserved 10 kDa cytosolic proteins that bind medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters. They act as intracellular carriers of acyl-CoA and play a role in acyl-CoA metabolism, gene regulation, acyl-CoA-mediated cell signaling, transport-mediated lipid synthesis, membrane trafficking and also, ACBPs were indicated as a possible inhibitor of diazepam binding to the GABA-A receptor. To estimate the importance of the non-specific electrostatic energy in the ACBP-membrane interaction, we computationally modeled the interaction of HgACBP with both anionic and neutral membranes. To compute the Free Electrostatic Energy of Binding (dE), we used the Finite Difference Poisson Boltzmann Equation (FDPB) method as implemented in APBS. In the most energetically favorable orientation, ACBP brings charged residues Lys18 and Lys50 and hydrophobic residues Met46 and Leu47 into membrane surface proximity. This conformation suggests that these four ACBP amino acids are most likely to play a leading role in the ACBP-membrane interaction and ligand intake. Thus, we propose that long range electrostatic forces are the first step in the interaction mechanism between ACBP and membranes.

  3. The acyl-CoA binding protein is required for normal epidermal barrier function in mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Bek, Signe; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Neess, Ditte; Brewer, Jonathan; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Helledie, Torben; Fenger, Christina; Due, Marianne; Berzina, Zane; Neubert, Reinhard; Chemnitz, John; Finsen, Bente; Clemmensen, Anders; Wilbertz, Johannes; Saxtorph, Henrik; Knudsen, Jens; Bagatolli, Luis; Mandrup, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is a 10 kDa intracellular protein expressed in all eukaryotic species. Mice with targeted disruption of Acbp (ACBP−/− mice) are viable and fertile but present a visible skin and fur phenotype characterized by greasy fur and development of alopecia and scaling with age. Morphology and development of skin and appendages are normal in ACBP−/− mice; however, the stratum corneum display altered biophysical properties with reduced proton activity and decreased water content. Mass spectrometry analyses of lipids from epidermis and stratum corneum of ACBP+/+ and ACBP−/− mice showed very similar composition, except for a significant and specific decrease in the very long chain free fatty acids (VLC-FFA) in stratum corneum of ACBP−/− mice. This finding indicates that ACBP is critically involved in the processes that lead to production of stratum corneum VLC-FFAs via complex phospholipids in the lamellar bodies. Importantly, we show that ACBP−/− mice display a ∼50% increased transepidermal water loss compared with ACBP+/+ mice. Furthermore, skin and fur sebum monoalkyl diacylglycerol (MADAG) levels are significantly increased, suggesting that ACBP limits MADAG synthesis in sebaceous glands. In summary, our study shows that ACBP is required for production of VLC-FFA for stratum corneum and for maintaining normal epidermal barrier function. PMID:22829653

  4. Quantitative lipidomics reveals age-dependent perturbations of whole-body lipid metabolism in ACBP deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Sandra F; Sprenger, Richard R; Neess, Ditte; Pauling, Josch K; Færgeman, Nils J; Ejsing, Christer S

    2017-02-01

    The acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) plays a key role in chaperoning long-chain acyl-CoAs into lipid metabolic processes and acts as an important regulatory hub in mammalian physiology. This is highlighted by the recent finding that mice devoid of ACBP suffer from a compromised epidermal barrier and delayed weaning, the physiological process where newborns transit from a fat-based milk diet to a carbohydrate-rich diet. To gain insights into how ACBP impinges on weaning and the concomitant remodeling of whole-body lipid metabolism we performed a comparative lipidomics analysis charting the absolute abundance of 613 lipid molecules in liver, muscle and plasma from weaning and adult Acbp knockout and wild type mice. Our results reveal that ACBP deficiency affects primarily lipid metabolism of liver and plasma during weaning. Specifically, we show that ACBP deficient mice have elevated levels of hepatic cholesteryl esters, and that lipids featuring an 18:1 fatty acid moiety are increased in Acbp depleted mice across all tissues investigated. Our results also show that the perturbation of systemic lipid metabolism in Acbp knockout mice is transient and becomes normalized and similar to that of wild type as mice grow older. These findings demonstrate that ACBP serves crucial functions in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis in mice during weaning.

  5. Acyl-CoA binding protein expression is fiber type- specific and elevated in muscles from the obese insulin-resistant Zucker rat.

    PubMed

    Franch, Jesper; Knudsen, Jens; Ellis, Bronwyn A; Pedersen, Preben K; Cooney, Gregory J; Jensen, Jørgen

    2002-02-01

    Accumulation of acyl-CoA is hypothesized to be involved in development of insulin resistance. Acyl-CoA binds to acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) with high affinity, and therefore knowledge about ACBP concentration is important for interpreting acyl-CoA data. In the present study, we used a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify ACBP concentration in different muscle fiber types. Furthermore, ACBP concentration was compared in muscles from lean and obese Zucker rats. Expression of ACBP was highest in the slow-twitch oxidative soleus muscle and lowest in the fast-twitch glycolytic white gastrocnemius (0.46 +/- 0.02 and 0.16 +/- 0.005 microg/mg protein, respectively). Expression of ACBP was soleus > red gastrocnemius > extensor digitorum longus > white gastrocnemius. Similar fiber type differences were found for carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT)-1, and a correlation was observed between ACBP and CPT-1. Muscles from obese Zucker rats had twice the triglyceride content, had approximately twice the long-chain acyl CoA content, and were severely insulin resistant. ACBP concentration was approximately 30% higher in all muscles from obese rats. Activities of CPT-1 and 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase were increased in muscles from obese rats, whereas citrate synthase activity was similar. In conclusion, ACBP expression is fiber type-specific with the highest concentration in oxidative muscles and the lowest in glycolytic muscles. The 90% increase in the concentration of acyl-CoA in obese Zucker muscle compared with only a 30% increase in the concentration of ACBP supports the hypothesis that an increased concentration of free acyl-CoA is involved in the development of insulin resistance.

  6. Acyl-Coenzyme A Binding Protein Regulates Beta Oxidation Required for Growth and Survival of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Fredrick T.; Rahman, S.M. Jamshedur; Hassanein, Mohamed; Qian, Jun; Hoeksema, Megan D.; Chen, Heidi; Eisenberg, Rosana; Chaurand, Pierre; Caprioli, Richard M.; Shiota, Masakazu; Massion, Pierre P.

    2014-01-01

    We identified Acyl-Coenzyme A Binding Protein (ACBP) as part of a proteomic signature predicting the risk of having lung cancer. Because ACBP is known to regulate beta oxidation (β-oxidation), which in turn controls cellular proliferation, we hypothesized that ACBP contributes to regulation of cellular proliferation and survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by modulating β-oxidation. We utilized matrix assisted laser desorption ionization- imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to confirm ACBP’s tissue localization in pre-invasive and invasive NSCLCs. We correlated ACBP gene expression levels in NSCLC with clinical outcomes. In loss of function studies, we tested the effect of the downregulation of ACBP on cellular proliferation and apoptosis in normal bronchial and NSCLC cell lines. Using tritiated-palmitate (3H-palmitate), we measured β-oxidation levels and tested the effect of etomoxir, a β-oxidation inhibitor, on proliferation and apoptosis. MALDI-IMS and IHC analysis confirmed that ACBP is overexpressed in preinvasive and invasive lung cancers. High ACBP gene expression levels in NSCLCs correlated with worse survival (HR = 1.73). We observed a 40% decrease in β-oxidation and concordant decreases in proliferation and increases in apoptosis in ACBP depleted NSCLC cells as compared to bronchial airway epithelial cells. Inhibition of β-oxidation by etomoxir in ACBP overexpressing cells produced dose-dependent decrease in proliferation, and increase in apoptosis (p=0.01 and p <0.001 respectively). These data suggest a role for ACBP in controlling lung cancer progression by regulating β-oxidation. PMID:24819876

  7. ACBP and cholesterol differentially alter fatty acyl CoA utilization by microsomal ACAT.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsu; Zhou, Minglong; McIntosh, Avery; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Kier, Ann B

    2003-01-01

    Microsomal acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is stimulated in vitro and/or in intact cells by proteins that bind and transfer both substrates, cholesterol, and fatty acyl CoA. To resolve the role of fatty acyl CoA binding independent of cholesterol binding/transfer, a protein that exclusively binds fatty acyl CoA (acyl CoA binding protein, ACBP) was compared. ACBP contains an endoplasmic reticulum retention motif and significantly colocalized with acyl-CoA cholesteryl acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) and endoplasmic reticulum markers in L-cell fibroblasts and hepatoma cells, respectively. In the presence of exogenous cholesterol, ACAT was stimulated in the order: ACBP > sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) > liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP). Stimulation was in the same order as the relative affinities of the proteins for fatty acyl CoA. In contrast, in the absence of exogenous cholesterol, these proteins inhibited microsomal ACAT, but in the same order: ACBP > SCP-2 > L-FABP. The extracellular protein BSA stimulated microsomal ACAT regardless of the presence or absence of exogenous cholesterol. Thus, ACBP was the most potent intracellular fatty acyl CoA binding protein in differentially modulating the activity of microsomal ACAT to form cholesteryl esters independent of cholesterol binding/transfer ability.

  8. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of a pseudogene related to the human Acyl-CoA binding protein/diazepam binding inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Gersuk, V.H.; Rose, T.M.; Todaro, G.J.

    1995-01-20

    The acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) and the diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) or endozepine are independent isolates of a single 86-amino-acid, 10-kDa protein. ACBP/DBI is highly conserved between species and has been identified in several diverse organisms, including human, cow, rat, frog, duck, insects, plants, and yeast. Although the genomic locus has not yet been cloned in humans, complementary DNA clones with different 5{prime} ends have been isolated and characterized. These cDNA clones appear to be encoded by a single gene. However, Southern blot analyses, in situ hybridizations, and somatic cell hybrid chromosomal mapping all suggest that there are multiple ACBP/DBI-related sequences in the genome. To identify potential members of this gene family, degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to highly conserved regions of ACBP/DBI were used to screen a human genomic DNA library using the polymerase chain reaction. A novel gene, DBIP1, that is closely related to ACBP/DBI but is clearly distinct was identified. DBIP1 bears extensive sequence homology to ACBP/DBI but lacks the introns predicted by rat and duck genomic sequence studies. A 1-base deletion in the coding region results in a frameshift and, along with the absence of introns and the lack of a detectable transcript, suggests that DBIP1 is a pseudogene. ACBP/DBI has previously been mapped to chromosome 2, although this was recently disputed, and a chromosome 6 location was suggested. We show that ACBP/DBI is correctly placed on chromosome 2 and that the gene identified on chromosome 6 is DBIP1. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Compromised epidermal barrier stimulates Harderian gland activity and hypertrophy in ACBP-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Bek, Signe; Neess, Ditte; Dixen, Karen; Bloksgaard, Maria; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Chemnitz, John; Færgeman, Nils J; Mandrup, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is a small, ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein that binds C14-C22 acyl-CoA esters with very high affinity and specificity. We have recently shown that targeted disruption of the Acbp gene leads to a compromised epidermal barrier and that this causes delayed adaptation to weaning, including the induction of the hepatic lipogenic and cholesterogenic gene programs. Here we show that ACBP is highly expressed in the Harderian gland, a gland that is located behind the eyeball of rodents and involved in the production of fur lipids and lipids used for lubrication of the eye lid. We show that disruption of the Acbp gene leads to a significant enlargement of this gland with hypertrophy of the acinar cells and increased de novo synthesis of monoalkyl diacylglycerol, the main lipid species produced by the gland. Mice with conditional targeting of the Acbp gene in the epidermis recapitulate this phenotype, whereas generation of an artificial epidermal barrier during gland development reverses the phenotype. Our findings indicate that the Harderian gland is activated by the compromised epidermal barrier as an adaptive and protective mechanism to overcome the barrier defect. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a membrane bound acyl-CoA binding protein from Agave americana L. epidermis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Consuelo; Martín-Rufián, M; Reina, José J; Heredia, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A cDNA encoding an acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) homologue has been cloned from a cDNA library made from mRNA isolated from epidermis of young leaves of Agave americana L. The derived amino acid sequence reveals a protein corresponding to the membrane-associated form of ACBPs only previously described in Arabidopsis and rice. Northern blot analysis showed that the A. americana ACBP gene is mainly expressed in the epidermis of mature zone of the leaves. The epidermis of A. americana leaves have a well developed cuticle with the highest amounts of the cuticular components waxes, cutin and cutan suggesting a potential role of the protein in cuticle formation.

  11. Lipid membranes and acyl-CoA esters promote opposing effects on acyl-CoA binding protein structure and stability.

    PubMed

    Micheletto, Mariana C; Mendes, Luís F S; Basso, Luis G M; Fonseca-Maldonado, Raquel G; Costa-Filho, Antonio J

    2017-09-01

    Acyl-CoA Binding Proteins (ACBP) form a housekeeping family of proteins that is responsible for the buffering of long chain acyl-coenzyme A esters (LCFA-CoA) inside the cell. Even though numerous studies have focused on the characterization of different members of the ACBP family, the knowledge about the impact of both LCFA-CoA and phospholipids on ACBP structure and stability remains scarce. Besides, there are still controversies regarding the possible interaction of ACBP with biological membranes, even though this might be essential for the cargo capture and delivery. In this study, we observed that LCFA-CoA and phospholipids play opposite roles on protein stability and that the interaction with the membrane is dictated by electrostatic interaction. Furthermore, the results support the hypothesis that the LCFA-CoA delivery is driven by the increase of the negative charge on the membrane surface. The combined influence played by the different molecules on ACBP structure is discussed on the light of cargo capture/delivery giving new insights about this important process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Production of a Brassica napus low-molecular mass acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein in Arabidopsis alters the acyl-coenzyme A pool and acyl composition of oil in seeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low-molecular mass (10 kD) cytosolic acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) has a substantial influence over fatty acid (FA) composition in oilseeds, possibly via an effect on the partitioning of acyl groups between elongation and desaturation pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that the expressio...

  13. Production of a Brassica napus Low-Molecular Mass Acyl-Coenzyme A-Binding Protein in Arabidopsis Alters the Acyl-Coenzyme A Pool and Acyl Composition of Oil in Seeds1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yurchenko, Olga; Singer, Stacy D.; Nykiforuk, Cory L.; Gidda, Satinder; Mullen, Robert T.; Moloney, Maurice M.; Weselake, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Low-molecular mass (10 kD) cytosolic acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) has a substantial influence over fatty acid (FA) composition in oilseeds, possibly via an effect on the partitioning of acyl groups between elongation and desaturation pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that the expression of a Brassica napus ACBP (BnACBP) complementary DNA in the developing seeds of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in increased levels of polyunsaturated FAs at the expense of eicosenoic acid (20:1cisΔ11) and saturated FAs in seed oil. In this study, we investigated whether alterations in the FA composition of seed oil at maturity were correlated with changes in the acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) pool in developing seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BnACBP. Our results indicated that both the acyl-CoA pool and seed oil of transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing cytosolic BnACBP exhibited relative increases in linoleic acid (18:2cisΔ9,12; 17.9%–44.4% and 7%–13.2%, respectively) and decreases in 20:1cisΔ11 (38.7%–60.7% and 13.8%–16.3%, respectively). However, alterations in the FA composition of the acyl-CoA pool did not always correlate with those seen in the seed oil. In addition, we found that targeting of BnACBP to the endoplasmic reticulum resulted in FA compositional changes that were similar to those seen in lines expressing cytosolic BnACBP, with the most prominent exception being a relative reduction in α-linolenic acid (18:3cisΔ9,12,15) in both the acyl-CoA pool and seed oil of the former (48.4%–48.9% and 5.3%–10.4%, respectively). Overall, these data support the role of ACBP in acyl trafficking in developing seeds and validate its use as a biotechnological tool for modifying the FA composition of seed oil. PMID:24740000

  14. Production of a Brassica napus Low-Molecular Mass Acyl-Coenzyme A-Binding Protein in Arabidopsis Alters the Acyl-Coenzyme A Pool and Acyl Composition of Oil in Seeds.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Olga; Singer, Stacy D; Nykiforuk, Cory L; Gidda, Satinder; Mullen, Robert T; Moloney, Maurice M; Weselake, Randall J

    2014-06-01

    Low-molecular mass (10 kD) cytosolic acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) has a substantial influence over fatty acid (FA) composition in oilseeds, possibly via an effect on the partitioning of acyl groups between elongation and desaturation pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that the expression of a Brassica napus ACBP (BnACBP) complementary DNA in the developing seeds of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in increased levels of polyunsaturated FAs at the expense of eicosenoic acid (20:1(cisΔ11)) and saturated FAs in seed oil. In this study, we investigated whether alterations in the FA composition of seed oil at maturity were correlated with changes in the acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) pool in developing seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BnACBP. Our results indicated that both the acyl-CoA pool and seed oil of transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing cytosolic BnACBP exhibited relative increases in linoleic acid (18:2(cisΔ9,12); 17.9%-44.4% and 7%-13.2%, respectively) and decreases in 20:1(cisΔ11) (38.7%-60.7% and 13.8%-16.3%, respectively). However, alterations in the FA composition of the acyl-CoA pool did not always correlate with those seen in the seed oil. In addition, we found that targeting of BnACBP to the endoplasmic reticulum resulted in FA compositional changes that were similar to those seen in lines expressing cytosolic BnACBP, with the most prominent exception being a relative reduction in α-linolenic acid (18:3(cisΔ9,12,15)) in both the acyl-CoA pool and seed oil of the former (48.4%-48.9% and 5.3%-10.4%, respectively). Overall, these data support the role of ACBP in acyl trafficking in developing seeds and validate its use as a biotechnological tool for modifying the FA composition of seed oil. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. A hydrophobic loop in acyl-CoA binding protein is functionally important for binding to palmitoyl-coenzyme A: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Diego F G; Grigera, J Raúl; Costabel, Marcelo D

    2008-04-01

    Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) plays a key role in lipid metabolism, interacting via a partly unknown mechanism with high affinity with long chain fatty acyl-CoAs (LCFA-CoAs). At present there is no study of the microscopic way ligand binding is accomplished. We analyzed this process by molecular dynamics (MDs) simulations. We proposed a computational model of ligand, able to reproduce some evidence from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data, quantitative time resolved fluorometry and X-ray crystallography. We found that a hydrophobic loop, not in the active site, is important for function. Besides, multiple sequence alignment shows hydrophobicity (and not the residues itselves) conservation.

  16. A highly compliant protein native state with a spontaneous-like mechanical unfolding pathway.

    PubMed

    Heidarsson, Pétur O; Valpapuram, Immanuel; Camilloni, Carlo; Imparato, Alberto; Tiana, Guido; Poulsen, Flemming M; Kragelund, Birthe B; Cecconi, Ciro

    2012-10-17

    The mechanical properties of proteins and their force-induced structural changes play key roles in many biological processes. Previous studies have shown that natively folded proteins are brittle under tension, unfolding after small mechanical deformations, while partially folded intermediate states, such as molten globules, are compliant and can deform elastically a great amount before crossing the transition state barrier. Moreover, under tension proteins appear to unfold through a different sequence of events than during spontaneous unfolding. Here, we describe the response to force of the four-α-helix acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) in the low-force regime using optical tweezers and ratcheted molecular dynamics simulations. The results of our studies reveal an unprecedented mechanical behavior of a natively folded protein. ACBP displays an atypical compliance along two nearly orthogonal pulling axes, with transition states located almost halfway between the unfolded and folded states. Surprisingly, the deformability of ACBP is greater than that observed for the highly pliant molten globule intermediate states. Furthermore, when manipulated from the N- and C-termini, ACBP unfolds by populating a transition state that resembles that observed during chemical denaturation, both for structure and position along the reaction coordinate. Our data provide the first experimental evidence of a spontaneous-like mechanical unfolding pathway of a protein. The mechanical behavior of ACBP is discussed in terms of topology and helix propensity.

  17. Acyl-CoA binding proteins: multiplicity and function.

    PubMed

    Gossett, R E; Frolov, A A; Roths, J B; Behnke, W D; Kier, A B; Schroeder, F

    1996-09-01

    The physiological role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA is thought to be primarily in intermediary metabolism of fatty acids. However, recent data show that nM to microM levels of these lipophilic molecules are potent regulators of cell functions in vitro. Although long-chain fatty acyl-CoA are present at several hundred microM concentration in the cell, very little long-chain fatty acyl-CoA actually exists as free or unbound molecules, but rather is bound with high affinity to membrane lipids and/or proteins. Recently, there is growing awareness that cytosol contains nonenzymatic proteins also capable of binding long-chain fatty acyl-CoA with high affinity. Although the identity of the cytosolic long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding protein(s) has been the subject of some controversy, there is growing evidence that several diverse nonenzymatic cytosolic proteins will bind long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Not only does acyl-CoA binding protein specifically bind medium and long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCFA-CoA), but ubiquitous proteins with multiple ligand specificities such as the fatty acid binding proteins and sterol carrier protein-2 also bind LCFA-CoA with high affinity. The potential of these acyl-CoA binding proteins to influence the level of free LCFA-CoA and thereby the amount of LCFA-CoA bound to regulatory sites in proteins and enzymes is only now being examined in detail. The purpose of this article is to explore the identity, nature, function, and pathobiology of these fascinating newly discovered long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding proteins. The relative contributions of these three different protein families to LCFA-CoA utilization and/or regulation of cellular activities are the focus of new directions in this field.

  18. Inhibition of tristetraprolin deadenylation by poly(A) binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Rowlett, Robert M.; Chrestensen, Carol A.; Schroeder, Melanie J.; Harp, Mary G.; Pelo, Jared W.; Shabanowitz, Jeffery; DeRose, Robert; Hunt, Donald F.; Sturgill, Thomas W.; Worthington, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is the prototype for a family of RNA binding proteins that bind the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) messenger RNA AU-rich element (ARE), causing deadenylation of the TNF poly(A) tail, RNA decay, and silencing of TNF protein production. Using mass spectrometry sequencing we identified poly(A) binding proteins-1 and -4 (PABP1 and PABP4) in high abundance and good protein coverage from TTP immunoprecipitates. PABP1 significantly enhanced TNF ARE binding by RNA EMSA and prevented TTP-initiated deadenylation in an in vitro macrophage assay of TNF poly(A) stability. Neomycin inhibited TTP-promoted deadenylation at concentrations shown to inhibit the deadenylases poly(A) ribonuclease and CCR4. Stably transfected RAW264.7 macrophages overexpressing PABP1 do not oversecrete TNF; instead they upregulate TTP protein without increasing TNF protein production. The PABP1 inhibition of deadenylation initiated by TTP does not require the poly(A) binding regions in RRM1 and RRM2, suggesting a more complicated interaction than simple masking of the poly(A) tail from a 3′-exonuclease. Like TTP, PABP1 is a substrate for p38 MAP kinase. Finally, PABP1 stabilizes cotransfected TTP in 293T cells and prevents the decrease in TTP levels seen with p38 MAP kinase inhibition. These findings suggest several levels of functional antagonism between TTP and PABP1 that have implications for regulation of unstable mRNAs like TNF. PMID:18467502

  19. A Binding Model and Similarity for Flexible Modular Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Máté, Gabriell; Feinauer, Christoph J.; Hofmann, Andreas; Goldt, Sebastian; Liu, Lei; Heermann, Dieter W.

    2013-03-01

    Modular proteins are one of the most commonly found disordered protein motifs. An example is CTCF, a protein that has been named the master waver of the genome i.e., the organizer of the 3D structure of the chromosomes. Using NMR and numerical simulations, much progress has been made in understanding their various functions and ways of binding. Modular proteins are often composed of protein modules interconnected by flexible linkers. They can be imagined as ``beads on a string.'' We argue that when the number of beads is small, these structures behave like a self avoiding random walk. Nevertheless, when binding to a target, linkers can fold in more ordered and stable states. At the same time, folding can influence functional roles. We show that the flexibility of the linkers can boost binding affinity. As a result of flexibility, the conformations of these proteins before and after binding are different. So this implies that generic binding site prediction methods may fail. To deal with this we introduce a new methodology to characterize and compare these flexible structures. Employing topological concepts we propose a method which intrinsically fuses topology and geometry. GM gratefully acknowledges support from the HGS-MathComp and the RTG 1653.

  20. Lipid A binding proteins in macrophages detected by ligand blotting

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, R.Y.; Golenbock, D.T.; Raetz, C.R.H.

    1987-05-01

    Endotoxin (LPS) stimulates a variety of eukaryotic cells. These actions are involved in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative septicemia. The site of action of the LPS toxic moiety, lipid A (LA), is unclear. Their laboratory has previously identified a bioactive LA precursor lipid IV/sub A/, which can be enzymatically labeled with /sup 32/P/sub i/ (10/sup 9/ dpm/nmole) and purified (99%). They now show that this ligand binds to specific proteins immobilized on nitrocellulose (NC) from LPS-sensitive RAW 264.7 cultured macrophages. NC blots were incubated with (/sup 32/P)-IV/sub A/ in a buffer containing BSA, NaCl, polyethylene glycol, and azide. Binding was assessed using autoradiography or scintillation counting. Dot blot binding of the radioligand was inhibited by excess cold IV/sub A/, LA, or ReLPS but not by phosphatidylcholine, cardiolipin, phosphatidylinositol, or phosphatidic acid. Binding was trypsin-sensitive and dependent on protein concentration. Particulate macrophage proteins were subjected to SDS-PAGE and then electroblotted onto NC. Several discrete binding proteins were observed. Identical treatment of fetal bovine serum or molecular weight standards revealed no detectable binding. By avoiding high nonspecific binding of intact membranes, this ligand blotting assay may be useful in elucidating the molecular actions of LPS.

  1. Shrimp arginine kinase being a binding protein of WSSV envelope protein VP31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cuiyan; Gao, Qiang; Liang, Yan; Li, Chen; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Viral entry into the host is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle in which attachment proteins play a key role. VP31 (WSV340/WSSV396), an envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide domain known as a cellular attachment site. At present, the process of VP31 interacting with shrimp host cells has not been explored. Therefore, the VP31 gene was cloned into pET30a (+), expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and purified with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Four gill cellular proteins of shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were pulled down by an affinity column coupled with recombinant VP31 (rVP31), and the amino acid sequences were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Hemocyanin, beta-actin, arginine kinase (AK), and an unknown protein were suggested as the putative VP31 receptor proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that AK is the predominant binding protein of VP31. An i n vitro binding activity experiment indicated that recombinant AK's (rAK) binding activity with rVP31 is comparable to that with the same amount of WSSV. These results suggested that AK, as a member of the phosphagen kinase family, plays a role in WSSV infection. This is the first evidence showing that AK is a binding protein of VP31. Further studies on this topic will elucidate WSSV infection mechanism in the future.

  2. A Rational Engineering Strategy for Designing Protein A-Binding Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Kevin A.; Sulea, Traian; van Faassen, Henk; Hussack, Greg; Purisima, Enrico O.; MacKenzie, C. Roger; Arbabi-Ghahroudi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) and streptococcal protein G (SpG) affinity chromatography are the gold standards for purifying monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapeutic applications. However, camelid VHH single-domain Abs (sdAbs or VHHs) are not bound by SpG and only sporadically bound by SpA. Currently, VHHs require affinity tag-based purification, which limits their therapeutic potential and adds considerable complexity and cost to their production. Here we describe a simple and rapid mutagenesis-based approach designed to confer SpA binding upon a priori non-SpA-binding VHHs. We show that SpA binding of VHHs is determined primarily by the same set of residues as in human mAbs, albeit with an unexpected degree of tolerance to substitutions at certain core and non-core positions and some limited dependence on at least one residue outside the SpA interface, and that SpA binding could be successfully introduced into five VHHs against three different targets with no adverse effects on expression yield or antigen binding. Next-generation sequencing of llama, alpaca and dromedary VHH repertoires suggested that species differences in SpA binding may result from frequency variation in specific deleterious polymorphisms, especially Ile57. Thus, the SpA binding phenotype of camelid VHHs can be easily modulated to take advantage of tag-less purification techniques, although the frequency with which this is required may depend on the source species. PMID:27631624

  3. Superovulation alters embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (Epab) and poly(A)-binding protein, cytoplasmic 1 (Pabpc1) gene expression in mouse oocytes and early embryos.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Saffet; Yaba-Ucar, Aylin; Sozen, Berna; Mutlu, Derya; Demir, Necdet

    2016-03-01

    Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB) and poly(A)-binding protein, cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1) play critical roles in translational regulation of stored maternal mRNAs required for proper oocyte maturation and early embryo development in mammals. Superovulation is a commonly used technique to obtain a great number of oocytes in the same developmental stages in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and in clinical or experimental animal studies. Previous studies have convincingly indicated that superovulation alone can cause impaired oocyte maturation, delayed embryo development, decreased implantation rate and increased postimplantation loss. Although how superovulation results in these disturbances has not been clearly addressed yet, putative changes in genes related to oocyte and early embryo development seem to be potential risk factors. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of superovulation on Epab and Pabpc1 gene expression. To this end, low- (5IU) and high-dose (10IU) pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) were administered to female mice to induce superovulation, with naturally cycling female mice serving as controls. Epab and Pabpc1 gene expression in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes, MII oocytes and 1- and 2-cell embryos collected from each group were quantified using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Superovulation with low or high doses of gonadotropins significantly altered Epab and Pabpc1 mRNA levels in GV oocytes, MII oocytes and 1- and 2-cell embryos compared with their respective controls (P<0.05). These changes most likely lead to variations in expression of EPAB- and PABPC1-regulated genes, which may adversely influence the quality of oocytes and early embryos retrieved using superovulation.

  4. Poly(A) binding proteins located at the inner surface of resealed nuclear envelopes.

    PubMed

    Prochnow, D; Riedel, N; Agutter, P S; Fasold, H

    1990-04-25

    We have used a photoreactive cross-linking reagent, poly(A/8-N3-A) (a poly(A) of average molecular mass of 100 kDa in which 5-10% of the A residues are replaced by 8-N3-A), to label poly(A) binding proteins of rat liver nuclear envelopes. This reagent was prepared by polymerizing a mixture of ADP and 8-N3-ADP with polynucleotide phosphorylase. The purified poly(A) was labeled in the 5'-position with a 32P group. In nuclear envelopes prepared by a low salt DNase I procedure, the poly(A/8-N3-A) labeled a protein-nucleic acid complex of approximately 270 kDa, which on degradation with RNase U2 or NaOH at pH 10 yielded two polypeptides of approximately 50 and 30 kDa. These photoreaction products were markedly decreased when resealed nuclear envelopes or non-nuclear envelope proteins were irradiated in the presence of poly(A/8-N3-A). The affinity labeling was intensified when resealed vesicles were made leaky by freezing or ultrasonication, suggesting that the poly(A) binding proteins are accessible from the nucleoplasmic but not the cytoplasmic face of the envelope. Moreover binding was specific for poly(A). Alternative reagents, random poly(A/8-N3-A,C,G,U) of about 100 kDa and poly(dA) (molecular mass between 350 and 515 kDa), showed a very low affinity for poly(A) recognition proteins in the low salt DNase I-treated nuclear envelopes; the 270-kDa band was labeled only weakly. The binding site was not protected by poly(A,C,G,U), weakly by poly(dA), and distinctly by poly(A).

  5. In vivo aggregation properties of the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein PABPN1.

    PubMed

    Tavanez, João Paulo; Calado, Patricia; Braga, José; Lafarga, Miguel; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria

    2005-05-01

    A broad range of degenerative diseases is associated with intracellular inclusions formed by toxic, aggregation-prone mutant proteins. Intranuclear inclusions constitute a pathological hallmark of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD), a dominantly inherited disease caused by (GCG) repeat expansions in the gene that encodes for nuclear poly(A) binding protein (PABPN1). The mutation results in an extended polyalanine stretch that has been proposed to induce protein aggregation and formation of intranuclear inclusions. Here we show that normal PABPN1 is inherently aggregation-prone when exogenously expressed in either HeLa or myogenic C2 cells. Similar deposits of insoluble PABPN1 are formed by variant forms of the protein containing either a polyalanine expansion or a complete deletion of the polyalanine tract, indicating that the mutation responsible for OPMD is not essential for formation of PABPN1 inclusions. In contrast, interfering with any of the protein domains required for stimulation of poly(A) polymerase prevents the formation of inclusions. Most surprisingly, photobleaching experiments reveal that both normal and expanded PABPN1 molecules are not irreversibly sequestered into aggregates, but rather move rapidly in and out of the inclusions. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of OPMD model systems based on exogenous expression of PABPN1.

  6. Polyalanine-independent conformational conversion of nuclear poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABPN1).

    PubMed

    Winter, Reno; Kühn, Uwe; Hause, Gerd; Schwarz, Elisabeth

    2012-06-29

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy is a late-onset disease caused by an elongation of a natural 10-alanine segment within the N-terminal domain of the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABPN1) to maximally 17 alanines. The disease is characterized by intranuclear deposits consisting primarily of PABPN1. In previous studies, we could show that the N-terminal domain of PABPN1 forms amyloid-like fibrils. Here, we analyze fibril formation of full-length PABPN1. Unexpectedly, fibril formation was independent of the presence of the alanine segment. With regard to fibril formation kinetics and resistance against denaturants, fibrils formed by full-length PABPN1 had completely different properties from those formed by the N-terminal domain. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and limited proteolysis showed that fibrillar PABPN1 has a structure that differs from native PABPN1. Circumstantial evidence is presented that the C-terminal domain is involved in fibril formation.

  7. Dual labeling of a binding protein allows for specific fluorescence detection of native protein.

    PubMed

    Karlström, A; Nygren, P A

    2001-08-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer has been investigated in the context of specific detection of unlabeled proteins. A model system based on the staphylococcal protein A (SPA)-IgG interaction was designed, in which a single domain was engineered to facilitate site-specific incorporation of fluorophores. An Asn23Cys mutant of the B domain from SPA was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently labeled at the introduced unique thiol and at an amino group, using N-iodoacetyl-N'-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine (1,5-IAEDANS) and succinimidyl 6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)hexanoate (NBD-X, SE), respectively. Biosensor analysis of purified doubly labeled protein showed that high-affinity binding to the Fc region of IgG was retained. The fluorescence emission spectrum of the doubly labeled protein showed a shift in the relative emission of the two fluorophores in the presence of Fc3(1) fragments, which bind specifically to the B domain. In addition, the fluorescence emission ratio 480/525 nm was shown to increase with increasing concentration of Fc3(1), whereas the presence of a control protein did not affect the emission ratio over the same concentration range.

  8. Affinity polymers tailored for the protein A binding site of immunoglobulin G proteins.

    PubMed

    Latza, Patricia; Gilles, Patrick; Schaller, Torsten; Schrader, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Rational design in combination with a screening process was used to develop affinity polymers for a specific binding site on the surface of immunoglobulin G (IgG) proteins. The concept starts with the identification of critical amino acid residues on the protein interface and their topological arrangement. Appropriate binding monomers were subsequently synthesized. Together with a sugar monomer (2-5 equiv) for water solubility and a dansyl monomer (0.5 equiv) as a fluorescent label, they were subjected in aqueous solution to linear radical copolymerization in various compositions (e.g., azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), homogeneous water/DMF mixtures). After ultrafiltration and lyophilization, colorless dry water-soluble powders were obtained. NMR spectroscopic and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) characterization indicated molecular weights between 30 and 500 kD and confirmed retention of monomer composition as well as the absence of monomers. In a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screen of the polymer libraries (20-50 members), few copolymers qualified as strong and selective binders for the protein A binding site on the Fc fragment of the antibody. Their monomer composition precisely reflected the critical amino acids found at the interface. The simple combination of a charged and a nonpolar binding monomer sufficed for selective submicromolar IgG recognition by the synthetic polymer. Affinities were confirmed by fluorescence titrations; they increased with decreasing salt load but remained largely unaltered at lowered pH. Other proteins, including those of similar size and isoelectric point (pI), were bound 10-1000 times less tightly. This example indicates that interaction domains in other proteins may also be targeted by synthetic polymers if their comonomer composition reflects the nature and arrangement of amino acid residues on the protein surface.

  9. Depletion of cellular poly (A) binding protein prevents protein synthesis and leads to apoptosis in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thangima Zannat, Mst.; Bhattacharjee, Rumpa B.; Bag, Jnanankur

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} Depletion of cellular PABP level arrests mRNA translation in HeLa cells. {yields} PABP knock down leads to apoptotic cell death. {yields} PABP depletion does not affect transcription. {yields} PABP depletion does not lead to nuclear accumulation of mRNA. -- Abstract: The cytoplasmic poly (A) binding protein (PABP) is important in mRNA translation and stability. In yeast, depletion of PABP leads to translation arrest. Similarly, the PABP gene in Drosophila is important for proper development. It is however uncertain, whether mammalian PABP is essential for mRNA translation. Here we showed the effect of PABP depletion on mRNA metabolism in HeLa cells by using a small interfering RNA. Our results suggest that depletion of PABP prevents protein synthesis and consequently leads to cell death through apoptosis. Interestingly, no detectable effect of PABP depletion on transcription, transport and stability of mRNA was observed.

  10. Poly (A) Binding Protein Cytoplasmic 1 Is a Novel Co-Regulator of the Androgen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Eisermann, Kurtis; Dar, Javid A.; Dong, Jun; Wang, Dan; Masoodi, Khalid Z.; Wang, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the steroid receptor superfamily that regulates gene expression in a ligand-dependent manner. The NTD of the AR plays a key role in AR transactivation including androgen-independent activation of the AR in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells. We recently reported that amino acids (a.a.) 50-250 of the NTD are capable of modulating AR nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. To further explore the mechanism associated with a.a. 50-250, GFP pull-down assays were performed in C4-2 CRPC cells transfected with GFP tagged a.a. 50-250 of the AR. Mass spectrometry analysis of the pulled down proteins identified poly (A) binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1) interaction with this region of the AR. In silico analysis of gene expression data revealed PABPC1 up-regulation in prostate cancer tissue specimens and this up-regulation correlates to increased disease recurrence. Co-immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the association of PABPC1 with a.a. 50-250 of the NTD of the AR. Knockdown of PABPC1 decreased nuclear AR protein levels and inhibited androgen activation of the AR target PSA in LNCaP and C4-2 cells. Additionally, knockdown of PABPC1 inhibited transactivation of the PSA promoter by NAR (AR lacking the LBD) and attenuated proliferation of AR-positive prostate cancer cells. These findings suggest that PABPC1 is a novel co-regulator of the AR and may be a potential target for blocking activation of the AR in CRPC. PMID:26176602

  11. Mass spectrometric identification of proteins that interact through specific domains of the poly(A) binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chongxu; Nielsen, Maria E. O.; Chiang, Yueh-Chin; Kierkegaard, Morten; Wang, Xin; Lee, Darren J.; Andersen, Jens S.; Yao, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Poly(A) binding protein (PAB1) is involved in a number of RNA metabolic functions in eukaryotic cells and correspondingly is suggested to associate with a number of proteins. We have used mass spectrometric analysis to identify 55 non-ribosomal proteins that specifically interact with PAB1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because many of these factors may associate only indirectly with PAB1 by being components of the PAB1-mRNP structure, we additionally conducted mass spectrometric analyses on seven metabolically defined PAB1 deletion derivatives to delimit the interactions between these proteins and PAB1. These latter analyses identified 13 proteins whose associations with PAB1 were reduced by deleting one or another of PAB1’s defined domains. Included in this list of 13 proteins were the translation initiation factors eIF4G1 and eIF4G2, translation termination factor eRF3, and PBP2, all of whose previously known direct interactions with specific PAB1 domains were either confirmed, delimited, or extended. The remaining nine proteins that interacted through a specific PAB1 domain were CBF5, SLF1, UPF1, CBC1, SSD1, NOP77, yGR250c, NAB6, and GBP2. In further study, UPF1, involved in nonsense-mediated decay, was confirmed to interact with PAB1 through the RRM1 domain. We additionally established that while the RRM1 domain of PAB1 was required for UPF1-induced acceleration of deadenylation during nonsense-mediated decay, it was not required for the more critical step of acceleration of mRNA decapping. These results begin to identify the proteins most likely to interact with PAB1 and the domains of PAB1 through which these contacts are made. PMID:22836166

  12. Mass spectrometric identification of proteins that interact through specific domains of the poly(A) binding protein.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Roy; Denis, Clyde L; Zhang, Chongxu; Nielsen, Maria E O; Chiang, Yueh-Chin; Kierkegaard, Morten; Wang, Xin; Lee, Darren J; Andersen, Jens S; Yao, Gang

    2012-09-01

    Poly(A) binding protein (PAB1) is involved in a number of RNA metabolic functions in eukaryotic cells and correspondingly is suggested to associate with a number of proteins. We have used mass spectrometric analysis to identify 55 non-ribosomal proteins that specifically interact with PAB1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because many of these factors may associate only indirectly with PAB1 by being components of the PAB1-mRNP structure, we additionally conducted mass spectrometric analyses on seven metabolically defined PAB1 deletion derivatives to delimit the interactions between these proteins and PAB1. These latter analyses identified 13 proteins whose associations with PAB1 were reduced by deleting one or another of PAB1's defined domains. Included in this list of 13 proteins were the translation initiation factors eIF4G1 and eIF4G2, translation termination factor eRF3, and PBP2, all of whose previously known direct interactions with specific PAB1 domains were either confirmed, delimited, or extended. The remaining nine proteins that interacted through a specific PAB1 domain were CBF5, SLF1, UPF1, CBC1, SSD1, NOP77, yGR250c, NAB6, and GBP2. In further study, UPF1, involved in nonsense-mediated decay, was confirmed to interact with PAB1 through the RRM1 domain. We additionally established that while the RRM1 domain of PAB1 was required for UPF1-induced acceleration of deadenylation during nonsense-mediated decay, it was not required for the more critical step of acceleration of mRNA decapping. These results begin to identify the proteins most likely to interact with PAB1 and the domains of PAB1 through which these contacts are made.

  13. Palonosetron-5-HT3 Receptor Interactions As Shown by a Binding Protein Cocrystal Structure.

    PubMed

    Price, Kerry L; Lillestol, Reidun K; Ulens, Chris; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2016-12-21

    Palonosetron is a potent 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and an effective therapeutic agent against emesis. Here we identify the molecular determinants of compound recognition in the receptor binding site by obtaining a high resolution structure of palonosetron bound to an engineered acetylcholine binding protein that mimics the 5-HT3 receptor binding site, termed 5-HTBP, and by examining the potency of palonosetron in a range of 5-HT3 receptors with mutated binding site residues. The structural data indicate that palonosetron forms a tight and effective wedge in the binding pocket, made possible by its rigid tricyclic ring structure and its interactions with binding site residues; it adopts a binding pose that is distinct from the related antiemetics granisetron and tropisetron. The functional data show many residues previously shown to interact with agonists and antagonists in the binding site are important for palonosetron binding, and indicate those of particular importance are W183 (a cation-π interaction and a hydrogen bond) and Y153 (a hydrogen bond). This information, and the availability of the structure of palonosetron bound to 5-HTBP, should aid the development of novel and more efficacious drugs that act via 5-HT3 receptors.

  14. The Human Nuclear Poly(A)-Binding Protein Promotes RNA Hyperadenylation and Decay

    PubMed Central

    Bresson, Stefan M.; Conrad, Nicholas K.

    2013-01-01

    Control of nuclear RNA stability is essential for proper gene expression, but the mechanisms governing RNA degradation in mammalian nuclei are poorly defined. In this study, we uncover a mammalian RNA decay pathway that depends on the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein (PABPN1), the poly(A) polymerases (PAPs), PAPα and PAPγ, and the exosome subunits RRP6 and DIS3. Using a targeted knockdown approach and nuclear RNA reporters, we show that PABPN1 and PAPα, redundantly with PAPγ, generate hyperadenylated decay substrates that are recognized by the exosome and degraded. Poly(A) tail extension appears to be necessary for decay, as cordycepin treatment or point mutations in the PAP-stimulating domain of PABPN1 leads to the accumulation of stable transcripts with shorter poly(A) tails than controls. Mechanistically, these data suggest that PABPN1-dependent promotion of PAP activity can stimulate nuclear RNA decay. Importantly, efficiently exported RNAs are unaffected by this decay pathway, supporting an mRNA quality control function for this pathway. Finally, analyses of both bulk poly(A) tails and specific endogenous transcripts reveals that a subset of nuclear RNAs are hyperadenylated in a PABPN1-dependent fashion, and this hyperadenylation can be either uncoupled or coupled with decay. Our results highlight a complex relationship between PABPN1, PAPα/γ, and nuclear RNA decay, and we suggest that these activities may play broader roles in the regulation of human gene expression. PMID:24146636

  15. Paxillin associates with poly(A)-binding protein 1 at the dense endoplasmic reticulum and the leading edge of migrating cells.

    PubMed

    Woods, Alison J; Roberts, Marnie S; Choudhary, Jyoti; Barry, Simon T; Mazaki, Yuichi; Sabe, Hisataka; Morley, Simon J; Critchley, David R; Norman, Jim C

    2002-02-22

    Using mass spectrometry we have identified proteins which co-immunoprecipitate with paxillin, an adaptor protein implicated in the integrin-mediated signaling pathways of cell motility. A major component of paxillin immunoprecipitates was poly(A)-binding protein 1, a 70-kDa mRNA-binding protein. Poly(A)-binding protein 1 associated with both the alpha and beta isoforms of paxillin, and this was unaffected by RNase treatment consistent with a protein-protein interaction. The NH(2)-terminal region of paxillin (residues 54-313) associated directly with poly(A)-binding protein 1 in cell lysates, and with His-poly(A)-binding protein 1 immobilized in microtiter wells. Binding was specific, saturable and of high affinity (K(d) of approximately 10 nm). Cell fractionation studies showed that at steady state, the bulk of paxillin and poly(A)-binding protein 1 was present in the "dense" polyribosome-associated endoplasmic reticulum. However, inhibition of nuclear export with leptomycin B caused paxillin and poly(A)-binding protein 1 to accumulate in the nucleus, indicating that they shuttle between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. When cells migrate, poly(A)-binding protein 1 colocalized with paxillin-beta at the tips of lamellipodia. Our results suggest a new mechanism whereby a paxillin x poly(A)-binding protein 1 complex facilitates transport of mRNA from the nucleus to sites of protein synthesis at the endoplasmic reticulum and the leading lamella during cell migration.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis reveals dynamic evolution of the poly(A)-binding protein gene family in plants.

    PubMed

    Gallie, Daniel R; Liu, Renyi

    2014-11-25

    The poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) binds the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNAs and functions to maintain the integrity of the mRNA while promoting protein synthesis through its interaction with eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4G and eIF4B. PABP is encoded by a single gene in yeast and marine algae but during plant evolution the PABP gene family expanded substantially, underwent sequence divergence into three subclasses, and acquired tissue-specificity in gene family member expression. Although such changes suggest functional specialization, the size of the family and its sequence divergence have complicated an understanding of which gene family members may be foundational and which may represent more recent expansions of the family to meet the specific needs of speciation. Here, we examine the evolution of the plant PABP gene family to provide insight into these aspects of the family that may yield clues into the function of individual family members. The PABP gene family had expanded to two members by the appearance of fresh water algae and four members in non-vascular plants. In lycophytes, the first sequence divergence yielding a specific class member occurs. The earliest members of the gene family share greatest similarity to those modern members whose expression is confined to reproductive tissues, suggesting that supporting reproductive-associated gene expression is the most conserved function of this family. A family member sharing similarity to modern vegetative-associated members first appears in gymnosperms. Further elaboration of the reproductive-associated and vegetative-associated members occurred during the evolution of flowering plants. Expansion of the plant PABP gene family began prior to the colonization of land. By the evolution of lycophytes, the first class member whose expression is confined to reproductive tissues in higher plants had appeared. A second class member whose expression is vegetative-associated appeared in

  17. Partial purification of a binding protein for polychlorinated biphenyls from rat lung cytosol: Physicochemical and immunochemical characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.; Nordlund, L.; Gustafsson, J.A. )

    1988-10-04

    A binding protein for certain methyl sulfone metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was partially purified from lung cytosol of untreated female rats. The protein has an M{sub r} of 13,000 and a pI of 5.3 in the absence of reducing agents. In the presence of dithioerythreitol or {beta}-mercaptoethanol, the protein is split into subunits with a more basic pI. The 13-kDa protein was electroeluted from SDS-polyacrylamide gels, and an antiserum against the protein was raised in rabbit. The immunoglobulin fraction was shown to contain monospecific antibodies against the 13-kDa protein as determined by Western immunoblots. Due to striking similarities in physicochemical characteristics of the 13-kDa protein and a protein purified from rabbit lung and uterus, uteroglobin, the anti 13-kDa protein antibodies were tested for cross-reactivity. As judged by Western immunoblots, the anti 13-kDa protein antibodies did not cross-react with uteroglobin and the two proteins, although similar, do not seem to be identical. The 13-kDa protein is proposed to be responsible for the accumulation of certain methylsulfonyl-PCBs in lung tissue of rats. Monospecific antibodies against the 13-kDa protein should constitute immunochemical probes of great value in attempts to elucidate the physiological role of the protein as well as its possible role in PCB-induced respiratory toxicity.

  18. Poly(A) binding protein C1 is essential for efficient L1 retrotransposition and affects L1 RNP formation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lixin; Taylor, Martin S; O'Donnell, Kathryn A; Boeke, Jef D

    2012-11-01

    Poly(A) binding proteins (PABPs) specifically bind the polyadenosine tail of mRNA and have been shown to be important for RNA polyadenylation, translation initiation, and mRNA stability. Using a modified L1 retrotransposition vector, we examined the effects of two PABPs (encoded by PABPN1 and PABPC1) on the retrotransposition activity of the L1 non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposon in both HeLa and HEK293T cells. We demonstrated that knockdown of these two genes by RNA interference (RNAi) effectively reduced L1 retrotransposition by 70 to 80% without significantly changing L1 transcription or translation or the status of the poly(A) tail. We identified that both poly(A) binding proteins were associated with the L1 ribonucleoprotein complex, presumably through L1 mRNA. Depletion of PABPC1 caused a defect in L1 RNP formation. Knockdown of the PABPC1 inhibitor PAIP2 increased L1 retrotransposition up to 2-fold. Low levels of exogenous overexpression of PABPN1 and PABPC1 increased L1 retrotransposition, whereas unregulated overexpression of these two proteins caused pleiotropic effects, such as hypersensitivity to puromycin and decreased L1 activity. Our data suggest that PABPC1 is essential for the formation of L1 RNA-protein complexes and may play a role in L1 RNP translocation in the host cell.

  19. Characterization of an acyl-coenzyme A binding protein predominantly expressed in human primitive progenitor cells*s⃞

    PubMed Central

    Soupene, Eric; Serikov, Vladimir; Kuypers, Frans A.

    2008-01-01

    Human acyl-coenzyme A binding domain-containing member 6 (ACBD6) is a modular protein that carries an acyl-CoA binding domain at its N terminus and two ankyrin motifs at its C terminus. ACBD6 binds long-chain acyl-CoAs with a strong preference for unsaturated, C18:1-CoA and C20:4-CoA, over saturated, C16:0-CoA, acyl species. Deletion of the C terminus, which is not conserved among the members of this family, did not affect the binding capacity or the substrate specificity of the protein. ACBD6 is not a ubiquitous protein, and its expression is restricted to tissues and progenitor cells with functions in blood and vessel development. ACBD6 was detected in bone marrow, spleen, placenta, cord blood, circulating CD34+ progenitors, and embryonic-like stem cells derived from placenta. In placenta, the protein was only detected in CD34+ progenitor cells present in blood and in CD31+ endothelial cells surrounding the blood vessels. These cells were also positive for the marker CD133, and they probably constitute hemangiogenic stem cells, precursors of both blood and vessels. We propose that human ACBD6 represents a cellular marker for primitive progenitor cells with functions in hematopoiesis and vascular endothelium development. PMID:18268358

  20. OptGraft: A computational procedure for transferring a binding site onto an existing protein scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Fazelinia, Hossein; Cirino, Patrick C; Maranas, Costas D

    2009-01-01

    One of the many challenging tasks of protein design is the introduction of a completely new function into an existing protein scaffold. In this study, we introduce a new computational procedure OptGraft for placing a novel binding pocket onto a protein structure so as its geometry is minimally perturbed. This is accomplished by introducing a two-level procedure where we first identify where are the most appropriate locations to graft the new binding pocket into the protein fold by minimizing the departure from a set of geometric restraints using mixed-integer linear optimization. On identifying the suitable locations that can accommodate the new binding pocket, CHARMM energy calculations are employed to identify what mutations in the neighboring residues, if any, are needed to ensure that the minimum energy conformation of the binding pocket conserves the desired geometry. This computational framework is benchmarked against the results available in the literature for engineering a copper binding site into thioredoxin protein. Subsequently, OptGraft is used to guide the transfer of a calcium-binding pocket from thermitase protein (PDB: 1thm) into the first domain of CD2 protein (PDB:1hng). Experimental characterization of three de novo redesigned proteins with grafted calcium-binding centers demonstrated that they all exhibit high affinities for terbium (Kd ∼ 22, 38, and 55 μM) and can selectively bind calcium over magnesium. PMID:19177362

  1. Being a binding site: characterizing residue composition of binding sites on proteins.

    PubMed

    Iván, Gábor; Szabadka, Zoltán; Grolmusz, Vince

    2007-12-30

    The Protein Data Bank contains the description of more than 45,000 three-dimensional protein and nucleic-acid structures today. Started to exist as the computer-readable depository of crystallographic data complementing printed articles, the proper interpretation of the content of the individual files in the PDB still frequently needs the detailed information found in the citing publication. This fact implies that the fully automatic processing of the whole PDB is a very hard task. We first cleaned and re-structured the PDB data, then analyzed the residue composition of the binding sites in the whole PDB for frequency and for hidden association rules. Main results of the paper: (i) the cleaning and repairing algorithm (ii) redundancy elimination from the data (iii) application of association rule mining to the cleaned non-redundant data set. We have found numerous significant relations of the residue-composition of the ligand binding sites on protein surfaces, summarized in two figures. One of the classical data-mining methods for exploring implication-rules, the association-rule mining, is capable to find previously unknown residue-set preferences of bind ligands on protein surfaces. Since protein-ligand binding is a key step in enzymatic mechanisms and in drug discovery, these uncovered preferences in the study of more than 19,500 binding sites may help in identifying new binding protein-ligand pairs.

  2. Negative regulation of meiotic gene expression by the nuclear poly(a)-binding protein in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    St-André, Olivier; Lemieux, Caroline; Perreault, Audrey; Lackner, Daniel H; Bähler, Jürg; Bachand, François

    2010-09-03

    Meiosis is a cellular differentiation process in which hundreds of genes are temporally induced. Because the expression of meiotic genes during mitosis is detrimental to proliferation, meiotic genes must be negatively regulated in the mitotic cell cycle. Yet, little is known about mechanisms used by mitotic cells to repress meiosis-specific genes. Here we show that the poly(A)-binding protein Pab2, the fission yeast homolog of mammalian PABPN1, controls the expression of several meiotic transcripts during mitotic division. Our results from chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter-swapping experiments indicate that Pab2 controls meiotic genes post-transcriptionally. Consistently, we show that the nuclear exosome complex cooperates with Pab2 in the negative regulation of meiotic genes. We also found that Pab2 plays a role in the RNA decay pathway orchestrated by Mmi1, a previously described factor that functions in the post-transcriptional elimination of meiotic transcripts. Our results support a model in which Mmi1 selectively targets meiotic transcripts for degradation via Pab2 and the exosome. Our findings have therefore uncovered a mode of gene regulation whereby a poly(A)-binding protein promotes RNA degradation in the nucleus to prevent untimely expression.

  3. Resolving protein structure-function-binding site relationships from a binding site similarity network perspective.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, Richa; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2017-03-25

    Functional annotation is seldom straightforward with complexities arising due to functional divergence in protein families or functional convergence between non-homologous protein families, leading to mis-annotations. An enzyme may contain multiple domains and not all domains may be involved in a given function, adding to the complexity in function annotation. To address this, we use binding site information from bound cognate ligands and catalytic residues, since it can help in resolving fold-function relationships at a finer level and with higher confidence. A comprehensive database of 2,020 fold-function-binding site relationships has been systematically generated. A network-based approach is employed to capture the complexity in these relationships, from which different types of associations are deciphered, that identify versatile protein folds performing diverse functions, same function associated with multiple folds and one-to-one relationships. Binding site similarity networks integrated with fold, function and ligand similarity information are generated to understand the depth of these relationships. Apart from the observed continuity in the functional site space, network properties of these revealed versatile families with topologically different or dissimilar binding sites and structural families that perform very similar functions. As a case study, subtle changes in the active site of a set of evolutionarily related superfamilies are studied using these networks. Tracing of such similarities in evolutionarily related proteins provide clues into the transition and evolution of protein functions. Insights from this study will be helpful in accurate and reliable functional annotations of uncharacterized proteins, poly-pharmacology and designing enzymes with new functional capabilities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Embryonic Poly(A)-Binding Protein (EPAB) Is Required for Granulosa Cell EGF Signaling and Cumulus Expansion in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cai-Rong; Lowther, Katie M.; Lalioti, Maria D.

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB) is the predominant poly(A)-binding protein in Xenopus, mouse, and human oocytes and early embryos before zygotic genome activation. EPAB is required for translational activation of maternally stored mRNAs in the oocyte and Epab−/− female mice are infertile due to impaired oocyte maturation, cumulus expansion, and ovulation. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism of follicular somatic cell dysfunction in Epab−/− mice. Using a coculture system of oocytectomized cumulus oophorus complexes (OOXs) with denuded oocytes, we found that when wild-type OOXs were cocultured with Epab−/− oocytes, or when Epab−/− OOXs were cocultured with WT oocytes, cumulus expansion failed to occur in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). This finding suggests that oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) from Epab−/− mice fail to send and receive the necessary signals required for cumulus expansion. The abnormalities in Epab−/− CCs are not due to lower expression of the oocyte-derived factors growth differentiation factor 9 or bone morphogenetic protein 15, because Epab−/− oocytes express these proteins at comparable levels with WT. Epab−/− granulosa cells (GCs) exhibit decreased levels of phosphorylated MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase in response to lutenizing hormone and EGF treatment, as well as decreased phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. In conclusion, EPAB, which is oocyte specific, is required for the ability of CCs and GCs to become responsive to LH and EGF signaling. These results emphasize the importance of oocyte-somatic communication for GC and CC function. PMID:26492470

  5. Embryonic Poly(A)-Binding Protein (EPAB) Is Required for Granulosa Cell EGF Signaling and Cumulus Expansion in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cai-Rong; Lowther, Katie M; Lalioti, Maria D; Seli, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB) is the predominant poly(A)-binding protein in Xenopus, mouse, and human oocytes and early embryos before zygotic genome activation. EPAB is required for translational activation of maternally stored mRNAs in the oocyte and Epab(-/-) female mice are infertile due to impaired oocyte maturation, cumulus expansion, and ovulation. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism of follicular somatic cell dysfunction in Epab(-/-) mice. Using a coculture system of oocytectomized cumulus oophorus complexes (OOXs) with denuded oocytes, we found that when wild-type OOXs were cocultured with Epab(-/-) oocytes, or when Epab(-/-) OOXs were cocultured with WT oocytes, cumulus expansion failed to occur in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). This finding suggests that oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) from Epab(-/-) mice fail to send and receive the necessary signals required for cumulus expansion. The abnormalities in Epab(-/-) CCs are not due to lower expression of the oocyte-derived factors growth differentiation factor 9 or bone morphogenetic protein 15, because Epab(-/-) oocytes express these proteins at comparable levels with WT. Epab(-/-) granulosa cells (GCs) exhibit decreased levels of phosphorylated MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase in response to lutenizing hormone and EGF treatment, as well as decreased phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. In conclusion, EPAB, which is oocyte specific, is required for the ability of CCs and GCs to become responsive to LH and EGF signaling. These results emphasize the importance of oocyte-somatic communication for GC and CC function.

  6. Characterization of a binding protein for leukemia inhibitory factor localized in extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) interacts with two classes of high affinity binding sites on rat UMR cells cultured in monolayer. One class of binding sites was found to be localized in the extracellular matrix (ECM) after removal of cells from the culture dish. The interaction of LIF with ECM-localized binding sites is not dependent upon either glycosylation of LIF or the presence of extracellular glycosyaminoglycans. Chemical cross-linking studies demonstrate that LIF interacts with a 200-kD cell-associated protein and a 140-kD ECM- localized protein. A 140-kD protein could also be specifically precipitated from solubilised metabolically radiolabeled UMR ECM by antibodies directed against LIF by virtue of its ability to form a stable complex with unlabeled LIF. In addition, soluble LIF associated with this ECM-localized protein is biologically active in terms of inhibition of ES cell differentiation. The properties of ECM-localized 140-kD species are very similar to those of the secreted form of the LIF receptor suggesting that the ECM localization of LIF and LIF signal transduction may be closely coupled. PMID:8335694

  7. Mechanism of immobilized protein A binding to immunoglobulin G on nanosensor array surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Justin T; Kim, Sojin; Reuel, Nigel F; Salem, Daniel P; Bisker, Gili; Landry, Markita P; Kruss, Sebastian; Barone, Paul W; Kwak, Seonyeong; Strano, Michael S

    2015-08-18

    Protein A is often used for the purification and detection of antibodies such as immunoglobulin G (IgG) because of its quadrivalent domains that bind to the Fc region of these macromolecules. However, the kinetics and thermodynamics of the binding to many sensor surfaces have eluded mechanistic description due to complexities associated with multivalent interactions. In this work, we use a near-infrared (nIR) fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube sensor array to obtain the kinetics of IgG binding to protein A, immobilized using a chelated Cu(2+)/His-tag chemistry to hydrogel dispersed sensors. A bivalent binding mechanism is able to describe the concentration dependence of the effective dissociation constant, KD,eff, which varies from 100 pM to 1 μM for IgG concentrations from 1 ng mL(-1) to 100 μg mL(-1), respectively. The mechanism is shown to describe the unusual concentration-dependent scaling demonstrated by other sensor platforms in the literature as well, and a comparison is made between resulting parameters. For comparison, we contrast IgG binding with that of human growth hormone (hGH) to its receptor (hGH-R) which displays an invariant dissociation constant at KD = 9 μM. These results should aid in the use of protein A and other recognition elements in a variety of sensor types.

  8. Replication protein A binds to regulatory elements in yeast DNA repair and DNA metabolism genes.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K K; Samson, L

    1995-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to DNA damage by arresting cell cycle progression (thereby preventing the replication and segregation of damaged chromosomes) and by inducing the expression of numerous genes, some of which are involved in DNA repair, DNA replication, and DNA metabolism. Induction of the S. cerevisiae 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase repair gene (MAG) by DNA-damaging agents requires one upstream activating sequence (UAS) and two upstream repressing sequences (URS1 and URS2) in the MAG promoter. Sequences similar to the MAG URS elements are present in at least 11 other S. cerevisiae DNA repair and metabolism genes. Replication protein A (Rpa) is known as a single-stranded-DNA-binding protein that is involved in the initiation and elongation steps of DNA replication, nucleotide excision repair, and homologous recombination. We now show that the MAG URS1 and URS2 elements form similar double-stranded, sequence-specific, DNA-protein complexes and that both complexes contain Rpa. Moreover, Rpa appears to bind the MAG URS1-like elements found upstream of 11 other DNA repair and DNA metabolism genes. These results lead us to hypothesize that Rpa may be involved in the regulation of a number of DNA repair and DNA metabolism genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7761422

  9. Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB) is required for oocyte maturation and female fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Lalioti, Maria D.; Aydiner, Fulya; Sasson, Isaac; Ilbay, Orkan; Sakkas, Denny; Lowther, Katie M.; Mehlmann, Lisa M.; Seli, Emre

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression during oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis up to zygotic genome activation requires translational activation of maternally-derived mRNAs. EPAB [embryonic poly(A)-binding protein] is the predominant poly(A)-binding protein during this period in Xenopus, mouse and human. In Xenopus oocytes, ePAB stabilizes maternal mRNAs and promotes their translation. To assess the role of EPAB in mammalian reproduction, we generated Epab-knockout mice. Although Epab−/− males and Epab+/− of both sexes were fertile, Epab−/− female mice were infertile, and could not generate embryos or mature oocytes in vivo or in vitro. Epab−/− oocytes failed to achieve translational activation of maternally-stored mRNAs upon stimulation of oocyte maturation, including Ccnb1 (cyclin B1) and Dazl (deleted in azoospermia-like) mRNAs. Microinjection of Epab mRNA into Epab−/− germinal vesicle stage oocytes did not rescue maturation, suggesting that EPAB is also required for earlier stages of oogenesis. In addition, late antral follicles in the ovaries of Epab−/− mice exhibited impaired cumulus expansion, and a 8-fold decrease in ovulation, associated with a significant down-regulation of mRNAs encoding the EGF (epidermal growth factor)-like growth factors Areg (amphiregulin), Ereg (epiregulin) and Btc (betacellulin), and their downstream regulators, Ptgs2 (prostaglandin synthase 2), Has2 (hyaluronan synthase 2) and Tnfaip6 (tumour necrosis factor α-induced protein 6). The findings from the present study indicate that EPAB is necessary for oogenesis, folliculogenesis and female fertility in mice. PMID:22621333

  10. Drosophila Larp associates with poly(A)-binding protein and is required for male fertility and syncytial embryo development.

    PubMed

    Blagden, Sarah P; Gatt, Melanie K; Archambault, Vincent; Lada, Karolina; Ichihara, Keiko; Lilley, Kathryn S; Inoue, Yoshihiro H; Glover, David M

    2009-10-01

    As the influence of mRNA translation upon cell cycle regulation becomes clearer, we searched for genes that might specify such control in Drosophila. A maternal-effect lethal screen identified mutants in the Drosophila gene for Larp (La-related protein) which displayed maternal-effect lethality and male sterility. A role for La protein has already been implicated in mRNA translation whereas Larp has been proposed to regulate mRNA stability. Here we demonstrate that Larp exists in a physical complex with, and also interacts genetically with, the translation regulator poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). Most mutant alleles of pAbp are embryonic lethal. However hypomorphic pAbp alleles show similar meiotic defects to larp mutants. We find that larp mutant-derived syncytial embryos show a range of mitotic phenotypes, including failure of centrosomes to migrate around the nuclear envelope, detachment of centrosomes from spindle poles, the formation of multipolar spindle arrays and cytokinetic defects. We discuss why the syncytial mitotic cycles and male meiosis should have a particularly sensitive requirement for Larp proteins in regulating not only transcript stability but also potentially the translation of mRNAs.

  11. Functional compensation for the loss of testis-specific poly(A)-binding protein, PABPC2, during mouse spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    KASHIWABARA, Shin-ichi; TSURUTA, Satsuki; OKADA, Keitaro; SAEGUSA, Ayaka; MIYAGAKI, Yu; BABA, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse testes contain several isoforms of cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPCs), including ubiquitous PABPC1 and testis-specific PABPC2/PABPt. PABPC2 is characterized by its absence from translationally active polyribosomes and elongating spermatids. To elucidate the function of PABPC2 in spermatogenesis, we produced mutant mice lacking PABPC2. The PABPC2-null mice showed normal fertility. The processes of spermatogenesis and sperm migration in the testes and epididymides, respectively, were normal in the mutant mice. When the involvement of PABPC2 in translational regulation of haploid-specific mRNAs was examined, these mRNAs were correctly transcribed in round spermatids and translated in elongating spermatids. Moreover, immunoblot analysis revealed low abundance of PABPC2 relative to PABPC1 in spermatogenic cells. These results suggest that PABPC2 may be either functionally redundant with other PABPCs (including PABPC1) or largely dispensable for translational regulation during spermiogenesis. PMID:26971890

  12. Cytoplasmic poly (A)-binding protein critically regulates epidermal maintenance and turnover in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Dhiru; Kulkarni, Jahnavi; Nadahalli, Kavana; Lakshmanan, Vairavan; Krishna, Srikar; Sasidharan, Vidyanand; Geo, Jini; Dilipkumar, Shilpa; Pasricha, Renu; Gulyani, Akash; Raghavan, Srikala; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi

    2017-09-01

    Identifying key cellular events that facilitate stem cell function and tissue organization is crucial for understanding the process of regeneration. Planarians are powerful model system to study regeneration and stem cell (neoblast) function. Here, using planaria, we show that the initial events of regeneration, such as epithelialization and epidermal organization are critically regulated by a novel cytoplasmic poly A-binding protein, SMED-PABPC2. Knockdown of smed-pabpc2 leads to defects in epidermal lineage specification, disorganization of epidermis and ECM, and deregulated wound healing, resulting in the selective failure of neoblast proliferation near the wound region. Polysome profiling suggests that epidermal lineage transcripts, including zfp-1, are translationally regulated by SMED-PABPC2. Together, our results uncover a novel role for SMED-PABPC2 in the maintenance of epidermal and ECM integrity, critical for wound healing and subsequent processes for regeneration. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Overexpression of poly(A) binding protein prevents maturation-specific deadenylation and translational inactivation in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wormington, M; Searfoss, A M; Hurney, C A

    1996-01-01

    The translational regulation of maternal mRNAs is the primary mechanism by which stage-specific programs of protein synthesis are executed during early development. Translation of a variety of maternal mRNAs requires either the maintenance or cytoplasmic elongation of a 3' poly(A) tail. Conversely, deadenylation results in translational inactivation. Although its precise function remains to be elucidated, the highly conserved poly(A) binding protein I (PABP) mediates poly(A)-dependent events in translation initiation and mRNA stability. Xenopus oocytes contain less than one PABP per poly(A) binding site suggesting that the translation of maternal mRNAs could be either limited by or independent of PABP. In this report, we have analyzed the effects of overexpressing PABP on the regulation of mRNAs during Xenopus oocyte maturation. Increased levels of PABP prevent the maturation-specific deadenylation and translational inactivation of maternal mRNAS that lack cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements. Overexpression of PABP does not interfere with maturation-specific polyadenylation, but reduces the recruitment of some mRNAs onto polysomes. Deletion of the C-terminal basic region and a single RNP motif from PABP significantly reduces both its binding to polyadenylated RNA in vivo and its ability to prevent deadenylation. In contrast to a yeast PABP-dependent poly(A) nuclease, PABP inhibits Xenopus oocyte deadenylase in vitro. These results indicate that maturation-specific deadenylation in Xenopus oocytes is facilitated by a low level of PABP consistent with a primary function for PABP to confer poly(A) stability. Images PMID:8631310

  14. Identification of a binding site for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, K; Zambrano, N; Baldwin, E T; Shapiro, B A; Erickson, J W; Omichinski, J G; Clore, G M; Gronenborn, A M; Appella, E

    1993-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (NC) protein NCp7 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is important for encapsidation of the virus genome, RNA dimerization, and primer tRNA annealing in vitro. Here we present evidence from gel mobility-shift experiments indicating that NCp7 binds specifically to an RNA sequence. Two complexes were identified in native gels. The more slowly migrating complex contained two RNA molecules and one peptide, while the more rapidly migrating one is composed of one RNA and one peptide. Further, mutational analysis of the RNA shows that the predicted stem and loop structure of stem-loop 1 plays a critical role. Our results show that NCp7 binds to a unique RNA structure within the psi region; in addition, this structure is necessary for RNA dimerization. We propose that NCp7 binds to the RNA via a direct interaction of one zinc-binding motif to stem-loop 1 followed by binding of the other zinc-binding motif to stem-loop 1, stem-loop 2, or the linker region of the second RNA molecule, forming a bridge between the two RNAs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8506369

  15. Bacillus anthracis S-layer protein BslA binds to extracellular matrix by interacting with laminin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanchun; Wei, Ying; Yuan, Shengling; Tao, Haoxia; Dong, Jie; Zhang, Zhaoshan; Tian, Wei; Liu, Chunjie

    2016-08-11

    The Bacillus anthracis S-layer protein, BslA, plays a crucial role in mammalian infection. BslA is required to mediate adherence between host cells and vegetative forms of bacteria and this interaction promotes target organs adherence and blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration in vivo. This study attempts to identify the potential eukaryotic ligand(s) for B. anthracis BslA protein. Biochemical approaches have indicated that the putative host cell ligand(s) for BslA is a surface protein, which is independent of the sugar components for binding to Bs1A. A ligand screening using blot overlays, far Western blots and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that BslA binds to mammalian laminin. ELISA based solid-phase binding assays and surface plasmon resonance assays demonstrated that there were high affinity interactions between BslA(260-652) and laminin. The SPR results also revealed the dissociation constants values of 3.172 × 10(-9)M for the binding of BslA(260-652) to laminin. These data demonstrated that laminin is a ligand for BslA.

  16. Polyadenylation-Dependent Control of Long Noncoding RNA Expression by the Poly(A)-Binding Protein Nuclear 1

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Yves B.; Kleinman, Claudia L.; Landry-Voyer, Anne-Marie; Majewski, Jacek; Bachand, François

    2012-01-01

    The poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is thought to function during mRNA poly(A) tail synthesis in the nucleus. Despite the predicted role of PABPN1 in mRNA polyadenylation, little is known about the impact of PABPN1 deficiency on human gene expression. Specifically, it remains unclear whether PABPN1 is required for general mRNA expression or for the regulation of specific transcripts. Using RNA sequencing (RNA–seq), we show here that the large majority of protein-coding genes express normal levels of mRNA in PABPN1–deficient cells, arguing that PABPN1 may not be required for the bulk of mRNA expression. Unexpectedly, and contrary to the view that PABPN1 functions exclusively at protein-coding genes, we identified a class of PABPN1–sensitive long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), the majority of which accumulated in conditions of PABPN1 deficiency. Using the spliced transcript produced from a snoRNA host gene as a model lncRNA, we show that PABPN1 promotes lncRNA turnover via a polyadenylation-dependent mechanism. PABPN1–sensitive lncRNAs are targeted by the exosome and the RNA helicase MTR4/SKIV2L2; yet, the polyadenylation activity of TRF4-2, a putative human TRAMP subunit, appears to be dispensable for PABPN1–dependent regulation. In addition to identifying a novel function for PABPN1 in lncRNA turnover, our results provide new insights into the post-transcriptional regulation of human lncRNAs. PMID:23166521

  17. Calicivirus 3C-Like Proteinase Inhibits Cellular Translation by Cleavage of Poly(A)-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kuyumcu-Martinez, Muge; Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Green, Kim Y.; Lloyd, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Caliciviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that cause a wide range of diseases in both humans and animals, but little is known about the regulation of cellular translation during infection. We used two distinct calicivirus strains, MD145-12 (genus Norovirus) and feline calicivirus (FCV) (genus Vesivirus), to investigate potential strategies used by the caliciviruses to inhibit cellular translation. Recombinant 3C-like proteinases (r3CLpro) from norovirus and FCV were found to cleave poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) in the absence of other viral proteins. The norovirus r3CLpro PABP cleavage products were indistinguishable from those generated by poliovirus (PV) 3Cpro cleavage, while the FCV r3CLpro products differed due to cleavage at an alternate cleavage site 24 amino acids downstream of one of the PV 3Cpro cleavage sites. All cleavages by calicivirus or PV proteases separated the C-terminal domain of PABP that binds translation factors eIF4B and eRF3 from the N-terminal RNA-binding domain of PABP. The effect of PABP cleavage by the norovirus r3CLpro was analyzed in HeLa cell translation extracts, and the presence of r3CLpro inhibited translation of both endogenous and exogenous mRNAs. Translation inhibition was poly(A) dependent, and replenishment of the extracts with PABP restored translation. Analysis of FCV-infected feline kidney cells showed that the levels of de novo cellular protein synthesis decreased over time as virus-specific proteins accumulated, and cleavage of PABP occurred in virus-infected cells. Our data indicate that the calicivirus 3CLpro, like PV 3Cpro, mediates the cleavage of PABP as part of its strategy to inhibit cellular translation. PABP cleavage may be a common mechanism among certain virus families to manipulate cellular translation. PMID:15254188

  18. The nuclear poly(A)-binding protein interacts with the exosome to promote synthesis of noncoding small nucleolar RNAs.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Jean-François; D'Amours, Annie; Lemieux, Caroline; Lackner, Daniel H; St-Sauveur, Valérie G; Bähler, Jürg; Bachand, François

    2010-01-15

    Poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) are important to eukaryotic gene expression. In the nucleus, the PABP PABPN1 is thought to function in polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs. Deletion of fission yeast pab2, the homolog of mammalian PABPN1, results in transcripts with markedly longer poly(A) tails, but the nature of the hyperadenylated transcripts and the mechanism that leads to RNA hyperadenylation remain unclear. Here we report that Pab2 functions in the synthesis of noncoding RNAs, contrary to the notion that PABPs function exclusively on protein-coding mRNAs. Accordingly, the absence of Pab2 leads to the accumulation of polyadenylated small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). Our findings suggest that Pab2 promotes poly(A) tail trimming from pre-snoRNAs by recruiting the nuclear exosome. This work unveils a function for the nuclear PABP in snoRNA synthesis and provides insights into exosome recruitment to polyadenylated RNAs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Class II members of the poly(A) binding protein family exhibit distinct functions during Arabidopsis growth and development.

    PubMed

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    The poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) binds to the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic cellular mRNAs and contributes to their stability and translational efficiency. In plants, PABP is expressed from an unusually large gene family grouped into 3 classes that expanded during the evolution of land plants. Subsequent to expansion of the family, members diverged in their primary sequence and in expression. Further expansion of the family and divergence of its members in the Brassicaceae demonstrate the continued dynamic evolution of PABP in plants. In this study, the function of the widely-expressed class II PABP family members was examined to determine how individual class II members contribute to plant growth and development. Of the 3 class II PABP members, PAB2 and PAB4 contribute most to vegetative growth and vegetative-to-floral transition whereas PAB2, and the recently-evolved third class II member, PAB8, contribute to inflorescence and silique growth. Interestingly, although class I and class III PABP members are expressed specifically in reproductive organs, class II PABP members are also necessary for fertility in that the combinatorial loss of PAB2 and either PAB4 or PAB8 expression resulted in reduced fertility. Although all 3 class II members are required for protein expression, PAB4 contributes most to the steady-state level of a reporter mRNA and to protein expression. These findings suggest that class II PABP members are partially overlapping in function but also involved in distinct aspects of plant growth and development.

  20. The nuclear poly(A) binding protein of mammals, but not of fission yeast, participates in mRNA polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Uwe; Buschmann, Juliane; Wahle, Elmar

    2017-04-01

    The nuclear poly(A) binding protein (PABPN1) has been suggested, on the basis of biochemical evidence, to play a role in mRNA polyadenylation by strongly increasing the processivity of poly(A) polymerase. While experiments in metazoans have tended to support such a role, the results were not unequivocal, and genetic data show that the S. pombe ortholog of PABPN1, Pab2, is not involved in mRNA polyadenylation. The specific model in which PABPN1 increases the rate of poly(A) tail elongation has never been examined in vivo. Here, we have used 4-thiouridine pulse-labeling to examine the lengths of newly synthesized poly(A) tails in human cells. Knockdown of PABPN1 strongly reduced the synthesis of full-length tails of ∼250 nucleotides, as predicted from biochemical data. We have also purified S. pombe Pab2 and the S. pombe poly(A) polymerase, Pla1, and examined their in vitro activities. Whereas PABPN1 strongly increases the activity of its cognate poly(A) polymerase in vitro, Pab2 was unable to stimulate Pla1 to any significant extent. Thus, in vitro and in vivo data are consistent in supporting a role of PABPN1 but not S. pombe Pab2 in the polyadenylation of mRNA precursors.

  1. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae poly(A) binding protein Pab1 as a target for eliciting stress tolerant phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Martani, Francesca; Marano, Francesca; Bertacchi, Stefano; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    When exploited as cell factories, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are exposed to harsh environmental stresses impairing titer, yield and productivity of the fermentative processes. The development of robust strains therefore represents a pivotal challenge for the implementation of cost-effective bioprocesses. Altering master regulators of general cellular rewiring represents a possible strategy to evoke shaded potential that may accomplish the desirable features. The poly(A) binding protein Pab1, as stress granules component, was here selected as the target for obtaining widespread alterations in mRNA metabolism, resulting in stress tolerant phenotypes. Firstly, we demonstrated that the modulation of Pab1 levels improves robustness against different stressors. Secondly, the mutagenesis of PAB1 and the application of a specific screening protocol on acetic acid enriched medium allowed the isolation of the further ameliorated mutant pab1 A60-9. These findings pave the way for a novel approach to unlock industrially promising phenotypes through the modulation of a post-transcriptional regulatory element. PMID:26658950

  2. The recruitment of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae poly(A)-binding protein into stress granules: new insights into the contribution of the different protein domains.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Marco; Martani, Francesca; Branduardi, Paola

    2017-09-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae poly(A)-binding protein Pab1 is a modular protein composed of four RNA recognition motifs (RRM), a proline-rich domain (P) and a C-terminus. Thanks to this modularity, Pab1 is involved in different interactions that regulate many aspects of mRNA metabolism, including the assembly of stress granules. In this work, we analyzed the contribution of each domain for the recruitment of the protein within stress granules by comparing the intracellular distribution of synthetic Pab1-GFP variants, lacking one or more domains, with the localization of the endogenous mCherry-tagged Pab1. Glucose starvation and heat shock were used to trigger the formation of stress granules. We found that Pab1 association into these aggregates relies mainly on RRMs, whose number is important for an efficient recruitment of the protein. Interestingly, although the P and C domains do not directly participate in Pab1 association to stress granules, their presence strengthens or decreases, respectively, the distribution of synthetic Pab1 lacking at least one RRM into these aggregates. In addition to describing the contribution of domains in determining Pab1 association within stress granules, the outcomes of this study suggest the modularity of Pab1 as an attractive platform for synthetic biology approaches aimed at rewiring mRNA metabolism. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Purification and characterization of the human SR 31747A-binding protein. A nuclear membrane protein related to yeast sterol isomerase.

    PubMed

    Jbilo, O; Vidal, H; Paul, R; De Nys, N; Bensaid, M; Silve, S; Carayon, P; Davi, D; Galiègue, S; Bourrié, B; Guillemot, J C; Ferrara, P; Loison, G; Maffrand, J P; Le Fur, G; Casellas, P

    1997-10-24

    SR 31747A, defined as a sigma ligand, is a novel immunosuppressive agent that blocks proliferation of human and mouse lymphocytes. Using a radiolabeled chemical probe, we here purified a target of SR 31747A and called it SR 31747A-binding protein (SR-BP). Purified SR-BP retained its binding properties and migrated on SDS-polyacrylamide gel as a Mr 28,000 protein. Cloning of the cDNA encoding human SR-BP shows an open reading frame for a 223-amino acid protein, which is homologous to the recently cloned sigma 1 receptor. Interestingly, the deduced amino acid sequence was found to be related to fungal C8-C7 sterol isomerase, encoded by the ERG2 gene. The ERG2 gene product has been identified recently as the molecular target of SR 31747A that mediates antiproliferative effects of the drug in yeast. Northern blot analysis of SR-BP gene expression revealed a single transcript of 2 kilobases which was widely expressed among organs, with the highest abundance in liver and the lowest abundance in brain. Subcellular localization analysis in various cells, using a specific monoclonal antibody raised against SR-BP, demonstrated that this protein was associated with the nuclear envelope. When studying the binding of SR 31747A on membranes from yeast expressing SR-BP, we found a pharmacological profile of sigma 1 receptors; binding was displaced by (+)-pentazocine, haloperidol, and (+)-SKF 10,047, with (+)-SKF 10, 047 being a more potent competitor than (-)-SKF 10,047. Scatchard plot analysis revealed Kd values of 7.1 nM and 0.15 nM for (+)-pentazocine and SR 31747A, respectively, indicating an affinity of SR-BP 50-fold higher for SR 31747A than for pentazocine. Additionally, we showed that pentazocine, a competitive inhibitor of SR 31747A binding, also prevents the immunosuppressive effect of SR 31747A. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that SR-BP represents the molecular target for SR 31747A in mammalian tissues, which could be critical for T cell proliferation.

  4. Rotavirus NSP3 Is a Translational Surrogate of the Poly(A) Binding Protein-Poly(A) Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gratia, Matthieu; Sarot, Emeline; Vende, Patrice; Charpilienne, Annie; Baron, Carolina Hilma; Duarte, Mariela

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Through its interaction with the 5′ translation initiation factor eIF4G, poly(A) binding protein (PABP) facilitates the translation of 5′-capped and 3′-poly(A)-tailed mRNAs. Rotavirus mRNAs are capped but not polyadenylated, instead terminating in a 3′ GACC motif that is recognized by the viral protein NSP3, which competes with PABP for eIF4G binding. Upon rotavirus infection, viral, GACC-tailed mRNAs are efficiently translated, while host poly(A)-tailed mRNA translation is, in contrast, severely impaired. To explore the roles of NSP3 in these two opposing events, the translational capabilities of three capped mRNAs, distinguished by either a GACC, a poly(A), or a non-GACC and nonpoly(A) 3′ end, have been monitored after electroporation of cells expressing all rotavirus proteins (infected cells) or only NSP3 (stably or transiently transfected cells). In infected cells, we found that the magnitudes of translation induction (GACC-tailed mRNA) and translation reduction [poly(A)-tailed mRNA] both depended on the rotavirus strain used but that translation reduction not genetically linked to NSP3. In transfected cells, even a small amount of NSP3 was sufficient to dramatically enhance GACC-tailed mRNA translation and, surprisingly, to slightly favor the translation of both poly(A)- and nonpoly(A)-tailed mRNAs, likely by stabilizing the eIF4E-eIF4G interaction. These data suggest that NSP3 is a translational surrogate of the PABP-poly(A) complex; therefore, it cannot by itself be responsible for inhibiting the translation of host poly(A)-tailed mRNAs upon rotavirus infection. IMPORTANCE To control host cell physiology and to circumvent innate immunity, many viruses have evolved powerful mechanisms aimed at inhibiting host mRNA translation while stimulating translation of their own mRNAs. How rotavirus tackles this challenge is still a matter of debate. Using rotavirus-infected cells, we show that the magnitude of cellular poly(A) mRNA translation

  5. Promiscuous modification of the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein by multiple protein-arginine methyltransferases does not affect the aggregation behavior.

    PubMed

    Fronz, Katharina; Otto, Silke; Kölbel, Knut; Kühn, Uwe; Friedrich, Henning; Schierhorn, Angelika; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje; Wahle, Elmar

    2008-07-18

    The mammalian nuclear poly(A)-binding protein, PABPN1, carries 13 asymmetrically dimethylated arginine residues in its C-terminal domain. By fractionation of cell extracts, we found that protein-arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs)-1, -3, and -6 are responsible for the modification of PABPN1. Recombinant PRMT1, -3, and -6 also methylated PABPN1. Our data suggest that these enzymes act on their own, and additional polypeptides are not involved in recognizing PABPN1 as a substrate. PRMT1 is the predominant methyltransferase acting on PABPN1. Nevertheless, PABPN1 was almost fully methylated in a Prmt1(-/-) cell line; thus, PRMT3 and -6 suffice for methylation. In contrast to PABPN1, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K is selectively methylated only by PRMT1. Efficient methylation of synthetic peptides derived from PABPN1 or hnRNP K suggested that PRMT1, -3, and -6 recognize their substrates by interacting with local amino acid sequences and not with additional domains of the substrates. However, the use of fusion proteins suggested that the inability of PRMT3 and -6 to modify hnRNP K is because of structural masking of the methyl-accepting amino acid sequences by neighboring domains. Mutations leading to intracellular aggregation of PABPN1 cause the disease oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. The C-terminal domain containing the methylated arginine residues is known to promote PAPBN1 self-association, and arginine methylation has been reported to inhibit self-association of an orthologous protein. Thus, arginine methylation might be relevant for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. However, in two different types of assays we have been unable to detect any effect of arginine methylation on the aggregation of bovine PABPN1.

  6. An evolutionarily conserved interaction of tumor suppressor protein Pdcd4 with the poly(A)-binding protein contributes to translation suppression by Pdcd4.

    PubMed

    Fehler, Olesja; Singh, Priyanka; Haas, Astrid; Ulrich, Diana; Müller, Jan P; Ohnheiser, Johanna; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) has been implicated in the translational regulation of specific mRNAs, however, the identities of the natural Pdcd4 target mRNAs and the mechanisms by which Pdcd4 affects their translation are not well understood. Pdcd4 binds to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4A and inhibits its helicase activity, which has suggested that Pdcd4 suppresses translation initiation of mRNAs containing structured 5'-untranslated regions. Recent work has revealed a second inhibitory mechanism, which is eIF4A-independent and involves direct RNA-binding of Pdcd4 to the target mRNAs. We have now identified the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) as a novel direct interaction partner of Pdcd4. The ability to interact with PABP is shared between human and Drosophila Pdcd4, indicating that it has been highly conserved during evolution. Mutants of Pdcd4 that have lost the ability to interact with PABP fail to stably associate with ribosomal complexes in sucrose density gradients and to suppress translation, as exemplified by c-myb mRNA. Overall, our work identifies PABP as a novel functionally relevant Pdcd4 interaction partner that contributes to the regulation of translation by Pdcd4.

  7. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae poly(A)-binding protein is subject to multiple post-translational modifications, including the methylation of glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Low, Jason K K; Hart-Smith, Gene; Erce, Melissa A; Wilkins, Marc R

    2014-01-10

    Poly(A)-binding protein in mouse and man was recently found to be highly post-translationally modified. Here we analysed an ortholog of this protein, Pab1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to assess the conservation and thus likely importance of these modifications. Pab1 showed the presence of six sites of methylated glutamate, five sites of lysine acetylation, and one phosphorylation of serine. Many modifications on Pab1 showed either complete conservation with those on human or mouse PABPC1, were present on nearby residues and/or were present in the same domain(s). The conservation of methylated glutamate, an unusual modification, was of particular note and suggests a conserved function. Comparison of methylated glutamate sites in human, mouse and yeast poly(A)-binding protein, along with methylation sites catalysed by CheR L-glutamyl protein methyltransferase from Salmonella typhimurium, revealed that the methylation of glutamate preferentially occurs in EE and DE motifs or other small regions of acidic amino acids. The conservation of methylated glutamate in the same protein between mouse, man and yeast suggests the presence of a eukaryotic l-glutamyl protein methyltransferase and that the modification is of functional significance.

  8. The stress granule protein Vgl1 and poly(A)-binding protein Pab1 are required for doxorubicin resistance in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Takahiro; Satoh, Ryosuke; Umeda, Nanae; Kita, Ayako; Sugiura, Reiko

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stress granules (SGs) as a mechanism of doxorubicin tolerance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterize the role of stress granules in doxorubicin tolerance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deletion of components of SGs enhances doxorubicin sensitivity in fission yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin promotes SG formation when combined with heat shock. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin regulates stress granule assembly independent of eIF2{alpha} phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic widely used for chemotherapy. Although doxorubicin is effective in the treatment of several cancers, including solid tumors and leukemias, the basis of its mechanism of action is not completely understood. Here, we describe the effects of doxorubicin and its relationship with stress granules formation in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that disruption of genes encoding the components of stress granules, including vgl1{sup +}, which encodes a multi-KH type RNA-binding protein, and pab1{sup +}, which encodes a poly(A)-binding protein, resulted in greater sensitivity to doxorubicin than seen in wild-type cells. Disruption of the vgl1{sup +} and pab1{sup +} genes did not confer sensitivity to other anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel. We also showed that doxorubicin treatment promoted stress granule formation when combined with heat shock. Notably, doxorubicin treatment did not induce hyperphosphorylation of eIF2{alpha}, suggesting that doxorubicin is involved in stress granule assembly independent of eIF2{alpha} phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of fission yeast for elucidating the molecular targets of doxorubicin toxicity and suggest a novel drug-resistance mechanism involving stress granule assembly.

  9. Structure and Mechanism of Dimer-Monomer Transition of a Plant Poly(A)-Binding Protein upon RNA Interaction: Insights into Its Poly(A) Tail Assembly.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Mariane Noronha; Sforça, Mauricio Luis; Soprano, Adriana Santos; Lee, Jack; Souza, Tatiana de Arruda Campos Brasil de; Cassago, Alexandre; Portugal, Rodrigo Villares; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Sadanandom, Ari; Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes de; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

    2015-07-31

    Poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) play crucial roles in mRNA biogenesis, stability, transport and translational control in most eukaryotic cells. Although animal PABPs are well-studied proteins, the biological role, three-dimensional structure and RNA-binding mode of plant PABPs remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we report the structural features and RNA-binding mode of a Citrus sinensis PABP (CsPABPN1). CsPABPN1 has a domain architecture of nuclear PABPs (PABPNs) with a single RNA recognition motif (RRM) flanked by an acidic N-terminus and a GRPF-rich C-terminus. The RRM domain of CsPABPN1 displays virtually the same three-dimensional structure and poly(A)-binding mode of animal PABPNs. However, while the CsPABPN1 RRM domain specifically binds poly(A), the full-length protein also binds poly(U). CsPABPN1 localizes to the nucleus of plant cells and undergoes a dimer-monomer transition upon poly(A) interaction. We show that poly(A) binding by CsPABPN1 begins with the recognition of the RNA-binding sites RNP1 and RNP2, followed by interactions with residues of the β2 strands, which stabilize the dimer, thus leading to dimer dissociation. Like human PABPN1, CsPABPN1 also seems to form filaments in the presence of poly(A). Based on these data, we propose a structural model in which contiguous CsPABPN1 RRM monomers wrap around the RNA molecule creating a superhelical structure that could not only shield the poly(A) tail but also serve as a scaffold for the assembly of additional mRNA processing factors.

  10. Cotranscriptional recruitment of the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein Pab2 to nascent transcripts and association with translating mRNPs.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Caroline; Bachand, François

    2009-06-01

    Synthesis of the pre-mRNA poly(A) tail in the nucleus has important consequences on the translational activity of the mature mRNA in the cytoplasm. In most eukaryotes, nuclear polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs is thought to require the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein (PABP2/PABPN1) for poly(A) tail synthesis and ultimate length control. As yet, however, the extent of the association between PABP2 and the exported mRNA remains poorly understood. Here, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to show that the fission yeast ortholog of mammalian PABP2 (Pab2) is cotranscriptionally recruited to active genes. Notably, the association of Pab2 to genes precedes that of a typical 3'-processing/polyadenylation factor, suggesting that Pab2 recruitment during the transcription cycle precedes polyadenylation. The inclusion of an RNase step in our ChIP and immunoprecipitation assays suggests that Pab2 is cotranscriptionally recruited via nascent mRNA ribonucleoprotein (mRNPs). Tandem affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry also revealed that Pab2 associates with several ribosomal proteins as well as general translation factors. Importantly, whereas previous results suggest that the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein is not present on cytoplasmic mRNAs, we show that fission yeast Pab2 is associated with polysomes. Our findings suggest that Pab2 is recruited to nascent mRNPs during transcription and remains associated with translated mRNPs after nuclear export.

  11. Repellent taxis in response to nickel ion requires neither Ni2+ transport nor the periplasmic NikA binding protein.

    PubMed

    Englert, Derek L; Adase, Christopher A; Jayaraman, Arul; Manson, Michael D

    2010-05-01

    Ni(2+) and Co(2+) are sensed as repellents by the Escherichia coli Tar chemoreceptor. The periplasmic Ni(2+) binding protein, NikA, has been suggested to sense Ni(2+). We show here that neither NikA nor the membrane-bound NikB and NikC proteins of the Ni(2+) transport system are required for repellent taxis in response to Ni(2+).

  12. An antibody against the surfactant protein A (SP-A)-binding domain of the SP-A receptor inhibits T cell-mediated immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Samten, Buka; Townsend, James C; Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Pasquinelli, Virginia; Barnes, Peter F; Chroneos, Zissis C

    2008-07-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) suppresses lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 secretion, in part, by binding to its receptor, SP-R210. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood. Here, we studied the effect of antibodies against the SP-A-binding (neck) domain (alpha-SP-R210n) or nonbinding C-terminal domain (alpha-SP-R210ct) of SP-R210 on human peripheral blood T cell immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We demonstrated that both antibodies bind to more than 90% of monocytes and 5-10% of CD3+ T cells in freshly isolated PBMC. Stimulation of PBMC from healthy tuberculin reactors [purified protein derivative-positive (PPD+)] with heat-killed M. tuberculosis induced increased antibody binding to CD3+ cells. Increased antibody binding suggested enhanced expression of SP-R210, and this was confirmed by Western blotting. The antibodies (alpha-SP-R210n) cross-linking the SP-R210 through the SP-A-binding domain markedly inhibited cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion by PBMC from PPD+ donors in response to heat-killed M. tuberculosis, whereas preimmune IgG and antibodies (alpha-SP-R210ct) cross-linking SP-R210 through the non-SP-A-binding, C-terminal domain had no effect. Anti-SP-R210n also decreased M. tuberculosis-induced production of TNF-alpha but increased production of IL-10. Inhibition of IFN-gamma production by alpha-SP-R210n was abrogated by the combination of neutralizing antibodies to IL-10 and TGF-beta1. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that SP-A, via SP-R210, suppresses cell-mediated immunity against M. tuberculosis via a mechanism that up-regulates secretion of IL-10 and TGF-beta1.

  13. Solution structure of the C-terminal domain from poly(A)-binding protein in Trypanosoma cruzi: A vegetal PABC domain

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Nadeem; Kozlov, Guennadi; D’Orso, Iván; Trempe, Jean-François; Gehring, Kalle

    2003-01-01

    PABC is a phylogenetically conserved peptide-binding domain primarily found within the C terminus of poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs). This domain recruits a series of translation factors including poly(A)-interacting proteins (Paip1 and Paip2) and release factor 3 (RF3/GSPT) to the initiation complex on mRNA. Here, we determine the solution structure of the Trypanosoma cruzi PABC domain (TcPABC), a representative of the vegetal class of PABP proteins. TcPABC is similar to human PABC (hPABC) and consists of five α-helices, in contrast to the four helices observed in PABC domains from yeast (yPABC) and hyper plastic disk proteins (hHYD). A mobile N-terminal helix is observed in TcPABC that does not pack against the core of the protein, as found in hPABC. Characteristic to all PABC domains, the last four helices of TcPABC fold into a right-handed super coil. TcPABC demonstrates high-affinity binding to PABP interacting motif-2 (PAM-2) and reveals a peptide-binding surface homologous to that of hPABC. Our results demonstrate the last four helices in TcPABC are sufficient for peptide recognition and we predict a similar binding mode in PABC domains. Furthermore, these results point to the presence of putative PAM-2 site-containing proteins in trypanosomes. PMID:12930992

  14. Con A-binding protein Zn-α2-glycoprotein on human sperm membrane is related to acrosome reaction and sperm fertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Qu, F; Cao, X; Chen, G; Guo, Q; Ying, X; Guo, W; Lu, L; Ding, Z

    2012-04-01

    Fertilization, the recognition and fusion between spermatozoa and oocyte, involves various molecules on the spermatozoa and oocyte membranes. Concanavalin A (ConA)-binding proteins may be one of the molecules involved in mammal spermatozoa fertilization; however, their structure and function remain largely unknown. Here, we initially identified a ConA-binding protein, Zn-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), involved in regulating the acrosome reaction (AR) of human spermatozoa. ZAG is localized on the pre-equatorial region covering the acrosome, neck and tail (some parts of middle piece and principal piece respectively) regions of the acrosome intact human spermatozoa, and disappears in the acrosomal region of the acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Polyclonal antibodies against human recombinant ZAG significantly reduced the AR and sperm capability binding to human zona pellucida or penetration into zona-free hamster oocytes. Furthermore, assessment of the signaling pathways regulated by ZAG revealed that ZAG affects sperm AR through both the cAMP/PKA and PKC pathways. These results indicate that ZAG, which is present on the human sperm membrane, plays a critical role in the AR and subsequently, may be involved in sperm fertility.

  15. Nuclear poly(A) binding protein 1 (PABPN1) and Matrin3 interact in muscle cells and regulate RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Ayan; Vest, Katherine E; Pavlath, Grace K; Corbett, Anita H

    2017-09-07

    The polyadenylate binding protein 1 (PABPN1) is a ubiquitously expressed RNA binding protein vital for multiple steps in RNA metabolism. Although PABPN1 plays a critical role in the regulation of RNA processing, mutation of the gene encoding this ubiquitously expressed RNA binding protein causes a specific form of muscular dystrophy termed oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Despite the tissue-specific pathology that occurs in this disease, only recently have studies of PABPN1 begun to explore the role of this protein in skeletal muscle. We have used co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify proteins that interact with PABPN1 in mouse skeletal muscles. Among the interacting proteins we identified Matrin 3 (MATR3) as a novel protein interactor of PABPN1. The MATR3 gene is mutated in a form of distal myopathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We demonstrate, that like PABPN1, MATR3 is critical for myogenesis. Furthermore, MATR3 controls critical aspects of RNA processing including alternative polyadenylation and intron retention. We provide evidence that MATR3 also binds and regulates the levels of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Neat1 and together with PABPN1 is required for normal paraspeckle function. We demonstrate that PABPN1 and MATR3 are required for paraspeckles, as well as for adenosine to inosine (A to I) RNA editing of Ctn RNA in muscle cells. We provide a functional link between PABPN1 and MATR3 through regulation of a common lncRNA target with downstream impact on paraspeckle morphology and function. We extend our analysis to a mouse model of OPMD and demonstrate altered paraspeckle morphology in the presence of endogenous levels of alanine-expanded PABPN1. In this study, we report protein-binding partners of PABPN1, which could provide insight into novel functions of PABPN1 in skeletal muscle and identify proteins that could be sequestered with alanine-expanded PABPN1 in the nuclear aggregates found in OPMD. © The Author

  16. Isolation of cDNA encoding a binding protein specific to 5'-phosphorylated single-stranded DNA with G-rich sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuta, T R; Fukita, Y; Miyoshi, T; Shimizu, A; Honjo, T

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated the cDNA encoding a binding protein to the sequence motif of the immunoglobulin S mu region by the southwestern method. The binding protein designated S mu bp-2 specifically binds to 5'-phosphorylated single-stranded DNA containing 5'-G and GGGG stretches. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence showed that the S mu bp-2 belongs to the putative helicase superfamily which is involved in replication, recombination and repair. Expression of S mu bp-2 mRNA is ubiquitous and augmented in spleen cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and interleukin 4 which also induce class switching. The S mu bp-2 gene is conserved among vertebrates. Possible involvement of S mu bp-2 in class switching is discussed. Images PMID:8493094

  17. Induction of expression and co-localization of heat shock polypeptides with the polyalanine expansion mutant of poly(A)-binding protein N1 after chemical stress

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qishan Bag, Jnanankur

    2008-05-23

    Formation of nuclear inclusions consisting of aggregates of a polyalanine expansion mutant of nuclear poly(A)-binding protein (PABPN1) is the hallmark of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). OPMD is a late onset autosomal dominant disease. Patients with this disorder exhibit progressive swallowing difficulty and drooping of their eye lids, which starts around the age of 50. Previously we have shown that treatment of cells expressing the mutant PABPN1 with a number of chemicals such as ibuprofen, indomethacin, ZnSO{sub 4}, and 8-hydroxy-quinoline induces HSP70 expression and reduces PABPN1 aggregation. In these studies we have shown that expression of additional HSPs including HSP27, HSP40, and HSP105 were induced in mutant PABPN1 expressing cells following exposure to the chemicals mentioned above. Furthermore, all three additional HSPs were translocated to the nucleus and probably helped to properly fold the mutant PABPN1 by co-localizing with this protein.

  18. Overproduction, purification and crystallization of a chondroitin sulfate A-binding DBL domain from a Plasmodium falciparum var2csa-encoded PfEMP1 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Matthew K.

    2008-03-01

    A chondroitin sulfate A-binding DBL important in placental malaria has been overproduced, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The PfEMP1 proteins of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are inserted into the membrane of infected red blood cells, where they mediate adhesion to a variety of human receptors. The DBL domains of the var2csa-encoded PfEMP1 protein play a critical role in malaria of pregnancy, tethering infected cells to the surface of the placenta through interactions with the glycosaminoglycan carbohydrate chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). A CSA-binding DBL domain has been overproduced in a bacterial expression system, purified and crystallized. Native data sets extending to 1.9 Å resolution have been collected and phasing is under way.

  19. Isolation of cDNA encoding a binding protein specific to 5'-phosphorylated single-stranded DNA with G-rich sequences.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, T R; Fukita, Y; Miyoshi, T; Shimizu, A; Honjo, T

    1993-04-25

    We have isolated the cDNA encoding a binding protein to the sequence motif of the immunoglobulin S mu region by the southwestern method. The binding protein designated S mu bp-2 specifically binds to 5'-phosphorylated single-stranded DNA containing 5'-G and GGGG stretches. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence showed that the S mu bp-2 belongs to the putative helicase superfamily which is involved in replication, recombination and repair. Expression of S mu bp-2 mRNA is ubiquitous and augmented in spleen cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and interleukin 4 which also induce class switching. The S mu bp-2 gene is conserved among vertebrates. Possible involvement of S mu bp-2 in class switching is discussed.

  20. PRB1, PRB2, and PRB4 coded polymorphisms among human salivary concanavalin-A binding, II-1, and Po proline-rich proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Azen, E.A.; Amberger, E.; Niece, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Six closely linked PRP (proline-rich protein) genes code for many salivary PRPs that show frequent length and null variants. From determined protein sequences and DNA sequence analysis of variant alleles, we here report the coding and molecular basis for Con (concanavalin A-binding) and Po (parotid {open_quotes}o{close_quotes}) protein polymorphisms. The Con1 glycoprotein is encoded in exon 3 of a PRB2 allele (PRB2L CON1+) with a potential N-linked glycosylation site. Because of a probable gene conversion encompassing {ge}684 bp of DNA, the {open_quotes}PRB2-like{close_quotes} Con2 glycoprotein is encoded in exon 3 of a PRB1 allele (PRB1M CON2+) with a potential glycosylation site. The PmF protein is also encoded in the PRB1M CON2+ allele, thus explaining the previously reported association between Con2 and PmF proteins. A PRB2L CON1-allele contains a single nt missense change [TCT(Ser){yields}CCT(Pro)] that abolishes the potential N-linked glycosylation site (NKS{yields}NKP) in the Con1 protein, and this explains the Con-type. The Po protein and a glycoprotein (II-1) are encoded in the PRB4 gene, and both proteins are absent in the presence of a mutation in the PRB4M PO- allele that contains a single nt change (G{yields}C) at the +1 invariant position of the intron 3 5{prime} donor splice site. The genetically determined absence of the II-1 glycoprotein leads to altered in vitro binding of Streptococcus sanguis 10556 to salivary proteins, which suggests a biological consequence for null mutations of the PRB4 gene. 33 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Trinucleotide expansions leading to an extended poly-L-alanine segment in the poly (A) binding protein PABPN1 cause fibril formation.

    PubMed

    Scheuermann, Till; Schulz, Barbe; Blume, Alfred; Wahle, Elmar; Rudolph, Rainer; Schwarz, Elisabeth

    2003-12-01

    The nuclear poly(A) binding protein (PABPN1) stimulates poly(A) polymerase and controls the lengths of poly(A) tails during pre-mRNA processing. The wild-type protein possesses 10 consecutive Ala residues immediately after the start methionine. Trinucleotide expansions in the coding sequence result in an extension of the Ala stretch to maximal 17 Ala residues in total. Individuals carrying the trinucleotide expansions suffer from oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Intranuclear inclusions consisting predominantly of PABPN1 have been recognized as a pathological hallmark of the genetic disorder. To elucidate the molecular events that lead to disease, recombinant PABPN1, and N-terminal fragments of the protein with varying poly-L-alanine stretches were analyzed. As the full-length protein displayed a strong tendency to aggregate into amorphous deposits, soluble N-terminal fragments were also studied. Expansion of the poly-L-alanine sequence to the maximal length observed in OPMD patients led to an increase of alpha-helical structure. Upon prolonged incubation the protein was found in fibrils that showed all characteristics of amyloid-like fibers. The lag-phase of fibril formation could be reduced by seeding. Structural analysis of the fibrils indicated antiparallel beta-sheets.

  2. NikA binds heme: a new role for an Escherichia coli periplasmic nickel-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Mark; Heath, Mathew D; Poole, Robert K

    2007-05-01

    NikA is a periplasmic binding protein involved in nickel uptake in Escherichia coli. NikA was identified as a heme-binding protein in the periplasm of anaerobically grown cells overexpressing CydDC, an ABC transporter that exports reductant to the periplasm. CydDC-overexpressing cells accumulate a heme biosynthesis-derived pigment, P-574. For further biochemical and spectroscopic analysis, unliganded NikA was overexpressed and purified. NikA was found to comigrate with both hemin and protoporphyrin IX during gel filtration. Furthermore, tryptophan fluorescence quenching titrations demonstrated that both hemin and protoporphyrin IX bind to NikA with similar affinity. The binding affinity of NikA for these pigments (Kd approximately 0.5 microM) was unaltered in the presence and absence of saturating concentrations of nickel, suggesting that these tetrapyrroles bind to NikA in a manner independent of nickel. To test the hypothesis that NikA is required for periplasmic heme protein assembly, the effects of a nikA mutation (nikA::Tn5, Km(R) insertion) on accumulation of P-574 by CydDC-overexpressing cells was assessed. This mutation significantly lowered P-574 levels, implying that NikA may be involved in P-574 production. Thus, in the reducing environment of the periplasm, NikA may serve as a heme chaperone as well as a periplasmic nickel-binding protein. The docking of heme onto NikA was modeled using the published crystal structure; many of the predicted complexes exhibit a heme-binding cleft remote from the nickel-binding site, which is consistent with the independent binding of nickel and heme. This work has implications for the incorporation of heme into b- and c-type cytochromes.

  3. Cyclophilin A binds to the viral RNA and replication proteins, resulting in inhibition of tombusviral replicase assembly.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, Nikolay; Nagy, Peter D

    2013-12-01

    Replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses is greatly affected by numerous host-encoded proteins that act as restriction factors. Cyclophilins, which are a large family of cellular prolyl isomerases, have been found to inhibit Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) replication in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model based on genome-wide screens and global proteomics approaches. In this report, we further characterize single-domain cyclophilins, including the mammalian cyclophilin A and plant Roc1 and Roc2, which are orthologs of the yeast Cpr1p cyclophilin, a known inhibitor of TBSV replication in yeast. We found that recombinant CypA, Roc1, and Roc2 strongly inhibited TBSV replication in a cell-free replication assay. Additional in vitro studies revealed that CypA, Roc1, and Roc2 cyclophilins bound to the viral replication proteins, and CypA and Roc1 also bound to the viral RNA. These interactions led to inhibition of viral RNA recruitment, the assembly of the viral replicase complex, and viral RNA synthesis. A catalytically inactive mutant of CypA was also able to inhibit TBSV replication in vitro due to binding to the replication proteins and the viral RNA. Overexpression of CypA and its mutant in yeast or plant leaves led to inhibition of tombusvirus replication, confirming that CypA is a restriction factor for TBSV. Overall, the current work has revealed a regulatory role for the cytosolic single-domain Cpr1-like cyclophilins in RNA virus replication.

  4. Cyclophilin A Binds to the Viral RNA and Replication Proteins, Resulting in Inhibition of Tombusviral Replicase Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kovalev, Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    Replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses is greatly affected by numerous host-encoded proteins that act as restriction factors. Cyclophilins, which are a large family of cellular prolyl isomerases, have been found to inhibit Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) replication in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model based on genome-wide screens and global proteomics approaches. In this report, we further characterize single-domain cyclophilins, including the mammalian cyclophilin A and plant Roc1 and Roc2, which are orthologs of the yeast Cpr1p cyclophilin, a known inhibitor of TBSV replication in yeast. We found that recombinant CypA, Roc1, and Roc2 strongly inhibited TBSV replication in a cell-free replication assay. Additional in vitro studies revealed that CypA, Roc1, and Roc2 cyclophilins bound to the viral replication proteins, and CypA and Roc1 also bound to the viral RNA. These interactions led to inhibition of viral RNA recruitment, the assembly of the viral replicase complex, and viral RNA synthesis. A catalytically inactive mutant of CypA was also able to inhibit TBSV replication in vitro due to binding to the replication proteins and the viral RNA. Overexpression of CypA and its mutant in yeast or plant leaves led to inhibition of tombusvirus replication, confirming that CypA is a restriction factor for TBSV. Overall, the current work has revealed a regulatory role for the cytosolic single-domain Cpr1-like cyclophilins in RNA virus replication. PMID:24089553

  5. Identification of a binding site of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope protein gp120 to neuronal specific tubulin

    PubMed Central

    Avdoshina, Valeria; Taraballi, Francesca; Dedoni, Simona; Corbo, Claudia; Paige, Mikell; Kont, Yasemin Saygideğer; Üren, Aykut; Tasciotti, Ennio; Mocchetti, Italo

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) promotes synaptic simplification and neuronal apoptosis, and causes neurological impairments termed HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND). HIV-associated neurotoxicity may be brought about by acute and chronic mechanisms that still remain to be fully characterized. The HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 causes neuronal degeneration similar to that observed in HAND subjects. The present study was undertaken to discover novel mechanisms of gp120 neurotoxicity that could explain how the envelope protein promotes neurite pruning. Gp120 has been shown to associate with various intracellular organelles as well as microtubules in neurons. We then analyzed lysates of neurons exposed to gp120 with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for potential protein interactors. We found that one of the proteins interacting with gp120 is tubulin β-3 (TUBB3), a major component of neuronal microtubules. We then tested the hypothesis that gp120 binds to neuronal microtubules. Using surface plasmon resonance we confirmed that gp120 binds with high affinity to neuronal specific TUBB3. We have also identified the binding site of gp120 to TUBB3. We then designed a small peptide (Helix-A) that displaced gp120 from binding to TUBB3. To determine whether this peptide could prevent gp120-mediated neurotoxicity, we crosslinked Helix-A to mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Helix-A nano) to enhance the intracellular delivery of the peptide. We then tested the neuroprotective property of Helix-A nano against three strains of gp120 in rat cortical neurons. Helix-A nano prevented gp120-mediated neurite simplification as well as neuronal loss. These data propose that gp120 binding to TUBB3 could be another mechanism of gp120 neurotoxicity. PMID:26826352

  6. Evolutionary history exposes radical diversification among classes of interaction partners of the MLLE domain of plant poly(A)-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-López, Domingo; Bravo, Jaime; Guzmán, Plinio

    2015-09-16

    Poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) are evolutionarily conserved proteins that have important functions in the regulation of translation and the control of mRNA stability in eukaryotes. Most PABPs encode a C-terminal domain known as the MLLE domain (previously PABC or CTC), which can mediate protein interactions. In earlier work we identified and predicted that four classes of MLLE-interacting proteins were present in Arabidopsis thaliana, which we named CID A, B, C, and D. These proteins encode transcription-activating domains (CID A), the Lsm and LsmAD domains of ataxin-2 (CID B), the CUE and small MutS-related domains (CID C), and two RNA recognition domains (CID D). We recently found that a novel class that lacks the LsmAD domain is present in CID B proteins. We extended our analysis to other classes of CIDs present in the viridiplantae. We found that novel variants also evolved in classes CID A and CID C. A specific transcription factor domain is present in a distinct lineage in class A, and a variant that lacks at least two distinct domains was also identified in a divergent lineage in class C. We did not detect any variants in Class D CIDs. This class often consists of four to six highly conserved RNA-binding proteins, which suggests that major redundancy is present in this class. CIDs are likely to operate as components of posttranscriptional regulatory assemblies. The evident diversification of CIDs may be neutral or may be important for plant adaptation to the environment and for acquisition of specific traits during evolution. The fact that CIDs subclasses are maintained in early lineages suggest that a presumed interference between duplicates was resolved, and a defined function for each subclass was achieved.

  7. HBXIP, a binding protein of HBx, regulates maintenance of the G2/M phase checkpoint induced by DNA damage and enhances sensitivity to doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Fei, Hongrong; Zhou, Yunsheng; Li, Ruotong; Yang, Mingfeng; Ma, Jian; Wang, Fengze

    2017-03-04

    To maintain the integrity of the genome, cells need to detect and repair DNA damage before they complete cell division. Hepatitis B x-interacting protein (HBXIP), a binding protein of HBx (Hepatitis B virus × protein), is aberrantly overexpressed in human cancer cells and show to promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. The present study is designed to investigate the role of HBXIP on the DNA damage response. Our results show that HBXIP acts as an important regulator of G2/M checkpoint in response to DNA damage. HBXIP knockdown increases phospho-histone H2AX expression and foci formation after treatment with ionizing radiation (IR). HBXIP regulates the ATM-Chk2 pathway following DNA damage. Depletion of HBXIP abrogates IR-induced G2/M cell cycle checkpoints, accompanying decrease the expression of phospho-Cdc25C, phospho-Cdc2 (Tyr15) and p27. We also show that downregulation of HBXIP expression sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapy, as evidenced by an increase in apoptosis and cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Our data suggest that HBXIP can function as a mediator protein for DNA damage response signals to activate the G2/M checkpoint to maintain genome integrity and prevent cell death.

  8. IgG rheumatoid factors and staphylococcal protein A bind to a common molecular site on IgG.

    PubMed

    Nardella, F A; Teller, D C; Barber, C V; Mannik, M

    1985-12-01

    The antigenic determinant on the Fc region of human IgG for two IgG rheumatoid factors (IgG-RF) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis were investigated in detail. The RF did not interact with IgG fragments that contained the C gamma 2 or C gamma 3 region alone, but required the presence of both regions for binding. The RF binding to solid-phase IgG were poorly inhibited by the IgG3 subclass and strongly inhibited by staphylococcal protein A (SPA) (42 kD), and fragment D of SPA (7 kD), indicating that the binding site is most likely the same as the Ga antigenic determinant described for IgM-RF, and is in the same location as the site on IgG that binds SPA. pH titration studies of the RF binding to IgG indicated the involvement of histidine and lysine or tyrosine side chains. Chemical modification studies showed the histidines were involved on the Fc side of the interactions, and tyrosines were involved on both the antigenic and antibody sides of the interactions. Lysines were not involved. The above information, and the knowledge of the number and position in space of the amino acid residues involved in the C gamma 2-C gamma 3 interface region of IgG, the binding site for SPA, and the amino acid substitutions in IgG3 that account for its inability to bind protein A, allowed the identification of the site on IgG that bind IgG-RF. This binding site involves some of the same amino acid side chains, His 435, Tyr 436, and one or both His 433 and 310, and is in the same location as the site that binds SPA. The same site is likely to be a common antigenic determinant for other RF. Furthermore, the described molecular mimicry suggests a biological relationship between bacterial Fc-binding proteins and the production of RF in rheumatoid arthritis.

  9. Coadministration of the Three Antigenic Leishmania infantum Poly (A) Binding Proteins as a DNA Vaccine Induces Protection against Leishmania major Infection in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Soto, Manuel; Corvo, Laura; Garde, Esther; Ramírez, Laura; Iniesta, Virginia; Bonay, Pedro; Gómez-Nieto, Carlos; González, Víctor M; Martín, M Elena; Alonso, Carlos; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Iborra, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Highly conserved intracellular proteins from Leishmania have been described as antigens in natural and experimental infected mammals. The present study aimed to evaluate the antigenicity and prophylactic properties of the Leishmania infantum Poly (A) binding proteins (LiPABPs). Three different members of the LiPABP family have been described. Recombinant tools based on these proteins were constructed: recombinant proteins and DNA vaccines. The three recombinant proteins were employed for coating ELISA plates. Sera from human and canine patients of visceral leishmaniasis and human patients of mucosal leishmaniasis recognized the three LiPABPs. In addition, the protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine based on the combination of the three Leishmania PABPs has been tested in a model of progressive murine leishmaniasis: BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. The induction of a Th1-like response against the LiPABP family by genetic vaccination was able to down-regulate the IL-10 predominant responses elicited by parasite LiPABPs after infection in this murine model. This modulation resulted in a partial protection against L. major infection. LiPABP vaccinated mice showed a reduction on the pathology that was accompanied by a decrease in parasite burdens, in antibody titers against Leishmania antigens and in the IL-4 and IL-10 parasite-specific mediated responses in comparison to control mice groups immunized with saline or with the non-recombinant plasmid. The results presented here demonstrate for the first time the prophylactic properties of a new family of Leishmania antigenic intracellular proteins, the LiPABPs. The redirection of the immune response elicited against the LiPABP family (from IL-10 towards IFN-γ mediated responses) by genetic vaccination was able to induce a partial protection against the development of the disease in a highly susceptible murine model of leishmaniasis.

  10. Coadministration of the Three Antigenic Leishmania infantum Poly (A) Binding Proteins as a DNA Vaccine Induces Protection against Leishmania major Infection in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Corvo, Laura; Garde, Esther; Ramírez, Laura; Iniesta, Virginia; Bonay, Pedro; Gómez-Nieto, Carlos; González, Víctor M.; Martín, M. Elena; Alonso, Carlos; Coelho, Eduardo A. F.; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel

    2015-01-01

    Background Highly conserved intracellular proteins from Leishmania have been described as antigens in natural and experimental infected mammals. The present study aimed to evaluate the antigenicity and prophylactic properties of the Leishmania infantum Poly (A) binding proteins (LiPABPs). Methodology/Principal Findings Three different members of the LiPABP family have been described. Recombinant tools based on these proteins were constructed: recombinant proteins and DNA vaccines. The three recombinant proteins were employed for coating ELISA plates. Sera from human and canine patients of visceral leishmaniasis and human patients of mucosal leishmaniasis recognized the three LiPABPs. In addition, the protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine based on the combination of the three Leishmania PABPs has been tested in a model of progressive murine leishmaniasis: BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. The induction of a Th1-like response against the LiPABP family by genetic vaccination was able to down-regulate the IL-10 predominant responses elicited by parasite LiPABPs after infection in this murine model. This modulation resulted in a partial protection against L. major infection. LiPABP vaccinated mice showed a reduction on the pathology that was accompanied by a decrease in parasite burdens, in antibody titers against Leishmania antigens and in the IL-4 and IL-10 parasite-specific mediated responses in comparison to control mice groups immunized with saline or with the non-recombinant plasmid. Conclusion/Significance The results presented here demonstrate for the first time the prophylactic properties of a new family of Leishmania antigenic intracellular proteins, the LiPABPs. The redirection of the immune response elicited against the LiPABP family (from IL-10 towards IFN-γ mediated responses) by genetic vaccination was able to induce a partial protection against the development of the disease in a highly susceptible murine model of leishmaniasis. PMID:25955652

  11. Lambda Receptor in the Outer Membrane of Escherichia coli as a Binding Protein for Maltodextrins and Starch Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Ferenci, Thomas; Schwentorat, Marina; Ullrich, Susanne; Vilmart, Jeannine

    1980-01-01

    The starch polysaccharides amylose and amylopectin are not utilized by Escherichia coli, but are bound by the bacteria. The following evidence supports the view that the outer membrane λ receptor protein, a component of the maltose/ maltodextrin transport system is responsible for the binding. (i) Amylose and amylopectin both inhibit the transport of maltose into E. coli. (ii) Both polysaccharides prevent binding of non-utilizable maltodextrins by the intact bacterium, a process previously shown to be dependent on components of the maltose transport system (T. Ferenci, Eur. J. Biochem., in press). (iii) A fluorescent amylopectin derivative, O-(fluoresceinyl thiocarbamoyl)-amylopectin, has been synthesized and shown to bind to E. coli in a reversible, saturable manner. Binding of O-(fluoresceinyl thiocarbamoyl)-amylopectin is absent in mutants lacking the λ receptor, but mutations in any of the other components of the maltose transport system do not affect binding as long as λ receptor is present. (iv) Using the inhibition of λ receptor-dependent O-(fluoresceinyl thiocarbamoyl)-amylopectin binding as an assay, the affinities of the λ receptor for maltodextrins and other sugars have been estimated. The affinity for dextrins increases with increasing degree of polymerization (Kd for maltose, 14 mM; for maltotetraose, 0.3 mM; for maltodecaose, 0.075 mM). Maltose and some other di- and trisaccharides are inhibitory to amylopectin binding, but only at concentrations above 1 mM. PMID:6445892

  12. Ectopic expression of a polyalanine expansion mutant of poly(A)-binding protein N1 in muscle cells in culture inhibits myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qishan; Bag, Jnanankur . E-mail: jbag@uoguelph.ca

    2006-02-17

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset dominant genetic disease caused by the expansion of a GCG trinucleotide repeat that encodes the polyalanine tract at the N-terminus of the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein (PABPN1). Presence of intranuclear inclusions (INIs) containing PABPN1 aggregates in the skeletal muscles is the hallmark of OPMD. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the mutant PABPN1 produced INIs in a muscle cell culture model and reduced expression of several muscle-specific proteins including {alpha}-actin, slow troponin C, muscle creatine kinase, and two myogenic transcription factors, myogenin and MyoD. However, the levels of two upstream regulators of the MyoD gene, the Myf-5 and Pax3/7, were not affected, but both proteins co-localized with the PABPN1 aggregates in the mutant PABPN1 overexpressing cells. In these cells, although myogenin and MyoD levels were reduced, these two transcription factors did not co-localize with the mutant PABPN1 aggregates. Therefore, sequestration of Myf5 and Pax3/7 by the mutant PABPN1 aggregates was a specific effect on these factors. Our results suggest that trapping of these two important myogenic determinants may interfere with an early step in myogenesis.

  13. Stimulation of translation by human Unr requires cold shock domains 2 and 4, and correlates with poly(A) binding protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Ray, Swagat; Anderson, Emma C

    2016-03-03

    The RNA binding protein Unr, which contains five cold shock domains, has several specific roles in post-transcriptional control of gene expression. It can act as an activator or inhibitor of translation initiation, promote mRNA turnover, or stabilise mRNA. Its role depends on the mRNA and other proteins to which it binds, which includes cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein 1 (PABP1). Since PABP1 binds to all polyadenylated mRNAs, and is involved in translation initiation by interaction with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G), we investigated whether Unr has a general role in translational control. We found that Unr strongly stimulates translation in vitro, and mutation of cold shock domains 2 or 4 inhibited its translation activity. The ability of Unr and its mutants to stimulate translation correlated with its ability to bind RNA, and to interact with PABP1. We found that Unr stimulated the binding of PABP1 to mRNA, and that Unr was required for the stable interaction of PABP1 and eIF4G in cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Unr reduced the overall level of cellular translation in cells, as well as that of cap-dependent and IRES-dependent reporters. These data describe a novel role for Unr in regulating cellular gene expression.

  14. PAB-1, a Caenorhabditis elegans poly(A)-binding protein, regulates mRNA metabolism in germline by interacting with CGH-1 and CAR-1.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sunhee; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Poly(A)-binding proteins are highly conserved among eukaryotes and regulate stability of mRNA and translation. Among C. elegans homologues, pab-1 mutants showed defects in germline mitotic proliferation. Unlike pab-1 mutants, pab-1 RNAi at every larval stage caused arrest of germline development at the following stage, indicating that pab-1 is required for the entire postembryonic germline development. This idea is supported by the observations that the mRNA level of pab-1 increased throughout postembryonic development and its protein expression was germline-enriched. PAB-1 localized to P granules and the cytoplasm in the germline. PAB-1 colocalized with CGH-1 and CAR-1 and affected their localization, suggesting that PAB-1 is a component of processing (P)-bodies that interacts with them. The mRNA and protein levels of representative germline genes, rec-8, GLP-1, rme-2, and msp-152, were decreased after pab-1 RNAi. Although the mRNA level of msp-152 was increased in cgh-1 mutant, it was also significantly reduced by pab-1 RNAi. Our results suggest that PAB-1 positively regulates the mRNA levels of germline genes, which is likely facilitated by the interaction of PAB-1 with other P-body components, CGH-1 and CAR-1.

  15. Maturation and Activity of Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 Is Inhibited by Acyl-CoA Binding Domain Containing 3

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Patel, Vishala; Bang, Sookhee; Cohen, Natalie; Millar, John; Kim, Sangwon F.

    2012-01-01

    Imbalance of lipid metabolism has been linked with pathogenesis of a variety of human pathological conditions such as diabetes, obesity, cancer and neurodegeneration. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are the master transcription factors controlling the homeostasis of fatty acids and cholesterol in the body. Transcription, expression, and activity of SREBPs are regulated by various nutritional, hormonal or stressful stimuli, yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in these adaptative responses remains elusive. In the present study, we found that overexpressed acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3 (ACBD3), a Golgi-associated protein, dramatically inhibited SREBP1-sensitive promoter activity of fatty acid synthase (FASN). Moreover, lipid deprivation-stimulated SREBP1 maturation was significantly attenuated by ACBD3. With cell fractionation, gene knockdown and immunoprecipitation assays, it was showed that ACBD3 blocked intracellular maturation of SREBP1 probably through directly binding with the lipid regulator rather than disrupted SREBP1-SCAP-Insig1 interaction. Further investigation revealed that acyl-CoA domain-containing N-terminal sequence of ACBD3 contributed to its inhibitory effects on the production of nuclear SREBP1. In addition, mRNA and protein levels of FASN and de novo palmitate biosynthesis were remarkably reduced in cells overexpressed with ACBD3. These findings suggest that ACBD3 plays an essential role in maintaining lipid homeostasis via regulating SREBP1's processing pathway and thus impacting cellular lipogenesis. PMID:23166793

  16. Maturation and activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 is inhibited by acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Patel, Vishala; Bang, Sookhee; Cohen, Natalie; Millar, John; Kim, Sangwon F

    2012-01-01

    Imbalance of lipid metabolism has been linked with pathogenesis of a variety of human pathological conditions such as diabetes, obesity, cancer and neurodegeneration. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are the master transcription factors controlling the homeostasis of fatty acids and cholesterol in the body. Transcription, expression, and activity of SREBPs are regulated by various nutritional, hormonal or stressful stimuli, yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in these adaptative responses remains elusive. In the present study, we found that overexpressed acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3 (ACBD3), a Golgi-associated protein, dramatically inhibited SREBP1-sensitive promoter activity of fatty acid synthase (FASN). Moreover, lipid deprivation-stimulated SREBP1 maturation was significantly attenuated by ACBD3. With cell fractionation, gene knockdown and immunoprecipitation assays, it was showed that ACBD3 blocked intracellular maturation of SREBP1 probably through directly binding with the lipid regulator rather than disrupted SREBP1-SCAP-Insig1 interaction. Further investigation revealed that acyl-CoA domain-containing N-terminal sequence of ACBD3 contributed to its inhibitory effects on the production of nuclear SREBP1. In addition, mRNA and protein levels of FASN and de novo palmitate biosynthesis were remarkably reduced in cells overexpressed with ACBD3. These findings suggest that ACBD3 plays an essential role in maintaining lipid homeostasis via regulating SREBP1's processing pathway and thus impacting cellular lipogenesis.

  17. A binding site for activation by the Bacillus subtilis AhrC protein, a repressor/activator of arginine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Klingel, U; Miller, C M; North, A K; Stockley, P G; Baumberg, S

    1995-08-21

    In Bacillus subtilis, the AhrC protein represses genes encoding enzymes of arginine biosynthesis and activates those mediating its catabolism. To determine how this repressor also functions as an activator, we attempted to clone catabolic genes by searching for insertions of the Tn917-lacZ transposon that express AhrC-dependent, arginine-inducible beta-galactosidase activity. One such isolate was obtained. The region upstream of lacZ was subcloned in Escherichia coli in such a way that it could be replaced in the B. subtilis chromosome after appropriate manipulation. Analysis of exonuclease III-derived deletions located an AhrC-dependent, arginine-inducible promoter to within a ca. 1.9 kb fragment. The sequence revealed: the 3' end of an ORF homologous to gdh genes encoding glutamate dehydrogenase, with highest homology to the homologue from Clostridium difficile; the 5' end of an ORF homologous to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding delta 1-pyrroline 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH), an enzyme of arginine catabolism; and just upstream of the latter, a sequence with homology to known AhrC binding sites in the upstream part of the biosynthetic argCJBD-cpa-F cluster. The same region has also been sequenced by others as part of the B. subtilis genome sequencing project, revealing that the P5CDH gene is the first in a cluster termed rocABC. Restriction fragments containing the putative AhrC-binding sequence, but not those lacking it, showed retarded electrophoretic mobility in the presence of purified AhrC. A 277 bp AhrC-binding fragment also showed anomalous mobility in the absence of AhrC, consistent with its being intrinsically bent. DNAse I footprinting localized AhrC binding to bp -16/-22 to +1 (the transcription startpoint). Such a location for an activator binding site, i.e. overlapping the transcription start, is unusual.

  18. Presence of autoantibodies to peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclosporin A-binding protein) in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Harigai, M; Hara, M; Takahashi, N; Kitani, A; Hirose, T; Suzuki, K; Kawakami, M; Hidaka, T; Kawaguchi, Y; Ishizuka, T

    1992-04-01

    Several autoantibodies against cytoplasmic or nuclear components of cells have been reported in autoimmune diseases. We report here a previously unrecognized autoantibody to peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PPIase, which catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides, has recently been found to be identical to cyclophilin, a specific binding protein of a potent immunosuppressant, cyclosporin A. IgG and IgM anti-PPIase antibodies were detected in 40 and 20% of unselected patients with SLE, respectively, by ELISA. The reactivity of these sera was confirmed by immunoblotting experiments. Sera from rheumatoid arthritis patients showed no reactivity and 1 of 8 sera from systemic sclerosis patients and 1 of 25 sera from normal controls showed only weak reactivity. Unexpectedly, the anti-PPIase antibody was unable to inhibit PPIase activity, indicating that the autoantibody recognizes an epitope of PPIase which is different from the active site of PPIase. The levels of the anti-PPIase antibody in SLE patients correlated with remissions and flares of the disease. The anti-PPIase antibody was higher in patients with active SLE than those with inactive disease. The prevalence of the active stage of the disease was significantly higher in IgG anti-PPIase antibody-positive SLE patients as compared to antibody-negative SLE patients. These data define the presence of a new autoantibody against PPIase and its association with the activity and certain clinical manifestations in SLE.

  19. The Crystal Structure of PPIL1 Bound to Cyclosporine A Suggests a Binding Mode for a Linear Epitope of the SKIP Protein

    PubMed Central

    Stegmann, Christian M.; Lührmann, Reinhard; Wahl, Markus C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The removal of introns from pre-mRNA is carried out by a large macromolecular machine called the spliceosome. The peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase PPIL1 is a component of the human spliceosome and binds to the spliceosomal SKIP protein via a binding site distinct from its active site. Principal Findings Here, we have studied the PPIL1 protein and its interaction with SKIP biochemically and by X-ray crystallography. A minimal linear binding epitope derived from the SKIP protein could be determined using a peptide array. A 36-residue region of SKIP centred on an eight-residue epitope suffices to bind PPIL1 in pull-down experiments. The crystal structure of PPIL1 in complex with the inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) was obtained at a resolution of 1.15 Å and exhibited two bound Cd2+ ions that enabled SAD phasing. PPIL1 residues that have previously been implicated in binding of SKIP are involved in the coordination of Cd2+ ions in the present crystal structure. Employing the present crystal structure, the determined minimal binding epitope and previously published NMR data [1], a molecular docking study was performed. In the docked model of the PPIL1·SKIP interaction, a proline residue of SKIP is buried in a hydrophobic pocket of PPIL1. This hydrophobic contact is encircled by several hydrogen bonds between the SKIP peptide and PPIL1. Conclusion We characterized a short, linear epitope of SKIP that is sufficient to bind the PPIL1 protein. Our data indicate that this SKIP peptide could function in recruiting PPIL1 into the core of the spliceosome. We present a molecular model for the binding mode of SKIP to PPIL1 which emphasizes the versatility of cyclophilin-type PPIases to engage in additional interactions with other proteins apart from active site contacts despite their limited surface area. PMID:20368803

  20. The bent conformation of poly(A)-binding protein induced by RNA-binding is required for its translational activation function

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ka Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Gu, Sohyun; Kim, Eunah; An, Sihyeon; Kwon, Junyoung; Jang, Sung Key

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A recent study revealed that poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) bound to poly(A) RNA exhibits a sharply bent configuration at the linker region between RNA-recognition motif 2 (RRM2) and RRM3, whereas free PABP exhibits a highly flexible linear configuration. However, the physiological role of the bent structure of mRNA-bound PABP remains unknown. We investigated a role of the bent structure of PABP by constructing a PABP variant that fails to form the poly(A)-dependent bent structure but maintains its poly(A)-binding activity. We found that the bent structure of PABP/poly(A) complex is required for PABP's efficient interaction with eIF4G and eIF4G/eIF4E complex. Moreover, the mutant PABP had compromised translation activation function and failed to augment the formation of 80S translation initiation complex in an in vitro translation system. These results suggest that the bent conformation of PABP, which is induced by the interaction with 3′ poly(A) tail, mediates poly(A)-dependent translation by facilitating the interaction with eIF4G and the eIF4G/eIF4E complex. The preferential binding of the eIF4G/eIF4E complex to the bent PABP/poly(A) complex seems to be a mechanism discriminating the mRNA-bound PABPs participating in translation from the idling mRNA-unbound PABPs. PMID:28095120

  1. Escherichia coli phage-shock protein A (PspA) binds to membrane phospholipids and repairs proton leakage of the damaged membranes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryuji; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Yoshida, Masasuke

    2007-10-01

    Escherichia coli phage-shock protein A (PspA), a 25.3 kDa peripheral membrane protein, is induced under the membrane stress conditions and is assumed to help maintain membrane potential. Here, we report that purified PspA, existing as a large oligomer, is really able to suppress proton leakage of the membranes. This was demonstrated for membrane vesicles prepared from the PspA-lacking E. coli mutants, and for membrane vesicles damaged by ethanol and Triton X-100 prepared from the mutant and the wild-type cells. PspA also suppressed proton leakage of damaged liposomes made from E. coli total lipids. Furthermore, we found that PspA bound preferentially to liposomes containing phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylglycerol. All these effects were not observed for monomer PspA that was prepared by refolding of urea-denatured PspA. These results indicate that oligomers of PspA bind to membrane phospholipids and suppress proton leakage.

  2. Poly(A) Polymerase and the Nuclear Poly(A) Binding Protein, PABPN1, Coordinate the Splicing and Degradation of a Subset of Human Pre-mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, Lisa; Davidson, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Most human protein-encoding transcripts contain multiple introns that are removed by splicing. Although splicing catalysis is frequently cotranscriptional, some introns are excised after polyadenylation. Accumulating evidence suggests that delayed splicing has regulatory potential, but the mechanisms are still not well understood. Here we identify a terminal poly(A) tail as being important for a subset of intron excision events that follow cleavage and polyadenylation. In these cases, splicing is promoted by the nuclear poly(A) binding protein, PABPN1, and poly(A) polymerase (PAP). PABPN1 promotes intron excision in the context of 3′-end polyadenylation but not when bound to internal A-tracts. Importantly, the ability of PABPN1 to promote splicing requires its RNA binding and, to a lesser extent, PAP-stimulatory functions. Interestingly, an N-terminal alanine expansion in PABPN1 that is thought to cause oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy cannot completely rescue the effects of PABPN1 depletion, suggesting that this pathway may have relevance to disease. Finally, inefficient polyadenylation is associated with impaired recruitment of splicing factors to affected introns, which are consequently degraded by the exosome. Our studies uncover a new function for polyadenylation in controlling the expression of a subset of human genes via pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:25896913

  3. Harnessing short poly(A)-binding protein-interacting peptides for the suppression of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Fatscher, Tobias; Gehring, Niels H.

    2016-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a cellular process that eliminates messenger RNA (mRNA) substrates with premature translation termination codons (PTCs). In addition, NMD regulates the expression of a number of physiological mRNAs, for example transcripts containing long 3′ UTRs. Current models implicate the interaction between cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABPC1) and translation termination in NMD. Accordingly, PABPC1 present within close proximity of a termination codon antagonizes NMD. Here, we use reporter mRNAs with different NMD-inducing 3′ UTRs to establish a general NMD-inhibiting property of PABPC1. NMD-inhibition is not limited to PABPC1, but can also be achieved by peptides consisting of the PABP-interacting motif 2 (PAM2) of different proteins when recruited to an NMD-inhibiting position of NMD reporter transcripts. The short PAM2 peptides efficiently suppress NMD activated by a long 3′ UTR, an exon-junction complex (EJC) and individual EJC components, and stabilize a PTC-containing β-globin mRNA. In conclusion, our results establish short PABPC1-recruiting peptides as potent but position-dependent inhibitors of mammalian NMD. PMID:27874031

  4. Ratcheted molecular-dynamics simulations identify efficiently the transition state of protein folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiana, Guido; Camilloni, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    The atomistic characterization of the transition state (TS) is a fundamental step to improve the understanding of the folding mechanism and the function of proteins. From a computational point of view, the identification of the conformations that build out the transition state is particularly cumbersome, mainly because of the large computational cost of generating a statistically sound set of folding trajectories. Here we show that a biasing algorithm, based on the physics of the ratchet-and-pawl, can be used to approximate efficiently the transition state. The basic idea is that the algorithmic ratchet exerts a force on the protein when it is climbing the free-energy barrier, while it is inactive when it is descending. The transition state can be identified as the point of the trajectory where the ratchet changes regime. Besides discussing this strategy in general terms, we test it within a protein model whose transition state can be studied independently by plain molecular dynamics simulations. Finally, we show its power in explicit-solvent simulations, obtaining and characterizing a set of transition-state conformations for Acyl-Coenzyme A-Binding Protein (ACBP) and Chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 (CI2).

  5. Genetic interactions of yeast eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) reveal connections to poly(A)-binding protein and protein kinase C signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Sandro R; Casolari, Jason M; Oliveira, Carla C; Silver, Pamela A; McBride, Anne E

    2002-01-01

    The highly conserved eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A has been proposed to have various roles in the cell, from translation to mRNA decay to nuclear protein export. To further our understanding of this essential protein, three temperature-sensitive alleles of the yeast TIF51A gene have been characterized. Two mutant eIF5A proteins contain mutations in a proline residue at the junction between the two eIF5A domains and the third, strongest allele encodes a protein with a single mutation in each domain, both of which are required for the growth defect. The stronger tif51A alleles cause defects in degradation of short-lived mRNAs, supporting a role for this protein in mRNA decay. A multicopy suppressor screen revealed six genes, the overexpression of which allows growth of a tif51A-1 strain at high temperature; these genes include PAB1, PKC1, and PKC1 regulators WSC1, WSC2, and WSC3. Further results suggest that eIF5A may also be involved in ribosomal synthesis and the WSC/PKC1 signaling pathway for cell wall integrity or related processes. PMID:11861547

  6. Proximity of the poly(A)-binding protein to a premature termination codon inhibits mammalian nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Luísa; Ribeiro, Patrícia; Inácio, Angela; Liebhaber, Stephen A; Romão, Luísa

    2008-03-01

    mRNA surveillance pathways selectively clear defective mRNAs from the cell. As such, these pathways serve as important modifiers of genetic disorders. Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), the most intensively studied surveillance pathway, recognizes mRNAs with premature termination codons (PTCs). In mammalian systems the location of a PTC more than 50 nucleotides 5' to the terminal exon-exon junction is a critical determinant of NMD. However, mRNAs with nonsense codons that fulfill this requirement but are located very early in the open reading frame can effectively evade NMD. The unexpected resistance of such mRNAs with AUG-proximal PTCs to accelerated decay suggests that important determinants of NMD remain to be identified. Here, we report that an NMD-sensitive mRNA can be stabilized by artificially tethering the cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein 1, PABPC1, at a PTC-proximal position. Remarkably, the data further suggest that NMD of an mRNA with an AUG-proximal PTC can also be repressed by PABPC1, which might be brought into proximity with the PTC during cap-dependent translation and 43S scanning. These results reveal a novel parameter of NMD in mammalian cells that can account for the stability of mRNAs with AUG-proximal PTCs. These findings serve to expand current mechanistic models of NMD and mRNA translation.

  7. Wheat germ poly(A) binding protein enhances the binding affinity of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F and (iso)4F for cap analogues.

    PubMed

    Wei, C C; Balasta, M L; Ren, J; Goss, D J

    1998-02-17

    Most eukaryotic mRNAs contain a 5' cap (m7GppX) and a 3' poly(A) tail to increase synergistically the translational efficiency. Recently, the poly(A) binding protein (PABP) and cap-binding protein, eIF-4F, were found to interact [Le et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 16247-16255; Tarun and Sachs (1996) EMBO J. 15, 7168-7177]. These data suggest that PABP may exert its effect on translational efficiency either by increasing the formation of initiation factor-mRNA complex or by enhancing ribosome recycling. To investigate the functional consequences of these interactions, the fluorescent cap analogue, ant-m7GTP, which is an environmentally sensitive fluorescent probe [Ren and Goss (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 3629-3634] was used to investigate the cap-binding affinity. Our data show that the binding of eIF-(iso)4F or eIF-4F to cap analogue enhanced their binding affinity toward PABP approximately 40-fold. Similarly, the eIF-4F/PABP or eIF-(iso)4F/PABP complexes show a 40-fold enhancement of cap analogue binding as compared to eIF-4F or eIF-(iso)4F alone. At least part of the enhancement of the translational initiation by PABP can be accounted for by direct changes in cap-binding affinity. The interactions of these components also suggest a mechanism whereby the poly(A) tail is brought into close proximity with m7G cap. This effect was examined by fluorescence energy transfer, and it was determined that the PABP/eIF-4F complex could bind both poly(A) and 5' cap simultaneously.

  8. The molecular chaperone TRiC/CCT binds to the Trp-Asp 40 (WD40) repeat protein WDR68 and promotes its folding, protein kinase DYRK1A binding, and nuclear accumulation.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Takeshi; Aoshima, Masato; Tsubata, Takuichi; Nishida, Eisuke

    2014-11-28

    Trp-Asp (WD) repeat protein 68 (WDR68) is an evolutionarily conserved WD40 repeat protein that binds to several proteins, including dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated protein kinase (DYRK1A), MAPK/ERK kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1), and Cullin4-damage-specific DNA-binding protein 1 (CUL4-DDB1). WDR68 affects multiple and diverse physiological functions, such as controlling anthocyanin synthesis in plants, tissue growth in insects, and craniofacial development in vertebrates. However, the biochemical basis and the regulatory mechanism of WDR68 activity remain largely unknown. To better understand the cellular function of WDR68, here we have isolated and identified cellular WDR68 binding partners using a phosphoproteomic approach. More than 200 cellular proteins with wide varieties of biochemical functions were identified as WDR68-binding protein candidates. Eight T-complex protein 1 (TCP1) subunits comprising the molecular chaperone TCP1 ring complex/chaperonin-containing TCP1 (TRiC/CCT) were identified as major WDR68-binding proteins, and phosphorylation sites in both WDR68 and TRiC/CCT were identified. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the binding between TRiC/CCT and WDR68. Computer-aided structural analysis suggested that WDR68 forms a seven-bladed β-propeller ring. Experiments with a series of deletion mutants in combination with the structural modeling showed that three of the seven β-propeller blades of WDR68 are essential and sufficient for TRiC/CCT binding. Knockdown of cellular TRiC/CCT by siRNA caused an abnormal WDR68 structure and led to reduction of its DYRK1A-binding activity. Concomitantly, nuclear accumulation of WDR68 was suppressed by the knockdown of TRiC/CCT, and WDR68 formed cellular aggregates when overexpressed in the TRiC/CCT-deficient cells. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the molecular chaperone TRiC/CCT is essential for correct protein folding, DYRK1A binding, and nuclear accumulation of WDR68.

  9. The interaction of cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein with eukaryotic initiation factor 4G suppresses nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Fatscher, Tobias; Boehm, Volker; Weiche, Benjamin; Gehring, Niels H

    2014-10-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) eliminates different classes of mRNA substrates including transcripts with long 3' UTRs. Current models of NMD suggest that the long physical distance between the poly(A) tail and the termination codon reduces the interaction between cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABPC1) and the eukaryotic release factor 3a (eRF3a) during translation termination. In the absence of PABPC1 binding, eRF3a recruits the NMD factor UPF1 to the terminating ribosome, triggering mRNA degradation. Here, we have used the MS2 tethering system to investigate the suppression of NMD by PABPC1. We show that tethering of PABPC1 between the termination codon and a long 3' UTR specifically inhibits NMD-mediated mRNA degradation. Contrary to the current model, tethered PABPC1 mutants unable to interact with eRF3a still efficiently suppress NMD. We find that the interaction of PABPC1 with eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G), which mediates the circularization of mRNAs, is essential for NMD inhibition by tethered PABPC1. Furthermore, recruiting either eRF3a or eIF4G in proximity to an upstream termination codon antagonizes NMD. While tethering of an eRF3a mutant unable to interact with PABPC1 fails to suppress NMD, tethered eIF4G inhibits NMD in a PABPC1-independent manner, indicating a sequential arrangement of NMD antagonizing factors. In conclusion, our results establish a previously unrecognized link between translation termination, mRNA circularization, and NMD suppression, thereby suggesting a revised model for the activation of NMD at termination codons upstream of long 3' UTR. © 2014 Fatscher et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  10. Gender-specific association between the cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein 4 rs4660293 single nucleotide polymorphism and serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Yin, Rui-Xing; Guo, Tao; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Shen, Shao-Wen; Sun, Jia-Qi; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Yang, De-Zhai; Lin, Wei-Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein 4 (PABPC4) is an RNA-processing protein which has an important role in regulating gene expression. The association of the PABPC4 rs4660293 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles has, to the best of our knowledge, not previously been studied in the Chinese population. The present study aimed to investigate the association between the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 individuals of Mulao nationality and 729 individuals of Han nationality were randomly selected from stratified randomized samples from a previous study by our group. Genotypes of the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses and subsequently confirmed by direct sequencing. Serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B were higher in the Mulao group than those in the Han group (P<0.01 for each). The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP were significantly different between males and females in the Mulao population (P<0.05 for each), while no significant difference was detected between those of males and females amongst the Han population. The frequency of the G allele was higher in Mulao males than in Mulao females (22.12 vs. 13.44%). The G allele carriers were found to have higher total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and ApoAI levels in Han females but not in Han males, and lower TC and HDL-C levels in Mulao females but not in Mulao males than those of the G allele non-carriers (P<0.05 for all). These associations were confirmed by multiple linear regression analysis (P<0.05‑0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with multiple environmental factors (P<0.05‑0.001). The PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP was associated with serum TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoAI levels in these study

  11. La-related protein 4 binds poly(A), interacts with the poly(A)-binding protein MLLE domain via a variant PAM2w motif, and can promote mRNA stability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiqing; Gaidamakov, Sergei A; Xie, Jingwei; Lee, Joowon; Martino, Luigi; Kozlov, Guennadi; Crawford, Amanda K; Russo, Amy N; Conte, Maria R; Gehring, Kalle; Maraia, Richard J

    2011-02-01

    The conserved RNA binding protein La recognizes UUU-3'OH on its small nuclear RNA ligands and stabilizes them against 3'-end-mediated decay. We report that newly described La-related protein 4 (LARP4) is a factor that can bind poly(A) RNA and interact with poly(A) binding protein (PABP). Yeast two-hybrid analysis and reciprocal immunoprecipitations (IPs) from HeLa cells revealed that LARP4 interacts with RACK1, a 40S ribosome- and mRNA-associated protein. LARP4 cosediments with 40S ribosome subunits and polyribosomes, and its knockdown decreases translation. Mutagenesis of the RNA binding or PABP interaction motifs decrease LARP4 association with polysomes. Several translation and mRNA metabolism-related proteins use a PAM2 sequence containing a critical invariant phenylalanine to make direct contact with the MLLE domain of PABP, and their competition for the MLLE is thought to regulate mRNA homeostasis. Unlike all ∼150 previously analyzed PAM2 sequences, LARP4 contains a variant PAM2 (PAM2w) with tryptophan in place of the phenylalanine. Binding and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies have shown that a peptide representing LARP4 PAM2w interacts with the MLLE of PABP within the affinity range measured for other PAM2 motif peptides. A cocrystal of PABC bound to LARP4 PAM2w shows tryptophan in the pocket in PABC-MLLE otherwise occupied by phenylalanine. We present evidence that LARP4 expression stimulates luciferase reporter activity by promoting mRNA stability, as shown by mRNA decay analysis of luciferase and cellular mRNAs. We propose that LARP4 activity is integrated with other PAM2 protein activities by PABP as part of mRNA homeostasis.

  12. Poly(A)-Binding Protein 1 Partially Relocalizes to the Nucleus during Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in an ICP27-Independent Manner and Does Not Inhibit Virus Replication▿

    PubMed Central

    Salaun, C.; MacDonald, A. I.; Larralde, O.; Howard, L.; Lochtie, K.; Burgess, H. M.; Brook, M.; Malik, P.; Gray, N. K.; Graham, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    Infection of cells by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) triggers host cell shutoff whereby mRNAs are degraded and cellular protein synthesis is diminished. However, virus protein translation continues because the translational apparatus in HSV-infected cells is maintained in an active state. Surprisingly, poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1), a predominantly cytoplasmic protein that is required for efficient translation initiation, is partially relocated to the nucleus during HSV-1 infection. This relocalization occurred in a time-dependent manner with respect to virus infection. Since HSV-1 infection causes cell stress, we examined other cell stress inducers and found that oxidative stress similarly relocated PABP1. An examination of stress-induced kinases revealed similarities in HSV-1 infection and oxidative stress activation of JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Importantly, PABP relocalization in infection was found to be independent of the viral protein ICP27. The depletion of PABP1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown had no significant effect on viral replication or the expression of selected virus late proteins, suggesting that reduced levels of cytoplasmic PABP1 are tolerated during infection. PMID:20573819

  13. A poly(A) binding protein-specific sequence motif: MRTENGKSKGFGFVC binding to mRNA poly(A) and polynucleotides and its role on mRNA translation.

    PubMed

    Rubin, H N; Halim, M N; Leavis, P C

    1994-06-01

    A consensus sequence (GKSKGFGFV) was recognized in all the sequenced poly(A) binding proteins. We synthesized a 15-amino acid peptide (corresponding to 354-368 in the yeast poly(A) binding protein) which includes the consensus sequence to test its binding affinity to different nucleotides, polynucleotides and mRNA with or without a poly(A) tail. Biochemical and biophysical studies revealed that the 15-amino acid peptide has a strong binding affinity to poly(A) alone or poly(A) attached at the 3' end of mRNA. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that the secondary structure of the 15-mer is consistent with that expected based on the structure of the native RNP domain. Furthermore, among the various mononucleotides performed in the present studies, ATP was preferentially found to bind to the 15-mer. To further examine the biological significance of the binding of the 15-mer to the poly(A) tail of mRNA, in vitro translation of the mRNA poly(A)+ in the presence of the 15-mer drastically increased globin synthesis by almost 2-fold, while translation of the deadenylated mRNA in the presence of the 15-mer almost did not alter the rate of incorporation of radiolabeled leucine into globin.

  14. Topography of a binding site for small amnestic peptides deduced from structure-activity studies: relation to amnestic effect of amyloid beta protein.

    PubMed

    Flood, J F; Roberts, E; Sherman, M A; Kaplan, B E; Morley, J E

    1994-01-04

    Four peptides homologous to amyloid beta protein containing the Val-Phe-Phe (VFF) sequence administered intracerebroventricularly after training caused amnesia for footshock active avoidance training in mice. Results with VFF and other peptides containing VFF or portions thereof were used to generate a topographic map for a hypothetical binding surface for amnestic peptides, termed Z. Effects on retention of footshock active avoidance training were rationalized in terms of fit to Z, making possible design of potential memory-modulating peptidic and nonpeptidic substances. Three peptides that neither improved nor impaired retention blocked the amnestic effects of beta-(12-28), a peptide homologous to amyloid beta protein, opening the way to development of substances that can antagonize the neurotoxic effects of amyloid beta protein on neural structures and thus attenuate symptoms and progression of Alzheimer disease.

  15. Topography of a binding site for small amnestic peptides deduced from structure-activity studies: relation to amnestic effect of amyloid beta protein.

    PubMed Central

    Flood, J F; Roberts, E; Sherman, M A; Kaplan, B E; Morley, J E

    1994-01-01

    Four peptides homologous to amyloid beta protein containing the Val-Phe-Phe (VFF) sequence administered intracerebroventricularly after training caused amnesia for footshock active avoidance training in mice. Results with VFF and other peptides containing VFF or portions thereof were used to generate a topographic map for a hypothetical binding surface for amnestic peptides, termed Z. Effects on retention of footshock active avoidance training were rationalized in terms of fit to Z, making possible design of potential memory-modulating peptidic and nonpeptidic substances. Three peptides that neither improved nor impaired retention blocked the amnestic effects of beta-(12-28), a peptide homologous to amyloid beta protein, opening the way to development of substances that can antagonize the neurotoxic effects of amyloid beta protein on neural structures and thus attenuate symptoms and progression of Alzheimer disease. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8278398

  16. Performance of the MM/GBSA scoring using a binding site hydrogen bond network-based frame selection: the protein kinase case.

    PubMed

    Adasme-Carreño, Francisco; Muñoz-Gutierrez, Camila; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2014-07-21

    A conformational selection method, based on hydrogen bond (Hbond) network analysis, has been designed in order to rationalize the configurations sampled using molecular dynamics (MD), which are commonly used in the estimation of the relative binding free energy of ligands to macromolecules through the MM/GBSA or MM/PBSA method. This approach makes use of protein-ligand complexes obtained from X-ray crystallographic data, as well as from molecular docking calculations. The combination of several computational approaches, like long MD simulations on protein-ligand complexes, Hbond network-based selection by scripting techniques and finally MM/GBSA, provides better statistical correlations against experimental binding data than previous similar reported studies. This approach has been successfully applied in the ranking of several protein kinase inhibitors (CDK2, Aurora A and p38), which present both diverse and related chemical structures.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus protein A binding to von Willebrand factor A1 domain is mediated by conserved IgG binding regions.

    PubMed

    O'Seaghdha, Maghnus; van Schooten, Carina J; Kerrigan, Steven W; Emsley, Jonas; Silverman, Gregg J; Cox, Dermot; Lenting, Peter J; Foster, Timothy J

    2006-11-01

    Protein A (Spa) is a surface-associated protein of Staphylococcus aureus best known for its ability to bind to the Fc region of IgG. Spa also binds strongly to the Fab region of the immunoglobulins bearing V(H)3 heavy chains and to von Willebrand factor (vWF). Previous studies have suggested that the protein A-vWF interaction is important in S. aureus adherence to platelets under conditions of shear stress. We demonstrate that Spa expression is sufficient for adherence of bacteria to immobilized vWF under low fluid shear. The full length recombinant Ig-binding region of protein A, Spa-EDABC, fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST), bound recombinant vWF in a dose-dependent and saturable fashion with half maximal binding of about 30 nm in immunosorbent assays. Full length-Spa did not bind recombinant vWF A3 domain but displayed binding to recombinant vWF domains A1 and D'-D3 (half maximal binding at 100 nm and 250 nm, respectively). Each recombinant protein A Ig-binding domain bound to the A1 domain in a similar manner to the full length-Spa molecule (half maximal binding 100 nm). Amino acid substitutions were introduced in the GST-SpaD protein at sites known to be involved in IgG Fc or in V(H)3 Fab binding. Mutants altered in residues that recognized IgG Fc but not those that recognized V(H)3 Fab had reduced binding to vWF A1 and D'-D3. This indicated that both vWF regions recognized a region on helices I and II that overlapped the IgG Fc binding site.

  18. Nuclear poly(A)-binding protein aggregates misplace a pre-mRNA outside of SC35 speckle causing its abnormal splicing

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Pierre; Oloko, Martine; Roth, Fanny; Montel, Valérie; Malerba, Alberto; Jarmin, Susan; Gidaro, Teresa; Popplewell, Linda; Perie, Sophie; Lacau St Guily, Jean; de la Grange, Pierre; Antoniou, Michael N.; Dickson, George; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Bastide, Bruno; Mouly, Vincent; Trollet, Capucine

    2016-01-01

    A short abnormal polyalanine expansion in the polyadenylate-binding protein nuclear-1 (PABPN1) protein causes oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Mutated PABPN1 proteins accumulate as insoluble intranuclear aggregates in muscles of OPMD patients. While the roles of PABPN1 in nuclear polyadenylation and regulation of alternative poly(A) site choice have been established, the molecular mechanisms which trigger pathological defects in OPMD and the role of aggregates remain to be determined. Using exon array, for the first time we have identified several splicing defects in OPMD. In particular, we have demonstrated a defect in the splicing regulation of the muscle-specific Troponin T3 (TNNT3) mutually exclusive exons 16 and 17 in OPMD samples compared to controls. This splicing defect is directly linked to the SC35 (SRSF2) splicing factor and to the presence of nuclear aggregates. As reported here, PABPN1 aggregates are able to trap TNNT3 pre-mRNA, driving it outside nuclear speckles, leading to an altered SC35-mediated splicing. This results in a decreased calcium sensitivity of muscle fibers, which could in turn plays a role in muscle pathology. We thus report a novel mechanism of alternative splicing deregulation that may play a role in various other diseases with nuclear inclusions or foci containing an RNA binding protein. PMID:27507886

  19. Four and a Half LIM Protein 1C (FHL1C): A Binding Partner for Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Kv1.5

    PubMed Central

    Poparic, Ivana; Schreibmayer, Wolfgang; Schoser, Benedikt; Desoye, Gernot; Gorischek, Astrid; Miedl, Heidi; Hochmeister, Sonja; Binder, Josepha; Quasthoff, Stefan; Wagner, Klaus; Windpassinger, Christian; Malle, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 1 isoform A (FHL1A) is predominantly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Mutations in the FHL1 gene are causative for several types of hereditary myopathies including X-linked myopathy with postural muscle atrophy (XMPMA). We here studied myoblasts from XMPMA patients. We found that functional FHL1A protein is completely absent in patient myoblasts. In parallel, expression of FHL1C is either unaffected or increased. Furthermore, a decreased proliferation rate of XMPMA myoblasts compared to controls was observed but an increased number of XMPMA myoblasts was found in the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, low expression of Kv1.5, a voltage-gated potassium channel known to alter myoblast proliferation during the G1 phase and to control repolarization of action potential, was detected. In order to substantiate a possible relation between Kv1.5 and FHL1C, a pull-down assay was performed. A physical and direct interaction of both proteins was observed in vitro. In addition, confocal microscopy revealed substantial colocalization of FHL1C and Kv1.5 within atrial cells, supporting a possible interaction between both proteins in vivo. Two-electrode voltage clamp experiments demonstrated that coexpression of Kv1.5 with FHL1C in Xenopus laevis oocytes markedly reduced K+ currents when compared to oocytes expressing Kv1.5 only. We here present the first evidence on a biological relevance of FHL1C. PMID:22053194

  20. The NS5A-binding heat shock proteins HSC70 and HSP70 play distinct roles in the hepatitis C viral life cycle.

    PubMed

    Khachatoorian, Ronik; Ganapathy, Ekambaram; Ahmadieh, Yasaman; Wheatley, Nicole; Sundberg, Christopher; Jung, Chun-Ling; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Raychaudhuri, Santanu; Dasgupta, Asim; French, Samuel W

    2014-04-01

    We previously identified HSP70 and HSC70 in complex with NS5A in a proteomic screen. Here, coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed NS5A/HSC70 complex formation during infection, and immunofluorescence studies showed NS5A and HSC70 to colocalize. Unlike HSP70, HSC70 knockdown did not decrease viral protein levels. Rather, intracellular infectious virion assembly was significantly impaired by HSC70 knockdown. We also discovered that both HSC70 nucleotide binding and substrate binding domains directly bind NS5A whereas only the HSP70 nucleotide binding domain does. Knockdown of both HSC70 and HSP70 demonstrated an additive reduction in virus production. This data suggests that HSC70 and HSP70 play discrete roles in the viral life cycle. Investigation of these different functions may facilitate developing of novel strategies that target host proteins to treat HCV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The NS5A-binding heat shock proteins HSC70 and HSP70 play distinct roles in the hepatitis C viral life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Khachatoorian, Ronik; Ganapathy, Ekambaram; Ahmadieh, Yasaman; Wheatley, Nicole; Sundberg, Christopher; Jung, Chun-Ling; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Raychaudhuri, Santanu; Dasgupta, Asim; French, Samuel W.

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified HSP70 and HSC70 in complex with NS5A in a proteomic screen. Here, coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed NS5A/HSC70 complex formation during infection, and immunofluorescence studies showed NS5A and HSC70 to colocalize. Unlike HSP70, HSC70 knockdown did not decrease viral protein levels. Rather, intracellular infectious virion assembly was significantly impaired by HSC70 knockdown. We also discovered that both HSC70 nucleotide binding and substrate binding domains directly bind NS5A whereas only the HSP70 nucleotide binding domain does. Knockdown of both HSC70 and HSP70 demonstrated an additive reduction in virus production. This data suggests that HSC70 and HSP70 play discrete roles in the viral life cycle. Investigation of these different functions may facilitate developing of novel strategies that target host proteins to treat HCV infection. PMID:24725938

  2. Identification and functional characterization of cereblon as a binding protein for large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sooyeon; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Song, Sungmin; Jung, Yong-Keun; Park, Chul-Seung

    2005-09-01

    Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK(Ca)) channels are activated by membrane depolarization and modulated by intracellular Ca2+. Here, we report the direct interaction of cereblon (CRBN) with the cytosolic carboxy-terminus of the BK(Ca) channel alpha subunit (Slo). Rat CRBN contained the N-terminal domain of the Lon protease, a 'regulators of G protein-signaling' (RGS)-like domain, a leucine zipper (LZ) motif, and four putative protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation sites. RNA messages of rat cereblon (rCRBN) were widely distributed in different tissues with especially high-levels of expression in the brain. Direct association of rCRBN with the BK(Ca) channel was confirmed by immunoprecipitation in brain lysate, and the two proteins were co-localized in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Ionic currents evoked by the rSlo channel were dramatically suppressed upon coexpression of rCRBN. rCRBN decreased the formation of the tetrameric rSlo complex thus reducing the surface expression of functional channels. Therefore, we suggest that CRBN may play an important role in assembly and surface expression of functional BK(Ca) channels by direct interaction with the cytosolic C-terminus of its alpha-subunit.

  3. Phosphorylation of Rap1 by cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Creates a Binding Site for KSR to Sustain ERK Activation by cAMP.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Maho; Li, Yanping; Dillon, Tara J; Stork, Philip J S

    2017-01-27

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important mediator of hormonal stimulation of cell growth and differentiation through its activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. Two small G proteins, Ras and Rap1 have been proposed to mediate this activation. Using HEK293 cells as a model system, we have recently shown that both Ras and Rap1 are required for cAMP signaling to ERKs. However, cAMP-dependent Ras signaling to ERKs is transient and rapidly terminated by PKA phosphorylation of the Raf isoforms C-Raf and B-Raf. In contrast, cAMP-dependent Rap1 signaling to ERKs and Rap1 is potentiated by PKA. We show that this is due to sustained binding of B-Raf to Rap1. One of the targets of PKA is Rap1 itself, directly phosphorylating Rap1a on serine 180 and Rap1b on serine 179. We show that these phosphorylations create potential binding sites for the adaptor protein 14-3-3 that links Rap1 to the scaffold protein KSR. These results suggest that Rap1 activation of ERKs requires PKA phosphorylation and KSR binding. Because KSR and B-Raf exist as heterodimers within the cell, this binding also brings B-Raf to Rap1, allowing Rap1 to couple to ERKs through B-Raf binding to Rap1 independently of its Ras-binding domain.

  4. Insights into resistance mechanism of the macrolide biosensor protein MphR(A) binding to macrolide antibiotic erythromycin by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tingting; Zhang, Yanjun; Ding, Jing-Na; Fan, Song; Han, Ju-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Macrolide biosensor protein MphR(A) has been known as a key regulatory protein in metabolite sensing and genetic expression regulating. MphR(A) protein binds to macrolide antibiotic erythromycin (Ery) and releases the gene operon, thus activates expression of the mphA gene and initiates Ery resistance. The two mutant amino acid residues (V66L and V126L) might potentially disrupt Ery binding to MphR(A). In these studies, the binding of macrolide antibiotic Ery to wild type (Wt) MphR(A) and double mutant (V66L/V126L) MphR(A) are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the Apo-MphR(A) protein and Wt-MphR(A)-Ery complex, many interesting effects owing to the double mutant (V66L/V126L) are discovered. In the case of Ery, Helix I which plays an important role in transcription shows itself a right-hand α helix in Wt-MphR(A)-Ery, whereas the activated helix is broken down in double mutant-V66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery. The calculated results exhibit that the double mutant V66L/V126L reduces the binding affinity of the V66L/V126L-MphR(A) to Ery, resulting in the block of Ery resistance. The binding free energy decomposition analysis reveals that the decrease of the binding affinity for the variant V66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery is mainly attributed to the gas phase electrostatic energies. The residue Leu66, Thr154, and Arg122 enhance the binding affinity of V66L/V126L-MphR(A) to Ery. The residues Tyr103 and His147 contributes mainly to binding energies in the Wt-MphR(A)-Ery complex, whereas the two residues have no contribution to the binding free energy inV66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery complex. Our study gives useful insights into the nature of amino acids mutation effect, the mechanism of blocking drug resistance at the atomic level and the characteristics in binding affinity for Ery to double mutant (V66L/V126L) MphR(A), which will contribute to the design of more effective macrolide antibiotics.

  5. Insights into resistance mechanism of the macrolide biosensor protein MphR(A) binding to macrolide antibiotic erythromycin by molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tingting; Zhang, Yanjun; Ding, Jing-Na; Fan, Song; Han, Ju-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Macrolide biosensor protein MphR(A) has been known as a key regulatory protein in metabolite sensing and genetic expression regulating. MphR(A) protein binds to macrolide antibiotic erythromycin (Ery) and releases the gene operon, thus activates expression of the mphA gene and initiates Ery resistance. The two mutant amino acid residues (V66L and V126L) might potentially disrupt Ery binding to MphR(A). In these studies, the binding of macrolide antibiotic Ery to wild type (Wt) MphR(A) and double mutant (V66L/V126L) MphR(A) are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the Apo-MphR(A) protein and Wt-MphR(A)-Ery complex, many interesting effects owing to the double mutant (V66L/V126L) are discovered. In the case of Ery, Helix I which plays an important role in transcription shows itself a right-hand α helix in Wt-MphR(A)-Ery, whereas the activated helix is broken down in double mutant-V66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery. The calculated results exhibit that the double mutant V66L/V126L reduces the binding affinity of the V66L/V126L-MphR(A) to Ery, resulting in the block of Ery resistance. The binding free energy decomposition analysis reveals that the decrease of the binding affinity for the variant V66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery is mainly attributed to the gas phase electrostatic energies. The residue Leu66, Thr154, and Arg122 enhance the binding affinity of V66L/V126L-MphR(A) to Ery. The residues Tyr103 and His147 contributes mainly to binding energies in the Wt-MphR(A)-Ery complex, whereas the two residues have no contribution to the binding free energy inV66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery complex. Our study gives useful insights into the nature of amino acids mutation effect, the mechanism of blocking drug resistance at the atomic level and the characteristics in binding affinity for Ery to double mutant (V66L/V126L) MphR(A), which will contribute to the design of more effective macrolide antibiotics.

  6. Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of mouse Eplg2, a gene encoding a binding protein for the receptor tyrosine kinase elk.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, F A; Renshaw, B; Hollingsworth, T; Baum, P; Lyman, S D; Jenkins, N A; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G; Davison, B L

    1994-11-01

    The human gene EPLG2 (Eph ligand-2) encodes a potential ligand for the receptor tyrosine kinase elk. High sequence conservation between the human and the rat cDNAs and developmentally regulated expression of the rat gene suggest that the protein encoded by EPLG2 plays an important role in mammalian development. To facilitate analysis of the physiological role of the protein, we have cloned and characterized a 24-kb region of mouse genomic DNA containing the mouse homologue of EPLG2 (Eplg2), including 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences. Restriction mapping, coupled with Southern blot hybridization and sequencing, was used to determine the structural organization of the gene. The Eplg2 genomic locus spans a region of approximately 12 kb, encoding five exons and four introns. The first intron comprises approximately 8.5 kb of the entire 12-kb genomic sequence. Eplg2 was mapped to the mouse X chromosome by interspecific backcross analysis and is tightly linked to the androgen receptor (Ar) locus.

  7. Remodeling of host phosphatidylcholine by Chlamydia acyltransferase is regulated by acyl-CoA binding protein ACBD6 associated with lipid droplets

    PubMed Central

    Soupene, Eric; Wang, Derek; Kuypers, Frans A

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis invades cells as an infectious elementary body (EB). The EB is internalized into a vacuole that is hidden from the host defense mechanism, and is modified to sustain the development of the replicative reticulate body (RB). Inside this parasitophorous compartment, called the inclusion, the pathogen survives supported by an active exchange of nutrients and proteins with the host cell. We show that host lipids are scavenged and modified into bacterial-specific lipids by the action of a shared human-bacterial acylation mechanism. The bacterial acylating enzymes for the essential lipids 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and 1-acyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine were identified as CT453 and CT775, respectively. Bacterial CT775 was found to be associated with lipid droplets (LDs). During the development of C. trachomatis, the human acyl-CoA carrier hACBD6 was recruited to cytosolic LDs and translocated into the inclusion. hACBD6 protein modulated the activity of CT775 in an acyl-CoA dependent fashion and sustained the activity of the bacterial acyltransferase by buffering the concentration of acyl-CoAs. We propose that disruption of the binding activity of the acyl-CoA carrier might represent a new drug-target to prevent growth of C. trachomatis. PMID:25604091

  8. The Meningococcal Vaccine Candidate Neisserial Surface Protein A (NspA) Binds to Factor H and Enhances Meningococcal Resistance to Complement

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lisa A.; Ngampasutadol, Jutamas; Wallace, Ruth; Reid, Jane E. A.; Vogel, Ulrich; Ram, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Complement forms an important arm of innate immunity against invasive meningococcal infections. Binding of the alternative complement pathway inhibitor factor H (fH) to fH-binding protein (fHbp) is one mechanism meningococci employ to limit complement activation on the bacterial surface. fHbp is a leading vaccine candidate against group B Neisseria meningitidis. Novel mechanisms that meningococci employ to bind fH could undermine the efficacy of fHbp-based vaccines. We observed that fHbp deletion mutants of some meningococcal strains showed residual fH binding suggesting the presence of a second receptor for fH. Ligand overlay immunoblotting using membrane fractions from one such strain showed that fH bound to a ∼17 kD protein, identified by MALDI-TOF analysis as Neisserial surface protein A (NspA), a meningococcal vaccine candidate whose function has not been defined. Deleting nspA, in the background of fHbp deletion mutants, abrogated fH binding and mAbs against NspA blocked fH binding, confirming NspA as a fH binding molecule on intact bacteria. NspA expression levels vary among strains and expression correlated with the level of fH binding; over-expressing NspA enhanced fH binding to bacteria. Progressive truncation of the heptose (Hep) I chain of lipooligosaccharide (LOS), or sialylation of lacto-N-neotetraose LOS both increased fH binding to NspA-expressing meningococci, while expression of capsule reduced fH binding to the strains tested. Similar to fHbp, binding of NspA to fH was human-specific and occurred through fH domains 6–7. Consistent with its ability to bind fH, deleting NspA increased C3 deposition and resulted in increased complement-dependent killing. Collectively, these data identify a key complement evasion mechanism with important implications for ongoing efforts to develop meningococcal vaccines that employ fHbp as one of its components. PMID:20686663

  9. The soluble recombinant form of a binding protein/receptor for the globular domain of C1q (gC1qR) enhances blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Peerschke, E I; Jesty, J; Reid, K B; Ghebrehiwet, B

    1998-01-01

    The gC1qR is a ubiquitously expressed, 33 kDa cellular protein which recognizes the globular domains of C1q. Recent evidence suggests that the gC1qR also serves as the Zn(++)-dependent endothelial cell binding site for factor XII and high-molecular-weight kininogen, and activates intrinsic coagulation and kinin pathways in purified systems. In addition, activated lymphocytes have been reported to release soluble gC1qR. Thus, the present study investigated the procoagulant potential of soluble gC1qR in human plasma using the recombinant protein (rgC1qR). rgC1qR supported a dose-dependent shortening of extrinsic coagulation using the prothrombin time in the presence of diluted (1/50-1/500) thromboplastin. Maximum enhancement of the prothrombin time resulted in shortening of the clotting time from 78.8 +/- 0.4 s to 68.5 +/- 0.6 s (mean +/- SD, n = 8) in the presence of 50 micrograms/ml (1.5 mumol/l) rgC1qR. rgC1qR also enhanced the intrinsic pathway of coagulation evaluated in the absence of activators of the contact system, as demonstrated by a shortening of the plasma recalcification time from 348 +/- 66 s to 140 +/- 23 s (n = 4). rgC1qR, however, had no effect on intrinsic coagulation in the presence of undiluted kaolin or ellagic acid, and under these conditions failed to shorten the activated partial thromboplastin time of factor VIII or factor-IX-deficient plasma. rgC1qR further failed to affect thrombin and factor Xa generation assayed using chromogenic substrates, and did not enhance thrombin-induced conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Interestingly, the procoagulant activity of the rgC1qR was measurable in either factor-XII- or factor-XI-deficient plasma, suggesting that it was not exclusively focused on the contact system of coagulation. Although the mechanism of action of gC1qR on blood coagulation remains obscure, the data suggest a potential role for this protein in hemostatic and thrombotic events.

  10. Structure of an Odorant-Vinding Protein form the Mosquito Aedes aegypti Suggests a Binding Pocket Covered by a pH-Sensitive

    SciTech Connect

    N Leite; R Krogh; W Xu; Y Ishida; J Iulek; W Leal; G Oliva

    2011-12-31

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for the viruses that cause yellow fever, mostly in tropical regions of Africa and in parts of South America, and human dengue, which infects 100 million people yearly in the tropics and subtropics. A better understanding of the structural biology of olfactory proteins may pave the way for the development of environmentally-friendly mosquito attractants and repellents, which may ultimately contribute to reduction of mosquito biting and disease transmission. Previously, we isolated and cloned a major, female-enriched odorant-binding protein (OBP) from the yellow fever mosquito, AaegOBP1, which was later inadvertently renamed AaegOBP39. We prepared recombinant samples of AaegOBP1 by using an expression system that allows proper formation of disulfide bridges and generates functional OBPs, which are indistinguishable from native OBPs. We crystallized AaegOBP1 and determined its three-dimensional structure at 1.85 {angstrom} resolution by molecular replacement based on the structure of the malaria mosquito OBP, AgamOBP1, the only mosquito OBP structure known to date. The structure of AaegOBP1 (= AaegOBP39) shares the common fold of insect OBPs with six {alpha}-helices knitted by three disulfide bonds. A long molecule of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was built into the electron-density maps identified in a long tunnel formed by a crystallographic dimer of AaegOBP1. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that delipidated AaegOBP1 undergoes a pH-dependent conformational change, which may lead to release of odorant at low pH (as in the environment in the vicinity of odorant receptors). A C-terminal loop covers the binding cavity and this 'lid' may be opened by disruption of an array of acid-labile hydrogen bonds thus explaining reduced or no binding affinity at low pH.

  11. Expression of VHIII-associated cross-reactive idiotype on human B lymphocytes. Association with staphylococcal protein A binding and Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shokri, F; Mageed, R A; Maziak, B R; Jefferis, R

    1991-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that staphylococcal protein A (SPA) has an "alternative" binding site with specificity for human Ig H chain V region of the VHIII subgroup. Because the major mitogenic component of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC) is SPA, it is possible that SAC stimulates a subpopulation of B cells expressing Ig of the VHIII H chain subgroup. In the present study, we have investigated further the relationship between SPA binding and the expression of VHI- or VHIII-associated cross-reactive idiotype (CRI) on the surface of tonsillar B lymphocytes enriched for the expression or nonexpression of the CRI, and we examined the Ig secreted by cell lines established from these populations of B cells by EBV transformation. The VHIII CRI (D12)-enriched population yielded 21 cell lines, with 67% of them secreting SPA-reactive Ig; in contrast, only 6% (1 of 16) of VHI CRI-expressing lines secreted SPA-reactive Ig. The CRI-negative B cell population yielded 54 cell lines, of which 20% secreted SPA-reactive Ig, as might be anticipated because a majority of VHIII Ig+ B cells will be CRI-. SAC stimulation of CRI+ and CRI- populations showed preferential stimulation of the D12 population. These data support the proposal that SAC stimulation of human B cells is mediated through binding of SPA by its alternative binding site to IgV regions of the VHIII subgroup.

  12. Variola Virus IL-18 Binding Protein Interacts with Three Human IL-18 Residues That Are Part of a Binding Site for Human IL-18 Receptor Alpha Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Leman, Michael; Xiang, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays an important role in host defense against microbial pathogens. Many poxviruses encode homologous IL-18 binding proteins (IL-18BP) that neutralize IL-18 activity. Here, we examined whether IL-18BP neutralizes IL-18 activity by binding to the same region of IL-18 where IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) binds. We introduced alanine substitutions to known receptor binding sites of human IL18, and found that only the substitution of Leu5 reduced the binding affinity of IL-18 with IL-18BP of variola virus (varvIL-18BP) by more than 4-fold. The substitutions of Lys53 and Ser55, which were not previously known to be part of the receptor binding site but that are spatially adjacent to Leu5, reduced the binding affinity to varvIL-18BP by approximately 100- and 7-fold, respectively. These two substitutions also reduced the binding affinity with human IL-18R alpha subunit (hIL-18Rα) by 4- and 2-fold, respectively. Altogether, our data shows that varvIL-18BP prevents IL-18 from binding to IL-18R by interacting with three residues that are part of the binding site for hIL-18Rα. PMID:16979683

  13. The nucleoid-associated protein StpA binds curved DNA, has a greater DNA-binding affinity than H-NS and is present in significant levels in hns mutants.

    PubMed

    Sonnenfield, J M; Burns, C M; Higgins, C F; Hinton, J C

    2001-02-01

    The StpA protein is closely related to H-NS, the well-characterised global regulator of gene expression which is a major component of eubacterial chromatin. Despite sharing a very high degree of sequence identify and having biochemical properties in common with H-NS, the physiological function of StpA remains unknown. We show that StpA exhibits similar DNA-binding activities to H-NS. Although both display a strong preference for binding to curved DNA, StpA binds DNA with a four-fold higher affinity than H-NS, with K(d)s of 0.7 microM and 2.8 microM, respectively. It has previously been reported that expression of stpA is derepressed in an hns mutant. We have quantified the amount of StpA protein produced under this condition and find it to be only one-tenth the level of H-NS protein in wild-type cells. Our findings explain why the presence of StpA does not compensate for the lack of H-NS in an hns mutant, and why the characteristic pleiotropic hns mutant phenotype is observed.

  14. The helicase, DDX3X, interacts with poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1) and caprin-1 at the leading edge of migrating fibroblasts and is required for efficient cell spreading.

    PubMed

    Copsey, Alice C; Cooper, Simon; Parker, Robert; Lineham, Ella; Lapworth, Cuzack; Jallad, Deema; Sweet, Steve; Morley, Simon J

    2017-08-30

    DDX3X, a helicase, can interact directly with mRNA and translation initiation factors, regulating the selective translation of mRNAs that contain a structured 5' untranslated region. This activity modulates the expression of mRNAs controlling cell cycle progression and mRNAs regulating actin dynamics, contributing to cell adhesion and motility. Previously, we have shown that ribosomes and translation initiation factors localise to the leading edge of migrating fibroblasts in loci enriched with actively translating ribosomes, thereby promoting steady-state levels of ArpC2 and Rac1 proteins at the leading edge of cells during spreading. As DDX3X can regulate Rac1 levels, cell motility and metastasis, we have examined DDX3X protein interactions and localisation using many complementary approaches. We now show that DDX3X can physically interact and co-localise with poly(A)-binding protein 1 and caprin-1 at the leading edge of spreading cells. Furthermore, as depletion of DDX3X leads to decreased cell motility, this provides a functional link between DDX3X, caprin-1 and initiation factors at the leading edge of migrating cells to promote cell migration and spreading. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Galanthamine and non-competitive inhibitor binding to ACh-binding protein: evidence for a binding site on non α-subunit interfaces of heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Scott B.; Taylor, Palmer

    2007-01-01

    Rapid neurotransmission is mediated through a superfamily of Cys-loop receptors, that includes the nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR), γ-aminobutyric-acid (GABAA/C), serotonin (5-HT3) and glycine receptors. A class of ligands, including galanthamine, local anesthetics and certain toxins, interact with nAChRs non-competitively. Suggested modes of action include blockade of the ion-channel, modulation from as yet undefined extracellular sites, stabilization of desensitized states, and association with annular or boundary lipid. Alignment of mammalian Cys-loop receptors show aromatic residues, found in the acetylcholine or ligand binding pocket of nAChRs, are conserved in all subunit interfaces of neuronal nAChRs, including subunit interfaces that are not formed by α subunits on the principal side of the transmitter binding site. The amino terminal domain containing the ligand recognition site is homologous to the soluble acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) from mollusks, an established structural and functional surrogate. Herein we assess ligand specificity and employ X-ray crystallography with AChBP to demonstrate ligand interactions at subunit interfaces lacking vicinal cysteines (i.e., the non-α subunit interfaces in nAChRs). Non-competitive nicotinic ligands bind AChBP with high affinity (KD’s of 0.015 to 6 μM). We mutated the vicinal cysteines in loop C of AChBP to mimic the non-alpha subunit interfaces of neuronal nAChRs and other Cys loop receptors. Classical nicotinic agonists show a 10 to 40-fold reduction in binding affinity, whereas binding of ligands known to be non-competitive are not affected. X-ray structures of cocaine and galanthamine bound to AChBP (1.8 and 2.9 Å resolution respectively) reveal interactions deep within the subunit interface and the absence of a contact surface with the tip of loop C. Hence, in addition to channel blocking, non-competitive interactions with heteromeric neuronal nAChR appear to occur at the non-alpha subunit

  16. In the absence of cellular poly (A) binding protein, the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH translocated to the cell nucleus and activated the GAPDH mediated apoptotic pathway by enhancing acetylation and serine 46 phosphorylation of p53

    SciTech Connect

    Thangima Zannat, Mst.; Bhattacharjee, Rumpa B.; Bag, Jnanankur

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} PABP knock down and cell apoptosis. {yields} Nuclear translocation of GAPDH in PABP depleted cells. {yields} Role of p53 in apoptosis of PABP depleted cells. {yields} Bax translocation and cytochrome C release and caspase 3 activation following PABP depletion. {yields} Association of p53 with Bcl2 and Bax. -- Abstract: The cytoplasmic poly (A) binding protein (PABP) interacts with 3' poly (A) tract of eukaryotic mRNA and is important for both translation and stability of mRNA. Previously, we have shown that depletion of PABP by siRNA prevents protein synthesis and consequently leads to cell death through apoptosis. In the present investigation, we studied the mechanism of cell apoptosis. We show that in the absence of PABP, the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH translocated to the cell nucleus and activated the GAPDH mediated apoptotic pathway by enhancing acetylation and serine 46 phosphorylation of p53. As a result, p53 translocated to the mitochondria to initiate Bax mediated apoptosis.

  17. Phosphorylation of poly(rC) binding protein 1 (PCBP1) contributes to stabilization of mu opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA via interaction with AU-rich element RNA-binding protein 1 (AUF1) and poly A binding protein (PABP)

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Cheol Kyu; Wagley, Yadav; Law, Ping-Yee; Wei, Li-Na; Loh, Horace H.

    2016-01-01

    Gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level is frequently based on cis- and trans-acting factors on target mRNAs. We found a C-rich element (CRE) in mu-opioid receptor (MOR) 3′-untranslated region (UTR) to which poly (rC) binding protein 1 (PCBP1) binds, resulting in MOR mRNA stabilization. RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA EMSA revealed the formation of PCBP1-RNA complexes at the element. Knockdown of PCBP1 decreased MOR mRNA half-life and protein expression. Stimulation by forskolin increased cytoplasmic localization of PCBP1 and PCBP1/MOR 3′-UTR interactions via increased serine phosphorylation that was blocked by protein kinase A (PKA) or (phosphatidyl inositol-3) PI3-kinase inhibitors. The forskolin treatment also enhanced serine- and tyrosine-phosphorylation of AU-rich element binding protein (AUF1), concurrent with its increased binding to the CRE, and led to an increased interaction of poly A binding protein (PABP) with the CRE and poly(A) sites. AUF1 phosphorylation also led to an increased interaction with PCBP1. These findings suggest that a single co-regulator, PCBP1, plays a crucial role in stabilizing MOR mRNA, and is induced by PKA signaling by conforming to AUF1 and PABP. PMID:27836661

  18. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase- and Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-binding Domains of the Alpha4 Protein Are Both Required for Alpha4 to Inhibit PP2A Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    LeNoue-Newton, Michele; Watkins, Guy R.; Zou, Ping; Germane, Katherine L.; McCorvey, Lisa R.; Wadzinski, Brian E.; Spiller, Benjamin W.

    2012-04-30

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including post-translational modifications and association with regulatory proteins. Alpha4 is one such regulatory protein that binds the PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) and protects it from polyubiquitination and degradation. Alpha4 is a multidomain protein with a C-terminal domain that binds Mid1, a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, and an N-terminal domain containing the PP2Ac-binding site. In this work, we present the structure of the N-terminal domain of mammalian Alpha4 determined by x-ray crystallography and use double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy to show that it is a flexible tetratricopeptide repeat-like protein. Structurally, Alpha4 differs from its yeast homolog, Tap42, in two important ways: (1) the position of the helix containing the PP2Ac-binding residues is in a more open conformation, showing flexibility in this region; and (2) Alpha4 contains a ubiquitin-interacting motif. The effects of wild-type and mutant Alpha4 on PP2Ac ubiquitination and stability were examined in mammalian cells by performing tandem ubiquitin-binding entity precipitations and cycloheximide chase experiments. Our results reveal that both the C-terminal Mid1-binding domain and the PP2Ac-binding determinants are required for Alpha4-mediated protection of PP2Ac from polyubiquitination and degradation.

  19. Nuclear inclusions mimicking poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 inclusions in a case of inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia with a novel mutation in the valosin-containing protein gene.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Shiro; Shimizu, Toshio; Komori, Takashi; Mori-Yoshimura, Madoka; Minami, Narihiro; Hayashi, Yukiko K

    2016-07-01

    A middle-aged Japanese man presented with slowly progressive asymmetric weakness of legs and arm but had neither ptosis nor dysphagia. He had a family history of similar condition suggestive of autosomal dominant inheritance. A muscle biopsy showed mixture of neurogenic atrophy and myopathy with rimmed vacuoles. Furthermore we found intranuclear inclusions that had a fine structure mimicking that of inclusions reported in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Immunohistochemical staining for polyadenylate-binding nuclear protein 1, which is identified within the nuclear inclusions of OPMD, demonstrated nuclear positivity in this case. However, OPMD was thought unlikely based on the clinical features and results of genetic analyses. Instead, a novel mutation in valosin-containing protein, c.376A>T (p.Ile126Phe), was revealed. A diagnosis of inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia was made. This is the first report of polyadenylate-binding nuclear protein 1-positive nuclear inclusions in the muscle of this condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Two and 8-azido photoaffinity probes. 1. Enzymatic synthesis, characterization, and biological properties of 2- and 8-azido photoprobes of 2-5A and photolabeling of 2-5A binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Suhadolnik, R.J.; Kariko, K.; Sobol, R.W. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Reichenbach, N.L.; Haley, B.E.

    1988-11-29

    The 2- and 8-azido trimer 5'-triphosphate photoprobes of 2-5A have been enzymatically synthesized from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)2-azidoATP and (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)8-azidoAPT by 2-5A synthetase from rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Identification and structural determination of the 2- and 8-azido adenylate trimer 5'-triphosphates were accomplished by enzymatic hydrolyses with T2 RNase, snake venom phosphodiesterase, and bacterial alkaline phosphatase. Hydrolysis products were identified by HPLC and PEI-cellulose TLC analyses. The 8-azido photoprobe of 2-5A displaces p/sub 3/A/sub 4/(/sup 32/P)pCp from RNase L with affinity equivalent to p/sub 3/A/sub 3/. The 8-azido photoprobe also activates RNase L to hydrolyze poly(U)(/sup 32/P)pCp 50% at 7 /times/ 10/sup /minus/9/ M in core-cellulose assays. The 2- and 8-azido photoprobes and authentic p/sub 3/A/sub 3/ activate RNase L to cleave 28S and 18S rRNA to specific cleavage products at 10/sup /minus/9/ M in rRNA cleavage assays. The nucleotide binding site(s) of RNase L and/or other 2-5A binding proteins in extracts of interferon-treated L929 cells were investigated by photoaffinity labeling. Dramatically different photolabeling patterns were observed with the 2- and 8-azido photoprobes. The (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)2-azido adenylate trimer 5'-triphosphate photolabels only one polypeptide with a molecular weight of 185,000 as determined by SDS gel electrophoresis, whereas the (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)8-azido adenylate trimer 5'-triphosphate covalently photolabels six polypeptides with molecular weights of 46,000, 63,000, 80,000, 89,000, 109,000, and 158,000. Evidence that the photolabeling by 2- and 8-azido 2-5A photoprobes was highly specific for the p/sub 3/A/sub 3/ allosteric binding site was obtained.

  1. Compromised epidermal barrier stimulates Harderian gland activity and hypertrophy in ACBP−/− mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Bek, Signe; Neess, Ditte; Dixen, Karen; Bloksgaard, Maria; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Chemnitz, John; Færgeman, Nils J.; Mandrup, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is a small, ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein that binds C14-C22 acyl-CoA esters with very high affinity and specificity. We have recently shown that targeted disruption of the Acbp gene leads to a compromised epidermal barrier and that this causes delayed adaptation to weaning, including the induction of the hepatic lipogenic and cholesterogenic gene programs. Here we show that ACBP is highly expressed in the Harderian gland, a gland that is located behind the eyeball of rodents and involved in the production of fur lipids and lipids used for lubrication of the eye lid. We show that disruption of the Acbp gene leads to a significant enlargement of this gland with hypertrophy of the acinar cells and increased de novo synthesis of monoalkyl diacylglycerol, the main lipid species produced by the gland. Mice with conditional targeting of the Acbp gene in the epidermis recapitulate this phenotype, whereas generation of an artificial epidermal barrier during gland development reverses the phenotype. Our findings indicate that the Harderian gland is activated by the compromised epidermal barrier as an adaptive and protective mechanism to overcome the barrier defect. PMID:26142722

  2. Filamin-A binds to the carboxyl-terminal tail of the calcium-sensing receptor, an interaction that participates in CaR-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Hjälm, G; MacLeod, R J; Kifor, O; Chattopadhyay, N; Brown, E M

    2001-09-14

    The G protein-coupled, extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) regulates parathyroid hormone secretion and parathyroid cellular proliferation as well as the functions of diverse other cell types. The CaR resides in caveolae-plasma membrane microdomains containing receptors and associated signaling molecules that are thought to serve as cellular "message centers." An additional mechanism for coordinating cellular signaling is the presence of scaffold proteins that bind and organize components of signal transduction cascades. With the use of the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified filamin-A (an actin-cross-linking, putative scaffold protein that binds mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) components activated by the CaR) as an intracellular binding partner of the CaR's carboxyl (COOH)-terminal tail. A direct interaction of the two proteins was confirmed by an in vitro binding assay. Moreover, confocal microscopy combined with two color immunofluorescence showed co-localization of the CaR and filamin-A within parathyroid cells as well as HEK-293 cells stably transfected with the CaR. Deletion mapping localized the sites of interaction between the two proteins to a stretch of 60 amino acid residues within the distal portion of the CaR's COOH-terminal tail and domains 14 and 15 in filamin-A, respectively. Finally, introducing the portion of filamin-A interacting with the CaR into CaR-transfected HEK-293 cells using protein transduction with a His-tagged, Tat-filamin-A fusion protein nearly abolished CaR-mediated activation of ERK1/2 MAPK but had no effect on ERK1/2 activity stimulated by ADP. Therefore, the binding of the CaR's COOH-terminal tail to filamin-A may contribute to its localization in caveolae, link it to the actin-based cytoskeleton, and participate in CaR-mediated activation of MAPK.

  3. Phosphorylation of HopQ1, a Type III Effector from Pseudomonas syringae, Creates a Binding Site for Host 14-3-3 Proteins1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Giska, Fabian; Lichocka, Małgorzata; Piechocki, Marcin; Dadlez, Michał; Schmelzer, Elmon; Hennig, Jacek; Krzymowska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    HopQ1 (for Hrp outer protein Q), a type III effector secreted by Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola, is widely conserved among diverse genera of plant bacteria. It promotes the development of halo blight in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). However, when this same effector is injected into Nicotiana benthamiana cells, it is recognized by the immune system and prevents infection. Although the ability to synthesize HopQ1 determines host specificity, the role it plays inside plant cells remains unexplored. Following transient expression in planta, HopQ1 was shown to copurify with host 14-3-3 proteins. The physical interaction between HopQ1 and 14-3-3a was confirmed in planta using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy technique. Moreover, mass spectrometric analyses detected specific phosphorylation of the canonical 14-3-3 binding site (RSXpSXP, where pS denotes phosphoserine) located in the amino-terminal region of HopQ1. Amino acid substitution within this motif abrogated the association and led to altered subcellular localization of HopQ1. In addition, the mutated HopQ1 protein showed reduced stability in planta. These data suggest that the association between host 14-3-3 proteins and HopQ1 is important for modulating the properties of this bacterial effector. PMID:23396834

  4. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) is a binding partner of epithelial growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1). Implications for macular degenerations.

    PubMed

    Klenotic, Philip A; Munier, Francis L; Marmorstein, Lihua Y; Anand-Apte, Bela

    2004-07-16

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) is a matrix-bound inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases. Mutations in the Timp-3 gene cause Sorsby fundus dystrophy (SFD), a hereditary macular degenerative disease. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the disease phenotype are unknown. In an in vivo quest for binding partners of the TIMP-3 protein in the subretina, we identified epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1, also known as fibulin 3) as a strong interacting protein. The COOH-terminal end of TIMP-3 was involved in the interaction. Interestingly, a missense mutation in EFEMP1 is responsible for another hereditary macular degenerative disease, Malattia Leventinese (ML). Both SFD and ML have strong similarities to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a major cause of blindness in the elderly population of the Western hemisphere. Our results were supported by significant accumulation and expression overlap of both TIMP-3 and EFEMP1 between the retinal pigment epithelia and Bruch membrane in the eyes of ML and AMD patients. These results provide the first link between two different macular degenerative disease genes and imply the possibility of a common pathogenic mechanism behind different forms of macular degeneration.

  5. The upstream region of the FOX3 gene encoding peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains ABF1- and replication protein A-binding sites that participate in its regulation by glucose repression.

    PubMed Central

    Einerhand, A W; Kos, W; Smart, W C; Kal, A J; Tabak, H F; Cooper, T G

    1995-01-01

    Expression of the FOX3 gene, which encodes yeast peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase, can be induced by oleate and repressed by glucose. Previously, we have shown that induction was mediated by an oleate response element. Just upstream of this element a negatively acting control region that mediated glucose repression was found. In order to study this negative control region, we carried out DNA-binding assays and analyzed phenotypes of mutations in this region and in the trans-acting factor CAR80, which is identical to UME6. DNA-binding assays showed that two multifunctional yeast proteins, ABF1 and RP-A, interacted with the negative control element independently of the transcriptional activity of the FOX3 gene. ABF1 and RP-A, the latter being identical to BUF, were able to bind to DNA independently of one another but also simultaneously. The phenotypes of mutations in either DNA-binding sites of ABF1, RP-A, or both, which affected the DNA binding of these factors in vitro, indicated that these sites and the proteins that interact with them participate in glucose repression. The involvement of the RP-A site in glucose repression was further supported by our observation that the CAR80 gene product, which is required for repression mediated by the RP-A site, was essential for maintenance of glucose repression. In addition to the RP-A site in the FOX3 promoter, similar sequences were observed in other genes involved in peroxisomal function. RP-A proved to bind to all of these sequences, albeit with various affinities. From these results it is concluded that the ABF1 and RP-A sites are being required in concert to mediate glucose repression of the FOX3 gene. In addition, coordinated regulation of expression of genes involved in peroxisomal function in response to glucose is mediated by proteins associated with the RP-A site, probably RP-A and CAR80. PMID:7760837

  6. Fluorescently labelled bovine acyl-CoA-binding protein acting as an acyl-CoA sensor: interaction with CoA and acyl-CoA esters and its use in measuring free acyl-CoA esters and non-esterified fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Wadum, Majken C T; Villadsen, Jens K; Feddersen, Søren; Møller, Rikke S; Neergaard, Thomas B F; Kragelund, Birthe B; Højrup, Peter; Faergeman, Nils J; Knudsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA esters are key metabolites in lipid synthesis and beta-oxidation but, at the same time, are important regulators of intermediate metabolism, insulin secretion, vesicular trafficking and gene expression. Key tools in studying the regulatory functions of acyl-CoA esters are reliable methods for the determination of free acyl-CoA concentrations. No such method is presently available. In the present study, we describe the synthesis of two acyl-CoA sensors for measuring free acyl-CoA concentrations using acyl-CoA-binding protein as a scaffold. Met24 and Ala53 of bovine acyl-CoA-binding protein were replaced by cysteine residues, which were covalently modified with 6-bromoacetyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene to make the two fluorescent acyl-CoA indicators (FACIs) FACI-24 and FACI-53. FACI-24 and FACI-53 showed fluorescence emission maximum at 510 and 525 nm respectively, in the absence of ligand (excitation 387 nm). Titration of FACI-24 and FACI-53 with hexadecanoyl-CoA and dodecanoyl-CoA increased the fluorescence yield 5.5-and 4.7-fold at 460 and 495 nm respectively. FACI-24 exhibited a high, and similar increase in, fluorescence yield at 460 nm upon binding of C14-C20 saturated and unsaturated acyl-CoA esters. Both indicators bind long-chain (>C14) acyl-CoA esters with high specificity and affinity (K(d)=0.6-1.7 nM). FACI-53 showed a high fluorescence yield for C8-C12 acyl chains. It is shown that FACI-24 acts as a sensitive acyl-CoA sensor for measuring the concentration of free acyl-CoA, acyl-CoA synthetase activity and the concentrations of free fatty acids after conversion of the fatty acid into their respective acyl-CoA esters. PMID:12071849

  7. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus SarA binding sites.

    PubMed

    Sterba, Kristen M; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Blevins, Jon S; Hurlburt, Barry K; Smeltzer, Mark S

    2003-08-01

    The staphylococcal accessory regulator locus (sarA) encodes a DNA-binding protein (SarA) that modulates expression of over 100 genes. Whether this occurs via a direct interaction between SarA and cis elements associated with its target genes is unclear, partly because the definitive characteristics of a SarA binding site have not been identified. In this work, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) were used to identify a SarA binding site(s) upstream of the SarA-regulated gene cna. The results suggest the existence of multiple high-affinity binding sites within the cna promoter region. Using a SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) procedure and purified, recombinant SarA, we also selected DNA targets that contain a high-affinity SarA binding site from a random pool of DNA fragments. These fragments were subsequently cloned and sequenced. Randomly chosen clones were also examined by EMSA. These DNA fragments bound SarA with affinities comparable to those of recognized SarA-regulated genes, including cna, fnbA, and sspA. The composition of SarA-selected DNAs was AT rich, which is consistent with the nucleotide composition of the Staphylococcus aureus genome. Alignment of selected DNAs revealed a 7-bp consensus (ATTTTAT) that was present with no more than one mismatch in 46 of 56 sequenced clones. By using the same criteria, consensus binding sites were also identified upstream of the S. aureus genes spa, fnbA, sspA, agr, hla, and cna. With the exception of cna, which has not been previously examined, this 7-bp motif was within the putative SarA binding site previously associated with each gene.

  8. Structures of Triacetyloleandomycin and Mycalamide A Bind to the Large Ribosomal Subunit of Haloarcula marismortui

    SciTech Connect

    Gürel, Güliz; Blaha, Gregor; Steitz, Thomas A.; Moore, Peter B.

    2010-01-14

    Structures have been obtained for the complexes that triacetyloleandomycin and mycalamide A form with the large ribosomal subunit of Haloarcula marismortui. Triacetyloleandomycin binds in the nascent peptide tunnel and inhibits the activity of ribosomes by blocking the growth of the nascent peptide chain. Mycalamide A binds to the E site and inhibits protein synthesis by occupying the space normally occupied by the CCA end of E-site-bound tRNAs.

  9. The Verrucomicrobia LexA-Binding Motif: Insights into the Evolutionary Dynamics of the SOS Response

    PubMed Central

    Erill, Ivan; Campoy, Susana; Kılıç, Sefa; Barbé, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The SOS response is the primary bacterial mechanism to address DNA damage, coordinating multiple cellular processes that include DNA repair, cell division, and translesion synthesis. In contrast to other regulatory systems, the composition of the SOS genetic network and the binding motif of its transcriptional repressor, LexA, have been shown to vary greatly across bacterial clades, making it an ideal system to study the co-evolution of transcription factors and their regulons. Leveraging comparative genomics approaches and prior knowledge on the core SOS regulon, here we define the binding motif of the Verrucomicrobia, a recently described phylum of emerging interest due to its association with eukaryotic hosts. Site directed mutagenesis of the Verrucomicrobium spinosum recA promoter confirms that LexA binds a 14 bp palindromic motif with consensus sequence TGTTC-N4-GAACA. Computational analyses suggest that recognition of this novel motif is determined primarily by changes in base-contacting residues of the third alpha helix of the LexA helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif. In conjunction with comparative genomics analysis of the LexA regulon in the Verrucomicrobia phylum, electrophoretic shift assays reveal that LexA binds to operators in the promoter region of DNA repair genes and a mutagenesis cassette in this organism, and identify previously unreported components of the SOS response. The identification of tandem LexA-binding sites generating instances of other LexA-binding motifs in the lexA gene promoter of Verrucomicrobia species leads us to postulate a novel mechanism for LexA-binding motif evolution. This model, based on gene duplication, successfully addresses outstanding questions in the intricate co-evolution of the LexA protein, its binding motif and the regulatory network it controls. PMID:27489856

  10. Inactivation of Individual SeqA Binding Sites of the E. coli Origin Reveals Robustness of Replication Initiation Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Jyoti K.

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli origin of replication, oriC, comprises mostly binding sites of two proteins: DnaA, a positive regulator, and SeqA, a negative regulator. SeqA, although not essential, is required for timely initiation, and during rapid growth, synchronous initiation from multiple origins. Unlike DnaA, details of SeqA binding to oriC are limited. Here we have determined that SeqA binds to all its sites tested (9/11) and with variable efficiency. Titration of DnaA alters SeqA binding to two sites, both of which have overlapping DnaA sites. The altered SeqA binding, however, does not affect initiation synchrony. Synchrony is also unaffected when individual SeqA sites are mutated. An apparent exception was one mutant where the mutation also changed an overlapping DnaA site. In this mutant, the observed asynchrony could be from altered DnaA binding, as selectively mutating this SeqA site did not cause asynchrony. These results reveal robust initiation synchrony against alterations of individual SeqA binding sites. The redundancy apparently ensures SeqA function in controlling replication in E. coli. PMID:27930658

  11. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  12. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  13. Protein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteins are the major structural and functional components of all cells in the body. They are macromolecules that comprise 1 or more chains of amino acids that vary in their sequence and length and are folded into specific 3-dimensional structures. The sizes and conformations of proteins, therefor...

  14. Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search for: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Email People Departments Calendar Careers Give my.harvard ... Nutrition Source Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health > The Nutrition Source > What Should I Eat? > Protein ...

  15. A 330 kb CENP-A binding domain and altered replication timing at a human neocentromere

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Anthony W.I.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Saffery, Richard; Kalitsis, Paul; Irvine, Danielle V.; Earle, Elizabeth; Magliano, Dianna J.; Choo, K.H.Andy

    2001-01-01

    Centromere protein A (CENP-A) is an essential centromere-specific histone H3 homologue. Using combined chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA array analysis, we have defined a 330 kb CENP-A binding domain of a 10q25.3 neocentromere found on the human marker chromosome mardel(10). This domain is situated adjacent to the 80 kb region identified previously as the neocentromere site through lower-resolution immunofluorescence/FISH analysis of metaphase chromosomes. The 330 kb CENP-A binding domain shows a depletion of histone H3, providing evidence for the replacement of histone H3 by CENP-A within centromere-specific nucleosomes. The DNA within this domain has a high AT-content comparable to that of α-satellite, a high prevalence of LINEs and tandem repeats, and fewer SINEs and potential genes than the surrounding region. FISH analysis indicates that the normal 10q25.3 genomic region replicates around mid-S phase. Neocentromere formation is accompanied by a replication time lag around but not within the CENP-A binding region, with this lag being significantly more prominent to one side. The availability of fully sequenced genomic markers makes human neocentromeres a powerful model for dissecting the functional domains of complex higher eukaryotic centromeres. PMID:11296241

  16. The Xenopus laevis ribosomal gene promoter contains a binding site for nuclear factor-1.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, P; Reeder, R H

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear Factor I (NF1) is a DNA binding protein that is known to function in the replication of Adeno virus and also binds to many promoters recognized by RNA polymerase II. We have found that there is also an NF1 binding site within the ribosomal gene promoter from Xenopus laevis as well as in several other promoters recognized by RNA polymerase I. The function of a binding site for a polymerase II transcription factor within a promoter recognized by polymerase I is not known. However, its presence suggests interesting regulatory possibilities. Images PMID:3205719

  17. An SOS Regulon under Control of a Noncanonical LexA-Binding Motif in the Betaproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alberola, Neus; Campoy, Susana; Emerson, David; Barbé, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The SOS response is a transcriptional regulatory network governed by the LexA repressor that activates in response to DNA damage. In the Betaproteobacteria, LexA is known to target a palindromic sequence with the consensus sequence CTGT-N8-ACAG. We report the characterization of a LexA regulon in the iron-oxidizing betaproteobacterium Sideroxydans lithotrophicus. In silico and in vitro analyses show that LexA targets six genes by recognizing a binding motif with the consensus sequence GAACGaaCGTTC, which is strongly reminiscent of the Bacillus subtilis LexA-binding motif. We confirm that the closely related Gallionella capsiferriformans shares the same LexA-binding motif, and in silico analyses indicate that this motif is also conserved in the Nitrosomonadales and the Methylophilales. Phylogenetic analysis of LexA and the alpha subunit of DNA polymerase III (DnaE) reveal that the organisms harboring this noncanonical LexA form a compact taxonomic cluster within the Betaproteobacteria. However, their lexA gene is unrelated to the standard Betaproteobacteria lexA, and there is evidence of its spread through lateral gene transfer. In contrast to other reported cases of noncanonical LexA-binding motifs, the regulon of S. lithotrophicus is comparable in size and function to that of many other Betaproteobacteria, suggesting that a convergent SOS regulon has reevolved under the control of a new LexA protein. Analysis of the DNA-binding domain of S. lithotrophicus LexA reveals little sequence similarity with that of other LexA proteins targeting similar binding motifs, suggesting that network structure may limit site evolution or that structural constrains make the B. subtilis-type motif an optimal interface for multiple LexA sequences. IMPORTANCE Understanding the evolution of transcriptional systems enables us to address important questions in microbiology, such as the emergence and transfer potential of different regulatory systems to regulate virulence or

  18. The plasmid RK2 replication initiator protein (TrfA) binds to the sliding clamp beta subunit of DNA polymerase III: implication for the toxicity of a peptide derived from the amino-terminal portion of 33-kilodalton TrfA.

    PubMed

    Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Josh, Peter; Picault, Marc J; Wijffels, Gene; Dalrymple, Brian

    2006-08-01

    The broad-host-range plasmid RK2 is capable of replication and stable maintenance within a wide range of gram-negative bacterial hosts. It encodes the essential replication initiation protein TrfA, which binds to the host initiation protein, DnaA, at the plasmid origin of replication (oriV). There are two versions of the TrfA protein, 44 and 33 kDa, resulting from alternate in-frame translational starts. We have shown that the smaller protein, TrfA-33, and its 64-residue amino-terminal peptide (designated T1) physically interact with the Escherichia coli beta sliding clamp (beta(2)). This interaction appears to be mediated through a QLSLF peptide motif located near the amino-terminal end of TrfA-33 and T1, which is identical to the previously described eubacterial clamp-binding consensus motif. T1 forms a stable complex with beta(2) and was found to inhibit plasmid RK2 replication in vitro. This specific interaction between T1 and beta(2) and the ability of T1 to block DNA replication have implications for the previously reported cell lethality caused by overproduction of T1. The toxicity of T1 was suppressed when wild-type T1 was replaced with mutant T1, carrying an LF deletion in the beta-binding motif. Previously, T1 toxicity has been shown to be suppressed by Hda, an intermediate regulatory protein which helps prevent over-initiation in E. coli through its interaction with the initiator protein, DnaA, and beta(2). Our results support a model in which T1 toxicity is caused by T1 binding to beta(2), especially when T1 is overexpressed, preventing beta(2) from interacting with host replication proteins such as Hda during the early events of chromosome replication.

  19. The Plasmid RK2 Replication Initiator Protein (TrfA) Binds to the Sliding Clamp β Subunit of DNA Polymerase III: Implication for the Toxicity of a Peptide Derived from the Amino-Terminal Portion of 33-Kilodalton TrfA

    PubMed Central

    Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Josh, Peter; Picault, Marc J.; Wijffels, Gene; Dalrymple, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The broad-host-range plasmid RK2 is capable of replication and stable maintenance within a wide range of gram-negative bacterial hosts. It encodes the essential replication initiation protein TrfA, which binds to the host initiation protein, DnaA, at the plasmid origin of replication (oriV). There are two versions of the TrfA protein, 44 and 33 kDa, resulting from alternate in-frame translational starts. We have shown that the smaller protein, TrfA-33, and its 64-residue amino-terminal peptide (designated T1) physically interact with the Escherichia coli β sliding clamp (β2). This interaction appears to be mediated through a QLSLF peptide motif located near the amino-terminal end of TrfA-33 and T1, which is identical to the previously described eubacterial clamp-binding consensus motif. T1 forms a stable complex with β2 and was found to inhibit plasmid RK2 replication in vitro. This specific interaction between T1 and β2 and the ability of T1 to block DNA replication have implications for the previously reported cell lethality caused by overproduction of T1 (P. D. Kim, T. M. Rosche, and W. Firshein, Plasmid 43:214-222, 2000). The toxicity of T1 was suppressed when wild-type T1 was replaced with mutant T1, carrying an LF deletion in the β-binding motif. Previously, T1 toxicity has been shown to be suppressed by Hda, an intermediate regulatory protein which helps prevent overinitiation in E. coli through its interaction with the initiator protein, DnaA, and β2. Our results support a model in which T1 toxicity is caused by T1 binding to β2, especially when T1 is overexpressed, preventing β2 from interacting with host replication proteins such as Hda during the early events of chromosome replication. PMID:16855240

  20. Scatchard analysis of fluorescent concanavalin A binding to lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, I.L.

    1995-07-01

    Standard Scatchard analysis of ligand binding to cell receptors requires the use of isotopes and is imprecise at low ligand concentrations. To evaluate the feasibility of Scatchard analysis via fluorescence flow cytometry, the binding of fluorescein isothio-cyanate-derivatized concanavalin A (FITC-ConA) to murine lymphocytes at 4{degrees}C was compared to {sup 125}I-ConA binding. A FACS IV flow cytometer was used for analysis of cells after fluorescent ligand binding. A simple spectrophotometric technique was used to calibrate the relation between cytometer-determined fluorescence and ligand binding per cell. As FITC-ConA binding showed a quasi-Gaussian distribution, the mean number of molecules bound per cell was easily calculated. Scatchard analysis of FITC-ConA binding yielded results (1.9 x 10{sup 6} receptors/cell, K = 3.6 x 10{sup -15}) similar to those obtained With {sup 125}I-ConA (1.4 x 10{sup 6} receptors/cell, K = 5.2 x 10{sup -15}). Cytometric Scatchard plots showed less scatter and seemed more precise, suggesting superiority to radioactive ligand measurements, particularly at low ligand concentrations. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Rahman 9-marker MALDI MS panel for Lung Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    This panel was derived from the proteomic analysis of bronchial lesions that could predict the diagnosis of lung cancer. Nine matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) mass to charge ratio features were selected to build a prediction model diagnostic of lung cancer. One signature was not able to be associated with a particular protein. The remaining eight signatures are derived from: Thymosin beta-4 (TMSB4X), Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), Des-ubiquitin (Ubiquitin-Gly-Gly), Ubiquitin, Acyl-coA binding protein (ACBP, also known as DBI), Cystatin A (CSTA), and Cytochrome c.

  2. Characterization and quantitation of concanavalin A binding by plasma membrane enriched fractions from soybean root

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, R.L.; Travis, R.L.

    1981-11-01

    The binding of concanavalin A (Con A) to soybean root membranes in plasma membrane enriched fractions (recovered from the 34/45% interface of simplified discontinuous sucrose density gradients) was studied using a radiochemical assay employing tritated (/sup 3/H)-Con A. The effect of lectin concentration, time, and membrane protein concentration on the specific binding of /sup 3/H-Con A by the membranes was evaluated. Kinetic analyses showed that Con A will react with membranes in that fraction in a characteristic and predictable manner. The parameters for an optimal and standard binding assay were established. Maximal binding occurred with Con A concentrations in the range of 8 to 16% of the total membrane protein with incubation times greater than 40 min at 22 C. Approximately 10/sup 15/ molecules of /sup 3/H-Con A were bound per microgram of membrane protein at saturation. Binding was reversible. Greater than 92% of the total Con A bound at saturation was released by addition of ..cap alpha..-methyl mannoside. A major peak of /sup 3/H-Con A binding was also observed in fractions recovered from the 25/30% interface of a complex discontinuous sucrose density gradient when membranes were isolated in the absence of Mg/sup 2 +/. When high Mg/sup 2 +/ was present in the isolation and gradient media, the peak was shifted to a fraction recovered from the 34/38% sucrose interface. These results suggest that Con A binding sites are also present on membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. The amount of Con A bound by endoplasmic reticulum membranes was at least twice the amount bound by membranes in plasma membrane enriched fractions when binding was compared on a per unit membrane protein basis. In contrast, mitochondrial inner membranes, which equilibrate at the same density as plasma membranes, had little ability to bind the lectin.

  3. Fibrinopeptide A binds Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro.

    PubMed Central

    Root-Bernstein, R S; Westall, F C

    1984-01-01

    The tetrapeptide Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro inhibits fibrinogen aggregation, probably by binding to the same sites used during initiation of fibrin formation. The Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro binding sites have not yet been identified. However, their possible sequence and locations have been predicted on the basis of the amino acid pairing hypothesis. One of these predicted sites is on fibrinopeptide A. We report here that nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicate that Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro binds to fibrinopeptide A with a binding constant, K, of ca. 10(4) per mol. We also report results of 19 related peptide combinations used as controls. PMID:6589598

  4. Identification of FAM96B as a novel prelamin A binding partner

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Xing-Dong; Wang, Junwen; Zheng, Huiling; Jing, Xia; Liu, Zhenjie; Zhou, Zhongjun; Liu, Xinguang

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •We screen the binding protein of prelamin A by yeast two-hybrid screen. •FAM96B colocalizes with prelamin A in HEK-293 cells. •FAM96B physically interacts with prelamin A. -- Abstract: Prelamin A accumulation causes nuclear abnormalities, impairs nuclear functions, and eventually promotes cellular senescence. However, the underlying mechanism of how prelamin A promotes cellular senescence is still poorly understood. Here we carried out a yeast two-hybrid screen using a human skeletal muscle cDNA library to search for prelamin A binding partners, and identified FAM96B as a prelamin A binding partner. The interaction of FAM96B with prelamin A was confirmed by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Furthermore, co-localization experiments by fluorescent confocal microscopy revealed that FAM96B colocalized with prelamin A in HEK-293 cells. Taken together, our data demonstrated the physical interaction between FAM96B and prelamin A, which may provide some clues to the mechanisms of prelamin A in premature aging.

  5. RecA Binding to a Single Double-Stranded DNA Molecule: A Possible Role of DNA Conformational Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, J. F.; Robert, J.; Bourdieu, L.; Chatenay, D.; Marko, J. F.

    1998-10-01

    Most genetic regulatory mechanisms involve protein-DNA interactions. In these processes, the classical Watson-Crick DNA structure sometimes is distorted severely, which in turn enables the precise recognition of the specific sites by the protein. Despite its key importance, very little is known about such deformation processes. To address this general question, we have studied a model system, namely, RecA binding to double-stranded DNA. Results from micromanipulation experiments indicate that RecA binds strongly to stretched DNA; based on this observation, we propose that spontaneous thermal stretching fluctuations may play a role in the binding of RecA to DNA. This has fundamental implications for the protein-DNA binding mechanism, which must therefore rely in part on a combination of flexibility and thermal fluctuations of the DNA structure. We also show that this mechanism is sequence sensitive. Theoretical simulations support this interpretation of our experimental results, and it is argued that this is of broad relevance to DNA-protein interactions.

  6. RecA binding to a single double-stranded DNA molecule: a possible role of DNA conformational fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Leger, J F; Robert, J; Bourdieu, L; Chatenay, D; Marko, J F

    1998-10-13

    Most genetic regulatory mechanisms involve protein-DNA interactions. In these processes, the classical Watson-Crick DNA structure sometimes is distorted severely, which in turn enables the precise recognition of the specific sites by the protein. Despite its key importance, very little is known about such deformation processes. To address this general question, we have studied a model system, namely, RecA binding to double-stranded DNA. Results from micromanipulation experiments indicate that RecA binds strongly to stretched DNA; based on this observation, we propose that spontaneous thermal stretching fluctuations may play a role in the binding of RecA to DNA. This has fundamental implications for the protein-DNA binding mechanism, which must therefore rely in part on a combination of flexibility and thermal fluctuations of the DNA structure. We also show that this mechanism is sequence sensitive. Theoretical simulations support this interpretation of our experimental results, and it is argued that this is of broad relevance to DNA-protein interactions.

  7. Cubilin, a binding partner for galectin-3 in the murine utero-placental complex.

    PubMed

    Crider-Pirkle, Sunday; Billingsley, Peggy; Faust, Charles; Hardy, Daniel M; Lee, Vaughan; Weitlauf, Harry

    2002-05-03

    Galectin-3 is a lectin important in animal development and regulatory processes and is found selectively localized at the implantation site of the mouse embryo. To better understand the role of galectin-3 at the maternal-fetal interface, a binding partner was isolated and characterized. Homogenates of uteroplacental tissue were incubated with immobilized recombinant galectin-3, and specifically bound proteins were eluted using lactose. The principal protein, p400, had an M(r) of 400,000 in SDS-PAGE. Physical properties of p400 and amino acid sequences of seven tryptic peptides were similar to cubilin from rats, humans, and dogs, identifying p400 as the murine ortholog of cubilin. This was further supported by the tissue distribution observed only in yolk sac, kidney, and ileum with monospecific antiserum for p400. Cubilin occurred in yolk sac epithelium throughout pregnancy, but galectin-3 was there only during the last week. Unexpectedly, cubilin was found only in perforin-containing granules of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, although galectin-3 occurred throughout the cell cytoplasm. In situ hybridization revealed cubilin mRNA in yolk sac epithelium but not uNK cells, implying that yolk sac-derived cubilin is endocytosed by uNK cells via galectin-3. This is consistent with cubilin being an endogenous partner of galectin-3 at the maternal-fetal interface and suggests an important role for cubilin in uNK cell function.

  8. Design of a binding scaffold based on variable lymphocyte receptors of jawless vertebrates by module engineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Chul; Park, Keunwan; Han, Jieun; Lee, Joong-jae; Kim, Hyun Jung; Hong, Seungpyo; Heu, Woosung; Kim, Yu Jung; Ha, Jae-Seok; Lee, Seung-Goo; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Jeon, Young Ho; Kim, Dongsup; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2012-02-28

    Repeat proteins have recently been of great interest as potential alternatives to immunoglobulin antibodies due to their unique structural and biophysical features. We here present the development of a binding scaffold based on variable lymphocyte receptors, which are nonimmunoglobulin antibodies composed of Leucine-rich repeat modules in jawless vertebrates, by module engineering. A template scaffold was first constructed by joining consensus repeat modules between the N- and C-capping motifs of variable lymphocyte receptors. The N-terminal domain of the template scaffold was redesigned based on the internalin-B cap by analyzing the modular similarity between the respective repeat units using a computational approach. The newly designed scaffold, termed "Repebody," showed a high level of soluble expression in bacteria, displaying high thermodynamic and pH stabilities. Ease of molecular engineering was shown by designing repebodies specific for myeloid differentiation protein-2 and hen egg lysozyme, respectively, by a rational approach. The crystal structures of designed repebodies were determined to elucidate the structural features and interaction interfaces. We demonstrate general applicability of the scaffold by selecting repebodies with different binding affinities for interleukin-6 using phage display.

  9. The Salmonella effector SteA binds phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate for subcellular targeting within host cells.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Lia; Ismail, Ahmad; Charro, Nuno; Rodríguez-Escudero, Isabel; Holden, David W; Molina, María; Cid, Víctor J; Mota, Luís Jaime

    2016-07-01

    Many bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to deliver virulence effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The function of these effectors depends on their localization within infected cells, but the mechanisms determining subcellular targeting of each effector are mostly elusive. Here, we show that the Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA binds specifically to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P]. Ectopically expressed SteA localized at the plasma membrane (PM) of eukaryotic cells. However, SteA was displaced from the PM of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mutants unable to synthesize the local pool of PI(4)P and from the PM of HeLa cells after localized depletion of PI(4)P. Moreover, in infected cells, bacterially translocated or ectopically expressed SteA localized at the membrane of the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) and to Salmonella-induced tubules; using the PI(4)P-binding domain of the Legionella type IV secretion effector SidC as probe, we found PI(4)P at the SCV membrane and associated tubules throughout Salmonella infection of HeLa cells. Both binding of SteA to PI(4)P and the subcellular localization of ectopically expressed or bacterially translocated SteA were dependent on a lysine residue near the N-terminus of the protein. Overall, this indicates that binding of SteA to PI(4)P is necessary for its localization within host cells. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A Binding Domain on Mesothelin for CA125/MUC16*

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Osamu; Gong, Lucy; Zhang, Jingli; Hansen, Johanna K.; Hassan, Raffit; Lee, Byungkook; Ho, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer and malignant mesothelioma frequently express both mesothelin and CA125 (also known as MUC16) at high levels on the cell surface. The interaction between mesothelin and CA125 may facilitate the implantation and peritoneal spread of tumors by cell adhesion, whereas the detailed nature of this interaction is still unknown. Here, we used truncated mutagenesis and alanine replacement techniques to identify a binding site on mesothelin for CA125. We examined the molecular interaction by Western blot overlay assays and further quantitatively analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also evaluated the binding on cancer cells by flow cytometry. We identified the region (296–359) consisting of 64 amino acids at the N-terminal of cell surface mesothelin as the minimum fragment for complete binding activity to CA125. We found that substitution of tyrosine 318 with an alanine abolished CA125 binding. Replacement of tryptophan 321 and glutamic acid 324 with alanine could partially decrease binding to CA125, whereas mutation of histidine 354 had no effect. These results indicate that a conformation-sensitive structure of the region (296–359) is required and sufficient for the binding of mesothelin to CA125. In addition, we have shown that a single chain monoclonal antibody (SS1) recognizes this CA125-binding domain and blocks the mesothelin-CA125 interaction on cancer cells. The identified CA125-binding domain significantly inhibits cancer cell adhesion and merits evaluation as a new therapeutic agent for preventing or treating peritoneal malignant tumors. PMID:19075018

  11. Lipid A binding sites in membranes of macrophage tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, R.Y.; Golenbock, D.T.; Raetz, C.R.

    1988-10-15

    Lipopolysaccharide affects a variety of eukaryotic cells and mammalian organisms. These actions are involved in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative septicemia. Many of the actions of lipopolysaccharide are believed to be caused by its active moiety, lipid A. Our laboratory has previously identified a bioactive lipid A precursor, termed lipid IVA, which can be labeled with 32P of high specific activity and purified. In this work we have used the labeled probe, 4'-32P-lipid IVA, to develop a novel assay for the specific binding of lipid IVA to whole cells. We have also demonstrated its use in a ligand blotting assay of immobilized cellular proteins. Using the whole cell assay, we show that 4'-32P-lipid IVA specifically binds to RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cultured cells. The binding is saturable, is inhibited with excess unlabeled lipid IVA, and is proteinase K-sensitive. It displays cellular and pharmacological specificity. Using the ligand blotting assay, we show that several RAW 264.7 cell proteins can bind 4'-32P-lipid IVA. The two principal binding proteins have Mr values of 31 and 95 kDa, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Fractionation studies indicate that the 31-kDa protein is enriched in the nuclear fraction and may be a histone, whereas the 95-kDa protein is enriched in the membrane fraction. The binding assays that we have developed should lead to a clearer understanding of lipid A/animal cell interactions.

  12. Therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2012-01-01

    Protein-based therapeutics are highly successful in clinic and currently enjoy unprecedented recognition of their potential. More than 100 genuine and similar number of modified therapeutic proteins are approved for clinical use in the European Union and the USA with 2010 sales of US$108 bln; monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) accounted for almost half (48%) of the sales. Based on their pharmacological activity, they can be divided into five groups: (a) replacing a protein that is deficient or abnormal; (b) augmenting an existing pathway; (c) providing a novel function or activity; (d) interfering with a molecule or organism; and (e) delivering other compounds or proteins, such as a radionuclide, cytotoxic drug, or effector proteins. Therapeutic proteins can also be grouped based on their molecular types that include antibody-based drugs, Fc fusion proteins, anticoagulants, blood factors, bone morphogenetic proteins, engineered protein scaffolds, enzymes, growth factors, hormones, interferons, interleukins, and thrombolytics. They can also be classified based on their molecular mechanism of activity as (a) binding non-covalently to target, e.g., mAbs; (b) affecting covalent bonds, e.g., enzymes; and (c) exerting activity without specific interactions, e.g., serum albumin. Most protein therapeutics currently on the market are recombinant and hundreds of them are in clinical trials for therapy of cancers, immune disorders, infections, and other diseases. New engineered proteins, including bispecific mAbs and multispecific fusion proteins, mAbs conjugated with small molecule drugs, and proteins with optimized pharmacokinetics, are currently under development. However, in the last several decades, there are no conceptually new methodological developments comparable, e.g., to genetic engineering leading to the development of recombinant therapeutic proteins. It appears that a paradigm change in methodologies and understanding of mechanisms is needed to overcome major

  13. Nuclear AP/sub 4/A-binding activity of sea urchin embryos changes in relation to the initiation of S phase

    SciTech Connect

    Morioka, M.; Shimada, H.

    1986-01-01

    The AP/sub 4/A-binding activity of sea urchin embryos was studied using radioactively labelled diadenosine 5', 5'''-P/sup 1/,P/sup 4/-tetraphosphate (Ap/sub 4/A). Among various subcellular components that can bind (/sup 3/H)AP/sub 4/A, nuclei alone showed the highly specific Ap/sub 4/A-binding activity which was not influenced by the presence of AP/sub 4/A, AP/sub 5/A and GP/sub 4/G. The addition of an excess amount of ATP only slightly reduced the binding of (/sup 3/H)AP/sub 4/A to the nuclei. It was found that AP/sub 4/A binds to the residual proteinaceous structure of nuclei which was resistant to the extraction with 2 M NaCl. The nuclear AP/sub 4/A-binding activity fluctuated cyclically during each cell cycle, with at transient increase at the beginning of S phase followed by an abrupt-decrease within 10 min. When the initiation of S phase was blocked, the increase in the AP/sub 4/A-binding activity was also prevented. It seems that the binding of AP/sub 4/A to the nuclear structural protein is involved in the initiation of S phase.

  14. PLK1 is a binding partner and a negative regulator of FOXO3 tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Bucur, Octavian; Stancu, Andreea Lucia; Muraru, Maria Sinziana; Melet, Armelle; Petrescu, Stefana Maria; Khosravi-Far, Roya

    2015-01-01

    FOXO family members (FOXOs: FOXO1, FOXO3, FOXO4 and FOXO6) are important transcription factors and tumor suppressors controlling cell homeostasis and cell fate. They are characterized by an extraordinary functional diversity, being involved in regulation of cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, oxidative detoxification, cell differentiation and stem cell maintenance, cell metabolism, angiogenesis, cardiac and other organ’s development, aging, and other critical cellular processes. FOXOs are tightly regulated by reversible phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and methylation. Interestingly, the known kinases phosphorylate only a small percentage of the known or predicted FOXOs phosphorylation sites, suggesting that additional kinases that phosphorylate and control FOXOs activity exist. In order to identify novel regulators of FOXO3, we have employed a proteomics screening strategy. Using HeLa cancer cell line and a Tandem Affinity Purification followed by Mass Spectrometry analysis, we identified several proteins as binding partners of FOXO3. Noteworthy, Polo Like Kinase 1 (PLK1) proto-oncogene was one of the identified FOXO3 binding partners. PLK1 plays a critical role during cell cycle (G2-M transition and all phases of mitosis) and in maintenance of genomic stability. Our experimental results presented in this manuscript demonstrate that FOXO3 and PLK1 exist in a molecular complex through most of the phases of the cell cycle, with a higher occurrence in the G2-M cell cycle phases. PLK1 induces translocation of FOXO3 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and suppresses FOXO3 activity, measured by the decrease in the pro-apoptotic Bim protein levels and in the cell cycle inhibitor protein p27. Furthermore, PLK1 can directly phosphorylate FOXO3 in an in vitro kinase assay. These results present the discovery of PLK1 proto-oncogene as a binding partner and a negative regulator of FOXO3 tumor suppressor. PMID:26280018

  15. PLK1 is a binding partner and a negative regulator of FOXO3 tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Bucur, Octavian; Stancu, Andreea Lucia; Muraru, Maria Sinziana; Melet, Armelle; Petrescu, Stefana Maria; Khosravi-Far, Roya

    2014-01-01

    FOXO family members (FOXOs: FOXO1, FOXO3, FOXO4 and FOXO6) are important transcription factors and tumor suppressors controlling cell homeostasis and cell fate. They are characterized by an extraordinary functional diversity, being involved in regulation of cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, oxidative detoxification, cell differentiation and stem cell maintenance, cell metabolism, angiogenesis, cardiac and other organ's development, aging, and other critical cellular processes. FOXOs are tightly regulated by reversible phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and methylation. Interestingly, the known kinases phosphorylate only a small percentage of the known or predicted FOXOs phosphorylation sites, suggesting that additional kinases that phosphorylate and control FOXOs activity exist. In order to identify novel regulators of FOXO3, we have employed a proteomics screening strategy. Using HeLa cancer cell line and a Tandem Affinity Purification followed by Mass Spectrometry analysis, we identified several proteins as binding partners of FOXO3. Noteworthy, Polo Like Kinase 1 (PLK1) proto-oncogene was one of the identified FOXO3 binding partners. PLK1 plays a critical role during cell cycle (G2-M transition and all phases of mitosis) and in maintenance of genomic stability. Our experimental results presented in this manuscript demonstrate that FOXO3 and PLK1 exist in a molecular complex through most of the phases of the cell cycle, with a higher occurrence in the G2-M cell cycle phases. PLK1 induces translocation of FOXO3 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and suppresses FOXO3 activity, measured by the decrease in the pro-apoptotic Bim protein levels and in the cell cycle inhibitor protein p27. Furthermore, PLK1 can directly phosphorylate FOXO3 in an in vitro kinase assay. These results present the discovery of PLK1 proto-oncogene as a binding partner and a negative regulator of FOXO3 tumor suppressor.

  16. RecA binding to a single double-stranded DNA molecule: A possible role of DNA conformational fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Leger, J. F.; Robert, J.; Bourdieu, L.; Chatenay, D.; Marko, J. F.

    1998-01-01

    Most genetic regulatory mechanisms involve protein–DNA interactions. In these processes, the classical Watson–Crick DNA structure sometimes is distorted severely, which in turn enables the precise recognition of the specific sites by the protein. Despite its key importance, very little is known about such deformation processes. To address this general question, we have studied a model system, namely, RecA binding to double-stranded DNA. Results from micromanipulation experiments indicate that RecA binds strongly to stretched DNA; based on this observation, we propose that spontaneous thermal stretching fluctuations may play a role in the binding of RecA to DNA. This has fundamental implications for the protein–DNA binding mechanism, which must therefore rely in part on a combination of flexibility and thermal fluctuations of the DNA structure. We also show that this mechanism is sequence sensitive. Theoretical simulations support this interpretation of our experimental results, and it is argued that this is of broad relevance to DNA–protein interactions. PMID:9770480

  17. Lin28A binds active promoters and recruits Tet1 to regulate gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yaxue; Yao, Bing; Shin, Jaehoon; Lin, Li; Kim, Namshik; Song, Qifeng; Liu, Shuang; Su, Yijing; Guo, Junjie U.; Huang, Luoxiu; Wan, Jun; Wu, Hao; Qian, Jiang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Zhu, Heng; Ming, Guo-li; Jin, Peng; Song, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Lin28, a well-known RNA-binding protein, regulates diverse cellular properties. All physiological functions of Lin28A characterized so far have been attributed to its repression of let-7 miRNA biogenesis or modulation of mRNA translational efficiency. Here we show that Lin28A directly binds to a consensus DNA sequence in vitro and in mouse embryonic stem cells in vivo. ChIP-seq and RNA-seq reveal enrichment of Lin28A binding around transcription start sites, and a positive correlation between its genomic occupancy and expression of many associated genes. Mechanistically, Lin28A recruits 5-methylcytosine-dioxygenase Tet1 to genomic binding sites to orchestrate 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine dynamics. Either Lin28A or Tet1 knockdown leads to dysregulated DNA methylation and expression of common target genes. These results reveal a surprising role for Lin28A in transcriptional regulation via epigenetic DNA modifications and have implications for understanding mechanisms underlying versatile functions of Lin28A in mammalian systems. PMID:26711009

  18. Lin28A Binds Active Promoters and Recruits Tet1 to Regulate Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yaxue; Yao, Bing; Shin, Jaehoon; Lin, Li; Kim, Namshik; Song, Qifeng; Liu, Shuang; Su, Yijing; Guo, Junjie U; Huang, Luoxiu; Wan, Jun; Wu, Hao; Qian, Jiang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Zhu, Heng; Ming, Guo-li; Jin, Peng; Song, Hongjun

    2016-01-07

    Lin28, a well-known RNA-binding protein, regulates diverse cellular properties. All physiological functions of Lin28A characterized so far have been attributed to its repression of let-7 miRNA biogenesis or modulation of mRNA translational efficiency. Here we show that Lin28A directly binds to a consensus DNA sequence in vitro and in mouse embryonic stem cells in vivo. ChIP-seq and RNA-seq reveal enrichment of Lin28A binding around transcription start sites and a positive correlation between its genomic occupancy and expression of many associated genes. Mechanistically, Lin28A recruits 5-methylcytosine-dioxygenase Tet1 to genomic binding sites to orchestrate 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine dynamics. Either Lin28A or Tet1 knockdown leads to dysregulated DNA methylation and expression of common target genes. These results reveal a surprising role for Lin28A in transcriptional regulation via epigenetic DNA modifications and have implications for understanding mechanisms underlying versatile functions of Lin28A in mammalian systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fyn-phosphorylated PIKE-A binds and inhibits AMPK signaling, blocking its tumor suppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Qi, Q; Chan, C B; Zhou, W; Chen, J; Luo, H R; Appin, C; Brat, D J; Ye, K

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase, a key regulator of energy homeostasis, has a critical role in metabolic disorders and cancers. AMPK is mainly regulated by cellular AMP and phosphorylation by upstream kinases. Here, we show that PIKE-A binds to AMPK and blocks its tumor suppressive actions, which are mediated by tyrosine kinase Fyn. PIKE-A directly interacts with AMPK catalytic alpha subunit and impairs T172 phosphorylation, leading to repression of its kinase activity on the downstream targets. Mutation of Fyn phosphorylation sites on PIKE-A, depletion of Fyn, or pharmacological inhibition of Fyn blunts the association between PIKE-A and AMPK, resulting in loss of its inhibitory effect on AMPK. Cell proliferation and oncogenic assays demonstrate that PIKE-A antagonizes tumor suppressive actions of AMPK. In human glioblastoma samples, PIKE-A expression inversely correlates with the p-AMPK levels, supporting that PIKE-A negatively regulates AMPK activity in cancers. Thus, our findings provide additional layer of molecular regulation of the AMPK signaling pathway in cancer progression.

  20. OmpA Binding Mediates the Effect of Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 on Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Feng; Tsai, Pei-Wen; Chen, Jeng-Yi; Lin, Yun-You; Lan, Chung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has recently emerged as an important pathogen in nosocomial infection; thus, effective antimicrobial regimens are urgently needed. Human antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exhibit multiple functions and antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi and are proposed to be potential adjuvant therapeutic agents. This study examined the effect of the human cathelicidin-derived AMP LL-37 on A. baumannii and revealed the underlying mode of action. We found that LL-37 killed A. baumannii efficiently and reduced cell motility and adhesion. The bacteria-killing effect of LL-37 on A. baumannii was more efficient compared to other AMPs, including human ß–defensin 3 (hBD3) and histatin 5 (Hst5). Both flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescence staining showed that LL-37 bound to A. baumannii cells. Moreover, far-western analysis demonstrated that LL-37 could bind to the A. baumannii OmpA (AbOmpA) protein. An ELISA assay indicated that biotin-labelled LL-37 (BA-LL37) bound to the AbOmpA74-84 peptide in a dose-dependent manner. Using BA-LL37 as a probe, the ~38 kDa OmpA signal was detected in the wild type but the ompA deletion strain did not show the protein, thereby validating the interaction. Finally, we found that the ompA deletion mutant was more sensitive to LL-37 and decreased cell adhesion by 32% compared to the wild type. However, ompA deletion mutant showed a greatly reduced adhesion defect after LL-37 treatment compared to the wild strain. Taken together, this study provides evidence that LL-37 affects A. baumannii through OmpA binding. PMID:26484669

  1. Syntaxin 1A binds to the cytoplasmic C terminus of Kv2.1 to regulate channel gating and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yuk M; Kang, Youhou; Gao, Xiaodong; Xia, Fuzhen; Xie, Huanli; Sheu, Laura; Tsuk, Sharon; Lotan, Ilana; Tsushima, Robert G; Gaisano, Herbert Y

    2003-05-09

    Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) 2.1 is the dominant Kv channel that controls membrane repolarization in rat islet beta-cells and downstream insulin exocytosis. We recently showed that exocytotic SNARE protein SNAP-25 directly binds and modulates rat islet beta-cell Kv 2.1 channel protein at the cytoplasmic N terminus. We now show that SNARE protein syntaxin 1A (Syn-1A) binds and modulates rat islet beta-cell Kv2.1 at its cytoplasmic C terminus (Kv2.1C). In HEK293 cells overexpressing Kv2.1, we observed identical effects of channel inhibition by dialyzed GST-Syn-1A, which could be blocked by Kv2.1C domain proteins (C1: amino acids 412-633, C2: amino acids 634-853), but not the Kv2.1 cytoplasmic N terminus (amino acids 1-182). This was confirmed by direct binding of GST-Syn-1A to the Kv2.1C1 and C2 domains proteins. These findings are in contrast to our recent report showing that Syn-1A binds and modulates the cytoplasmic N terminus of neuronal Kv1.1 and not by its C terminus. Co-expression of Syn-1A in Kv2.1-expressing HEK293 cells inhibited Kv2.1 surfacing, which caused a reduction of Kv2.1 current density. In addition, Syn-1A caused a slowing of Kv2.1 current activation and reduction in the slope factor of steady-state inactivation, but had no affect on inactivation kinetics or voltage dependence of activation. Taken together, SNAP-25 and Syn-1A mediate secretion not only through its participation in the exocytotic SNARE complex, but also by regulating membrane potential and calcium entry through their interaction with Kv and Ca(2+) channels. In contrast to Ca(2+) channels, where these SNARE proteins act on a common synprint site, the SNARE proteins act not only on distinct sites within a Kv channel, but also on distinct sites between different Kv channel families.

  2. IgA-binding factor suppresses synthesis of IgA in MOPC-315 plasmacytoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, C.; Moore, J.S.; Muller, S.; Aaronsen, D.; Madianos, E.; Hoover, R.G.

    1986-03-05

    T cells with Fc receptors for IgA (T/sup ..cap alpha../ cells) and their products, IgA-binding factors (IgABF), have been implicated in the regulation of IgA expression by B cells. They have previously shown that an IgABF produced by IgA induced normal T cells or constitutively by the Fc/sup ..cap alpha../ R+ T cell lymphoma, BALENTL 8, is capable of suppressing the proliferation and the amount of secreted IgA by MOPC-315 cells. In the present studies, they demonstrate that: (a) suppression of proliferation and secretion requires surface membrane IgA on the target cell, (b) suppression exhibits rapid kinetics with maximal effect occurring by 3-4 hours, (c) suppression is reversible, and (d) suppression of secretion involves selective suppression of IgA synthesis as measured by /sup 3/H-leucine incorporation into immunoprecipitable IgA(non-IgA protein is unaffected). These findings indicate that IgA-isotype-specific effector molecules interact directly with their B cell targets through surface membrane immunoglobulin and cause a down regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis by the target. Current studies are underway to address whether this selective suppression of IgA is mediated at the transcriptional, translational or post-translational level. The use of MOPC-315 tumor cells as targets of T cell produced, isotype-specific, effector molecules should provide a unique model for the further analysis of isotype regulation at the molecular level.

  3. Structural and functional similarities between the central eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4A-binding domain of mammalian eIF4G and the eIF4A-binding domain of yeast eIF4G.

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, D; Kislig, E; Altmann, M; Trachsel, H

    2001-01-01

    The translation eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4G of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae interacts with the RNA helicase eIF4A (a member of the DEAD-box protein family; where DEAD corresponds to Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) through a C-terminal domain in eIF4G (amino acids 542-883). Mammalian eIF4G has two interaction domains for eIF4A, a central domain and a domain close to the C-terminus. This raises the question of whether eIF4A binding to eIF4G is conserved between yeast and mammalian cells or whether it is different. We isolated eIF4G1 mutants defective in eIF4A binding and showed that these mutants are strongly impaired in translation and growth. Extracts from mutants displaying a temperature-sensitive phenotype for growth have low in vitro translation activity, which can be restored by addition of the purified eIF4G1-eIF4E complex, but not by eIF4E alone. Analysis of mutant eIF4G(542-883) proteins defective in eIF4A binding shows that the interaction of yeast eIF4A with eIF4G1 depends on amino acid motifs that are conserved between the yeast eIF4A-binding site and the central eIF4A-binding domain of mammalian eIF4G. We show that mammalian eIF4A binds tightly to yeast eIF4G1 and, furthermore, that mutant yeast eIF4G(542-883) proteins, which do not bind yeast eIF4A, do not interact with mammalian eIF4A. Despite the conservation of the eIF4A-binding site in eIF4G and the strong sequence conservation between yeast and mammalian eIF4A (66% identity; 82% similarity at the amino acid level) mammalian eIF4A does not substitute for the yeast factor in vivo and is not functional in a yeast in vitro translation system. PMID:11256967

  4. SP-A binds alpha1-antitrypsin in vitro and reduces the association rate constant for neutrophil elastase

    PubMed Central

    Gorrini, Marina; Lupi, Anna; Iadarola, Paolo; Santos, Conceição Dos; Rognoni, Paola; Dalzoppo, Daniele; Carrabino, Natalia; Pozzi, Ernesto; Baritussio, Aldo; Luisetti, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Background α1-antitrypsin and surfactant protein-A (SP-A) are major lung defense proteins. With the hypothesis that SP-A could bind α1-antitrypsin, we designed a series of in vitro experiments aimed at investigating the nature and consequences of such an interaction. Methods and results At an α1-antitrypsin:SP-A molar ratio of 1:1, the interaction resulted in a calcium-dependent decrease of 84.6% in the association rate constant of α1-antitrypsin for neutrophil elastase. The findings were similar when SP-A was coupled with the Z variant of α1-antitrypsin. The carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-A appeared to be a major determinant of the interaction, by recognizing α1-antitrypsin carbohydrate chains. However, binding of SP-A carbohydrate chains to the α1-antitrypsin amino acid backbone and interaction between carbohydrates of both proteins are also possible. Gel filtration chromatography and turnover per inactivation experiments indicated that one part of SP-A binds several molar parts of α1-antitrypsin. Conclusion We conclude that the binding of SP-A to α1-antitrypsin results in a decrease of the inhibition of neutrophil elastase. This interaction could have potential implications in the physiologic regulation of α1-antitrypsin activity, in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, and in the defense against infectious agents. PMID:16351724

  5. FlnA binding to PACSIN2 F-BAR domain regulates membrane tubulation in megakaryocytes and platelets

    PubMed Central

    Begonja, Antonija Jurak; Pluthero, Fred G.; Suphamungmee, Worawit; Giannini, Silvia; Christensen, Hilary; Leung, Richard; Lo, Richard W.; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Lehman, William; Plomann, Markus; Hoffmeister, Karin M.; Kahr, Walter H. A.; Hartwig, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) and Fes-CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) proteins generate tubular membrane invaginations reminiscent of the megakaryocyte (MK) demarcation membrane system (DMS), which provides membranes necessary for future platelets. The F-BAR protein PACSIN2 is one of the most abundant BAR/F-BAR proteins in platelets and the only one reported to interact with the cytoskeletal and scaffold protein filamin A (FlnA), an essential regulator of platelet formation and function. The FlnA-PACSIN2 interaction was therefore investigated in MKs and platelets. PACSIN2 associated with FlnA in human platelets. The interaction required FlnA immunoglobulin-like repeat 20 and the tip of PACSIN2 F-BAR domain and enhanced PACSIN2 F-BAR domain membrane tubulation in vitro. Most human and wild-type mouse platelets had 1 to 2 distinct PACSIN2 foci associated with cell membrane GPIbα, whereas Flna-null platelets had 0 to 4 or more foci. Endogenous PACSIN2 and transfected enhanced green fluorescent protein-PACSIN2 were concentrated in midstage wild-type mouse MKs in a well-defined invagination of the plasma membrane reminiscent of the initiating DMS and dispersed in the absence of FlnA binding. The DMS appeared less well defined, and platelet territories were not readily visualized in Flna-null MKs. We conclude that the FlnA-PACSIN2 interaction regulates membrane tubulation in MKs and platelets and likely contributes to DMS formation. PMID:25838348

  6. NMR structure of rALF-Pm3, an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from shrimp: model of the possible lipid A-binding site.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinshan; Boze, Hélène; Chemardin, Patrick; Padilla, André; Moulin, Guy; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Pugnière, Martine; Roquet, Françoise; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne; Aumelas, André

    2009-03-01

    The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor ALF-Pm3 is a 98-residue protein identified in hemocytes from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. It was expressed in Pichia pastoris from the constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter as a folded and (15)N uniformly labeled rALF-Pm3 protein. Its 3D structure was established by NMR and consists of three alpha-helices packed against a four-stranded beta-sheet. The C(34)-C(55) disulfide bond was shown to be essential for the structure stability. By using surface plasmon resonance, we demonstrated that rALF-Pm3 binds to LPS, lipid A and to OM-174, a soluble analogue of lipid A. Biophysical studies of rALF-Pm3/LPS and rALF-Pm3/OM-174 complexes indicated rather high molecular sized aggregates, which prevented us to experimentally determine by NMR the binding mode of these lipids to rALF-Pm3. However, on the basis of striking structural similarities to the FhuA/LPS complex, we designed an original model of the possible lipid A-binding site of ALF-Pm3. Such a binding site, located on the ALF-Pm3 beta-sheet and involving seven charged residues, is well conserved in ALF-L from Limulus polyphemus and in ALF-T from Tachypleus tridentatus. In addition, our model is in agreement with experiments showing that beta-hairpin synthetic peptides corresponding to ALF-L beta-sheet bind to LPS. Delineating lipid A-binding site of ALFs will help go further in the de novo design of new antibacterial or LPS-neutralizing drugs. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Involvement of the Acyl-CoA binding domain containing 7 in the control of food intake and energy expenditure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lanfray, Damien; Caron, Alexandre; Roy, Marie-Claude; Laplante, Mathieu; Morin, Fabrice; Leprince, Jérôme; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Richard, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Acyl-CoA binding domain-containing 7 (Acbd7) is a paralog gene of the diazepam-binding inhibitor/Acyl-CoA binding protein in which single nucleotide polymorphism has recently been associated with obesity in humans. In this report, we provide converging evidence indicating that a splice variant isoform of the Acbd7 mRNA is expressed and translated by some POMC and GABAergic-neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). We have demonstrated that the ARC ACBD7 isoform was produced and processed into a bioactive peptide referred to as nonadecaneuropeptide (NDN) in response to catabolic signals. We have characterized NDN as a potent anorexigenic signal acting through an uncharacterized endozepine G protein-coupled receptor and subsequently via the melanocortin system. Our results suggest that ACBD7-producing neurons participate in the hypothalamic leptin signalling pathway. Taken together, these data suggest that ACBD7-producing neurons are involved in the hypothalamic control exerted on food intake and energy expenditure by the leptin-melanocortin pathway. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11742.001 PMID:26880548

  8. Arginyl residues are involved in acyl-CoA binding to the elongase from etiolated leek seedlings.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, X; Chevalier, S; Cassagne, C; Lessire, R

    1998-04-22

    The C18:0-CoA elongase from etiolated leek seedling microsomes was inactivated by treatment with phenylglyoxal, a reagent which specifically modifies arginyl residues. In the presence of 20 mM phenylglyoxal, 95% of the C18:0-CoA elongation was inhibited. The condensation and dehydration reactions of the overall elongation were totally inhibited, whereas enoyl-CoA reductase activity was diminished by 75%, but the nature of the final elongation product was unchanged. Phenylglyoxal did not modify the C18:0-CoA partition between membrane and aqueous compartments; moreover, [1-14C]phenylglyoxal labeling experiments showed a covalent binding of the inhibitor to membrane proteins. The ability of several substrates to prevent the inactivation by phenylglyoxal was investigated. NADH and NADPH had no effect. CoA led to a 75% protection, and the incorporation of [14C]phenylglyoxal was strongly affected by 10 mM CoA. The acyl chain length of the acyl-CoAs played also a crucial role in preventing the binding of phenylglyoxal. The maximal prevention of phenylglyoxal inhibition was obtained with C18:0-CoA. This suggests that arginyl residues could be present in the vicinity of the acyl-CoA binding site of the subunits of C18:0-CoA elongase. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Acyl-CoA-binding domain containing 3 modulates NAD+ metabolism through activating poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Bang, Sookhee; Park, Soohyun; Shi, Hanyuan; Kim, Sangwon F

    2015-07-15

    NAD(+) plays essential roles in cellular energy homoeostasis and redox state, functioning as a cofactor along the glycolysis and citric acid cycle pathways. Recent discoveries indicated that, through the NAD(+)-consuming enzymes, this molecule may also be involved in many other cellular and biological outcomes such as chromatin remodelling, gene transcription, genomic integrity, cell division, calcium signalling, circadian clock and pluripotency. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is such an enzyme and dysfunctional PARP1 has been linked with the onset and development of various human diseases, including cancer, aging, traumatic brain injury, atherosclerosis, diabetes and inflammation. In the present study, we showed that overexpressed acyl-CoA-binding domain containing 3 (ACBD3), a Golgi-bound protein, significantly reduced cellular NAD(+) content via enhancing PARP1's polymerase activity and enhancing auto-modification of the enzyme in a DNA damage-independent manner. We identified that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 as well as de novo fatty acid biosynthesis pathways are involved in ACBD3-mediated activation of PARP1. Importantly, oxidative stress-induced PARP1 activation is greatly attenuated by knocking down the ACBD3 gene. Taken together, these findings suggest that ACBD3 has prominent impacts on cellular NAD(+) metabolism via regulating PARP1 activation-dependent auto-modification and thus cell metabolism and function.

  10. Molecular geometry of CsrA (RsmA) binding to RNA and its implications for regulated expression.

    PubMed

    Mercante, Jeffrey; Edwards, Adrianne N; Dubey, Ashok K; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2009-09-18

    The global regulatory protein CsrA binds to the 5'-untranslated leader of target transcripts and alters their translation and/or stability. CsrA is a symmetrical homodimer containing two identical RNA-binding surfaces. Gel shift assays with model RNA substrates now show that CsrA can bind simultaneously at two target sites within a transcript (bridging or dual-site binding). An intersite distance of approximately 18 nucleotides (nt) was optimal, although bridging occurred with an intersite distance of 10 to >or=63 nt. The close 10-nt spacing reduced the stability of dual-site binding, as competition for one site by a second CsrA dimer readily occurred. Both RNA-binding surfaces of a single CsrA protein were essential for efficient in vitro repression of a glgC'-'lacZ translational fusion that contains four CsrA target sites within the untranslated leader. Heterodimeric CsrA (HD-CsrA) containing a single R44A replacement, which was defective for binding at its mutant surface but bound RNA normally at its wild-type (WT) surface, was approximately 14-fold less effective at repression than homodimeric WT-CsrA. Furthermore, deletion of a CsrA target site of glgC that lies upstream from the Shine-Dalgarno sequence did not affect regulation by HD-CsrA but decreased regulation by WT-CsrA, confirming a regulatory role of dual-site binding. Finally, we propose a mechanism whereby a globular ribonucleoprotein complex is formed between CsrA and its noncoding RNA antagonist, CsrB. Because many target sites of CsrB are located closer together than is optimal for bridging, binding to nonadjacent sites should be energetically favored, causing multiple CsrA dimers to tether CsrB into the observed globular form rather than an extended CsrA-CsrB complex.

  11. Increased /sup 125/I-labelled concanavalin A binding to erythrocytes in diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Y.; Arima, T.; Okazaki, S.; Nakata, K.; Nagashima, H.; Yamabuki, T.

    1982-03-01

    Percentage binding of /sup 125/I-labelled concanavalin A to erythrocytes in diabetic patients was significantly higher than that in normal subjects (12.2 +- 2.8 versus 8.1 +- 1.8%, mean +- SD, p < 0.001). Insulin-dependent diabetic patients showed significantly higher concanavalin A binding than non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects (15.0 +- 1.4 versus 11.4 +- 2.5%, p < 0.01). There was a highly significant correlation between percentage binding of /sup 125/I-labelled concanavalin A and glycosylated haemoglobin.

  12. Semaphorin 3A binds to the perineuronal nets via chondroitin sulfate type E motifs in rodent brains.

    PubMed

    Dick, Gunnar; Tan, Chin Lik; Alves, Joao Nuno; Ehlert, Erich M E; Miller, Gregory M; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Oosterhof, Arie; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Verhaagen, Joost; Fawcett, James W; Kwok, Jessica C F

    2013-09-20

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and the CS-rich extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs) restrict plasticity and regeneration in the CNS. Plasticity is enhanced by chondroitinase ABC treatment that removes CS from its core protein in the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans or by preventing the formation of PNNs, suggesting that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the PNNs control plasticity. Recently, we have shown that semaphorin3A (Sema3A), a repulsive axon guidance molecule, localizes to the PNNs and is removed by chondroitinase ABC treatment (Vo, T., Carulli, D., Ehlert, E. M., Kwok, J. C., Dick, G., Mecollari, V., Moloney, E. B., Neufeld, G., de Winter, F., Fawcett, J. W., and Verhaagen, J. (2013) Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 56C, 186-200). Sema3A is therefore a candidate for a PNN effector in controlling plasticity. Here, we characterize the interaction of Sema3A with CS of the PNNs. Recombinant Sema3A interacts with CS type E (CS-E), and this interaction is involved in the binding of Sema3A to rat brain-derived PNN glycosaminoglycans, as demonstrated by the use of CS-E blocking antibody GD3G7. In addition, we investigate the release of endogenous Sema3A from rat brain by biochemical and enzymatic extractions. Our results confirm the interaction of Sema3A with CS-E containing glycosaminoglycans in the dense extracellular matrix of rat brain. We also demonstrate that the combination of Sema3A and PNN GAGs is a potent inhibitor of axon growth, and this inhibition is reduced by the CS-E blocking antibody. In conclusion, Sema3A binding to CS-E in the PNNs may be a mechanism whereby PNNs restrict growth and plasticity and may represent a possible point of intervention to facilitate neuronal plasticity.

  13. Semaphorin 3A Binds to the Perineuronal Nets via Chondroitin Sulfate Type E Motifs in Rodent Brains*

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Gunnar; Tan, Chin Lik; Alves, Joao Nuno; Ehlert, Erich M. E.; Miller, Gregory M.; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C.; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Oosterhof, Arie; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Verhaagen, Joost; Fawcett, James W.; Kwok, Jessica C. F.

    2013-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and the CS-rich extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs) restrict plasticity and regeneration in the CNS. Plasticity is enhanced by chondroitinase ABC treatment that removes CS from its core protein in the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans or by preventing the formation of PNNs, suggesting that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the PNNs control plasticity. Recently, we have shown that semaphorin3A (Sema3A), a repulsive axon guidance molecule, localizes to the PNNs and is removed by chondroitinase ABC treatment (Vo, T., Carulli, D., Ehlert, E. M., Kwok, J. C., Dick, G., Mecollari, V., Moloney, E. B., Neufeld, G., de Winter, F., Fawcett, J. W., and Verhaagen, J. (2013) Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 56C, 186–200). Sema3A is therefore a candidate for a PNN effector in controlling plasticity. Here, we characterize the interaction of Sema3A with CS of the PNNs. Recombinant Sema3A interacts with CS type E (CS-E), and this interaction is involved in the binding of Sema3A to rat brain-derived PNN glycosaminoglycans, as demonstrated by the use of CS-E blocking antibody GD3G7. In addition, we investigate the release of endogenous Sema3A from rat brain by biochemical and enzymatic extractions. Our results confirm the interaction of Sema3A with CS-E containing glycosaminoglycans in the dense extracellular matrix of rat brain. We also demonstrate that the combination of Sema3A and PNN GAGs is a potent inhibitor of axon growth, and this inhibition is reduced by the CS-E blocking antibody. In conclusion, Sema3A binding to CS-E in the PNNs may be a mechanism whereby PNNs restrict growth and plasticity and may represent a possible point of intervention to facilitate neuronal plasticity. PMID:23940048

  14. Purification, Potency, and Efficacy of the Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Binding Domain from Pichia pastoris as a Recombinant Vaccine Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Michael P.; Smith, Theresa J.; Montgomery, Vicki A.; Smith, Leonard A.

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant botulinum neurotoxin serotype A binding domain [BoNT/A(Hc)], expressed in Pichia pastoris, was developed as a vaccine candidate for preventing botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) intoxication. After fermentation and cell disruption, BoNT/A(Hc) was purified by using a three-step chromatographic process consisting of expanded-bed chromatography, Mono S cation-exchange chromatography, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Two pools of immunogenic product were separated on the Mono S column and processed individually. Both products were more than 95% pure and indistinguishable by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Each protein was assayed for potency in mice at immunogen doses ranging from 2.4 ng to 10 μg, followed by challenge with 1,000 mouse intraperitoneal 50% lethal doses (i.p. LD50) of BoNT/A. The calculated 50% effective dose for both peaks was approximately 0.1 μg/mouse. Peak 1 was evaluated further in a mouse efficacy assay. Mice were injected either once, twice, or three times at five different doses and subsequently challenged with 100,000 mouse i.p. LD50 of BoNT/A. In general, multiple injections protected better than one, with complete or nearly complete protection realized at doses of ≥0.5 μg/mouse. Serum neutralization and ELISA titers were also determined. Tellingly, 82 of 83 mice with antibody titers of ≥1,600, as measured by ELISA, survived, but only 6 of 42 mice with titers of ≤100 survived. This work shows that the purified BoNT/A(Hc) produced was a highly effective immunogen, able to protect against a high challenge dose of neurotoxin. PMID:9746584

  15. Results on a binding neuron model and their implications for modified hourglass model for neuronal network.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Viswanathan; Akhavan-Tabatabaei, Raha; Lopez, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The classical models of single neuron like Hodgkin-Huxley point neuron or leaky integrate and fire neuron assume the influence of postsynaptic potentials to last till the neuron fires. Vidybida (2008) in a refreshing departure has proposed models for binding neurons in which the trace of an input is remembered only for a finite fixed period of time after which it is forgotten. The binding neurons conform to the behaviour of real neurons and are applicable in constructing fast recurrent networks for computer modeling. This paper develops explicitly several useful results for a binding neuron like the firing time distribution and other statistical characteristics. We also discuss the applicability of the developed results in constructing a modified hourglass network model in which there are interconnected neurons with excitatory as well as inhibitory inputs. Limited simulation results of the hourglass network are presented.

  16. Studies on the specificity of the IgA-binding lectin, jacalin.

    PubMed

    Skea, D L; Christopoulous, P; Plaut, A G; Underdown, B J

    1988-01-01

    The interactions of IgA with the jackfruit lectin, jacalin, were investigated with regard to the specificity of jacalin for species and subclasses of IgA. It was found that jacalin selectively bound to human IgA1, but not to human IgA2, mouse IgA or rat IgA. Binding studies with human IgA1 fragments produced by different IgA1 proteases revealed that jacalin bound to galactose-terminal oligosaccharides in the hinge region of human IgA1. Affinity chromatography employing jacalin-Sepharose provided a means to separate the subclasses of IgA in human whey.

  17. Elevated brain monoamine oxidase A binding in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Sacher, Julia; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Rusjan, Pablo; Hassan, Sabrina; Bloomfield, Peter M; Stewart, Donna E; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2010-05-01

    The early postpartum period is a time of high risk for a major depressive episode (or postpartum depression), with a prevalence of 13%. During this time, there is a heightened vulnerability for low mood because postpartum blues is common. Severe postpartum blues can herald the onset of postpartum depression. The neurobiological mechanisms to explain postpartum blues and the high risk for the onset of postpartum depression in the first few weeks after delivery are unclear. Estrogen levels drop 100- to 1000-fold during the first 3 to 4 days postpartum, and changes in estrogen levels have an inverse relationship with monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) density. However, MAO-A levels have never been measured in the early postpartum period. To determine whether brain MAO-A binding is elevated in the early postpartum period. Case-control study. Tertiary care academic psychiatric hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Fifteen healthy women who were 4 to 6 days postpartum and 15 healthy women who had not recently been postpartum underwent carbon 11-labeled harmine positron emission tomography scanning. All women were nonsmoking and medication free. MAO-A total distribution volume, an index of MAO-A density, was measured in prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, anterior temporal cortex, thalamus, dorsal putamen, hippocampus, and midbrain. MAO-A total distribution volume was significantly elevated (mean, 43%) throughout all analyzed brain regions during the early postpartum period. Elevated MAO-A levels in the early postpartum period can be interpreted as a marker of a monoamine-lowering process that contributes to the mood change of postpartum blues. Rather than a purely psychosocial model, we propose a neurobiological model of estrogen decline, followed by elevated MAO-A binding, low mood, and subsequently a period of high risk for major depressive episodes. Our model has important implications for preventing postpartum depression and for developing therapeutic strategies

  18. Gene cloning and expression of cadherin in midgut of Helicoverpa armigera and its Cry1A binding region.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guirong; Wu, Kongming; Liang, Gemei; Guo, Yuyuan

    2005-08-01

    Cadherins belong to one of the families of animal glycoproteins responsible for calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Recent literatures showed that the cadherin-like in midgut of several insects served as the receptor of Bt toxin Cry1A and the variation of cadherin-like is related to insect's resistance to Cry1A. The full-length cDNA encoding cadherin-like of Helicoverpa armigera is cloned by degenerate PCR and RACE techniques and the gene was designated as BtR-harm, which is 5581 bp in full-length, encoding 1730 amino acid residues (BtR-harm was deposited in GenBank and the accession number is AF519180). Its predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point were 195.39 kDa and 4.23, respectively. The inferred amino acid sequence includes a signal sequence, 11 cadherin repeats, a membrane-proximal region, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic region. Sequence analysis indicated that the deduced protein sequence was most similar to the cadherin-like from Heliothis virescens with 84.2% identity and highly similar to three other lepidopteran cadherin from Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta and Pectinophora gossypiella, with the sequence identities of 60.3.6%, 57.5% and 51.0%, respectively. The cDNA encoding cadherin gene was expressed successfully in E. coli and the recombinant proteins can bind with Cry1Ac. Truncation analysis and binding experiment of BtR-harm revealed that the Cry1A binding region was a contiguous 244-amino acid sequence, which located between amino acid 1217 and 1461. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that BtR-harm was highly expressed in midgut of H. armigera, very low expressed in foregut and hindgut and was not expressed in other tissues. After H. armigera producing resistance to Cry1Ac, the expression quantity of BtR-harm significantly decreased in midgut of H. armigera. It is the first confirmation that BtR-harm can function as receptor of Cry1Ac in H. armigera and the binding region was located on a contiguous 244 amino acid sequence

  19. Highly specific protein-protein interactions, evolution and negative design.

    PubMed

    Sear, Richard P

    2004-12-01

    We consider highly specific protein-protein interactions in proteomes of simple model proteins. We are inspired by the work of Zarrinpar et al (2003 Nature 426 676). They took a binding domain in a signalling pathway in yeast and replaced it with domains of the same class but from different organisms. They found that the probability of a protein binding to a protein from the proteome of a different organism is rather high, around one half. We calculate the probability of a model protein from one proteome binding to the protein of a different proteome. These proteomes are obtained by sampling the space of functional proteomes uniformly. In agreement with Zarrinpar et al we find that the probability of a protein binding a protein from another proteome is rather high, of order one tenth. Our results, together with those of Zarrinpar et al, suggest that designing, say, a peptide to block or reconstitute a single signalling pathway, without affecting any other pathways, requires knowledge of all the partners of the class of binding domains the peptide is designed to mimic. This knowledge is required to use negative design to explicitly design out interactions of the peptide with proteins other than its target. We also found that patches that are required to bind with high specificity evolve more slowly than those that are required only to not bind to any other patch. This is consistent with some analysis of sequence data for proteins engaged in highly specific interactions.

  20. The actinobacterial transcription factor RbpA binds to the principal sigma subunit of RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Tabib-Salazar, Aline; Liu, Bing; Doughty, Philip; Lewis, Richard A; Ghosh, Somadri; Parsy, Marie-Laure; Simpson, Peter J; O'Dwyer, Kathleen; Matthews, Steve J; Paget, Mark S

    2013-06-01

    RbpA is a small non-DNA-binding transcription factor that associates with RNA polymerase holoenzyme and stimulates transcription in actinobacteria, including Streptomyces coelicolor and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. RbpA seems to show specificity for the vegetative form of RNA polymerase as opposed to alternative forms of the enzyme. Here, we explain the basis of this specificity by showing that RbpA binds directly to the principal σ subunit in these organisms, but not to more diverged alternative σ factors. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that, although differing in their requirement for structural zinc, the RbpA orthologues from S. coelicolor and M. tuberculosis share a common structural core domain, with extensive, apparently disordered, N- and C-terminal regions. The RbpA-σ interaction is mediated by the C-terminal region of RbpA and σ domain 2, and S. coelicolor RbpA mutants that are defective in binding σ are unable to stimulate transcription in vitro and are inactive in vivo. Given that RbpA is essential in M. tuberculosis and critical for growth in S. coelicolor, these data support a model in which RbpA plays a key role in the σ cycle in actinobacteria.

  1. A functional variant at miR-34a binding site in toll-like receptor 4 gene alters susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zi-Cheng; Tang, Xian-Mei; Zhao, Ying-Ren; Zheng, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a key role in prompting the innate or immediate response. A growing body of evidence suggests that genetic variants of TLR4 gene were associated with the development of cancers. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of a functional variant (rs1057317) at microRNA-34a (miR-34a) binding site in toll-like receptor 4 gene and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A single center-based case-control study was conducted. In this study, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing were used to genotype sequence variants of TLR4 in 426 hepatocellular carcinoma cases and 438 controls. The modification of rs1057317 on the binding of hsa-miR-34a to TLR4 messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured by luciferase activity assay. Individuals carrying the AA genotypes for the rs1057317 were associated significantly with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma comparing with those carrying wild-type homozygous CC genotypes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] by sex and age, from 1.116 to 2.452, P = 0.013). The activity of the reporter vector was lower in the reporter vector carrying C allele than the reporter vector carrying A allele. Furthermore, the expression of TLR4 was detected in the peripheral blood mononucleated cell of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, suggesting that mRNA and protein levels of TLR4 might be associated with SNP rs1057317. Collectively, these results suggested that the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with a functional variant at miR-34a binding site in toll-like receptor 4 gene. miR-34a/TLR4 axis may play an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Microfilament association of ASGP-2, the concanavalin A-binding glycoprotein of the cell-surface sialomucin complex of 13762 rat mammary ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderpuye, L.A.; Carraway, C.A.C.; Carraway, K.L. )

    1988-10-01

    Microfilament-associated proteins and membrane-microfilament interactions are being investigated in microvilli isolated from 13762 rat mammary ascites tumor cells. Phalloidin shift analyses on velocity sedimentation gradients of Triton X-100 extracts of ({sup 3}H)-glucosamine-labeled microvilli identified a 120-kDa cell-surface glycoprotein associated with the microvillar microfilament core. The identification was verified by concanavalin A (Con A) blots of one- and two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis gels of sedimented microfilament cores. By 2D-electrophoresis and lectin analyses the 120-kDa protein appeared to be a fraction of ASGP-2, the major Con A-binding glycoprotein of the sialomucin complex of the 13762 cells. This identity was confirmed by immunoblot analyses using immunoblot-purified anti-ASGP-2 from anti-membrane serum prepared against microvillar membranes. Proteolysis of the microvilli with subtilisin or trypsin resulted in an increase in the amount of ASGP-2 associated with the microfilament cores. Proteolysis of isolated microvillar membranes, which contain actin but not microfilaments, also increased the association of ASGP-2 with a Triton-insoluble, actin-containing membrane fraction. Since the Triton-insoluble membrane residue is enriched in actin-containing transmembrane complex, which contains a different glycoprotein, the authors suggest that the ASGP-2 is binding indirectly via this complex to the microfilament core in the intact microvilli.

  3. The first intron of the human growth hormone gene contains a binding site for glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Moore, D D; Marks, A R; Buckley, D I; Kapler, G; Payvar, F; Goodman, H M

    1985-02-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) protein stimulates transcription from a variety of cellular genes. We show here that GCR partially purified from rat liver binds specifically to a site within the first intron of the human growth hormone (hGH) gene, approximately 100 base pairs downstream from the start of hGH transcription. GCR binding is selectively inhibited by methylation of two short, symmetrically arranged clusters of guanine residues within this site. A cloned synthetic 24-base-pair deoxyoligonucleotide containing the predicted GCR binding sequence interacts specifically with GCR. The hGH binding site shares sequence homology with a GCR binding site upstream from the human metallothionein II gene and a subset of GCR binding sites from mouse mammary tumor virus. All of these binding sites for this eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory protein show remarkable similarity in overall geometry to the binding sites for several prokaryotic transcriptional regulatory proteins.

  4. Elevated serotonin 1A binding in remitted major depressive disorder: evidence for a trait biological abnormality.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeffrey M; Brennan, Kathleen G; Ogden, Todd R; Oquendo, Maria A; Sullivan, Gregory M; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V

    2009-09-01

    Several biological abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD) persist during episode remission, including altered serotonin neurotransmission, and may reflect underlying pathophysiology. We previously described elevated brain serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor binding in antidepressant-naive (AN) subjects with MDD within a major depressive episode (MDE) compared with that in healthy controls using positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, we measured 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in unmedicated subjects with MDD during sustained remission, hypothesizing higher binding compared with that in healthy controls, and binding comparable with currently depressed AN subjects, indicative of a biological trait. We compared 5-HT(1A) binding potential (BP(F)) assessed through PET scanning with [(11)C]WAY-100635 in 15 subjects with recurrent MDD in remission for >or=12 months and off antidepressant medication for >or=6 months, 51 healthy controls, and 13 AN MDD subjects in a current MDE. Metabolite-corrected arterial input functions were acquired for the estimation of BP(F). Remitted depressed subjects had higher 5-HT(1A) BP(F) compared with healthy controls; this group difference did not vary significantly in magnitude across brain regions. 5-HT(1A) BP(F) was comparable in remitted and currently depressed subjects. Elevated 5-HT(1A) BP(F) level among subjects with remitted MDD appears to be a trait abnormality in MDD, which may underlie recurrent MDEs. Future studies should evaluate the role of genetic and environmental factors in producing elevated 5-HT(1A) BP(F) and MDD, and should examine whether 5-HT(1A) BP(F) is a vulnerability factor to MDEs that could have a role in screening high-risk populations for MDD.

  5. Inhibition of human leucocyte elastase by ursolic acid. Evidence for a binding site for pentacyclic triterpenes.

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Q L; Rinehart, A R; Simon, S R; Cheronis, J C

    1991-01-01

    Several pentacyclic triterpenoid metabolites of plant origin are inhibitors of hydrolysis of both synthetic peptide substrates and elastin by human leucocyte elastase (HLE). Ursolic acid, the most potent of these compounds, has an inhibition constant of 4-6 microM for hydrolysis of peptide substrates in phosphate-buffered saline. With tripeptide and tetrapeptide substrates, the inhibition is purely competitive, whereas with a shorter dipeptide substrate the inhibition is non-competitive, suggesting that ursolic acid interacts with subsite S3 of the extended substrate-binding domain in HLE, but not with subsites S1 and S2. The carboxy group at position 28 in the pentacyclic-ring system of the triterpenes contributes to binding to HLE, since replacement of this group with a hydroxy group, as in uvaol, the alcohol analogue of ursolic acid, reduces the potency of inhibition. The inhibitory potency of ursolic acid is also reduced by addition of 1 M-NaCl, further supporting a postulated electrostatic interaction between the negative charge on the triterpene and a positively charged residue on the enzyme, which we assign to the side chain of Arg-217, located in the vicinity of subsites S4 and S5 in HLE. These observations are consistent with a binding site for ursolic acid which extends from S3 towards S4 and S5 on the enzyme. Other triterpenes, including oleanolic acid, erythrodiol, hederagenin and 18 beta-glycyrrhetic acid, can also interact with this binding site. On the basis of these results we conclude that the extended substrate-binding domain of HLE can accommodate a variety of hydrophobic ligands, including not only such molecules as fatty acids [Ashe & Zimmerman (1977) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 75, 194-199; Cook & Ternai (1988) Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 369, 629-637], but also polycyclic molecules such as the pentacyclic triterpenoids. PMID:1859379

  6. Mutations in CypA Binding Region of HIV-1 Capsid Affect Capsid Stability and Viral Replication in Primary Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Laurentia C; van Dort, Karel A; Rits, Maarten A N; Kootstra, Neeltje A

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in the cyclophilin A (CypA) binding region in the HIV-1 capsid affect their dependency on the known HIV-1 cofactor CypA and allow escape from the HIV-1 restriction factor Trim5α in human and simian cells. Here we study the effect of these mutations in the CypA binding region of capsid on cofactor binding, capsid destabilization, and viral replication in primary cells. We showed that the viral capsid with mutations in the CypA binding region (CypA-BR) interacted efficiently with CypA, but had an increased stability upon infection as compared to the wild-type capsid. Interestingly, the wild-type virus was able to infect monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) more efficiently as compared to the CypA-BR mutant variant. The lower infectivity of the CypA-BR mutant virus in MDM was associated with lower levels of reverse transcription products. Similar to the wild-type virus, the CypA-BR mutant variant was unable to induce a strong innate response in primary macrophages. These data demonstrate that mutations in the CypA binding site of the capsid resulted in higher capsid stability and hampered infectivity in macrophages.

  7. The structure of SSO2064, the first representative of Pfam family PF01796, reveals a novel two-domain zinc-ribbon OB-fold architecture with a potential acyl-CoA-binding role

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, S. Sri; Aravind, L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Caruthers, Jonathan; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    SSO2064 is the first structural representative of PF01796 (DUF35), a large prokaryotic family with a wide phylogenetic distribution. The structure reveals a novel two-domain architecture comprising an N-terminal, rubredoxin-like, zinc ribbon and a C-terminal, oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold domain. Additional N-terminal helical segments may be involved in protein–protein interactions. Domain architectures, genomic context analysis and functional evidence from certain bacterial representatives of this family suggest that these proteins form a novel fatty-acid-binding component that is involved in the biosynthesis of lipids and polyketide antibiotics and that they possibly function as acyl-CoA-binding proteins. This structure has led to a re-evaluation of the DUF35 family, which has now been split into two entries in the latest Pfam release (v.24.0). PMID:20944206

  8. Brain monoamine oxidase A binding in major depressive disorder: relationship to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment, recovery, and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jeffrey H; Wilson, Alan A; Sagrati, Sandra; Miler, Laura; Rusjan, Pablo; Bloomfield, Peter M; Clark, Michael; Sacher, Julia; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Houle, Sylvain

    2009-12-01

    Highly significant elevations in regional brain monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) binding were recently reported during major depressive episodes (MDEs) of major depressive disorder (MDD). The relationship between MAO-A levels and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, recovery, and recurrence in MDD is unknown. To determine whether brain MAO-A binding changes after SSRI treatment, whether brain MAO-A binding normalizes in subjects with MDD in recovery, and whether there is a relationship between prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex MAO-A binding in recovery and subsequent recurrence of MDE. Case-control study. Tertiary care psychiatric hospital. Twenty-eight healthy subjects, 16 subjects with an MDE secondary to MDD, and 18 subjects with MDD in recovery underwent carbon 11-labeled harmine positron emission tomography scans. Subjects with MDE were scanned before and after 6 weeks of SSRI treatment. All were otherwise healthy, nonsmoking, and medication free. Subjects with MDD in recovery were followed up for 6 months after MAO-A binding measurement. Monoamine oxidase A V(T), an index of MAO-A density, was measured in the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, ventral striatum, thalamus, anterior temporal cortex, midbrain, and hippocampus. Monoamine oxidase A V(T) was significantly elevated in each brain region both during MDE and after SSRI treatment as compared with healthy controls. During recovery, MAO-A V(T) was significantly elevated in each brain region; however, those who went on to recurrence had significantly higher MAO-A V(T) in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex than those who did not. Elevated MAO-A binding after SSRI treatment indicates persistence of a monoamine-lowering process not present in health. This provides a strong conceptual rationale for continuing SSRI treatment during early remission. Greater MAO-A binding in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in

  9. Differential expression of fatty acid transporters and fatty acid synthesis-related genes in crop tissues of male and female pigeons (Columba livia domestica) during incubation and chick rearing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peng; Wang, Xue-Ping; Bu, Zhu; Zou, Xiao-Ting

    2017-10-01

    1. The growth performance of squabs reared solely by male or female parent pigeons was measured, and the changes of lipid content of crop milk and the expression profiles of genes potentially involved in lipid accumulation by crop tissues of parent pigeons were evaluated during incubation and chick rearing. 2. Squabs increased in body weight during 25 d of rearing, whereas both male and female pigeons lost weight after finishing rearing chicks, and the weight loss of male pigeons was significantly greater than that of female parent pigeons. Lipid content of crop milk from both parent pigeons gradually decreased to the crude fat level in the formulated diet after 10 d (R10) of chick rearing. 3. The gene expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), fatty acid-binding protein 5 (EFABP) and acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) in male pigeon crop tissue were the greatest at 17 d (I17) of incubation. In female pigeons, FAT/CD36 expression was the highest at I14, and both EFABP and ACBP expression peaked at I14 and R7. The expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase in male pigeons reached the maximum level at R1, while they peaked at I14 and I17, respectively in female pigeons. The gene expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) was the greatest at I17 in the male, while it was at I14 in the female. However, no regular changing pattern was found in PPARα gene expression in male pigeons. 4. These results indicated that male and female pigeons may make different contributions in rearing squabs. The gene expression study suggested that fatty acids used in lipid biosynthesis of crop milk probably originated from both exogenous supply and de novo synthesis. The sex of the parent pigeon affected the lipid content of crop milk and the expression profiles of genes involved in fatty acid transportation and lipogenesis.

  10. Beyond the detergent effect: a binding site for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in mammalian apoferritin

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Renyu Bu, Weiming; Xi, Jin; Mortazavi, Shirin R.; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.; Loll, Patrick J.

    2012-05-01

    Using X-ray crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) binds specifically to a pre-formed internal cavity in horse-spleen apoferritin. Although sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is widely used as an anionic detergent, it can also exert specific pharmacological effects that are independent of the surfactant properties of the molecule. However, structural details of how proteins recognize SDS are scarce. Here, it is demonstrated that SDS binds specifically to a naturally occurring four-helix bundle protein: horse apoferritin. The X-ray crystal structure of the apoferritin–SDS complex was determined at a resolution of 1.9 Å and revealed that the SDS binds in an internal cavity that has previously been shown to recognize various general anesthetics. A dissociation constant of 24 ± 9 µM at 293 K was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. SDS binds in this cavity by bending its alkyl tail into a horseshoe shape; the charged SDS head group lies in the opening of the cavity at the protein surface. This crystal structure provides insights into the protein–SDS interactions that give rise to binding and may prove useful in the design of novel SDS-like ligands for some proteins.

  11. Structural consequences of cutting a binding loop: two circularly permuted variants of streptavidin

    SciTech Connect

    Le Trong, Isolde; Chu, Vano; Xing, Yi; Lybrand, Terry P.; Stayton, Patrick S.; Stenkamp, Ronald E.

    2013-06-01

    The crystal structures of two circularly permuted streptavidins probe the role of a flexible loop in the tight binding of biotin. Molecular-dynamics calculations for one of the mutants suggests that increased fluctuations in a hydrogen bond between the protein and biotin are associated with cleavage of the binding loop. Circular permutation of streptavidin was carried out in order to investigate the role of a main-chain amide in stabilizing the high-affinity complex of the protein and biotin. Mutant proteins CP49/48 and CP50/49 were constructed to place new N-termini at residues 49 and 50 in a flexible loop involved in stabilizing the biotin complex. Crystal structures of the two mutants show that half of each loop closes over the binding site, as observed in wild-type streptavidin, while the other half adopts the open conformation found in the unliganded state. The structures are consistent with kinetic and thermodynamic data and indicate that the loop plays a role in enthalpic stabilization of the bound state via the Asn49 amide–biotin hydrogen bond. In wild-type streptavidin, the entropic penalties of immobilizing a flexible portion of the protein to enhance binding are kept to a manageable level by using a contiguous loop of medium length (six residues) which is already constrained by its anchorage to strands of the β-barrel protein. A molecular-dynamics simulation for CP50/49 shows that cleavage of the binding loop results in increased structural fluctuations for Ser45 and that these fluctuations destabilize the streptavidin–biotin complex.

  12. Nuclear DNA helicase II/RNA helicase A binds to filamentous actin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suisheng; Buder, Katrin; Burkhardt, Carmen; Schlott, Bernhard; Görlach, Matthias; Grosse, Frank

    2002-01-04

    Nuclear DNA helicase II (NDH II), also designated RNA helicase A, is a multifunctional protein involved in transcription, RNA processing, and transport. Here we report that NDH II binds to F-actin. NDH II was partially purified from HeLa nuclear extracts by ion-exchange chromatography on Bio-Rex 70 and DEAE-Sepharose. Upon gel-filtration chromatography on Sepharose 4B, partially purified NDH II resolved into two distinct peaks. The first NDH II peak, corresponding to the void volume of Sepharose 4B, displayed coelution with an abundant 42-kDa protein that was subsequently identified as actin. Several nuclear proteins such as RNA polymerase II, the U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-associated WD40 protein, and heterogeneous nuclear RNPs (hnRNPs) copurified with NDH II. However, only hnRNPs A1 and C were found together with NDH II and actin polymers during gel filtration. NDH II and hnRNP C from the HeLa nuclear extract coeluted with F-actin on Sepharose 4B in an RNase-resistant manner, whereas hnRNP A1 was nearly completely removed from F-actin-associated hnRNP complexes following RNA digestion. The association of NDH II and hnRNP C with F-actin was abolished by gelsolin, an F-actin-depolymerizing protein that fragments actin polymers into oligomers or monomers. Furthermore, NDH II co-immunoprecipitated with F-actin and hnRNP C, respectively. In vitro translated NDH II coeluted with F-actin on Sepharose 4B, whereas no coelution with F-actin was observed for in vitro translated hnRNP A1 or C1. Binding to F-actin requires an intact C terminus of NDH II and most likely a native protein conformation. Electron microscopy indicated a close spatial proximity among NDH II, hnRNP C, and F-actin within the HeLa nucleus. These results suggest an important function of NDH II in mediating the attachment of hnRNP-mRPP RNP complexes to the actin nucleoskeleton for RNA processing, transport, or other actin-related processes.

  13. Yeast Translation Elongation Factor-1A Binds Vacuole-localized Rho1p to Facilitate Membrane Integrity through F-actin Remodeling*

    PubMed Central

    Bodman, James A. R.; Yang, Yang; Logan, Michael R.; Eitzen, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Rho GTPases are molecular switches that modulate a variety of cellular processes, most notably those involving actin dynamics. We have previously shown that yeast vacuolar membrane fusion requires re-organization of actin filaments mediated by two Rho GTPases, Rho1p and Cdc42p. Cdc42p initiates actin polymerization to facilitate membrane tethering; Rho1p has a role in the late stages of vacuolar fusion, but its mode of action is unknown. Here, we identified eEF1A as a vacuolar Rho1p-interacting protein. eEF1A (encoded by the TEF1 and TEF2 genes in yeast) is an aminoacyl-tRNA transferase needed during protein translation. eEF1A also has a second function that is independent of translation; it binds and organizes actin filaments into ordered cable structures. Here, we report that eEF1A interacts with Rho1p via a C-terminal subdomain. This interaction occurs predominantly when both proteins are in the GDP-bound state. Therefore, eEF1A is an atypical downstream effector of Rho1p. eEF1A does not promote vacuolar fusion; however, overexpression of the Rho1p-interacting subdomain affects vacuolar morphology. Vacuoles were destabilized and prone to leakage when treated with the eEF1A inhibitor narciclasine. We propose a model whereby eEF1A binds to Rho1p-GDP on the vacuolar membrane; it is released upon Rho1p activation and then bundles actin filaments to stabilize fused vacuoles. Therefore, the Rho1p-eEF1A complex acts to spatially localize a pool of eEF1A to vacuoles where it can readily organize F-actin. PMID:25561732

  14. PP2A binds to the LIM domains of lipoma-preferred partner through its PR130/B″ subunit to regulate cell adhesion and migration

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Veerle; Zwaenepoel, Karen; Rossé, Carine; Petit, Marleen M. R.; Goris, Jozef; Parker, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we identify the LIM protein lipoma-preferred partner (LPP) as a binding partner of a specific protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimer that is characterised by the regulatory PR130/B″α1 subunit (encoded by PPP2R3A). The PR130 subunit interacts with the LIM domains of LPP through a conserved Zn2+-finger-like motif in the differentially spliced N-terminus of PR130. Isolated LPP-associated PP2A complexes are catalytically active. PR130 colocalises with LPP at multiple locations within cells, including focal contacts, but is specifically excluded from mature focal adhesions, where LPP is still present. An LPP–PR130 fusion protein only localises to focal adhesions upon deletion of the domain of PR130 that binds to the PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2A/C), suggesting that PR130–LPP complex formation is dynamic and that permanent recruitment of PP2A activity might be unfavourable for focal adhesion maturation. Accordingly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PR130 increases adhesion of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells onto collagen I and decreases their migration in scratch wound and Transwell assays. Complex formation with LPP is mandatory for these PR130-PP2A functions, as neither phenotype can be rescued by re-expression of a PR130 mutant that no longer binds to LPP. Our data highlight the importance of specific, locally recruited PP2A complexes in cell adhesion and migration dynamics. PMID:26945059

  15. Structure-Affinity Properties of a High-Affinity Ligand of FKBP12 Studied by Molecular Simulations of a Binding Intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Lilian; Gardebien, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    With a view to explaining the structure-affinity properties of the ligands of the protein FKBP12, we characterized a binding intermediate state between this protein and a high-affinity ligand. Indeed, the nature and extent of the intermolecular contacts developed in such a species may play a role on its stability and, hence, on the overall association rate. To find the binding intermediate, a molecular simulation protocol was used to unbind the ligand by gradually decreasing the biasing forces introduced. The intermediate was subsequently refined with 17 independent stochastic boundary molecular dynamics simulations that provide a consistent picture of the intermediate state. In this state, the core region of the ligand remains stable, notably because of the two anchoring oxygen atoms that correspond to recurrent motifs found in all FKBP12 ligand core structures. Besides, the non-core regions participate in numerous transient intermolecular and intramolecular contacts. The dynamic aspect of most of the contacts seems important both for the ligand to retain at least a part of its configurational entropy and for avoiding a trapped state along the binding pathway. Since the transient and anchoring contacts contribute to increasing the stability of the intermediate, as a corollary, the dissociation rate constant of this intermediate should be decreased, resulting in an increase of the affinity constant . The present results support our previous conclusions and provide a coherent rationale for explaining the prevalence in high-affinity ligands of (i) the two oxygen atoms found in carbonyl or sulfonyl groups of dissimilar core structures and of (ii) symmetric or pseudo-symmetric mobile groups of atoms found as non-core moieties. Another interesting aspect of the intermediate is the distortion of the flexible 80 s loop of the protein, mainly in its tip region, that promotes the accessibility to the bound state. PMID:25502559

  16. Bordetella pertussis FbpA binds both unchelated iron and iron siderophore complexes.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sambuddha; Weerasinghe, Aruna J; Parker Siburt, Claire J; Kreulen, R Timothy; Armstrong, Sandra K; Brickman, Timothy J; Lambert, Lisa A; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2014-06-24

    Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough. This pathogenic bacterium can obtain the essential nutrient iron using its native alcaligin siderophore and by utilizing xeno-siderophores such as desferrioxamine B, ferrichrome, and enterobactin. Previous genome-wide expression profiling identified an iron repressible B. pertussis gene encoding a periplasmic protein (FbpABp). A previously reported crystal structure shows significant similarity between FbpABp and previously characterized bacterial iron binding proteins, and established its iron-binding ability. Bordetella growth studies determined that FbpABp was required for utilization of not only unchelated iron, but also utilization of iron bound to both native and xeno-siderophores. In this in vitro solution study, we quantified the binding of unchelated ferric iron to FbpABp in the presence of various anions and importantly, we demonstrated that FbpABp binds all the ferric siderophores tested (native and xeno) with μM affinity. In silico modeling augmented solution data. FbpABp was incapable of iron removal from ferric xeno-siderophores in vitro. However, when FbpABp was reacted with native ferric-alcaligin, it elicited a pronounced change in the iron coordination environment, which may signify an early step in FbpABp-mediated iron removal from the native siderophore. To our knowledge, this is the first time the periplasmic component of an iron uptake system has been shown to bind iron directly as Fe(3+) and indirectly as a ferric siderophore complex.

  17. Bordetella pertussis FbpA Binds Both Unchelated Iron and Iron Siderophore Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough. This pathogenic bacterium can obtain the essential nutrient iron using its native alcaligin siderophore and by utilizing xeno-siderophores such as desferrioxamine B, ferrichrome, and enterobactin. Previous genome-wide expression profiling identified an iron repressible B. pertussis gene encoding a periplasmic protein (FbpABp). A previously reported crystal structure shows significant similarity between FbpABp and previously characterized bacterial iron binding proteins, and established its iron-binding ability. Bordetella growth studies determined that FbpABp was required for utilization of not only unchelated iron, but also utilization of iron bound to both native and xeno-siderophores. In this in vitro solution study, we quantified the binding of unchelated ferric iron to FbpABp in the presence of various anions and importantly, we demonstrated that FbpABp binds all the ferric siderophores tested (native and xeno) with μM affinity. In silico modeling augmented solution data. FbpABp was incapable of iron removal from ferric xeno-siderophores in vitro. However, when FbpABp was reacted with native ferric-alcaligin, it elicited a pronounced change in the iron coordination environment, which may signify an early step in FbpABp-mediated iron removal from the native siderophore. To our knowledge, this is the first time the periplasmic component of an iron uptake system has been shown to bind iron directly as Fe3+ and indirectly as a ferric siderophore complex. PMID:24873326

  18. Coenzyme A Binding to the Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase (3)-IIIb Increases Conformational Sampling of Antibiotic Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaohu; Norris, Adrianne; Baudry, Jerome Y; Serpersu, Engin H

    2011-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy experiments and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to describe the dynamic properties of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (3)-IIIb (AAC) in its apo and coenzyme A (CoASH) bound forms. The {sup 15}N-{sup 1}H HSQC spectra indicate a partial structural change and coupling of the CoASH binding site with another region in the protein upon the CoASH titration into the apo enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate a significant structural and dynamic variation of the long loop in the antibiotic binding domain in the form of a relatively slow (250 ns), concerted opening motion in the CoASH enzyme complex and that binding of the CoASH increases the structural flexibility of the loop, leading to an interchange between several similar equally populated conformations.

  19. Canonical and Noncanonical Sites Determine NPT2A Binding Selectivity to NHERF1 PDZ1

    PubMed Central

    Mamonova, Tatyana; Zhang, Qiangmin; Khajeh, Jahan Ali; Bu, Zimei; Bisello, Alessandro; Friedman, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor-1 (NHERF1) is a scaffolding protein containing 2 PDZ domains that coordinates the assembly and trafficking of transmembrane receptors and ion channels. Most target proteins harboring a C-terminus recognition motif bind more-or-less equivalently to the either PDZ domain, which contain identical core-binding motifs. However some substrates such as the type II sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter (NPT2A), uniquely bind only one PDZ domain. We sought to define the structural determinants responsible for the specificity of interaction between NHERF1 PDZ domains and NPT2A. By performing all-atom/explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in combination with biological mutagenesis, fluorescent polarization (FP) binding assays, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), we found that in addition to canonical interactions of residues at 0 and -2 positions, Arg at the -1 position of NPT2A plays a critical role in association with Glu43 and His27 of PDZ1 that are absent in PDZ2. Experimentally introduced mutation in PDZ1 (Glu43Asp and His27Asn) decreased binding to NPT2A. Conversely, introduction of Asp183Glu and Asn167His mutations in PDZ2 promoted the formation of favorable interactions yielding micromolar KDs. The results describe novel determinants within both the PDZ domain and outside the canonical PDZ-recognition motif that are responsible for discrimination of NPT2A between two PDZ domains. The results challenge general paradigms for PDZ recognition and suggest new targets for drug development. PMID:26070212

  20. The prion protein binds thiamine.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pineiro, Rolando; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Berjanskii, Mark V; Hau, David; Li, Li; Huang, Alan; Lee, Rose; Gibbs, Ebrima; Ladner, Carol; Dong, Ying Wei; Abera, Ashenafi; Cashman, Neil R; Wishart, David S

    2011-11-01

    Although highly conserved throughout evolution, the exact biological function of the prion protein is still unclear. In an effort to identify the potential biological functions of the prion protein we conducted a small-molecule screening assay using the Syrian hamster prion protein [shPrP(90-232)]. The screen was performed using a library of 149 water-soluble metabolites that are known to pass through the blood-brain barrier. Using a combination of 1D NMR, fluorescence quenching and surface plasmon resonance we identified thiamine (vitamin B1) as a specific prion ligand with a binding constant of ~60 μM. Subsequent studies showed that this interaction is evolutionarily conserved, with similar binding constants being seen for mouse, hamster and human prions. Various protein construct lengths, both with and without the unstructured N-terminal region in the presence and absence of copper, were examined. This indicates that the N-terminus has no influence on the protein's ability to interact with thiamine. In addition to thiamine, the more biologically abundant forms of vitamin B1 (thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate) were also found to bind the prion protein with similar affinity. Heteronuclear NMR experiments were used to determine thiamine's interaction site, which is located between helix 1 and the preceding loop. These data, in conjunction with computer-aided docking and molecular dynamics, were used to model the thiamine-binding pharmacophore and a comparison with other thiamine binding proteins was performed to reveal the common features of interaction.

  1. Protein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunton, James D.; Shiryayev, Andrey; Pagan, Daniel L.

    2014-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Globular protein structure; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; 5. Protein-protein interactions; 6. Theoretical studies of equilibrium; 7. Nucleation theory; 8. Experimental studies of nucleation; 9. Lysozyme; 10. Some other globular proteins; 11. Membrane proteins; 12. Crystallins and cataracts; 13. Sickle hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia; 14, Alzheimer's disease; Index.

  2. Protein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunton, James D.; Shiryayev, Andrey; Pagan, Daniel L.

    2007-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Globular protein structure; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; 5. Protein-protein interactions; 6. Theoretical studies of equilibrium; 7. Nucleation theory; 8. Experimental studies of nucleation; 9. Lysozyme; 10. Some other globular proteins; 11. Membrane proteins; 12. Crystallins and cataracts; 13. Sickle hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia; 14, Alzheimer's disease; Index.

  3. Association analysis of bovine bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein gene polymorphisms with somatic cell score in Holstein cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein is expressed primarily in bovine neutrophils and epithelial cells and functions as a binding protein of bacterial lipopolysaccharide produced by Gram-negative bacteria. The protein is important in host defense against bacterial infections and may pl...

  4. Characterization of rat spinal cord receptors to FLFQPQRFamide, a mammalian morphine modulating peptide: a binding study.

    PubMed

    Allard, M; Geoffre, S; Legendre, P; Vincent, J D; Simonnet, G

    1989-10-23

    An in vitro binding assay, using 125I-YLFQPQRFamide, a newly synthetized iodinated analog of FLFQPQRFamide, in which Phe1 (F) has been substituted by a Tyr (Y), was developed to demonstrate and characterize putative binding sites of this brain morphine modulating peptide. This radioligand bound in a time-dependent manner to rat spinal cord membrane preparation. This binding was dose-dependent, saturable and reversible. Both kinetic data and saturation measured at equilibrium lead to the existence of a homogenous population of high affinity binding sites with a Kd value of 0.09-0.1 nM and a maximal capacity Bmax of 14.5 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein. Results of competition experiments show that both FLFQPQRFamide and its analog YLFQPQRFamide had a similar capacity to inhibit the 125I-YLFQPQRFamide binding, suggesting that this radioiodinated analog is a good tool to study binding characteristics of FLFQPQRFamide receptors. The related octadecapeptide AGEGLSSPFWSLAAPQRFamide, another mammalian morphine modulating peptide competes for radioligand binding with similar potency. Our results also show that mu, delta and kappa opiate receptor agonists as well as the antagonist naloxone were not able to affect binding either in presence or in absence of 120 mM NaCl. Together, these data demonstrate that FLFQPQRFamide does not function as an endogenous opiate receptor antagonist and that is capacity to reduce opiate-induced analgesia is supported by specific binding sites.

  5. Identification of a binding motif specific to HNF4 by comparative analysis of multiple nuclear receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Bin; Mane-Padros, Daniel; Bolotin, Eugene; Jiang, Tao; Sladek, Frances M.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate gene expression by binding specific DNA sequences consisting of AG[G/T]TCA or AGAACA half site motifs in a variety of configurations. However, those motifs/configurations alone do not adequately explain the diversity of NR function in vivo. Here, a systematic examination of DNA binding specificity by protein-binding microarrays (PBMs) of three closely related human NRs—HNF4α, retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) and COUPTF2—reveals an HNF4-specific binding motif (H4-SBM), xxxxCAAAGTCCA, as well as a previously unrecognized polarity in the classical DR1 motif (AGGTCAxAGGTCA) for HNF4α, RXRα and COUPTF2 homodimers. ChIP-seq data indicate that the H4-SBM is uniquely bound by HNF4α but not 10 other NRs in vivo, while NRs PXR, FXRα, Rev-Erbα appear to bind adjacent to H4-SBMs. HNF4-specific DNA recognition and transactivation are mediated by residues Asp69 and Arg76 in the DNA-binding domain; this combination of amino acids is unique to HNF4 among all human NRs. Expression profiling and ChIP data predict ∼100 new human HNF4α target genes with an H4-SBM site, including several Co-enzyme A-related genes and genes with links to disease. These results provide important new insights into NR DNA binding. PMID:22383578

  6. Lung Tumor Suppressor GPRC5A Binds EGFR and Restrains Its Effector Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shuangshuang; Yin, Huijing; Liao, Yueling; Yao, Feng; Li, Qi; Zhang, Jie; Jiao, Huike; Zhao, Yongxu; Xu, Dongliang; Liu, Shuli; Song, Hongyong; Gao, Yong; Liu, Jingyi; Ma, Lina; Pang, Zhi; Yang, Ruixu; Ding, Chengyi; Sun, Beibei; Lin, Xiaofeng; Ye, Xiaofeng; Guo, Wenzheng; Han, Baohui; Zhou, Binhua P; Chin, Y Eugene; Deng, Jiong

    2015-05-01

    GPRC5A is a G-protein-coupled receptor expressed in lung tissue but repressed in most human lung cancers. Studies in Gprc5a(-/-) mice have established its role as a tumor-suppressor function in this setting, but the basis for its role has been obscure. Here, we report that GPRC5A functions as a negative modulator of EGFR signaling. Mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC) from Gprc5a(-/-) mice exhibited a relative increase in EGFR and downstream STAT3 signaling, whereas GPRC5A expression inhibited EGFR and STAT3 signaling. GPRC5A physically interacted with EGFR through its transmembrane domain, which was required for its EGFR inhibitory activity. Gprc5a(-/-) MTEC were much more susceptible to EGFR inhibitors than wild-type MTEC, suggesting their dependence on EGFR signaling for proliferation and survival. Dysregulated EGFR and STAT3 were identified in the normal epithelia of small and terminal bronchioles as well as tumors of Gprc5a(-/-) mouse lungs. Moreover, in these lungs EGFR inhibitor treatment inhibited EGFR and STAT3 activation along with cell proliferation. Finally, overexpression of ectopic GPRC5A in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells inhibited both EGF-induced and constitutively activated EGFR signaling. Taken together, our results show how GPRC5A deficiency leads to dysregulated EGFR and STAT3 signaling and lung tumorigenesis. Cancer Res; 75(9); 1801-14. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Monoamine oxidase A binding in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices during acute withdrawal from heavy cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Bacher, Ingrid; Houle, Sylvain; Xu, Xin; Zawertailo, Laurie; Soliman, Alexandra; Wilson, Alan A; Selby, Peter; George, Tony P; Sacher, Julia; Miler, Laura; Kish, Stephen J; Rusjan, Pablo; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2011-08-01

    Greater prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) binding is associated with depressed mood. Substances in cigarette smoke, such as harman, inhibit MAO-A, and cigarette withdrawal is associated with depressed mood. Dysphoria during cigarette withdrawal predicts relapse. It is unknown whether MAO-A binding increases during early cigarette withdrawal. To measure prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex MAO-A binding during acute cigarette withdrawal and to assess the relationship with smoking severity, plasma levels of harman, and severity of depression. Study via positron emission tomography of healthy control and cigarette-smoking individuals. Twenty-four healthy nonsmoking and 24 otherwise healthy cigarette-smoking individuals underwent positron emission tomography with harmine labeled with carbon 11. Healthy nonsmoking individuals underwent scanning once. Cigarette-smoking individuals underwent scanning after acute withdrawal and after active cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was heavy (≥25 cigarettes per day) or moderate (15-24 cigarettes per day). Tertiary care psychiatric hospital. An index of MAO-A density, MAO-A V(T), was measured in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In heavy-smoking individuals, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex MAO-A V(T) was greater during withdrawal (23.7% and 33.3%, respectively; repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance, F(1,22) = 25.58, P < .001). During withdrawal from heavy smoking, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex MAO-A V(T) was greater than in healthy controls (25.0% and 25.6%, respectively; multivariate analysis of variance, F(2,33) = 6.72, P = .004). The difference in MAO-A V(T) in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex between withdrawal and active, heavy smoking covaried with change in plasma harman levels in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (multivariate analysis of covariance, F(1,10) = 9.97, P = .01). The change in

  8. Campylobacter jejuni FlpA binds fibronectin and is required for maximal host cell adherence.

    PubMed

    Konkel, Michael E; Larson, Charles L; Flanagan, Rebecca C

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most frequent bacterial causes of food-borne gastrointestinal disease in developed countries. Previous work indicates that the binding of C. jejuni to human intestinal cells is crucial for host colonization and disease. Fibronectin (Fn), a major constituent of the extracellular matrix, is a approximately 250-kDa glycoprotein present at regions of cell-to-cell contact in the intestinal epithelium. Fn is composed of three types of repeating units: type I (approximately 45 amino acids), type II (approximately 60 amino acids), and type III (approximately 90 amino acids). The deduced amino acid sequence of C. jejuni flpA (Cj1279c) contains at least three Fn type III domains. Based on the presence of the Fn type III domains, we hypothesized that FlpA contributes to the binding of C. jejuni to human INT 407 epithelial cells and Fn. We assessed the contribution of FlpA in C. jejuni binding to host cells by in vitro adherence assays with a C. jejuni wild-type strain and a C. jejuni flpA mutant and binding of purified FlpA protein to Fn by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Adherence assays revealed the binding of the C. jejuni flpA mutant to INT 407 epithelial cells was significantly reduced compared with that for a wild-type strain. In addition, rabbit polyclonal serum generated against FlpA blocked C. jejuni adherence to INT 407 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Binding of FlpA to Fn was found to be dose dependent and saturable by ELISA, demonstrating the specificity of the interaction. Based on these data, we conclude that FlpA mediates C. jejuni attachment to host epithelial cells via Fn binding.

  9. The Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidylethanolamine Receptor CD300a Binds Dengue Virus and Enhances Infection

    PubMed Central

    Carnec, Xavier; Meertens, Laurent; Dejarnac, Ophélie; Perera-Lecoin, Manuel; Hafirassou, Mohamed Lamine; Kitaura, Jiro; Ramdasi, Rasika; Schwartz, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV) is the etiological agent of the major human arboviral disease. We previously demonstrated that the TIM and TAM families of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) receptors involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells mediate DENV entry into target cells. We show here that human CD300a, a recently identified phospholipid receptor, also binds directly DENV particles and enhances viral entry. CD300a facilitates infection of the four DENV serotypes, as well as of other mosquito-borne viruses such as West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus. CD300a acts as an attachment factor that enhances DENV internalization through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. CD300a recognizes predominantly phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEth) and to a lesser extent PtdSer associated with viral particles. Mutation of residues in the IgV domain critical for phospholipid binding abrogate CD300a-mediated enhancement of DENV infection. Finally, we show that CD300a is expressed at the surface of primary macrophages and anti-CD300a polyclonal antibodies partially inhibited DENV infection of these cells. Overall, these data indicate that CD300a is a novel DENV binding receptor that recognizes PtdEth and PtdSer present on virions and enhance infection. IMPORTANCE Dengue disease, caused by dengue virus (DENV), has emerged as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease of humans and is a major global health concern. The molecular bases of DENV-host cell interactions during virus entry are poorly understood, hampering the discovery of new targets for antiviral intervention. We recently discovered that the TIM and TAM proteins, two receptor families involved in the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-dependent phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells, interact with DENV particles-associated PtdSer through a mechanism that mimics the recognition of apoptotic cells and mediate DENV infection. In this study, we show that CD300a, a novel identified phospholipid receptor, mediates DENV infection. CD300a

  10. The ecdysone receptor (ScEcR-A) binds DNA puffs at the start of DNA amplification in Sciara coprophila

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Gerald M.; Foulk, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone induces DNA amplification and subsequent DNA puff formation in late fourth larval instar salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the fungus fly, Sciara coprophila. Previous in vitro studies on DNA puff II/9A in Sciara demonstrated that the ecdysone receptor (ScEcR-A) efficiently binds an ecdysone response element adjacent to the origin recognition complex binding site within the II/9A amplification origin, implying a role for ScEcR-A in amplification. Here, we extrapolate themolecular details from locus II/9A to the rest of the genome using immunofluorescence with a ScEcR-A-specific antibody. ScEcR-A binds all DNA puff sites just as amplification begins and persists throughout the processes of amplification, transcription, and puffing. Ecdysone injections into pre-amplification stage larvae prematurely induce both DNA amplification and ScEcR-A binding to DNA puff sites. These data are consistent with a direct role for ScEcR-A in DNA amplification. PMID:23737076

  11. Suppression of conformational heterogeneity at a protein-protein interface.

    PubMed

    Deis, Lindsay N; Wu, Qinglin; Wang, You; Qi, Yang; Daniels, Kyle G; Zhou, Pei; Oas, Terrence G

    2015-07-21

    Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) is an important virulence factor from Staphylococcus aureus responsible for the bacterium's evasion of the host immune system. SpA includes five small three-helix-bundle domains that can each bind with high affinity to many host proteins such as antibodies. The interaction between a SpA domain and the Fc fragment of IgG was partially elucidated previously in the crystal structure 1FC2. Although informative, the previous structure was not properly folded and left many substantial questions unanswered, such as a detailed description of the tertiary structure of SpA domains in complex with Fc and the structural changes that take place upon binding. Here we report the 2.3-Å structure of a fully folded SpA domain in complex with Fc. Our structure indicates that there are extensive structural rearrangements necessary for binding Fc, including a general reduction in SpA conformational heterogeneity, freezing out of polyrotameric interfacial residues, and displacement of a SpA side chain by an Fc side chain in a molecular-recognition pocket. Such a loss of conformational heterogeneity upon formation of the protein-protein interface may occur when SpA binds its multiple binding partners. Suppression of conformational heterogeneity may be an important structural paradigm in functionally plastic proteins.

  12. NDR proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Alan M

    2010-01-01

    N-myc downregulated (NDR) genes were discovered more than fifteen years ago. Indirect evidence support a role in tumor progression and cellular differentiation, but their biochemical function is still unknown. Our detailed analyses on Arabidopsis NDR proteins (deisgnated NDR-like, NDL) show their involvement in altering auxin transport, local auxin gradients and expression level of auxin transport proteins. Animal NDL proteins may be involved in membrane recycling of E-cadherin and effector for the small GTPase. In light of these findings, we hypothesize that NDL proteins regulate vesicular trafficking of auxin transport facilitator PIN proteins by biochemically alterating the local lipid environment of PIN proteins. PMID:20724844

  13. Purification of GST-Tagged Proteins.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Frank; Seip, Nicole; Maertens, Barbara; Block, Helena; Kubicek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes the purification of recombinant proteins fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST, GST-tagged proteins) by Glutathione Affinity purification. The GST tag frequently increases the solubility of the fused protein of interest and thus enables its purification and subsequent functional characterization. The GST-tagged protein specifically binds to glutathione immobilized to a matrix (e.g., agarose) and can be easily separated from a cell lysate by a bind-wash-elute procedure. GST-tagged proteins are often used to study protein-protein interactions, again making use of glutathione affinity in a procedure called a GST pull-down assay. The protocol is designed to process 200 ml of E. coli culture expressing intermediate to high amounts of a GST-tagged protein (~25 mg l(-1)). Depending on the expression rate or the available culture volume, the scale can be increased or decreased linearly. The protocol can also be used to purify GST-tagged proteins from other expression systems, such as insect or mammalian cells. Tips are provided to aid in modifying certain steps if proteins shall be recovered from alternative expression systems. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cooperative DnaA Binding to the Negatively Supercoiled datA Locus Stimulates DnaA-ATP Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kasho, Kazutoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Ryuji; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2017-01-27

    Timely initiation of replication in Escherichia coli requires functional regulation of the replication initiator, ATP-DnaA. The cellular level of ATP-DnaA increases just before initiation, after which its level decreases through hydrolysis of DnaA-bound ATP, yielding initiation-inactive ADP-DnaA. Previously, we reported a novel DnaA-ATP hydrolysis system involving the chromosomal locus datA and named it datA-dependent DnaA-ATP hydrolysis (DDAH). The datA locus contains a binding site for a nucleoid-associating factor integration host factor (IHF) and a cluster of three known DnaA-binding sites, which are important for DDAH. However, the mechanisms underlying the formation and regulation of the datA-IHF·DnaA complex remain unclear. We now demonstrate that a novel DnaA box within datA is essential for ATP-DnaA complex formation and DnaA-ATP hydrolysis. Specific DnaA residues, which are important for interaction with bound ATP and for head-to-tail inter-DnaA interaction, were also required for ATP-DnaA-specific oligomer formation on datA Furthermore, we show that negative DNA supercoiling of datA stabilizes ATP-DnaA oligomers, and stimulates datA-IHF interaction and DnaA-ATP hydrolysis. Relaxation of DNA supercoiling by the addition of novobiocin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor, inhibits datA function in cells. On the basis of these results, we propose a mechanistic model of datA-IHF·DnaA complex formation and DNA supercoiling-dependent regulation for DDAH.

  15. Proteins (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an important nutrient that builds muscles and bones and provides energy. Protein can help with weight control because it helps you feel full and satisfied from your meals. The healthiest proteins are the leanest. This means ...

  16. Dietary Proteins

    MedlinePlus

    ... and maintain bones, muscles and skin. We get proteins in our diet from meat, dairy products, nuts, and certain grains ... level of physical activity. Most Americans eat enough protein in their diet.

  17. Protein Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  18. Protein Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  19. Analysis of PGC-1{alpha} variants Gly482Ser and Thr612Met concerning their PPAR{gamma}2-coactivation function

    SciTech Connect

    Nitz, Inke . E-mail: initz@molnut.uni-kiel.de; Ewert, Agnes; Klapper, Maja; Doering, Frank

    2007-02-09

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) is a cofactor involved in adaptive thermogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and gluconeogenesis. Dysfunctions of this protein are likely to contribute to the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. This is in part but not definitely confirmed by results of population studies. The aim of this study was to investigate if common genetic variants rs8192678 (Gly482Ser) and rs3736265 (Thr612Met) in the PGC-1{alpha} gene lead to a functional consequence in cofactor activity using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} 2 (PPAR{gamma}2) as interacting transcription factor. Reporter gene assays in HepG2 cells with wildtype and mutant proteins of both PGC1{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}2 (Pro12Ala, rs1801282) using the acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) promoter showed no difference in coactivator activity. This is First study implicating that the Gly482Ser and Thr612Met polymorphisms in PGC-1{alpha} and Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPAR{gamma}2 do not affect the functional integrity of these proteins.

  20. Examination of the transcription factor NtcA-binding motif by in vitro selection of DNA sequences from a random library.

    PubMed

    Jiang, F; Wisén, S; Widersten, M; Bergman, B; Mannervik, B

    2000-08-25

    A recursive in vitro selection among random DNA sequences was used for analysis of the cyanobacterial transcription factor NtcA-binding motifs. An eight-base palindromic sequence, TGTA-(N(8))-TACA, was found to be the optimal NtcA-binding sequence. The more divergent the binding sequences, compared to this consensus sequence, the lower the NtcA affinity. The second and third bases in each four-nucleotide half of the consensus sequence were crucial for NtcA binding, and they were in general highly conserved. The most frequently occurring sequence in the middle weakly conserved region was similar to that of the NtcA-binding motif of the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 glnA gene, previously known to have high affinity for NtcA. This indicates that the middle sequences were selected for high NtcA affinity. Analysis of natural NtcA-binding motifs showed that these could be classified into two groups based on differences in recognition consensus sequences. It is suggested that NtcA naturally recognizes different DNA-binding motifs, or has differential affinities to these sequences under different physiological conditions.

  1. Tuning membrane protein mobility by confinement into nanodomains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karner, Andreas; Nimmervoll, Benedikt; Plochberger, Birgit; Klotzsch, Enrico; Horner, Andreas; Knyazev, Denis G.; Kuttner, Roland; Winkler, Klemens; Winter, Lukas; Siligan, Christine; Ollinger, Nicole; Pohl, Peter; Preiner, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) can be used to visualize function-related conformational changes of single soluble proteins. Similar studies of single membrane proteins are, however, hampered by a lack of suitable flat, non-interacting membrane supports and by high protein mobility. Here we show that streptavidin crystals grown on mica-supported lipid bilayers can be used as porous supports for membranes containing biotinylated lipids. Using SecYEG (protein translocation channel) and GlpF (aquaglyceroporin), we demonstrate that the platform can be used to tune the lateral mobility of transmembrane proteins to any value within the dynamic range accessible to HS-AFM imaging through glutaraldehyde-cross-linking of the streptavidin. This allows HS-AFM to study the conformation or docking of spatially confined proteins, which we illustrate by imaging GlpF at sub-molecular resolution and by observing the motor protein SecA binding to SecYEG.

  2. Differential Protein Accumulation in Banana Fruit during Ripening 1

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Puigjaner, Eva; Vendrell, Miguel; Ludevid, M. Dolors

    1992-01-01

    Banana (Musa acuminata, cv Dwarf Cavendish) proteins were extracted from pulp tissue at different stages of ripening and analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The results provide evidence of differential protein accumulation during ripening. Two sets of polypeptides have been detected that increase substantially in ripe fruit. These polypeptides were characterized as glycoproteins by western blotting and concanavalin A binding assays. Antibodies againts tomato polygalacturonase cross-react with one of these sets of proteins. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:16668607

  3. Investigating the Turing conditions for diffusion-driven instability in the presence of a binding immobile substrate.

    PubMed

    Korvasová, K; Gaffney, E A; Maini, P K; Ferreira, M A; Klika, V

    2015-02-21

    Turing's diffusion-driven instability for the standard two species reaction-diffusion system is only achievable under well-known and rather restrictive conditions on both the diffusion rates and the kinetic parameters, which necessitates the pairing of a self-activator with a self-inhibitor. In this study we generalize the standard two-species model by considering the case where the reactants can bind to an immobile substrate, for instance extra-cellular matrix, and investigate the influence of this dynamics on Turing's diffusion-driven instability. Such systems have been previously studied on the grounds that binding of the self-activator to a substrate may effectively reduce its diffusion rate and thus induce a Turing instability for species with equal diffusion coefficients, as originally demonstrated by Lengyel and Epstein (1992) under the assumption that the bound state dynamics occurs on a fast timescale. We, however, analyse the full system without any separation of timescales and demonstrate that the full system also allows a relaxation of the standard constraints on the reaction kinetics for the Turing instability, increasing the type of interactions that could give rise to spatial patterning. In particular, we show that two self-activators can undertake a diffusively driven instability in the presence of a binding immobile substrate, highlighting that the interactions required of a putative biological Turing instability need not be associated with a self-activator-self-inhibitor morphogen pair.

  4. Construction of proteins with molecular recognition capabilities using α3β3 de novo protein scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Okura, Hiromichi; Mihara, Hisakazu; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi

    2013-10-01

    The molecular recognition ability of proteins is essential in biological systems, and therefore a considerable amount of effort has been devoted to constructing desired target-binding proteins using a variety of naturally occurring proteins as scaffolds. However, since generating a binding site in a native protein can often affect its structural properties, highly stable de novo protein scaffolds may be more amenable than the native proteins. We previously reported the generation of de novo proteins comprising three α-helices and three β-strands (α3β3) from a genetic library coding simplified amino acid sets. Two α3β3 de novo proteins, vTAJ13 and vTAJ36, fold into a native-like stable and molten globule-like structures, respectively, even though the proteins have similar amino acid compositions. Here, we attempted to create binding sites for the vTAJ13 and vTAJ36 proteins to prove the utility of de novo designed artificial proteins as a molecular recognition tool. Randomization of six amino acids at two linker sites of vTAJ13 and vTAJ36 followed by biopanning generated binding proteins that recognize the target molecules, fluorescein and green fluorescent protein, with affinities of 10(-7)-10(-8) M. Of note, the selected proteins from the vTAJ13-based library tended to recognize the target molecules with high specificity, probably due to the native-like stable structure of vTAJ13. Our studies provide an example of the potential of de novo protein scaffolds, which are composed of a simplified amino acid set, to recognize a variety of target compounds.

  5. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Hackley, K.C.; Strickland, R.; Berger, R.; Schanche, G.

    1992-12-31

    In this project, the ISGS is investigating the pelletization of fine coal with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur-capturing sorbent. The objective is to produce a readily-transportable fuel which will burn in compliance with the recently passed Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA). To improve the economics of pelletizing, carbonation, or, the reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium hydroxide, which produces a binding matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated as a method of hardening pelletized coal fines. This year, pellets were produced from 28 {times} 0 coal fines collected from an Illinois preparation plant using a laboratory version of a California Pellet Mill (CPM), a commercially available pellet machine. The CPM effectively pelletized coal fines at the moisture content they were dewatered to at the plant. Carbonation nearly doubled the strength of pellets containing 10 wt % calcium hydroxide. Other results from this year`s work indicate that inclusion of calcium hydroxide into pellets resulted in chlorine capture of approximately 20 wt % for combustion tests conducted at both 850 and 1100{degrees}C. Arsenic emissions were reduced from near 38 wt% at 850 C to essentially nil with inclusion of 10 wt % calcium hydroxide into the pellets. At 110{degrees}C, arsenic emissions were reduced from about 90 wt % to about 15 wt %. Sodium emissions, however, increased with the addition of calcium hydroxide. At 850{degrees}C, sodium capture dropped from about 98 wt % to 73 wt % for pellets containing 10 wt % calcium hydroxide; at 1100{degrees}C, capture dropped from about 92 wt % to about 20 wt %.

  6. Structural Basis for a Bispecific NADP+ and CoA Binding Site in an Archaeal Malonyl-Coenzyme A Reductase*

    PubMed Central

    Demmer, Ulrike; Warkentin, Eberhard; Srivastava, Ankita; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Pötter, Markus; Marx, Achim; Fuchs, Georg; Ermler, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Autotrophic members of the Sulfolobales (crenarchaeota) use the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle to assimilate CO2 into cell material. The product of the initial acetyl-CoA carboxylation with CO2, malonyl-CoA, is further reduced to malonic semialdehyde by an NADPH-dependent malonyl-CoA reductase (MCR); the enzyme also catalyzes the reduction of succinyl-CoA to succinic semialdehyde onwards in the cycle. Here, we present the crystal structure of Sulfolobus tokodaii malonyl-CoA reductase in the substrate-free state and in complex with NADP+ and CoA. Structural analysis revealed an unexpected reaction cycle in which NADP+ and CoA successively occupy identical binding sites. Both coenzymes are pressed into an S-shaped, nearly superimposable structure imposed by a fixed and preformed binding site. The template-governed cofactor shaping implicates the same binding site for the 3′- and 2′-ribose phosphate group of CoA and NADP+, respectively, but a different one for the common ADP part: the β-phosphate of CoA aligns with the α-phosphate of NADP+. Evolution from an NADP+ to a bispecific NADP+ and CoA binding site involves many amino acid exchanges within a complex process by which constraints of the CoA structure also influence NADP+ binding. Based on the paralogous aspartate-β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase structurally characterized with a covalent Cys-aspartyl adduct, a malonyl/succinyl group can be reliably modeled into MCR and discussed regarding its binding mode, the malonyl/succinyl specificity, and the catalyzed reaction. The modified polypeptide surrounding around the absent ammonium group in malonate/succinate compared with aspartate provides the structural basis for engineering a methylmalonyl-CoA reductase applied for biotechnical polyester building block synthesis. PMID:23325803

  7. A single gene from yeast for both nuclear and cytoplasmic polyadenylate-binding proteins: domain structure and expression.

    PubMed

    Sachs, A B; Bond, M W; Kornberg, R D

    1986-06-20

    Nuclear and cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding proteins have been purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and antisera have been used to isolate a gene that encodes them. The gene occurs in a single copy on chromosome 5 and gives rise to a unique, unspliced 2.1 kb transcript. The nuclear protein appears to be derived from the cytoplasmic one by proteolytic cleavage into 53 and 17 kd polypeptides that remain associated during isolation. DNA sequence determination reveals four tandemly arrayed 90 amino acid regions of homology that probably represent poly(A)-binding domains. A 55 residue A-rich region upstream of the initiator methionine codon in the mRNA shows an affinity for poly(A)-binding protein comparable to that of poly(A)180-220, raising the possibility of feedback regulation of translation.

  8. Protein tentacles.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Stephen C

    2017-05-27

    Virus structures were among the earliest illustrations of how regulated protein assembly can proceed by folding of polypeptide-chain segments into complementary sites on partner proteins. I draw on Caspar's image of protein "tentacles" and his metaphor of SV40 pentamers as five-legged, aquatic organisms ("pentopuses") to suggest a helpful vocabulary. "Tentacular interactions" among component subunits organize most subcellular molecular machines. Their selective advantages include facile regulation of both assembly and disassembly by modifying enzymes and by folding chaperones. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The Shelterin Component TPP1 Is a Binding Partner and Substrate for the Deubiquitinating Enzyme USP7*

    PubMed Central

    Zemp, Ivo; Lingner, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The telomeric shelterin component TPP1 has critical functions in telomeric protein complex assembly and telomerase recruitment and regulation. Here we identify USP7 as a novel interacting protein of the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding fold of TPP1, which was previously known to recruit telomerase to telomeres. We identify amino acids in TPP1 and USP7 that are critical for their interaction and multiple lysines within TPP1 that are oligo-ubiquitinated and deubiquitinated by USP7. Mutational analysis indicated that human TPP1 does not require ubiquitination for telomere association in contrast to previous observations reported for mouse Tpp1. Ubiquitination of human TPP1 also had no detectable effects on known protein interactions of TPP1 with TIN2, POT1, the CTC1-STN1-TEN1 complex, and telomerase. However, the close proximity of USP7 and telomerase binding sites on TPP1 suggest possible cross-talks. In addition, we found that TPP1 is degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner. Prevention of TPP1 ubiquitination prolonged TPP1 half-life ∼2-fold from 45 to 90 min, and remarkably, proteasome inhibition prompted complete stability of TPP1. This indicates that the proteasome destabilizes TPP1 through both direct and indirect pathways possibly involving TPP1-interacting proteins. Altogether, our work identifies novel regulatory circuits that contribute to TPP1 stability and function. PMID:25172512

  10. The shelterin component TPP1 is a binding partner and substrate for the deubiquitinating enzyme USP7.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Ivo; Lingner, Joachim

    2014-10-10

    The telomeric shelterin component TPP1 has critical functions in telomeric protein complex assembly and telomerase recruitment and regulation. Here we identify USP7 as a novel interacting protein of the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding fold of TPP1, which was previously known to recruit telomerase to telomeres. We identify amino acids in TPP1 and USP7 that are critical for their interaction and multiple lysines within TPP1 that are oligo-ubiquitinated and deubiquitinated by USP7. Mutational analysis indicated that human TPP1 does not require ubiquitination for telomere association in contrast to previous observations reported for mouse Tpp1. Ubiquitination of human TPP1 also had no detectable effects on known protein interactions of TPP1 with TIN2, POT1, the CTC1-STN1-TEN1 complex, and telomerase. However, the close proximity of USP7 and telomerase binding sites on TPP1 suggest possible cross-talks. In addition, we found that TPP1 is degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner. Prevention of TPP1 ubiquitination prolonged TPP1 half-life ∼ 2-fold from 45 to 90 min, and remarkably, proteasome inhibition prompted complete stability of TPP1. This indicates that the proteasome destabilizes TPP1 through both direct and indirect pathways possibly involving TPP1-interacting proteins. Altogether, our work identifies novel regulatory circuits that contribute to TPP1 stability and function. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016:chap 215. Read More Agammaglobulinemia Albumin - blood (serum) test Amino acids Antibody Burns Chronic Congenital nephrotic syndrome Fibrinogen blood test Glomerulonephritis Hemoglobin Liver disease Malabsorption Multiple myeloma Polycythemia vera Protein in diet ...

  12. Identification and characterization of a binding site for factor XIIa in the Apple 4 domain of coagulation factor XI.

    PubMed

    Baglia, F A; Jameson, B A; Walsh, P N

    1993-02-25

    Previously we have characterized a binding site for high M(r) kininogen in the first of four tandem-repeat (Apple) domains within the heavy chain region of factor XI (Baglia, F. A., Jameson, B. A., and Walsh, P. N. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 4149-4154; Baglia, F. A., Jameson, B. A., and Walsh, P. N. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 4247-4252), whereas a substrate binding site for factor IX was localized to the second Apple (A2) domain (Baglia, F. A., Jameson, B. A., and Walsh, P. N. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 24190-24197). To define the factor XI domain that binds factor XIIa, we have screened a panel of synthetic peptides for their capacity to inhibit factor XI activation by factor XIIa. Peptide Gly326-Lys357 (located in the A4 domain) is a noncompetitive inhibitor of factor XI activation by factor XIIa (Ki = 3.75 microM), whereas structurally similar peptides from the A1, A2, and A3 domains were required at > 1000-fold higher concentrations for similar effects. The same peptide (Gly326-Lys357) is a competitive inhibitor of factor XIIa amidolytic activity (Ki = 3.8 microM) suggesting that it binds near the active site of factor XIIa. Computer modeling was used to predict the secondary and tertiary structure of the A4 domain of factor XI that interacts with factor XIIa. Rationally designed, conformationally constrained peptides were synthesized comprising residues Ala317-Gly326, Lys331-Lys340, and Gly344-Gly350, which act in concert to inhibit factor XI-activation by factor XIIa. Finally, a conformationally constrained peptide spanning residues Ala317-Gly350 inhibits factor XIIa-catalyzed factor XI activation 50% at a concentration of 5 x 10(-7) M. These results, interpreted in the context of the model, suggest that the sequence of amino acids from Ala317 through Gly350 of the heavy chain of the A4 domain of factor XI contains three peptide structures, possibly consisting of three antiparallel beta-strands that together comprise a contact surface for interacting with

  13. Interacting protein partners of Arabidopsis RNA-binding protein AtRBP45b.

    PubMed

    Muthuramalingam, M; Wang, Y; Li, Y; Mahalingam, R

    2017-05-01

    RNA binding proteins, important players in post-transcriptional gene regulation, usually exist in ribonuclear complexes. However, even in model systems like Arabidopsis characterisation of RBP associated proteins is limited. In this study, we investigated the interacting proteins of the Arabidopsis AtRBP45b, which is involved in stress signalling. In vivo localisation of AtRBP45b was conducted using 35S-GFP. FLAG-tagged AtRBP45b under control of the 35S promoter in the Atrbp45b-1 mutant background was used to pull down AtRBP45b interacting proteins. Yeast two-hybrid analysis, fluorescence energy resonance transfer assays were used to confirm the veracity of the AtRBP45b interacting proteins. In planta GFP-tagging indicated AtRBP45b is localised to the nucleus and the cytosol. AtRBP45b protein has a N-terminal proline-rich region and a C-terminal glutamine-rich domain that are usually involved in protein-protein interactions. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing led to identification of 30 proteins that interacted with AtRBP45b. Using information from interactome databases (BIOGRID, INTACT and STRING), pull-down assays and localisation data, 12 putative interacting proteins were selected for yeast two-hybrid analysis. Cap-binding protein (CBP20, At5g44200) and polyA-binding protein (PAB8, At1g49760) were shown to interact with AtRBP45b. Based on its interacting partners we speculate that AtRBP45b may play an important role in RNA metabolism, especially in aspects related to mRNA stability and translation initiation during stress conditions in plants.

  14. A conserved patch of hydrophobic amino acids modulates Myb activity by mediating protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Dukare, Sandeep; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor c-Myb plays a key role in the control of proliferation and differentiation in hematopoietic progenitor cells and has been implicated in the development of leukemia and certain non-hematopoietic tumors. c-Myb activity is highly dependent on the interaction with the coactivator p300 which is mediated by the transactivation domain of c-Myb and the KIX domain of p300. We have previously observed that conservative valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions in a conserved stretch of hydrophobic amino acids have a profound effect on Myb activity. Here, we have explored the function of the hydrophobic region as a mediator of protein-protein interactions. We show that the hydrophobic region facilitates Myb self-interaction and binding of the histone acetyl transferase Tip60, a previously identified Myb interacting protein. We show that these interactions are affected by the valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions and suppress Myb activity by interfering with the interaction of Myb and the KIX domain of p300. Taken together, our work identifies the hydrophobic region in the Myb transactivation domain as a binding site for homo- and heteromeric protein interactions and leads to a picture of the c-Myb transactivation domain as a composite protein binding region that facilitates interdependent protein-protein interactions of Myb with regulatory proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A binding site outside the canonical PDZ domain determines the specific interaction between Shank and SAPAP and their function

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Menglong; Shang, Yuan; Guo, Tingfeng; He, Qinghai; Yung, Wing-Ho; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-01-01

    Shank and SAPAP (synapse-associated protein 90/postsynaptic density-95–associated protein) are two highly abundant scaffold proteins that directly interact with each other to regulate excitatory synapse development and plasticity. Mutations of SAPAP, but not other reported Shank PDZ domain binders, share a significant overlap on behavioral abnormalities with the mutations of Shank both in patients and in animal models. The molecular mechanism governing the exquisite specificity of the Shank/SAPAP interaction is not clear, however. Here we report that a sequence preceding the canonical PDZ domain of Shank, together with the elongated PDZ BC loop, form another binding site for a sequence upstream of the SAPAP PDZ-binding motif, leading to a several hundred-fold increase in the affinity of the Shank/SAPAP interaction. We provide evidence that the specific interaction afforded by this newly identified site is required for Shank synaptic targeting and the Shank-induced synaptic activity increase. Our study provides a molecular explanation of how Shank and SAPAP dosage changes due to their gene copy number variations can contribute to different psychiatric disorders. PMID:27185935

  16. Characterization of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri LexA: recognition of the LexA binding site.

    PubMed

    Yang, M-K; Yang, Y-C; Hsu, C-H

    2002-12-01

    Levels of l exA transcripts are markedly increased upon exposure of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar citri ( X. a. pv. citri) to the DNA-damaging agent mitomycin C. Preliminary electrophoretic mobility-shift data led us to propose that binding of LexA protein to the sequence upstream of the lexA coding region is responsible for low promoter activity in the uniduced state. We determined that the LexA protein binds to the region located between the transcription start site and the translation initiation codon of the lexA gene of X. a. pv. citri. Using a DNase I footprinting technique, we identified a 19-bp palindromic sequence, TTAGTAGTAATACTACTAA (TTAGN(11)CTAA), located in this region as the binding sequence for the LexA protein of X. a. pv. citri, and showed that the two halves of the palindrome have to be in the inverted repeat orientation to permit binding of LexA. We also showed that almost any mutation in this sequence, including changes in the length of the spacer region of the palindrome, destroyed its ability to bind LexA both in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Kobuviral Non-structural 3A Proteins Act as Molecular Harnesses to Hijack the Host ACBD3 Protein.

    PubMed

    Klima, Martin; Chalupska, Dominika; Różycki, Bartosz; Humpolickova, Jana; Rezabkova, Lenka; Silhan, Jan; Baumlova, Adriana; Dubankova, Anna; Boura, Evzen

    2017-02-07

    Picornaviruses are small positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that include many important human pathogens. Within the host cell, they replicate at specific replication sites called replication organelles. To create this membrane platform, they hijack several host factors including the acyl-CoA-binding domain-containing protein-3 (ACBD3). Here, we present a structural characterization of the molecular complexes formed by the non-structural 3A proteins from two species of the Kobuvirus genus of the Picornaviridae family and the 3A-binding domain of the host ACBD3 protein. Specifically, we present a series of crystal structures as well as a molecular dynamics simulation of the 3A:ACBD3 complex at the membrane, which reveals that the viral 3A proteins act as molecular harnesses to enslave the ACBD3 protein leading to its stabilization at target membranes. Our data provide a structural rationale for understanding how these viral-host protein complexes assemble at the atomic level and identify new potential targets for antiviral therapies.

  18. Protein Crystallizability.

    PubMed

    Smialowski, Pawel; Wong, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining diffracting quality crystals remains a major challenge in protein structure research. We summarize and compare methods for selecting the best protein targets for crystallization, construct optimization and crystallization condition design. Target selection methods are divided into algorithms predicting the chance of successful progression through all stages of structural determination (from cloning to solving the structure) and those focusing only on the crystallization step. We tried to highlight pros and cons of different approaches examining the following aspects: data size, redundancy and representativeness, overfitting during model construction, and results evaluation. In summary, although in recent years progress was made and several sequence properties were reported to be relevant for crystallization, the successful prediction of protein crystallization behavior and selection of corresponding crystallization conditions continue to challenge structural researchers.

  19. Protein Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  20. Stable Isotope Labeling Strategy for Protein-Ligand Binding Analysis in Multi-Component Protein Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeArmond, Patrick D.; West, Graham M.; Huang, Hai-Tsang; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2011-03-01

    Described here is a stable isotope labeling protocol that can be used with a chemical modification- and mass spectrometry-based protein-ligand binding assay for detecting and quantifying both the direct and indirect binding events that result from protein-ligand binding interactions. The protocol utilizes an H{2/16}O2 and H{2/18}O2 labeling strategy to evaluate the chemical denaturant dependence of methionine oxidation in proteins both in the presence and absence of a target ligand. The differential denaturant dependence to the oxidation reactions performed in the presence and absence of ligand provides a measure of the protein stability changes that occur as a result of direct interactions of proteins with the target ligand and/or as a result of indirect interactions involving other protein-ligand interactions that are either induced or disrupted by the ligand. The described protocol utilizes the 18O/16O ratio in the oxidized protein samples to quantify the ligand-induced protein stability changes. The ratio is determined using the isotopic distributions observed for the methionine-containing peptides used for protein identification in the LC-MS-based proteomics readout. The strategy is applied to a multi-component protein mixture in this proof-of-principle experiment, which was designed to evaluate the technique's ability to detect and quantify the direct binding interaction between cyclosporin A and cyclophilin A and to detect the indirect binding interaction between cyclosporin A and calcineurin (i.e., the protein-protein interaction between cyclophilin A and calcineurin that is induced by cyclosporin A binding to cyclophilin A).

  1. Cholesterol transport in steroid biosynthesis: Role of protein-protein interactions and implications in disease states

    PubMed Central

    Rone, Malena B.; Fan, Jinjiang; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    The transfer of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane is the rate-limiting step in hormone-induced steroid formation. To ensure that this step is achieved efficiently, free cholesterol must accumulate in excess at the outer mitochondrial membrane and then be transferred to the inner membrane. This is accomplished through a series of steps that involve various intracellular organelles, including lysosomes and lipid droplets, and proteins such as the translocator protein (18 kDa, TSPO) and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) proteins. TSPO, previously known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is a high-affinity drug- and cholesterol-binding mitochondrial protein. StAR is a hormone-induced mitochondria-targeted protein that has been shown to initiate cholesterol transfer into mitochondria. Through the assistance of proteins such as the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit Iα (PKA-RIα) and the PKA-Rlα TSPO-associated acyl-coenzyme A binding domain containing 3 (ACBD3) protein, PAP7, cholesterol is transferred to and docked at the outer mitochondrial membrane. The TSPO-dependent import of StAR into mitochondria, and the association of TSPO with the outer/inner mitochondrial membrane contact sites, drives the intramitochondrial cholesterol transfer and subsequent steroid formation. The focus of this review is on (i) the intracellular pathways and protein-protein interactions involved in cholesterol transport and steroid biosynthesis and (ii) the roles and interactions of these proteins in endocrine pathologies and neurological diseases where steroid synthesis plays a critical role. PMID:19286473

  2. Concanavalin A binds to a mannose-containing ligand in the cell wall of some lichen phycobionts.

    PubMed

    Fontaniella, Blanca; Millanes, Ana-María; Vicente, Carlos; Legaz, María-Estrella

    2004-12-01

    Concanavalin A, the lectin from Canavalia ensiformis, develops arginase activity depending on Mn(2+). The cation cannot be substituted by Ca(2+) which, in addition, inhibits Mn(2+)-supported activity. Fluorescein-labeled Concanavalin A is able to bind to the cell wall of algal cells recently isolated from Evernia prunastri and Xanthoria parietina thalli. This binding involves a ligand, probably a glycoprotein containing mannose, which can be isolated by affinity chromatography. Analysis by SDS-PAGE reveals that the ligand is a dimeric protein composed by two monomers of 54 and 48 kDa. This ligand shows to be different from the receptor for natural lichen lectins, previously identified as a polygalactosylated urease.

  3. Exploring the capabilities of TDDFT calculations to explain the induced chirality upon a binding process: A simple case, 3-carboxycoumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlan, Aurica; Hillebrand, Mihaela

    2013-03-01

    The induced circular dichroism (ICD) spectra of 3-carboxycoumarin recorded at pH 7.4 in the presence of human and bovine serum albumins were used in correlation with theoretical (TDDFT) calculations to obtain the binding constants and information on the conformational changes of the ligand in the binding site. As it was shown that for the carboxylic acids or the carboxylate ions, the asymmetry element correlated with the occurrence of the ICD band in the presence of proteins is the torsion (τ) of the COOH (COO-) group in respect with the planar π system, TDDFT calculations were performed considering all the geometries characterized by 0 ⩽ |τ| ⩽ 90 deg. The simulated circular dichroism spectrum shows that the sequence of the signs and positions of the bands are correctly predicted as compared to the experimental ICD spectrum for a torsion of the carboxylate group in the range of 60-70 deg.

  4. Active site mutants of human cyclophilin A separate peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity from cyclosporin A binding and calcineurin inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Zydowsky, L. D.; Etzkorn, F. A.; Chang, H. Y.; Ferguson, S. B.; Stolz, L. A.; Ho, S. I.; Walsh, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    Based on recent X-ray structural information, six site-directed mutants of human cyclophilin A (hCyPA) involving residues in the putative active site--H54, R55, F60, Q111, F113, and H126--have been constructed, overexpressed, and purified from Escherichia coli to homogeneity. The proteins W121A (Liu, J., Chen, C.-M., & Walsh, C.T., 1991a, Biochemistry 30, 2306-2310), H54Q, R55A, F60A, Q111A, F113A, and H126Q were assayed for cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity, their ability to bind the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA), and protein phosphatase 2B (calcineurin) inhibition in the presence of CsA. Results indicate that H54Q, Q111A, F113A, and W121A retain 3-15% of the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of wild-type recombinant hCyPA. The remaining three mutants (R55A, F60A, and H126Q) each retain less than 1% of the wild-type catalytic efficiency, indicating participation by these residues in PPIase catalysis. Each of the mutants bound to a CsA affinity matrix. The mutants R55A, F60A, F113A, and H126Q inhibited calcineurin in the presence of CsA, whereas W121A did not. Although CsA is a competitive inhibitor of PPIase activity, it can complex with enzymatically inactive cyclophilins and inhibit the phosphatase activity of calcineurin. PMID:1338979

  5. Intrinsically disordered regions in autophagy proteins.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yang; Su, Minfei; Soni, Gaurav; Salem, Saeed; Colbert, Christopher L; Sinha, Sangita C

    2014-04-01

    Autophagy is an essential eukaryotic pathway required for cellular homeostasis. Numerous key autophagy effectors and regulators have been identified, but the mechanism by which they carry out their function in autophagy is not fully understood. Our rigorous bioinformatic analysis shows that the majority of key human autophagy proteins include intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), which are sequences lacking stable secondary and tertiary structure; suggesting that IDRs play an important, yet hitherto uninvestigated, role in autophagy. Available crystal structures corroborate the absence of structure in some of these predicted IDRs. Regions of orthologs equivalent to the IDRs predicted in the human autophagy proteins are poorly conserved, indicating that these regions may have diverse functions in different homologs. We also show that IDRs predicted in human proteins contain several regions predicted to facilitate protein-protein interactions, and delineate the network of proteins that interact with each predicted IDR-containing autophagy protein, suggesting that many of these interactions may involve IDRs. Lastly, we experimentally show that a BCL2 homology 3 domain (BH3D), within the key autophagy effector BECN1 is an IDR. This BH3D undergoes a dramatic conformational change from coil to α-helix upon binding to BCL2s, with the C-terminal half of this BH3D constituting a binding motif, which serves to anchor the interaction of the BH3D to BCL2s. The information presented here will help inform future in-depth investigations of the biological role and mechanism of IDRs in autophagy proteins. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. recA protein-catalyzed strand assimilation: stimulation by Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    McEntee, K; Weinstock, G M; Lehman, I R

    1980-01-01

    The single-stranded DNA-binding protein of Escherichia coli significantly alters the strand assimilation reaction catalyzed by recA protein [McEntee, K., Weinstock, G. M. & Lehman, I. R. (1979) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 2615--2619]. The binding protein (i) increases the rate and extent of strand assimilation into homologous duplex DNA, (ii) enhances the formation of a complex between recA protein and duplex DNA in the presence of homologous or heterologous single-stranded DNA, (iii) reduces the rate and extent of ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by recA protein in the presence of single-stranded DNA, (iv) reduces the high concentration of recA protein required for strand assimilation, and (v) permits detection of strand assimilation in the presence of the ATP analog, adenosine 5'-O-(O-thiotriphosphate). Single-stranded DNA-binding protein purified from a binding protein mutant (lexC) is considerably less effective than wild-type binding protein in stimulating strand assimilation, a result which suggests that single-stranded DNA-binding protein participates in general recombination in vivo. PMID:6244589

  7. Detecting protein-protein interactions using Renilla luciferase fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Burbelo, Peter D; Kisailus, Adam E; Peck, Jeremy W

    2002-11-01

    We have developed a novel system designated the luciferase assay for protein detection (LAPD) to study protein-protein interactions. This method involves two protein fusions, a soluble reporter fusion and a fusion for immobilizing the target protein. The soluble reporter is an N-terminal Renilla luciferase fusion protein that exhibits high Renilla luciferase activity. Crude cleared lysates from transfected Cos1 cells that express the Renilla luciferase fusion protein can be used in binding assays with immobilized target proteins. Following incubation and washing, target-bound Renilla luciferase fusion proteins produce light from the coelenterazine substrate, indicating an interaction between the two proteins of interest. As proof of the principle, we reproduced known, transient protein-protein interactions between the Cdc42 GTPase and its effector proteins. GTPase Renilla fusion proteins produced in Cos1 cells were tested with immobilized recombinant GST-N-WASP and CEP5 effector proteins. Using this assay, we could detect specific interactions of Cdc42 with these effector proteins in approximately 50 min. The specificity of these interactions was demonstrated by showing that they were GTPase-specific and GTP-dependent and not seen with other unrelated target proteins. These results suggest that the LAPD method, which is both rapid and sensitive, may have research and practical applications.

  8. Human Siglec-5 Inhibitory Receptor and Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Have Separate Binding Sites in Streptococcal β Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, Therése; Movert, Elin; Olin, Anders I.; Ali, Syed R.; Nizet, Victor; Varki, Ajit; Areschoug, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are receptors believed to be important for regulation of cellular activation and inflammation. Several pathogenic microbes bind specific Siglecs via sialic acid-containing structures at the microbial surface, interactions that may result in modulation of host responses. Recently, it was shown that the group B Streptococcus (GBS) binds to human Siglec-5 (hSiglec-5), an inhibitory receptor expressed on macrophages and neutrophils, via the IgA-binding surface β protein, providing the first example of a protein/protein interaction between a pathogenic microbe and a Siglec. Here we show that the hSiglec-5-binding part of β resides in the N-terminal half of the protein, which also harbors the previously determined IgA-binding region. We constructed bacterial mutants expressing variants of the β protein with non-overlapping deletions in the N-terminal half of the protein. Using these mutants and recombinant β fragments, we showed that the hSiglec-5-binding site is located in the most N-terminal part of β (B6N region; amino acids 1–152) and that the hSiglec-5- and IgA-binding domains in β are completely separate. We showed with BIAcoreTM analysis that tandem variants of the hSiglec-5- and IgA-binding domains bind to their respective ligands with high affinity. Finally, we showed that the B6N region, but not the IgA-binding region of β, triggers recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 to hSiglec-5 in U937 monocytes. Taken together, we have identified and isolated the first microbial non-sialic acid Siglec-binding region that can be used as a tool in studies of the β/hSiglec-5 interaction. PMID:21795693

  9. Conformational selection in a protein-protein interaction revealed by dynamic pathway analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Kalyan S.; Agafonov, Roman V.; Pontiggia, Francesco; Otten, Renee; Higgins, Matthew K.; Schertler, Gebhard F. X.; Oprian, Daniel D.; Kern, Dorothee

    2015-12-24

    Molecular recognition plays a central role in biology, and protein dynamics has been acknowledged to be important in this process. However, it is highly debated whether conformational changes happen before ligand binding to produce a binding-competent state (conformational selection) or are caused in response to ligand binding (induced fit). Proposals for both mechanisms in protein/protein recognition have been primarily based on structural arguments. However, the distinction between them is a question of the probabilities of going via these two opposing pathways. Here we present a direct demonstration of exclusive conformational selection in protein/protein recognition by measuring the flux for rhodopsin kinase binding to its regulator recoverin, an important molecular recognition in the vision system. Using NMR spectroscopy, stopped-flow kinetics and isothermal titration calorimetry we show that recoverin populates a minor conformation in solution that exposes a hydrophobic binding pocket responsible for binding rhodopsin kinase. Lastly, protein dynamics in free recoverin limits the overall rate of binding.

  10. Conformational selection in a protein-protein interaction revealed by dynamic pathway analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Chakrabarti, Kalyan S.; Agafonov, Roman V.; Pontiggia, Francesco; ...

    2015-12-24

    Molecular recognition plays a central role in biology, and protein dynamics has been acknowledged to be important in this process. However, it is highly debated whether conformational changes happen before ligand binding to produce a binding-competent state (conformational selection) or are caused in response to ligand binding (induced fit). Proposals for both mechanisms in protein/protein recognition have been primarily based on structural arguments. However, the distinction between them is a question of the probabilities of going via these two opposing pathways. Here we present a direct demonstration of exclusive conformational selection in protein/protein recognition by measuring the flux for rhodopsinmore » kinase binding to its regulator recoverin, an important molecular recognition in the vision system. Using NMR spectroscopy, stopped-flow kinetics and isothermal titration calorimetry we show that recoverin populates a minor conformation in solution that exposes a hydrophobic binding pocket responsible for binding rhodopsin kinase. Lastly, protein dynamics in free recoverin limits the overall rate of binding.« less

  11. Conformational selection in a protein-protein interaction revealed by dynamic pathway analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Chakrabarti, Kalyan S.; Agafonov, Roman V.; Pontiggia, Francesco; ...

    2015-12-24

    Molecular recognition plays a central role in biology, and protein dynamics has been acknowledged to be important in this process. However, it is highly debated whether conformational changes happen before ligand binding to produce a binding-competent state (conformational selection) or are caused in response to ligand binding (induced fit). Proposals for both mechanisms in protein/protein recognition have been primarily based on structural arguments. However, the distinction between them is a question of the probabilities of going via these two opposing pathways. Here we present a direct demonstration of exclusive conformational selection in protein/protein recognition by measuring the flux for rhodopsinmore » kinase binding to its regulator recoverin, an important molecular recognition in the vision system. Using NMR spectroscopy, stopped-flow kinetics and isothermal titration calorimetry we show that recoverin populates a minor conformation in solution that exposes a hydrophobic binding pocket responsible for binding rhodopsin kinase. Lastly, protein dynamics in free recoverin limits the overall rate of binding.« less

  12. Tertiary structure of human alpha1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid). Straightforward fluorescence experiments revealing the presence of a binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Albani, Jihad R

    2004-02-25

    Binding of hemin to alpha1-acid glycoprotein has been investigated. Hemin binds to the hydrophobic pocket of hemoproteins. The fluorescent probe 2-(p-toluidino)-6-naphthalenesulfonate (TNS) binds to a hydrophobic domain in alpha1-acid glycoprotein with a dissociation constant equal to 60 microM. Addition of hemin to an alpha1-acid glycoprotein-TNS complex induces the displacement of TNS from its binding site. At saturation (1 hemin for 1 protein) all the TNS has been displaced from its binding site. The dissociation constant of hemin-alpha1-acid glycoprotein was found equal to 2 microM. Thus, TNS and hemin bind to the same hydrophobic site: the pocket of alpha1-acid glycoprotein. Energy-transfer studies performed between the Trp residues of alpha1-acid glycoprotein and hemin indicated that efficiency (E) of Trp fluorescence quenching was equal to 80% and the Förster distance, R0 at which the efficiency of energy transfer is 50% was calculated to be 26 A, revealing a very high energy transfer.

  13. Live detection and purification of cells based on the expression of a histone chaperone, HIRA, using a binding peptide

    PubMed Central

    Kochurani, K. J.; Suganya, Annie A.; Nair, Madhumathy G.; Louis, Jiss Maria; Majumder, Aditi; Kumar K., Santhosh; Abraham, Parvin; Dutta, Debasree; Maliekal, Tessy T.

    2015-01-01

    Flowcytometry is a reliable method for identification and purification of live cells from a heterogeneous population. Since permeabilized cells cannot be sorted live in a FACS sorter, its application in isolation of functional cells largely depends on antibodies for surface markers. In various fields of biology we find intracellular markers that reveal subpopulations of biological significance. Cell cycle stage specific molecules, metastatic signature molecules, stemness associated proteins etc. are examples of potential markers that could improve the research and therapy enormously. Currently their use is restricted by lack of techniques that allow live detection. Even though a few methods like aptamers, droplet-based microfluidics and smartflares are reported, their application is limited. Here, for the first time we report a simple, cost-effective and efficient method of live sorting of cells based on the expression of an intracellular marker using a fluorophore-tagged binding peptide. The target molecule selected was a histone chaperone, HIRA, the expression of which can predict the fate of differentiating myoblast. Our results confirm that the peptide shows specific interaction with its target; and it can be used to separate cells with differential expression of HIRA. Further, this method offers high purity and viability for the isolated cells. PMID:26596463

  14. Cse1p-binding dynamics reveal a binding pattern for FG-repeat nucleoporins on transport receptors.

    PubMed

    Isgro, Timothy A; Schulten, Klaus

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear pore proteins with phenylalanine-glycine repeats are vital to the functional transport of molecules across the nuclear pore complex. The current study investigates the binding of these FG-nucleoporins to the Cse1p:Kap60p:RanGTP nuclear export complex. Fourteen binding spots for FG-nucleoporin peptides are revealed on the surface of Cse1p, and 5 are revealed on the Kap60p surface. Taken together, and along with binding data for two other transport receptors, the data suggest that the ability to bind FG-nucleoporins by itself is not enough to ensure viable nuclear transport. Rather, it is proposed that the density of binding spots on the transport receptor surface is key in determining transport viability. The number of binding spots on the transport receptor surface should be large enough to ensure multiple, simultaneous FG-repeat binding, and their arrangement should be close enough to ensure multiple binding from the same FG-nucleoporin.

  15. Borreliacidal activity of Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA) binding small molecules by manganese transport inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wagh, Dhananjay; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Inayathullah, Mohammed; Liu, Song; Kim, Kwang-Min; Rajadas, Jayakumar

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, utilizes manganese (Mn) for its various metabolic needs. We hypothesized that blocking Mn transporter could be a possible approach to inhibit metabolic activity of this pathogen and eliminate the infection. We used a combination of in silico protein structure prediction together with molecular docking to target the Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA), a single known Mn transporter in Borrelia and screened libraries of FDA approved compounds that could potentially bind to the predicted BmtA structure with high affinity. Tricyclic antihistamines such as loratadine, desloratadine, and 3-hydroxydesloratadine as well as yohimbine and tadalafil demonstrated a tight binding to the in silico folded BmtA transporter. We, then, tested borreliacidal activity and dose response of the shortlisted compounds from this screen using a series of in vitro assays. Amongst the probed compounds, desloratadine exhibited potent borreliacidal activity in vitro at and above 78 μg/mL (250 μM). Borrelia treated with lethal doses of desloratadine exhibited a significant loss of intracellular Mn specifically and a severe structural damage to the bacterial cell wall. Our results support the possibility of developing a novel, targeted therapy to treat Lyme disease by targeting specific metabolic needs of Borrelia.

  16. Borreliacidal activity of Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA) binding small molecules by manganese transport inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, Dhananjay; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Inayathullah, Mohammed; Liu, Song; Kim, Kwang-Min; Rajadas, Jayakumar

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, utilizes manganese (Mn) for its various metabolic needs. We hypothesized that blocking Mn transporter could be a possible approach to inhibit metabolic activity of this pathogen and eliminate the infection. We used a combination of in silico protein structure prediction together with molecular docking to target the Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA), a single known Mn transporter in Borrelia and screened libraries of FDA approved compounds that could potentially bind to the predicted BmtA structure with high affinity. Tricyclic antihistamines such as loratadine, desloratadine, and 3-hydroxydesloratadine as well as yohimbine and tadalafil demonstrated a tight binding to the in silico folded BmtA transporter. We, then, tested borreliacidal activity and dose response of the shortlisted compounds from this screen using a series of in vitro assays. Amongst the probed compounds, desloratadine exhibited potent borreliacidal activity in vitro at and above 78 μg/mL (250 μM). Borrelia treated with lethal doses of desloratadine exhibited a significant loss of intracellular Mn specifically and a severe structural damage to the bacterial cell wall. Our results support the possibility of developing a novel, targeted therapy to treat Lyme disease by targeting specific metabolic needs of Borrelia. PMID:25709405

  17. The structure of the D3 domain of Plasmodium falciparum myosin tail interacting protein MTIP in complex with a nanobody.

    PubMed

    Khamrui, Susmita; Turley, Stewart; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Fan, Erkang; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Bergman, Lawrence W; Hol, Wim G J

    2013-08-01

    Apicomplexan parasites enter host cells by many sophisticated steps including use of an ATP-powered invasion machinery. The machinery consists of multiple proteins, including a special myosin (MyoA) which moves along an actin fiber and which is connected to the myosin tail interaction protein (MTIP). Here we report a crystal structure of the major MyoA-binding domain (D3) of Plasmodium falciparum MTIP in complex with an anti-MTIP nanobody. In this complex, the MyoA-binding groove in MTIP-D3 is considerably less accessible than when occupied by the MyoA helix, due to a shift of two helices. The nanobody binds to an area slightly overlapping with the MyoA binding groove, covering a hydrophobic region next to the groove entrance. This provides a new avenue for arriving at compounds interfering with the invasion machinery since small molecules binding simultaneously to the nanobody binding site and the adjacent MyoA binding groove would prevent MyoA binding by MTIP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcription Activation by NtcA in the Absence of Consensus NtcA-Binding Sites in an Anabaena Heterocyst Differentiation Gene Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Sergio; Valladares, Ana; Flores, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Heterocyst differentiation is orchestrated by the N control transcriptional regulator NtcA and the differentiation-specific factor HetR. In Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the devBCA operon is expressed from two different promoters activated upon N stepdown. The distal devB promoter (transcription start point [TSP] located at position −704) represents a canonical class II NtcA-activated promoter, including a consensus NtcA-binding site centered 39.5 nucleotides upstream from the TSP. Transcription activation from a second TSP (−454) requires NtcA and is impaired in hetR mutants. In a wild-type background, three different DNA fragments, including both or each individual promoter, directed gfp expression localized mainly to proheterocysts and heterocysts. Expression was undetectable in an ntcA background and, for the fragment including the proximal promoter alone, also in a hetR background. In spite of the absence of consensus NtcA-binding sequences between the two TSPs, NtcA was shown to interact with this DNA region, and NtcA and its effector, 2-oxoglutarate, were necessary and sufficient for in vitro transcription from the −454 TSP. No HetR binding to the DNA or in vitro transcription from the proximal devB TSP promoted by HetR alone were detected. However, a moderate positive effect of HetR on NtcA binding to the DNA between the two devB TSPs was observed. The proximal devB promoter appears to represent a suboptimal NtcA-activated promoter for which HetR may act as a coactivator, with the physiological effect of restricting gene activation to conditions of prevalence of high NtcA and HetR levels, such as those taking place during heterocyst differentiation. PMID:22467790

  19. Identification of the molecular mechanisms by which the diterpenoid salvinorin A binds to kappa-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Feng; Mosier, Philip D; Westkaemper, Richard B; Stewart, Jeremy; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Vortherms, Timothy A; Sheffler, Douglas J; Roth, Bryan L

    2005-06-21

    Salvinorin A is a naturally occurring hallucinogenic diterpenoid from the plant Salvia divinorumthat selectively and potently activates kappa-opioid receptors (KORs). Salvinorin A is unique in that it is the only known lipid-like molecule that selectively and potently activates a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), which has as its endogenous agonist a peptide; salvinorin A is also the only known non-nitrogenous opioid receptor agonist. In this paper, we identify key residues in KORs responsible for the high binding affinity and agonist efficacy of salvinorin A. Surprisingly, we discovered that salvinorin A was stabilized in the binding pocket by interactions with tyrosine residues in helix 7 (Tyr313 and Tyr320) and helix 2 (Tyr119). Intriguingly, activation of KORs by salvinorin A required interactions with the helix 7 tyrosines Tyr312, Tyr313, and Tyr320 and with Tyr139 in helix 3. In contrast, the prototypical nitrogenous KOR agonist U69593 and the endogenous peptidergic agonist dynorphin A (1-13) showed differential requirements for these three residues for binding and activation. We also employed a novel approach, whereby we examined the effects of cysteine-substitution mutagenesis on the binding of salvinorin A and an analogue with a free sulfhydryl group, 2-thiosalvinorin B. We discovered that residues predicted to be in close proximity, especially Tyr313, to the free thiol of 2-thiosalvinorin B when mutated to Cys showed enhanced affinity for 2-thiosalvinorin B. When these findings are taken together, they imply that the diterpenoid salvinorin A utilizes unique residues within a commonly shared binding pocket to selectively activate KORs.

  20. Modeling androgen receptor flexibility: a binding mode hypothesis of CYP17 inhibitors/antiandrogens for prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Gianti, Eleonora; Zauhar, Randy J

    2012-10-22

    Prostate Cancer (PCa), a leading cause of cancer death worldwide (www.cancer.gov), is a complex malignancy where a spectrum of targets leads to a diversity of PCa forms. A widely pursued therapeutic target is the Androgen Receptor (AR). As a Steroid Hormone Receptor, AR serves as activator of transcription upon binding to androgens and plays a central role in the development of PCa. AR is a structurally flexible protein, and conformational plasticity of residues in the binding-pocket is a key to its ability to accommodate ligands from various chemical classes. Besides direct modulation of AR activity by antagonists, inhibition of cytochrome CYP17 (17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase), essential in androgen biosynthesis, has widely been considered an effective strategy against PCa. Interestingly, Handratta et al. (2005) discovered new, potent inhibitors of CYP17 (C-17 steroid derivatives) with pure AR antagonistic properties. Although the antiandrogenic activity of their lead compound (VN/124-1) has been experimentally proven both in vitro and in vivo, no structural data are currently available to elucidate the molecular determinants responsible for these desirable dual inhibitory properties. We implemented a Structure-based Drug Design (SBDD) approach to generate a valuable hypothesis as to the binding modes of steroidal CYP17 inhibitors/antiandrogens against the AR. To deal with the plasticity of residues buried in the Ligand Binding Domain (LBD), we developed a flexible-receptor Docking protocol based on Induced-Fit (IFD) methodology (www.schrodinger.com/). Our results constitute an ideal starting point for the rational design of next-generation analogues of CYP17 inhibitors/antiandrogens as well as an attractive tool to suggest novel chemical classes of AR antagonists.

  1. A binding hotspot in Trypanosoma cruzi histidyl-tRNA synthetase revealed by fragment-based crystallographic cocktail screens

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Cho Yeow; Kallur Siddaramaiah, Latha; Ranade, Ranae M.; Nguyen, Jasmine; Jian, Tengyue; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Gillespie, J. Robert; Buckner, Frederick S.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2015-01-01

    American trypanosomiasis, commonly known as Chagas disease, is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The chronic form of the infection often causes debilitating morbidity and mortality. However, the current treatment for the disease is typically inadequate owing to drug toxicity and poor efficacy, necessitating a continual effort to discover and develop new antiparasitic therapeutic agents. The structure of T. cruzi histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS), a validated drug target, has previously been reported. Based on this structure and those of human cytosolic HisRS, opportunities for the development of specific inhibitors were identified. Here, efforts are reported to identify small molecules that bind to T. cruzi HisRS through fragment-based crystallographic screening in order to arrive at chemical starting points for the development of specific inhibitors. T. cruzi HisRS was soaked into 68 different cocktails from the Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa (MSGPP) fragment library and diffraction data were collected to identify bound fragments after soaking. A total of 15 fragments were identified, all bound to the same site on the protein, revealing a fragment-binding hotspot adjacent to the ATP-binding pocket. On the basis of the initial hits, the design of reactive fragments targeting the hotspot which would be simultaneously covalently linked to a cysteine residue present only in trypanosomatid HisRS was initiated. Inhibition of T. cruzi HisRS was observed with the resultant reactive fragments and the anticipated binding mode was confirmed crystallo­graphically. These results form a platform for the development of future generations of selective inhibitors for trypanosomatid HisRS. PMID:26249349

  2. A binding hotspot in Trypanosoma cruzi histidyl-tRNA synthetase revealed by fragment-based crystallographic cocktail screens.

    PubMed

    Koh, Cho Yeow; Siddaramaiah, Latha Kallur; Ranade, Ranae M; Nguyen, Jasmine; Jian, Tengyue; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Gillespie, J Robert; Buckner, Frederick S; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Fan, Erkang; Hol, Wim G J

    2015-08-01

    American trypanosomiasis, commonly known as Chagas disease, is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The chronic form of the infection often causes debilitating morbidity and mortality. However, the current treatment for the disease is typically inadequate owing to drug toxicity and poor efficacy, necessitating a continual effort to discover and develop new antiparasitic therapeutic agents. The structure of T. cruzi histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS), a validated drug target, has previously been reported. Based on this structure and those of human cytosolic HisRS, opportunities for the development of specific inhibitors were identified. Here, efforts are reported to identify small molecules that bind to T. cruzi HisRS through fragment-based crystallographic screening in order to arrive at chemical starting points for the development of specific inhibitors. T. cruzi HisRS was soaked into 68 different cocktails from the Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa (MSGPP) fragment library and diffraction data were collected to identify bound fragments after soaking. A total of 15 fragments were identified, all bound to the same site on the protein, revealing a fragment-binding hotspot adjacent to the ATP-binding pocket. On the basis of the initial hits, the design of reactive fragments targeting the hotspot which would be simultaneously covalently linked to a cysteine residue present only in trypanosomatid HisRS was initiated. Inhibition of T. cruzi HisRS was observed with the resultant reactive fragments and the anticipated binding mode was confirmed crystallographically. These results form a platform for the development of future generations of selective inhibitors for trypanosomatid HisRS.

  3. Induced protein degradation: an emerging drug discovery paradigm.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ashton C; Crews, Craig M

    2017-02-01

    Small-molecule drug discovery has traditionally focused on occupancy of a binding site that directly affects protein function, and this approach typically precludes targeting proteins that lack such amenable sites. Furthermore, high systemic drug exposures may be needed to maintain sufficient target inhibition in vivo, increasing the risk of undesirable off-target effects. Induced protein degradation is an alternative approach that is event-driven: upon drug binding, the target protein is tagged for elimination. Emerging technologies based on proteolysis-targeting chimaeras (PROTACs) that exploit cellular quality control machinery to selectively degrade target proteins are attracting considerable attention in the pharmaceutical industry owing to the advantages they could offer over traditional small-molecule strategies. These advantages include the potential to reduce systemic drug exposure, the ability to counteract increased target protein expression that often accompanies inhibition of protein function and the potential ability to target proteins that are not currently therapeutically tractable, such as transcription factors, scaffolding and regulatory proteins.

  4. A proximity-dependent assay for specific RNA-protein interactions in intact cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Mingyi; Shu, Mei-Di; Steitz, Joan A; DiMaio, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The proximity ligation assay (PLA) is an immune staining method that detects protein-protein interactions in fixed cells. We describe here RNA-PLA, a simple adaptation of this technology that allows the detection of specific RNA-protein interactions in fixed cells by using a DNA oligonucleotide that hybridizes to a target RNA in combination with an antibody that recognizes the protein bound to the target RNA. Stable and transient RNA-protein interactions can be readily detected by generation of a fluorescent signal in discrete compartments in intact fixed cells with high specificity. We demonstrate that this approach requires the colocalization of the binding protein and its RNA target in the same cellular compartment, use of an oligonucleotide complementary to the target RNA, and the presence of a binding site for the protein in the target RNA. © 2016 Zhang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  5. Interaction entropy for protein-protein binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhaoxi; Yan, Yu N.; Yang, Maoyou; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2017-03-01

    Protein-protein interactions are at the heart of signal transduction and are central to the function of protein machine in biology. The highly specific protein-protein binding is quantitatively characterized by the binding free energy whose accurate calculation from the first principle is a grand challenge in computational biology. In this paper, we show how the interaction entropy approach, which was recently proposed for protein-ligand binding free energy calculation, can be applied to computing the entropic contribution to the protein-protein binding free energy. Explicit theoretical derivation of the interaction entropy approach for protein-protein interaction system is given in detail from the basic definition. Extensive computational studies for a dozen realistic protein-protein interaction systems are carried out using the present approach and comparisons of the results for these protein-protein systems with those from the standard normal mode method are presented. Analysis of the present method for application in protein-protein binding as well as the limitation of the method in numerical computation is discussed. Our study and analysis of the results provided useful information for extracting correct entropic contribution in protein-protein binding from molecular dynamics simulations.

  6. Functional structural motifs for protein-ligand, protein-protein, and protein-nucleic acid interactions and their connection to supersecondary structures.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Akira R; Nakamura, Haruki

    2013-01-01

    Protein functions are mediated by interactions between proteins and other molecules. One useful approach to analyze protein functions is to compare and classify the structures of interaction interfaces of proteins. Here, we describe the procedures for compiling a database of interface structures and efficiently comparing the interface structures. To do so requires a good understanding of the data structures of the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Therefore, we also provide a detailed account of the PDB exchange dictionary necessary for extracting data that are relevant for analyzing interaction interfaces and secondary structures. We identify recurring structural motifs by classifying similar interface structures, and we define a coarse-grained representation of supersecondary structures (SSS) which represents a sequence of two or three secondary structure elements including their relative orientations as a string of four to seven letters. By examining the correspondence between structural motifs and SSS strings, we show that no SSS string has particularly high propensity to be found interaction interfaces in general, indicating any SSS can be used as a binding interface. When individual structural motifs are examined, there are some SSS strings that have high propensity for particular groups of structural motifs. In addition, it is shown that while the SSS strings found in particular structural motifs for nonpolymer and protein interfaces are as abundant as in other structural motifs that belong to the same subunit, structural motifs for nucleic acid interfaces exhibit somewhat stronger preference for SSS strings. In regard to protein folds, many motif-specific SSS strings were found across many folds, suggesting that SSS may be a useful description to investigate the universality of ligand binding modes.

  7. The Golgi Protein ACBD3, an Interactor for Poliovirus Protein 3A, Modulates Poliovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Téoulé, François; Brisac, Cynthia; Pelletier, Isabelle; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Jégouic, Sophie; Mirabelli, Carmen; Bessaud, Maël; Combelas, Nicolas; Autret, Arnaud; Tangy, Frédéric; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2013-01-01

    We have shown that the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses responsible for poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have recombinant genomes composed of sequences encoding capsid proteins derived from poliovaccine Sabin, mostly type 2 (PVS2), and sequences encoding nonstructural proteins derived from other human enteroviruses. Interestingly, almost all of these recombinant genomes encode a nonstructural 3A protein related to that of field coxsackievirus A17 (CV-A17) strains. Here, we investigated the repercussions of this exchange, by assessing the role of the 3A proteins of PVS2 and CV-A17 and their putative cellular partners in viral replication. We found that the Golgi protein acyl-coenzyme A binding domain-containing 3 (ACBD3), recently identified as an interactor for the 3A proteins of several picornaviruses, interacts with the 3A proteins of PVS2 and CV-A17 at viral RNA replication sites, in human neuroblastoma cells infected with either PVS2 or a PVS2 recombinant encoding a 3A protein from CV-A17 [PVS2-3A(CV-A17)]. The small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of ACBD3 significantly increased the growth of both viruses, suggesting that ACBD3 slowed viral replication. This was confirmed with replicons. Furthermore, PVS2-3A(CV-A17) was more resistant to the replication-inhibiting effect of ACBD3 than the PVS2 strain, and the amino acid in position 12 of 3A was involved in modulating the sensitivity of viral replication to ACBD3. Overall, our results indicate that exchanges of nonstructural proteins can modify the relationships between enterovirus recombinants and cellular interactors and may thus be one of the factors favoring their emergence. PMID:23926333

  8. Predicting the tolerated sequences for proteins and protein interfaces using RosettaBackrub flexible backbone design.

    PubMed

    Smith, Colin A; Kortemme, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the set of sequences that are tolerated by a protein or protein interface, while maintaining a desired function, is useful for characterizing protein interaction specificity and for computationally designing sequence libraries to engineer proteins with new functions. Here we provide a general method, a detailed set of protocols, and several benchmarks and analyses for estimating tolerated sequences using flexible backbone protein design implemented in the Rosetta molecular modeling software suite. The input to the method is at least one experimentally determined three-dimensional protein structure or high-quality model. The starting structure(s) are expanded or refined into a conformational ensemble using Monte Carlo simulations consisting of backrub backbone and side chain moves in Rosetta. The method then uses a combination of simulated annealing and genetic algorithm optimization methods to enrich for low-energy sequences for the individual members of the ensemble. To emphasize certain functional requirements (e.g. forming a binding interface), interactions between and within parts of the structure (e.g. domains) can be reweighted in the scoring function. Results from each backbone structure are merged together to create a single estimate for the tolerated sequence space. We provide an extensive description of the protocol and its parameters, all source code, example analysis scripts and three tests applying this method to finding sequences predicted to stabilize proteins or protein interfaces. The generality of this method makes many other applications possible, for example stabilizing interactions with small molecules, DNA, or RNA. Through the use of within-domain reweighting and/or multistate design, it may also be possible to use this method to find sequences that stabilize particular protein conformations or binding interactions over others.

  9. Genome-wide mapping of TnrA-binding sites provides new insights into the TnrA regulon in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Mirouze, Nicolas; Bidnenko, Elena; Noirot, Philippe; Auger, Sandrine

    2015-06-01

    Under nitrogen limitation conditions, Bacillus subtilis induces a sophisticated network of adaptation responses. More precisely, the B. subtilis TnrA regulator represses or activates directly or indirectly the expression of a hundred genes in response to nitrogen availability. The global TnrA regulon have already been identified among which some directly TnrA-regulated genes have been characterized. However, a genome-wide mapping of in vivo TnrA-binding sites was still needed to clearly define the set of genes directly regulated by TnrA. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with hybridization to DNA tiling arrays (ChIP-on-chip), we now provide in vivo evidence that TnrA reproducibly binds to 42 regions on the chromosome. Further analysis with real-time in vivo transcriptional profiling, combined with results from previous reports, allowed us to define the TnrA primary regulon. We identified 35 promoter regions fulfilling three criteria necessary to be part of this primary regulon: (i) TnrA binding in ChIP-on-chip experiments and/or in previous in vitro studies; (ii) the presence of a TnrA box; (iii) TnrA-dependent expression regulation. In addition, the TnrA primary regulon delimitation allowed us to improve the TnrA box consensus. Finally, our results reveal new interconnections between the nitrogen regulatory network and other cellular processes.

  10. Learning about Proteins

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Learning About Proteins KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Proteins A A ... the foods you eat. continue Different Kinds of Protein Protein from animal sources, such as meat and ...

  11. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  12. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2006-10-17

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  13. Protein Microarray Technology

    PubMed Central

    Hall, David A.; Ptacek, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Protein chips have emerged as a promising approach for a wide variety of applications including the identification of protein-protein interactions, protein-phospholipid interactions, small molecule targets, and substrates of proteins kinases. They can also be used for clinical diagnostics and monitoring disease states. This article reviews current methods in the generation and applications of protein microarrays. PMID:17126887

  14. Length, protein protein interactions, and complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Taison; Frenkel, Daan; Gupta, Vishal; Deem, Michael W.

    2005-05-01

    The evolutionary reason for the increase in gene length from archaea to prokaryotes to eukaryotes observed in large-scale genome sequencing efforts has been unclear. We propose here that the increasing complexity of protein-protein interactions has driven the selection of longer proteins, as they are more able to distinguish among a larger number of distinct interactions due to their greater average surface area. Annotated protein sequences available from the SWISS-PROT database were analyzed for 13 eukaryotes, eight bacteria, and two archaea species. The number of subcellular locations to which each protein is associated is used as a measure of the number of interactions to which a protein participates. Two databases of yeast protein-protein interactions were used as another measure of the number of interactions to which each S. cerevisiae protein participates. Protein length is shown to correlate with both number of subcellular locations to which a protein is associated and number of interactions as measured by yeast two-hybrid experiments. Protein length is also shown to correlate with the probability that the protein is encoded by an essential gene. Interestingly, average protein length and number of subcellular locations are not significantly different between all human proteins and protein targets of known, marketed drugs. Increased protein length appears to be a significant mechanism by which the increasing complexity of protein-protein interaction networks is accommodated within the natural evolution of species. Consideration of protein length may be a valuable tool in drug design, one that predicts different strategies for inhibiting interactions in aberrant and normal pathways.

  15. Targeted Mutagenesis and Combinatorial Library Screening Enables Control of Protein Orientation on Surfaces and Increased Activity of Adsorbed Proteins.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Teran, Carlos A; Carlin, Kevin B; Efimenko, Kirill; Genzer, Jan; Rao, Balaji M

    2016-08-30

    While nonspecific adsorption is widely used for immobilizing proteins on solid surfaces, the random nature of protein adsorption may reduce the activity of immobilized proteins due to occlusion of the active site. We hypothesized that the orientation a protein assumes on a given surface can be controlled by systematically introducing mutations into a region distant from its active site, thereby retaining activity of the immobilized protein. To test this hypothesis, we generated a combinatorial protein library by randomizing six targeted residues in a binding protein derived from highly stable, nonimmunoglobulin Sso7d scaffold; mutations were targeted in a region that is distant from the binding site. This library was screened to isolate binders that retain binding to its cognate target (chicken immunoglobulin Y, cIgY) as well as exhibit adsorption on unmodified silica at pH 7.4 and high ionic strength conditions. A single mutant, Sso7d-2B5, was selected for further characterization. Sso7d-2B5 retained binding to cIgY with an apparent dissociation constant similar to that of the parent protein; both mutant and parent proteins saturated the surface of silica with similar densities. Strikingly, however, silica beads coated with Sso7d-2B5 could achieve up to 7-fold higher capture of cIgY than beads coated with the parent protein. These results strongly suggest that mutations introduced in Sso7d-2B5 alter its orientation relative to the parent protein, when adsorbed on silica surfaces. Our approach also provides a generalizable strategy for introducing mutations in proteins so as to improve their activity upon immobilization, and has direct relevance to development of protein-based biosensors and biocatalysts.

  16. Immunoabsorbent nanoparticles based on a tobamovirus displaying protein A.

    PubMed

    Werner, Stefan; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Hause, Gerd; Klimyuk, Victor; Gleba, Yuri

    2006-11-21

    Earlier attempts to express peptides longer than 20 aa on the surface of tobamoviruses such as tobacco mosaic virus have failed. Surprisingly, we found that a functional fragment of protein A (133 aa) can be displayed on the surface of a tobamovirus as a C-terminal fusion to the coat protein via a 15-aa linker. The macromolecular nature of these nanoparticles allowed the design of a simple protocol for purification of mAbs with a recovery yield of 50% and > 90% product purity. The extremely dense packing of protein A on the nanoparticles (> 2,100 copies per viral particle) results in an immunoadsorbent with a binding capacity of 2 g mAb per g. This characteristic, combined with the high level of expression of the nanoparticles (> 3 g adsorbent per kg of leaf biomass), provides a very inexpensive self-assembling matrix that could meet the criteria for a single-use industrial immunoadsorbent for antibody purification.

  17. Femtomole Mixer for Microsecond Kinetic Studies of Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Hertzog, David E.; Michalet, Xavier; Jäger, Marcus; Kong, Xiangxu; Santiago, Juan G.; Weiss, Shimon; Bakajin, Olgica

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a microfluidic mixer for studying protein folding and other reactions with a mixing time of 8 μs and sample consumption of femtomoles. This device enables us to access conformational changes under conditions far from equilibrium and at previously inaccessible time scales. In this paper, we discuss the design and optimization of the mixer using modeling of convective diffusion phenomena and a characterization of the mixer performance using microparticle image velocimetry, dye quenching, and Förster resonance energy-transfer (FRET) measurements of single-stranded DNA. We also demonstrate the feasibility of measuring fast protein folding kinetics using FRET with acyl-CoA binding protein. PMID:15595857

  18. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  19. Optimization of a binding fragment targeting the "enlarged methionine pocket" leads to potent Trypanosoma brucei methionyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenlin; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Ranade, Ranae M; Gillespie, J Robert; Barros-Álvarez, Ximena; Creason, Sharon A; Shibata, Sayaka; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Hol, Wim G J; Buckner, Frederick S; Fan, Erkang

    2017-06-15

    Potent inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei methionyl-tRNA synthetase were previously designed using a structure-guided approach. Compounds 1 and 2 were the most active compounds in the cyclic and linear linker series, respectively. To further improve cellular potency, SAR investigation of a binding fragment targeting the "enlarged methionine pocket" (EMP) was performed. The optimization led to the identification of a 6,8-dichloro-tetrahydroquinoline ring as a favorable fragment to bind the EMP. Replacement of 3,5-dichloro-benzyl group (the EMP binding fragment) of inhibitor 2 using this tetrahydroquinoline fragment resulted in compound 13, that exhibited an EC50 of 4nM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The distal ExsA-binding site in Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system promoters is the primary determinant for promoter-specific properties.

    PubMed

    Brutinel, Evan D; King, Jessica M; Marsden, Anne E; Yahr, Timothy L

    2012-05-01

    Transcription of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system is controlled by ExsA, a member of the AraC/XylS family of regulators. Each ExsA-dependent promoter contains two adjacent binding sites for monomeric ExsA. The promoter-proximal site (binding site 1) consists of highly conserved GnC and TGnnA sequences that are individually recognized by the two helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA-binding motifs of an ExsA monomer. While the GnC and TGnnA sequences are important for binding to site 1, the promoter-distal binding sites (site 2) lack obvious similarity among themselves or with binding site 1. In the present study, we demonstrate that site 2 in the P(exsC) promoter region contains a GnC sequence that is functionally equivalent to the GnC in site 1 and recognized by the first HTH motif of an ExsA monomer. Likewise, the second HTH interacts with an adenine residue in binding site 2. Although several candidate GnC sequences are also present in site 2 of the P(exsD), P(exoT), and P(pcrG) promoters, the GnC sequences were not required for ExsA-dependent transcription or ExsA binding. A comparison of hybrid promoters composed of binding site 2 from one promoter fused to binding site 1 derived from another promoter indicates that ExsA-binding affinity, promoter strength, and the degree of promoter bending are properties that are largely determined by binding site 2. Based on these data, we propose that the manner in which ExsA interacts with binding site 2 at the P(exsC) promoter is distinct from the interactions occurring at other promoters.

  1. Complement C3a binding to its receptor as a negative modulator of Th2 response in liver injury in trichloroethylene-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Zha, Wan-sheng; Zhang, Jia-xiang; Li, Shu-long; Wang, Hui; Ye, Liang-ping; Shen, Tong; Wu, Chang-hao; Zhu, Qi-xing

    2014-08-17

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a major occupational health hazard and causes occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis (OMLDT) and liver damage. Recent evidence suggests immune response as a distinct mode of action for TCE-induced liver damage. This study aimed to explore the role of the key complement activation product C3a and its receptor C3aR in TCE-induced immune liver injury. A mouse model of skin sensitization was induced by TCE in the presence and absence of the C3aR antagonist SB 290157. Liver function was evaluated by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in conjunction with histopathological characterizations. C3a and C3aR were detected by immunohistochemistry and C5b-9 was assessed by immunofluorescence. IFN-γ and IL4 expressions were determined by flow cytometry and ELISA. The total sensitization rate was 44.1%. TCE sensitization caused liver cell necrosis and inflammatory infiltration, elevated serum ALT and AST, expression of C3a and C3aR, and deposition of C5b-9 in the liver. IFN-γ and IL-4 expressions were up-regulated in spleen mononuclear cells and their serum levels were also increased. Pretreatment with SB 290157 resulted in more inflammatory infiltration in the liver, higher levels of AST, reduced C3aR expression on Kupffer cells, and decreased IL-4 levels while IFN-γ remained unchanged. These data demonstrate that blocking of C3a binding to C3aR reduces IL4, shifts IFN-γ and IL-4 balance, and aggravates TCE-sensitization induced liver damage. These findings reveal a novel mechanism whereby modulation of Th2 response by C3a binding to C3a receptor contributes to immune-mediated liver damage by TCE exposure.

  2. Localization of Cellular Retinol-Binding Protein and Retinol-Binding Protein in Cells Comprising the Blood-Brain Barrier of Rat and Human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Paul N.; Bok, Dean; Ong, David E.

    1990-06-01

    Brain is not generally recognized as an organ that requiries vitamin A, perhaps because no obvious histologic lesions have been observed in severely vitamin A-deficient animals. However, brain tissue does contain cellular vitamin A-binding proteins and a nuclear receptor protein for retinoic acid. In the present study, immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the cell-specific location of cellular retinol-binding protein in human and rat brain tissue. Cellular retinol-binding protein was localized specifically within the endothelial cells of the brain microvasculature and within the cuboidal epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, two primary sites of the mammalian blood-brain barrier. In addition, autoradiographic procedures demonstrated binding sites for serum retinol-binding protein in the choroidal epithelium. These observations suggest that a significant movement of retinol across the blood-brain barrier may occur.

  3. Binding-regulated click ligation for selective detection of proteins.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya; Han, Peng; Wang, Zhuxin; Chen, Weiwei; Shu, Yongqian; Xiang, Yang

    2016-04-15

    Herein, a binding-regulated click ligation (BRCL) strategy for endowing selective detection of proteins is developed with the incorporation of small-molecule ligand and clickable DNA probes. The fundamental principle underlying the strategy is the regulating capability of specific protein-ligand binding against the ligation between clickable DNA probes, which could efficiently combine the detection of particular protein with enormous DNA-based sensing technologies. In this work, the feasibly of the BRCL strategy is first verified through agarose gel electrophoresis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, and then confirmed by transferring it to a nanomaterial-assisted fluorescence assay. Significantly, the BRCL strategy-based assay is able to respond to target protein with desirable selectivity, attributing to the specific recognition between small-molecule ligand and its target. Further experiments validate the general applicability of the sensing method by tailoring the ligand toward different proteins (i.e., avidin and folate receptor), and demonstrate its usability in complex biological samples. To our knowledge, this work pioneers the practice of click chemistry in probing specific small-molecule ligand-protein binding, and therefore may pave a new way for selective detection of proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tubby family proteins are adapters for ciliary trafficking of integral membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Badgandi, Hemant B; Hwang, Sun-Hee; Shimada, Issei S; Loriot, Evan; Mukhopadhyay, Saikat

    2017-03-06

    The primary cilium is a paradigmatic organelle for studying compartmentalized signaling; however, unlike soluble protein trafficking, processes targeting integral membrane proteins to cilia are poorly understood. In this study, we determine that the tubby family protein TULP3 functions as a general adapter for ciliary trafficking of structurally diverse integral membrane cargo, including multiple reported and novel rhodopsin family G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the polycystic kidney disease-causing polycystin 1/2 complex. The founding tubby family member TUB also localizes to cilia similar to TULP3 and determines trafficking of a subset of these GPCRs to neuronal cilia. Using minimal ciliary localization sequences from GPCRs and fibrocystin (also implicated in polycystic kidney disease), we demonstrate these motifs to be sufficient and TULP3 dependent for ciliary trafficking. We propose a three-step model for TULP3/TUB-mediated ciliary trafficking, including the capture of diverse membrane cargo by the tubby domain in a phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2)-dependent manner, ciliary delivery by intraflagellar transport complex A binding to the TULP3/TUB N terminus, and subsequent release into PI(4,5)P2-deficient ciliary membrane. © 2017 Badgandi et al.

  5. Protein-protein binding affinity prediction on a diverse set of structures.

    PubMed

    Moal, Iain H; Agius, Rudi; Bates, Paul A

    2011-11-01

    Accurate binding free energy functions for protein-protein interactions are imperative for a wide range of purposes. Their construction is predicated upon ascertaining the factors that influence binding and their relative importance. A recent benchmark of binding affinities has allowed, for the first time, the evaluation and construction of binding free energy models using a diverse set of complexes, and a systematic assessment of our ability to model the energetics of conformational changes. We construct a large set of molecular descriptors using commonly available tools, introducing the use of energetic factors associated with conformational changes and disorder to order transitions, as well as features calculated on structural ensembles. The descriptors are used to train and test a binding free energy model using a consensus of four machine learning algorithms, whose performance constitutes a significant improvement over the other state of the art empirical free energy functions tested. The internal workings of the learners show how the descriptors are used, illuminating the determinants of protein-protein binding. The molecular descriptor set and descriptor values for all complexes are available in the Supplementary Material. A web server for the learners and coordinates for the bound and unbound structures can be accessed from the website: http://bmm.cancerresearchuk.org/~Affinity. paul.bates@cancer.org.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  6. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  7. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  8. Protein-losing enteropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  9. Protein and Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Protein and Heart Health Updated:May 5,2015 Protein ... said. What’s the harm in getting too much protein? The main problem is that often the extra ...

  10. AKR2A-mediated import of chloroplast outer membrane proteins is essential for chloroplast biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bae, Wonsil; Lee, Yong Jik; Kim, Dae Heon; Lee, Junho; Kim, Soojin; Sohn, Eun Ju; Hwang, Inhwan

    2008-02-01

    In plant cells, chloroplasts have essential roles in many biochemical reactions and physiological responses. Chloroplasts require numerous protein components, but only a fraction of these proteins are encoded by the chloroplast genome. Instead, most are encoded by the nuclear genome and imported into chloroplasts from the cytoplasm post-translationally. Membrane proteins located in the chloroplast outer envelope membrane (OEM) have a critical function in the import of proteins into the chloroplast. However, the biogenesis of chloroplast OEM proteins remains poorly understood. Here, we report that an Arabidopsis ankyrin repeat protein, AKR2A, plays an essential role in the biogenesis of the chloroplast OEM proteins. AKR2A binds to chloroplast OEM protein targeting signals, as well as to chloroplasts. It also displays chaperone activity towards chloroplast OEM proteins, and facilitates the targeting of OEP7 to chloroplasts in vitro. AKR2A RNAi in plants with an akr2b knockout background showed greatly reduced levels of chloroplast proteins, including OEM proteins, and chloroplast biogenesis was also defective. Thus, AKR2A functions as a cytosolic mediator for sorting and targeting of nascent chloroplast OEM proteins to the chloroplast.

  11. Protein splicing: selfish genes invade cellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Neff, N F

    1993-12-01

    Protein splicing is a series of enzymatic events involving intramolecular protein breakage, rejoining and intron homing, in which introns are able to promote the recombinative transposition of their own coding sequences. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic spliced proteins have conserved similar gene structure, but little amino acid identity. The genes coding for these spliced proteins contain internal in-frame introns that encode polypeptides that apparently self-excise from the resulting host protein sequences. Excision of the 'protein intron' is coupled with joining of the two flanking protein regions encoded by exons of the host gene. Some introns of this type encode DNA endonucleases, related to Group I RNA intron gene products, that stimulate gene conversion and self-transmission.

  12. Nanotechnologies in protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Krizkova, Sona; Heger, Zbynek; Zalewska, Marta; Moulick, Amitava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Protein microarray technology became an important research tool for study and detection of proteins, protein-protein interactions and a number of other applications. The utilization of nanoparticle-based materials and nanotechnology-based techniques for immobilization allows us not only to extend the surface for biomolecule immobilization resulting in enhanced substrate binding properties, decreased background signals and enhanced reporter systems for more sensitive assays. Generally in contemporarily developed microarray systems, multiple nanotechnology-based techniques are combined. In this review, applications of nanoparticles and nanotechnologies in creating protein microarrays, proteins immobilization and detection are summarized. We anticipate that advanced nanotechnologies can be exploited to expand promising fields of proteins identification, monitoring of protein-protein or drug-protein interactions, or proteins structures.

  13. Probing the thermodynamics of protein-lipid interactions by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Musti J; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S

    2013-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry is a highly sensitive technique for the study of molecular interactions. This method has been applied quite extensively to investigate the interaction of proteins with small ligands, other proteins, and nucleic acids as well as with drugs and metal ions. In this chapter, we describe the application of ITC for the investigation of thermodynamics of protein-lipid interaction. A number of parameters such as enthalpy of binding (ΔH), entropy of binding (ΔS), association constant (K (a)), binding stoichiometry (n), and free energy of binding (ΔG) can be obtained from a single calorimetric titration, providing a complete thermodynamic characterization of the interaction. The method is described in detail taking the major protein of the bovine seminal plasma, PDC-109, which exhibits a high preference for interaction with choline-containing lipids, as an example. The method can be applied to investigate the thermodynamics of the interaction of other soluble proteins with lipid membranes.

  14. Independent evolution of the prochlorophyte and green plant chlorophyll a/b light-harvesting proteins

    PubMed Central

    Roche, J. La; van der Staay, G. W. M.; Partensky, F.; Ducret, A.; Aebersold, R.; Li, R.; Golden, S. S.; Hiller, R. G.; Wrench, P. M.; Larkum, A. W. D.; Green, B. R.

    1996-01-01

    The prochlorophytes are oxygenic prokaryotes differing from other cyanobacteria by the presence of a light-harvesting system containing both chlorophylls (Chls) a and b and by the absence of phycobilins. We demonstrate here that the Chl a/b binding proteins from all three known prochlorophyte genera are closely related to IsiA, a cyanobacterial Chl a-binding protein induced by iron starvation, and to CP43, a constitutively expressed Chl a antenna protein of photosystem II. The prochlorophyte Chl a/b protein (pcb) genes do not belong to the extended gene family encoding eukaryotic Chl a/b and Chl a/c light-harvesting proteins. Although higher plants and prochlorophytes share common pigment complements, their light-harvesting systems have evolved independently. PMID:8986795

  15. The RNA binding protein Larp1 regulates cell division, apoptosis and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Carla; Abd Latip, Normala; Lam, Sarah-Jane; Carpenter, Lee; Sawicka, Kirsty; Tzolovsky, George; Gabra, Hani; Bushell, Martin; Glover, David M.; Willis, Anne E.; Blagden, Sarah P.

    2010-01-01

    The RNA binding protein Larp1 was originally shown to be involved in spermatogenesis, embryogenesis and cell-cycle progression in Drosophila. Our data show that mammalian Larp1 is found in a complex with poly A binding protein and eukaryote initiation factor 4E and is associated with 60S and 80S ribosomal subunits. A reduction in Larp1 expression by siRNA inhibits global protein synthesis rates and results in mitotic arrest and delayed cell migration. Consistent with these data we show that Larp1 protein is present at the leading edge of migrating cells and interacts directly with cytoskeletal components. Taken together, these data suggest a role for Larp1 in facilitating the synthesis of proteins required for cellular remodelling and migration. PMID:20430826

  16. Molecularly imprinted protein recognition thin films constructed by controlled/living radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shogo; Ooya, Tooru; Kitayama, Yukiya; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrated the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with binding affinity toward a target protein, ribonuclease A (RNase) by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of acrylic acid, acrylamide, and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in the presence of RNase. The binding activity of the MIPs was evaluated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the MIP thin layers prepared on the gold-coated sensor chips. The MIPs prepared by ATRP (MIP-ATRP) had a binding affinity toward RNase with larger binding amount compared to MIPs prepared by conventional free radical polymerization methods (MIP-RP). Moreover, protein selectivity was evaluated using reference proteins (cytochrome c, myoglobin, and α-lactalbumin) and was confirmed in MIP-ATRP of optimum film thickness determined experimentally to be 15-30 nm; however, protein selectivity was not achieved in all MIP-RP. We have shown that ATRP is powerful technique for preparing protein recognition materials by molecular imprinting.

  17. Improvement of antibody immobilization using hyperbranched polymer and protein A.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guangyu; Cai, Chenbo; Wang, Kun; Lu, Jilin

    2011-02-01

    For the construction of a well-defined antibody surface, protein A was used as a binding material to immobilize antibodies onto gold-derivatized transducers. The traditional method tends to assemble protein A directly onto the gold-derivatized transducers. In this paper, we tried to indirectly bind protein A onto sensors through hyperbranched polymer (HBP) which was synthesized from p-phenylenediamine and trimesic acid. The three-dimensional structure of HBP and the characteristics including orientation control and biocompatibility of protein A led to highly efficient immunoreactions and enhanced detection system performance. With this strategy, cysteamine monolayer was first assembled onto Au electrodes associated with the piezoelectric quartz crystal; secondly, the cysteamine-modified gold electrode was further modified by the activated HBP; thirdly, protein A was immobilized onto the HBP film; and finally, antibodies were immobilized onto the surface of protein A film for detecting the corresponding antigen. The quartz crystal microbalance immunosensor thus fabricated was applied to detect hepatitis B surface antigen in solutions that ranged from 0.71 to 300 μg mL(-1). The detection limit was estimated to be 0.53 μg mL(-1). The immunosensor holds good selectivity, sensitivity, and repeatability.

  18. PREFACE: Protein protein interactions: principles and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Tsai, Chung-Jung

    2005-06-01

    Proteins are the `workhorses' of the cell. Their roles span functions as diverse as being molecular machines and signalling. They carry out catalytic reactions, transport, form viral capsids, traverse membranes and form regulated channels, transmit information from DNA to RNA, making possible the synthesis of new proteins, and they are responsible for the degradation of unnecessary proteins and nucleic acids. They are the vehicles of the immune response and are responsible for viral entry into the cell. Given their importance, considerable effort has been centered on the prediction of protein function. A prime way to do this is through identification of binding partners. If the function of at least one of the components with which the protein interacts is known, that should let us assign its function(s) and the pathway(s) in which it plays a role. This holds since the vast majority of their chores in the living cell involve protein-protein interactions. Hence, through the intricate network of these interactions we can map cellular pathways, their interconnectivities and their dynamic regulation. Their identification is at the heart of functional genomics; their prediction is crucial for drug discovery. Knowledge of the pathway, its topology, length, and dynamics may provide useful information for forecasting side effects. The goal of predicting protein-protein interactions is daunting. Some associations are obligatory, others are continuously forming and dissociating. In principle, from the physical standpoint, any two proteins can interact, but under what conditions and at which strength? The principles of protein-protein interactions are general: the non-covalent interactions of two proteins are largely the outcome of the hydrophobic effect, which drives the interactions. In addition, hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions play important roles. Thus, many of the interactions observed in vitro are the outcome of experimental overexpression. Protein disorder

  19. Protein Structure Prediction by Protein Threading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Liu, Zhijie; Cai, Liming; Xu, Dong

    The seminal work of Bowie, Lüthy, and Eisenberg (Bowie et al., 1991) on "the inverse protein folding problem" laid the foundation of protein structure prediction by protein threading. By using simple measures for fitness of different amino acid types to local structural environments defined in terms of solvent accessibility and protein secondary structure, the authors derived a simple and yet profoundly novel approach to assessing if a protein sequence fits well with a given protein structural fold. Their follow-up work (Elofsson et al., 1996; Fischer and Eisenberg, 1996; Fischer et al., 1996a,b) and the work by Jones, Taylor, and Thornton (Jones et al., 1992) on protein fold recognition led to the development of a new brand of powerful tools for protein structure prediction, which we now term "protein threading." These computational tools have played a key role in extending the utility of all the experimentally solved structures by X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), providing structural models and functional predictions for many of the proteins encoded in the hundreds of genomes that have been sequenced up to now.

  20. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, W.R.

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  1. Analysis of proteins with the 'hot dog' fold: Prediction of function and identification of catalytic residues of hypothetical proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pidugu, Lakshmi S; Maity, Koustav; Ramaswamy, Karthikeyan; Surolia, Namita; Suguna, Kaza

    2009-01-01

    Background The hot dog fold has been found in more than sixty proteins since the first report of its existence about a decade ago. The fold appears to have a strong association with fatty acid biosynthesis, its regulation and metabolism, as the proteins with this fold are predominantly coenzyme A-binding enzymes with a variety of substrates located at their active sites. Results We have analyzed the structural features and sequences of proteins having the hot dog fold. This study reveals that though the basic architecture of the fold is well conserved in these proteins, significant differences exist in their sequence, nature of substrate and oligomerization. Segments with certain conserved sequence motifs seem to play crucial structural and functional roles in various classes of these proteins. Conclusion The analysis led to predictions regarding the functional classification and identification of possible catalytic residues of a number of hot dog fold-containing hypothetical proteins whose structures were determined in high throughput structural genomics projects. PMID:19473548

  2. Bridging the divide between sensory integration and binding theory: Using a binding-like neural synchronization mechanism to model sensory enhancements during multisensory interactions.

    PubMed

    Billock, Vincent A; Tsou, Brian H

    2014-07-01

    Neural information combination problems are ubiquitous in cognitive neuroscience. Two important disciplines, although conceptually similar, take radically different approaches to these problems. Sensory binding theory is largely grounded in synchronization of neurons responding to different aspects of a stimulus, resulting in a coherent percept. Sensory integration focuses more on the influences of the senses on each other and is largely grounded in the study of neurons that respond to more than one sense. It would be desirable to bridge these disciplines, so that insights gleaned from either could be harnessed by the other. To link these two fields, we used a binding-like oscillatory synchronization mechanism to simulate neurons in rattlesnake that are driven by one sense but modulated by another. Mutual excitatory coupling produces synchronized trains of action potentials with enhanced firing rates. The same neural synchronization mechanism models the behavior of a population of cells in cat visual cortex that are modulated by auditory activation. The coupling strength of the synchronizing neurons is crucial to the outcome; a criterion of strong coupling (kept weak enough to avoid seriously distorting action potential amplitude) results in intensity-dependent sensory enhancement-the principle of inverse effectiveness-a key property of sensory integration.

  3. A spider toxin, ω-agatoxin IV A, binds to fixed as well as living tissues: cytochemical visualization of P/Q-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Setsuko

    2016-08-01

    ω-Agatoxin IV A, a peptidyl toxin from Agelenopsis aperta venom, selectively binds to voltage-gated P/Q-type calcium channels. ω-Agatoxin IV A has been used as a selective tool in pharmacological and electrophysiological studies. Visualization of P/Q-type calcium channels has previously been accomplished using biotin-conjugated ω-Agatoxin IV A in freshly prepared mouse cerebellar and hippocampal slices (Nakanishi et al, J. Neurosci. Res., 41: , 532, 1995). Here biotinylated ω-agatoxin IV A was applied to transcardially fixed brain slices prepared with various fixatives. ω-Agatoxin IV A did not bind to fixed tissues from P/Q-type calcium channel knockout mice, confirming that binding to normal, fixed tissues was not an artifact. Using transmission electron microscopy, locations of biotinylated ω-agatoxin IV A binding sites visualized with gold-conjugated streptavidin showed a similar pattern to those visualized with antibody. The ability of biotinylated ω-agatoxin IV A to bind to fixed tissue provides a new cytochemical technique to study molecular architecture of synapses.

  4. A genetic variant of miR-148a binding site in the SCRN1 3′-UTR is associated with susceptibility and prognosis of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peng; Zhu, Haixia; Zhang, Dong; Chu, Haiyan; Wu, Dongmei; Kang, Meiyun; Wang, Meilin; Gong, Weida; Zhou, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhengdong; Zhao, Qinghong

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3′-untranslated regions targeted by putative mircoRNA can change its binding strength, affecting the susceptibility and prognosis of cancer. We aimed to investigate the associations between SNPs within miR-148a binding sites and gastric cancer (GC) risk and prognosis. Using bioinformatics tools, we selected two SNPs (SCRN1 rs6976789 and PDYN rs2235749) located in miR-148a target sites. We genotyped the two SNPs in a case-control study comprising 753 GC patients and 949 cancer-free subjects. We found a significantly increased risk of GC associated with the SCRN1 rs6976789 C>T polymorphism [adjusted OR = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.53; CT/TT vs. CC]. However, no significant association was found between the PDYN rs2235749 and GC risk in all genetic models. Furthermore, we evaluated whether SCRN1 rs6976789 affected the survival of GC patients. Results showed that individuals with SCRN1 rs6976789 TT genotype had poorer overall survival compared with those carried CC/CT genotypes in intestinal-type GC (adjusted HR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.21–5.05). Luciferase report assay showed that the rs6976789 variant T allele influenced the binding ability of miR-148a. Our results suggested that the SCRN1 rs6976789 polymorphism may play an important role in the GC development and progression. PMID:25399950

  5. Measurement of dissolved reactive phosphorus in water with polyquaternary ammonium salt as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Meng-Han; Gu, Jia-Li; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-12-17

    Diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) sampler with a polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) aqueous solution as a binding phase and a dialysis membrane as a diffusive phase (PQAS DGT) was developed for the measurement of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in water. The performance of PQAS DGT was not dependent upon pH 3-10 and ionic strength from 1 × 10(-4) to 1 mol L(-1). The effective binding capacity of PQAS DGT containing 2.0 mL of 0.050 mol L(-1) PQAS solution was estimated as 9.9 μg cm(-2). The measurement of DRP in a synthetic solution by PQAS DGT over a 48 h deployment period demonstrated high consistency with the concentration of DRP in the synthetic solution measured directly by the ammonium molybdate spectrophotometric method. Field deployments of PQAS DGT samplers allowed for accurate measurement of the DRP concentration in situ. The advantages of PQAS DGT include no requirement of the elution steps and direct concentration measurements of the binding phase.

  6. The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) forms a complex with the PDZ domain-containing protein ligand-of-numb protein-X (LNX).

    PubMed

    Sollerbrant, Kerstin; Raschperger, Elisabeth; Mirza, Momina; Engstrom, Ulla; Philipson, Lennart; Ljungdahl, Per O; Pettersson, Ralf F

    2003-02-28

    The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) functions as a virus receptor, but its primary biological function is unknown. A yeast two-hybrid screen was used to identify Ligand-of-Numb protein-X (LNX) as a binding partner to the intracellular tail of CAR. LNX harbors several protein-protein interacting domains, including four PDZ domains, and was previously shown to bind to and regulate the expression level of the cell-fate determinant Numb. CAR was able to bind LNX both in vivo and in vitro. Efficient binding to LNX required not only the consensus PDZ domain binding motif in the C terminus of CAR but also upstream sequences. The CAR binding region in LNX was mapped to the second PDZ domain. CAR and LNX were also shown to colocalize in vivo in mammalian cells. We speculate that CAR and LNX are part of a larger protein complex that might have important functions at discrete subcellular localizations in the cell.

  7. Whey protein fractionation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concentrated whey protein products from cheese whey, such as whey protein concentrate (WPC) and whey protein isolate (WPI), contain more than seven different types of proteins: alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), bovine serum albumin (BSA), immunoglobulins (Igs), lactoferrin ...

  8. Mirror Image Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Le; Lu, Wuyuan

    2017-01-01

    Proteins composed entirely of unnatural D-amino acids and the achiral amino acid glycine are mirror image forms of their native L-protein counterparts. Recent advances in chemical protein synthesis afford unique and facile synthetic access to domain-sized mirror image D-proteins, enabling protein research to be conducted through “the looking glass” and in a way previously unattainable. D-proteins can facilitate structure determination of their native L-forms that are difficult to crystallize (racemic X-ray crystallography); D-proteins can serve as the bait for library screening to ultimately yield pharmacologically superior D-peptide/D-protein therapeutics (mirror image phage display); D-proteins can also be used as a powerful mechanistic tool for probing molecular events in biology. This review examines recent progress in the application of mirror image proteins to structural biology, drug discovery, and immunology. PMID:25282524

  9. Tubby family proteins are adapters for ciliary trafficking of integral membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Issei S.; Loriot, Evan

    2017-01-01

    The primary cilium is a paradigmatic organelle for studying compartmentalized signaling; however, unlike soluble protein trafficking, processes targeting integral membrane proteins to cilia are poorly understood. In this study, we determine that the tubby family protein TULP3 functions as a general adapter for ciliary trafficking of structurally diverse integral membrane cargo, including multiple reported and novel rhodopsin family G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the polycystic kidney disease–causing polycystin 1/2 complex. The founding tubby family member TUB also localizes to cilia similar to TULP3 and determines trafficking of a subset of these GPCRs to neuronal cilia. Using minimal ciliary localization sequences from GPCRs and fibrocystin (also implicated in polycystic kidney disease), we demonstrate these motifs to be sufficient and TULP3 dependent for ciliary trafficking. We propose a three-step model for TULP3/TUB-mediated ciliary trafficking, including the capture of diverse membrane cargo by the tubby domain in a phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2)-dependent manner, ciliary delivery by intraflagellar transport complex A binding to the TULP3/TUB N terminus, and subsequent release into PI(4,5)P2-deficient ciliary membrane. PMID:28154160

  10. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  11. Molecular modelling of protein-protein/protein-solvent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchko, Tyler

    The inner workings of individual cells are based on intricate networks of protein-protein interactions. However, each of these individual protein interactions requires a complex physical interaction between proteins and their aqueous environment at the atomic scale. In this thesis, molecular dynamics simulations are used in three theoretical studies to gain insight at the atomic scale about protein hydration, protein structure and tubulin-tubulin (protein-protein) interactions, as found in microtubules. Also presented, in a fourth project, is a molecular model of solvation coupled with the Amber molecular modelling package, to facilitate further studies without the need of explicitly modelled water. Basic properties of a minimally solvated protein were calculated through an extended study of myoglobin hydration with explicit solvent, directly investigating water and protein polarization. Results indicate a close correlation between polarization of both water and protein and the onset of protein function. The methodology of explicit solvent molecular dynamics was further used to study tubulin and microtubules. Extensive conformational sampling of the carboxy-terminal tails of 8-tubulin was performed via replica exchange molecular dynamics, allowing the characterisation of the flexibility, secondary structure and binding domains of the C-terminal tails through statistical analysis methods. Mechanical properties of tubulin and microtubules were calculated with adaptive biasing force molecular dynamics. The function of the M-loop in microtubule stability was demonstrated in these simulations. The flexibility of this loop allowed constant contacts between the protofilaments to be maintained during simulations while the smooth deformation provided a spring-like restoring force. Additionally, calculating the free energy profile between the straight and bent tubulin configurations was used to test the proposed conformational change in tubulin, thought to cause microtubule

  12. Cysteine-containing peptide tag for site-specific conjugation of proteins

    DOEpatents

    Backer, Marina V.; Backer, Joseph M.

    2008-04-08

    The present invention is directed to a biological conjugate, comprising: (a) a targeting moiety comprising a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence comprising the polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO:2 and the polypeptide sequence of a selected targeting protein; and (b) a binding moiety bound to the targeting moiety; the biological conjugate having a covalent bond between the thiol group of SEQ ID NO:2 and a functional group in the binding moiety. The present invention is directed to a biological conjugate, comprising: (a) a targeting moiety comprising a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence comprising the polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO:2 and the polypeptide sequence of a selected targeting protein; and (b) a binding moiety that comprises an adapter protein, the adapter protein having a thiol group; the biological conjugate having a disulfide bond between the thiol group of SEQ ID NO:2 and the thiol group of the adapter protein. The present invention is also directed to biological sequences employed in the above biological conjugates, as well as pharmaceutical preparations and methods using the above biological conjugates.

  13. Cysteine-containing peptide tag for site-specific conjugation of proteins

    DOEpatents

    Backer, Marina V.; Backer, Joseph M.

    2010-10-05

    The present invention is directed to a biological conjugate, comprising: (a) a targeting moiety comprising a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence comprising the polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO:2 and the polypeptide sequence of a selected targeting protein; and (b) a binding moiety bound to the targeting moiety; the biological conjugate having a covalent bond between the thiol group of SEQ ID NO:2 and a functional group in the binding moiety. The present invention is directed to a biological conjugate, comprising: (a) a targeting moiety comprising a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence comprising the polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO:2 and the polypeptide sequence of a selected targeting protein; and (b) a binding moiety that comprises an adapter protein, the adapter protein having a thiol group; the biological conjugate having a disulfide bond between the thiol group of SEQ ID NO:2 and the thiol group of the adapter protein. The present invention is also directed to biological sequences employed in the above biological conjugates, as well as pharmaceutical preparations and methods using the above biological conjugates.

  14. Transformed and nontransformed cells differ in stability and cell cycle regulation of a binding activity to the murine thymidine kinase promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, D W; Dou, Q P; Fridovich-Keil, J L; Pardee, A B

    1990-01-01

    A DNA binding activity to an upstream region of the murine thymidine kinase gene is regulated differently in a transformed and nontransformed cell line pair. Differences in regulation were observed (i) after serum levels were reduced, (ii) when serum levels were returned to initial high levels, and (iii) while protein synthesis was inhibited. After reduction of serum levels, the binding activity was unstable in nontransformed BALB/c 3T3 clone A31 cells but was significantly more stable in benzo[a]pyrene-transformed BALB/c 3T3 cells. After serum concentration was returned to high levels, the kinetic pattern of the binding activity differed between nontransformed and transformed cells. While protein synthesis was inhibited, the binding activity was unstable in nontransformed cells and stable in transformed cells. Partial inhibition of protein synthesis--a more stringent condition to test instability--prevented the induction of the binding activity in nontransformed cells. Previously, the labile protein hypothesis set forth the criterion that a protein regulating the onset of DNA synthesis should be unstable in nontransformed cells and stable in transformed cells. The DNA binding activity described here satisfies this criterion. Images PMID:2251273

  15. Combinatorial protein reagents to manipulate protein function.

    PubMed

    Colas, P

    2000-02-01

    The design and use of combinatorial protein libraries has become a fast moving field in molecular biology. Different experimental systems supporting various selection schemes are now available. The latest breakthroughs include evolutionary experiments to improve existing binding surfaces, selections of homodimerizing peptides, the use of peptide aptamers to disrupt protein interactions inside living cells, and functional selections of aptamers to probe regulatory networks.

  16. Surface Mediated Protein Disaggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2014-03-01

    Preventing protein aggregation is of both biological and industrial importance. Biologically these aggregates are known to cause amyloid type diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Protein aggregation leads to reduced activity of the enzymes in industrial applications. Inter-protein interactions between the hydrophobic residues of the protein are known to be the major driving force for protein aggregation. In the current paper we show how surface chemistry and curvature can be tuned to mitigate these inter-protein interactions. Our results calculated in the framework of the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) lattice model show that, inter-protein interactions can be drastically reduced by increasing the surface hydrophobicity to a critical value corresponding to the adsorption transition of the protein. At this value of surface hydrophobicity, proteins lose inter-protein contacts to gain surface contacts and thus the surface helps in reducing the inter-protein interactions. Further, we show that the adsorption of the proteins inside hydrophobic pores of optimal sizes are most efficient both in reducing inter-protein contacts and simultaneously retaining most of the native-contacts due to strong protein-surface interactions coupled with stabilization due to the confinement. Department of Energy (Grant No DE-FG02-11ER46811).

  17. Direct detection of ligand binding to Sepharose-immobilised protein using saturation transfer double difference (STDD) NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Haselhorst, Thomas; Muenster-Kuehnel, Anja K.; Oschlies, Melanie; Tiralongo, Joe; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Itzstein, Mark von . E-mail: m.vonitzstein@griffith.edu.au

    2007-08-10

    We report an easy and direct application of 'Saturation Transfer Double Difference' (STDD) NMR spectroscopy to identify ligands that bind to a Sepharose-immobilised target protein. The model protein, cytidine 5'-monophosphate sialic acid (CMP-Sia) synthetase, was expressed as a Strep-Tag II fusion protein and immobilised on Strep-Tactin Sepharose. STD NMR experiments of the protein-enriched Sepharose matrix in the presence of a binding ligand (cytidine 5'-triphosphate, CTP) and a non-binding ligand ({alpha}/{beta}-glucose) clearly show that CTP binds to the immobilised enzyme, whereas glucose has no affinity. This approach has three major advantages: (a) only low quantities of protein are required, (b) no specialised NMR technology or the application of additional data analysis by non-routine methods is required, and (c) easy multiple use of the immobilised protein is available.

  18. Production of the refolded oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA) encoded by the citrus pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Citri.

    PubMed

    Balan, A; Ferreira, R C C; Ferreira, L C S

    2008-02-01

    The oligopeptide-binding protein, OppA, binds and ushers oligopeptide substrates to the membrane-associated oligopeptide permease (Opp), a multi-component ABC-type transporter involved in the uptake of oligopeptides expressed by several bacterial species. In the present study, we report the cloning, purification, refolding and conformational analysis of a recombinant OppA protein derived from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (X. citri), the etiological agent of citrus canker. The oppA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain under optimized inducing conditions and the recombinant protein remained largely insoluble. Solubilization was achieved following refolding of the denatured protein. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that the recombinant OppA protein preserved conformational features of orthologs expressed by other bacterial species. The refolded recombinant OppA represents a useful tool for structural and functional analyses of the X. citri protein.

  19. EphrinA4 mimetic peptide targeted to EphA binding site impairs the formation of long-term fear memory in lateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Dines, M; Lamprecht, R

    2014-01-01

    Fear conditioning leads to long-term fear memory formation and is a model for studying fear-related psychopathologies conditions such as phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder. Long-term fear memory formation is believed to involve alterations of synaptic efficacy mediated by changes in synaptic transmission and morphology in lateral amygdala (LA). EphrinA4 and its cognate Eph receptors are intimately involved in regulating neuronal morphogenesis, synaptic transmission and plasticity. To assess possible roles of ephrinA4 in fear memory formation we designed and used a specific inhibitory ephrinA4 mimetic peptide (pep-ephrinA4) targeted to EphA binding site. We show that this peptide, composed of the ephrinA4 binding domain, interacts with EphA4 and inhibits ephrinA4-induced phosphorylation of EphA4. Microinjection of the pep-ephrinA4 into rat LA 30 min before training impaired long- but not short-term fear conditioning memory. Microinjection of a control peptide derived from a nonbinding E helix site of ephrinA4, that does not interact with EphA, had no effect on fear memory formation. Microinjection of pep-ephrinA4 into areas adjacent to the amygdala had no effect on fear memory. Acute systemic administration of pep-ephrinA4 1 h after training also impaired long-term fear conditioning memory formation. These results demonstrate that ephrinA4 binding sites in LA are essential for long-term fear memory formation. Moreover, our research shows that ephrinA4 binding sites may serve as a target for pharmacological treatment of fear and anxiety disorders. PMID:25268254

  20. EphrinA4 mimetic peptide targeted to EphA binding site impairs the formation of long-term fear memory in lateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Dines, M; Lamprecht, R

    2014-09-30

    Fear conditioning leads to long-term fear memory formation and is a model for studying fear-related psychopathologies conditions such as phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder. Long-term fear memory formation is believed to involve alterations of synaptic efficacy mediated by changes in synaptic transmission and morphology in lateral amygdala (LA). EphrinA4 and its cognate Eph receptors are intimately involved in regulating neuronal morphogenesis, synaptic transmission and plasticity. To assess possible roles of ephrinA4 in fear memory formation we designed and used a specific inhibitory ephrinA4 mimetic peptide (pep-ephrinA4) targeted to EphA binding site. We show that this peptide, composed of the ephrinA4 binding domain, interacts with EphA4 and inhibits ephrinA4-induced phosphorylation of EphA4. Microinjection of the pep-ephrinA4 into rat LA 30 min before training impaired long- but not short-term fear conditioning memory. Microinjection of a control peptide derived from a nonbinding E helix site of ephrinA4, that does not interact with EphA, had no effect on fear memory formation. Microinjection of pep-ephrinA4 into areas adjacent to the amygdala had no effect on fear memory. Acute systemic administration of pep-ephrinA4 1 h after training also impaired long-term fear conditioning memory formation. These results demonstrate that ephrinA4 binding sites in LA are essential for long-term fear memory formation. Moreover, our research shows that ephrinA4 binding sites may serve as a target for pharmacological treatment of fear and anxiety disorders.

  1. Genome Wide Mapping of NR4A Binding Reveals Cooperativity with ETS Factors to Promote Epigenetic Activation of Distal Enhancers in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Duren, Ryan P.; Boudreaux, Seth P.; Conneely, Orla M.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the NR4A subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors regulate cell fate decisions via both genomic and non-genomic mechanisms in a cell and tissue selective manner. NR4As play a key role in maintenance of hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis and are critical tumor suppressors of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Expression of NR4As is broadly silenced in leukemia initiating cell enriched populations from human patients relative to normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Rescue of NR4A expression in human AML cells inhibits proliferation and reprograms AML gene signatures via transcriptional mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. By intersecting an acutely regulated NR4A1 dependent transcriptional profile with genome wide NR4A binding distribution, we now identify an NR4A targetome of 685 genes that are directly regulated by NR4A1. We show that NR4As regulate gene transcription primarily through interaction with distal enhancers that are co-enriched for NR4A1 and ETS transcription factor motifs. Using a subset of NR4A activated genes, we demonstrate that the ETS factors ERG and FLI-1 are required for activation of NR4A bound enhancers and NR4A target gene induction. NR4A1 dependent recruitment of ERG and FLI-1 promotes binding of p300 histone acetyltransferase to epigenetically activate NR4A bound enhancers via acetylation at histone H3K27. These findings disclose novel epigenetic mechanisms by which NR4As and ETS factors cooperate to drive NR4A dependent gene transcription in human AML cells. PMID:26938745

  2. Genomic microarray analysis reveals distinct locations for the CENP-A binding domains in three human chromosome 13q32 neocentromeres.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Alicia; Mahmood, Radma; Li, Shulan; Cheung, Fanny; Yoda, Kinya; Warburton, Peter E

    2003-10-15

    Human neocentromeres are fully functional centromeres that provide mitotic stability to rearranged chromosomes that have separated from endogenous centromeres. A disproportionate number of neocentromeres has been observed in certain regions such as chromosome 3q (n=6), 15q (n=9) and 13q32 (n=7), suggesting that these regions contain DNA sequences with a high propensity for neocentromere formation. Therefore, we have addressed the role of primary DNA sequence in neocentromere formation by asking whether multiple independent neocentromeres that were cytologically localized to chromosome 13q32 are in fact localized to the same underlying genomic DNA. Analysis of four independent 13q32 neocentromeres using simultaneous FISH with ordered YAC probes and immunofluorescence with antibodies to CENP-C have localized three neocentromeres to a distal approximately 7 Mb domain in chromosome 13q32, and one to an overlapping proximal domain of approximately 7 Mb. DNA was obtained from three of these neocentromeres by CENP-A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and used to screen ordered BACs using both a slot-blotted BAC pool approach and a genomic microarray that contiguously spans 13q31.3-13q33.1. The CENP-A binding domains from each of these neocentromeres was identified to distinct genomic locations of approximately 130, 215 and 275 kb within an approximately 6.5 Mb region. Thus, the lack of coincidence of these neocentromeres to the same underlying DNA sequence refutes the idea of a DNA sequence based neocentromere 'hotspot' in 13q32 and further supports the sequence-independent epigenetic formation of human neocentromeres. The screening of genomic microarrays with ChIP DNA provides a powerful method to identify mammalian DNA sequences associated with particular functional chromatin states.

  3. The competitor-introduced Ggamma recruitment system, a new approach for screening affinity-enhanced proteins.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Nobuo; Ishii, Jun; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a new approach based on the Ggamma recruitment system to screen affinity-enhanced proteins by expressing a binding competitor. The previously established Ggamma recruitment system is a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system that utilizes G-protein signaling, and is based on the fact that membrane localization of the G-protein gamma subunit (Ggamma) is essential for signal transduction in yeast. In the original Y2H system, an engineered Ggamma that lacks membrane localization upon deletion of the lipid modification site (Ggamma(cyto)) is produced, and a candidate protein with an artificial lipidation site and its counterpart fused with Ggamma(cyto) are expressed. As protein-protein interactions bring Ggamma(cyto) towards the plasma membrane, G-protein signaling can be activated, and the interaction is detected by various cellular responses as the readout. In the current study, we expressed a third cytosolic protein that competes with the candidate protein to specifically isolate affinity-enhanced mutants from a mutation library of the candidate protein. Enhancing the affinity of the protein candidate guides the counterpart-Ggamma(cyto) fusion protein towards the plasma membrane and activates signaling. Using mutants of the Z domain derived from Staphylococcus aureus protein A as candidate proteins or competitors, and the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as the counterpart, we demonstrate that affinity-enhanced proteins can be effectively screened from a library containing a 10 000-fold excess of non-enhanced proteins. This new approach, called the competitor-introduced Ggamma recruitment system, will be useful for efficient discovery of rare valuable candidates hidden among excess ordinary ones.

  4. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2013-09-01

    Motor proteins are enzymatic molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical motion and work. They are critically important for supporting various cellular activities and functions. In the last 15 years significant progress in understanding the functioning of motor proteins has been achieved due to revolutionary breakthroughs in single-molecule experimental techniques and strong advances in theoretical modelling. However, microscopic mechanisms of protein motility are still not well explained, and the collective efforts of many scientists are needed in order to solve these complex problems. In this special section the reader will find the latest advances on the difficult road to mapping motor proteins dynamics in various systems. Recent experimental developments have allowed researchers to monitor and to influence the activity of single motor proteins with a high spatial and temporal resolution. It has stimulated significant theoretical efforts to understand the non-equilibrium nature of protein motility phenomena. The latest results from all these advances are presented and discussed in this special section. We would like to thank the scientists from all over the world who have reported their latest research results for this special section. We are also grateful to the staff and editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for their invaluable help in handling all the administrative and refereeing activities. The field of motor proteins and protein motility is fast moving, and we hope that this collection of articles will be a useful source of information in this highly interdisciplinary area. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins contents Physics of protein motility and motor proteinsAnatoly B Kolomeisky Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116 Yuan Zhang, Mirkó Palla, Andrew Sun and Jung-Chi Liao The load dependence of the physical properties of a molecular motor

  5. The archaeal DnaG protein needs Csl4 for binding to the exosome and enhances its interaction with adenine-rich RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Linlin; Klug, Gabriele; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The archaeal RNA-degrading exosome contains a catalytically active hexameric core, an RNA-binding cap formed by Rrp4 and Csl4 and the protein annotated as DnaG (bacterial type primase) with so-far-unknown functions in RNA metabolism. We found that the archaeal DnaG binds to the Csl4-exosome but not to the Rrp4-exosome of Sulfolobus solfataricus. In vitro assays revealed that DnaG is a poly(A)-binding protein enhancing the degradation of adenine-rich transcripts by the Csl4-exosome. DnaG is the second poly(A)-binding protein besides Rrp4 in the heteromeric, RNA-binding cap of the S. solfataricus exosome. This apparently reflects the need for effective and selective recruitment of adenine-rich RNAs to the exosome in the RNA metabolism of S. solfataricus. PMID:23324612

  6. Hydrodynamic effects in proteins.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2011-01-26

    Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins.

  7. Learning about Proteins

    MedlinePlus

    ... body, and protecting you from disease. All About Amino Acids When you eat foods that contain protein, the ... called amino (say: uh-MEE-no) acids. The amino acids then can be reused to make the proteins ...

  8. Protein C blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... history of blood clots. Protein C helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  9. Protein S blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... family history of blood clots. Protein S helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  10. Protein and older adults.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, Ronni

    2004-12-01

    Body composition changes as people get older. One of the noteworthy alterations is the reduction in total body protein. A decrease in skeletal muscle is the most noticeable manifestation of this change but there is also a reduction in other physiologic proteins such as organ tissue, blood components, and immune bodies as well as declines in total body potassium and water. This contributes to impaired wound healing, loss of skin elasticity, and an inability to fight infection. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adults for protein is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. Protein tissue accounts for 30% of whole-body protein turnover but that rate declines to 20% or less by age 70. The result of this phenomenon is that older adults require more protein/kilogram body weight than do younger adults. Recently, it has become clear that the requirement for exogenous protein is at least 1.0 gram/kilogram body weight. Adequate dietary intake of protein may be more difficult for older adults to obtain. Dietary animal protein is the primary source of high biological value protein, iron, vitamin B(12), folic acid, biotin and other essential nutrients. In fact, egg protein is the standard against which all other proteins are compared. Compared to other high-quality protein sources like meat, poultry and seafood, eggs are the least expensive. The importance of dietary protein cannot be underestimated in the diets of older adults; inadequate protein intake contributes to a decrease in reserve capacity, increased skin fragility, decreased immune function, poorer healing, and longer recuperation from illness.

  11. Homology modelling of protein-protein complexes: a simple method and its possibilities and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Launay, Guillaume; Simonson, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Structure-based computational methods are needed to help identify and characterize protein-protein complexes and their function. For individual proteins, the most successful technique is homology modelling. We investigate a simple extension of this technique to protein-protein complexes. We consider a large set of complexes of known structures, involving pairs of single-domain proteins. The complexes are compared with each other to establish their sequence and structural similarities and the relation between the two. Compared to earlier studies, a simpler dataset, a simpler structural alignment procedure, and an additional energy criterion are used. Next, we compare the Xray structures to models obtained by threading the native sequence onto other, homologous complexes. An elementary requirement for a successful energy function is to rank the native structure above any threaded structure. We use the DFIREβ energy function, whose quality and complexity are typical of the models used today. Finally, we compare near-native models to distinctly non-native models. Results If weakly stable complexes are excluded (defined by a binding energy cutoff), as well as a few unusual complexes, a simple homology principle holds: complexes that share more than 35% sequence identity share similar structures and interaction modes; this principle was less clearcut in earlier studies. The energy function was then tested for its ability to identify experimental structures among sets of decoys, produced by a simple threading procedure. On average, the experimental structure is ranked above 92% of the alternate structures. Thus, discrimination of the native structure is good but not perfect. The discrimination of near-native structures is fair. Typically, a single, alternate, non-native binding mode exists that has a native-like energy. Some of the associated failures may correspond to genuine, alternate binding modes and/or native complexes that are artefacts of the crystal

  12. Identification of lipids and lipid-binding proteins in phloem exudates from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Guelette, Brandon S; Benning, Urs F; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne

    2012-06-01

    The phloem plays a crucial role in assimilate and nutrient transport, pathogen response, and plant growth and development. Yet, few species have yielded pure phloem exudate and, if proteins need to be analysed, those species may not have sequenced genomes, making identification difficult. The enrichment of Arabidopsis thaliana phloem exudate in amounts large enough to allow for metabolite and protein analysis is described. Using this method, it was possible to identify 65 proteins present in the Arabidopsis phloem exudate. The majority of these proteins could be grouped by response to pathogens, stress, or hormones, carbon metabolism, protein interaction, modification, and turnover, and transcription factors. It was also possible to detect 11 proteins that play a role in lipid/fatty acid metabolism (aspartic protease, putative 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, UDP-sulphoquinovose synthase/SQD1, lipase, PIG-P-like protein: phosphatidylinositol-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase), storage (glycine-rich protein), binding (annexin, lipid-associated family protein, GRP17/oleosin), and/or signalling (annexin, putative lipase, PIG-P-like protein). Along with putative lipid-binding proteins, several lipids and fatty acids could be identified. Only a few examples exist of lipids (jasmonic acid, oxylipins) or lipid-binding proteins (DIR1, acyl-CoA-binding protein) in the phloem. Finding hydrophobic compounds in an aqueous environment is not without precedence in biological systems: human blood contains a variety of lipids, many of which play a significant role in human health. In blood, lipids are transported while bound to proteins. The present findings of lipids and lipid-binding proteins in phloem exudates suggest that a similar long-distance lipid signalling exists in plants and may play an important role in plant growth and development.

  13. Modeling Protein Self Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck; Hull, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of proteins is an important part of the standards-based science curriculum. Proteins serve vital roles within the cell and malfunctions in protein self assembly are implicated in degenerative diseases. Experience indicates that this topic is a difficult one for many students. We have found that the concept…

  14. Overview of Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Reymond Sutandy, FX; Qian, Jiang; Chen, Chien-Sheng; Zhu, Heng

    2013-01-01

    Protein microarray is an emerging technology that provides a versatile platform for characterization of hundreds of thousands of proteins in a highly parallel and high-throughput way. Two major classes of protein microarrays are defined to describe their applications: analytical and functional protein microarrays. In addition, tissue or cell lysates can also be fractionated and spotted on a slide to form a reverse-phase protein microarray. While the fabrication technology is maturing, applications of protein microarrays, especially functional protein microarrays, have flourished during the past decade. Here, we will first review recent advances in the protein microarray technologies, and then present a series of examples to illustrate the applications of analytical and functional protein microarrays in both basic and clinical research. The research areas will include detection of various binding properties of proteins, study of protein posttranslational modifications, analysis of host-microbe interactions, profiling antibody specificity, and identification of biomarkers in autoimmune diseases. As a powerful technology platform, it would not be surprising if protein microarrays will become one of the leading technologies in proteomic and diagnostic fields in the next decade. PMID:23546620

  15. CSF total protein

    MedlinePlus

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  16. Modeling Protein Domain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

  17. Destabilized bioluminescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Michael S.; Rakesh, Gupta; Gary, Sayler S.

    2007-07-31

    Purified nucleic acids, vectors and cells containing a gene cassette encoding at least one modified bioluminescent protein, wherein the modification includes the addition of a peptide sequence. The duration of bioluminescence emitted by the modified bioluminescent protein is shorter than the duration of bioluminescence emitted by an unmodified form of the bioluminescent protein.

  18. Texturized dairy proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy proteins are amenable to structural modifications induced by high temperature, shear and moisture; in particular, whey proteins can change conformation to new unfolded states. The change in protein state is a basis for creating new foods. The dairy products, nonfat dried milk (NDM), whey prote...

  19. Modeling Protein Domain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

  20. SAMPyling Proteins in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Darwin, K. Heran; Hofmann, Kay

    2010-01-01

    For some time post-translational small protein modifications were found only in eukaryotes; much later, such modifications were identified in some species of bacteria. The recent discovery of ubiquitin-like proteins that form polymeric chains and covalently modify proteins in archaea finally closes the evolutionary gap among the domains of life. PMID:20547064

  1. The E5 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    DiMaio, Daniel; Petti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The E5 proteins are short transmembrane proteins encoded by many animal and human papillomaviruses. These proteins display transforming activity in cultured cells and animals, and they presumably also play a role in the productive virus life cycle. The E5 proteins are thought to act by modulating the activity of cellular proteins. Here, we describe the biological activities of the best-studied E5 proteins and discuss the evidence implicating specific protein targets and pathways in mediating these activities. The primary target of the 44-amino acid BPV1 E5 is the PDGF β receptor, whereas the EGF receptor appears to be an important target of the 83-amino acid HPV16 E5 protein. Both E5 proteins also bind to the vacuolar ATPase and affect MHC class I expression and cell-cell communication. Continued studies of the E5 proteins will elucidate important aspects of transmembrane protein-protein interactions, cellular signal transduction, cell biology, virus replication, and tumorigenesis. PMID:23731971

  2. Huntingtin-associated protein-1 (HAP1) regulates endocytosis and interacts with multiple trafficking-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Kimberly D; Lim, Yoon; Duffield, Michael D; Chataway, Timothy; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Keating, Damien J

    2017-07-01

    Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) was initially identified as a binding partner of huntingtin, mutations in which underlie Huntington's disease. Subcellular localization and protein interaction data indicate that HAP1 may be important in vesicle trafficking, cell signalling and receptor internalization. In this study, a proteomics approach was used for the identification of novel HAP1-interacting partners to attempt to shed light on the physiological function of HAP1. Using affinity chromatography with HAP1-GST protein fragments bound to Sepharose columns, this study identified a number of trafficking-related proteins that bind to HAP1. Interestingly, many of the proteins that were identified by mass spectrometry have trafficking-related functions and include the clathrin light chain B and Sec23A, an ER to Golgi trafficking vesicle coat component. Using co-immunoprecipitation and GST-binding assays the association between HAP1 and clathrin light chain B has been validated in vitro. This study also finds that HAP1 co-localizes with clathrin light chain B. In line with a physiological function of the HAP1-clathrin interaction this study detected a dramatic reduction in vesicle retrieval and endocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells. Furthermore, through examination of transferrin endocytosis in HAP1(-/-) cortical neurons, this study has determined that HAP1 regulates neuronal endocytosis. In this study, the interaction between HAP1 and Sec23A was also validated through endogenous co-immunoprecipitation in rat brain homogenate. Through the identification of novel HAP1 binding partners, many of which have putative trafficking roles, this study provides us with new insights into the mechanisms underlying the important physiological function of HAP1 as an intracellular trafficking protein through its protein-protein interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Retest imaging of [11C]NOP-1A binding to nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors in brain of healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Lohith, Talakad G.; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Morse, Cheryl L.; Araneta, Maria D. Ferraris; Barth, Vanessa N.; Goebl, Nancy A.; Tauscher, Johannes T.; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Fujita, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    [11C]NOP-1A is a novel high-affinity PET ligand for imaging nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors. Here, we report reproducibility and reliability measures of binding parameter estimates for [11C]NOP-1A binding in brain of healthy humans. After intravenous injection of [11C]NOP-1A, PET scans were conducted twice on eleven healthy volunteers on the same (10/11 subjects) or different (1/11 subjects) days. Subjects underwent serial sampling of radial arterial blood to measure parent radioligand concentrations. Distribution volume (VT; a measure of receptor density) was determined by compartmental (one- and two-tissue) modeling in large regions and by simpler regression methods (graphical Logan and bilinear MA1) in both large regions and voxel data. Retest variability and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of VT were determined as measures of reproducibility and reliability, respectively. Regional [11C]NOP-1A uptake in brain was high, with a peak radioactivity concentration of 4 – 7 SUV (standardized uptake value) and a rank order of putamen > cingulate cortex > cerebellum. Brain time-activity curves fitted well in 10 of 11 subjects by unconstrained two-tissue compartmental model. The retest variability of VT was moderately good across brain regions except cerebellum, and was similar across different modeling methods, averaging 12% for large regions and 14% for voxel-based methods. The retest reliability of VT was also moderately good in most brain regions, except thalamus and cerebellum, and was similar across different modeling methods averaging 0.46 for large regions and 0.48 for voxels having gray matter probability > 20%. The lowest retest variability and highest retest reliability of VT was achieved by compartmental modeling for large regions, and by the parametric Logan method for voxel-based methods. Moderately good reproducibility and reliability measures of VT for [11C]NOP-1A make it a useful PET ligand for comparing NOP receptor binding

  4. Protein-protein interactions in multienzyme megasynthetases.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Kira J; Müller, Rolf

    2008-04-14

    The multienzyme polyketide synthases (PKSs), nonribosomal polypeptide synthetases (NRPSs), and their hybrids are responsible for the construction in bacteria of numerous natural products of clinical value. These systems generate high structural complexity by using a simple biosynthetic logic--that of the assembly line. Each of the individual steps in building the metabolites is designated to an independently folded domain within gigantic polypeptides. The domains are clustered into functional modules, and the modules are strung out along the proteins in the order in which they act. Every metabolite results, therefore, from the successive action of up to 100 individual catalysts. Despite the conceptual simplicity of this division-of-labor organization, we are only beginning to decipher the molecular details of the numerous protein-protein interactions that support assembly-line biosynthesis, and which are critical to attempts to re-engineer these systems as a tool in drug discovery. This review aims to summarize the state of knowledge about several aspects of protein-protein interactions, including current architectural models for PKS and NRPS systems, the central role of carrier proteins, and the structural basis for intersubunit recognition.

  5. Protopia: a protein-protein interaction tool

    PubMed Central

    Real-Chicharro, Alejandro; Ruiz-Mostazo, Iván; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Kerzazi, Amine; Chniber, Othmane; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Medina, Miguel Ángel; Aldana-Montes, José F

    2009-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interactions can be considered the basic skeleton for living organism self-organization and homeostasis. Impressive quantities of experimental data are being obtained and computational tools are essential to integrate and to organize this information. This paper presents Protopia, a biological tool that offers a way of searching for proteins and their interactions in different Protein Interaction Web Databases, as a part of a multidisciplinary initiative of our institution for the integration of biological data . Results The tool accesses the different Databases (at present, the free version of Transfac, DIP, Hprd, Int-Act and iHop), and results are expressed with biological protein names or databases codes and can be depicted as a vector or a matrix. They can be represented and handled interactively as an organic graph. Comparison among databases is carried out using the Uniprot codes annotated for each protein. Conclusion The tool locates and integrates the current information stored in the aforementioned databases, and redundancies among them are detected. Results are compatible with the most important network analysers, so that they can be compared and analysed by other world-wide known tools and platforms. The visualization possibilities help to attain this goal and they are especially interesting for handling multiple-step or complex networks. PMID:19828077

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Protein GRP-78 Mediates Endocytosis of Dentin Matrix Protein 1*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Sriram; Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Hao, Jianjun; Ramachandran, Amsaveni; Blond, Sylvie; George, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), a phosphorylated protein present in the mineral phase of both vertebrates and invertebrates, is a key regulatory protein during biogenic formation of mineral deposits. Previously we showed that DMP1 is localized in the nuclear compartment of preosteoblasts and preodontoblasts. In the nucleus DMP1 might play an important role in the regulation of genes that control osteoblast or odontoblast differentiation. Here, we show that cellular uptake of DMP1 occurs through endocytosis. Interestingly, this process is initiated by DMP1 binding to the glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP-78) localized on the plasma membrane of preodontoblast cells. Binding of DMP1 to GRP-78 receptor was determined to be specific and saturable with a binding dissociation constant KD = 85 nm. We further depict a road map for the endocytosed DMP1 and demonstrate that the internalization is mediated primarily by caveolae and that the vesicles containing DMP1 are routed to the nucleus along microtubules. Immunohistochemical analysis and binding studies performed with biotin-labeled DMP1 confirm spatial co-localization of DMP1 and GRP-78 in the preodontoblasts of a developing mouse molar. Co-localization of DMP1 with GRP-78 was also observed in T4-4 preodontoblast cells, dental pulp stem cells, and primary preodontoblasts. By small interfering RNA techniques, we demonstrate that the receptor for DMP1 is GRP-78. Therefore, binding of DMP1 with GRP-78 receptor might be an important mechanism by which DMP1 is internalized and transported to the nucleus during bone and tooth development. PMID:18757373

  7. Protein crystallization with paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Miki; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Adachi, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Mihoko; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Sano, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Masashi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Takano, Kazufumi

    2016-05-01

    We developed a new protein crystallization method that incorporates paper. A small piece of paper, such as facial tissue or KimWipes, was added to a drop of protein solution in the traditional sitting drop vapor diffusion technique, and protein crystals grew by incorporating paper. By this method, we achieved the growth of protein crystals with reducing osmotic shock. Because the technique is very simple and the materials are easy to obtain, this method will come into wide use for protein crystallization. In the future, it could be applied to nanoliter-scale crystallization screening on a paper sheet such as in inkjet printing.

  8. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-05-01

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  9. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Kiss, Csaba

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  10. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-11-29

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  11. The single-stranded DNA-binding protein of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, R R; Laine, P S

    1990-01-01

    The single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) of Escherichia coli is involved in all aspects of DNA metabolism: replication, repair, and recombination. In solution, the protein exists as a homotetramer of 18,843-kilodalton subunits. As it binds tightly and cooperatively to single-stranded DNA, it has become a prototypic model protein for studying protein-nucleic acid interactions. The sequences of the gene and protein are known, and the functional domains of subunit interaction, DNA binding, and protein-protein interactions have been probed by structure-function analyses of various mutations. The ssb gene has three promoters, one of which is inducible because it lies only two nucleotides from the LexA-binding site of the adjacent uvrA gene. Induction of the SOS response, however, does not lead to significant increases in SSB levels. The binding protein has several functions in DNA replication, including enhancement of helix destabilization by DNA helicases, prevention of reannealing of the single strands and protection from nuclease digestion, organization and stabilization of replication origins, primosome assembly, priming specificity, enhancement of replication fidelity, enhancement of polymerase processivity, and promotion of polymerase binding to the template. E. coli SSB is required for methyl-directed mismatch repair, induction of the SOS response, and recombinational repair. During recombination, SSB interacts with the RecBCD enzyme to find Chi sites, promotes binding of RecA protein, and promotes strand uptake. PMID:2087220

  12. Forces Stabilizing Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pace, C. Nick; Scholtz, J. Martin; Grimsley, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this article is to summarize what has been learned about the major forces stabilizing proteins since the late 1980s when site-directed mutagenesis became possible. The following conclusions are derived from experimental studies of hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding variants. 1. Based on studies of 138 hydrophobic interaction variants in 11 proteins, burying a –CH2– group on folding contributes 1.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol to protein stability. 2. The burial of nonpolar side chains contributes to protein stability in two ways: first, a term that depends on the removal of the side chains from water and, more importantly, the enhanced London dispersion forces that result from the tight packing in the protein interior. 3. Based on studies of 151 hydrogen bonding variants in 15 proteins, forming a hydrogen bond on folding contributes 1.1 ± 0.8 kcal/mol to protein stability. 4. The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is strongly context dependent. 5. Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein stability. 6. Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein stability even if the polar group is not hydrogen bonded. 7. Hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds both make large contributions to protein stability. PMID:24846139

  13. Protein Complexes in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, J. Harry; Abreu, Marco; Wimble, Christopher; Uetz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale analyses of protein complexes have recently become available for Escherichia coli and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, yielding 443 and 116 heteromultimeric soluble protein complexes, respectively. We have coupled the results of these mass spectrometry-characterized protein complexes with the 285 “gold standard” protein complexes identified by EcoCyc. A comparison with databases of gene orthology, conservation, and essentiality identified proteins conserved or lost in complexes of other species. For instance, of 285 “gold standard” protein complexes in E. coli, less than 10% are fully conserved among a set of 7 distantly-related bacterial “model” species. Complex conservation follows one of three models: well-conserved complexes, complexes with a conserved core, and complexes with partial conservation but no conserved core. Expanding the comparison to 894 distinct bacterial genomes illustrates fractional conservation and the limits of co-conservation among components of protein complexes: just 14 out of 285 model protein complexes are perfectly conserved across 95% of the genomes used, yet we predict more than 180 may be partially conserved across at least half of the genomes. No clear relationship between gene essentiality and protein complex conservation is observed, as even poorly conserved complexes contain a significant number of essential proteins. Finally, we identify 183 complexes containing well-conserved components and uncharacterized proteins which will be interesting targets for future experimental studies. PMID:25723151

  14. Protein and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kate A; Munn, Elizabeth A; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    A vegetarian diet can easily meet human dietary protein requirements as long as energy needs are met and a variety of foods are eaten. Vegetarians should obtain protein from a variety of plant sources, including legumes, soy products, grains, nuts and seeds. Eggs and dairy products also provide protein for those following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. There is no need to consciously combine different plant proteins at each meal as long as a variety of foods are eaten from day to day, because the human body maintains a pool of amino acids which can be used to complement dietary protein. The consumption of plant proteins rather than animal proteins by vegetarians may contribute to their reduced risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.

  15. Pigment-protein complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Siegelman, H W

    1980-01-01

    The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

  16. Protein Folding: Detailed Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Vijay

    Proteins play a fundamental role in biology. With their ability to perform numerous biological roles, including acting as catalysts, antibodies, and molecular signals, proteins today realize many of the goals that modern nanotechnology aspires to. However, before proteins can carry out these remarkable molecular functions, they must perform another amazing feat — they must assemble themselves. This process of protein self-assembly into a particular shape, or "fold" is called protein folding. Due to the importance of the folded state in the biological activity of proteins, recent interest from misfolding related diseases [1], as well as a fascination of just how this process occurs [2-4], there has been much work performed in order to unravel the mechanism of protein folding [5].

  17. [Atypical ubiquitination of proteins].

    PubMed

    Buneeva, O A; Medvedev, A E

    2016-07-01

    Ubiquitination is a type of posttranslational modification of intracellular proteins characterized by covalent attachment of one (monoubiquitination) or several (polyubiquitination) of ubiquitin molecules to target proteins. In the case of polyubiquitination, linear or branched polyubiquitin chains are formed. Their formation involves various lysine residues of monomeric ubiquitin. The best studied is Lys48-polyubiquitination, which targets proteins for proteasomal degradation. In this review we have considered examples of so-called atypical polyubiquitination, which mainly involves other lysine residues (Lys6, Lys11, Lys27, Lys29, Lys33, Lys63) and also N-terminal methionine. The considered examples convincingly demonstrate that polyubiquitination of proteins not necessarily targets proteins for their proteolytic degradation in proteasomes. Atypically polyubiquitinated proteins are involved in regulation of various processes and altered polyubiquitination of certain proteins is crucial for development of serious diseases.

  18. The Protein Folding Problem

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Ken A.; Ozkan, S. Banu; Shell, M. Scott; Weikl, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    The “protein folding problem” consists of three closely related puzzles: (a) What is the folding code? (b) What is the folding mechanism? (c) Can we predict the native structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence? Once regarded as a grand challenge, protein folding has seen great progress in recent years. Now, foldable proteins and nonbiological polymers are being designed routinely and moving toward successful applications. The structures of small proteins are now often well predicted by computer methods. And, there is now a testable explanation for how a protein can fold so quickly: A protein solves its large global optimization problem as a series of smaller local optimization problems, growing and assembling the native structure from peptide fragments, local structures first. PMID:18573083

  19. Protein solubility modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. In silico analysis of candidate proteins sharing homology with Streptococcus agalactiae proteins and their role in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Parida, Rajeshwari; Samanta, Luna

    2017-02-01

    leukocytospermia/bacteriospermia induced male factor infertility but also open new avenues for immunocontraception. AA: amino acid; ASA: antisperm antibodies; GBS: group B streptococcus; HLA: human leukocyte antigen; HAS3: hyaluronan synthase 3: IEDB: immune epitope database; MAPO2: O(6)-methylguanine-induced apoptosis 2; MHC: major histocompatibility complex; ROS: reactive oxygen species; Rosbin1: round spermatid basic protein 1; S. agalactiae: Streptococcus agalactiae;SA: sperm antigen; SPATA17: spermatogenesis associated protein17; SPNR: spermatid perinuclear RNA binding protein; TEX15: testis-expressed sequence 15 protein; TOPAZ: testis- and ovary-specific PAZ domain-containing protein; TPABP: testis-specific poly-A binding protein; TPAP: testis-specific poly(A) polymerase; WHO: World Health Organization.

  1. Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2 trimeric autotransporter adhesin BcaA binds TNFR1 and contributes to induce airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, Dalila; Pinto, Sandra N; Matos, Rute G; Arraiano, Cecília; Fialho, Arsenio M

    2017-04-01

    Chronic lung disease caused by persistent bacterial infections is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). CF pathogens acquire antibiotic resistance, overcome host defenses, and impose uncontrolled inflammation that ultimately may cause permanent damage of lungs' airways. Among the multiple CF-associated pathogens, Burkholderia cenocepacia and other Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria have become prominent contributors of disease progression. Here, we demonstrate that BcaA, a trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA) from the epidemic strain B. cenocepacia K56-2, is a tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-interacting protein able to regulate components of the tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway and ultimately leading to a significant production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8. Notably, this study is the first to demonstrate that a protein belonging to the TAA family is involved in the induction of the inflammatory response during B. cenocepacia infections, contributing to the success of the pathogen. Moreover, our results reinforce the relevance of the TAA BcaA as a multifunctional protein with a major role in B. cenocepacia virulence.

  2. Quantitative defect in staphylococcal enterotoxin A binding and presentation by HLA-DM-deficient T2.Ak cells corrected by transfection of HLA-DM genes.

    PubMed

    Albert, L J; Denzin, L K; Ghumman, B; Bangia, N; Cresswell, P; Watts, T H

    1998-01-10

    HLA-DM facilitates peptide acquisition by MHC class II proteins within the endosomes of APC by facilitating release of invariant chain peptide intermediates (CLIP) from the class II molecules. T2 cells have a deletion in the MHC II region which deletes HLA-DM and MHC II genes. T2 cells transfected with MHC class II proteins are defective in protein presentation, a defect that is corrected by HLA-DM transfection. Here we show that T2 cells transfected with Ak are also impaired in binding and presentation of the superantistaphylococcal enterotoxin A and that HLA-DM transfection corrects this defect. The poor ability of SEA to bind to Ak on DM-deficient cells is somewhat surprising since Ak has a low affinity for CLIP and is not predominantly occupied with CLIP on T2 cells compared to wide-type APC. These data suggest an influence of HLA-DM on the structure or composition of the Ak/peptide complex beyond its role in the release of invariant chain peptides.

  3. Packing in protein cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, J. C.; Clark, A. H.; Regan, L.; O'Hern, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    Proteins are biological polymers that underlie all cellular functions. The first high-resolution protein structures were determined by x-ray crystallography in the 1960s. Since then, there has been continued interest in understanding and predicting protein structure and stability. It is well-established that a large contribution to protein stability originates from the sequestration from solvent of hydrophobic residues in the protein core. How are such hydrophobic residues arranged in the core; how can one best model the packing of these residues, and are residues loosely packed with multiple allowed side chain conformations or densely packed with a single allowed side chain conformation? Here we show that to properly model the packing of residues in protein cores it is essential that amino acids are represented by appropriately calibrated atom sizes, and that hydrogen atoms are explicitly included. We show that protein cores possess a packing fraction of φ ≈ 0.56 , which is significantly less than the typically quoted value of 0.74 obtained using the extended atom representation. We also compare the results for the packing of amino acids in protein cores to results obtained for jammed packings from discrete element simulations of spheres, elongated particles, and composite particles with bumpy surfaces. We show that amino acids in protein cores pack as densely as disordered jammed packings of particles with similar values for the aspect ratio and bumpiness as found for amino acids. Knowing the structural properties of protein cores is of both fundamental and practical importance. Practically, it enables the assessment of changes in the structure and stability of proteins arising from amino acid mutations (such as those identified as a result of the massive human genome sequencing efforts) and the design of new folded, stable proteins and protein-protein interactions with tunable specificity and affinity.

  4. Predictions of Protein-Protein Interfaces within Membrane Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Asadabadi, Ebrahim Barzegari; Abdolmaleki, Parviz

    2013-01-01

    Background Prediction of interaction sites within the membrane protein complexes using the sequence data is of a great importance, because it would find applications in modification of molecules transport through membrane, signaling pathways and drug targets of many diseases. Nevertheless, it has gained little attention from the protein structural bioinformatics community. Methods In this study, a wide variety of prediction and classification tools were applied to distinguish the residues at the interfaces of membrane proteins from those not in the interfaces. Results The tuned SVM model achieved the high accuracy of 86.95% and the AUC of 0.812 which outperforms the results of the only previous similar study. Nevertheless, prediction performances obtained using most employed models cannot be used in applied fields and needs more effort to improve. Conclusion Considering the variety of the applied tools in this study, the present investigation could be a good starting point to develop more efficient tools to predict the membrane protein interaction site residues. PMID:23919118

  5. Protein grafting of an HIV-1-inhibiting epitope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sia, Samuel K.; Kim, Peter S.

    2003-08-01

    Protein grafting, the transfer of a binding epitope of one ligand onto the surface of another protein, is a potentially powerful technique for presenting peptides in preformed and active three-dimensional conformations. Its utility, however, has been limited by low biological activity of the designed ligands and low tolerance of the protein scaffolds to surface substitutions. Here, we graft the complete binding epitope (19 nonconsecutive amino acids with a solvent-accessible surface area of >2,000 Å2) of an HIV-1 C-peptide, which is derived from the C-terminal region of HIV-1 gp41 and potently inhibits HIV-1 entry into cells, onto the surface of a GCN4 leucine zipper. The designed peptide, named C34coil, displays a potent antiviral activity approaching that of the native ligand. Moreover, whereas the linear C-peptide is unstructured and sensitive to degradation by proteases, C34coil is well structured, conformationally stable, and exhibits increased resistance to proteolytic degradation compared with the linear peptide. In addition to being a structured antiviral inhibitor, C34coil may also serve as the basis for the development of an alternative class of immunogens. This study demonstrates that "one-shot" protein grafting, without subsequent rounds of optimization, can be used to create ligands with structural conformations and improved biomedical properties.

  6. Modulation of lipoprotein receptor functions by intracellular adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Stolt, Peggy C; Bock, Hans H

    2006-10-01

    Members of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family are critically involved in a wide range of physiological processes including lipid and vitamin homeostasis, cellular migration, neurodevelopment, and synaptic plasticity, to name a few. Lipoprotein receptors exert these diverse biological functions by acting as cellular uptake receptors or by inducing intracellular signaling cascades. It was discovered that a short sequence in the intracellular region of all lipoprotein receptors, Asn-Pro-X-Tyr (NPXY) is important for mediating either endocytosis or signal transduction events, and that this motif serves as a binding site for phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain containing scaffold proteins. These molecular adaptors connect the transmembrane receptors with the endocytosis machinery and regulate cellular trafficking, or function as assembly sites for dynamic multi-protein signaling complexes. Whereas the LDL receptor represents the archetype of an endocytic lipoprotein receptor, the structurally closely related apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor activate a kinase-dependent intracellular signaling cascade after binding to the neuronal signaling molecule Reelin. This review focuses on two related PTB domain containing adaptor proteins that mediate these divergent lipoprotein receptor responses, ARH (autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein) and Dab1 (disabled-1), and discusses the structural and molecular basis of this different behaviour.

  7. Toxic proteins in plants.

    PubMed

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved to synthesize a variety of noxious compounds to cope with unfavorable circumstances, among which a large group of toxic proteins that play a critical role in plant defense against predators and microbes. Up to now, a wide range of harmful proteins have been discovered in different plants, including lectins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, ureases, arcelins, antimicrobial peptides and pore-forming toxins. To fulfill their role in plant defense, these proteins exhibit various degrees of toxicity towards animals, insects, bacteria or fungi. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the toxic effects and mode of action of these plant proteins in order to explore their possible applications. Indeed, because of their biological activities, toxic plant proteins are also considered as potentially useful tools in crop protection and in biomedical applications, such as cancer treatment. Genes encoding toxic plant proteins have been introduced into crop genomes using genetic engineering technology in order to increase the plant's resistance against pathogens and diseases. Despite the availability of ample information on toxic plant proteins, very few publications have attempted to summarize the research progress made during the last decades. This review focuses on the diversity of toxic plant proteins in view of their toxicity as well as their mode of action. Furthermore, an outlook towards the biological role(s) of these proteins and their potential applications is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reverse Phase Protein Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Baldelli, Elisa; Calvert, Valerie; Hodge, Alex; VanMeter, Amy; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Pierobon, Mariaelena

    2017-01-01

    While genes and RNA encode information about cellular status, proteins are considered the engine of the cellular machine, as they are the effective elements that drive all cellular functions including proliferation, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis. Consequently, investigations of the cellular protein network are considered a fundamental tool for understanding cellular functions.Alteration of the cellular homeostasis driven by elaborate intra- and extracellular interactions has become one of the most studied fields in the era of personalized medicine and targeted therapy. Increasing interest has been focused on developing and improving proteomic technologies that are suitable for analysis of clinical samples. In this context, reverse-phase protein microarrays (RPPA) is a sensitive, quantitative, high-throughput immunoassay for protein analyses of tissue samples, cells, and body fluids.RPPA is well suited for broad proteomic profiling and is capable of capturing protein activation as well as biochemical reactions such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination, protein cleavage, and conformational alterations across hundreds of samples using a limited amount of biological material. For these reasons, RPPA represents a valid tool for protein analyses and generates data that help elucidate the functional signaling architecture through protein-protein interaction and protein activation mapping for the identification of critical nodes for individualized or combinatorial targeted therapy.

  9. Modeling Protein Expression and Protein Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Telesca, Donatello; Müller, Peter; Kornblau, Steven M.; Suchard, Marc A.; Ji, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput functional proteomic technologies provide a way to quantify the expression of proteins of interest. Statistical inference centers on identifying the activation state of proteins and their patterns of molecular interaction formalized as dependence structure. Inference on dependence structure is particularly important when proteins are selected because they are part of a common molecular pathway. In that case, inference on dependence structure reveals properties of the underlying pathway. We propose a probability model that represents molecular interactions at the level of hidden binary latent variables that can be interpreted as indicators for active versus inactive states of the proteins. The proposed approach exploits available expert knowledge about the target pathway to define an informative prior on the hidden conditional dependence structure. An important feature of this prior is that it provides an instrument to explicitly anchor the model space to a set of interactions of interest, favoring a local search approach to model determination. We apply our model to reverse-phase protein array data from a study on acute myeloid leukemia. Our inference identifies relevant subpathways in relation to the unfolding of the biological process under study. PMID:26246646

  10. Protein kinesis: The dynamics of protein trafficking and stability

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on protein kinesis. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: protein folding and modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein trafficking; protein translocation and folding; protein degradation; polarity; nuclear trafficking; membrane dynamics; and protein import into organelles.

  11. A modified Lowry protein test for dilute protein solutions

    Treesearch

    Garold F. Gregory; Keith F. Jensen

    1971-01-01

    A modified Lowry protein test for dilute protein solutions modified Lowry protein test was compared with the standard Lowry protein test. The modified test was found to give estimates of protein concentration that were as good as the standard test and has the advange that proteins can be measured in very dilute solutions.

  12. Identification of a common protein association region in the neuronal Cdk5 activator.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Ching, Y P; Lam, W H; Qi, Z; Zhang, M; Wang, J H

    2000-10-13

    Cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) depends on the association with neuronal Cdk5 activator (Nck5a) for kinase activity. A variety of cellular proteins have been shown to undergo high affinity association with Nck5a, including three novel proteins, C42, C48, and C53 found by a yeast two-hybrid screen (Ching, Y. P., Qi, Z., and Wang, J. H. (2000) Gene 242, 285-294). The three proteins show competitive binding to Nck5a suggesting that they bind at a common site. The binding site has been mapped to a region of 26 amino acid residues (residues 145 to 170) at the N-terminal boundary of the kinase activation domain of Nck5a. This region of Nck5a contains an amphipathic alpha-helix whose hydrophobic face is involved in Cdk5 activation (Chin, K. T., Ohki, S, Tang, D., Cheng, H. C., Wang, J. H. , and Zhang, M. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 7120-7127). Several lines of evidence suggest that Nck5a interacts with the binding proteins at the hydrophilic face of the amphipathic alpha-helix. First, the Nck5a-(145-170) peptide can bind Cdk5 and Nck5a-binding proteins simultaneously. Second, the association of Nck5a-(145-170) to C48 can be markedly reduced by high ionic strength whereas the interaction between Nck5a and Cdk5 is not affected. Third, substitution of Glu(157) by glutamine in Nck5a-(145-170) abolishes the peptide's ability to bind to the three Nck5a-binding proteins without diminishing its Cdk5 binding activity.

  13. Ankyrin-independent membrane protein-binding sites for brain and erythrocyte spectrin.

    PubMed

    Steiner, J P; Bennett, V

    1988-10-05

    Brain spectrin reassociates in in vitro binding assays with protein(s) in highly extracted brain membranes quantitatively depleted of ankyrin and spectrin. These newly described membrane sites for spectrin are biologically significant and involve a protein since (a) binding occurs optimally at physiological pH (6.7-6.9) and salt concentrations (50 mM), (b) binding is abolished by digestion of membranes with alpha-chymotrypsin, (c) Scatchard analysis is consistent with a binding capacity of at least 50 pmol/mg total membrane protein, and highest affinity of 3 nM. The major ankyrin-independent binding activity of brain spectrin is localized to the beta subunit of spectrin. Brain membranes also contain high affinity binding sites for erythrocyte spectrin, but a 3-4 fold lower capacity than for brain spectrin. Some spectrin-binding sites associate preferentially with brain spectrin, some with erythrocyte spectrin, and some associate with both types of spectrin. Erythrocyte spectrin contains distinct binding domains for ankyrin and brain membrane protein sites, since the Mr = 72,000 spectrin-binding fragment of ankyrin does not compete for binding of spectrin to brain membranes. Spectrin binds to a small number of ankyrin-independent sites in erythrocyte membranes present in about 10,000-15,000 copies/cell or 10% of the number of sites for ankyrin. Brain spectrin binds to these sites better than erythrocyte spectrin suggesting that erythrocytes have residual binding sites for nonerythroid spectrin. Ankyrin-independent-binding proteins that selectively bind to certain isoforms of spectrin provide a potentially important flexibility in cellular localization and time of synthesis of proteins involved in spectrin-membrane interactions. This flexibility has implications for assembly of the membrane skeleton and targeting of spectrin isoforms to specialized regions of cells.

  14. Centrally acting hypotensive agents with affinity for 5-HT1A binding sites inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in calf hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Schoeffter, P.; Hoyer, D.

    1988-01-01

    (-)- and (+)-enantiomers of pindolol (1 microM and 0.1 mM, respectively). 6. There was an excellent correlation (r = 0.90, P = 0.0001) between the pEC50 values (ranging from 6.4 to 8.7) of the 19 agonists tested at adenylate cyclase and their pKD for 5-HT1A recognition sites. Apparent pKB values of antagonists at adenylate cyclase and their pKD values for 5-HT1A binding sites were also significantly correlated. 7. This study further indicates that the 5-HT1A recognition site and the 5-HT receptor mediating inhibition of adenylate cyclase in hippocampus are the same.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3207999

  15. Protein flexibility as a biosignal.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qinyi

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic properties of a protein are crucial for all protein functions, and those of signaling proteins are closely related to the biological function of living beings. The protein flexibility signal concept can be used to analyze this relationship. Protein flexibility controls the rate of protein conformational change and influences protein function. The modification of protein flexibility results in a change of protein activity. The logical nature of protein flexibility cannot be explained by applying the principles of protein three-dimensional structure theory or conformation concept. Signaling proteins show high protein flexibility. Many properties of signaling can be traced back to the dynamic natures of signaling protein. The action mechanism of volatile anesthetics and universal cellular reactions are related to flexibility in the change of signaling proteins. We conclude that protein dynamics is an enzyme-enhanced process, called dynamicase.

  16. Antimicrobial proteins: From old proteins, new tricks.

    PubMed

    Smith, Valerie J; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A

    2015-12-01

    This review describes the main types of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) synthesised by crustaceans, primarily those identified in shrimp, crayfish, crab and lobster. It includes an overview of their range of microbicidal activities and the current landscape of our understanding of their gene expression patterns in different body tissues. It further summarises how their expression might change following various types of immune challenges. The review further considers proteins or protein fragments from crustaceans that have antimicrobial properties but are more usually associated with other biological functions, or are derived from such proteins. It discusses how these unconventional AMPs might be generated at, or delivered to, sites of infection and how they might contribute to crustacean host defence in vivo. It also highlights recent work that is starting to reveal the extent of multi-functionality displayed by some decapod AMPs, particularly their participation in other aspects of host protection. Examples of such activities include proteinase inhibition, phagocytosis, antiviral activity and haematopoiesis.

  17. Protein-protein Interactions using Radiolytic Footprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Takamoto,K.; Chance, M.

    2006-01-01

    Structural proteomics approaches using mass spectrometry are increasingly used in biology to examine the composition and structure of macromolecules. Hydroxyl radical-mediated protein footprinting using mass spectrometry has recently been developed to define structure, assembly, and conformational changes of macromolecules in solution based on measurements of reactivity of amino acid side chain groups with covalent modification reagents. Accurate measurements of side chain reactivity are achieved using quantitative liquid-chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry, whereas the side chain modification sites are identified using tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, the use of footprinting data in conjunction with computational modeling approaches is a powerful new method for testing and refining structural models of macromolecules and their complexes. In this review, we discuss the basic chemistry of hydroxyl radical reactions with peptides and proteins, highlight various approaches to map protein structure using radical oxidation methods, and describe state-of-the-art approaches to combine computational and footprinting data.

  18. Lipid droplet proteins, Lds1p, Lds2p, and Rrt8p, are implicated in membrane protein transport associated with ergosterol.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kazuma; Nagano, Makoto; Shimizu, Shigeki; Toshima, Junko Y; Toshima, Jiro

    2016-07-08

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles, enclosed in a monolayer of phospholipid, which store excess fatty acids as neutral lipids such as triacylglycerol and sterol esters. Previous studies have revealed that LDs contain many proteins with various functions required for lipid metabolism and vesicular trafficking. Among them, Lds (Lipid Droplet in Sporulation) proteins, Lds1p and Lds2p, are reportedly induced and localized to LDs during yeast sporulation, but their cellular function has not been clarified. Here we show that the Lds proteins, Lds1p, Lds2p and Rrt8p, are expressed and localized at LDs in vegetative cells, being required for proper localization of plasma membrane proteins. We found that deletion of Lds genes led to mis-sorting of Wsc1p, a cell wall stress sensor, from the plasma membrane to the vacuole. We also demonstrated that lack of these proteins partially suppressed the growth defect and mis-sorting of the high-affinity tryptophan transporter Tat2p, induced by impairment of ergosterol biosynthesis. Furthermore, we identified Sec39p/Dsl3p, a component of the DSL1 tethering complex that mediates the interaction with COPI vesicles, as a binding partner for Lds2p. These results suggest a possible role of Lds proteins in maintenance of membrane lipid homeostasis and accompanying membrane protein transport.

  19. Why Do Proteins Look Like Protein?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao

    1998-03-01

    Protein structures in nature exhibit remarkable regularities (common structural motifs, tertiary symmetries etc.) which are absent from random compact conformations. Comparison of known protein structures in the structure databank reveals that certain popular folds are frequently found in protein families unrelated by sequence homology or biological function. Are protein structures selected merely by historical accident or is there some more fundamental reasons behind their selection? Our studies based on a simple model of protein folding suggest that a designability principle plays an important role in the selection of structures(H Li, R. Helling, C. Tang, N. S. Wingreen,Science) 273, 666 (1996). The designability of a structure is measured by the number of sequences which uniquely design the structure. In an exhaustive study of all possible sequences and structures for chains with different length, we find highly designable structures with number of associated sequences much larger than the average. These highly designable structures possess ``protein like'' structural motifs, and have higher mutational and thermodynamic stability. Thus they are more likely to be selected by nature and survive in the course of evolution. I will discuss how to formulate designability in terms of distribution of structures in a structure space. I will give an example where only hydrophobic interaction is considered. In this case designability of a structure can be obtained by a simple geometric construction, which naturally explains the origin of highly designable structure and the correlation between designability and thermodynamic stability. I will show that highly designable structures need to have an atypical pattern of residue solvent exposure along the backbone, which leads to structural regularity.

  20. Redesigning Protein Cavities as a Strategy for Increasing Affinity in Protein-Protein Interaction: Interferon-γ Receptor 1 as a Model

    PubMed Central

    Biedermannová, Lada; Mikulecký, Pavel; Zahradník, Jiří; Charnavets, Tatsiana; Šebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Combining computational and experimental tools, we present a new strategy for designing high affinity variants of a binding protein. The affinity is increased by mutating residues not at the interface, but at positions lining internal cavities of one of the interacting molecules. Filling the cavities lowers flexibility of the binding protein, possibly reducing entropic penalty of binding. The approach was tested using the interferon-γ receptor 1 (IFNγR1) complex with IFNγ as a model. Mutations were selected from 52 amino acid positions lining the IFNγR1 internal cavities by using a protocol based on FoldX prediction of free energy changes. The final four mutations filling the IFNγR1 cavities and potentially improving the affinity to IFNγ were expressed, purified, and refolded, and their affinity towards IFNγ was measured by SPR. While individual cavity mutations yielded receptor constructs exhibiting only slight increase of affinity compared to WT, combinations of these mutations with previously characterized variant N96W led to a significant sevenfold increase. The affinity increase in the high affinity receptor variant N96W+V35L is linked to the restriction of its molecular fluctuations in the unbound state. The results demonstrate that mutating cavity residues is a viable strategy for designing protein variants with increased affinity. PMID:26060819

  1. Mechanisms Regulating Protein Localization.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nicholas C; Doetsch, Paul W; Corbett, Anita H

    2015-10-01

    Cellular functions are dictated by protein content and activity. There are numerous strategies to regulate proteins varying from modulating gene expression to post-translational modifications. One commonly used mode of regulation in eukaryotes is targeted localization. By specifically redirecting the localization of a pool of existing protein, cells can achieve rapid changes in local protein function. Eukaryotic cells have evolved elegant targeting pathways to direct proteins to the appropriate cellular location or locations. Here, we provide a general overview of these localization pathways, with a focus on nuclear and mitochondrial transport, and present a survey of the evolutionarily conserved regulatory strategies identified thus far. We end with a description of several specific examples of proteins that exploit localization as an important mode of regulation.

  2. Supramolecular Chemistry Targeting Proteins.

    PubMed

    van Dun, Sam; Ottmann, Christian; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Brunsveld, Luc

    2017-09-28

    The specific recognition of protein surface elements is a fundamental challenge in the life sciences. New developments in this field will form the basis of advanced therapeutic approaches and lead to applications such as sensors, affinity tags, immobilization techniques, and protein-based materials. Synthetic supramolecular molecules and materials are creating new opportunities for protein recognition that are orthogonal to classical small molecule and protein-based approaches. As outlined here, their unique molecular features enable the recognition of amino acids, peptides, and even whole protein surfaces, which can be applied to the modulation and assembly of proteins. We believe that structural insights into these processes are of great value for the further development of this field and have therefore focused this Perspective on contributions that provide such structural data.

  3. Protein Misfolding Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hartl, F Ulrich

    2017-06-20

    The majority of protein molecules must fold into defined three-dimensional structures to acquire functional activity. However, protein chains can adopt a multitude of conformational states, and their biologically active conformation is often only marginally stable. Metastable proteins tend to populate misfolded species that are prone to forming toxic aggregates, including soluble oligomers and fibrillar amyloid deposits, which are linked with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, and many other pathologies. To prevent or regulate protein aggregation, all cells contain an extensive protein homeostasis (or proteostasis) network comprising molecular chaperones and other factors. These defense systems tend to decline during aging, facilitating the manifestation of aggregate deposition diseases. This volume of the Annual Review of Biochemistry contains a set of three articles addressing our current understanding of the structures of pathological protein aggregates and their associated disease mechanisms. These articles also discuss recent insights into the strategies cells have evolved to neutralize toxic aggregates by sequestering them in specific cellular locations.

  4. TRIM proteins and diseases.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2017-01-07

    Ubiquitination is one of the posttranslational modifications that regulates a number of intracellular events including signal transduction, protein quality control, transcription, cell cycle, apoptosis and development. The ubiquitin system functions as a garbage machine to degrade target proteins and as a regulator for several signalling pathways. Biochemical reaction of ubiquitination requires several enzymes including E1, E2 and E3, and E3 ubiquitin ligases play roles as receptors for recognizing target proteins. Most of the tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are E3 ubiquitin ligases. Recent studies have shown that some TRIM proteins function as important regulators for a variety of diseases including cancer, inflammatory diseases, infectious diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, chromosomal abnormalities and developmental diseases. In this review, we summarize the involvement of TRIM proteins in the aetiology of various diseases.

  5. Mayaro virus proteins.

    PubMed

    Mezencio, J M; Rebello, M A

    1993-01-01

    Mayaro virus was grown in BHK-21 cells and purified by centrifugation in a potassium-tartrate gradient (5-50%). The electron microscopy analyses of the purified virus showed an homogeneous population of enveloped particles with 69 +/- 2.3 nm in diameter. Three structural virus proteins were identified and designated p1, p2 and p3. Their average molecular weight were p1, 54 KDa; p2, 50 KDa and p3, 34 KDa. In Mayaro virus infected Aedes albopictus cells and in BHK-21 infected cells we detected six viral proteins, in which three of them are the structural virus proteins and the other three were products from processing of precursors of viral proteins, whose molecular weights are 62 KDa, 64 KDa and 110 KDa. The 34 KDa protein was the first viral protein synthesized at 5 hours post-infection in both cell lines studied.

  6. Protein-protein interactions as drug targets.

    PubMed

    Skwarczynska, Malgorzata; Ottmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is becoming increasingly important in drug discovery and chemical biology. While a few years ago this 'target class' was deemed to be largely undruggable an impressing number of publications and success stories now show that targeting PPIs with small, drug-like molecules indeed is a feasible approach. Here, we summarize the current state of small-molecule inhibition and stabilization of PPIs and review the active molecules from a structural and medicinal chemistry angle, especially focusing on the key examples of iNOS, LFA-1 and 14-3-3.

  7. Protein Crystal Quality Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Eddie Snell, Post-Doctoral Fellow the National Research Council (NRC) uses a reciprocal space mapping diffractometer for macromolecular crystal quality studies. The diffractometer is used in mapping the structure of macromolecules such as proteins to determine their structure and thus understand how they function with other proteins in the body. This is one of several analytical tools used on proteins crystallized on Earth and in space experiments. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  8. Computer Models of Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Dr. Marc Pusey (seated) and Dr. Craig Kundrot use computers to analyze x-ray maps and generate three-dimensional models of protein structures. With this information, scientists at Marshall Space Flight Center can learn how proteins are made and how they work. The computer screen depicts a proten structure as a ball-and-stick model. Other models depict the actual volume occupied by the atoms, or the ribbon-like structures that are crucial to a protein's function.

  9. Protein Crystal Quality Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Eddie Snell, Post-Doctoral Fellow the National Research Council (NRC) uses a reciprocal space mapping diffractometer for macromolecular crystal quality studies. The diffractometer is used in mapping the structure of macromolecules such as proteins to determine their structure and thus understand how they function with other proteins in the body. This is one of several analytical tools used on proteins crystallized on Earth and in space experiments. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  10. Protein oxidation and peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are major targets for radicals and two-electron oxidants in biological systems due to their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. With highly reactive radicals damage occurs at multiple side-chain and backbone sites. Less reactive species show greater selectivity with regard to the residues targeted and their spatial location. Modification can result in increased side-chain hydrophilicity, side-chain and backbone fragmentation, aggregation via covalent cross-linking or hydrophobic interactions, protein unfolding and altered conformation, altered interactions with biological partners and modified turnover. In the presence of O2, high yields of peroxyl radicals and peroxides (protein peroxidation) are formed; the latter account for up to 70% of the initial oxidant flux. Protein peroxides can oxidize both proteins and other targets. One-electron reduction results in additional radicals and chain reactions with alcohols and carbonyls as major products; the latter are commonly used markers of protein damage. Direct oxidation of cysteine (and less commonly) methionine residues is a major reaction; this is typically faster than with H2O2, and results in altered protein activity and function. Unlike H2O2, which is rapidly removed by protective enzymes, protein peroxides are only slowly removed, and catabolism is a major fate. Although turnover of modified proteins by proteasomal and lysosomal enzymes, and other proteases (e.g. mitochondrial Lon), can be efficient, protein hydroperoxides inhibit these pathways and this may contribute to the accumulation of modified proteins in cells. Available evidence supports an association between protein oxidation and multiple human pathologies, but whether this link is causal remains to be established. PMID:27026395

  11. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  12. Interactions of glycine betaine with proteins: insights from volume and compressibility measurements.

    PubMed

    Shek, Yuen Lai; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2013-01-29

    We report the first application of volume and compressibility measurements to characterization of interactions between cosolvents (osmolytes) and globular proteins. Specifically, we measure the partial molar volumes and adiabatic compressibilities of cytochrome c, ribonuclease A, lysozyme, and ovalbumin in aqueous solutions of the stabilizing osmolyte glycine betaine (GB) at concentrations between 0 and 4 M. The fact that globular proteins do not undergo any conformational transitions in the presence of GB provides an opportunity to study the interactions of GB with proteins in their native states within the entire range of experimentally accessible GB concentrations. We analyze our resulting volumetric data within the framework of a statistical thermodynamic model in which each instance of GB interaction with a protein is viewed as a binding reaction that is accompanied by release of four water molecules. From this analysis, we calculate the association constants, k, as well as changes in volume, ΔV(0), and adiabatic compressibility, ΔK(S0), accompanying each GB-protein association event in an ideal solution. By comparing these parameters with similar characteristics determined for low-molecular weight analogues of proteins, we conclude that there are no significant cooperative effects involved in interactions of GB with any of the proteins studied in this work. We also evaluate the free energies of direct GB-protein interactions. The energetic properties of GB-protein association appear to scale with the size of the protein. For all proteins, the highly favorable change in free energy associated with direct protein-cosolvent interactions is nearly compensated by an unfavorable free energy of cavity formation (excluded volume effect), yielding a modestly unfavorable free energy for the transfer of a protein from water to a GB/water mixture.

  13. Acanthamoeba castellanii STAT Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kicinska, Anna; Leluk, Jacek; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-01-01

    STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins are one of the important mediators of phosphotyrosine-regulated signaling in metazoan cells. We described the presence of STAT protein in a unicellular, free-living amoebae with a simple life cycle, Acanthamoeba castellanii. A. castellanii is the only, studied to date, Amoebozoan that does not belong to Mycetozoa but possesses STATs. A sequence of the A. castellanii STAT protein includes domains similar to those of the Dictyostelium STAT proteins: a coiled coil (characteristic for Dictyostelium STAT coiled coil), a STAT DNA-binding domain and a Src-homology domain. The search for protein sequences homologous to A. castellanii STAT revealed 17 additional sequences from lower eukaryotes. Interestingly, all of these sequences come from Amoebozoa organisms that belong to either Mycetozoa (slime molds) or Centramoebida. We showed that there are four separated clades within the slime mold STAT proteins. The A. castellanii STAT protein branches next to a group of STATc proteins from Mycetozoa. We also demonstrate that Amoebozoa form a distinct monophyletic lineage within the STAT protein world that is well separated from the other groups. PMID:25338074

  14. Protein intakes in India.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Vaz, Mario; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-08-01

    Indian diets derive almost 60 % of their protein from cereals with relatively low digestibility and quality. There have been several surveys of diets and protein intakes in India by the National Nutrition Monitoring Board (NNMB) over the last 25 years, in urban and rural, as well as in slum dwellers and tribal populations. Data of disadvantaged populations from slums, tribals and sedentary rural Indian populations show that the protein intake (mainly from cereals) is about 1 gm/kg/day. However, the protein intake looks less promising in terms of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), using lysine as the first limiting amino acid, where all populations, particularly rural and tribal, appear to have an inadequate quality to their protein intake. The protein: energy (PE) ratio is a measure of dietary quality, and has been used in the 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU report to define reference requirement values with which the adequacy of diets can be evaluated in terms of a protein quality corrected PE ratio. It is likely that about one third of this sedentary rural population is at risk of not meeting their requirements. These levels of risk of deficiency are in a population with relatively low BMI populations, whose diets are also inadequate in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, while the burden of enhancing the quality of protein intake in rural India exists, the quality of the diet, in general, represents a challenge that must be met.

  15. Self assembling proteins

    DOEpatents

    Yeates, Todd O.; Padilla, Jennifer; Colovos, Chris

    2004-06-29

    Novel fusion proteins capable of self-assembling into regular structures, as well as nucleic acids encoding the same, are provided. The subject fusion proteins comprise at least two oligomerization domains rigidly linked together, e.g. through an alpha helical linking group. Also provided are regular structures comprising a plurality of self-assembled fusion proteins of the subject invention, and methods for producing the same. The subject fusion proteins find use in the preparation of a variety of nanostructures, where such structures include: cages, shells, double-layer rings, two-dimensional layers, three-dimensional crystals, filaments, and tubes.

  16. Consensus protein design

    PubMed Central

    Porebski, Benjamin T.; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2016-01-01

    A popular and successful strategy in semi-rational design of protein stability is the use of evolutionary information encapsulated in homologous protein sequences. Consensus design is based on the hypothesis that at a given position, the respective consensus amino acid contributes more than average to the stability of the protein than non-conserved amino acids. Here, we review the consensus design approach, its theoretical underpinnings, successes, limitations and challenges, as well as providing a detailed guide to its application in protein engineering. PMID:27274091

  17. Engineering therapeutic protein disaggregases

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, James

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic agents are urgently required to cure several common and fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Protein disaggregases that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native structure, function, and localization could mitigate neurodegeneration by simultaneously reversing 1) any toxic gain of function of the misfolded form and 2) any loss of function due to misfolding. Potentiated variants of Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase and protein disaggregase from yeast, have been engineered to robustly disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with ALS (e.g., TDP-43 and FUS) and PD (e.g., α-synuclein). However, Hsp104 has no metazoan homologue. Metazoa possess protein disaggregase systems distinct from Hsp104, including Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, as well as HtrA1, which might be harnessed to reverse deleterious protein misfolding. Nevertheless, vicissitudes of aging, environment, or genetics conspire to negate these disaggregase systems in neurodegenerative disease. Thus, engineering potentiated human protein disaggregases or isolating small-molecule enhancers of their activity could yield transformative therapeutics for ALS, PD, and AD. PMID:27255695

  18. PIC: Protein Interactions Calculator

    PubMed Central

    Tina, K. G.; Bhadra, R.; Srinivasan, N.

    2007-01-01

    Interactions within a protein structure and interactions between proteins in an assembly are essential considerations in understanding molecular basis of stability and functions of proteins and their complexes. There are several weak and strong interactions that render stability to a protein structure or an assembly. Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) is a server which, given the coordinate set of 3D structure of a protein or an assembly, computes various interactions such as disulphide bonds, interactions between hydrophobic residues, ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, aromatic–aromatic interactions, aromatic–sulphur interactions and cation–π interactions within a protein or between proteins in a complex. Interactions are calculated on the basis of standard, published criteria. The identified interactions between residues can be visualized using a RasMol and Jmol interface. The advantage with PIC server is the easy availability of inter-residue interaction calculations in a single site. It also determines the accessible surface area and residue-depth, which is the distance of a residue from the surface of the protein. User can also recognize specific kind of interactions, such as apolar–apolar residue interactions or ionic interactions, that are formed between buried or exposed residues or near the surface or deep inside. PMID:17584791

  19. PIC: Protein Interactions Calculator.

    PubMed

    Tina, K G; Bhadra, R; Srinivasan, N

    2007-07-01

    Interactions within a protein structure and interactions between proteins in an assembly are essential considerations in understanding molecular basis of stability and functions of proteins and their complexes. There are several weak and strong interactions that render stability to a protein structure or an assembly. Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) is a server which, given the coordinate set of 3D structure of a protein or an assembly, computes various interactions such as disulphide bonds, interactions between hydrophobic residues, ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, aromatic-aromatic interactions, aromatic-sulphur interactions and cation-pi interactions within a protein or between proteins in a complex. Interactions are calculated on the basis of standard, published criteria. The identified interactions between residues can be visualized using a RasMol and Jmol interface. The advantage with PIC server is the easy availability of inter-residue interaction calculations in a single site. It also determines the accessible surface area and residue-depth, which is the distance of a residue from the surface of the protein. User can also recognize specific kind of interactions, such as apolar-apolar residue interactions or ionic interactions, that are formed between buried or exposed residues or near the surface or deep inside.

  20. Chemical Synthesis of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Bradley L.; Soellner, Matthew B.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins have become accessible targets for chemical synthesis. The basic strategy is to use native chemical ligation, Staudinger ligation, or other orthogonal chemical reactions to couple synthetic peptides. The ligation reactions are compatible with a variety of solvents and proceed in solution or on a solid support. Chemical synthesis enables a level of control on protein composition that greatly exceeds that attainable with ribosome-mediated biosynthesis. Accordingly, the chemical synthesis of proteins is providing previously unattainable insight into the structure and function of proteins. PMID:15869385

  1. TRIM proteins in development.

    PubMed

    Petrera, Francesca; Meroni, Germana

    2012-01-01

    TRIM proteins play important roles in several patho-physiological processes. Their common activity within the ubiquitylation pathway makes them amenable to a number of diverse biological roles. Many of the TRIM genes are highly and sometimes specifically expressed during embryogenesis, it is therefore not surprising that several of them might be involved in developmental processes. Here, we primarily discuss the developmental implications of two subgroups of TRIM proteins that conserved domain composition and functions from their invertebrate ancestors. The two groups are: the TRIM-NHL proteins implicated in miRNA processing regulation and the TRIM-FN3 proteins involved in ventral midline development.

  2. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  3. Staining Proteins in Gels

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Sean; Chakavarti, Deb

    2008-01-01

    Following separation by electrophoretic methods, proteins in a gel can be detected by several staining methods. This unit describes protocols for detecting proteins by four popular methods. Coomassie blue staining is an easy and rapid method. Silver staining, while more time consuming, is considerably more sensitive and can thus be used to detect smaller amounts of protein. Fluorescent staining is a popular alternative to traditional staining procedures, mainly because it is more sensitive than Coomassie staining, and is often as sensitive as silver staining. Staining of proteins with SYPRO Orange and SYPRO Ruby are also demonstrated here. PMID:19066521

  4. Staining proteins in gels.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Sean; Chakavarti, Deb

    2008-07-08

    Following separation by electrophoretic methods, proteins in a gel can be detected by several staining methods. This unit describes protocols for detecting proteins by four popular methods. Coomassie blue staining is an easy and rapid method. Silver staining, while more time consuming, is considerably more sensitive and can thus be used to detect smaller amounts of protein. Fluorescent staining is a popular alternative to traditional staining procedures, mainly because it is more sensitive than Coomassie staining, and is often as sensitive as silver staining. Staining of proteins with SYPRO Orange and SYPRO Ruby are also demonstrated here.

  5. Protein unfolding through nanopores.

    PubMed

    Oukhaled, Abdelghani; Pastoriza-Gallego, Manuela; Bacri, Laurent; Mathé, Jérôme; Auvray, Loïc; Pelta, Juan

    2014-03-01

    In this mini-review we introduce and discuss a new method, at single molecule level, to study the protein folding and protein stability, with a nanopore coupled to an electric detection. Proteins unfolded or partially folded passing through one channel submitted to an electric field, in the presence of salt solution, induce different detectable blockades of ionic current. Their duration depends on protein conformation. For different studies proteins through nanopores, completely unfolded proteins induce only short current blockades. Their frequency increases as the concentration of denaturing agent or temperature increases, following a sigmoidal denaturation curve. The geometry or the net charge of the nanopores does not alter the unfolding transition, sigmoidal unfolding curve and half denaturing concentration or half temperature denaturation. A destabilized protein induces a shift of the unfolding curve towards the lower values of the denaturant agent compared to the wild type protein.Partially folded proteins exhibit very long blockades in nanopores. The blockade duration decreases when the concentration of denaturing agent increases. The variation of these blockades could be associated to a possible glassy behaviour.

  6. Dietary proteins and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R

    2014-01-17

    Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  7. Ultrafiltration of pegylated proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molek, Jessica R.

    There is considerable clinical interest in the use of "second-generation" therapeutics produced by conjugation of a native protein with various polymers including polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG--protein conjugates, so-called PEGylated proteins, can exhibit enhanced stability, half-life, and bioavailability. One of the challenges in the commercial production of PEGylated proteins is the purification required to remove unreacted polymer, native protein, and in many cases PEGylated proteins with nonoptimal degrees of conjugation. The overall objective of this thesis was to examine the use of ultrafiltration for the purification of PEGylated proteins. This included: (1) analysis of size-based separation of PEGylated proteins using conventional ultrafiltration membranes, (2) use of electrically-charged membranes to exploit differences in electrostatic interactions, and (3) examination of the effects of PEGylation on protein fouling. The experimental results were analyzed using appropriate theoretical models, with the underlying physical properties of the PEGylated proteins evaluated using size exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, and reverse phase chromatography. PEGylated proteins were produced by covalent attachment of activated PEG to a protein via primary amines on the lysine residues. A simple model was developed for the reaction kinetics, which was used to explore the effect of reaction conditions and mode of operation on the distribution of PEGylated products. The effective size of the PEGylated proteins was evaluated using size exclusion chromatography, with appropriate correlations developed for the size in terms of the molecular weight of the native protein and attached PEG. The electrophoretic mobility of the PEGylated proteins were evaluated by capillary electrophoresis with the data in good agreement with a simple model accounting for the increase in protein size and the reduction in the number of protonated amine

  8. Insights into the evolution and domain structure of Ataxin-2 proteins across eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-López, Domingo; Guzmán, Plinio

    2014-07-15

    Ataxin-2 is an evolutionarily conserved protein first identified in humans as responsible for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). The molecular basis of SCA2 is the expansion of a polyglutamine tract in Ataxin-2, encoding a Lsm domain that may bind RNA and a PAM2 motif that enables interaction with the poly (A) binding protein. Although the association with SCA2 has been verified, a detailed molecular function for Ataxin-2 has not been established. We have undertaken a survey of Ataxin-2 proteins across all eukaryotic domains. In eukaryotes, except for vertebrates and land plants, a single ortholog was identified. Notably, with the exception of birds, two Ataxin-2 genes exist in vertebrates. Expansion was observed in land plants and a novel class lacking the LsmAD domain was identified. Large polyQ tracts appear limited to primates and insects of the orders Hymenoptera and Diptera. A common feature across Ataxin-2 orthologs is the presence of proline-rich motifs, formerly described in the human protein. Our analysis provides valuable information on the evolution and domain structure of Ataxin-2 proteins. Proline-rich motifs that may mediate protein interactions are widespread in Ataxin-2 proteins, but expansion of polyglutamine tracts associated with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2, is present only in primates, as well as some insects. Our analysis of Ataxin-2 proteins provides also a source to examine orthologs in a number of different species.

  9. Specific RNA-protein interactions detected with saturation transfer difference NMR.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kimberly A; Shekhtman, Alexander; Agris, Paul F

    2013-08-01

    RNA, at the forefront of biochemical research due to its central role in biology, is recognized by proteins through various mechanisms. Analysis of the RNA-protein interface provides insight into the recognition determinants and function. As such, there is a demand for developing new methods to characterize RNA-protein interactions. Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR can identify binding ligands for proteins in a rather short period of time, with data acquisitions of just a few hours. Two RNA-protein systems involved in RNA modification were studied using STD NMR. The N (6)-threonylcarbamoyltransferase, YrdC, with nucleoside-specific recognition, was shown to bind the anticodon stem-loop of tRNA(Lys)UUU. The points of contact on the RNA were assigned and a binding interface was identified. STD NMR was also applied to the interaction of the archaeal ribosomal protein, L7Ae, with the box C/D K-turn RNA. The distinctiveness of the two RNA-protein interfaces was evident. Both RNAs exhibited strong STD signals indicative of direct contact with the respective protein, but reflected the nature of recognition. Characterization of nucleic acid recognition determinants traditionally involves cost and time prohibitive methods. This approach offers significant insight into interaction interfaces fairly rapidly, and complements existing structural methods.

  10. Insights into the evolution and domain structure of ataxin-2 proteins across eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ataxin-2 is an evolutionarily conserved protein first identified in humans as responsible for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). The molecular basis of SCA2 is the expansion of a polyglutamine tract in Ataxin-2, encoding a Lsm domain that may bind RNA and a PAM2 motif that enables interaction with the poly (A) binding protein. Although the association with SCA2 has been verified, a detailed molecular function for Ataxin-2 has not been established. Results We have undertaken a survey of Ataxin-2 proteins across all eukaryotic domains. In eukaryotes, except for vertebrates and land plants, a single ortholog was identified. Notably, with the exception of birds, two Ataxin-2 genes exist in vertebrates. Expansion was observed in land plants and a novel class lacking the LsmAD domain was identified. Large polyQ tracts appear limited to primates and insects of the orders Hymenoptera and Diptera. A common feature across Ataxin-2 orthologs is the presence of proline-rich motifs, formerly described in the human protein. Conclusion Our analysis provides valuable information on the evolution and domain structure of Ataxin-2 proteins. Proline-rich motifs that may mediate protein interactions are widespread in Ataxin-2 proteins, but expansion of polyglutamine tracts associated with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2, is present only in primates, as well as some insects. Our analysis of Ataxin-2 proteins provides also a source to examine orthologs in a number of different species. PMID:25027299

  11. Role for RNA-Binding Proteins Implicated in Pathogenic Development of Ustilago maydis†

    PubMed Central

    Becht, Philip; Vollmeister, Evelyn; Feldbrügge, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Ustilago maydis causes smut disease on corn. Successful infection depends on a number of morphological transitions, such as pheromone-dependent formation of conjugation tubes and the switch to filamentous dikaryotic growth, as well as different types of mycelial structures during growth within the host plant. In order to address the involvement of RNA-binding proteins during this developmental program, we identified 27 open reading frames from the genome sequence encoding potential RNA-binding proteins. They exhibit similarities to RNA-binding proteins with Pumilio homology domains (PUM), the K homology domain (KHD), the double-stranded RNA binding motif (DSRM), and the RNA recognition motif (RRM). For 18 of these genes, we generated replacement mutants in compatible haploid strains. Through analysis of growth behavior, morphology, cyclic AMP response, mating, and pathogenicity, we identified three candidates with aberrant phenotypes. Loss of Khd1, a K homology protein containing three KHDs, resulted in a cold-sensitive growth phenotype. Deletion of khd4 encoding a protein with five KHDs led to abnormal cell morphology, reduced mating, and virulence. rrm4Δ strains were affected in filamentous growth and pathogenicity. Rrm4 is an RRM protein with a so far unique domain organization consisting of three N-terminal RRMs as well as a domain found in the C terminus of poly(A)-binding proteins. These results indicate a role for RNA-binding proteins in regulation of morphology as well as in pathogenic development in U. maydis. PMID:15643068

  12. Phosphorylation state-dependent interactions of hepadnavirus core protein with host factors.

    PubMed

    Ludgate, Laurie; Adams, Christina; Hu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the hepadnavirus core protein C-terminal domain (CTD) are required for multiple steps of the viral life cycle. It remains unknown how the CTD phosphorylation state may modulate core protein functions but phosphorylation state-dependent viral or host interactions may play a role. In an attempt to identify host factors that may interact differentially with the core protein depending on its CTD phosphorylation state, pulldown assays were performed using the CTD of the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and human hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein, either with wild type (WT) sequences or with alanine or aspartic acid substitutions at the phosphorylation sites. Two host proteins, B23 and I2PP2A, were found to interact preferentially with the alanine-substituted CTD. Furthermore, the WT CTD became competent to interact with the host proteins upon dephosphorylation. Intriguingly, the binding site on the DHBV CTD for both B23 and I2PP2A was mapped to a region upstream of the phosphorylation sites even though B23 or I2PP2A binding to this site was clearly modulated by the phosphorylation state of the downstream and non-overlapping sequences. Together, these results demonstrate a novel mode of phosphorylation-regulated protein-protein interaction and provide new insights into virus-host interactions. © 2011 Ludgate et al.

  13. Phosphorylation State-Dependent Interactions of Hepadnavirus Core Protein with Host Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ludgate, Laurie; Adams, Christina; Hu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the hepadnavirus core protein C-terminal domain (CTD) are required for multiple steps of the viral life cycle. It remains unknown how the CTD phosphorylation state may modulate core protein functions but phosphorylation state-dependent viral or host interactions may play a role. In an attempt to identify host factors that may interact differentially with the core protein depending on its CTD phosphorylation state, pulldown assays were performed using the CTD of the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and human hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein, either with wild type (WT) sequences or with alanine or aspartic acid substitutions at the phosphorylation sites. Two host proteins, B23 and I2PP2A, were found to interact preferentially with the alanine-substituted CTD. Furthermore, the WT CTD became competent to interact with the host proteins upon dephosphorylation. Intriguingly, the binding site on the DHBV CTD for both B23 and I2PP2A was mapped to a region upstream of the phosphorylation sites even though B23 or I2PP2A binding to this site was clearly modulated by the phosphorylation state of the downstream and non-overlapping sequences. Together, these results demonstrate a novel mode of phosphorylation-regulated protein-protein interaction and provide new insights into virus-host interactions. PMID:22216318

  14. Identification and properties of the crenarchaeal single-stranded DNA binding protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Ross I. M.; White, Malcolm F.

    2001-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs) play central roles in cellular and viral processes involving the generation of single-stranded DNA. These include DNA replication, homologous recombination and DNA repair pathways. SSBs bind DNA using four ‘OB-fold’ (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold) domains that can be organised in a variety of overall quaternary structures. Thus eubacterial SSBs are homotetrameric whilst the eucaryal RPA protein is a heterotrimer and euryarchaeal proteins vary significantly in their subunit compositions. We demonstrate that the crenarchaeal SSB protein is an abundant protein with a unique structural organisation, existing as a monomer in solution and multimerising on DNA binding. The protein binds single-stranded DNA distributively with a binding site size of ~5 nt per monomer. Sulfolobus SSB lacks the zinc finger motif found in the eucaryal and euryarchaeal proteins, possessing instead a flexible C-terminal tail, sensitive to trypsin digestion, that is not required for DNA binding. In comparison with Escherichia coli SSB, the tail may play a role in protein–protein interactions during DNA replication and repair. PMID:11160923

  15. M1 RNA is important for the in-cell solubility of its cognate C5 protein: Implications for RNA-mediated protein folding.

    PubMed

    Son, Ahyun; Choi, Seong Il; Han, Gyoonhee; Seong, Baik L

    2015-01-01

    It is one of the fundamental questions in biology how proteins efficiently fold into their native conformations despite off-pathway events such as misfolding and aggregation in living cells. Although molecular chaperones have been known to assist the de novo folding of certain types of proteins, the role of a binding partner (or a ligand) in the folding and in-cell solubility of its interacting protein still remains poorly defined. RNase P is responsible for the maturation of tRNAs as adaptor molecules of amino acids in ribosomal protein synthesis. The RNase P from Escherichia coli, composed of M1 RNA and C5 protein, is a prototypical ribozyme in which the RNA subunit contains the catalytic activity. Using E. coli RNase P, we demonstrate that M1 RNA plays a pivotal role in the in-cell solubility of C5 protein both in vitro and in vivo. Mutations in either the C5 protein or M1 RNA that affect their interactions significantly abolished the folding of C5 protein. Moreover, we find that M1 RNA provides quality insurance of interacting C5 protein, either by promoting the degradation of C5 mutants in the presence of functional proteolytic machinery, or by abolishing their solubility if the machinery is non-functional. Our results describe a crucial role of M1 RNA in the folding, in-cell solubility, and, consequently, the proteostasis of the client C5 protein, giving new insight into the biological role of RNAs as chaperones and mediators that ensure the quality of interacting proteins.

  16. M1 RNA is important for the in-cell solubility of its cognate C5 protein: Implications for RNA-mediated protein folding

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ahyun; Choi, Seong Il; Han, Gyoonhee; Seong, Baik L

    2015-01-01

    It is one of the fundamental questions in biology how proteins efficiently fold into their native conformations despite off-pathway events such as misfolding and aggregation in living cells. Although molecular chaperones have been known to assist the de novo folding of certain types of proteins, the role of a binding partner (or a ligand) in the folding and in-cell solubility of its interacting protein still remains poorly defined. RNase P is responsible for the maturation of tRNAs as adaptor molecules of amino acids in ribosomal protein synthesis. The RNase P from Escherichia coli, composed of M1 RNA and C5 protein, is a prototypical ribozyme in which the RNA subunit contains the catalytic activity. Using E. coli RNase P, we demonstrate that M1 RNA plays a pivotal role in the in-cell solubility of C5 protein both in vitro and in vivo. Mutations in either the C5 protein or M1 RNA that affect their interactions significantly abolished the folding of C5 protein. Moreover, we find that M1 RNA provides quality insurance of interacting C5 protein, either by promoting the degradation of C5 mutants in the presence of functional proteolytic machinery, or by abolishing their solubility if the machinery is non-functional. Our results describe a crucial role of M1 RNA in the folding, in-cell solubility, and, consequently, the proteostasis of the client C5 protein, giving new insight into the biological role of RNAs as chaperones and mediators that ensure the quality of interacting proteins. PMID:26517763

  17. Interfacial inhibitors of protein-nucleic acid interactions.

    PubMed

    Pommier, Yves; Marchand, Christophe

    2005-07-01

    This essay develops the paradigm of "Interfacial Inhibitors" (Pommier and Cherfils, TiPS, 2005, 28: 136) for inhibitory drugs beside orthosteric (competitive or non-competitive) and allosteric inhibitors. Interfacial inhibitors bind with high selectivity to a binding site involving two or more macromolecules within macromolecular complexes undergoing conformational changes. Interfacial binding traps (generally reversibly) a transition state of the complex, resulting in kinetic inactivation. The exemplary case of interfacial inhibitor of protein-DNA interface is camptothecin and its clinical derivatives. We will also provide examples generalizing the interfacial inhibitor concept to inhibitors of topoisomerase II (anthracyclines, ellipticines, epipodophyllotoxins), gyrase (quinolones, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin), RNA polymerases (alpha-amanitin and actinomycin D), and ribosomes (antibiotics such as streptomycin, hygromycin B, tetracycline, kirromycin, fusidic acid, thiostrepton, and possibly cycloheximide). We discuss the implications of the interfacial inhibitor concept for drug discovery.

  18. Hydrophobic folding units at protein-protein interfaces: implications to protein folding and to protein-protein association.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, C. J.; Nussinov, R.

    1997-01-01

    A hydrophobic folding unit cutting algorithm, originally developed for dissecting single-chain proteins, has been applied to a dataset of dissimilar two-chain protein-protein interfaces. Rather than consider each individual chain separately, the two-chain complex has been treated as a single chain. The two-chain parsing results presented in this work show hydrophobicity to be a critical attribute of two-state versus three-state protein-protein complexes. The hydrophobic folding units at the interfaces of two-state complexes suggest that the cooperative nature of the two-chain protein folding is the outcome of the hydrophobic effect, similar to its being the driving force in a single-chain folding. In analogy to the protein-folding process, the two-chain, two-state model complex may correspond to the formation of compact, hydrophobic nuclei. On the other hand, the three-state model complex involves binding of already folded monomers, similar to the association of the hydrophobic folding units within a single chain. The similarity between folding entities in protein cores and in two-state protein-protein interfaces, despite the absence of some chain connectivities in the latter, indicates that chain linkage does not necessarily affect the native conformation. This further substantiates the notion that tertiary, non-local interactions play a critical role in protein folding. These compact, hydrophobic, two-chain folding units, derived from structurally dissimilar protein-protein interfaces, provide a rich set of data useful in investigations of the role played by chain connectivity and by tertiary interactions in studies of binding and of folding. Since they are composed of non-contiguous pieces of protein backbones, they may also aid in defining folding nuclei. PMID:9232644

  19. Regulation of protein secretion by ... protein secretion?

    PubMed

    Atmakuri, Krishnamohan; Fortune, Sarah M

    2008-09-11

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires an alternative protein secretion system, ESX1, for virulence. Recently, Raghavan et al. (2008) reported a new regulatory circuit that may explain how ESX1 activity is controlled during infection. Mtb appears to regulate ESX1 by modulating transcription of associated genes rather than structural components of the secretion system itself.

  20. Human Plasma Protein C

    PubMed Central

    Kisiel, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent protein, which exists in bovine plasma as a precursor of a serine protease. In this study, protein C was isolated to homogeneity from human plasma by barium citrate adsorption and elution, ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, dextran sulfate agarose chromatography, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Human protein C (Mr = 62,000) contains 23% carbohydrate and is composed of a light chain (Mr = 21,000) and a heavy chain (Mr = 41,000) held together by a disulfide bond(s). The light chain has an amino-terminal sequence of Ala-Asn-Ser-Phe-Leu- and the heavy chain has an aminoterminal sequence of Asp-Pro-Glu-Asp-Gln. The residues that are identical to bovine protein C are underlined. Incubation of human protein C with human α-thrombin at an enzyme to substrate weight ratio of 1:50 resulted in the formation of activated protein C, an enzyme with serine amidase activity. In the activation reaction, the apparent molecular weight of the heavy chain decreased from 41,000 to 40,000 as determined by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. No apparent change in the molecular weight of the light chain was observed in the activation process. The heavy chain of human activated protein C also contains the active-site serine residue as evidenced by its ability to react with radiolabeled diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Human activated protein C markedly prolongs the kaolin-cephalin clotting time of human plasma, but not that of bovine plasma. The amidolytic and anticoagulant activities of human activated protein C were completely obviated by prior incubation of the enzyme with diisopropyl fluorophosphate. These results indicate that human protein C, like its bovine counterpart, exists in plasma as a zymogen and is converted to a serine protease by limited proteolysis with attendant anticoagulant activity. Images PMID:468991

  1. Removal of protein-bound uraemic toxins by haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that protein-bound uraemic toxins play an important role in uraemic complications, especially in cardiovascular disease. Notably, protein-bound uraemic toxins such as indoxyl sulphate, p-cresyl sulphate, and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid (CMPF) have emerged as important targets of therapeutic removal. Indoxyl sulphate stimulates reactive oxygen species production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) most intensely, followed by CMPF. Indoxyl sulphate and CMPF inhibit cell growth of HUVEC. Haemodialysis (HD) even with a high-flux membrane cannot efficiently remove the protein-bound uraemic toxins because of their high albumin-binding property. Especially, indoxyl sulphate, p-cresyl sulphate, and CMPF showed high protein-binding ratios (more than 95%) and low reduction rates by HD (less than 35%). Removal of indoxyl sulphate and p-cresyl sulphate can be improved to some extent by increasing the diffusion of the free forms with super-flux membrane HD, increasing the dialyzer mass transfer area coefficient and dialysate flow, haemodiafiltration, daily HD, and addition of a sorbent to dialysate. However, CMPF is more strongly bound to albumin (with a binding ratio of 99-100%) than indoxyl sulphate and p-cresyl sulphate, and cannot be removed at all by conventional HD. Uraemic toxins strongly or covalently bound to albumin such that CMPF can be removed by protein-leaking HD. Protein-leaking HD with a polymethylmethacrylate membrane BK-F dialyzer can reduce serum levels of CMPF with improvement of anaemia as well as reduce plasma levels of homocysteine, pentosidine, and inflammatory cytokines.

  2. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) specifically binds dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroki, Y.; Akino, T. )

    1991-02-15

    Phospholipids are the major components of pulmonary surfactant. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is believed to be especially essential for the surfactant function of reducing the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) with a reduced denatured molecular mass of 26-38 kDa, characterized by a collagen-like structure and N-linked glycosylation, interacts strongly with a mixture of surfactant-like phospholipids. In the present study the direct binding of SP-A to phospholipids on a thin layer chromatogram was visualized using 125I-SP-A as a probe, so that the phospholipid specificities of SP-A binding and the structural requirements of SP-A and phospholipids for the binding could be examined. Although 125I-SP-A bound phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyeline, it was especially strong in binding dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but failed to bind phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. Labeled SP-A also exhibited strong binding to distearoylphosphatidylcholine, but weak binding to dimyristoyl-, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-, and dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine. Unlabeled SP-A readily competed with labeled SP-A for phospholipid binding. SP-A strongly bound dipalmitoylglycerol produced by phospholipase C treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but not palmitic acid. This protein also failed to bind lysophosphatidylcholine produced by phospholipase A2 treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. 125I-SP-A shows almost no binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine. The addition of 10 mM EGTA into the binding buffer reduced much of the 125I-SP-A binding to phospholipids. Excess deglycosylated SP-A competed with labeled SP-A for binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but the excess collagenase-resistant fragment of SP-A failed.

  3. Proteins on the move: insights gained from fluorescent protein technologies.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2011-09-23

    Proteins are always on the move, and this may occur through diffusion or active transport. The realization that the regulation of signal transduction is highly dynamic in space and time has stimulated intense interest in the movement of proteins. Over the past decade, numerous new technologies using fluorescent proteins have been developed, allowing us to observe the spatiotemporal dynamics of proteins in living cells. These technologies have greatly advanced our understanding of protein dynamics, including protein movement and protein interactions.

  4. Mutational Analysis of the TnrA-Binding Sites in the Bacillus subtilis nrgAB and gabP Promoter Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Lewis V.; Zalieckas, Jill M.; Ferson, Amy E.; Fisher, Susan H.

    1998-01-01

    Transcription of the Bacillus subtilis nrgAB promoter is activated during nitrogen-limited growth by the TnrA protein. A common inverted repeat, TGTNAN7TNACA (TnrA site), is centered 49 to 51 bp upstream of the transcriptional start sites for the TnrA-regulated nrgAB, gabP P2, and nas promoters. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of the nrgAB promoter region showed that conserved nucleotides within the TnrA site, the A+T-rich region between the two TnrA half-sites, and an upstream A tract are all required for high-level activation of nrgAB expression. Mutations that alter the relative distance between the two half-sites of the nrgAB TnrA site abolish nitrogen regulation of nrgAB expression. Spacer mutations that change the relative distance between the TnrA site and −35 region of the nrgAB promoter reveal that activation of nrgAB expression occurs only when the TnrA site is located 49 to 51 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Mutational analysis of the conserved nucleotides in the gabP P2 TnrA site showed that this sequence is also required for nitrogen-regulated gabP P2 expression. The TnrA protein, expressed in an overproducing Escherichia coli strain, had a 625-fold-higher affinity for the wild-type nrgAB promoter DNA than for a mutated nrgAB promoter DNA fragment that is unable to activate nrgAB expression in vivo. These results indicate that the proposed TnrA site functions as the binding site for the TnrA protein. TnrA was found to activate nrgAB expression during late exponential growth in nutrient sporulation medium containing glucose, suggesting that cells become nitrogen limited during growth in this medium. PMID:9603886

  5. Multidomain proteins under force.

    PubMed

    Valle-Orero, Jessica; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andrés; Popa, Ionel

    2017-04-28

    Advancements in single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques such as atomic force microscopy and magnetic tweezers allow investigation of how domain folding under force can play a physiological role. Combining these techniques with protein engineering and HaloTag covalent attachment, we investigate similarities a