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Sample records for a-bomb survivor dosimetry

  1. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring.

  2. A-bomb survivor dosimetry update

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    A-bomb survivor data have been generally accepted as applicable. Also, the initial radiations have tended to be accepted as the dominant radiation source for all survivors. There was general acceptance of the essential reliability of both the biological effects data and the causative radiation dose values. There are considerations casting doubt on these acceptances, but very little quantification of th implied uncertainties has been attempted. The exception was A-bomb survivor dosimetry, where free-field kerma values for initial radiations were thought to be accurate to about 30%, and doses to individual survivors were treated as effectively error-free. In 1980, a major challenge to the accepted A-bomb survivor dosimetry was announced, and was quickly followed by a succession of explanations and displays showing the soundness of that challenge. In fact, a complete replacement set of free-field kerma values was provided which was suitable for use in constructing an entire new dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The new values showed many changes greater than the accepted 30% uncertainty. An approximate new dosimetry was indeed constructed, and used to convert existing leukemia cause-and-effect data from the old to the new dose values, by way of assessing the impact. (ERB)

  3. The development of fetal dosimetry and its application to A-bomb survivors exposed in utero.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki comprises the major basis for investigations of health effects induced by ionising radiation in humans. To study the health effects associated with radiation exposure before birth, fetal dosimetry is needed if significant differences exist between the fetal absorbed dose and the mother's uterine dose. Combining total neutron and gamma ray free-in-air fluences at 1 m above ground with fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients, fetal doses were calculated for various exposure orientations at the ground distance of 1500 m from the hypocentres in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The results showed that the mother's uterine dose can serve as a good surrogate for the dose of the embryo and fetus in the first trimester. However, significant differences exist between doses of the fetus of different ages. If the mother's uterine dose were used as a surrogate, doses to the fetus in the last two trimesters could be overestimated by more than 20 % for exposure orientations facing towards and away from the hypocentre while significantly underestimated for lateral positions relative to the hypocentre. In newer fetal models, the brain is modelled for all fetal ages. Brain doses to the 3-month fetus are generally higher than those to an embryo and fetus of other ages. In most cases, brain absorbed doses differ significantly from the doses to the entire fetal body. In order to accurately assess radiation effects to the fetal brain, it is necessary to determine brain doses separately.

  4. The development of fetal dosimetry and its application to A-bomb survivors exposed in utero.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki comprises the major basis for investigations of health effects induced by ionising radiation in humans. To study the health effects associated with radiation exposure before birth, fetal dosimetry is needed if significant differences exist between the fetal absorbed dose and the mother's uterine dose. Combining total neutron and gamma ray free-in-air fluences at 1 m above ground with fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients, fetal doses were calculated for various exposure orientations at the ground distance of 1500 m from the hypocentres in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The results showed that the mother's uterine dose can serve as a good surrogate for the dose of the embryo and fetus in the first trimester. However, significant differences exist between doses of the fetus of different ages. If the mother's uterine dose were used as a surrogate, doses to the fetus in the last two trimesters could be overestimated by more than 20 % for exposure orientations facing towards and away from the hypocentre while significantly underestimated for lateral positions relative to the hypocentre. In newer fetal models, the brain is modelled for all fetal ages. Brain doses to the 3-month fetus are generally higher than those to an embryo and fetus of other ages. In most cases, brain absorbed doses differ significantly from the doses to the entire fetal body. In order to accurately assess radiation effects to the fetal brain, it is necessary to determine brain doses separately. PMID:21816724

  5. Radiation standards and A-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, R.

    1984-10-01

    For more than 33 years, the US government has supported the Life Span Study of Japanese survivors as a follow-up of the 1945 nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since 1975, the study has been funded jointly by the United States and Japan under the auspices of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. In the May issue of this bulletin radiation epidemiologists Dr. Alice Stewart and George Kneale raise perhaps the most fundamental question of all: Does the Japanese A-bomb survivor study have any value in deriving risk estimates for low-level radiation. On the basis of data published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in 1978, Stewart and Kneale suggest that Foundation analysts have confused long-term effects of tissue-destructive high doses with single-cell low-dose effects. If they are correct, the method of linear extrapolation from high-dose studies for low-level radiation risk estimates is invalid. The author feels the A-bomb survivors study should be opened up to an independent peer review process.

  6. Persistent chromosome aberrations in the somatic cells of A-bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Awa, A A

    1991-03-01

    Current status of knowledge on the radiation-induced chromosome aberrations persisting since their induction in 1945 to date in the somatic cells of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is reviewed. Dose-response relationship for chromosome aberration frequencies observed with the use of the old A-bomb dosimetry system (T65D) is also demonstrable based on the new dosimetry system (DS86). Despite the fact that the remarkable decrease in the amount of neutron component relative to the total dose in Hiroshima, there still exist inter-city differences in aberration frequency per unit dose both for kerma and bone marrow dose; the dose-square term is smaller in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. The differential contribution of neutron radiation may be responsible in some part for the observed difference between Hiroshima and Nagasaki, although proof still remains to be obtained. There is a wide variability of the frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations between survivors within a given dose range. Random errors in the dose estimates assigned to individual survivors seem responsible, to a large extent, for the observed overdispersions in aberration frequencies in both cities. New molecular biology-oriented techniques to differentially stain specific chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific composite DNA probes seem extremely promising for future rapid, accurate and extensive screening of reciprocal translocations observed predominantly in A-bomb survivors. Such data may be utilized to establish a better biological dosimetry system, especially for those persons who are irradiated in vivo many years before cytogenetic examinations.

  7. [Cataract: based on A-bomb survivor studies].

    PubMed

    Neriishi, Kazuo

    2012-03-01

    Until now, the radiation protection community had assumed that only high doses of 2 Gy or more cause cataracts. However, new data from the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors suggest that the dose threshold for both minor opacities and vision limiting cataracts may be below 1 Gy. Other studies have shown similar results in recent years. In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) revised their guidelines for permissible occupational and medical exposures to the eye.

  8. [Cataract: based on A-bomb survivor studies].

    PubMed

    Neriishi, Kazuo

    2012-03-01

    Until now, the radiation protection community had assumed that only high doses of 2 Gy or more cause cataracts. However, new data from the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors suggest that the dose threshold for both minor opacities and vision limiting cataracts may be below 1 Gy. Other studies have shown similar results in recent years. In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) revised their guidelines for permissible occupational and medical exposures to the eye. PMID:22514923

  9. Cardiovascular disease mortality of A-bomb survivors and the healthy survivor selection effect.

    PubMed

    Schöllnberger, H; Ozasa, K; Neff, F; Kaiser, J C

    2015-09-01

    The latest A-bomb survivor data for cardiovascular diseases are analysed to investigate whether in the first years after the bombings the baseline rates of proximal survivors were markedly different compared with those of the distal survivors. This phenomenon relates to a healthy survivor selection effect. This question is important for the decision whether to include or exclude the early years of follow-up when analysing the biological effects from acute low and high dose exposures following the nuclear weapons explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The present study shows that for cerebrovascular diseases and heart diseases the baseline rates are not significantly different in the first two decades of follow-up. Thus, for these two detrimental health outcomes, there is no need to exclude distal survivors and the first decades of follow-up time when investigating the shapes of the related dose-responses.

  10. Cardiovascular disease mortality of A-bomb survivors and the healthy survivor selection effect.

    PubMed

    Schöllnberger, H; Ozasa, K; Neff, F; Kaiser, J C

    2015-09-01

    The latest A-bomb survivor data for cardiovascular diseases are analysed to investigate whether in the first years after the bombings the baseline rates of proximal survivors were markedly different compared with those of the distal survivors. This phenomenon relates to a healthy survivor selection effect. This question is important for the decision whether to include or exclude the early years of follow-up when analysing the biological effects from acute low and high dose exposures following the nuclear weapons explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The present study shows that for cerebrovascular diseases and heart diseases the baseline rates are not significantly different in the first two decades of follow-up. Thus, for these two detrimental health outcomes, there is no need to exclude distal survivors and the first decades of follow-up time when investigating the shapes of the related dose-responses. PMID:25948837

  11. The new radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1988-08-18

    Extensive work has been conducted over the past few years to reassess all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This work has included reviews of the bomb yields, source terms, air transport of neutrons and gamma rays, neutron-induced radioactivity and thermoluminescence in exposed materials, shielding of individuals by buildings, and calculations of organ doses. The results of these theoretical and experimental activities have led to the development of a new dosimetry system which is designated as the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). New DS86 estimates of tissue kerma in air and absorbed dose to fifteen organs are available for 94,787 survivors who were either outside and unshielded, outside and shielded by houses, or inside and shielded by houses (64,408 in Hiroshima and 30,379 in Nagasaki). The organ doses are calculated on an age-dependent basis as follows: infants (less than 3 years old at the time of bombing, ATB), children (3 to 12 years old ATB), and adults (more than 12 years old ATB). Work in progress includes the extension of the DS86 system to Nagasaki survivors who were shielded either by terrain or by factory buildings.

  12. Perspectives on radiation dose estimates for A-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1986-12-01

    Four decades after the actual events, quantitative characterization of the radiation fields at Hiroshima and Nagasaki continues to be sought, with high accuracy a goal justified by the unique contribution to radiation protection standards that is represented by the medical records of exposed survivors. The most recent effort is distinguished by its reliance on computer modeling and concomitant detail, and by its decentralized direction, both internationally and internally to the US and Japan, with resultant ongoing peer review and wide scope of inquiry. A new system for individual dose estimation has been agreed upon, and its scientific basis has been elaborated in the literature as well as in a comprehensive treatise to be published in the Spring of 1987. In perspective, this new system appears to be an unusually successful achievement that offers the expectation of reliable estimates with the desired accuracy. Some aspects leading to this expectation, along with a caveat, are discussed here. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Radiation dose, reproductive history, and breast cancer risk among Japanese A-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Land, C.E.

    1992-06-01

    Excess risk of female breast cancer is among the most comprehensively documented late effects of exposure to substantial doses of ionizing radiation, based on studies of medically irradiated populations and the survivors of the A-bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This study looks at the interaction of dose with epidemiological factors like age at first full-term pregnancy and family history of breast cancer, most closely associated with risk in epidemiological studies of non-irradiatied populations. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Radiation-induced cancer and its modifying factor among A-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have conducted a long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 120,000 atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors and non-exposed controls since 1950. The most recent findings regarding cancer mortality and incidence in this cohort can be briefly summarized as follows: 1) An increase in leukemia mortality among A-bomb survivors peaked 5-6 years after the bombing and has decreased with time thereafter. In addition to leukemia, the incidence of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, thyroid, ovary, urinary tract, and multiple myeloma increases with dose. At present, there is no indication of an increase in cancer of the rectum or uterus among A-bomb survivors. In general, radiation-induced solid cancers begin to appear after the age at which they are normally prone to develop, and have continued to increase with time in proportion to the natural increase in mortality of the control group. 2) There are factors which modify the effects of radiation, such as age at the time of bombing (ATB) and sex. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young ATB in general, than for those who were older ATB. 3) There was no increase in childhood cancer among those exposed while in utero, but there is a recent indication of an increase in cancer incidence among these persons as they age. 4) There seems to be no interaction in a multiplicative way between radiation and smoking and lung cancer induction.

  15. Investigation of circular asymmetry in cancer mortality of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, A.V. Jr.; Prentice, R.L.; Ishimaru, T.; Kato, H.; Mason, M.

    1983-01-01

    Data on Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors are used to investigate, for each city, possible circular asymmetry in cancer mortality around the hypocenter. Using the Cox regression method and controlling for age ATB, sex, followup year, distance from the hypocenter, and type of shielding, it is found that in Hiroshima cancer mortality was significantly higher in the westerly direction from the hypocenter. Mortality from stomach cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer were higher in the westerly direction. In Nagasaki, only lung cancer exhibited circular asymmetry, and was significantly higher in the westerly direction. For various reasons, the results tend to support the possibility of an asymmetry in radiation dose in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. Also, possible asymmetry in nondose variables associated with cancer is suggested in both cities, particularly in variables associated with lung cancer. Indications for future work and implications for future dose-mortality investigations are discussed.

  16. Current risk estimates based on the A-bomb survivors data - a discussion in terms of the ICRP recommendations on the neutron weighting factor.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Walsh, L

    2007-01-01

    Currently, most analyses of the A-bomb survivors' solid tumour and leukaemia data are based on a constant neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) value of 10 that is applied to all survivors, independent of their distance to the hypocentre at the time of bombing. The results of these analyses are then used as a major basis for current risk estimates suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for use in international safety guidelines. It is shown here that (i) a constant value of 10 is not consistent with weighting factors recommended by the ICRP for neutrons and (ii) it does not account for the hardening of the neutron spectra in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which takes place with increasing distance from the hypocentres. The purpose of this paper is to present new RBE values for the neutrons, calculated as a function of distance from the hypocentres for both cities that are consistent with the ICRP60 neutron weighting factor. If based on neutron spectra from the DS86 dosimetry system, these calculations suggest values of about 31 at 1000 m and 23 at 2000 m ground range in Hiroshima, while the corresponding values for Nagasaki are 24 and 22. If the neutron weighting factor that is consistent with ICRP92 is used, the corresponding values are about 23 and 21 for Hiroshima and 21 and 20 for Nagasaki, respectively. It is concluded that the current risk estimates will be subject to some changes in view of the changed RBE values. This conclusion does not change significantly if the new doses from the Dosimetry System DS02 are used.

  17. Indications of the neutron effect contribution in the solid cancer data of the A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, Albrecht M; Rühm, Werner; Walsh, Linda

    2006-06-01

    Risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer are primarily based on the follow-up of the Japanese A-bomb survivors. Their exposures were due to gamma rays and neutrons, and, currently--with the assumed low RBE = 10 of neutrons and reference to the colon dose--the late radiation effects are almost fully attributed to the gamma rays. Solid cancer risk estimates for different organ sites are assessed here, and an inconspicuous but statistically highly significant trend of larger values is found for the organs closer to the body surface; i.e., the organs with less body shielding and, therefore, with larger neutron dose-fractions. Underestimation of the RBE of neutrons can explain this apparent correlation. The trend of ERR/Gy vs. depth ceases to be statistically significant for RBE values close to 100. The suggestion of high RBE values and the corresponding reduction of gamma-ray risk estimates is found to be in line with log-likelihood computations in terms of AMFIT, which provide for the solid cancer mortality of the A-bomb survivors the minimum deviance for RBE = 100 with a 95% confidence lower limit of 25. The present assessment had to use the data made publicly available by RERF. In this form they contain city-, sex-, age-, and dose-categories, but--instead of a separate neutron-dose category--only the mean neutron dose for each data cell. The tentative conclusions that are here obtained should, therefore, be examined by a more definitive analysis, either in terms of grouped data with a separate classification of neutron doses or, ideally, in terms of person by person calculations to be performed at RERF with individually estimated neutron doses.

  18. Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed. (ACR)

  19. No evidence of increased mutation rates at microsatellite loci in offspring of A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, M; Ryo, H; Kamada, N; Furukawa, K; Takahashi, N; Nakajima, H; Nomura, T; Nakamura, N

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the genetic effects of A-bomb radiation, we examined mutations at 40 microsatellite loci in exposed families (father-mother-offspring, mostly uni-parental exposures), which consisted of 66 offspring having a mean paternal dose of 1.87 Gy and a mean maternal dose of 1.27 Gy. The control families consisted of 63 offspring whose parents either were exposed to low doses of radiation (< 0.01 Gy) or were not in the cities of Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombs. We found seven mutations in the exposed alleles (7/2,789; mutation rate 0.25 x 10(-2)/locus/generation) and 26 in the unexposed alleles (26/7,465; 0.35 x 10(-2)/locus/generation), which does not indicate an effect from parental exposure to radiation. Although we could not assign the parental origins of four mutations, the conclusion may hold since even if we assume that these four mutations had occurred in the exposed alleles, the estimated mean mutation rate would be 0.39 x 10(-2) in the exposed group [(7 + 4)/2,789)], which is slightly higher than 0.35 x 10(-2) in the control group, but the difference is not statistically significant.

  20. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors, report 7

    SciTech Connect

    Wakabayashi, T.; Kato, H.; Ikeda, T.; Schull, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of malignant tumors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Life Span Study (LSS) sample in Nagasaki as revealed by the Nagasaki Tumor Registry was investigated for the period 1959-1978. (1) No bias in exposure status in data collection was revealed. Neither method of diagnosis nor reporting hospitals nor the frequency of ''doubtful'' cases differ by exposure dose. (2) The risk of radiogenic cancer definitely increases with radiation dose for leukemia, cancers of the breast, lung, stomach, and thyroid, and suggestively so for cancers of the colon and urinary tract and multiple myeloma. However, no increase is seen for cancer of the esophagus, liver gall bladder, uterus, ovary, or salivary gland or for malignant lymphoma. (3) In general, the relative risks based on incidence, that is, on the tumor registry data, are either the same or somewhat higher than those based on mortality in the same years; however, the absolute risk estimates (excess cancer per 10/sup 6/ Person Year Rad (PYR)) are far higher. (4) Since A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki consisted essentially of ..gamma.. rays, the present report provides a good opportunity to examine the shape of the dose-response curve for ..gamma.. exposures. Unfortunately, statistically one cannot actually distinguish one model from another among a simple linear, a quadratic, or a linear quadratic response. Further data are obviously necessary.

  1. Use of the individual data of the A-bomb survivors for biologically based cancer models.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Wolfgang F; Cullings, H M

    2010-03-01

    All recent analyses of the data on solid cancer incidence of the atomic bomb survivors are corrected for migration and random dose errors. In the usual treatment with grouped data and regression calibration, the calibration of doses depends on the used dose response. For solid cancers, it usually is linear. Here, an individual likelihood is presented which works without further adjustment for all dose responses. When the same assumptions are made as in the usual Poisson regression, equivalent results are obtained. But, the individual likelihood has the potential to use more detailed models for dose errors and to estimate non-linear dose responses without recalibration. As an example for the potential of the individual data set for the analysis of risk at low doses, signals for a saturating bystander effect are investigated. PMID:19908056

  2. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors. 8. Cancer mortality, 1950-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, D.L.; Kato, H.; Kopecky, K.; Fujita, S.

    1987-07-01

    This study extends an earlier one by 4 years (1979-1982) and includes mortality data on 11,393 additional Nagasaki survivors. Significant dose responses are observed for leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, female breast, stomach, colon, esophagus, and urinary tract. Due to diagnostic difficulties, results for liver and ovarian cancers, while suggestive of significant dose responses, do not provide convincing evidence for radiogenic effects. No significant dose responses are seen for cancers of the gallbladder, prostate, rectum, pancreas, or uterus, or for lymphoma. For solid tumors, largely due to sex-specific differences in the background rates, the relative risk of radiation-induced mortality is greater for women than for men. For nonleukemic cancers the relative risk seen in those who were young when exposed has decreased with time, while the smaller risks for those who were older at exposure have tended to increase. While the absolute excess risks of radiation-induced mortality due to nonleukemic cancer have increased with time for all age-at-exposure groups, both excess and relative risks of leukemia have generally decreased with time. For leukemia, the rate of decrease in risk and the initial level of risk are inversely related to age at exposure.

  3. Delayed effects of A-bomb radiation: a review of recent mortality rates and risk estimates for five-year survivors.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A M

    1982-06-01

    A review of published data relating to A-bomb survivors has led to the conclusion that since they were based on the mortality experiences of five year survivors estimates of radiation effects should have been controlled for two opposing forces-namely, selective survival of exceptionally fit individuals during the period of heavy acute mortality and residual disabilities. Both effects were dose-related and beyond question, and the disabilities probably included the effects of incomplete repair of bone marrow damage. Therefore, in addition to differences between high and low dose being largely obliterated, there was probably distortion of cancer effects. The two opposing forces are clearly the reason why the change from the high mortality rates of 1945-6 to the low rates of the 1950s was not accompanied by a change from a position to a negative association with dose, and imperviousness to the residual disabilities is probably the reason why sudden deaths of previously healthy individuals (exemplified by suicides) were an exception to this rule. Finally, impairment of bone marrow function probably accounts for the early epidemic of myeloid leukaemia; the apparent absence of other cancers at this time, and the relatively high dose-related death rates for blood diseases other than leukaemia.

  4. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors - 7. Mortality, 1950-1978: part 1. Cancer mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, H.; Schull, W.J.

    1982-05-01

    The present study extends an earlier one by 4 years, 1975-1978. Leukemia as a cause of death among survivors has continued to decrease and now differs from the control group only in Hiroshima. For cancer other than leukemia the increase in absolute risk has become more marked as the cohort has aged and especially so in Nagasaki where it is now statistically significant for the first time. In addition to previously demonstrated sites, i.e., lung, breast, stomach, esophagus, and urinary tract, colon cancers and multiple myeloma can now be shown to be related to exposure. No significant relationship to radiation can as yet be established for malignant lymphoma, rectum, pancrease, and uterine cancer. The time from exposure to death is shortened for leukemia depending on dose but not for other cancers, and radiation-induced cancers other than leukemia seem to develop proportionally to the natural cancer rate for the attained age. For specific age-at-death intervals, both relative and absolute risk tend to be higher for younger age at time of bombing individuals.

  5. Biomarkers of Radiosensitivity in A-Bomb Survivors Pregnant at the Time of Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Edward F.; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kamada, Naoko; Nakashima, Eiji; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Seed, Thomas; Kusonoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Neriishi, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. There is evidence in the literature of increased maternal radiosensitivity during pregnancy. Materials and Methods. We tested this hypothesis using information from the atomic-bomb survivor cohort, that is, the Adult Health Study database at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which contains data from a cohort of women who were pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Previous evaluation has demonstrated long-term radiation dose-response effects. Results/Conclusions. Data on approximately 250 women were available to assess dose-response rates for serum cholesterol, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum hemoglobin, and on approximately 85 women for stable chromosome aberrations, glycophorin A locus mutations, and naïve CD4 T-cell counts. Although there is no statistically significant evidence of increased radiosensitivity in pregnant women, the increased slope of the linear trend line in the third trimester with respect to stable chromosome aberrations is suggestive of an increased radiosensitivity. PMID:21637355

  6. Biomarkers of Radiosensitivity in A-Bomb Survivors Pregnant at the Time of Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    DOE PAGES

    Miles, Edward F.; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kamada, Naoko; Nakashima, Eiji; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Seed, Thomas; Kusonoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei; Fujiwara, Saeko; et al

    2011-01-01

    Purpose . There is evidence in the literature of increased maternal radiosensitivity during pregnancy. Materials and Methods . We tested this hypothesis using information from the atomic-bomb survivor cohort, that is, the Adult Health Study database at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which contains data from a cohort of women who were pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Previous evaluation has demonstrated long-term radiation dose-response effects. Results/Conclusions . Data on approximately 250 women were available to assess dose-response rates for serum cholesterol, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum hemoglobin, and onmore » approximately 85 women for stable chromosome aberrations, glycophorin A locus mutations, and naïve CD4 T-cell counts. Although there is no statistically significant evidence of increased radiosensitivity in pregnant women, the increased slope of the linear trend line in the third trimester with respect to stable chromosome aberrations is suggestive of an increased radiosensitivity.« less

  7. Cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, I.; Kagan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the cancer registry in Nagasaki, with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977; cancer mortality; methods for study of delayed health effects of a-bomb radiation; experimental radiation carcinogenesis in rodents; leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma; cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands; malignant tumors in atomic bomb survivors with special reference to the pathology of stomach and lung cancer; colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors; breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors; and ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survirors.

  8. Associations of Ionizing Radiation and Breast Cancer-Related Serum Hormone and Growth Factor Levels in Cancer-Free Female A-Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Eric J.; Neriishi, Kazuo; Cologne, John; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Hayashi, Tomonori; Geyer, Susan; Izumi, Shizue; Nishi, Nobuo; Land, Charles; Stevens, Richard G.; Sharp, Gerald B.; Nakachi, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Levels of exposure to ionizing radiation are increasing for women worldwide due to the widespread use of CT and other radiologic diagnostic modalities. Exposure to ionizing radiation as well as increased levels of estradiol and other sex hormones are acknowledged breast cancer risk factors, but the effects of whole-body radiation on serum hormone levels in cancer-free women are unknown. This study examined whether ionizing radiation exposure is associated with levels of serum hormones and other markers that may mediate radiation-associated breast cancer risk. Serum samples were measured from cancer-free women who attended biennial health examinations with a wide range of past radiation exposure levels (N = 412, ages 26–79). The women were selected as controls for separate case-control studies from a cohort of A-bomb survivors. Outcome measures included serum levels of total estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and ferritin. Relationships were assessed using repeated-measures regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations. Geometric mean serum levels of total estradiol and bioavailable estradiol increased with 1 Gy of radiation dose among samples collected from postmenopausal women (17%1Gy, 95% CI: 1%–36% and 21%1Gy, 95% CI: 4%–40%, respectively), while they decreased in samples collected from premenopausal women (−11%1Gy, 95% CI: −20%–1% and −12%1Gy, 95% CI: −20%– −2%, respectively). Interactions by menopausal status were significant (P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively). Testosterone levels increased with radiation dose in postmenopausal samples (30.0%1Gy, 95% CI: 13%–49%) while they marginally decreased in premenopausal samples (−10%1Gy, 95% CI: −19%–0%) and the interaction by menopausal status was significant (P < 0.001). Serum levels of IGF1 increased linearly with radiation dose (11%1Gy

  9. Independent analysis of the radiation risk for leukaemia in children and adults with mortality data (1950-2003) of Japanese A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jan Christian; Walsh, Linda

    2013-03-01

    A recent analysis of leukaemia mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors has applied descriptive models, collected together from previous studies, to derive a joint excess relative risk estimate (ERR) by multi-model inference (MMI) (Walsh and Kaiser in Radiat Environ Biophys 50:21-35, 2011). The models use a linear-quadratic dose response with differing dose effect modifiers. In the present study, a set of more than 40 models has been submitted to a rigorous statistical selection procedure which fosters the parsimonious deployment of model parameters based on pairwise likelihood ratio tests. Nested models were consequently excluded from risk assessment. The set comprises models of the excess absolute risk (EAR) and two types of non-standard ERR models with sigmoidal responses or two line spline functions with a changing slope at a break point. Due to clearly higher values of the Akaike Information Criterion, none of the EAR models has been selected, but two non-standard ERR models qualified for MMI. The preferred ERR model applies a purely quadratic dose response which is slightly damped by an exponential factor at high doses and modified by a power function for attained age. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study reports similar point estimates and confidence intervals (CI) of the ERR from MMI for doses between 0.5 and 2.5 Sv. However, at lower doses, the point estimates are markedly reduced by factors between two and five, although the reduction was not statistically significant. The 2.5 % percentiles of the ERR from the preferred quadratic-exponential model did not fall below zero risk in exposure scenarios for children, adolescents and adults at very low doses down to 10 mSv. Yet, MMI produced risk estimates with a positive 2.5 % percentile only above doses of some 300 mSv. Compared to CI from a single model of choice, CI from MMI are broadened in cohort strata with low statistical power by a combination of risk extrapolations from several

  10. Review of dosimetry for the atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses results of some 1980-1981 studies of neutron and ..gamma..-ray exposure to the atomic bomb survivors by W.E. Loewe and E. Mendelsohn of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, D.C. Kaul and W.H. Scott of Science Applications, Inc., and J.V. Pace of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Some other special studies which are now underway to complete the review will also be discussed. The expert assistance of others in these special studies is being supported in part by the US Department of Energy and in part by the US Defense Nuclear Agency.

  11. Decreases in percentages of naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells and increases in percentages of memory CD8 T-cell subsets in the peripheral blood lymphocyte populations of A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Mika; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Nakachi, Kei; Kyoizumi, Seishi

    2004-03-01

    Our previous studies have revealed a clear dose-dependent decrease in the percentage of naïve CD4 T cells that are phenotypically CD45RA+ in PBL among A-bomb survivors. However, whether there is a similar radiation effect on CD8 T cells has remained undetermined because of the unreliability of CD45 isoforms as markers of naïve and memory subsets among the CD8 T-cell population. In the present study, we used double labeling with CD45RO and CD62L for reliable identification of naïve and memory cell subsets in both CD4 and CD8 T-cell populations among 533 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. Statistically significant dose-dependent decreases in the percentages of CD45RO-/CD62L+ naïve cells were found in the CD8 T-cell population as well as in the CD4 T-cell population. Furthermore, the percentages of CD45RO+/CD62L+ and CD45RO+/CD62L- memory T cells were found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in the CD8 T-cell population but not in the CD4 T-cell population. These results suggest that the prior A-bomb exposure has induced long-lasting deficits in both naïve CD4 and CD8 T- cell populations along with increased proportions of these particular subsets of the memory CD8 T-cell population.

  12. Cataract in atomic bomb survivors based on a threshold model and the occurrence of severe epilation

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, Masanori; Neriishi, K.; Schull, W.J.; Neriishi, Kazuo; Schull, W.J.

    1996-09-01

    This report re-examines the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of cataracts among 1742 a-bomb survivors seen in the years 1963-1964 for whom the degree of epilation and Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) doses are known. Of these, 67 had cataracts.

  13. ESR Dosimetry for Atomic Bomb Survivors Using Shell Buttons and Tooth Enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeya, Motoji; Miyajima, Junko; Okajima, Shunzo

    1984-09-01

    Atomic bomb radiation doses to humans at Nagasaki and Hiroshima are investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) from shell buttons and tooth enamel voluntarily supplied by survivors. A shell button gives a dose of 2.1± 0.2 Gy with ESR signals at g=2.001 and g=1.997 while the signal at g=1.997 for the tooth enamel of the same person is 1.9± 0.5 Gy. Other teeth show doses from about 0.5 Gy to 3 Gy. An apparent shielding converted to a concrete thickness is given using the T65D calculated in 1965. Teeth extracted during dental treatment should be preserved for cumulative radiation dosimetry.

  14. Electron spin resonance analysis of tooth enamel does not indicate exposures to large radiation doses in a large proportion of distally-exposed A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Yuko; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Cullings, Harry M; Miyazawa, Chuzo; Nakamura, Nori

    2011-01-01

    The atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to two different types of radiation exposure; one was direct and brief and the other was indirect and persistent. The latter (so-called exposure to residual radiation) resulted from the presence of neutron activation products in the soil, or from fission products present in the fallout. Compared with the doses from direct exposures, estimations of individual doses from residual radiation have been much more complicated, and estimates vary widely among researchers. The present report bases its conclusions on radiation doses recorded in tooth enamel from survivors in Hiroshima. Those survivors were present at distances of about 3 km or greater from the hypocenter at the time of the explosion, and have DS02 estimated doses (direct exposure doses) of less than 5 mGy (and are regarded as control subjects). Individual doses were estimated by measuring CO(2)(-) radicals in tooth enamel with the electron spin resonance (ESR; or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR) method. The results from 56 molars donated by 49 survivors provided estimated doses which vary from -200 mGy to 500 mGy, and the median dose was 17 mGy (25% and 75% quartiles are -54 mGy and 137 mGy, respectively) for the buccal parts and 13 mGy (25% and 75% quartiles: -49 mGy and 87 mGy, respectively) for the lingual parts of the molars. Three molars had ESR-estimated doses of 300 to 400 mGy for both the buccal and lingual parts, which indicates possible exposures to excess doses of penetrating radiation, although the origin of such radiation remains to be determined. The results did not support claims that a large fraction of distally-exposed survivors received large doses (e.g. 1 Gy) of external penetrating radiation resulting from residual radiation.

  15. Electron spin resonance analysis of tooth enamel does not indicate exposures to large radiation doses in a large proportion of distally-exposed A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Yuko; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Cullings, Harry M; Miyazawa, Chuzo; Nakamura, Nori

    2011-01-01

    The atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to two different types of radiation exposure; one was direct and brief and the other was indirect and persistent. The latter (so-called exposure to residual radiation) resulted from the presence of neutron activation products in the soil, or from fission products present in the fallout. Compared with the doses from direct exposures, estimations of individual doses from residual radiation have been much more complicated, and estimates vary widely among researchers. The present report bases its conclusions on radiation doses recorded in tooth enamel from survivors in Hiroshima. Those survivors were present at distances of about 3 km or greater from the hypocenter at the time of the explosion, and have DS02 estimated doses (direct exposure doses) of less than 5 mGy (and are regarded as control subjects). Individual doses were estimated by measuring CO(2)(-) radicals in tooth enamel with the electron spin resonance (ESR; or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR) method. The results from 56 molars donated by 49 survivors provided estimated doses which vary from -200 mGy to 500 mGy, and the median dose was 17 mGy (25% and 75% quartiles are -54 mGy and 137 mGy, respectively) for the buccal parts and 13 mGy (25% and 75% quartiles: -49 mGy and 87 mGy, respectively) for the lingual parts of the molars. Three molars had ESR-estimated doses of 300 to 400 mGy for both the buccal and lingual parts, which indicates possible exposures to excess doses of penetrating radiation, although the origin of such radiation remains to be determined. The results did not support claims that a large fraction of distally-exposed survivors received large doses (e.g. 1 Gy) of external penetrating radiation resulting from residual radiation. PMID:21768749

  16. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors, report 7. Part III. incidence of cancer in 1959-1978, based on the tumor registry, Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Wakabayashi, T.; Kato, H.; Ikeda, T.; Schull, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of malignant tumors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Life Span Study (LSS) sample in Nagasaki as revealed by the Nagasaki Tumor Registry was investigated for the period 1959-1978. (1) No bias in exposure status in data collection was revealed. Neither method of diagnosis nor reporting hospitals nor the frequency of doubtful cases differ by exposure dose. (2) The risk of radiogenic cancer definitely increases with radiation dose for leukemia, cancers of the breast, lung, stomach, and thyroid, and suggestively so for cancers of the colon and urinary tract and multiple myeloma. However, no increase is seen for cancer of the esophagus, liver, gall bladder, uterus, ovary, or salivary gland or for malignant lymphoma. (3) In general, the relative risks based on incidence, that is, on the tumor registry data, are either the same or somewhat higher than those based on mortality in the same years; however, the absolute risk estimates (excess cancer per 10(6) Person Year Rad (PYR)) are far higher. (4) Since A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki consisted essentially of gamma rays, the present report provides a good opportunity to examine the shape of the dose-response curve for gamma exposures. Unfortunately, statistically one cannot actually distinguish one model from another among a simple linear, a quadratic, or a linear quadratic response. Further data are obviously necessary.

  17. Multi-model inference of adult and childhood leukaemia excess relative risks based on the Japanese A-bomb survivors mortality data (1950-2000).

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda; Kaiser, Jan Christian

    2011-03-01

    Some relatively new issues that augment the usual practice of ignoring model uncertainty, when making inference about parameters of a specific model, are brought to the attention of the radiation protection community here. Nine recently published leukaemia risk models, developed with the Japanese A-bomb epidemiological mortality data, have been included in a model-averaging procedure so that the main conclusions do not depend on just one type of model or statistical test. The models have been centred here at various adult and young ages at exposure, for some short times since exposure, in order to obtain specially computed childhood Excess Relative Risks (ERR) with uncertainties that account for correlations in the fitted parameters associated with the ERR dose-response. The model-averaged ERR at 1 Sv was not found to be statistically significant for attained ages of 7 and 12 years but was statistically significant for attained ages of 17, 22 and 55 years. Consequently, such risks when applied to other situations, such as children in the vicinity of nuclear installations or in estimates of the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence attributable to background radiation (i.e. low doses for young ages and short times since exposure), are only of very limited value, with uncertainty ranges that include zero risk. For example, assuming a total radiation dose to a 5-year-old child of 10 mSv and applying the model-averaged risk at 10 mSv for a 7-year-old exposed at 2 years of age would result in an ERR=0.33, 95% CI: -0.51 to 1.22. One model (United Nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation report. Volume 1. Annex A: epidemiological studies of radiation and cancer, United Nations, New York, 2006) weighted model-averaged risks of leukaemia most strongly by half of the total unity weighting and is recommended for application in future leukaemia risk assessments that continue to ignore model uncertainty. However, on the basis of the analysis

  18. Neutron relative biological effectiveness for solid cancer incidence in the Japanese A-bomb survivors: an analysis considering the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses with hierarchical partitioning.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda

    2013-03-01

    It has generally been assumed that the neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses in the data from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese A-bomb survivors are too highly correlated for an independent separation of the all solid cancer risks due to neutrons and due to γ-rays. However, with the release of the most recent data for all solid cancer incidence and the increased statistical power over previous datasets, it is instructive to consider alternatives to the usual approaches. Simple excess relative risk (ERR) models for radiation-induced solid cancer incidence fitted to the LSS epidemiological data have been applied with neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses as separate explanatory covariables. A simple evaluation of the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses on the all solid cancer risk with the hierarchical partitioning (HP) technique is presented here. The degree of multi-collinearity between the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses has also been considered. The results show that, whereas the partial correlation between the neutron and γ-ray colon absorbed doses may be considered to be high at 0.74, this value is just below the level beyond which remedial action, such as adding the doses together, is usually recommended. The resulting variance inflation factor is 2.2. Applying HP indicates that just under half of the drop in deviance resulting from adding the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses to the baseline risk model comes from the joint effects of the neutrons and γ-rays-leaving a substantial proportion of this deviance drop accounted for by individual effects of the neutrons and γ-rays. The average ERR/Gy γ-ray absorbed dose and the ERR/Gy neutron absorbed dose that have been obtained here directly for the first time, agree well with previous indirect estimates. The average relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons relative to γ-rays, calculated directly from fit parameters to the all solid cancer ERR model with both

  19. Experimental simulation of A-bomb gamma ray spectra: revisited.

    PubMed

    Pattison, John E; Payne, Lester C; Hugtenburg, Richard P; Beddoe, Alun H; Charles, Monty W

    2004-01-01

    It has been reported recently that the A-bomb gamma ray spectra received by the colon of the average Japanese survivor of Hiroshima and Nagasaki may be experimentally simulated using a hospital-based Philips SL15 linear accelerator. The simulated A-bomb gamma radiation may be used in radiobiology experiments to determine, amongst other things, the biological effectiveness of the A-bomb gamma radiation. However, in that study, the electron beams from the linear accelerator were poorly defined and photon contamination was ignored. In the study reported here, a Varian Clinac 2100C linear accelerator has been used for the same purpose but with photon contamination included in better defined output electron beams. It is found that the A-bomb gamma radiation can still be matched to an acceptable degree (<10%). The cause of the slightly poorer fit was due mainly to the different ranges of energies available from the linear accelerators used. The absorbed dose received by model breasts was also estimated in this study for the same situations as in the previous study. The ratio of the breast to colon doses was found to be only (3.9 +/- 4.0)% low compared with the expected values of 1.17 and 1.16 for Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. These results provide further confirmation of the acceptability of the simple cylindrically symmetrical body models employed in these studies to represent the average Japanese survivor.

  20. Prevalence of skin neoplasma amont the atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Michiko; Kodama, Kazunori; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    1996-08-01

    About 7,000 atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki who participate in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Adult Health Study (AHS) were examined to define the relationship between skin neoplasms and exposure to ionizing radiation. Careful clinical inspection of the skin was undertaken to detect not only skin cancer but precancerous lesions such as senile keratosis. Five cases of basal cell carcinoma, five cases of senile keratosis and one case of Bowen`s disease were confirmed histologically among 5955 A-bomb survivors for whom Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) dose estimates are available. The relationship between the combined prevalence of skin cancer and precancerous lesions and DS86 dose was examined together with other factors that might affect skin neoplasms including occupational exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, age, sex and city. The prevalence of basal cell carcinoma and senile keratosis increased as the DS86 dose increased. The prevalent of skin cancer and senile keratosis among persons engaged in work involving frequent exposure to UV rays was higher than among those who were not engaged in such work. Sex and city were not significantly related to those skin diseases. Odds ratios of skin neoplasm for a 1-Gy dose, occupational exposure to UV rays and age at time of examination exposure to UV rays and age at time of examination (in 10-year increments) are 1.7, 5.9 and 1.9, respectively. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Long-term epidemiological studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: study populations, dosimetry and summary of health effects.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Toshiteru

    2012-10-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation succeeded 28 years' worth of activities of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission on long-term epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has three major cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, i.e. the Life Span Study (LSS) of 120,000 people, the In Utero Cohort of 3600 and the Second Generation Study (F(1)) of 77,000. The LSS and F(1) studies include a periodic health examination for each sub-cohort, i.e. the Adult Health Study and the F(1) Clinical Study, respectively. An extensive individual dose estimation was conducted and the system was published as the Dosimetry System established in 2002 (DS02). As results of these studies, increases of cancers in relation to dose were clearly shown. Increases of other mortality causes were also observed, including heart and respiratory diseases. There has been no evidence of genetic effects in the survivors' children, including cancer and other multi-factorial diseases. The increase in the expected mortality number in the next 10 y would allow the analyses of further details of the observed effects related to atomic bomb exposures.

  2. Long-term epidemiological studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: study populations, dosimetry and summary of health effects.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Toshiteru

    2012-10-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation succeeded 28 years' worth of activities of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission on long-term epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has three major cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, i.e. the Life Span Study (LSS) of 120,000 people, the In Utero Cohort of 3600 and the Second Generation Study (F(1)) of 77,000. The LSS and F(1) studies include a periodic health examination for each sub-cohort, i.e. the Adult Health Study and the F(1) Clinical Study, respectively. An extensive individual dose estimation was conducted and the system was published as the Dosimetry System established in 2002 (DS02). As results of these studies, increases of cancers in relation to dose were clearly shown. Increases of other mortality causes were also observed, including heart and respiratory diseases. There has been no evidence of genetic effects in the survivors' children, including cancer and other multi-factorial diseases. The increase in the expected mortality number in the next 10 y would allow the analyses of further details of the observed effects related to atomic bomb exposures. PMID:22908354

  3. Simulation-extrapolation method to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates, 1950-2003.

    PubMed

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Schwartz, Boris; Diallo, Ibrahima; Agbovon, Césaire; Laurier, Dominique; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-08-01

    Analyses of the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bombing survivors have routinely incorporated corrections for additive classical measurement errors using regression calibration. Recently, several studies reported that the efficiency of the simulation-extrapolation method (SIMEX) is slightly more accurate than the simple regression calibration method (RCAL). In the present paper, the SIMEX and RCAL methods have been used to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates. For instance, it is shown that using the SIMEX method, the ERR/Gy is increased by an amount of about 29 % for all solid cancer deaths using a linear model compared to the RCAL method, and the corrected EAR 10(-4) person-years at 1 Gy (the linear terms) is decreased by about 8 %, while the corrected quadratic term (EAR 10(-4) person-years/Gy(2)) is increased by about 65 % for leukaemia deaths based on a linear-quadratic model. The results with SIMEX method are slightly higher than published values. The observed differences were probably due to the fact that with the RCAL method the dosimetric data were partially corrected, while all doses were considered with the SIMEX method. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the estimated risks and it may be useful to use several correction techniques in order to obtain a range of corrected estimates, rather than to rely on a single technique. This work will enable to improve the risk estimates derived from LSS data, and help to make more reliable the development of radiation protection standards.

  4. Simulation-extrapolation method to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates, 1950-2003.

    PubMed

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Schwartz, Boris; Diallo, Ibrahima; Agbovon, Césaire; Laurier, Dominique; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-08-01

    Analyses of the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bombing survivors have routinely incorporated corrections for additive classical measurement errors using regression calibration. Recently, several studies reported that the efficiency of the simulation-extrapolation method (SIMEX) is slightly more accurate than the simple regression calibration method (RCAL). In the present paper, the SIMEX and RCAL methods have been used to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates. For instance, it is shown that using the SIMEX method, the ERR/Gy is increased by an amount of about 29 % for all solid cancer deaths using a linear model compared to the RCAL method, and the corrected EAR 10(-4) person-years at 1 Gy (the linear terms) is decreased by about 8 %, while the corrected quadratic term (EAR 10(-4) person-years/Gy(2)) is increased by about 65 % for leukaemia deaths based on a linear-quadratic model. The results with SIMEX method are slightly higher than published values. The observed differences were probably due to the fact that with the RCAL method the dosimetric data were partially corrected, while all doses were considered with the SIMEX method. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the estimated risks and it may be useful to use several correction techniques in order to obtain a range of corrected estimates, rather than to rely on a single technique. This work will enable to improve the risk estimates derived from LSS data, and help to make more reliable the development of radiation protection standards. PMID:25894839

  5. Experimental derivation of relative biological effectiveness of A-bomb neutrons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M S; Nomura, T; Ejima, Y; Utsumi, H; Endo, S; Saito, I; Itoh, T; Hoshi, M

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological data on the health effects of A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki provide the framework for setting limits for radiation risk and radiological protection. However, uncertainty remains in the equivalent dose, because it is generally believed that direct derivation of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons from the epidemiological data on the survivors is difficult. To solve this problem, an alternative approach has been taken. The RBE of polyenergetic neutrons was determined for chromosome aberration formation in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro, compared with published data for tumor induction in experimental animals, and validated using epidemiological data from A-bomb survivors. The RBE of fission neutrons was dependent on dose but was independent of the energy spectrum. The same RBE regimen was observed for lymphocyte chromosome aberrations and tumors in mice and rats. Used as a weighting factor for A-bomb survivors, this RBE system was superior in eliminating the city difference in chromosome aberration frequencies and cancer mortality. The revision of the equivalent dose of A-bomb radiation using DS02 weighted by this RBE system reduces the cancer risk by a factor of 0.7 compared with the current estimates using DS86, with neutrons weighted by a constant RBE of 10.

  6. A long-term cohort study of the atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodama, K; Mabuchi, K; Shigematsu, I

    1996-08-01

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), the predecessor of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), was established in 1947 to conduct long-term, comprehensive epidemiological and genetic studies of the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Today this study still depends upon the voluntary cooperation of several tens of thousands of survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. An in-depth follow-up study of mortality in the study population of 120,000 persons, including A-bomb survivors and controls, has continued since 1950. The study of tumor incidence was initiated through record linkage with a tumor registry system in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1958. In the same year, biennial medical examinations of 20,000 individuals began. Follow-up studies also have been conducted on in-utero-exposed persons and first-generation offspring of the survivors. On the basis of these studies spanning nearly half a century, we know that the occurrence of leukemia and cancers associated with A-bomb radiation is higher than among the non-exposed. Among the A-bomb survivors, radiation cataracts, hyperparathyroidism, delayed growth and development, and chromosomal aberrations also occur more often. However, to date no evidence exists of genetic effects in the children of A-bomb survivors. It should be kept in mind that such study results could never be obtained without the cooperation of A-bomb survivors.

  7. [A-bomb experience and Hibakushas' lives].

    PubMed

    Akiba, Tadatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The A-bomb experience of Hiroshima may shed light on the reconstruction plan of the Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and on implementing middle to long range care plans for the victims of the catastrophe. An important element in the success of Hiroshima's reconstruction was the understanding of the realities of everyday life of citizens and hibakusha by local and national government, and incorporation of those points of view into the reconstruction plan. Sharing of accurate and fair information about the disaster, restoration, and reconstruction with citizens was and still is a prerequisite for success. To convey learned lessons from the Hiroshima experience, three books are helpful: "A-bomb Mayor" by Shinzo Hamai, "The Meaning of Survival" compiled by the Chugoku Shimbun and "The Children of the A-bomb" compiled by Arata Osada. They help understand the history of hibakusha psychology from the point of view of their everyday lives and may help those affected by the Earthquake and Tsunami. To summarize the history of psychological changes among the hibakusha, three key transitional pairs of statements used widely by them over the span of 66 years help show the change in their attitude and emotional outlook. Each pair consists of an expression from the period immediately following the bombing and a second more recent expression: (1) Transition from "I would rather die." to "I am glad I am alive." (2) Transition from "I would rather forget." to "We should not forget." (3) Transition from "You will understand if you are a victim." to "No one else should ever suffer as we did".

  8. Cancer risk estimates from the combined Japanese A-bomb and Hodgkin cohorts for doses relevant to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Uwe; Walsh, Linda

    2008-04-01

    Most information on the dose-response of radiation-induced cancer is derived from data on the A-bomb survivors who were exposed to gamma-rays and neutrons. Since, for radiation protection purposes, the dose span of main interest is between 0 and 1 Gy, the analysis of the A-bomb survivors is usually focused on this range. However, estimates of cancer risk for doses above 1 Gy are becoming more important for radiotherapy patients and for long-term manned missions in space research. Therefore in this work, emphasis is placed on doses relevant for radiotherapy with respect to radiation-induced solid cancer. The analysis of the A-bomb survivor's data was extended by including two extra high-dose categories (4-6 Sv and 6-13 Sv) and by an attempted combination with cancer data on patients receiving radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. In addition, since there are some recent indications for a high neutron dose contribution, the data were fitted separately for three different values for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the neutrons (10, 35 and 100) and a variable RBE as a function of dose. The data were fitted using a linear, a linear-exponential and a plateau-dose-response relationship. Best agreement was found for the plateau model with a dose-varying RBE. It can be concluded that for doses above 1 Gy there is a tendency for a nonlinear dose-response curve. In addition, there is evidence of a neutron RBE greater than 10 for the A-bomb survivor data. Many problems and uncertainties are involved in combing these two datasets. However, since very little is currently known about the shape of dose-response relationships for radiation-induced cancer in the radiotherapy dose range, this approach could be regarded as a first attempt to acquire more information on this area. The work presented here also provides the first direct evidence that the bending over of the solid cancer excess risk dose response curve for the A-bomb survivors, generally observed above 2 Gy

  9. Gamma-ray and neutron dosimetry by EPR and AMS, using tooth enamel from atomic-bomb survivors: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nori; Hirai, Yuko; Kodama, Yoshiaki

    2012-03-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR, or electron spin resonance) method was used to measure CO₂⁻· radicals recorded in tooth enamel by exposure to atomic-bomb gamma rays. The EPR-estimated doses (i.e. ⁶⁰Co gamma-ray equivalent dose) were generally in good correlation with cytogenetic data of the same survivors, whereas plots of EPR-estimated dose or cytogenetically estimated dose against DS02 doses turned out to scatter more widely. Because those survivors whose EPR doses were higher (or lower) than DS02 doses tended to show also higher (or lower) responses for cytogenetic responses, the apparent variation appears primarily due to problems in individual DS02 doses rather than the measurement errors associated with the EPR or cytogenetic technique. A part of the enamel samples were also used for evaluation of neutron doses by measuring ⁴¹Ca/⁴⁰Ca ratios using the accelerator mass spectrometry technique. The results for the measured ratios were on average ~85 % of the calculated ratios by DS02 (but within the 95 % confidence bounds of the simulated results), which lends support to DS02-derived neutron doses to the survivors.

  10. Gamma-ray and neutron dosimetry by EPR and AMS, using tooth enamel from atomic-bomb survivors: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nori; Hirai, Yuko; Kodama, Yoshiaki

    2012-03-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR, or electron spin resonance) method was used to measure CO₂⁻· radicals recorded in tooth enamel by exposure to atomic-bomb gamma rays. The EPR-estimated doses (i.e. ⁶⁰Co gamma-ray equivalent dose) were generally in good correlation with cytogenetic data of the same survivors, whereas plots of EPR-estimated dose or cytogenetically estimated dose against DS02 doses turned out to scatter more widely. Because those survivors whose EPR doses were higher (or lower) than DS02 doses tended to show also higher (or lower) responses for cytogenetic responses, the apparent variation appears primarily due to problems in individual DS02 doses rather than the measurement errors associated with the EPR or cytogenetic technique. A part of the enamel samples were also used for evaluation of neutron doses by measuring ⁴¹Ca/⁴⁰Ca ratios using the accelerator mass spectrometry technique. The results for the measured ratios were on average ~85 % of the calculated ratios by DS02 (but within the 95 % confidence bounds of the simulated results), which lends support to DS02-derived neutron doses to the survivors. PMID:22267275

  11. Allowing for random errors in radiation dose estimates for the atomic bomb survivor data.

    PubMed

    Pierce, D A; Stram, D O; Vaeth, M

    1990-09-01

    The presence of random errors in the individual radiation dose estimates for the A-bomb survivors causes underestimation of radiation effects in dose-response analyses, and also distorts the shape of dose-response curves. Statistical methods are presented which will adjust for these biases, provided that a valid statistical model for the dose estimation errors is used. Emphasis is on clarifying some rather subtle statistical issues. For most of this development the distinction between radiation dose and exposure is not critical. The proposed methods involve downward adjustment of dose estimates, but this does not imply that the dosimetry system is faulty. Rather, this is a part of the dose-response analysis required to remove biases in the risk estimates. The primary focus of this report is on linear dose-response models, but methods for linear-quadratic models are also considered briefly. Some plausible models for the dose estimation errors are considered, which have typical errors in a range of 30-40% of the true values, and sensitivity analysis of the resulting bias corrections is provided. It is found that for these error models the resulting estimates of excess cancer risk based on linear models are about 6-17% greater than estimates that make no allowance for dose estimation errors. This increase in risk estimates is reduced to about 4-11% if, as has often been done recently, survivors with dose estimates above 4 Gy are eliminated from the analysis.

  12. A lifelong journey of moving beyond wartime trauma for survivors from Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor.

    PubMed

    Liehr, Patricia; Nishimura, Chie; Ito, Mio; Wands, Lisa Marie; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    This study examines 51 stories of health, shared by people who survived the wartime trauma of Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor, seeking to identify turning points that moved participants along over their lifetime. The central turning point for Hiroshima survivors was "becoming Hibabusha (A-bomb survivor)" and for Pearl Harbor survivors was "honoring the memory and setting it aside." Wartime trauma was permanently integrated into survivors' histories, surfacing steadily over decades for Hiroshima survivors and intermittently over decades for Pearl Harbor survivors. Regardless of experience or nationality, participants moved through wartime trauma by connecting with others, pursuing personal and global peace.

  13. Effective dose of A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki as assessed by chromosomal effectiveness of spectrum energy photons and neutrons.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M S; Endo, S; Ejima, Y; Saito, I; Okamura, K; Oka, Y; Hoshi, M

    2006-07-01

    The effective dose of combined spectrum energy neutrons and high energy spectrum gamma-rays in A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has long been a matter of discussion. The reason is largely due to the paucity of biological data for high energy photons, particularly for those with an energy of tens of MeV. To circumvent this problem, a mathematical formalism was developed for the photon energy dependency of chromosomal effectiveness by reviewing a large number of data sets published in the literature on dicentric chromosome formation in human lymphocytes. The chromosomal effectiveness was expressed by a simple multiparametric function of photon energy, which made it possible to estimate the effective dose of spectrum energy photons and differential evaluation in the field of mixed neutron and gamma-ray exposure with an internal reference radiation. The effective dose of reactor-produced spectrum energy neutrons was insensitive to the fine structure of the energy distribution and was accessible by a generalized formula applicable to the A-bomb neutrons. Energy spectra of all sources of A-bomb gamma-rays at different tissue depths were simulated by a Monte Carlo calculation applied on an ICRU sphere. Using kerma-weighted chromosomal effectiveness of A-bomb spectrum energy photons, the effective dose of A-bomb neutrons was determined, where the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons was expressed by a dose-dependent variable RBE, RBE(gamma, D (n)), against A-bomb gamma-rays as an internal reference radiation. When the newly estimated variable RBE(gamma, D (n)) was applied to the chromosome data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the city difference was completely eliminated. The revised effective dose was about 35% larger in Hiroshima, 19% larger in Nagasaki and 26% larger for the combined cohort compared with that based on a constant RBE of 10. Since the differences are significantly large, the proposed effective dose might have an

  14. Non-cancer diseases of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ju, Young-Su; Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2006-06-01

    Many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945. Our study examined noncancer diseases of Korean A-bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea and evaluated whether they had significantly higher prevalence of noncancer diseases than non-exposed people. We evaluated a number of tests, including anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood chemistry, hepatitis B surface antigen, and urinalysis, of survivors (n=223) and controls (n=372). Univariate analysis revealed significantly lower fasting glucose and creatinine, and higher diastolic blood pressure, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen levels in the survivors than in the controls. The calculation of crude prevalence ratios (PRs) revealed that A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35) and chronic liver disease (2.20; 1.59-3.06) than controls. After adjusting for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, and smoking), A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (1.24; 1.06-1.44), chronic liver disease (2.07; 1.51-2.84), and hypercholesterolemia (1.79; 1.11-2.90) than controls. This study suggests that A-bomb exposure is associated with a higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases in Korean survivors.

  15. Atomic bomb and accident dosimetry with ESR: natural rocks and human tooth in-vivo spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ikeya, M; Ishii, H

    1989-01-01

    ESR dosimetry of some construction materials at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to determine the A-bomb radiation dose. Some minerals exposed to low-level natural radiation over a given geological time period can be also used to determine the intense A-bomb radiation dose. Finally, an ESR cavity and a special NdBFe (Neomax) magnet system for in-vivo measurement of radiation dose of a human tooth without extraction is designed and manufactured.

  16. Glaucoma in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Takamatsu, Michiya; Tsuiki, Eiko; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Minamoto, Atsushi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Khattree, Ravindra; Hida, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-10-01

    Radiation has been associated with increases in noncancerous diseases. An effect of low-dose radiation on the prevalence of clinically detected glaucoma has not been previously reported. We therefore investigated the prevalence of glaucoma in A-bomb survivors and its possible association with radiation dose. A total of 1,589 people who participated in the clinical examination program for A-bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) between October 2006 and September 2008 and who had reconstructed radiation doses, were recruited into this cross-sectional screening study. The prevalence of glaucoma and its dose-response relationship to A-bomb radiation were measured. Each subject underwent an initial screening consisting of an interview and ophthalmological examination. Questionable cases with any indication of ocular disease, including glaucoma, were referred to local hospitals for more comprehensive evaluation. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on specific optic disc appearance, perimetric results and other ocular findings. Of 1,589 eligible people, we detected 284 (17.9%) cases of glaucoma overall, including 36 (2.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure levels greater than 21 mmHg, 226 (14.2%) cases of normal-tension glaucoma and 25 (1.6%) cases of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Seven glaucoma risk factors were examined as potential confounders but only two needed to be included in the final model. Binary regression using a generalized estimating equation method, with adjustment for gender, age, city, cataract surgery or diabetes mellitus, revealed an odds ratio at 1 Gy of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.53, P = 0.001) in the case of normal-tension glaucoma, but no association for other types of glaucoma. The prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma may increase with A-bomb radiation dose, but uncertainties associated with nonparticipation (59% participation) suggest caution in the interpretation of these

  17. Glaucoma in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Takamatsu, Michiya; Tsuiki, Eiko; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Minamoto, Atsushi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Khattree, Ravindra; Hida, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-10-01

    Radiation has been associated with increases in noncancerous diseases. An effect of low-dose radiation on the prevalence of clinically detected glaucoma has not been previously reported. We therefore investigated the prevalence of glaucoma in A-bomb survivors and its possible association with radiation dose. A total of 1,589 people who participated in the clinical examination program for A-bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) between October 2006 and September 2008 and who had reconstructed radiation doses, were recruited into this cross-sectional screening study. The prevalence of glaucoma and its dose-response relationship to A-bomb radiation were measured. Each subject underwent an initial screening consisting of an interview and ophthalmological examination. Questionable cases with any indication of ocular disease, including glaucoma, were referred to local hospitals for more comprehensive evaluation. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on specific optic disc appearance, perimetric results and other ocular findings. Of 1,589 eligible people, we detected 284 (17.9%) cases of glaucoma overall, including 36 (2.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure levels greater than 21 mmHg, 226 (14.2%) cases of normal-tension glaucoma and 25 (1.6%) cases of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Seven glaucoma risk factors were examined as potential confounders but only two needed to be included in the final model. Binary regression using a generalized estimating equation method, with adjustment for gender, age, city, cataract surgery or diabetes mellitus, revealed an odds ratio at 1 Gy of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.53, P = 0.001) in the case of normal-tension glaucoma, but no association for other types of glaucoma. The prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma may increase with A-bomb radiation dose, but uncertainties associated with nonparticipation (59% participation) suggest caution in the interpretation of these

  18. Long-term follow-up of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-06-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) is a follow-up study of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors to investigate the radiation effects on human health and has collected data for over 60 years. The LSS cohort consists of 93,741 A-bomb survivors and another 26,580 age and sex-matched subjects who were not in either city at the time of the bombing. Radiation doses have been computed based on individual location and shielding status at the time of the bombings. Age at death and cause of death are gathered through the Japanese national family registry system and cancer incidence data have been collected through the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer registries. Noncancer disease incidence and health information are collected through biannual medical examinations among a subset of the LSS. Radiation significantly increases the risks of death (22% at 1 Gy), cancer incidence (47% at 1 Gy), death due to leukemia (310% at 1 Gy), as well as the incidence of several noncancer diseases (e.g. thyroid nodules, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, uterine myoma, and hypertension). Significant effects on maturity (e.g. growth reduction and early menopause) were also observed. Long-term follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors have provided reliable information on health risks for the survivors and form the basis for radiation protection standards for workers and the public.

  19. HLA haplotype is associated with diabetes among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Fujiwara, Saeko; Morishita, Yukari; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakashima, Eiji; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Suzuki, Gen; Nakachi, Kei; Kyoizumi, Seishi

    2003-09-01

    We examined radiation effects on the relationship between diabetes development and genetic background in atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Our main aim in this study was to shed light on the role of genetic background in diabetes onset among A-bomb survivors by studying possible relationships between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes and the diabetes in patients and controls. We examined the effects of different HLA haplotypes on type 2 diabetes development by determining the DQA1 and DRB1 alleles of Hiroshima A-bomb survivors (111 diabetic patients and 774 controls) using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP) method. We noted an increased risk of diabetes in the higher dose group among these patients (trend p = 0.001). The risk of the most heavily exposed group was significantly higher than that of the unexposed group or the low-dose group especially in survivors with the DQA1*03-DRB1*09 or DQA1*0401-DRB1*08 haplotypes (trend p = 0.002 or p = 0.05, respectively). By contrast, in people with other haplotypes, the risk did not increase significantly with increasing dose. These results suggest that individuals with specific HLA haplotypes may have an increased risk of diabetes with increased-dose categories.

  20. Long-term follow-up of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-06-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) is a follow-up study of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors to investigate the radiation effects on human health and has collected data for over 60 years. The LSS cohort consists of 93,741 A-bomb survivors and another 26,580 age and sex-matched subjects who were not in either city at the time of the bombing. Radiation doses have been computed based on individual location and shielding status at the time of the bombings. Age at death and cause of death are gathered through the Japanese national family registry system and cancer incidence data have been collected through the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer registries. Noncancer disease incidence and health information are collected through biannual medical examinations among a subset of the LSS. Radiation significantly increases the risks of death (22% at 1 Gy), cancer incidence (47% at 1 Gy), death due to leukemia (310% at 1 Gy), as well as the incidence of several noncancer diseases (e.g. thyroid nodules, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, uterine myoma, and hypertension). Significant effects on maturity (e.g. growth reduction and early menopause) were also observed. Long-term follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors have provided reliable information on health risks for the survivors and form the basis for radiation protection standards for workers and the public. PMID:22440534

  1. Radiation-related small head sizes among prenatally exposed A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Otake, M; Schull, W J

    1993-02-01

    Of 1566 individuals prenatally exposed to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1473 had the circumference of their head measured at least once between ages 9 and 19. Among these 1473 individuals, 62 had small heads--the circumference of the heads was two standard deviations or more below the observed specific-age-at measurement mean. Of 26 cases with severe mental retardation, 15 (58%) had small heads. Most (86%) of the individuals with small heads were exposed in the first trimester (about < 12 weeks postovulation) or second trimester (about 12-24 weeks postovulation)--55% in the former period and 31% in the latter. Various dose-response relationships, with and without a threshold, have been fitted to the data grouped by the trimester or postovulatory age (weeks after ovulation) at which exposure occurred. A significant effect of radiation on the frequency of individuals with atypically small heads is observed only in the first and second trimesters and for the intervals postovulation of 0-7 weeks and 8-15 weeks. Although the risk of a small head at 0-7 weeks postovulation increases significantly with increasing dose, no increase in risk for severe mental retardation is noted in this period. No excess risk of a small head was seen in the third trimester (about > or = 25 weeks postovulation) or among individuals exposed at 16 weeks or more postovulation. The mean IQ values of mentally retarded cases with and without small heads were 63.8 and 68.9, respectively. No significant difference exists between these two IQ means, but both were significantly smaller than 96.4, the IQ value for individuals with small heads without severe mental retardation and 107.8, the value for the overall sample.

  2. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Methods Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. Results The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Conclusions Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide a

  3. T-cell immunosenescence and inflammatory response in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Yamaoka, Mika; Kubo, Yoshiko; Hayashi, Tomonori; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Douple, Evan B; Nakachi, Kei

    2010-12-01

    In this paper we summarize the long-term effects of A-bomb radiation on the T-cell system and discuss the possible involvement of attenuated T-cell immunity in the disease development observed in A-bomb survivors. Our previous observations on such effects include impaired mitogen-dependent proliferation and IL-2 production, decreases in naive T-cell populations, and increased proportions of anergic and functionally weak memory CD4 T-cell subsets. In addition, we recently found a radiation dose-dependent increase in the percentages of CD25(+)/CD127(-) regulatory T cells in the CD4 T-cell population of the survivors. All these effects of radiation on T-cell immunity resemble effects of aging on the immune system, suggesting that ionizing radiation might direct the T-cell system toward a compromised phenotype and thereby might contribute to an enhanced immunosenescence. Furthermore, there are inverse, significant associations between plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines and the relative number of naïve CD4 T cells, also suggesting that the elevated levels of inflammatory markers found in A-bomb survivors can be ascribed in part to T-cell immunosenescence. We suggest that radiation-induced T-cell immunosenescence may result in activation of inflammatory responses and may be partly involved in the development of aging-associated and inflammation-related diseases frequently observed in A-bomb survivors.

  4. Site-specific dose-response relationships for cancer induction from the combined Japanese A-bomb and Hodgkin cohorts for doses relevant to radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Most information on the dose-response of radiation-induced cancer is derived from data on the A-bomb survivors. Since, for radiation protection purposes, the dose span of main interest is between zero and one Gy, the analysis of the A-bomb survivors is usually focused on this range. However, estimates of cancer risk for doses larger than one Gy are becoming more important for radiotherapy patients. Therefore in this work, emphasis is placed on doses relevant for radiotherapy with respect to radiation induced solid cancer. Materials and methods For various organs and tissues the analysis of cancer induction was extended by an attempted combination of the linear-no-threshold model from the A-bomb survivors in the low dose range and the cancer risk data of patients receiving radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease in the high dose range. The data were fitted using organ equivalent dose (OED) calculated for a group of different dose-response models including a linear model, a model including fractionation, a bell-shaped model and a plateau-dose-response relationship. Results The quality of the applied fits shows that the linear model fits best colon, cervix and skin. All other organs are best fitted by the model including fractionation indicating that the repopulation/repair ability of tissue is neither 0 nor 100% but somewhere in between. Bone and soft tissue sarcoma were fitted well by all the models. In the low dose range beyond 1 Gy sarcoma risk is negligible. For increasing dose, sarcoma risk increases rapidly and reaches a plateau at around 30 Gy. Conclusions In this work OED for various organs was calculated for a linear, a bell-shaped, a plateau and a mixture between a bell-shaped and plateau dose-response relationship for typical treatment plans of Hodgkin's disease patients. The model parameters (α and R) were obtained by a fit of the dose-response relationships to these OED data and to the A-bomb survivors. For any three

  5. Computational dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  6. Suicide Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, David H.

    1975-01-01

    Interviews with seven of ten known survivors of jumps from the Golden Gate and San Francisco-Oakland Bay bridges showed a unique association between the Golden Gate Bridge and suicide. The study went beyond exploring the nature of suicidal jumps and shed new light on the experience of nearly dying. All the survivors described this experience as tranquil and peaceful. None of them experienced life events or distant memories passing through their minds or before their eyes. However, all of them experienced transcendence and spiritual rebirth phenomena. Suggestions for preventing suicides from the Golden Gate Bridge are discussed, including the construction of a suicide barrier. PMID:1171558

  7. Desert Survivors!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jessica; Friedenstab, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a special third-grade classroom unit based on the reality show "Survivor." The goal of this engaging and interactive unit was to teach students about physical and behavioral adaptations that help animals survive in various desert biomes. The activity combines research, argument, and puppet play over one week of…

  8. Epid Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, Peter B.; Vial, Philip

    2011-05-05

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

  9. Epid Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Peter B.; Vial, Philip

    2011-05-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

  10. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure.

  11. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  12. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  13. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-06-16

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments. (ACR)

  14. Korean atomic bomb survivors' report on the present status and health of their children: a mail questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Ju, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2006-01-01

    A mail questionnaire survey on the present status and health of children of Korean survivors of the 1945 atomic bombing of Japan was conducted in 2004. In total, 1,115 Korean A-bomb survivors' reports on demographic factors and the health of their children (n = 4,079) were analysed. In 2004, 293 of their children were reported to have died and 3,786 children still living. Among the deceased children, the cause of death was unidentified in 64 per cent of cases. The most frequently reported cause of death was infectious disease (9.6%). Most of the deaths (51%) were reported to have occurred in children less than ten years old. The most frequently reported congenital disorders among living children were mental retardation (0.18%) and congenital bone disorders (0.18%). Further study and administrative support are needed to more accurately determine the status of Korean A-bomb survivors and their children.

  15. Early mortality rate of atomic bomb survivors based on House Reconstruction Survey.

    PubMed

    Mori, H; Nakamura, T; Mine, M; Kondo, H; Okumura, Y; Hoel, D G

    1994-02-01

    This paper studies the mortality rate experienced by over 23,000 A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki between September 1945 and 1950 when the RERF-ABCC initiated the follow-up of the large LSS cohort. The study is based on the data of the 10-year House Reconstruction Survey. As expected, these data show an increasing mortality rate with increasing proximity to the hypocenter of the bomb. What was not anticipated was a higher mortality rate in the 1400-1699 m band than in the closer distance interval of 1200-1399 m. This suggests a possible selective survival among A-bomb survivors. Whether this affects the cancer risk estimates has not as yet been determined.

  16. Noncancer disease incidence in the atomic bomb survivors: 1958-1986.

    PubMed

    Wong, F L; Yamada, M; Sasaki, H; Kodama, K; Akiba, S; Shimaoka, K; Hosoda, Y

    1993-09-01

    Using the longitudinal data of the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort collected during 1958-1986, we examined for the first time the relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and the incidence of 19 nonmalignant disorders in the A-bomb survivors. Affected individuals were ascertained through the three-digit codes of the International Classification of Diseases which are encoded in the AHS database subsequent to diagnoses made on the basis of general laboratory tests, physical examinations, and history-taking conducted during biennial AHS examinations. The disease onset time was estimated using the mid-point between the AHS examination data when the disease was initially reported and the previously attended disease-free examination date. Dosimetry System 86 organ doses judged to be most appropriate were used. Tests of dose effects were performed assuming a linear relative risk model with stratified background incidence. For the entire study period, significant excess risk was detected for uterine myoma (P < 0.001), chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (P = 0.006), and thyroid disease (P < 0.0001), defined broadly as the presence of one or more of certain noncancerous thyroid conditions. The incidence of myocardial infarction was shown to be increased (P = 0.03) in later years (1968-1986) among the younger heavily exposed AHS subjects, confirming the results of the recent Life Span Study (LSS) noncancer mortality report on coronary heart disease. The findings for uterine myoma may serve as additional evidence indicating benign tumor growth as a possible consequence of radiation exposure. Our results indicating the involvement of radiation in the development of liver diseases are consistent with the report of increased mortality from liver cirrhosis with radiation dose in the LSS cohort. An effect of age at exposure was detected for nonmalignant thyroid disease (P = 0.02), with an increased risk for those exposed who were under 20 years of age, but not for older

  17. The Hiroshima thermal-neutron discrepancy for (36)Cl at large distances. Part I: New (36)Cl measurements in granite samples exposed to A-bomb neutrons.

    PubMed

    Huber, Thomas; Rühm, Werner; Kato, Kazuo; Egbert, Stephen D; Kubo, Florian; Lazarev, Vitali; Nolte, Eckehart

    2005-10-01

    The long-lived radioisotope (36)Cl (half-life: 301,000 years) was measured in granite samples exposed to A-bomb neutrons at distances from 94 to 1,591 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima, by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Measured (36)Cl/Cl ratios decrease from 1.6 x 10(-10) close to the hypocenter to about 1-2 x 10(-13), at a distance of 1,300 m from the hypocenter. At this distance and beyond the measured (36)Cl/Cl ratios do not change significantly and scatter around values of 1-2 x 10(-13). These findings suggest that the (36)Cl had been predominantly produced by thermalized neutrons from the A-bomb via neutron capture on stable (35)Cl, at distances from the hypocenter smaller than about 1,200 m. At larger distances, however, confounding processes induced by cosmic rays or neutrons from the decay of uranium and thorium become important. This hypothesis is theoretically and experimentally supported in a consecutive paper. The results are compared to calculations that are based on the most recent dosimetry system DS02. Close to the hypocenter, measured (36)Cl/Cl ratios are lower than those calculated, while they are significantly higher at large distances from the hypocenter. If the contribution of the cosmic rays and of the neutrons from the decay of uranium and thorium in the sample was subtracted, however, no significant deviation from the DS02 calculations was observed, at those distances. Thus, the Hiroshima neutron discrepancy reported in the literature for (36)Cl for samples from large distances from the hypocenter, i.e., higher measured (36)Cl/Cl ratios than predicted by the previous dosimetry system DS86, was not confirmed.

  18. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sera, Nobuko; Hida, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Also, we diagnosed subjects in the moderate and severe renal dysfunction groups as having CKD (n = 233; eGFR <59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). After adjusting for age, gender, and smoking and drinking habits, we looked for an association between renal dysfunction and hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and between renal dysfunction and A-bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P < 0.001) were associated with CKD (moderate/severe renal dysfunction), and hyperlipidemia and MetS were also associated with mild renal dysfunction. CKD (OR/Gy, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.63, P = 0.038) and severe renal dysfunction (OR/Gy, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.63-6.25, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with radiation dose. CKD associated with radiation may have played a role in the development of CVD among A-bomb survivors.

  19. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sera, Nobuko; Hida, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Also, we diagnosed subjects in the moderate and severe renal dysfunction groups as having CKD (n = 233; eGFR <59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). After adjusting for age, gender, and smoking and drinking habits, we looked for an association between renal dysfunction and hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and between renal dysfunction and A-bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P < 0.001) were associated with CKD (moderate/severe renal dysfunction), and hyperlipidemia and MetS were also associated with mild renal dysfunction. CKD (OR/Gy, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.63, P = 0.038) and severe renal dysfunction (OR/Gy, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.63-6.25, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with radiation dose. CKD associated with radiation may have played a role in the development of CVD among A-bomb survivors. PMID:23148507

  20. T cells of atomic bomb survivors respond poorly to stimulation by Staphylococcus aureus toxins in vitro: does this stem from their peripheral lymphocyte populations having a diminished naïve CD4 T-cell content?

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Yamaoka, Mika; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Koyama, Kazuaki; Kodama, Kazunori; MacPhee, Donald G; Kyoizumi, Seishi

    2002-12-01

    We found previously that the peripheral CD4 T-cell populations of heavily exposed A-bomb survivors contained fewer naïve T cells than we detected in the corresponding unexposed controls. To determine whether this demonstrable impairment of the CD4 T-cell immunity of A-bomb survivors was likely to affect the responsiveness of their immune systems to infection by common pathogens, we tested the T cells of 723 survivors for their ability to proliferate in vitro after a challenge by each of the Staphylococcus aureus toxins SEB, SEC-2, SEC-3, SEE and TSST-1. The results presented here reveal that the proliferative responses of T cells of A-bomb survivors became progressively weaker as the radiation dose increased and did so in a manner that correlated well with the decreasing CD45RA-positive (naïve) [but not CD45RA-negative (memory)] CD4 T-cell percentages that we found in their peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) populations. We also noted that the T cells of survivors with a history of myocardial infarction tended to respond poorly to several (or even all) of the S. aureus toxins, and that these same individuals had proportionally fewer CD45RA-positive (naïve) CD4 T cells in their PBL populations than we detected in survivors with no myocardial infarction in their history. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that A-bomb irradiation led to an impairment of the ability of exposed individuals to maintain their naïve T-cell pools. This may explain why A-bomb survivors tend to respond poorly to toxins encoded by the common pathogenic bacterium S. aureus.

  1. Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1985-07-01

    In 1972 committees of the United Nations and the US National Academy of Sciencs emphasized the need for organ dose estimates on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. These estimates were then supplied by workers in Japan and the US, and they were used with the so-called T65D estimates of a survivor's radiation exposure to assess risk from radiation. Recently the T65D estimates have been questioned, and programs for reassessment of atomic-bomb radiation dosimetry have been started in Japan and the US. As a part of this new effort a mathematical analogue of the human body (or ''mathematical phantom''), to be used in estimating organ doses in adult survivors, is presented here. Recommendations on organ dosimetry for juvenile survivors are also presented and discussed. 57 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. The impact of possible modifications to the DS86 dosimetry on neutron risk and relative biological effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Nezahat; Charles, Monty W

    2002-12-01

    The current DS86 dosimetry system for the Japanese bomb survivors indicates that neutron doses were so low that they prevent the direct derivation of any useful estimates of neutron risk. However, the large body of thermal neutron activation measurements carried out over many years in Hiroshima and Nagasaki appear to indicate that current DS86 neutron doses may have been significantly underestimated in Hiroshima. An earlier companion paper has provided an update of neutron activation measurements. While a large body of data appears to support a significant increase, there is ongoing debate and review regarding its validity. However, as yet, there are no detailed, peer-reviewed, published refutations of the neutron activation data which appear to support an increase in neutron doses. In this paper, we consider the impact of possible future revisions in the DS86 dosimetry on radiation risk estimates. We consider the extreme range of possibilities from maintaining the existing DS86 values, to changes in neutron doses in accord with the majority of existing neutron activation data. We have used the latest cancer incidence data and cancer mortality data for the A-bomb survivors, and neutron doses have been modified using a neutron revision factor (NRF) in line with the latest thermal neutron activation measurements in Hiroshima. In contrast to previous analyses, a nonlinear relationship between log(NRF) and slant range has been used which better represents the data beyond slant ranges of approximately 1 km. The impact on the evaluation of neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and gamma radiation risk estimates has been assessed. While DS86 neutron doses are too low to allow any useful direct evaluation of neutron risk or neutron RBE, it becomes possible to derive more meaningful values if neutron doses are increased in Hiroshima in line with the broad range of thermal neutron activation measurements. The uncertainties are smallest for the cancer incidence data

  3. STOCHASTIC CANCER MODELS: APPLICATION TO ANALYSES OF SOLID CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE COHORT OF A-BOMB SURVIVORS. (R824762)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. New dosimetry of atomic bomb radiations.

    PubMed

    Fry, R J; Sinclair, W K

    1987-10-10

    The reassessment of the radiation dosimetry from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs is almost complete. Since atomic bomb survivors provide a major source of data for estimates of risk of cancer induction by radiation the impact of the new dosimetry on risk estimates and radiation protection standards is important. The changes include an increase of about 20% in the estimated yield of the Hiroshima bomb and a reduction in the estimated doses from neutrons in both cities. The estimated neutron dose for Hiroshima is about 10% of the previous estimate. The neutron doses are now so small that direct estimates of neutron relative biological effectiveness may be precluded or be much more difficult. There is little change in most of the gamma ray organ doses because various changes in the new estimates tend to cancel each other out. The new estimate of the attenuation of the free-in-air kerma by the walls of the homes is about twice that used in the previous dosimetry. But the transmission of gamma radiation to the deep organs such as bone marrow is significantly greater than earlier estimates. Probably future risk estimates for radiogenic cancer will be somewhat higher because of both the new dosimetry and the new cancer mortality data. New risk estimates should be available in 1988.

  5. A review of forty-five years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Thyroid cancer: reports up to date and a review.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, N; Ezaki, H; Dohi, K

    1991-03-01

    Evidence to date from a number of studies, indicates that there is an increased incidence of thyroid cancer among A-bomb survivors, and that the incidence rises with increase of dose and is especially predominant in females exposed at younger ages. Although 45 years have elapsed since A-bomb exposure, there are still some questions about the development of thyroid cancer: 1) Is the incidence now decreasing? 2) What factors, other than radiation exposure, are involved? 3) What is the incidence of multiple cancer, including thyroid cancer? With these questions in mind, it is apparent that studies in this field must continue for some time to come.

  6. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B e antigen and antibody, and antigen subtypes in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Neriishi, K.; Kodama, K.; Akiba, S. |

    1995-11-01

    On the basis of previous studies showing an association between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity and radiation exposure in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, we investigated further the active state of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by incorporating tests of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe) and HBsAg subtypes into our biennial health examinations. Among 6548 A-bomb survivors for whom HBsAg was assayed between July 1979 and July 1981, 129 persons were HBsAg positive. HBeAg and anti-HBe were measured in 104 of these persons and subtypes of HBsAg in 98 persons. Among those exposed to radiation (average liver dose 0.58 Sv), the odds ratio of HBsAg positivity tended to increase with radiation dose (P for trend = 0.024). The P values for association between the prevalence of HB e antigen and radiation dose were 0.094 and 0.17, respectively. The HB antigen subtype adr was predominant over other subtypes in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but the distribution of subtypes did not seem to differ in relation to radiation dose. These results suggested that A-bomb survivors remain in active state of HBV infection and that the mechanism(s) of seroconversion may be impaired. 29 refs., 6 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Morishita, Yukari; Khattree, Ravindra; Misumi, Munechika; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Imai, Kazue; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-11-01

    Past exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation has exerted various long-lasting deleterious effects on the health of survivors. Some of these effects are seen even after >60 yr. In this study, we evaluated the subclinical inflammatory status of 442 A-bomb survivors, in terms of 8 inflammation-related cytokines or markers, comprised of plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-4, IL-10, and immunoglobulins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The effects of past radiation exposure and natural aging on these markers were individually assessed and compared. Next, to assess the biologically significant relationship between inflammation and radiation exposure or aging, which was masked by the interrelationship of those cytokines/markers, we used multivariate statistical analyses and evaluated the systemic markers of inflammation as scores being calculated by linear combinations of selected cytokines and markers. Our results indicate that a linear combination of ROS, IL-6, CRP, and ESR generated a score that was the most indicative of inflammation and revealed clear dependences on radiation dose and aging that were found to be statistically significant. The results suggest that collectively, radiation exposure, in conjunction with natural aging, may enhance the persistent inflammatory status of A-bomb survivors.

  8. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Morishita, Yukari; Khattree, Ravindra; Misumi, Munechika; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Imai, Kazue; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-11-01

    Past exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation has exerted various long-lasting deleterious effects on the health of survivors. Some of these effects are seen even after >60 yr. In this study, we evaluated the subclinical inflammatory status of 442 A-bomb survivors, in terms of 8 inflammation-related cytokines or markers, comprised of plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-4, IL-10, and immunoglobulins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The effects of past radiation exposure and natural aging on these markers were individually assessed and compared. Next, to assess the biologically significant relationship between inflammation and radiation exposure or aging, which was masked by the interrelationship of those cytokines/markers, we used multivariate statistical analyses and evaluated the systemic markers of inflammation as scores being calculated by linear combinations of selected cytokines and markers. Our results indicate that a linear combination of ROS, IL-6, CRP, and ESR generated a score that was the most indicative of inflammation and revealed clear dependences on radiation dose and aging that were found to be statistically significant. The results suggest that collectively, radiation exposure, in conjunction with natural aging, may enhance the persistent inflammatory status of A-bomb survivors. PMID:22872680

  9. Motherhood among Incest Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Tamar

    1995-01-01

    Mothers (n=26) who were incest survivors were compared with 28 mothers with no such history for 7 areas of parenting skills: role-image, objectivity, expectations, rapport, communication, limit-setting, and role-support. Significant differences were found on all seven scales, characterized by a tendency for the incest survivors to be less skillful…

  10. Pain in Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Glare, Paul A.; Davies, Pamela S.; Finlay, Esmé; Gulati, Amitabh; Lemanne, Dawn; Moryl, Natalie; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Paice, Judith A.; Stubblefield, Michael D.; Syrjala, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a common problem in cancer survivors, especially in the first few years after treatment. In the longer term, approximately 5% to 10% of survivors have chronic severe pain that interferes with functioning. The prevalence is much higher in certain subpopulations, such as breast cancer survivors. All cancer treatment modalities have the potential to cause pain. Currently, the approach to managing pain in cancer survivors is similar to that for chronic cancer-related pain, pharmacotherapy being the principal treatment modality. Although it may be appropriate to continue strong opioids in survivors with moderate to severe pain, most pain problems in cancer survivors will not require them. Moreover, because more than 40% of cancer survivors now live longer than 10 years, there is growing concern about the long-term adverse effects of opioids and the risks of misuse, abuse, and overdose in the nonpatient population. As with chronic nonmalignant pain, multimodal interventions that incorporate nonpharmacologic therapies should be part of the treatment strategy for pain in cancer survivors, prescribed with the aim of restoring functionality, not just providing comfort. For patients with complex pain issues, multidisciplinary programs should be used, if available. New or worsening pain in a cancer survivor must be evaluated to determine whether the cause is recurrent disease or a second malignancy. This article focuses on patients with a history of cancer who are beyond the acute diagnosis and treatment phase and on common treatment-related pain etiologies. The benefits and harms of the various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options for pain management in this setting are reviewed. PMID:24799477

  11. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part II: Solid tumors, 1958-1987.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D E; Mabuchi, K; Ron, E; Soda, M; Tokunaga, M; Ochikubo, S; Sugimoto, S; Ikeda, T; Terasaki, M; Izumi, S

    1994-02-01

    This report presents, for the first time, comprehensive data on the incidence of solid cancer and risk estimates for A-bomb survivors in the extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) cohort. Among 79,972 individuals, 8613 first primary solid cancers were diagnosed between 1958 and 1987. As part of the standard registration process of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, cancer cases occurring among members of the LSS-E85 cohort were identified using a computer linkage system supplemented by manual searches. Special efforts were made to ensure complete case ascertainment, data quality and data consistency in the two cities. For all sites combined, 75% of the cancers were verified histologically, 6% were diagnosed by direct observation, 8% were based on a clinical diagnosis, and 12.6% were ascertained by death certificate only. A standard set of analyses was carried out for each of the organs and organ systems considered. Depending on the cancer site, Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) organ or kerma doses were used for computing risk estimates. Analyses were based on a general excess relative risk model (the background rate times one plus the excess relative risk). Analyses carried out for each site involved fitting the background model with no dose effect, a linear dose-response model with no effect modifiers, a linear-quadratic dose-response model with no effect modifiers, and a series of linear dose-response models that included each of the covariates (sex, age at exposure, time since exposure, attained age and city) individually as effect modifiers. Because the tumor registries ascertain cancers in the registry catchment areas only, an adjustment was made for the effects of migration. In agreement with prior LSS findings, a statistically significant excess risk for all solid cancers was demonstrated [excess relative risk at 1 Sv (ERR1Sv) = 0.63; excess absolute risk (EAR) per 10(4) person-year sievert (PY Sv) = 29.7]. For cancers of the stomach (ERR1SV = 0.32), colon

  12. Use of a hybrid computer for the flight simulation of a bomb/parachute system

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Flight Simulation Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, is used primarily to study the dynamics of unguided bombs, rockets, shells, and reentry vehicles and to develop and evaluate guidance and control systems for guided vehicle concepts. This report describes the use of this laboratory for a 12 degree-of-freedom simulation of a bomb/parachute system. The simulation results are compared with data from flight tests.

  13. Pain in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew Rd; Ramirez, Juan D; Farquhar-Smith, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Cancer and its treatment exert a heavy psychological and physical toll. Of the myriad symptoms which result, pain is common, encountered in between 30% and 60% of cancer survivors. Pain in cancer survivors is a major and growing problem, impeding the recovery and rehabilitation of patients who have beaten cancer and negatively impacting on cancer patients' quality of life, work prospects and mental health. Persistent pain in cancer survivors remains challenging to treat successfully. Pain can arise both due to the underlying disease and the various treatments the patient has been subjected to. Chemotherapy causes painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), radiotherapy can produce late effect radiation toxicity and surgery may lead to the development of persistent post-surgical pain syndromes. This review explores a selection of the common causes of persistent pain in cancer survivors, detailing our current understanding of the pathophysiology and outlining both the clinical manifestations of individual pain states and the treatment options available. PMID:26516548

  14. International Reactor Dosimetry Data.

    1982-06-28

    Version 00 IRDF-82 contains 620 neutron group cross sections (SAND-II format) based on the ENDF/B-V Special Purpose Dosimetry File as well as other reaction cross sections important for dosimetry applications. In addition, multigroup spectra for ten reference benchmarks are also provided.

  15. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Arne

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. Several dosimeter systems like calorimetry, perspex, and radiochromic dye films are being improved and new systems have emerged, e.g. spectrophotometry of dichromate solution for reference and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading to traceable and reliable dosimetry are discussed.

  16. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy

    2013-06-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke-in the first-generation (F1) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11,951 F1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose-response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease.

  17. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Morishita, Yukari; Khattree, Ravindra; Misumi, Munechika; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Imai, Kazue; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Past exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation has exerted various long-lasting deleterious effects on the health of survivors. Some of these effects are seen even after >60 yr. In this study, we evaluated the subclinical inflammatory status of 442 A-bomb survivors, in terms of 8 inflammation-related cytokines or markers, comprised of plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-4, IL-10, and immunoglobulins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The effects of past radiation exposure and natural aging on these markers were individually assessed and compared. Next, to assess the biologically significant relationship between inflammation and radiation exposure or aging, which was masked by the interrelationship of those cytokines/markers, we used multivariate statistical analyses and evaluated the systemic markers of inflammation as scores being calculated by linear combinations of selected cytokines and markers. Our results indicate that a linear combination of ROS, IL-6, CRP, and ESR generated a score that was the most indicative of inflammation and revealed clear dependences on radiation dose and aging that were found to be statistically significant. The results suggest that collectively, radiation exposure, in conjunction with natural aging, may enhance the persistent inflammatory status of A-bomb survivors.—Hayashi, T., Morishita, Y., Khattree, R., Misumi, M., Sasaki, K., Hayashi, I., Yoshida, K., Kajimura, J., Kyoizumi, S., Imai, K., Kusunoki, Y., Nakachi, K. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects. PMID:22872680

  18. Choice of model and uncertainties of the gamma-ray and neutron dosimetry in relation to the chromosome aberrations data in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Walsh, L; Chomentowski, M

    2003-07-01

    Chromosome data pertaining to blood samples from 1,703 survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bombs, were utilized and different models for chromosome aberration dose response investigated. Models applied included those linear or linear-quadratic in equivalent dose. Models in which neutron and gamma doses were treated separately (LQ-L model) were also used, which included either the use of a low-dose limiting value for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons of R(0)=70+/-10 or an RBE value of R(1)=15+/-5 at 1 Gy. The use of R(1) incorporates the assumption that it is much better known than R(0), with much less associated uncertainty. In addition, error-reducing transformations were included which were found to result in a 50% reduction of the standard error associated with one of the model fit parameters which is associated with the proportion of cells with at least one aberration, at 1 Gy gamma dose. Several justifiable modifications to the DS86 doses according to recent nuclear retrospective dosimetry measurements were also investigated. Gamma-dose modifications were based on published thermoluminescence measurements of quartz samples from Hiroshima and on a tentative reduction for Nagasaki factory worker candidates by a factor of 0.6. Neutron doses in Hiroshima were modified to become consistent with recent fast neutron activation data based on copper samples. The applied dose modifications result in an increase in non-linearity of the dose-response curve for Hiroshima, and a corresponding decrease in that for Nagasaki, an effect found to be most pronounced for the LQ-L models investigated. As a result the difference in the dose-response curves observed for both cities based on DS86 doses, is somewhat reduced but cannot be entirely explained by the dose modifications applied. The extent to which the neutrons contribute to chromosome aberration induction in Hiroshima depends significantly on the model used. The LQ-L model including an R(1

  19. Musculoskeletal problems in stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Musculoskeletal problems in stoke survivors are common reasons for disability and pain. Shoulder pain is present in 24% of stroke survivors among all complications, second only to depression in 26%. Diagnosis and treatment of the various shoulder pain etiologies can significantly improve quality of life in these patients. This article reviews the common etiologies and treatments of shoulder and hip pain in stroke survivors.

  20. Thermoluminescence in medical dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Rivera, T

    2012-12-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is applied worldwide for personal and medical dosimetry. TLD method has resulted in many interesting findings in medicine as TL dosimeters have many relevant advantages such as high sensitivity, small physical size, tissue equivalence, etc. The main characteristics of various TL materials used in radiation measurements and their practical consequences are overviewed: well defined TL glow curve, batch homogeneity, signal stability after irradiation, precision and accuracy, response with dose, and influence of energy. In this paper a brief summary of the advances in the application of thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) to dosimetry in radiation therapy application is presented.

  1. The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kotz, D.

    1995-08-01

    In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to World War II. The beginning of the post-war era signaled the birth of nuclear medicine as it is widely applied today. In fact, the same nuclear reactor that produced elements for the A-bomb project was turned over for the mass production of radionuclides for medicine and industry. The link between the A-bomb and nuclear medicine, however, has always been a sensitive subject among nuclear physicians whose patients may associate radionuclide injections with mushroom clouds. Although this link is not justified, the government`s interest in developing nuclear technology following World War II did have a significant impact on nuclear medicine: on the upside, millions of federal dollars were funneled into the production of radionuclides for research and medicine. On the downside, Congress established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-which later became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-to oversee safety issues, making nuclear medicine the only medical field regulated by a federal agency.

  2. Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Aging Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is not yet known whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are compromised in the aging population of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors after their exposure nearly 70 years ago. To address this, we evaluated age- and radiation-related changes in different subtypes of circulating HSPCs among the CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34(+)Lin(-)) cell population in 231 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. We enumerated functional HSPC subtypes, including: cobblestone area-forming cells; long-term culture-initiating cells; erythroid burst-forming units; granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units; and T-cell and natural killer cell progenitors using cell culture. We obtained the count of each HSPC subtype per unit volume of blood and the proportion of each HSPC subtype in CD34(+)Lin(-) cells to represent the lineage commitment trend. Multivariate analyses, using sex, age and radiation dose as variables, showed significantly decreased counts with age in the total CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population and all HSPC subtypes. As for the proportion, only T-cell progenitors decreased significantly with age, suggesting that the commitment to the T-cell lineage in HSPCs continuously declines with age throughout the lifetime. However, neither the CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population, nor HSPC subtypes showed significant radiation-induced dose-dependent changes in counts or proportions. Moreover, the correlations of the proportions among HSPC subtypes in the survivors properly revealed the hierarchy of lineage commitments. Taken together, our findings suggest that many years after exposure to radiation and with advancing age, the number and function of HSPCs in living survivors as a whole may have recovered to normal levels.

  3. Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Aging Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F.; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A.; van den Brink, Marcel R. M.; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is not yet known whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are compromised in the aging population of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors after their exposure nearly 70 years ago. To address this, we evaluated age- and radiation-related changes in different subtypes of circulating HSPCs among the CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin− ) cell population in 231 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. We enumerated functional HSPC subtypes, including: cobblestone area-forming cells; long-term culture-initiating cells; erythroid burst-forming units; granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units; and T-cell and natural killer cell progenitors using cell culture. We obtained the count of each HSPC subtype per unit volume of blood and the proportion of each HSPC subtype in CD34+Lin− cells to represent the lineage commitment trend. Multivariate analyses, using sex, age and radiation dose as variables, showed significantly decreased counts with age in the total CD34+Lin− cell population and all HSPC subtypes. As for the proportion, only T-cell progenitors decreased significantly with age, suggesting that the commitment to the T-cell lineage in HSPCs continuously declines with age throughout the lifetime. However, neither the CD34+Lin− cell population, nor HSPC subtypes showed significant radiation-induced dose-dependent changes in counts or proportions. Moreover, the correlations of the proportions among HSPC subtypes in the survivors properly revealed the hierarchy of lineage commitments. Taken together, our findings suggest that many years after exposure to radiation and with advancing age, the number and function of HSPCs in living survivors as a whole may have recovered to normal levels. PMID:26720799

  4. Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Aging Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is not yet known whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are compromised in the aging population of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors after their exposure nearly 70 years ago. To address this, we evaluated age- and radiation-related changes in different subtypes of circulating HSPCs among the CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34(+)Lin(-)) cell population in 231 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. We enumerated functional HSPC subtypes, including: cobblestone area-forming cells; long-term culture-initiating cells; erythroid burst-forming units; granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units; and T-cell and natural killer cell progenitors using cell culture. We obtained the count of each HSPC subtype per unit volume of blood and the proportion of each HSPC subtype in CD34(+)Lin(-) cells to represent the lineage commitment trend. Multivariate analyses, using sex, age and radiation dose as variables, showed significantly decreased counts with age in the total CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population and all HSPC subtypes. As for the proportion, only T-cell progenitors decreased significantly with age, suggesting that the commitment to the T-cell lineage in HSPCs continuously declines with age throughout the lifetime. However, neither the CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population, nor HSPC subtypes showed significant radiation-induced dose-dependent changes in counts or proportions. Moreover, the correlations of the proportions among HSPC subtypes in the survivors properly revealed the hierarchy of lineage commitments. Taken together, our findings suggest that many years after exposure to radiation and with advancing age, the number and function of HSPCs in living survivors as a whole may have recovered to normal levels. PMID:26720799

  5. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeever, Stephen W. S.

    2001-09-01

    Models and the conceptual framework necessary for an understanding of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are described. Examples of various OSL readout schemes are described, along with examples of the use of OSL in radiation dosimetry.

  6. Children of Holocaust Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Shirley Ann

    As a result of the Holocaust, many survivors developed long term psychosocial impairment known as the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by depression, anxiety, hypocondriasis, inability to concentrate or to express anger, nightmares, insomnia, obsessive thoughts, guilt, mistrust, and alienation. The literature in this…

  7. AMS applied to Hiroshima and Chernobyl dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Marchetti, A.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    Two projects employing AMS are summarized and updated. One project employs AMS to measure {sup 36}Cl in concrete and other mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki to help reconstruct neutron fluences received by the atom-bomb survivors. In this project, we have demonstrated a large discrepancy between the neutron activation measured in Hiroshima and predictions based on the current dosimetry system. This discrepancy has practical implications for radiation risk assessment and radiation protection standards. The other project employs AMS to measure {sup 129}I in soil and other environmental samples from Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. This is a proof-of-principle study to determine if the long lived {sup 129}I isotope (half life, 16 x 10{sup 6} y) measured by AMS can be used to reconstruct deposition of the short lived {sup 131}I isotope from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident. This is required because {sup 131}I disappeared before adequate measurements could be made.

  8. Accounting for neutron exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Harry M; Pierce, Donald A; Kellerer, Albrecht M

    2014-12-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivors that were directly exposed to both γ rays and neutrons have been followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The estimation of the γ-ray risks requires some adjustment for the greater biological effect of the neutrons per unit dose. Because the small neutron doses and the predominant γ-ray doses are highly correlated, the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) cannot be reliably estimated from the survivors' data and information from radiobiology must be invoked. As data became available on neutron doses, RERF has used a constant neutron RBE value of 10, even though radiobiological studies indicate that the RBE values appear to have considerably larger values at low doses. The approximation RBE = 10 assumes that if the RBE is variable it takes roughly this value in the range of total dose most relevant for linear risk estimation, namely about 1 Gy. We consider some possible RBE functions to explain the correct use and the impact of a dose-dependent RBE. However, we do not advocate any particular choice or even that a variable RBE be employed. Rather we show that the assumed neutron RBE, within a wide range of choices, is far less important to the outcome of risk assessment of the RERF data than generally believed. Some of these misperceptions have been related to the consideration of variable RBE functions, and without due attention to the fact that in the case of the A-bomb survivors' data, the mixed field of neutrons and γ rays must be considered. Therefore, the RBE value of neutrons is much lower than the RBE in pure neutron fields that are used in radiobiological experiments. Thus, applying the pure neutron field RBE to the mixed-field A-bomb radiation can lead to an overestimation of the actual neutron RBE for moderate total dose levels of 1 Gy by a factor of more than four. While in a pure neutron exposure the RBE depends on the neutron dose, in the mixed field it depends on both components of

  9. Accounting for neutron exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Harry M; Pierce, Donald A; Kellerer, Albrecht M

    2014-12-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivors that were directly exposed to both γ rays and neutrons have been followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The estimation of the γ-ray risks requires some adjustment for the greater biological effect of the neutrons per unit dose. Because the small neutron doses and the predominant γ-ray doses are highly correlated, the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) cannot be reliably estimated from the survivors' data and information from radiobiology must be invoked. As data became available on neutron doses, RERF has used a constant neutron RBE value of 10, even though radiobiological studies indicate that the RBE values appear to have considerably larger values at low doses. The approximation RBE = 10 assumes that if the RBE is variable it takes roughly this value in the range of total dose most relevant for linear risk estimation, namely about 1 Gy. We consider some possible RBE functions to explain the correct use and the impact of a dose-dependent RBE. However, we do not advocate any particular choice or even that a variable RBE be employed. Rather we show that the assumed neutron RBE, within a wide range of choices, is far less important to the outcome of risk assessment of the RERF data than generally believed. Some of these misperceptions have been related to the consideration of variable RBE functions, and without due attention to the fact that in the case of the A-bomb survivors' data, the mixed field of neutrons and γ rays must be considered. Therefore, the RBE value of neutrons is much lower than the RBE in pure neutron fields that are used in radiobiological experiments. Thus, applying the pure neutron field RBE to the mixed-field A-bomb radiation can lead to an overestimation of the actual neutron RBE for moderate total dose levels of 1 Gy by a factor of more than four. While in a pure neutron exposure the RBE depends on the neutron dose, in the mixed field it depends on both components of

  10. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin-) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure.

  11. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin-) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure. PMID:27169377

  12. Aircraft accident survivors as witnesses.

    PubMed

    Dodge, R E

    1983-02-01

    This is a study of the reliability of aircrash survivors as witnesses. Some of their statements are compared to known facts at the time of the crash, including the time of the accident and the weather conditions. Other facts are compared between the survivors, such as the mood of the passengers immediately post-crash. The KLM-Pan Am accident in the Canary Islands is used as the study accident. A suggestion for future use of survivors' statements is tendered.

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeever, Stephen W.

    1999-02-01

    Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimetry is attractive to the health physics and dosimetry community due to its all-optical character, fast data acquisition and the avoidance of heating the detector. Until recently there was no luminescent material sensitive enough to radiation, and at the same time suitable for stimulation with visible light, for use in this application. However, anion-deficient aluminum oxide doped with carbon (Al2O3:C) appears to be not only an extremely sensitive thermoluminescence (TL) material, but is also well-suited to OSL applications. Several OSL readout protocols have been suggested, including cw-OSL, pulsed OSL (POSL), and 'delayed' OSL (DOSL). The paper discusses the physical mechanisms that give rise to the OSL signals and the dependence of these signals upon absorbed dose. Example applications of the use of OSL from Al2O3:C in environmental radiation and ultraviolet-B dosimetry are discussed.

  14. Dosimetry with diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Marino, C.; Silvestri, F.; Lavagno, A.; Truc, F.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the dosimetry analysis in terms of stability and repeatability of the signal and dose rate dependence of a synthetic single crystal diamond grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. The measurements carried out by 5 MeV X-ray photons beam show very promising results, even if the dose rate detector response points out that the charge trapping centers distribution is not uniform inside the crystal volume. This handicap that affects the detectors performances, must be ascribed to the growing process. Synthetic single crystal diamonds could be a valuable alternative to air ionization chambers for quality beam control and for intensity modulated radiation therapy beams dosimetry.

  15. Radiation May Indirectly Impair Growth Resulting in Reduced Standing Height via Subclinical Inflammation in Atomic-Bomb Survivors Exposed at Young Ages

    DOE PAGES

    Nakashima, Eiji; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hsu, Wan-Ling

    2015-01-01

    For youngmore » atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, A-bomb radiation’s (total) effect on standing height is thought to comprise the sum of direct effect and indirect effect via inflammation. With the data of five inflammatory markers—white blood cell count, sialic acid, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), α 1 globulin, and α 2 globulin—obtained in adulthood during the period 1988 to 1992, a summary inflammatory index was constructed as a surrogate for the five subclinical inflammatory markers. For 3,327 A-bomb survivors exposed at ages of less than 25 years, a structural equation model was analyzed to measure direct radiation effects on adult height as well as mediating effect of radiation via inflammation on the height after adjustment for other risk factors, smoking, cancer, inflammatory disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The mediation proportion of the radiation effect on height via inflammation was approximately 5% for both sexes for all ages, and indirect dose effects via inflammation were statistically significant for both sexes combined and for females exposed at ages 0 to 5 years. Indirect dose effects for all ages via sialic acid, corrected ESR, and α 2 globulin were marginally significant for both sexes combined and for females. These proportions are likely underestimated.« less

  16. Caring for Trauma Survivors.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Although trauma exposure is common, few people develop acute and chronic psychiatric disorders. Those who develop posttraumatic stress disorder likely have coexisting psychiatric and physical disorders. Psychiatric nurses must be knowledgeable about trauma responses, implement evidence-based approaches to conduct assessments, and create safe environments for patients. Most researchers assert that trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral approaches demonstrate the most efficacious treatment outcomes. Integrated approaches, offer promising treatment options. This article provides an overview of clinical factors necessary to help the trauma survivor begin the process of healing and recovery and attain an optimal level of functioning. PMID:27229285

  17. Dosimetry in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Dance, David R; McLean, Donald; Kramer, Hans-Michael

    2010-10-01

    Dosimetry is an area of increasing importance in diagnostic radiology. There is a realisation amongst health professionals that the radiation dose received by patients from modern X-ray examinations and procedures can be at a level of significance for the induction of cancer across a population, and in some unfortunate instances, in the acute damage to particular body organs such as skin and eyes. The formulation and measurement procedures for diagnostic radiology dosimetry have recently been standardised through an international code of practice which describes the methodologies necessary to address the diverging imaging modalities used in diagnostic radiology. Common to all dosimetry methodologies is the measurement of the air kerma from the X-ray device under defined conditions. To ensure the accuracy of the dosimetric determination, such measurements need to be made with appropriate instrumentation that has a calibration that is traceable to a standards laboratory. Dosimetric methods are used in radiology departments for a variety of purposes including the determination of patient dose levels to allow examinations to be optimized and to assist in decisions on the justification of examination choices. Patient dosimetry is important for special cases such as for X-ray examinations of children and pregnant patients. It is also a key component of the quality control of X-ray equipment and procedures. PMID:20655679

  18. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  19. The DS86 neutron dosimetry enigma: Some missing pieces to the puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.

    1994-12-31

    International programs have been conducted over the last four decades to quantify the exposure of atom bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Unfortunately, the quest for accurate gamma-ray and neutron exposure doses of atom bomb survivors has proven illusive. Efforts in the most recent of these programs, designated as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), have revealed a serious and persistent discrepancy between neutron transport calculations and thermal neutron activation measurements at the Hiroshima site, which will be called the DS86 neutron dosimetry enigma. It is established that this enigma is a complex puzzle that precludes simple solutions. This conclusion is deduced through the identification of a number of missing pieces to the puzzle. Implications and conclusions that can be inferred from these missing puzzle pieces are advanced.

  20. Survivors of the Nazi Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodoff, Paul

    1981-01-01

    Presents psychiatric evidence regarding immediate and long-term effects of concentration camp internment. Many survivors exhibit a concentration camp syndrome which somewhat resembles combat stress reaction; adaptive behavior of survivors is viewed as less important than luck. Language is considered inadequate to describe the psychological impact…

  1. Atomic bomb survivor data: utilization and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, R.L.; Thompson, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    There were several motivations for organizing the SIMS Conference reported in this monograph. Risk assessment and its methods have been subjects of several SIMS Conferences in the recent past, and focusing these newer, more powerful methods on the largest human experience of exposure to ionizing radiation seemed an appropriate sequel. There was also the conviction that the data resources of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), generated through the mortality and medical follow-up of large samples of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, were being under utilized, and that a conference and its proceedings would create interest in exploiting this resource. The time seemed ripe for gathering a small group of current RERF scientists, veteran US statisticians and epidemiologists, and others with more recent entry into the field of radiation biology to consider long range plans for maximizing the output of information not only on the long term effects of ionizing radiation on man but on new knowledge of the determinants of health and disease that can be learned by study of the records of this cohort. This seemed particularly appropriate at this time while intensive joint Japanese-US efforts are underway to provide a new, more accurate dosimetry for use in these studies. Finally, there was a hope that an ad hoc forum of this type would provide not only a summary of current statistical and epidemiologic activities at RERF, but a useful critique of their scope and quality.

  2. Dosimetry for Radiopharmaceutical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Hobbs, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT) involves the use of radionuclides that are either conjugated to tumor-targeting agents (eg, nanoscale constructs, antibodies, peptides, and small molecules) or concentrated in tissue through natural physiological mechanisms that occur predominantly in neoplastic or otherwise targeted cells (eg, Graves disease). The ability to collect pharmacokinetic data by imaging and use this to perform dosimetry calculations for treatment planning distinguishes RPT from other systemic treatment modalities. Treatment planning has not been widely adopted, in part, because early attempts to relate dosimetry to outcome were not successful. This was partially because a dosimetry methodology appropriate to risk evaluation rather than efficacy and toxicity was being applied to RPT. The weakest links in both diagnostic and therapeutic dosimetry are the accuracy of the input and the reliability of the radiobiological models used to convert dosimetric data to the relevant biologic end points. Dosimetry for RPT places a greater demand on both of these weak links. To date, most dosimetric studies have been retrospective, with a focus on tumor dose-response correlations rather than prospective treatment planning. In this regard, transarterial radioembolization also known as intra-arterial radiation therapy, which uses radiolabeled (90Y) microspheres of glass or resin to treat lesions in the liver holds much promise for more widespread dosimetric treatment planning. The recent interest in RPT with alpha-particle emitters has highlighted the need to adopt a dosimetry methodology that specifically accounts for the unique aspects of alpha particles. The short range of alpha-particle emitters means that in cases in which the distribution of activity is localized to specific functional components or cell types of an organ, the absorbed dose will be equally localized and dosimetric calculations on the scale of organs or even voxels (~5 mm) are no longer sufficient

  3. In vivo dosimetry for IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Vial, Philip

    2011-05-05

    In vivo dosimetry has a well established role in the quality assurance of 2D radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy. The role of in vivo dosimetry for IMRT is not as well established. IMRT introduces a range of technical issues that complicate in vivo dosimetry. The first decade or so of IMRT implementation has largely relied upon pre-treatment phantom based dose verification. During that time, several new devices and techniques for in vivo dosimetry have emerged with the promise of providing the ultimate form of IMRT dose verification. Solid state dosimeters continue to dominate the field of in vivo dosimetry in the IMRT era. In this report we review the literature on in vivo dosimetry for IMRT, with an emphasis on clinical evidence for different detector types. We describe the pros and cons of different detectors and techniques in the IMRT setting and the roles that they are likely to play in the future.

  4. In vivo dosimetry for IMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, Philip

    2011-05-01

    In vivo dosimetry has a well established role in the quality assurance of 2D radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy. The role of in vivo dosimetry for IMRT is not as well established. IMRT introduces a range of technical issues that complicate in vivo dosimetry. The first decade or so of IMRT implementation has largely relied upon pre-treatment phantom based dose verification. During that time, several new devices and techniques for in vivo dosimetry have emerged with the promise of providing the ultimate form of IMRT dose verification. Solid state dosimeters continue to dominate the field of in vivo dosimetry in the IMRT era. In this report we review the literature on in vivo dosimetry for IMRT, with an emphasis on clinical evidence for different detector types. We describe the pros and cons of different detectors and techniques in the IMRT setting and the roles that they are likely to play in the future.

  5. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  6. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Retrospective Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Romanyukha, Alex; Trompier, Francois

    2011-05-05

    Necessity for, principles of, and general concepts of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) retrospective dosimetry are presented. Also presented and given in details are examples of EPR retrospective dosimetry applications in tooth enamel, bone, and fingernails with focus on general approaches for solving technical and methodological problems. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible future developments are discussed and an extensive bibliography on EPR retrospective dosimetry is provided.

  7. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR.

  8. Conversations with Holocaust survivor residents.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun

    2011-03-01

    Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences.

  9. Quantitative imaging for clinical dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardiès, Manuel; Flux, Glenn; Lassmann, Michael; Monsieurs, Myriam; Savolainen, Sauli; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2006-12-01

    Patient-specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine is now a legal requirement in many countries throughout the EU for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) applications. In order to achieve that goal, an increased level of accuracy in dosimetry procedures is needed. Current research in nuclear medicine dosimetry should not only aim at developing new methods to assess the delivered radiation absorbed dose at the patient level, but also to ensure that the proposed methods can be put into practice in a sufficient number of institutions. A unified dosimetry methodology is required for making clinical outcome comparisons possible.

  10. Delayed effects of low-dose radiation on cellular immunity in atomic bomb survivors residing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bloom, E T; Akiyama, M; Kusunoki, Y; Makinodan, T

    1987-05-01

    Several parameters of cellular immune function were assessed among persons who survived the 1945 atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki but who now reside in the United States. The subjects in this study were exposed to various low doses (T65D) of radiation at the time of the bomb. More than half received an estimated 0 Gy (S0 group). Of those exposed to more radiation (S+ group), nearly 90% received less than 0.50 Gy (50 rad). Lymphocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of these individuals and were assessed for the following parameters of cellular immunity: mitogenic response to phytohemagglutinin, mitogenic response to allogeneic lymphocytes, natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity (NCMC), and interferon production. In every case, the response of the S+ group was greater than that of the S0 group, although only the difference for NCMC was statistically significant. Results of studies presently being performed on A-bomb survivors residing in Hiroshima do not confirm this difference. Therefore, it is difficult to say whether the increase in natural cytotoxicity observed among the American and not the Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to very low doses of radiation is a hormetic effect which was modulated by post-radiation environmental conditions or a result of selective migration.

  11. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, significantly increased with increasing radiation dose. The CD14-911A/A genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for all CRC and distal CRC compared with the other two genotypes. In addition, the IL18-137 G/G genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for proximal colon cancer compared with the other two genotypes. In phenotype-genotype analyses, the CD14-911A/A genotype presented significantly higher levels of membrane and soluble CD14 compared with the other two genotypes, and the IL18-137 G/G genotype tended to be lower levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-18 compared with the other two genotypes. These results suggest the potential involvement of a CD14-mediated inflammatory response in the development of distal CRC and an IL18-mediated inflammatory response in the development of proximal colon cancer among A-bomb survivors.

  12. Neutron spectrum and yield of the Hiroshima A-bomb deduced from radionuclide measurements at one location.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Kato, K; Korschinek, G; Morinaga, H; Nolte, E

    1995-07-01

    In this paper measurements of the radionuclides of 36Cl, 41Ca, 60Co, 152Eu and 154Eu in samples from Hiroshima, which were exposed to neutrons of the A-bomb explosion, are interpreted. In order to calculate the neutron spectrum at the sample site, neutron transport calculations using Monte Carlo techniques were carried out. Activation profiles in a granite mock-up irradiated with reactor neutrons could be reproduced by this method using DS86 input parameters. The calculated neutron spectrum at the sample site for non-thermal neutrons is identical to that obtained in DS86, but contains some 50% more thermal neutrons. The influence of parameters like soil composition, source terms and air humidity on the activation of these radioisotopes is discussed. The granite-covered earth at the sample site, for example, hardens the spectrum in comparison with DS86 values. Even when using a fission spectrum pointing downward and neglecting air humidity one cannot explain our 36Cl measurements. If the effective thermal neutron fluences, that have a similar ratio of resonance integral to thermal neutron capture cross sections obtained from 36Cl, 41Ca and 152Eu, are averaged, a bomb yield of about 16 kt is deduced in agreement with a bomb yield of (15 +/- 3) kt estimated in DS86.

  13. Estimation of radiation doses for atomic-bomb survivors in the Hiroshima University Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, M.; Matsuura, M.; Hayakawa, N.; Kamada, N.; Ito, C.

    1996-05-01

    The present study presents the Hiroshima University Registry of atomic bomb survivors, of which the total number is about 270,000, and application of absorbed doses. From this registry, we picked up 49,102 survivors and applied organ doses based on the dosimetry system 1986 (DS86), which is named the Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose (ABS93D). The applied dose data are based on the tables listed in the DS86 final report such as the free-in-air kermas, the house shielding factors, and organ dose factors for the active bone marrow and the breast. Calculations for the 13 other organs provided in DS86 are possible. To obtained the organ doses for each survivor, it is necessary to obtain information concerning (1) place exposed, (2) whether they were shielded or not, and (3) age. ABS93D body transmission factors for active bone marrow for neutrons and gamma rays agreed with DS 86 to within a few percent. Of the survivors studied, 35, 123 of them were used for the relative risk estimation of leukemia mortality, adopting the same method as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) for comparison. For the observation period from 1968 to 1989, the analyzed relative risks for leukemia mortality at 1 Gy by shielded kerm and by active bone marrow dose are 2.01 and 2.37, respectively, which are consistent with the RERF results. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Salivary gland tumors in atomic bomb survivors, hiroshima, japan. II. Pathologic study and supplementary epidemiologic observations.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, N; Hirose, F; Yamamoto, H; Ezaki, H; Fujikura, T

    1983-07-15

    A pathological investigation was undertaken in Hiroshima on cases seen between 1945 and 1971 to determine the relationship between salivary gland tumors and exposure to atomic (A) bomb radiation. Of the 208 cases of histologically confirmed salivary gland tumors, 62 were A-bomb survivors and 146 were nonexposed. The relative risk based on the rate in the nonexposed for malignant tumors of salivary glands among the exposed in Hiroshima Prefecture was 11.0, while that of the submaxillary gland was 13.8 and that of the parotid gland was 9.8. They were all highly significant by X2 test (P less than 0.001). The latent period of malignant salivary gland tumors was shorter in the exposed than in the nonexposed. Four cases of benign salivary gland tumor, all being benign mixed tumors of the parotid gland, were observed in children whose parents had been exposed. The incidence of mixed tumors of the salivary gland among the exposed in Hiroshima City was 2.0 times higher than that among the nonexposed and showed a tendency to increase with proximity to the hypocenter (P less than 0.01).

  15. Radiation-related risks of non-cancer outcomes in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Takahashi, I; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Risks of non-cancer outcomes after exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation have been evaluated among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort and its subcohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS). Information regarding non-cancer outcomes in the LSS is obtained from death certificates. In the AHS, members undergo clinical examinations biennially to determine their health status. Many AHS studies have been limited to participants attending the clinic over a limited period, and therefore have varying degrees of inferential utility; as such, care is required for comparison with the LSS results. Disease structure of non-cancer diseases in Japan has changed over the long follow-up period since the end of World War II. The health status of the A-bomb survivors may be associated with the hardships of living in a devastated city and impoverished country following the prolonged war effort, in addition to the direct effects of radiation exposure. Radiation-related risk of cardiovascular disease may have increased due to radiation-related increased risk of hypertension and other secondary associations, and the risk of atherosclerotic disorders has also been reported recently. These results should be interpreted with caution because of changes in disease definitions over the follow-up period. The radiation-related risk of non-cancer respiratory diseases also appears to have increased over the follow-up period, but the shapes of the dose-response curves have shown little consistency.

  16. Radiation-related risks of non-cancer outcomes in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Takahashi, I; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Risks of non-cancer outcomes after exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation have been evaluated among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort and its subcohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS). Information regarding non-cancer outcomes in the LSS is obtained from death certificates. In the AHS, members undergo clinical examinations biennially to determine their health status. Many AHS studies have been limited to participants attending the clinic over a limited period, and therefore have varying degrees of inferential utility; as such, care is required for comparison with the LSS results. Disease structure of non-cancer diseases in Japan has changed over the long follow-up period since the end of World War II. The health status of the A-bomb survivors may be associated with the hardships of living in a devastated city and impoverished country following the prolonged war effort, in addition to the direct effects of radiation exposure. Radiation-related risk of cardiovascular disease may have increased due to radiation-related increased risk of hypertension and other secondary associations, and the risk of atherosclerotic disorders has also been reported recently. These results should be interpreted with caution because of changes in disease definitions over the follow-up period. The radiation-related risk of non-cancer respiratory diseases also appears to have increased over the follow-up period, but the shapes of the dose-response curves have shown little consistency. PMID:26956675

  17. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    1994-01-19

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-90) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation. It also contains selected recommended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. This library supersedes all earlier versions of IRDF.

  18. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  19. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL,; MOMENI, H.

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for application to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.

  20. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for applicationmore » to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.« less

  1. Fast neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  2. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  3. Somatic cell mutations at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes of atomic bomb survivors: Implications for radiation carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Tanabe, Kazumi; Hirai, Yuko; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Umeki, Shigeko

    1996-07-01

    To clarify the relationship between somatic cell mutations and radiation exposure, the frequency of hemizygous mutant erythrocytes at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus was measured by flow cytometry for 1,226 heterozygous atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in HIroshima and Nagasaki. For statistical analysis, both GPA mutant frequency and radiation dose were log-transformed to normalize skewed distributions of these variables. The GPA mutant frequency increased slightly but significantly with age at testing and with the number of cigarettes smoked. Also, mutant frequency was significantly higher in males than in females even with adjustment for smoking and was higher to Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. These characteristics of background GPA mutant frequency are qualitatively similar to those of background solid cancer incidence or mortality obtained from previous epidemiological studies of survivors. An analysis of the mutant frequency dose response using a descriptive model showed that the doubling dose is about 1.20 Sv [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-1.56], whereas the minimum dose for detecting a significant increase in mutant frequency is about 0.24 Sv (95% CI: 0.041-0.51). No significant effects of sex, city or age at the time of exposure on the dose response were detected. Interestingly, the doubling dose of the GPA mutant frequency was similar to that of solid cancer incidence in A-bomb survivors. This observation is in line with the hypothesis that radiation-induced somatic cell mutations are the major cause of excess cancer risk after radiation. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. 32 CFR 716.4 - Eligible survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., should not be made. (c) Death of survivor prior to receipt of gratuity. (1) If a survivor dies before... by a member, pursuant to paragraph (a)(3) of this section, to receive death gratuity payment...

  5. Frailty in childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Ness, Kirsten K; Armstrong, Gregory T; Kundu, Mondira; Wilson, Carmen L; Tchkonia, Tamara; Kirkland, James L

    2015-05-15

    Young adult childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of frailty, a physiologic phenotype typically found among older adults. This phenotype is associated with new-onset chronic health conditions and mortality among both older adults and childhood cancer survivors. Mounting evidence suggests that poor fitness, muscular weakness, and cognitive decline are common among adults treated for childhood malignancies, and that risk factors for these outcomes are not limited to those treated with cranial radiation. Although the pathobiology of this phenotype is not known, early cellular senescence, sterile inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction in response to initial cancer or treatment-related insults are hypothesized to play a role. To the authors' knowledge, interventions to prevent or remediate frailty among childhood cancer survivors have not been tested to date. Pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and lifestyle interventions have demonstrated some promise.

  6. Primary blast injury after a bomb explosion in a civilian bus.

    PubMed

    Katz, E; Ofek, B; Adler, J; Abramowitz, H B; Krausz, M M

    1989-04-01

    A 6-kg explosive charge detonated under a seat in the center of a crowded city bus in Jerusalem, killing three passengers immediately. Of the 55 survivors, all of whom were transferred to two major medical centers, 29 were hospitalized. Among those admitted, a high rate of primary blast injuries was found, including perforated ear drums (76%), blast lung (38%), and abdominal blast injuries (14%). Two of the latter patients suffered bowel perforations, which were diagnosed with considerable delay. Eight patients (31%) had sustained life-threatening trauma, consisting of a combination of primary, secondary, and tertiary blast injuries. The overall mortality rate was 10.3%. The large number of primary blast injuries, including the unexpected finding of bowel perforations, is explained by the high amplitude of the air pressure wave (3.8-5.2 atm) and its relatively long duration (2-3 msec) resulting from the detonation of the high-energy explosive charge in the small, enclosed space of the bus. Besides the usual wounds sustained by victims of an explosion that occurs in a confined space, the possibility of primary blast injury to the abdomen and to the lungs should be taken into account by the treating surgeon.

  7. Primary blast injury after a bomb explosion in a civilian bus.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, E; Ofek, B; Adler, J; Abramowitz, H B; Krausz, M M

    1989-01-01

    A 6-kg explosive charge detonated under a seat in the center of a crowded city bus in Jerusalem, killing three passengers immediately. Of the 55 survivors, all of whom were transferred to two major medical centers, 29 were hospitalized. Among those admitted, a high rate of primary blast injuries was found, including perforated ear drums (76%), blast lung (38%), and abdominal blast injuries (14%). Two of the latter patients suffered bowel perforations, which were diagnosed with considerable delay. Eight patients (31%) had sustained life-threatening trauma, consisting of a combination of primary, secondary, and tertiary blast injuries. The overall mortality rate was 10.3%. The large number of primary blast injuries, including the unexpected finding of bowel perforations, is explained by the high amplitude of the air pressure wave (3.8-5.2 atm) and its relatively long duration (2-3 msec) resulting from the detonation of the high-energy explosive charge in the small, enclosed space of the bus. Besides the usual wounds sustained by victims of an explosion that occurs in a confined space, the possibility of primary blast injury to the abdomen and to the lungs should be taken into account by the treating surgeon. Images Fig. 5. PMID:2930293

  8. 5 CFR 850.202 - Survivor elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Survivor elections. 850.202 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.202 Survivor elections. (a) A survivor election under subsection (j) or (k) of section 8339, or under section 8416,...

  9. 5 CFR 850.202 - Survivor elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Survivor elections. 850.202 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.202 Survivor elections. (a) A survivor election under subsection (j) or (k) of section 8339, or under section 8416,...

  10. 5 CFR 850.202 - Survivor elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Survivor elections. 850.202 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.202 Survivor elections. (a) A survivor election under subsection (j) or (k) of section 8339, or under section 8416,...

  11. 5 CFR 850.202 - Survivor elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Survivor elections. 850.202 Section 850... (CONTINUED) ELECTRONIC RETIREMENT PROCESSING Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.202 Survivor elections. A survivor election under subsection (j) or (k) of section 8339, or under section 8416, 8417,...

  12. 5 CFR 850.202 - Survivor elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Survivor elections. 850.202 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.202 Survivor elections. (a) A survivor election under subsection (j) or (k) of section 8339, or under section 8416,...

  13. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  14. Organ dose conversions from ESR measurements using tooth enamel of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru

    2012-03-01

    Dose conversions were studied for dosimetry of atomic bomb survivors based upon electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of tooth enamel. Previously analysed data had clarified that the tooth enamel dose could be much larger than other organ doses from a low-energy photon exposure. The radiation doses to other organs or whole-body doses, however, are assumed to be near the tooth enamel dose for photon energies which are dominant in the leakage spectrum of the Hiroshima atomic bomb assumed in DS02. In addition, the thyroid can be a candidate for a surrogate organ in cases where the tooth enamel dose is not available in organ dosimetry. This paper also suggests the application of new Japanese voxel phantoms to derive tooth enamel doses by numerical analyses.

  15. Organ dose conversions from ESR measurements using tooth enamel of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru

    2012-03-01

    Dose conversions were studied for dosimetry of atomic bomb survivors based upon electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of tooth enamel. Previously analysed data had clarified that the tooth enamel dose could be much larger than other organ doses from a low-energy photon exposure. The radiation doses to other organs or whole-body doses, however, are assumed to be near the tooth enamel dose for photon energies which are dominant in the leakage spectrum of the Hiroshima atomic bomb assumed in DS02. In addition, the thyroid can be a candidate for a surrogate organ in cases where the tooth enamel dose is not available in organ dosimetry. This paper also suggests the application of new Japanese voxel phantoms to derive tooth enamel doses by numerical analyses. PMID:22128360

  16. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  17. Radioembolization Dosimetry: The Road Ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, Maarten L. J. Elschot, Mattijs; Sze, Daniel Y.; Kao, Yung H.; Nijsen, Johannes F. W.; Iagaru, Andre H.; Jong, Hugo W. A. M. de; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Lam, Marnix G. E. H.

    2015-04-15

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the optimization of the results of RE. The heterogeneous and often clustered intrahepatic biodistribution of millions of point-source radioactive particles poses a challenge for dosimetry. Several studies found a relationship between absorbed doses and treatment outcome, with regard to both toxicity and efficacy. This should ultimately lead to improved patient selection and individualized treatment planning. New calculation methods and imaging techniques and a new generation of microspheres for image-guided RE will all contribute to these improvements. The aim of this review is to give insight into the latest and most important developments in RE dosimetry and to suggest future directions on patient selection, individualized treatment planning, and study designs.

  18. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-01

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  19. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-05

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  20. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  1. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    2008-08-07

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-2002) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. It also contains selected recom�mended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. Two related programs available from NEADB and RSICC are: SPECTER-ANL (PSR-263) & STAY’SL (PSR-113).

  2. Fifth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.E.; Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.

    1992-05-01

    This meeting was held to exchange information on how to get better estimates of the radiation absorbed dose. There seems to be a high interest of late in patient dosimetry; discussions were held in the light of revised risk estimates for radiation. Topics included: Strategies of Dose Assessment; Dose Estimation for Radioimmunotherapy; Dose Calculation Techniques and Models; Dose Estimation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET); Kinetics for Dose Estimation; and Small Scale Dosimetry and Microdosimetry. (VC)

  3. Laser heated thermoluminescence dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, B.L.; Huston, A.L.

    1996-06-01

    We report a novel laser-heated thermoluminescence dosimeter that is radically different from previous laser-heated dosimeters. The dosimeter is a semiconductor and metal ion doped silica glass that has excellent optical transparency. The high optical quality of the glass essentially eliminates laser power loss due to light scattering. This efficient utilization of the laser power permits operation of the dosimeter without strong absorption of the laser, as is required in traditional laser-heated dosimetry. Our laser-heated dosimeter does not rely on the diffusion of heat from a separate, highly absorbing substrate, but operates via intimate, localized heating within the glass dosimeter due to the absorption of the laser light by rare earth ion dopants in the glass. Following absorption of the laser light, the rare earth ions transfer energy to the surrounding glass via nonradiative relaxation processes, resulting in rapid, localized temperature increases sufficient to release all the filled traps near the ions. As the heat diffuses radially away from the rare earth ions the temperature plummets dramatically on a manometer distance scale and the release of additional filled traps subsides. A key distinguishing feature of this laser-heated dosimeter is the ability to read the dose information more than once. While laser-heating provides complete information about the radiation exposure experienced by the glass due to the release of locally heated traps, the process leaves the remaining filled bulk traps undisturbed. The bulk traps can be read using traditional bulk heating methods and can provide a direct determination of an accumulated dose, measured following any number of laser-heated readouts. Laser-heated dosimetry measurements have been performed using a solid state diode laser for the readout following radiation exposure with a {sup 60}Co source.

  4. Nursing Postvention for Suicide Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, Rose Eva Bana

    Survivors of suicide are invaded by an unhealthy complex of disturbing emotions resulting in depression, psychological distress, grief, social isolation, and even suicide. This study examined the bereavement patterns of widows whose husbands had died from various causes including cancer, heart disease, and suicide. Subjects (N=117) were randomly…

  5. Health Behaviors of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jennifer S.; Barnett, Marie; Werk, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors living to an old age due to improved cancer treatments. However, these survivors are at risk of numerous late effects as a result of their cancer therapy. Engaging in protective health behaviors and limiting health damaging behaviors are vitally important for these survivors given their increased risks. We reviewed the literature on childhood cancer survivors’ health behaviors by searching for published data and conference proceedings. We examine the prevalence of a variety of health behaviors among childhood cancer survivors, identify significant risk factors, and describe health behavior interventions for survivors. PMID:27417484

  6. Holocaust child survivors and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during the war completed open-ended interviews. The data was qualitatively analyzed according to Tutty, Rothery, and Grinnell's (1996) guidelines. Three major themes were found: issues relating to the sexual abuse trauma, survivors' perceptions of the abuse, and survivors' general perspectives towards life. The identity of the offenders, Jewish or non-Jewish, determined the survivors' feelings towards themselves, the perpetrators, and about the worth of life.

  7. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, Part I. Cancer: 1950-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.A.; Shimizu, Y.; Preston, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    This continues the series of periodic general reports on cancer mortality in the cohort of A-bomb survivors followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The follow-up is extended by the 5 years 1986-1990, and analysis includes an additional 10,500 survivors with recently estimated radiation doses. Together these extensions add about 550,000 person-years of follow-up. The cohort analyzed consists of 86,572 subjects, of which about 60% have dose estimates of at least 0.005 Sv. During 1950-1990 there have been 3086 and 4741 cancer deaths for the less than and greater than 0.005 Sv groups, respectively. It is estimated that among these there have been approximately 420 excess cancer deaths during 19509-1990, of which about 85 were due to leukemia, For cancers other than leukemia (solid cancers), about 25% of the excess deaths in 1950-1990 occurred during the last 5 years; for those exposed as children this figure is nearly 50%. For leukemia only about 3% of the excess deaths in 1950-1990 occurred in th last 5 years. Whereas most of the excess for leukemia occurred in the first 15 years after exposure, for solid cancers the pattern of excess risk in apparently more like alife-long elevation of the natural age-specific cancer risk. 29 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Radiation-associated lung cancer: a comparison of the histology of lung cancers in uranium miners and survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Land, C E; Shimosato, Y; Saccomanno, G; Tokuoka, S; Auerbach, O; Tateishi, R; Greenberg, S D; Nambu, S; Carter, D; Akiba, S

    1993-05-01

    A binational panel of Japanese and American pulmonary pathologists reviewed tissue slides of lung cancer cases diagnosed among Japanese A-bomb survivors and American uranium miners and classified the cases according to histological subtype. Blind reviews were completed on slides from 92 uranium miners and 108 A-bomb survivors, without knowledge of population, sex, age, smoking history, or level of radiation exposure. Consensus diagnoses were obtained with respect to principal subtype, including squamous-cell cancer, small-cell cancer, adenocarcinoma, and less frequent subtypes. The results were analyzed in terms of population, radiation dose, and smoking history. As expected, the proportion of squamous-cell cancer was positively related to smoking history in both populations. The relative frequencies of small-cell cancer and adenocarcinoma were very different in the two populations, but this difference was accounted for adequately by differences in radiation dose or, more specifically, dose-based relative risk estimates based on published data. Radiation-induced cancers appeared more likely to be of the small-cell subtype, and less likely to be adenocarcinomas, in both populations. The data appeared to require no additional explanation in terms of radiation quality (alpha particles vs gamma rays), uniform or local irradiation, inhaled vs external radiation source, or other population difference. PMID:8387679

  9. Characterising an aluminium oxide dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Conheady, Clement F; Gagliardi, Frank M; Ackerly, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    In vivo dosimetry is recommended as a defence-in-depth strategy in radiotherapy treatments and is currently employed by clinics around the world. The characteristics of a new optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry system were investigated for the purpose of replacing an aging thermoluminescence dosimetry system for in vivo dosimetry. The stability of the system was not sufficient to satisfy commissioning requirements and therefore it has not been released into clinical service at this time. PMID:26224358

  10. Taurine for EPR dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Maghraby, A; Mansour, A; Tarek, E

    2012-08-01

    EPR dosimetry is characterized by its non-destructive read-out and the possibility of dose archival. Here, taurine is proposed as a radiation dosimeter using EPR spectroscopy. The EPR spectrum of taurine was studied and assigned, and changes in the taurine EPR spectrum as a result of the change in both modulation amplitude and microwave power were quantified. For gamma radiation, the energy absorption coefficient and the collision mass stopping power of taurine were compared to the corresponding values of soft tissue and alanine, in addition to calculation of effective atomic numbers. The response of taurine to gamma radiation doses in the range from 0.1 to 50 kGy was investigated, as well as that in the range from 1.0 to 20.0 Gy using numerically enhanced EPR taurine spectra. Both response curves showed a linear behavior. In addition, the time dependence of radiation-induced radicals was studied for short (during the first 6 h after irradiation) and long (during about 3 months after irradiation) time periods, and a reasonable degree of stability of the taurine radicals was observed. It is concluded that taurine is a promising dosimeter, which is characterized by its simple spectrum, radical stability, and wide range of linear response to gamma radiation.

  11. BREN Tower: A Monument to the Material Culture of Radiation Dosimetry Research

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Edwards

    2008-05-30

    With a height of more than 1,500 feet, the BREN (Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada) Tower dominates the surrounding desert landscape of the Nevada Test Site. Associated with the nuclear research and atmospheric testing programs carried out during the 1950s and 1960s, the tower was a vital component in a series of experiments aimed at characterizing radiation fields from nuclear detonations. Research programs conducted at the tower provided the data for the baseline dosimetry studies crucial to determining the radiation dose rates received by the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Today, BREN Tower stands as a monument to early dosimetry research and one of the legacies of the Cold War.

  12. 4.2 Methods for Internal Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.2 Methods for Internal Dosimetry' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  13. Spousal caregiving for stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Ursula Eileen

    2007-04-01

    Caregiving for a spouse who has survived a stroke has multidimensional implications for both the partner and the spousal caregiver. A phenomenological study was conducted to examine the experiences of spousal caregivers for stroke survivors. Eight spouses who met the inclusion criteria participated in the study. van Manen's (1997) approach was used to examine the spousal caregivers' experiences. Data were collected through audiotapes from semistructured interviews. The interviews were transcribed to form textual descriptions of the caregivers' experiences. Six interrelated themes emerged through data analysis: experiencing a profound sense of loss, adjusting to a new relationship with a spouse, taking on new responsibilities, feeling the demands of caregiving, having to depend on the support of others, and maintaining hope and optimism. This study contributes to healthcare providers' understanding and knowledge of spousal caregivers for stroke survivors, and supports the need for continued research in this area. PMID:17477226

  14. Survivor-Victim Status, Attachment, and Sudden Death Bereavement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mark D.; Greenwald, Jason Y.

    1991-01-01

    Examined significance of survivor-victim relationship in understanding grief following sudden death bereavement by suicide or accident. Results showed that survivor-victim attachment was more important than survivor status (parent versus sibling/child) in explaining grief reactions. Compared to accident survivors, suicide survivors experienced…

  15. Lung cancer susceptibility among atomic bomb survivors in relation to CA repeat number polymorphism of epidermal growth factor receptor gene and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakachi, Kei; Imai, Kazue; Cologne, John B; Niwa, Yasuharu; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2009-12-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Prevention could be improved by identifying susceptible individuals as well as improving understanding of interactions between genes and etiological environmental agents, including radiation exposure. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-signaling pathway, regulating cellular radiation sensitivity, is an oncogenic cascade involved in lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. The cytosine adenine (CA) repeat number polymorphism in the first intron of EGFR has been shown to be inversely correlated with EGFR production. It is hypothesized that CA repeat number may modulate individual susceptibility to lung cancer. Thus, we carried out a case-cohort study within the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor cohort to evaluate a possible association of CA repeat polymorphism with lung cancer risk in radiation-exposed or negligibly exposed (<5 mGy) A-bomb survivors. First, by dividing study subjects into Short and Long genotypes, defined as the summed CA repeat number of two alleles < or = 37 and > or = 38, respectively, we found that the Short genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, specifically adenocarcinoma, among negligibly exposed subjects. Next, we found that prior radiation exposure significantly enhanced lung cancer risk of survivors with the Long genotype, whereas the risk for the Short genotype did not show any significant increase with radiation dose, resulting in indistinguishable risks between these genotypes at a high radiation dose. Our findings imply that the EGFR pathway plays a crucial role in assessing individual susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma in relation to radiation exposure.

  16. Lung cancer susceptibility among atomic bomb survivors in relation to CA repeat number polymorphism of epidermal growth factor receptor gene and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakachi, Kei; Imai, Kazue; Cologne, John B; Niwa, Yasuharu; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2009-12-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Prevention could be improved by identifying susceptible individuals as well as improving understanding of interactions between genes and etiological environmental agents, including radiation exposure. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-signaling pathway, regulating cellular radiation sensitivity, is an oncogenic cascade involved in lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. The cytosine adenine (CA) repeat number polymorphism in the first intron of EGFR has been shown to be inversely correlated with EGFR production. It is hypothesized that CA repeat number may modulate individual susceptibility to lung cancer. Thus, we carried out a case-cohort study within the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor cohort to evaluate a possible association of CA repeat polymorphism with lung cancer risk in radiation-exposed or negligibly exposed (<5 mGy) A-bomb survivors. First, by dividing study subjects into Short and Long genotypes, defined as the summed CA repeat number of two alleles < or = 37 and > or = 38, respectively, we found that the Short genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, specifically adenocarcinoma, among negligibly exposed subjects. Next, we found that prior radiation exposure significantly enhanced lung cancer risk of survivors with the Long genotype, whereas the risk for the Short genotype did not show any significant increase with radiation dose, resulting in indistinguishable risks between these genotypes at a high radiation dose. Our findings imply that the EGFR pathway plays a crucial role in assessing individual susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma in relation to radiation exposure. PMID:19843645

  17. Plutonium worker dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Birchall, Alan; Puncher, M; Harrison, J; Riddell, A; Bailey, M R; Khokryakov, V; Romanov, S

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between risk and internal exposure to plutonium are clearly reliant on the dose estimates used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing the latest scientific information available on biokinetic models and dosimetry, and it is likely that a number of changes to the existing models will be recommended. The effect of certain changes, particularly to the ICRP model of the respiratory tract, has been investigated for inhaled forms of (239)Pu and uncertainties have also been assessed. Notable effects of possible changes to respiratory tract model assumptions are (1) a reduction in the absorbed dose to target cells in the airways, if changes under consideration are made to the slow clearing fraction and (2) a doubling of absorbed dose to the alveolar region for insoluble forms, if evidence of longer retention times is taken into account. An important factor influencing doses for moderately soluble forms of (239)Pu is the extent of binding of dissolved plutonium to lung tissues and assumptions regarding the extent of binding in the airways. Uncertainty analyses have been performed with prior distributions chosen for application in epidemiological studies. The resulting distributions for dose per unit intake were lognormal with geometric standard deviations of 2.3 and 2.6 for nitrates and oxides, respectively. The wide ranges were due largely to consideration of results for a range of experimental data for the solubility of different forms of nitrate and oxides. The medians of these distributions were a factor of three times higher than calculated using current default ICRP parameter values. For nitrates, this was due to the assumption of a bound fraction, and for oxides due mainly to the assumption of slower alveolar clearance. This study highlights areas where more research is needed to reduce biokinetic uncertainties, including more accurate determination of particle transport rates

  18. The dosimetry system DS86 and the neutron discrepancy in Hiroshima--historical review, present status, and future options.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Kellerer, A M; Korschinek, G; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Rugel, G; Kato, K; Nolte, E

    1998-12-01

    The historical development of the dosimetry systems for Hiroshima and Nagasaki is outlined from the time immediately after the A-bomb explosions to the publication of the dosimetry system DS86 in 1987, and the present status of the so-called Hiroshima neutron discrepancy is summarized. Several long-lived radionuclides are discussed with regard to their production by neutrons from the A-bomb explosions. With the exception of 63Ni, these radionuclides have not, up to now, been measured in samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Two of them, 63Ni in copper samples and 39Ar in granite samples, were predominantly produced by fast neutrons. 63Ni can be determined by accelerator mass spectrometry with a gas-filled analyzing magnet. It should be measurable, in the near future, in copper samples up to 1500 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. 39Ar can be measured in terms of low-level beta-counting. This should be feasible up to a distance of about 1000 m from the hypocenter. Three radionuclides, 10Be, 14C, and 59Ni, were produced predominantly by thermal neutrons with smaller fractions due to the epithermal and fast neutrons, which contribute increasingly more at larger distances from the hypocenter. State-of-the-art accelerator mass spectrometry is likely to permit the determination of 10Be close to the hypocenter and of 14C up to a distance of about 1000 m. 59Ni should be detectable up to a distance of about 1000 m in terms of accelerator mass spectrometry with a gas-filled magnet. The measurements of 10Be, 14C, 39Ar, 59Ni -- and potentially of 131Xe -- can be performed in the same granitic sample that was already analyzed for 36Cl, 41Ca, 6Co, 152Eu, and 154Eu. This will provide extensive information on the neutron spectrum at the specified location, and similarly complete analyses can conceivably be performed on granite samples at other locations.

  19. Do Suicides' Characteristics Influence Survivors' Emotions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barbara; Grebner, Kristin; Schnabel, Axel; Georgi, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of a related person can often induce severe negative emotional reactions. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between sociodemographic and diagnostic data of suicides and survivors' emotions and to close this substantial gap. The main outcome of this study was that survivors' severity of emotional disturbance…

  20. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  1. Endocrinopathies in survivors of childhood neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nicole; Chemaitilly, Wassim

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in cancer treatments have increased the number of survivors of childhood cancers. Endocrinopathies are common complications following cancer therapy and may occur decades later. The objective of the current review is to address the main endocrine abnormalities detected in childhood cancer survivors including disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid, puberty, gonads, bone, body composition, and glucose metabolism.

  2. Incest Survivor Mothers: Protecting the Next Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreklewetz, Christine M.; Piotrowski, Caroline C.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 16 incest-survivor mothers with daughters between the ages of 9-14 found the mothers described themselves as very protective and often overly-protective parents, wanting to parent differently, and better, than they were parented. Many survivors strive to be the "perfect mother" including over-protecting and over-nurturing…

  3. Endocrinopathies in Survivors of Childhood Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Nicole; Chemaitilly, Wassim

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in cancer treatments have increased the number of survivors of childhood cancers. Endocrinopathies are common complications following cancer therapy and may occur decades later. The objective of the current review is to address the main endocrine abnormalities detected in childhood cancer survivors including disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid, puberty, gonads, bone, body composition, and glucose metabolism. PMID:25295241

  4. Dialectical tensions in stroke survivor relationships.

    PubMed

    Brann, Maria; Himes, Kimberly Leezer; Dillow, Megan R; Weber, Keith

    2010-06-01

    Stroke is an unpredictable and life-altering medical occurrence that causes immediate change in survivors' relationships. This study unearthed dialectical tensions expressed by spouses of stroke survivors and examined how those dialectical tensions compare to those experienced by stroke survivors themselves. Sixteen spouses of stroke survivors participated in interviews, and four tensions ultimately emerged: self-orientation-partner-orientation, realism-idealism, uncertainty-acceptance, and emotional release-emotional reservation. Three dialectical tensions (i.e., uncertainty-acceptance, realism-idealism, self-orientation-partner-orientation) were similar to those communicated by stroke survivors. Recognizing dialectical tensions experienced and shared can open communication lines and ultimately improve the health of individuals and their relationships. PMID:20512714

  5. Dietary changes among cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, G; Murphy, S; Shumay, D M; Kakai, H

    2001-03-01

    Given the limited scientific knowledge about dietary factors that affect cancer recurrence, dietary guidelines for cancer survivors are similar to general recommendations on healthy eating. This study explored the patterns of and motivation for, dietary changes among cancer patients. We conducted in-person interviews with 143 cancer survivors who were chosen from a mail survey on complementary and alternative medicine among cancer patients. We applied qualitative analysis using the software package NUD*IST to sort and code the transcribed interviews. The majority of dietary changes reported by 69 cancer patients agreed with current nutritional recommendations, such as decreasing meat and fat intake and increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruits. However, many diet changers also reported the intake of herbal and vitamin supplements, many with unproven effects. The major themes for changing diet were hopes that nutrition would increase well-being, maintain health and prevent cancer recurrence and beliefs that foods that cause or prevent cancer should be avoided and increased, respectively. Many cancer patients use non-scientific reasons when deciding on dietary changes and supplement use. Increasing communication with health care providers may prevent the use of extreme diets, unproven and possibly harmful supplements and reduce exaggerated hopes related to the benefits of a particular dietary regimen. PMID:11827263

  6. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  7. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report. PMID:23799498

  8. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  9. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. Methods As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age <21 years, who had survived ≥5 years after diagnosis of the primary tumor. Siblings were used as a comparison group. We asked questions about education, profession and income and retrieved clinical data from the SCCR. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with income. Results We analyzed data from 1’506 survivors and 598 siblings. Survivors were less likely than siblings to have a high monthly income (>4’500 CHF), even after we adjusted for socio-demographic and educational factors (OR = 0.46, p<0.001). Older age, male sex, personal and parental education, and number of working hours were associated with high income. Survivors of leukemia (OR = 0.40, p<0.001), lymphoma (OR = 0.63, p = 0.040), CNS tumors (OR = 0.22, p<0.001), bone tumors (OR = 0.24, p = 0.003) had a lower income than siblings. Survivors who had cranial irradiation, had a lower income than survivors who had no cranial irradiation (OR = 0.48, p = 0.006). Discussion Even after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, education and working hours, survivors of various diagnostic groups have lower incomes than siblings. Further research needs to identify the underlying causes. PMID:27213682

  10. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet).

    PubMed

    García, O; Di Giorgio, M; Radl, A; Taja, M R; Sapienza, C E; Deminge, M M; Fernández Rearte, J; Stuck Oliveira, M; Valdivia, P; Lamadrid, A I; González, J E; Romero, I; Mandina, T; Guerrero-Carbajal, C; ArceoMaldonado, C; Cortina Ramírez, G E; Espinoza, M; Martínez-López, W; Di Tomasso, M

    2016-09-01

    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programmes and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 to provide early biological dosimetry assistance in case of radiation emergencies in the Latin American Region. Here are presented the main topics considered in the foundational document of the network, which comprise: mission, partners, concept of operation, including the mechanism to request support for biological dosimetry assistance in the region, and the network capabilities. The process for network activation and the role of the coordinating laboratory during biological dosimetry emergency response is also presented. This information is preceded by historical remarks on biological dosimetry cooperation in Latin America. A summary of the main experimental and practical results already obtained by the LBDNet is also included.

  11. Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, K. G.

    2011-10-12

    The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

  12. Neutron personnel dosimetry intecomparison studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted sixteen Neutron Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Studies (PDIS) since 1974. During these studies dosimeters are mailed to DOSAR, exposed to low-level (typically in the 0.3 -- 5.0 mSv range) neutron dose equivalents in a variety of mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields, and then returned to the participants for evaluation. The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) was used as the primary radiation source in PDIS 1--12 and radioisotopic neutron sources at DOSAR's Radiation Calibration Laboratory (RADCAL) were mainly used, along with sources and accelerators at cooperating institutions, in PDIS 13--16. Conclusions based on 13,560 measurements made by 146 different participating organizations (102 - US) are presented.

  13. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda; Møller, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-10-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer was diagnosed between 1965 and 1996 before they were 20 years of age. A sex-matched and age-matched population-based control cohort was used for comparison (n=45,449). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers and explored by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. Childhood cancer survivors had a reduced rate of cohabitation [rate ratio (RR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.83], owing to lower rates among survivors of both noncentral nervous system (CNS) tumors (RR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95) and CNS tumors (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.45-0.59). Male CNS tumor survivors had a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls, with the most pronounced reduction among survivors of CNS tumors. Mental deficits after cranial irradiation are likely to be the major risk factor.

  14. Rape Survivors' Agency within the Legal and Medical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeson, Megan R.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Many rape survivors seek help from the legal and medical systems post-assault. Previous studies have examined how social system personnel treat survivors, but less attention has been paid to how survivors attempt to shape their interactions with these systems. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine rape survivors' agency--the active…

  15. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Joo; Hahn, Seung Min; Jin, Song Lee; Shin, Yoon Jung; Kim, Sun Hee; Lee, Yoon Sun; Kim, Hyo Sun; Lyu, Chuhl Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In childhood cancer survivors, the most common late effect is thyroid dysfunction, most notably subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Our study evaluated the risk factors for persistent SCH in survivors. Materials and Methods Survivors (n=423) were defined as patients who survived at least 2 years after cancer treatment completion. Thyroid function was assessed at this time and several years thereafter. Two groups of survivors with SCH were compared: those who regained normal thyroid function during the follow-up period (normalized group) and those who did not (persistent group). Results Overall, 104 of the 423 survivors had SCH. SCH was observed in 26% of brain or nasopharyngeal cancer survivors (11 of 43) and 21.6% of leukemia survivors (35 of 162). Sixty-two survivors regained normal thyroid function, 30 remained as persistent SCH, and 12 were lost to follow-up. The follow-up duration was 4.03 (2.15–5.78) years. Brain or nasopharyngeal cancer and Hodgkin disease were more common in the persistent group than in the normalized group (p=0.002). More patients in the persistent group received radiation (p=0.008). Radiation to the head region was higher in this group (2394±2469 cGy) than in the normalized group (894±1591 cGy; p=0.003). On multivariable analysis, lymphoma (p=0.011), brain or nasopharyngeal cancer (p=0.039), and head radiation dose ≥1800 cGy (p=0.039) were significant risk factors for persistent SCH. Conclusion SCH was common in childhood cancer survivors. Brain or nasopharyngeal cancer, lymphoma, and head radiation ≥1800 cGy were significant risk factors for persistent SCH. PMID:27189285

  16. Survivor Centrality Among Breast Cancer Survivors: Implications for Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The goal of this research was to examine the extent to which 10-year breast cancer survivors integrated cancer into their self-concept (i.e., survivor centrality), identify predictors of survivor centrality, and determine the relation of survivor centrality to well-being. Methods Breast cancer survivors (n = 240) were interviewed 10 years following the initial diagnosis. They completed measures of survivor centrality, illness valence (i.e., positive or negative views of illness), and well-being (positive and negative affect, mental and physical functioning, psychological distress, benefit-finding). Results There were few predictors of the kinds of women who were more likely to integrate breast cancer into their self-concepts, but survivor centrality was related to engaging in behaviors that suggested survivorship was relevant to women’s daily lives, such as becoming involved in breast cancer activities. Survivor centrality was related to three markers of negative psychological well-being: more negative affect, poorer mental functioning, and greater psychological distress. However, in the case of negative affect and psychological distress, this relation was moderated by illness valence, such that survivor centrality was only related to negative psychological well-being when the illness was viewed in less positive terms. Conclusions Women vary in the extent to which they define themselves in terms of the breast cancer experience. Survivor centrality in and of itself is not always indicative of adjustment to disease. When women have a more negative view of being a breast cancer survivor, survivor centrality is more likely to signify potential problems. PMID:20878844

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma among atomic bomb survivors: significant interaction of radiation with hepatitis C virus infections.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gerald B; Mizuno, Terumi; Cologne, John B; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Fujiwara, Saeko; Tokuoka, Shoji; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2003-02-10

    We conducted a nested case-control study within the cohort of Japanese survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings to study the joint effects of HBV and HCV with radiation on the risk of HCC. Among subjects who received autopsies during 1954-1988, we analyzed archival tissue samples for 238 pathologically confirmed HCC cases and 894 controls who died from diseases other than liver cancer. Using logistic regression and adjusting for potential confounders and other factors, we found a statistically significant, supermultiplicative interaction between A bomb radiation and HCV in the etiology of HCC. Compared to subjects who were negative for HCV and radiation, ORs of HCC for HCV-positive subjects showed a statistically significant, greater than multiplicative increase for liver irradiation exposures in the second (>0.018-0.186 Sv, p = 0.04) and third (>0.186 Sv, p = 0.05) tertiles of non-zero radiation exposure but not for first tertile exposure (>0-0.018 Sv, p = 0.86). Limiting analysis to subjects without cirrhosis, HCV-infected subjects were at 58.0-fold (95% CI 1.99- infinity ) increased risk of HCC per Sv of radiation exposure (p = 0.017), a supermultiplicative interaction between radiation and HCV that was not found among subjects with cirrhosis (p = 0.67). We found no evidence of interaction between HBV infection and radiation exposure in the etiology of HCC, regardless of cirrhosis status (p = 0.58). We conclude that among survivors of the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, subjects who were both HCV-positive and radiation-exposed were at a significantly, supermultiplicatively increased risk of HCC without concurrent cirrhosis.

  18. Utilizing Data from Cancer Patient & Survivor Studies

    Cancer.gov

    Utilizing Data from Cancer Patient & Survivor Studies and Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2011 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  19. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emotional aspects of breast cancer Living as a breast cancer survivor For many women with breast cancer, treatment ... making some new choices. Follow-up care after breast cancer treatment Even after you have completed breast cancer ...

  20. Survivorship conference highlights research for survivor care

    Cancer.gov

    More than 400 leading experts in cancer survivorship convened today for a conference, Cancer Survivorship Research: Translating Science to Care, to focus on such current concerns as how obesity might not have the same effects on all cancer survivors, and

  1. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Cancer.gov

    Health problems that develop years later as a result of a cancer treatment are known as late effects. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) was started in 1994 to better understand these late effects.

  2. Sam Donaldson: Tips From a Cancer Survivor

    MedlinePlus

    ... up on my own specialty of the "Cancer Club, Melanoma Division." Although I am not an oncologist, ... people several things when talking about the survivors club and what we can do. First, we all ...

  3. Managing chronic pain in survivors of torture.

    PubMed

    Amris, Kirstine; Williams, Amanda C de C

    2015-01-01

    All generalist and specialist clinicians are likely to encounter torture survivors among refugees and asylum seekers. A minority of people survive torture and a smaller minority reach a developed country; those who do tend to be the more resilient and resourceful. They have many health, social and welfare problems; persistent pain in the musculoskeletal system is one of the most common. There is little specific evidence on pain in survivors of torture; the guidelines on interdisciplinary specialist management are applicable. Most of the literature on refugee survivors of torture has an exclusive focus on psychological disorders, with particularly poor understanding of pain problems. This article summarizes the current status of assessment and treatment of pain problems in the torture survivor.

  4. Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Moderate physical activity can ease stress that impairs memory, study suggests To use the sharing features on ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Excessive stress can lead to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can ...

  5. Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.7 Necessity of Patient-Specific Dose Planning in Radionuclide Therapy' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  6. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.630 Dosimetry equipment. (a) Except for low...

  7. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.630 Dosimetry equipment. (a) Except for low...

  8. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.630 Dosimetry equipment. (a) Except for low...

  9. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.630 Dosimetry equipment. (a) Except for low...

  10. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.630 Dosimetry equipment. (a) Except for low...

  11. Histologic review of breast cancer cases in survivors of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tokuoka, S; Asano, M; Yamamoto, T; Tokunaga, M; Sakamoto, G; Hartmann, W H; Hutter, R V; Land, C E; Henson, D E

    1984-09-01

    A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breast cancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breast cancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation that would require little or no review for inclusion in future studies of breast cancer incidence. Broad agreement on histologic type was reached for 298 of 300 confirmed cases. The distribution of histologic types was, overall, similar to that seen in other studies of breast cancer in Japanese women, and did not appear to depend on dose; thus radiation-induced breast cancer appeared to be no different histologically from other breast cancer. Also, no evidence was found of variation in histologic type by city, age at exposure, age at diagnosis, or calendar time.

  12. Histologic review of breast cancer cases in survivors of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuoka, S.; Asano, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Tokunaga, M.; Sakamoto, G.; Hartmann, W.H.; Hutter, R.V.; Land, C.E.; Henson, D.E.

    1984-09-01

    A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breast cancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breast cancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation that would require little or no review for inclusion in future studies of breast cancer incidence. Broad agreement on histologic type was reached for 298 of 300 confirmed cases. The distribution of histologic types was, overall, similar to that seen in other studies of breast cancer in Japanese women, and did not appear to depend on dose; thus radiation-induced breast cancer appeared to be no different histologically from other breast cancer. Also, no evidence was found of variation in histologic type by city, age at exposure, age at diagnosis, or calendar time.

  13. Radon Dosimetry and Monitoring in Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, J. F.

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * The Atmosphere in Underground Mines * Origin of the radioactivity of the atmosphere in underground mines * Main characteristics of the atmosphere of mines * Temperature * Relative humidity * Particle size distribution of the aerosols * Volume concentration of radon * Age of the ventilation air * Volume concentration of radon decay products * Volume concentration of long-lived aerosols (LLA) * Order of magnitude of the volume concentrations to be measured * Dosimetry: Application to Miners * Dosimetry of miners in France * Integrated dosimetry system * Measuring head * Unit for the detection and measurement of exposure to potential alpha energy * Treatment and reading of the detector films * Expression of the results * Other examples of operational dosimetry * Use of closed passive dosimeters for the dosimetry of miners * Monitoring of Physical Parameters of the Atmospheres * Qualification of non-uranium mines * Monitoring of the environment of mining sites * Optimisation of radiation protection using the dosimetric data * Concluding Remarks * References

  14. Health Behaviors of Minority Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Tangney, Christy; Schiffer, Linda; Arroyo, Claudia; Kim, Yoonsang; Campbell, Richard; Schmidt, Mary Lou; Breen, Kathleen; Kinahan, Karen E.; Dilley, Kim; Henderson, Tara; Korenblit, Allen D.; Seligman, Katya

    2015-01-01

    Background Available data suggest that childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are comparable to the general population on many lifestyle parameters. However, little is known about minority CCSs. This cross-sectional study describes and compares the body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors of African-American, Hispanic and White survivors to each other and to non-cancer controls. Methods Participants included 452 adult CCS (150 African-American, 152 Hispanic, 150 white) recruited through four childhood cancer treating institutions and 375 ethnically-matched non-cancer controls (125 in each racial/ethnic group) recruited via targeted digit dial. All participants completed a 2-hour in-person interview. Results Survivors and non-cancer controls reported similar health behaviors. Within survivors, smoking and physical activity were similar across racial/ethnic groups. African-American and Hispanic survivors reported lower daily alcohol use than whites, but consumed unhealthy diets and were more likely to be obese. Conclusions This unique study highlights that many minority CCSs exhibit lifestyle profiles that contribute to increased risk for chronic diseases and late effects. Recommendations for behavior changes must consider the social and cultural context in which minority survivors may live. PMID:25564774

  15. Proteomic Profiles in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Differentiates Survivors from Non-Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Maneesh; Becker, Trisha L.; Viken, Kevin J.; Jagtap, Pratik D.; Dey, Sanjoy; Steinbach, Michael S.; Wu, Baolin; Kumar, Vipin; Bitterman, Peter B.; Ingbar, David H.; Wendt, Christine H.

    2014-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) continues to have a high mortality. Currently, there are no biomarkers that provide reliable prognostic information to guide clinical management or stratify risk among clinical trial participants. The objective of this study was to probe the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) proteome to identify proteins that differentiate survivors from non-survivors of ARDS. Patients were divided into early-phase (1 to 7 days) and late-phase (8 to 35 days) groups based on time after initiation of mechanical ventilation for ARDS (Day 1). Isobaric tags for absolute and relative quantitation (iTRAQ) with LC MS/MS was performed on pooled BALF enriched for medium and low abundance proteins from early-phase survivors (n = 7), early-phase non-survivors (n = 8), and late-phase survivors (n = 7). Of the 724 proteins identified at a global false discovery rate of 1%, quantitative information was available for 499. In early-phase ARDS, proteins more abundant in survivors mapped to ontologies indicating a coordinated compensatory response to injury and stress. These included coagulation and fibrinolysis; immune system activation; and cation and iron homeostasis. Proteins more abundant in early-phase non-survivors participate in carbohydrate catabolism and collagen synthesis, with no activation of compensatory responses. The compensatory immune activation and ion homeostatic response seen in early-phase survivors transitioned to cell migration and actin filament based processes in late-phase survivors, revealing dynamic changes in the BALF proteome as the lung heals. Early phase proteins differentiating survivors from non-survivors are candidate biomarkers for predicting survival in ARDS. PMID:25290099

  16. The future of medical dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    The world of health care delivery is becoming increasingly complex. The purpose of this manuscript is to analyze current metrics and analytically predict future practices and principles of medical dosimetry. The results indicate five potential areas precipitating change factors: a) evolutionary and revolutionary thinking processes, b) social factors, c) economic factors, d) political factors, and e) technological factors. Outcomes indicate that significant changes will occur in the job structure and content of being a practicing medical dosimetrist. Discussion indicates potential variables that can occur within each process and change factor and how the predicted outcomes can deviate from normative values. Finally, based on predicted outcomes, future opportunities for medical dosimetrists are given.

  17. NMR mechanisms in gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, L. J.

    2009-05-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance was critical to the development of gel dosimetry, as it established the potential for three dimensional dosimetry with chemical dosimeter systems through magnetic resonance imaging [1]. In the last two decades MRI has served as the gold standard for imaging, while NMR relaxometry has played an important role in the development and understanding of the behaviour of new gel dosimetry systems. Therefore, an appreciation of the relaxation mechanisms determining the NMR behaviour of irradiated gel dosimeters is important for a full comprehension of a considerable component of the literature on gel dosimetry. A number of excellent papers have presented this important theory, this brief review will highlight some of the salient points made previously [1-5]. The spin relaxation of gel dosimeters (which determines the dose dependence in most conventional MR imaging) is determined principally by the protons on water molecules in the system. These water protons exist in different environments, or groups (see Figure 1): on bulk water, on water hydrating the chemical species that are being modified under irradiation, and on water hydrating the gel matrix used to spatially stabilize the dosimeter (e.g., gelatin, agarose, etc). The spin relaxation depends on the inherent relaxation rate of each spin group, that is, on the relaxation rate which would be observed for the specific group if it were isolated. Also, the different water environments are not isolated from each other, and the observed relaxation rate also depends on the rate of exchange of magnetization between the groups, and on the fraction of protons in each group. In fact, the water exchanges quickly between the environments, so that relaxation is in what is usually termed the fast exchange regime. In the limit of fast exchange, the relaxation of the water protons is well characterized by a single exponential and hence by a single apparent relaxation rate. In irradiated gel dosimeters this

  18. Solid-State Personal Dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2005-01-01

    This document is a web site page, and a data sheet about Personal protection (i.e., space suits) presented to the Radiation and Micrometeoroid Mitigation Technology Focus Group meeting. The website describes the work of the PI to improve solid state personal radiation dosimetry. The data sheet presents work on the active personal radiation detection system that is to provide real-time local radiation exposure information during EVA. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.

  19. The Future of Medical Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Robert D.

    2015-07-01

    The world of health care delivery is becoming increasingly complex. The purpose of this manuscript is to analyze current metrics and analytically predict future practices and principles of medical dosimetry. The results indicate five potential areas precipitating change factors: a) evolutionary and revolutionary thinking processes, b) social factors, c) economic factors, d) political factors, and e) technological factors. Outcomes indicate that significant changes will occur in the job structure and content of being a practicing medical dosimetrist. Discussion indicates potential variables that can occur within each process and change factor and how the predicted outcomes can deviate from normative values. Finally, based on predicted outcomes, future opportunities for medical dosimetrists are given.

  20. Invited commentary: missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Grant, E J; Cullings, H M; Shore, R E

    2013-03-15

    The Life Span Study is a long-term epidemiologic cohort study of survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. In this issue of the Journal, Richardson et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(6):562-568) suggest that those who died in the earliest years of follow-up were more likely to have a missing dose of radiation exposure assigned, leading to a bias in the radiation risk estimates. We show that nearly all members of the cohort had shielding information recorded before the beginning of follow-up and that much of the alleged bias that Richardson et al. describe simply reflects the geographic distribution of shielding conditions for which reliable dosimetry was impossible.

  1. Invited commentary: missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Grant, E J; Cullings, H M; Shore, R E

    2013-03-15

    The Life Span Study is a long-term epidemiologic cohort study of survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. In this issue of the Journal, Richardson et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(6):562-568) suggest that those who died in the earliest years of follow-up were more likely to have a missing dose of radiation exposure assigned, leading to a bias in the radiation risk estimates. We show that nearly all members of the cohort had shielding information recorded before the beginning of follow-up and that much of the alleged bias that Richardson et al. describe simply reflects the geographic distribution of shielding conditions for which reliable dosimetry was impossible. PMID:23429724

  2. Multigenerational Occurrence of Survivor Syndrome Symptoms in Families of Holocaust Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Israel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined possible transmission of psychopathology from Jewish Holocaust survivors to their children and grandchildren. Adult children of Holocaust survivors obtained significantly higher scores on self-report measures of psychopathology than did control Jewish participants. Grandchildren received significantly higher psychopathology ratings from…

  3. Advances in radiation therapy dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Paliwal, Bhudatt; Tewatia, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been an explosion of new radiation therapy planning and delivery tools. We went through a rapid transition from conventional three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments, and additional new techniques for motion-adaptive radiation therapy are being introduced. These advances push the frontiers in our effort to provide better patient care; and with the addition of IMRT, temporal dimensions are major challenges for the radiotherapy patient dosimetry and delivery verification. Advanced techniques are less tolerant to poor implementation than are standard techniques. Mis-administrations are more difficult to detect and can possibly lead to poor outcomes for some patients. Instead of presenting a manual on quality assurance for radiation therapy, this manuscript provides an overview of dosimetry verification tools and a focused discussion on breath holding, respiratory gating and the applications of four-dimensional computed tomography in motion management. Some of the major challenges in the above areas are discussed. PMID:20098555

  4. Late effects of radiation on the human immune system: an overview of immune response among the atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, M

    1995-11-01

    The studies of the late effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation on the immune system were started about 20 years after the bombings in 1945. The most remarkable late effects of radiation are the functional and quantitative abnormalities of T and B cells in survivors exposed to high doses (> or = 1.0 Gy). Abnormalities of T-cell immunity include (1) a decreased proportion of CD3+ T cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes, particularly the proportion of CD4+ CD45RA+ naive T cells (study period 1987-91); (2) an increased frequency of CD4- and CD8- (double negative) alpha beta + T cells (1987-91); and (3) functional defects in T-cell responses to mitogens and alloantigens (1974-85). B-cell abnormalities include: (1) a significant increase in the proportion of B cells among peripheral lymphocytes (1987-91); (2) an increase in serum immunoglobulin A levels in females and immunoglobulin M and the incidence of rheumatoid factor in both sexes (1987-89); and (3) an increased level of anti-Epstein-Barr virus antibody titer (1987-90). In contrast, suggestive (0.05 < p < 0.1) or not significant (p > 0.1) dose effects were observed for the number and function of natural killer cells (1983-91), and benign monoclonal gammopathy (1979-87). In addition, studies initiated sooner after the bombing such as the incidence of autoimmune diseases (1958-87), systemic bacterial infections (1954-67), and granulocyte functions (1947-79) also show little dose-effects. Thus, A-bomb radiation induced the alteration of the balance/interaction between the T- and B-cell subsets--specifically, a decrease in the T-cell population and an increase in the B-cell population in the periphery.

  5. Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence Speak Out

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Tracy A; Finley, Erin; Liebschutz, Jane M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify characteristics that facilitate trust in the patient-provider relationship among survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). DESIGN Semistructured, open-ended interviews were conducted to elicit participants' beliefs and attitudes about trust in interactions with health care providers. Using grounded theory methods, the transcripts were analyzed for common themes. A community advisory group, composed of advocates, counselors and IPV survivors, helped interpret themes and interview exerpts. Together, key components of trust were identified. SETTING Eastern Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-seven female survivors of IPV recruited from community-based IPV organizations. MAIN RESULTS Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 56 years, 36% were African American, 32% Hispanic, and 18% white. We identified 5 dimensions of provider behavior that were uniquely important to the development of trust for these IPV survivors: 1) communication about abuse: provider was willing to openly discuss abuse; 2) professional competency: provider asked about abuse when appropriate and was familiar with medical and social histories; 3) practice style: provider was consistently accessible, respected confidentiality, and shared decision making; 4) caring: provider demonstrated personal concern beyond biomedical role through nonjudgmental and compassionate gestures, empowering statements, and persistent, committed behaviors; 5) emotional equality: provider shared personal information and feelings and was perceived by the participant as a friend. CONCLUSIONS These IPV survivors identified dimensions of provider behavior that facilitate trust in their clinical relationship. Strengthening these provider behaviors may increase trust with patients and thus improve disclosure of and referral for IPV. PMID:12911643

  6. [The effects of terrorist attacks on European Holocaust survivors compared to Greek Holocaust survivors].

    PubMed

    Zloof, Dov; Even-Zohar, Shmuel; Posman, Renato

    2004-04-01

    This research aims to examine whether there are differences in the level of anxiety, the perception of danger, the reliance on security forces and signs of psychological distress during times of war between two groups of Holocaust survivors: Jews of Greece and Jews of Eastern and Western Europe, while assessing their psychological ability to cope with the wave of terrorism against the Israeli population. The Jews of Greece have been portrayed as being different, both by the Nazis and by Jews from other countries, as well as by the Greeks themselves. Their strength of spirit, encouraging them to rebel and resist, as well as their physical strength, were renowned in the concentration camps. Each of these traits has been supported by specific documentation in history books dealing with the Jews of Greece during the Holocaust. Fifty-eight years after the Holocaust and before it disappears from historical record, we scientifically examined the psychological or mental capacity of these people to withstand the wave of terrorism. The study included 33 European Jewish Holocaust survivors and 38 Greek Jewish Holocaust survivors. The subjects completed four questionnaires. The main results are: 1. The average level of anxiety among Greek Holocaust survivors is clearly lower than that of other Holocaust survivors--an average of 10.00 compared to 16.48 (t = 4.83, p < 0.001). 2. The average level of psychological distress during times of war among Greek Holocaust survivors is 2.10 compared to 2.65 among other Holocaust survivors (t = 4.24, p < 0.001). 3. The average level of trust in the security forces among Greek Holocaust survivors is 3.67 compared to 2.70 among the other Holocaust survivors (t = 4.354, p < 0.001). 4. The average level of perception of danger among Greek Holocaust survivors is 2.75 compared to 3.39 among other Holocaust survivors (t = 2.60, p < 0.01). 5. The readiness to emigrate from Israel is 1.02 among Greek Holocaust survivors compared to 2.09 among other

  7. Cancer Survivors More Prone to Obesity, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160399.html Cancer Survivors More Prone to Obesity, Study Finds Risk appears to be particularly high ... 12, 2016 FRIDAY, Aug. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity is more common among cancer survivors in the ...

  8. INTERSPECIES DOSIMETRY MODELS FOR PULMONARY PHARMACOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interspecies Dosimetry Models for Pulmonary Pharmacology

    Ted B. Martonen, Jeffry D. Schroeter, and John S. Fleming

    Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  9. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-05-02

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies.

  10. In vivo dosimetry in brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tanderup, Kari; Beddar, Sam; Andersen, Claus E.; Kertzscher, Gustavo; Cygler, Joanna E.

    2013-07-15

    In vivo dosimetry (IVD) has been used in brachytherapy (BT) for decades with a number of different detectors and measurement technologies. However, IVD in BT has been subject to certain difficulties and complexities, in particular due to challenges of the high-gradient BT dose distribution and the large range of dose and dose rate. Due to these challenges, the sensitivity and specificity toward error detection has been limited, and IVD has mainly been restricted to detection of gross errors. Given these factors, routine use of IVD is currently limited in many departments. Although the impact of potential errors may be detrimental since treatments are typically administered in large fractions and with high-gradient-dose-distributions, BT is usually delivered without independent verification of the treatment delivery. This Vision 20/20 paper encourages improvements within BT safety by developments of IVD into an effective method of independent treatment verification.

  11. Audits for advanced treatment dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibbott, G. S.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has advanced rapidly over the last few decades, progressing from 3D conformal treatment to image-guided intensity modulated therapy of several different flavors, both 3D and 4D and to adaptive radiotherapy. The use of intensity modulation has increased the complexity of quality assurance and essentially eliminated the physicist's ability to judge the validity of a treatment plan, even approximately, on the basis of appearance and experience. Instead, complex QA devices and procedures are required at the institutional level. Similarly, the assessment of treatment quality through remote and on-site audits also requires greater sophistication. The introduction of 3D and 4D dosimetry into external audit systems must follow, to enable quality assurance systems to perform meaningful and thorough audits.

  12. Radiation-Related Risk of Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy in the United States. Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor in certain populations, including cancer survivors. We quantified the association between ionizing radiation dose and the risk of BCC in childhood cancer survivors. Methods Participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who reported a BCC (case subjects, n = 199) were matched on age and length of follow-up to three study participants who had not developed a BCC (control subjects, n = 597). The radiation-absorbed dose (in Gy) to the BCC location was calculated based on individual radiotherapy records using a custom-designed dosimetry program. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between demographic and treatment factors, therapeutic radiation dose, and surrogate markers of sun sensitivity (skin and hair color) and the risk of BCC. A linear dose–response model was fitted to evaluate the excess odds ratio per Gy of radiation dose. Results Among case subjects, 83% developed BCC between the ages of 20 and 39 years. Radiation therapy, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, was associated with an increased risk of BCC compared with no chemotherapy or radiation. The odds ratio for subjects who received 35 Gy or more to the skin site vs no radiation therapy was 39.8 (95% CI = 8.6 to 185). Results were consistent with a linear dose–response relationship, with an excess odds ratio per Gy of 1.09 (95% CI = 0.49 to 2.64). No other treatment variables were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of BCC. Conclusions Radiation doses to the skin of more than 1 Gy are associated with an increased risk of BCC. PMID:22835387

  13. Working with refugee survivors of torture.

    PubMed Central

    Chester, B; Holtan, N

    1992-01-01

    Numerous factors must be taken into account to best provide for the health and well-being of refugee patients in developed countries. One issue that is rarely considered is the awful and not uncommon occurrence of political torture. Large numbers of refugees and other displaced persons are survivors of political torture, and health care professionals must be prepared for this possibility when treating refugee patients. The effects of torture are pervasive, and we provide some practical considerations for health professionals who care for survivors of torture. Specific challenges include problems relating to exile and resettlement, somatic symptoms and pain, and the "medicalization" of torture sequelae. PMID:1413774

  14. Childhood cancer survivor cohorts in Europe.

    PubMed

    Winther, Jeanette F; Kenborg, Line; Byrne, Julianne; Hjorth, Lars; Kaatsch, Peter; Kremer, Leontien C M; Kuehni, Claudia E; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; de Vathaire, Florent; Haupt, Riccardo; Skinner, Roderick; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura M; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Reulen, Raoul C; Grabow, Desiree; Ronckers, Cecile M; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Schindler, Matthias; Berbis, Julie; Holmqvist, Anna S; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; de Fine Licht, Sofie; Bonnesen, Trine G; Asdahl, Peter H; Bautz, Andrea; Kristoffersen, Anja K; Himmerslev, Liselotte; Hasle, Henrik; Olsen, Jørgen H; Hawkins, Mike M

    2015-05-01

    With the advent of multimodality therapy, the overall five-year survival rate from childhood cancer has improved considerably now exceeding 80% in developed European countries. This growing cohort of survivors, with many years of life ahead of them, has raised the necessity for knowledge concerning the risks of adverse long-term sequelae of the life-saving treatments in order to provide optimal screening and care and to identify and provide adequate interventions. Childhood cancer survivor cohorts in Europe. Considerable advantages exist to study late effects in individuals treated for childhood cancer in a European context, including the complementary advantages of large population-based cancer registries and the unrivalled opportunities to study lifetime risks, together with rich and detailed hospital-based cohorts which fill many of the gaps left by the large-scale population-based studies, such as sparse treatment information. Several large national cohorts have been established within Europe to study late effects in individuals treated for childhood cancer including the Nordic Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia study (ALiCCS), the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS), the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) LATER study, and the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS). Furthermore, there are other large cohorts, which may eventually become national in scope including the French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (FCCSS), the French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study for Leukaemia (LEA), and the Italian Study on off-therapy Childhood Cancer Survivors (OTR). In recent years significant steps have been taken to extend these national studies into a larger pan-European context through the establishment of two large consortia - PanCareSurFup and PanCareLIFE. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the current large, national and pan-European studies of late effects after childhood cancer. This overview will highlight the

  15. 5 CFR 831.645 - Elections between survivor annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elections between survivor annuities. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.645 Elections between survivor... Fund. (b) A current spouse is entitled to a current spouse annuity based on an election under §...

  16. 5 CFR 831.645 - Elections between survivor annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elections between survivor annuities. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.645 Elections between survivor... Fund. (b) A current spouse is entitled to a current spouse annuity based on an election under §...

  17. Participants' Perception of Therapeutic Factors in Groups for Incest Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Inese; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated member-perceived curative factors in an incest-survivor group, comparing therapeutic factors reported in closed, time-limited incest survivor group to those in Bonney et al.'s open, long-term survivor group and to Yalom's therapy groups. Findings suggest that relative importance of curative factors may be related to group stages.…

  18. Cancer survivor identity shared in a social media intervention.

    PubMed

    Song, Hayeon; Nam, Yujung; Gould, Jessica; Sanders, W Scott; McLaughlin, Margaret; Fulk, Janet; Meeske, Kathleen A; Ruccione, Kathleen S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how cancer survivors construct their identities and the impact on their psychological health, as measured by depression and survivor self-efficacy. Fourteen young adult survivors of pediatric cancer participated in a customized social networking and video blog intervention program, the LIFECommunity, over a 6-month period. Survivors were asked to share their stories on various topics by posting video messages. Those video blog postings, along with survey data collected from participants, were analyzed to see how cancer survivors expressed their identities, and how these identities are associated with survivors' psychosocial outcomes. In survivors who held negative stereotypes about cancer survivors, there was a positive relationship with depression while positive stereotypes had a marginal association with cancer survivor efficacy. Findings indicate that although pediatric cancer survivors often do not publicly discuss a "cancer survivor identity," they do internalize both positive and negative stereotypes about cancer survivorship. It is important for practitioners to be aware of the long-term implications of cancer survivor identity and stereotypes.

  19. Survivors Versus Non-Survivors Postburn: Differences In Inflammatory and Hypermetabolic Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Kraft, Robert; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a panel of common biomedical markers can be utilized as trajectories to determine survival in pediatric burn patients. Summary Background Data Despite major advances in clinical care, of the more than 1 million people burned in the United States each year, more than 4,500 die as a result of their burn injuries. The ability to predict patient outcome or anticipate clinical trajectories using plasma protein expression would allow personalization of clinical care to optimize the potential for patient survival. Methods Two-hundred thirty severely burned children with burns exceeding 30% of the total body surface, requiring at least one surgical procedure were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Demographics, clinical outcomes, as well as inflammatory and acute-phase responses (serum cytokines, hormones, and proteins) were determined at admission and at 11 time points for up to 180 days postburn. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Chi-square, and Mann-Whitney tests where appropriate. Results Survivors and non-survivors exhibited profound differences in critical markers of inflammation and metabolism at each time point. Non-survivors had significantly higher serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, c-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and bilirubin (p<0.05). Furthermore, non-survivors exhibited a vastly increased hypermetabolic response that was associated with increases in organ dysfunction and sepsis when compared with survivors (p<0.05). Conclusions Non-survivors have different trajectories in inflammatory, metabolic, and acute phase responses allowing differentiation of non-survivors from survivors and now possibly allowing novel predictive models to improve and personalize burn outcomes. PMID:23579577

  20. Primary Care of the Prostate Cancer Survivor.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Erika M; Farrell, Timothy W

    2016-05-01

    This summary of the American Cancer Society Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines targets primary care physicians who coordinate care of prostate cancer survivors with subspecialists. Prostate cancer survivors should undergo prostate-specific antigen screening every six to 12 months and digital rectal examination annually. Surveillance of patients who choose watchful waiting for their prostate cancer should be conducted by a subspecialist. Any hematuria or rectal bleeding must be thoroughly evaluated. Prostate cancer survivors should be screened regularly for urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Patients with predominant urge incontinence symptoms, which can occur after surgical and radiation treatments, may benefit from an anticholinergic agent. If there is difficulty with bladder emptying, a trial of an alpha blocker may be considered. A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor can effectively treat sexual dysfunction following treatment for prostate cancer. Osteoporosis screening should occur before initiation of androgen deprivation therapy, and patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy should be monitored for anemia, metabolic syndrome, and vasomotor symptoms. Healthy lifestyle choices should be encouraged, including weight management, regular physical activity, proper nutrition, and smoking cessation. Primary care physicians should be vigilant for psychosocial distress, including depression, among prostate cancer survivors, as well as the potential impact of this distress on patients' family members and partners. PMID:27175954

  1. Group Intervention for Widowed Survivors of Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, Rose E.; Sekula, L. Kathleen; Rubenstein, Elaine N.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluates the effects of two group interventions, the Bereavement Group Postvention and the Social Group Postvention, on bereavement outcomes in widowed survivors of suicide. The goals were to determine if group interventions would significantly decrease levels of depression, psychological distress, and grief, as well as significantly increase…

  2. Child Survivor of War: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roysircar, Gargi

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the history of a Bosnian survivor of war living in the U.S. using the extended case method. Clinical issues related to acculturative stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, and identity are analyzed. Suggested treatment includes existential therapy and its cognitive--behavioral applications, didactic education on trauma,…

  3. Exercise, inflammation, and fatigue in cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    LaVoy, Emily C.P.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Dantzer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue significantly disrupts normal functioning and quality of life for a substantial portion of cancer survivors, and may persist for years following cancer treatment. While the causes of persistent fatigue among cancer survivors are not yet fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests that several pathways, including chronic inflammation, autonomic imbalance, HPA-axis dysfunction, and/or mitochondrial damage, could contribute towards the disruption of normal neuronal function and result in the symptom of cancer-related fatigue. Exercise training interventions have been shown to be some of the more successful treatment options to address cancer-related fatigue. In this review, we discuss the literature regarding the causes of persistent fatigue in cancer survivors and the mechanisms by which exercise may relieve this symptom. There is still much work to be done until the prescription of exercise becomes standard practice for cancer survivors. With improvements in the quality of studies, evidenced-based exercise interventions will allow exercise scientists and oncologists to work together to treat cancer-related fatigue. PMID:26853557

  4. Suicide Survivors' Perceptions of the Treating Clinician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Erin M.; Luoma, Jason B.; Dunne, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Examines survivors' attitudes and perceptions of the clinicians who treated their loved one at the time of death. The 71 respondents were relatives or friends of individuals who had died of suicide. Only 11% reported that clinicians attempted to contact them before the death. Discusses implications of findings for clinical practice, legal issues,…

  5. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multiple survivors. 102.45 Section 102.45 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION... smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms separately or together....

  6. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple survivors. 102.45 Section 102.45 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION... smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms separately or together....

  7. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple survivors. 102.45 Section 102.45 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION... smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms separately or together....

  8. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple survivors. 102.45 Section 102.45 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION... smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms separately or together....

  9. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple survivors. 102.45 Section 102.45 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION... smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms separately or together....

  10. Examining the Personal Resources of Layoff Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Elizabeth W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the process of burnout and engagement in layoff survivors. Job demands (job insecurity and work overload) and resources (social support, optimism, career adaptability, and career management self-efficacy) were examined as predictors of burnout and engagement. The sample consisted of 203 adults currently working at…

  11. The survivors of childhood solid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.C.; Thompson, E.I.; Simone, J.V. )

    1991-04-01

    With the improvement in cancer therapy in recent years, the number of cancer survivors is rapidly increasing. Potential late medical and psychosocial sequelae of cancer therapy are reviewed. A practical guide for the primary health care giver is provided. 161 refs.

  12. A Spiritual Framework in Incest Survivors Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beveridge, Kelli; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    Through an examination of recent incest treatment development, this article emphasizes the theoretical concept of "integration" within the treatment process for female adult incest survivors. Spirituality as a therapeutic foundation is discussed with examples of therapeutic techniques. A case study illustrates the psycho-spiritual process of…

  13. Suicide Survivors: Psychotherapeutic Implications of Egocide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, David H.

    1976-01-01

    Interviews with seven of 10 known survivors of jumps from the Golden Gate Bridge and San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge revealed all experienced transcendence and spiritual rebirth phenomena. This paper was presented at the 8th International Congress on Suicide Prevention, Jerusalem, October 21, 1975. (Author)

  14. Fertility treatment in male cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kirsten Louise Tryde; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2007-08-01

    The present study reviews the use of assisted reproductive technology in male cancer survivors and their partners. As antineoplastic treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, has the potential of inducing impairment of spermatogenesis through damage of the germinal epithelium, many male cancer survivors experience difficulties in impregnating their partners after treatment. The impairment can be temporary or permanent. While many cancer survivors regain spermatogenesis months to years after treatment, some become infertile with a-, oligo- or azoospermia. An option to secure the fertility potential of young cancer patients is to cryopreserve semen before cancer treatment for later use. A desired pregnancy may be obtained in couples where the husband has a history of cancer, using assisted reproductive technology with either fresh or cryopreserved/thawed semen. Successful outcomes have been obtained with intrauterine insemination (IUI) as well as in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In conclusion, male cancer survivors and their partners who have failed to obtain a pregnancy naturally within a reasonable time frame after end of treatment should be referred to a fertility clinic. PMID:17573855

  15. Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…

  16. Estrogen therapy in gynecological cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Guidozzi, F

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of gynecological cancer has significant impact on a woman's quality of life because it commonly includes removal of the uterus and ovaries, both being the core of a woman's femininity, whilst irradiation and chemotherapy, be they as primary therapy or when indicated as postoperative adjuvant therapy, will lead to ablation of ovarian function if the ovaries had not been removed. This will lead to an acute onset of menopausal symptoms, which may be more debilitating than those occurring as a result of natural aging, and of which hot flushes, night sweats, insomnia, mood swings, vaginal dryness, decreased libido, malaise and a general feeling of apathy are the most common. About 25% of gynecological cancers will occur in pre- and perimenopausal women, a large percentage of whom will become menopausal as a result of their treatment. There are also the gynecological cancer survivors who are not rendered menopausal as a result of the treatment strategy but who will become menopausal because of natural aging. Concern among the medical attendants of these women is whether use of estrogen therapy or estrogen and progestogens for their menopausal symptoms will reactivate tumor deposits and therefore increase the rate of recurrence and, as a result, decrease overall survival among these women. Yet the data that are available do not support this concern. There are eight retrospective studies and only one randomized study that have analyzed outcome in endometrial cancer survivors who used hormone therapy after their surgery, whilst, among ovarian cancer survivors, there are four retrospective studies and one randomized study. The studies do suffer from small numbers and, although the studies pertaining to endometrial cancer analyze mostly women with early-stage disease, a number of the studies in both the endometrial and ovarian cancer survivors do have a sizeable follow-up. These studies seem to support that estrogen therapy after the treatment for gynecological

  17. In aqua vivo EPID dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wendling, Markus; McDermott, Leah N.; Mans, Anton; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Pecharroman-Gallego, Raul; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Stroom, Joep; Herk, Marcel J.; Mijnheer, Ben van

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: At the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital in vivo dosimetry using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been implemented for almost all high-energy photon treatments of cancer with curative intent. Lung cancer treatments were initially excluded, because the original back-projection dose-reconstruction algorithm uses water-based scatter-correction kernels and therefore does not account for tissue inhomogeneities accurately. The aim of this study was to test a new method, in aqua vivo EPID dosimetry, for fast dose verification of lung cancer irradiations during actual patient treatment. Methods: The key feature of our method is the dose reconstruction in the patient from EPID images, obtained during the actual treatment, whereby the images have been converted to a situation as if the patient consisted entirely of water; hence, the method is termed in aqua vivo. This is done by multiplying the measured in vivo EPID image with the ratio of two digitally reconstructed transmission images for the unit-density and inhomogeneous tissue situation. For dose verification, a comparison is made with the calculated dose distribution with the inhomogeneity correction switched off. IMRT treatment verification is performed for each beam in 2D using a 2D {gamma} evaluation, while for the verification of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments in 3D a 3D {gamma} evaluation is applied using the same parameters (3%, 3 mm). The method was tested using two inhomogeneous phantoms simulating a tumor in lung and measuring its sensitivity for patient positioning errors. Subsequently five IMRT and five VMAT clinical lung cancer treatments were investigated, using both the conventional back-projection algorithm and the in aqua vivo method. The verification results of the in aqua vivo method were statistically analyzed for 751 lung cancer patients treated with IMRT and 50 lung cancer patients treated with VMAT. Results: The improvements by

  18. Health Practice in Long-Term Survivors of Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Andrea K. Li Sigui; Recklitis, Christopher; Diller, Lisa R.; Neuberg, Donna; Silver, Barbara; Mauch, Peter M.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the health practice of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) survivors and their siblings, and to assess the impact of socioeconomic status and disease history on health practice of HL survivors. Methods and Materials: We conducted a questionnaire study on long-term HL survivors and their siblings on health care utilization, health habits, and screening behavior. Results: A total of 511 HL survivors (response rate of 50%, including survivors lost to contact) and 224 siblings (response rate, 58%) participated. Median time from HL diagnosis was 15 years. Significantly more survivors than siblings had a physical examination in the past year (63% vs. 49%, p = 0.0001). Male survivors were significantly more likely than siblings to perform monthly self-testicular examinations (19% vs. 9%, p = 0.02). Among survivors, higher household income (p = 0.01) independently predicted for having had a physical examination in the past year. Lower educational level (p = 0.0004) and history of relapsed HL (p = 0.03) were independent predictors for smoking, moderate/heavy alcohol use, and/or physical inactivity. Conclusions: Compared with siblings, long-term HL survivors have a higher level of health care utilization and better screening practice. Survivors from lower socioeconomic background had lower adherence to routine health care and greater report of unhealthy habits. Survivors with history of relapsed HL were also more likely to engage in unhealthy habits.

  19. Reproductive outcomes for survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Melissa M

    2010-11-01

    Because of remarkable progress in therapy, long-term survival is expected for 80% of children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer. Infertility remains one of the most common and life-altering complications experienced by adults treated for cancer during childhood. Surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy that negatively affects any component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis may compromise reproductive outcomes in childhood cancer survivors. The risk of infertility is generally related to the tissues or organs involved in cancer and the specific type, dose, and combination of cytotoxic therapy. In addition to anticancer therapy, age at treatment, sex, and likely genetic factors influence the risk of permanent infertility. When possible, contemporary protocols limit cumulative doses of cytotoxic therapy in an effort to optimize reproductive potential. If sterilizing therapy is required for cancer control, then fertility preservation measures should be explored before initiation of therapy. For childhood cancer survivors who maintain fertility, health risks to offspring resulting from their cancer treatment are major concerns. Radiation affecting ovarian and uterine function has been linked to pregnancy complications, including spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, fetal malposition, and low birth weight. The risk of congenital malformations, genetic disorders, and cancer appears to be low, with the exception of cancer risk in offspring born to survivors with germline cancer-predisposing mutations. This review summarizes research about cancer treatment factors affecting fertility and pregnancy outcomes of childhood cancer survivors. The data presented should facilitate the delivery of preventive counseling and age- and sex-appropriate interventions to optimize reproductive outcomes in childhood cancer survivors.

  20. Breast dosimetry in clinical mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Luis Alberto Do Rego

    The objective of this study was show that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. In the study, AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The protocol proposes the use of a fiber-optic coupled (FOCD) or Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter to measure the entrance skin exposure at the time of the mammogram without interfering with diagnostic information of the mammogram. The study showed that FOCD had sensitivity with less than 7% energy dependence, linear in all tube current-time product stations, and was reproducible within 2%. FOCD was superior to MOSFET dosimeter in sensitivity, reusability, and reproducibility. The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. In addition, the study population anthropometric

  1. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    COOPER, J.R.

    2000-04-17

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  2. Personnel neutron dosimetry at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1980-08-01

    This study assesses the state of personnel neutron dosimetry at DOE facilities. A survey of the personnel dosimetry systems in use at major DOE facilities was conducted, a literature search was made to determine recent advances in neutron dosimetry, and several dosimetry experts were interviewed. It was concluded that personnel neutron dosimeters do not meet current needs and that serious problems exist now and will increase in the future if neutron quality factors are increased and/or dose limits are lowered.

  3. Patient dosimetry in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Sören

    2015-07-01

    In diagnostic nuclear medicine, the biokinetics of the radiopharmaceutical (actually of the radionuclide) is determined for a number of representative patients. At therapy, it is essential to determine the patient's individual biokinetics of the radiopharmaceutical in order to calculate the absorbed doses to critical normal organs/tissues and to the target volume(s) with high accuracy. For the diagnostic situations, there is still a lack of quantitative determinations of the organ/tissue contents of radiopharmaceuticals and their variation with time. Planar gamma camera imaging using the conjugate view technique combined with a limited number of SPECT/CT images is the main method for such studies. In a similar way, PET/CT is used for 3D image-based internal dosimetry for PET substances. The transition from stylised reference phantoms to voxel phantoms will lead to improved dose estimates for diagnostic procedures. Examples of dose coefficients and effective doses for diagnostic substances are given. For the therapeutic situation, a pre-therapeutic low activity administration is used for quantitative measurements of organ/tissue distribution data by a gamma camera or a SPECT- or PET-unit. Together with CT and/or MR images this will be the base for individual dose calculations using Monte Carlo technique. Treatments based on administered activity should only be used if biological variations between patients are small or if a pre-therapeutic activity administration is impossible.

  4. Seventh Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Greene, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    The Seventh Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted March 31-April 10, 1981, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dosimeters from 34 participating agencies were mounted on anthropomorphic phantoms and exposed to a range of low-level dose equivalents (1.5-15.0mSv neutron and 0.1-2.8 mSv gamma) which could be encountered during routine personnel monitoring in mixed radiation fields. The Health Physics Research Reactor, operating in the steady-state mode, served as the source of radiation for two equivalent sets of six separate exposures. Lucite and concrete shields along with the unshielded reactor provided three different neutron and gamma spectra for five of the exposures in each set. Results reported by the participating agencies showed that no single type of neutron dosimeter exhibited acceptable performance characteristics for all mixed-field environments encountered in this study. Film, TLD, and TLD-albed dosimeters were found to be inadequate for neutron dose equivalent measurements when large numbers of slow neutrons are present unless significant corrections are made to measured results. Track dosimeters indicated the least sensitivity to spectral characteristics, but did not always yield to the most accurate results. Gamma dose measurements showed that TLD-700 dosimeters produced significantly more accurate results than film dosimeters which tend to overestimate gamma doses in mixed radiation fields.

  5. EVA dosimetry in manned spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Thomson, I

    1999-12-01

    Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) will become a large part of the astronaut's work on board the International Space Station (ISS). It is already well known that long duration space missions inside a spacecraft lead to radiation doses which are high enough to be a significant health risk to the crew. The doses received during EVA, however, have not been quantified to the same degree. This paper reviews the space radiation environment and the current dose limits to critical organs. Results of preliminary radiation dosimetry experiments on the external surface of the BION series of satellites indicate that EVA doses will vary considerably due to a number of factors such as EVA suit shielding, temporal fluctuations and spacecraft orbit and shielding. It is concluded that measurement of doses to crew members who engage in EVA should be done on board the spacecraft. An experiment is described which will lead the way to implementing this plan on the ISS. It is expected that results of this experiment will help future crew mitigate the risks of ionising radiation in space.

  6. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

  7. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

  8. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

  9. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

  10. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

  11. [Intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons (IORT). Dosimetry problems, first experience].

    PubMed

    Bianciardi, L; Panichelli, V; Benassi, M; Sulprizio, S; Piermattei, A; Azario, L; Arcovito, G; Valentini, V

    1990-10-01

    In this paper, preliminary results on the IORT dosimetry performed on the two radiotherapy centers, "Regina Elena National Cancer Institute" and "S. Cuore Catholic University", are presented. The absolute dosimetry has been performed with ion chambers (ENEA chamber and Markus flat chamber) using a water phantom. The relative measurements have been performed with solid state diodes and radiographic films, calibrated on absolute dosimetry system.

  12. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  13. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  14. A dynamic dosimetry system for prostate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Nathanael; Dehghan, Ehsan; Deguet, Anton; Song, Danny Y.; Prince, Jerry L.; Lee, Junghoon

    2013-03-01

    The lack of dynamic dosimetry tools for permanent prostate brachytherapy causes otherwise avoidable problems in prostate cancer patient care. The goal of this work is to satisfy this need in a readily adoptable manner. Using the ubiquitous ultrasound scanner and mobile non-isocentric C-arm, we show that dynamic dosimetry is now possible with only the addition of an arbitrarily configured marker-based fiducial. Not only is the system easily configured from accessible hardware, but it is also simple and convenient, requiring little training from technicians. Furthermore, the proposed system is built upon robust algorithms of seed segmentation, fiducial detection, seed reconstruction, and image registration. All individual steps of the pipeline have been thoroughly tested, and the system as a whole has been validated on a study of 25 patients. The system has shown excellent results of accurately computing dose, and does so with minimal manual intervention, therefore showing promise for widespread adoption of dynamic dosimetry.

  15. Dosimetry procedures for an industrial irradiation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahn, Ch.

    Accurate and reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a radiation processing plant. γ-Dose measurements were made on the GBS 84 irradiator for food and other products on pallets or in containers. Chemical dosimeters wre exposed in the facility under conditions of the typical plant operation. The choice of the dosimeter systems employed was based on the experience in chemical dosimetry gained over several years. Dose uniformity information was obtained in air, spices, bulbs, feeds, cosmetics, plastics and surgical goods. Most products currently irradiated require dose uniformity which can be efficiently provided by pallet or box irradiators like GBS 84. The radiation performance characteristics and some dosimetry procedures are discussed.

  16. Effect of radiation on age at menopause among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Shimizu, Yukiko; Soda, Midori; Yamada, Michiko; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Hayashi, Mikiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has been thought to induce ovarian failure and premature menopause. Proximally exposed female atomic bomb survivors were reported to experience menopause immediately after the exposure more often than those who were distally exposed. However, it remains unclear whether such effects were caused by physical injury and psychological trauma or by direct effects of radiation on the ovaries. The objective of this study was to see if there are any late health effects associated with the exposure to atomic bomb radiation in terms of age at menopause in a cohort of 21,259 Life Span Study female A-bomb survivors. Excess absolute rates (EAR) of natural and artificial menopause were estimated using Poisson regression. A linear threshold model with a knot at 0.40 Gy [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.62] was the best fit for a dose response of natural menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years = 19.4/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.4, 30.8) and a linear threshold model with a knot at 0.22 Gy (95% CI: 0.14, 0.34) was the best fit for artificial menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years for females who were exposed at age of 20 years = 14.5/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.2, 20.1). Effect modification by attained age indicated that EARs peaked around 50 years of age for both natural and artificial menopause. Although effect modification by age at exposure was not significant for natural menopause, the EAR for artificial menopause tended to be larger in females exposed at young ages. On the cumulative incidence curve of natural menopause, the median age at menopause was 0.3 years younger in females exposed to radiation of 1 Gy compared with unexposed females. The median age was 1 year younger for combined natural and artificial menopause in the same comparison. In conclusion, age at menopause was thought to decrease with increasing radiation dose for both natural and artificial menopause occurring at least 5 years after the exposure.

  17. Effect of radiation on age at menopause among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Shimizu, Yukiko; Soda, Midori; Yamada, Michiko; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Hayashi, Mikiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has been thought to induce ovarian failure and premature menopause. Proximally exposed female atomic bomb survivors were reported to experience menopause immediately after the exposure more often than those who were distally exposed. However, it remains unclear whether such effects were caused by physical injury and psychological trauma or by direct effects of radiation on the ovaries. The objective of this study was to see if there are any late health effects associated with the exposure to atomic bomb radiation in terms of age at menopause in a cohort of 21,259 Life Span Study female A-bomb survivors. Excess absolute rates (EAR) of natural and artificial menopause were estimated using Poisson regression. A linear threshold model with a knot at 0.40 Gy [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.62] was the best fit for a dose response of natural menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years = 19.4/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.4, 30.8) and a linear threshold model with a knot at 0.22 Gy (95% CI: 0.14, 0.34) was the best fit for artificial menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years for females who were exposed at age of 20 years = 14.5/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.2, 20.1). Effect modification by attained age indicated that EARs peaked around 50 years of age for both natural and artificial menopause. Although effect modification by age at exposure was not significant for natural menopause, the EAR for artificial menopause tended to be larger in females exposed at young ages. On the cumulative incidence curve of natural menopause, the median age at menopause was 0.3 years younger in females exposed to radiation of 1 Gy compared with unexposed females. The median age was 1 year younger for combined natural and artificial menopause in the same comparison. In conclusion, age at menopause was thought to decrease with increasing radiation dose for both natural and artificial menopause occurring at least 5 years after the exposure. PMID:21988524

  18. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrović. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G

  19. Holocaust survivors' perspectives on the euthanasia debate.

    PubMed

    Leichtentritt, R D; Rettig, K D; Miles, S H

    1999-01-01

    The paper reports on a qualitative analysis of 15 personal interviews with holocaust survivors in Israel concerning their perceptions of similarities and differences between socially-assisted dying and the holocaust policies. The design of the study was exploratory/descriptive and asked the following questions: "Some discussions have expressed similarities between Nazi Germany and euthanasia. Do you believe the comparison is justified? In what ways are euthanasia and the holocaust similar? In what ways are they different?" Participants concluded that profound differences existed between Nazi Germany and socially assisted dying. These differences were established from four different perspectives in 10 different themes, and demonstrated by 24 different examples of the themes. Informants further cautioned philosophers about comparisons between the holocaust and other human behaviors. The survivors perceived that such a comparison has negative consequences for their own well-being, the dignity of their family members, the next generation and the Israeli society. PMID:10048777

  20. Recent progresses in tritium radioecology and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Davis, P.; Raskob, W.; Melintescu, A.

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, some aspects of recent progress in tritium radioecology and dosimetry are presented, with emphasis on atmospheric releases to terrestrial ecosystems. The processes involved in tritium transfer through the environment are discussed, together with the current status of environmental tritium models. Topics include the deposition and reemission of HT and HTO, models for the assessment of routine and accidental HTO emissions, a new approach to modeling the dynamics of tritium in mammals, the dose consequences of tritium releases and aspects of human dosimetry. The need for additional experimental data is identified, together with the attributes that would be desirable in the next generation of tritium codes. (authors)

  1. Practical neutron dosimetry at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    McCaslin, J.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1980-10-01

    Dosimetry at high energy particle accelerators is discussed with emphasis on physical measurements which define the radiation environment and provide an immutable basis for the derivation of any quantities subsequently required for risk evaluation. Results of inter-laboratory dosimetric comparisons are reviewed and it is concluded that a well-supported systematic program is needed which would make possible detailed evaluations and inter-comparisons of instruments and techniques in well characterized high energy radiation fields. High-energy dosimetry is so coupled with radiation transport that it is clear their study should proceed concurrently.

  2. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  3. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  4. Genetic counseling of the cancer survivor

    SciTech Connect

    Mulvihill, J.J.; Byrne, J.

    1989-02-01

    Each year, tens of thousands of persons are diagnosed with cancer, are treated, and become survivors while still in their reproductive years. Their concerns about possible germ-cell damage as a result of life-saving radiation, chemotherapy, or both are plausible, based on evidence from animal models and from somatic cell mutations in human beings. A 40-year follow-up of survivors of the atomic bomb blasts in Japan showed no detectable genetic damage and suggested that the human gonad is more resistant to radiogenic mutation than the laboratory mouse. The pooled results of studying 12 series of offspring of cancer patients showed a 4% rate of major birth defects (similar to that of the general population) and an excess of fetal loss and low birth weight in offspring of women who received abdominal radiotherapy. According to preliminary evaluation of a new National Cancer Institute collaboration with five cancer registries, offspring of survivors of childhood cancers had no more birth defects than expected and, beyond an increase in probably familial cancers in children younger than 5, no overall increase in childhood cancer. Ideally, genetic and reproductive counseling should take place as soon as cancer is diagnosed (before therapy starts) and again when pregnancy is contemplated. 28 references.

  5. Reduced male fertility in childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hee; Shin, Choong Ho

    2013-12-01

    With advances in cancer treatment, more pediatric cancer patients have increased their life expectancy. Because cancer-related therapy causes various physical and psychological problems, many male survivors experience later problems with thyroid and sexual functions, and with growth. As outcomes have improved, more survivors need to maintain their reproductive function to maximize their long-term quality of life. Cancer and cancer-related treatment can impair fertility by damage to the testes, to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, or to the genitourinary organs. Prior radiation therapy to the testes, the use of alkylating agents, and central hypogonadism further impair fertility in male survivors of childhood cancer. Following any course of chemotherapy, peripubertal maturation, any testicular volume changes, and symptoms of androgen deficiency should be monitored systematically. If patients request fertility testing, spermatogenesis status can be evaluated either directly by semen analysis or indirectly by determination of the levels of testosterone/gonadotropins and by monitoring any changes in testicular volume. According to the patient's condition, semen cryopreservation, hormonal therapy, or assisted reproduction technologies should be provided.

  6. Group intervention for widowed survivors of suicide.

    PubMed

    Constantino, R E; Sekula, L K; Rubinstein, E N

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of two group interventions, the Bereavement Group Postvention (BGP) and the Social Group Postvention (SGP), on the bereavement outcomes in widowed survivors of suicide. The goals were to determine if the group interventions would significantly decrease levels of depression, psychological distress, and grief, as well as significantly increase the level of social adjustment among widowed survivors of suicide. Sixty widowed survivors of suicide were randomized to either the BGP or SGP intervention for 1-1/2 hour weekly sessions over an 8-week period. Study participants were recruited through various media and community referrals and initiated telephone contact with the study investigators. Statistically significant changes were found on all measures when the SGP and the BGP were combined for analyses on posttreatment assessments at 3 to 5 days after completion of the group intervention, and 6 months and 12 months after the intervention. Participants experienced a significant reduction in overall depression, psychological distress, and grief, as well as an increase in social adjustment. Further research with tighter controls of confounding variables as well as the inclusion of a no-treatment control group is indicated. PMID:11775718

  7. Process theology's relevance for older survivors of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Bowland, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Pastoral work with survivors of domestic violence may reveal theological struggles. Understandings of scripture that reinforce a sense of powerlessness and alienation from God may contribute to an impaired relationship and limit resources for healing. One framework for re-imaging a relationship with God is process theology. This framework was applied to a case study for one survivor. The application resulted in a line of inquiry that may assist survivors in their healing process.

  8. Future population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kenichi; Mine, Mariko; Shibata, Yoshisada

    2013-01-01

    The Nagasaki University Atomic Bomb Survivor Database, which was established in 1978 for elucidating the long-term health effects of the atomic bombing, has registered since 1970 about 120,000 atomic bomb survivors with a history of residence in Nagasaki city. Since the number of atomic bomb survivors has steadily been decreasing, prediction of future population is important for planning future epidemiologic studies, and we tried to predict the population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city from 2008 to 2030. In addition, we evaluated our estimated population comparing with the actual number from 2008 to 2011.

  9. Life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Crom, Deborah B; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M; Hudson, Melissa M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, lifelong deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors' physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggest some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population-based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated that life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors' general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population.

  10. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

  11. Computational Techniques of Electromagnetic Dosimetry for Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    There has been increasing public concern about the adverse health effects of human exposure to electromagnetic fields. This paper reviews the rationale of international safety guidelines for human protection against electromagnetic fields. Then, this paper also presents computational techniques to conduct dosimetry in anatomically-based human body models. Computational examples and remaining problems are also described briefly.

  12. Dosimetry implant for treating restenosis and hyperplasia

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh; Gonzales, Gilbert R; Howell, Roger W; Bolch, Wesley E; Adzic, Radoslav

    2014-09-16

    The present invention discloses a method of selectively providing radiation dosimetry to a subject in need of such treatment. The radiation is applied by an implant comprising a body member and .sup.117mSn electroplated at selected locations of the body member, emitting conversion electrons absorbed immediately adjacent selected locations while not affecting surrounding tissue outside of the immediately adjacent area.

  13. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  14. From ``micro`` to ``macro`` internal dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1994-06-01

    Radiation dose is the amount of radiation energy deposited per unit mass of absorbing tissue. Internal dosimetry applies to assessments of dose to internal organs from penetrating radiation sources outside the body and from radionuclides taken into the body. Dosimetry is essential for correlating energy deposition with biological effects that are observed when living tissues are irradiated. Dose-response information provides the basis for radiation protection standards and risk assessment. Radiation interactions with living matter takes place on a microscopic scale, and the manifestation of damage may be evident at the cellular, multi-cellular, and even organ levels of biological organization. The relative biological effectiveness of ionization radiation is largely determined by the spatial distribution of energy deposition events within microscopic as well as macroscopic biological targets of interest. The spatial distribution of energy imparted is determined by the spatial distribution of radionuclides and properties of the emitted charged-particle radiation involved. The nonuniformity of energy deposition events in microscopic volumes, particularly from high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, results in large variations in the amount of energy imparted to very small volumes or targets. Microdosimetry is the study of energy deposition events at the cellular level. Macrodosimetry is a term for conventional dose averaging at the tissue or organ level. In between is a level of dosimetry sometimes referred to as multi-cellular dosimetry. The distinction between these terms and their applications in assessment of dose from internally deposited radionuclides is described.

  15. Dosimetry of an Implantable 252 Californium Source

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, G.D. Jr.

    2001-08-29

    The radiation dose from 252 Californium needles designed for use as a source of neutrons for radiotherapy has been measured. The dosimetry information presented in this paper will enable clinical studies of neutron radiotherapy with 252 Californium needles to be planned and begun.

  16. Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an increased need for after-the fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effect...

  17. Intestinal Obstruction in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Madenci, Arin L.; Fisher, Stacey; Diller, Lisa R.; Goldsby, Robert E.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Sklar, Charles A.; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Yasui, Yutaka; Weldon, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose For adult survivors of childhood cancer, knowledge about the long-term risk of intestinal obstruction from surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is limited. Methods Intestinal obstruction requiring surgery (IOS) occurring 5 or more years after cancer diagnosis was evaluated in 12,316 5-year survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (2,002 with and 10,314 without abdominopelvic tumors) and 4,023 sibling participants. Cumulative incidence of IOS was calculated with second malignant neoplasm, late recurrence, and death as competing risks. Using piecewise exponential models, we assessed the associations of clinical and demographic factors with rate of IOS. Results Late IOS was reported by 165 survivors (median age at IOS, 19 years; range, 5 to 50 years; median time from diagnosis to IOS, 13 years) and 14 siblings. The cumulative incidence of late IOS at 35 years was 5.8% (95% CI, 4.4% to 7.3%) among survivors with abdominopelvic tumors, 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.4%) among those without abdominopelvic tumors, and 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1% to 0.5%) among siblings. Among survivors, abdominopelvic tumor (adjusted rate ratio [ARR], 3.6; 95% CI, 1.9 to 6.8; P < .001) and abdominal/pelvic radiotherapy within 5 years of cancer diagnosis (ARR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.7; P < .001) increased the rate of late IOS, adjusting for diagnosis year; sex; race/ethnicity; age at diagnosis; age during follow-up (as natural cubic spline); cancer type; and chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery within 5 years of cancer diagnosis. Developing late IOS increased subsequent mortality among survivors (ARR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.9; P = .016), adjusting for the same factors. Conclusion The long-term risk of IOS and its association with subsequent mortality underscore the need to promote awareness of this complication among patients and providers. PMID:26261256

  18. Medical problems of survivors of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, H.L.; Von Kaenel, W.E.

    1981-11-01

    The nature of the medical problems that may confront survivors of a nuclear war are discussed with emphasis on infection and the spread of communicable disease. Factors which will increase the risk and severity of infection include: radiation, trauma and burns, malnutrition and starvation, dehydration, exposure, and hardship. Factors which will increase the spread of disease include: crowded shelter conditions, poor sanitation, insects, corpses, free-roaming diseased animals. Shortages of physicians, the destruction of laboratories, and the general disorganization sure to follow the attack will also contribute to the problems. The authors recommend further study in this area. (JMT)

  19. Rearranged Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Gene in Adult-Onset Papillary Thyroid Cancer Amongst Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Mayumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously noted that among atomic bomb survivors (ABS), the relative frequency of cases of adult papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC) was significantly greater in those with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. In contrast, the frequency of PTC cases with point mutations (mainly BRAFV600E) was significantly lower in patients with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. We also found that among ABS, the frequency of PTC cases with no detectable gene alterations in RET, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (NTRK1), BRAF, or RAS was significantly higher in patients with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. However, in ABS with PTC, the relationship between the presence of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fused with other gene partners and radiation exposure has received little study. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the relative frequency of rearranged ALK in ABS with PTC, and with no detectable gene alterations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF, or RAS, would be greater in those having relatively higher radiation exposures. Methods The 105 subjects in the study were drawn from the Life Span Study cohort of ABS of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were diagnosed with PTC between 1956 and 1993. Seventy-nine were exposed (>0 mGy), and 26 were not exposed to A-bomb radiation. In the 25 ABS with PTC, and with no detectable gene alterations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF, or RAS, we examined archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded PTC specimens for rearrangement of ALK using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5′ RACE). Results We found rearranged ALK in 10 of 19 radiation-exposed PTC cases, but none among 6 patients with PTC with no radiation exposure. In addition, solid/trabecular-like architecture in PTC was closely associated with ALK

  20. Long-term adverse outcomes in survivors of childhood bone sarcoma: the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, M M; Frobisher, C; Guha, J; Wong, K; Kelly, J; Winter, D L; Sugden, E; Duncan, R; Whelan, J; Reulen, R C; Hawkins, M M

    2015-01-01

    Background: With improved survival, more bone sarcoma survivors are approaching middle age making it crucial to investigate the late effects of their cancer and its treatment. We investigated the long-term risks of adverse outcomes among 5-year bone sarcoma survivors within the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Methods: Cause-specific mortality and risk of subsequent primary neoplasms (SPNs) were investigated for 664 bone sarcoma survivors. Use of health services, health and marital status, alcohol and smoking habits, and educational qualifications were investigated for survivors who completed a questionnaire. Results: Survivors were seven times more likely to experience all-cause mortality than expected, and there were substantial differences in risk depending on tumour type. Beyond 25 years follow-up the risk of dying from all-causes was comparable to the general population. This is in contrast to dying before 25 years where the risk was 12.7-fold that expected. Survivors were also four times more likely to develop a SPN than expected, where the excess was restricted to 5–24 years post diagnosis. Increased health-care usage and poor health status were also found. Nonetheless, for some psychosocial outcomes survivors were better off than expected. Conclusions: Up to 25 years after 5-year survival, bone sarcoma survivors are at substantial risk of death and SPNs, but this is greatly reduced thereafter. As 95% of all excess deaths before 25 years follow-up were due to recurrences and SPNs, increased monitoring of survivors could prevent mortality. Furthermore, bone and breast SPNs should be a particular concern. Since there are variations in the magnitude of excess risk depending on the specific adverse outcome under investigation and whether the survivors were initially diagnosed with osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcoma, risks need to be assessed in relation to these factors. These findings should provide useful evidence for risk stratification and updating

  1. Young women's management of victim and survivor identities.

    PubMed

    Ovenden, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Images of child sexual abuse survivors have been strongly mediated by professional and self-help ideologies that espouse 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' responses to trauma. Drawing on interviews taken with five self-identified survivors of child sexual abuse, this paper maps the impact of psychological and popular discourses on victim/survivor identities and, in particular, the centrality of themes such as disclosure and 'healing' in accounts from survivors. Investment in these particular versions of recovery has operated to shift the focus of the survivor movement away from its political beginnings, such that private healing has replaced public discontent. As the excerpts from survivors in this paper suggest, the language commonly captured in both therapeutic and popular accounts of trauma may guide and delimit the subject positions available to survivors. Utilising the concept of 'wounded attachment', this paper identifies some of the outcomes associated with internalised notions of healing for survivors, as well as the dilemmas that might be impeding disclosure. PMID:22943483

  2. Resilient Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Cognitive Coping and Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelein, Melissa J.; McElrath, Jo Ann V.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies examined coping strategies associated with resilience in a nonclinical sample of young adult child sexual abuse survivors. Survivors were likely to engage in positive illusions or such cognitive strategies as disclosing and discussing the abuse, minimization, positive reframing, and refusing to dwell on the experience. Results support…

  3. Working with Victims of Persecution: Lessons from Holocaust Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Joanne

    2001-01-01

    Among populations experiencing the trauma and stress of persecution, most is known about Holocaust survivors. Through examining the long-term effects of massive psychic trauma gleaned from research on Holocaust survivors and their children, this article addresses the skills, techniques, and insights about current refugee populations that can be…

  4. Grief Counseling for Survivors of Sudden Death (SOSD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Robert

    This paper describes a program of free, short-term, individual bereavement counseling for survivors of sudden death in Marin County, California. Co-sponsors are Marin Suicide Prevention Center and Marin County Coroner's Office. Most survivors are initially referred to the program by the coroner at the time of certifying cause of death, others are…

  5. Female Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences with Accessing Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…

  6. Complicated Grief and Suicidal Ideation in Adult Survivors of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Ann M.; Kim, Yookyung; Prigerson, Holly G.; Mortimer, Mary Kay

    2005-01-01

    While the prevalence of complicated grief has been demonstrated to be elevated in survivors of suicide, the association between complicated grief and suicidal ideation among adult survivors of suicide has not been explored. The purpose of the present study is to examine the association between complicated grief and suicidal ideation in suicide…

  7. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  8. 5 CFR 843.313 - Elections between survivor annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections between survivor annuities. 843... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.313 Elections between survivor annuities. (a) A current spouse annuity... spouse annuity based on an election under § 842.612 only upon electing this current spouse...

  9. 5 CFR 843.313 - Elections between survivor annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elections between survivor annuities. 843... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.313 Elections between survivor annuities. (a) A current spouse annuity... spouse annuity based on an election under § 842.612 only upon electing this current spouse...

  10. 5 CFR 847.704 - Maximum survivor annuity election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum survivor annuity election. 847... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED... survivor annuity election. The amount of the employee's benefit after reduction for any deficiency...

  11. 5 CFR 847.704 - Maximum survivor annuity election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum survivor annuity election. 847... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED... survivor annuity election. The amount of the employee's benefit after reduction for any deficiency...

  12. 5 CFR 847.704 - Maximum survivor annuity election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum survivor annuity election. 847... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED... survivor annuity election. The amount of the employee's benefit after reduction for any deficiency...

  13. 5 CFR 843.313 - Elections between survivor annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elections between survivor annuities. 843... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.313 Elections between survivor annuities. (a) A current spouse annuity... spouse annuity based on an election under § 842.612 only upon electing this current spouse...

  14. Learning Profiles of Survivors of Pediatric Brain Tumors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkon, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    By 2010 it is predicted that one in 900 adults will be survivors of some form of pediatric cancer. The numbers are somewhat lower for survivors of brain tumors, though their numbers are increasing. Schools mistakenly believe that these children easily fit pre-existing categories of disability. Though these students share some of the…

  15. Survivors of Political Violence: Conceptualizations, Empirical Findings, and Ecological Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanciu, Elena Amalia; Rogers, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    There is a vast body of literature on survivors of political violence that has emerged over the past several decades. Most studies focus on the psychological effects of political violence on survivors, as understood within the Western framework of mental health. Studies that conceptualize and examine models that account for the complexity of the…

  16. 5 CFR 842.613 - Division of a survivor annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 842.613 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Division of a survivor annuity. (a) The maximum combined total of all current and former spouse annuities... survivor annuity may be divided into a combination of former spouse annuities and a current spouse...

  17. US cancer survivors grows to nearly 12 million

    Cancer.gov

    The number of cancer survivors in the United States increased to 11.7 million in 2007, according to a report released by NCI and CDC. There were 3 million cancer survivors in 1971 and 9.8 million in 2001.

  18. Domestic Violence Survivors: Perceived Vocational Supports and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronister, Krista M.; Brown, Chris; O'Brien, Karen M.; Wettersten, Kara B.; Burt, Michelle; Falkenstein, Corrina; Shahane, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Domestic violence survivors encounter numerous barriers and few supports in pursuit of their vocational goals. There is a dearth of research, however, on the vocational supports and barriers salient for survivors. This study aims (a) to assess the psychometric properties of vocational supports and barriers measures with a racially and…

  19. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  20. The Psychospiritual Dynamics of Adult Survivors of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemoncelli, John; Carey, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Discusses challenges in treating adult survivors of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, and how the relationship with God can either psychologically promote healing or maintain an abusive cycle. Argues that clinicians must understand the dynamic bonding process between abuser and survivor and how this relationship is typically transferred to…

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse. A Booklet for First Nations Adult Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Alana; And Others

    This booklet offers information about sources of help for First Nations adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, particularly in Canada. It explains the definition of sexual abuse and describes the specifics of the law regarding such abuse. Descriptions of common aspects of childhood sexual abuse include quotes from adult survivors. Long-term…

  2. Older breast cancer survivors' views and preferences for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Sarah; Lavelle, Katrina

    2009-07-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity improves quality of life and physical functioning among breast cancer patients and survivors. However, previous studies have tended to focus on younger patients, despite higher incidence and lower survival among older breast cancer survivors. In this study we explored physical activity preferences of older breast cancer survivors to inform the development of future targeted interventions. Twenty-nine female breast cancer survivors (1 to 5 years postdiagnosis) aged 59 to 86 (mean 66.54, SD 6.50) took part in either a semistructured interview or a focus group exploring physical activity patterns, motivators, facilitators, barriers, and preferences. The main factors influencing physical activity were body image, weight issues, vitality, mood, and the desire to carry on as normal. Preference was expressed for activities that were gentle, tailored to age and cancer-related abilities, holistic, involving other older breast cancer survivors, and with an instructor who was knowledgeable about both breast cancer and aging.

  3. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia: what's the difference?

    PubMed

    Wolf, Molly R; Nochajski, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and therapeutic issues than survivors of child sexual abuse who have had continuous memory of their abuse. This article first discusses those differences in terms of the moderating risk factors for developing dissociative amnesia (e.g., age, ethnicity, gender, etc.) and then mediating risk factors (e.g., social support, trait dissociativity, etc.). The differences between the two types of survivors are then explored in terms of treatment issues.

  4. Breast cancer survivors' decisions to join a dragon boating team.

    PubMed

    Weisenbach, Beth B; McDonough, Meghan H

    2014-12-01

    Physical activity is associated with psychosocial and physical health benefits for breast cancer survivors. Little is known, however, about survivors' decision-making processes when considering joining group physical activity programs designed for survivors. Guided by interpretive description methodology (Thorne, 2008), N = 15 breast cancer survivors who were considering or had made the decision to join a dragon boating team were interviewed about their decisions to participate. Four patterns of decision making were identified: searching for a way to care for physical and social needs, taking advantage of opportunities created by breast cancer, dove in with little contemplation, and hesitant to connect with other survivors. Results have implications for understanding decisions to participate in physical activity groups in this population and overcoming challenges to participation.

  5. Bone density in survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Jean E; Bilezikian, John P

    2004-01-01

    Advances in combination chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and bone marrow transplantation have resulted in markedly improved survival rates for many children with cancer. Advancements in therapy, however, have led to new concerns, namely long-term consequences of effective treatments. Young adult and adult survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for a number of disorders related to therapy. Specifically, the young adult who has survived cancer, attendant treatments, and their complications is at risk for factors that can lead to suboptimal acquisition of peak bone mass. These factors include chronic illness, nutritional deficiencies, limited physical activity, and treatment with glucocorticoids, multiagent chemotherapy, and radiation. The long-term adverse effects of these therapies on endocrine systems, especially sex steroid and growth hormone deficiencies, are additional risk factors for some patients. After a brief review of the processes associated with acquisition of peak bone mass in the young adult, this article examines the impact of cancer and cancer therapy on bone mineral density in survivors of childhood cancer.

  6. Homicide survivors: research and practice implications.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Marci Feldman; Prothrow-Stith, Deborah; Chery, Clementina

    2005-12-01

    Approximately 16.4 million people in the United States have been affected by homicide. Five million adults have experienced the murder of an immediate family member; 6.6 million people have experienced the murder of a relative other than a family member, and 4.8 million have experienced the murder of a close friend. These homicide survivors experience a variety of difficulties, some similar to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The large incidence of homicide in the U.S. warrants an examination of the research on the impact of a murder on a victim's friends and family and the implications for healthcare providers. Homicide survivors experience negative psychological and physical effects that often result in an increase in the usage of primary care services. Provider training should include protocols to screen for, discuss, and make referrals for the family and friends of homicide victims. This article recommends the development of a training program to equip providers with the tools to recognize and serve this growing population of patients.

  7. Sexual and reproductive health in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Shari; Mulhall, John; Nelson, Christian; Kelvin, Joanne; Dickler, Maura; Carter, Jeanne

    2013-12-01

    As patients live longer after cancer diagnosis and treatment, attention to symptoms and quality of life (QoL) are of increasing importance both during treatment and throughout survivorship. Two complications of multi-modal cancer treatment that can profoundly affect both men and women are sexual dysfunction and infertility. Survivors at highest risk for treatment-related sexual dysfunction are those with tumors that involve the sexual or pelvic organs and those whose treatment affects the hormonal systems mediating sexual function. Sexual dysfunction may not abate without appropriate intervention. Therefore, early identification and treatment strategies are essential. Likewise, multiple factors contribute to the risk of infertility from cancer treatment and many cancer patients of reproductive age would prefer to maintain their fertility, if possible. Fortunately, advances in reproductive technology have created options for young newly diagnosed patients to preserve their ability to have a biologic child. This paper will focus on the sexual and reproductive problems encountered by cancer survivors and discuss some treatment options.

  8. Neutron dosimetry using optically stimulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. D.; Eschbach, P. A.

    1991-06-01

    The addition of thermoluminescent (TL) materials within hydrogenous matrices to detect neutron induced proton recoils for radiation dosimetry is a well known concept. Previous attempts to implement this technique have met with limited success, primarily due to the high temperatures required for TL readout and the low melting temperatures of hydrogen-rich plastics. Research in recent years PNL has produced a new Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technique known as the Cooled Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) that offers, for the first time, the capability of performing extremely sensitive radiation dosimetry at low temperatures. In addition to its extreme sensitivity, the COSL technique offers multiple readout capability, limited fading in a one year period, and the capability of analyzing single grains within a hydrogenous matrix.

  9. Passive particle dosimetry. [silver halide crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, C. B.

    1977-01-01

    Present methods of dosimetry are reviewed with emphasis on the processes using silver chloride crystals for ionizing particle dosimetry. Differences between the ability of various crystals to record ionizing particle paths are directly related to impurities in the range of a few ppm (parts per million). To understand the roles of these impurities in the process, a method for consistent production of high purity silver chloride, and silver bromide was developed which yields silver halides with detectable impurity content less than 1 ppm. This high purity silver chloride was used in growing crystals with controlled doping. Crystals were grown by both the Czochalski method and the Bridgman method, and the Bridgman grown crystals were used for the experiments discussed. The distribution coefficients of ten divalent cations were determined for the Bridgman crystals. The best dosimeters were made with silver chloride crystals containing 5 to 10 ppm of lead; other impurities tested did not produce proper dosimeters.

  10. Neutron dosimetry using optically stimulated luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.D.; Eschbach, P.A.

    1991-06-01

    The addition of thermoluminescent (TL) materials within hydrogenous matrices to detect neutron-induced proton recoils for radiation dosimetry is a well-known concept. Previous attempts to implement this technique have met with limited success, primarily due to the high temperatures required for TL readout and the low melting temperatures of hydrogen-rich plastics. Research in recent years at Pacific Northwest laboratories (PNL) has produced a new Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technique known as the Cooled Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) that offers, for the first time, the capability of performing extremely sensitive radiation dosimetry at low temperatures. In addition to its extreme sensitivity, the COSL technique offers multiple readout capability, limited fading in a one-year period, and the capability of analyzing single grains within a hydrogenous matrix. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Trigeminal neuralgia treatment dosimetry of the Cyberknife

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Anthony; Lo, Anthony T.; Dieterich, Sonja; Soltys, Scott G.; Gibbs, Iris C.; Chang, Steve G.; Adler, John R.

    2012-04-01

    There are 2 Cyberknife units at Stanford University. The robot of 1 Cyberknife is positioned on the patient's right, whereas the second is on the patient's left. The present study examines whether there is any difference in dosimetry when we are treating patients with trigeminal neuralgia when the target is on the right side or the left side of the patient. In addition, we also study whether Monte Carlo dose calculation has any effect on the dosimetry. We concluded that the clinical and dosimetric outcomes of CyberKnife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia are independent of the robot position. Monte Carlo calculation algorithm may be useful in deriving the dose necessary for trigeminal neuralgia treatments.

  12. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  13. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2005-02-25

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database.

  14. Simple optical theory for light dosimetry during PDT (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Steven L.

    1992-06-01

    Photons are one of the three major reactants in the photodynamic reaction that yields toxic photoproduct for cell killing. Dosimetry of light is a major concern when planning a photodynamic therapy (PDT) protocol. This paper presents a very simple approach toward the tissue optics with a practical conclusion about how tissue optics affects planning of day-to-day PDT dosimetry. The paper does not address all the complexities of real tissue dosimetry, such as heterogeneous tissues, variable absorption due to changing tissue blood content, and variable tissue oxygen levels. The paper outlines the optical behavior in a homogeneous tissue, which is a starting point for understanding light dosimetry.

  15. Quantities and units in radiation protection dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, W. A.

    1994-08-01

    A new report, entitled Quantities and Units in Radiation Protection Dosimetry, has recently been published by the international Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. That report (No. 51) aims to provide a coherent system of quantities and units for purposes of measurement and calculation in the assessment of compliance with dose limitations. The present paper provides an extended summary of that report, including references to the operational quantities needed for area and individual monitoring of external radiations.

  16. a Generalized Program for Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy Karl

    The development of monoclonal antibodies specific for tumor surface antigens promises a highly specific carrier medium for delivering a tumorcidal radiation dose. Dosimetry calculations of monoclonal antibodies are made difficult, however, precisely because the focus of radioactivity is targeted for a nonstandard volume in a nonstandard geometry. This precludes straightforward application of the formalism developed for internal radionuclide dosimetry by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee. A software program was written to account for the perturbations introduced by the inclusion of a tumor mass as an additional source of, and target for, radiation. The program allows the interactive development of a mathematical model to account for observed biodistribution data. The model describes the time dependence of radioactivity in each organ system that retains radiolabeled antibody, including tumor. Integration of these "time-activity" curves yield cumulative activity for each organ system identified as a 'source' of radioactivity. A Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport is then executed for each source organ to obtain the fraction of radiation energy absorbed by various 'target' organs. When combined with the cumulative activity, this absorbed fraction allows an estimate of dose to be made for each target organ. The program has been validated against ten analytic models designed to span a range of common input data types. Additionally, a performance benchmark has been defined to assess the practicality of implementing the program on different computing hardware platforms. Sources of error in the computation are elaborated on, and future directions and improvements discussed. The software presents an integrated modeling/dosimetry environment particularly suited for performing Monoclonal Antibody dosimetry. It offers a viable methodology for performing prospective treatment planning, based on extrapolation of tracer kinetic data to therapeutic levels.

  17. Survivors and scientists: Hiroshima, Fukushima, and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 1975-2014.

    PubMed

    Lindee, Susan

    2016-04-01

    In this article, I reflect on the Radiation Effects Research Foundation and its ongoing studies of long-term radiation risk. Originally called the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (1947-1975), the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has carried out epidemiological research tracking the biomedical effects of radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki for almost 70 years. Radiation Effects Research Foundation scientists also played a key role in the assessment of populations exposed at Chernobyl and are now embarking on studies of workers at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. I examine the role of estimating dosimetry in post-disaster epidemiology, highlight how national identity and citizenship have mattered in radiation risk networks, and track how participants interpreted the relationships between nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. Industrial interests in Japan and the United States sought to draw a sharp line between the risks of nuclear war and the risks of nuclear power, but the work of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (which became the basis of worker protection standards for the industry) and the activism of atomic bomb survivors have drawn these two nuclear domains together. This is so particularly in the wake of the Fukushima disaster, Japan's 'third atomic bombing'. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation is therefore a critical node in a complex global network of scientific institutions that adjudicate radiation risk and proclaim when it is present and when absent. Its history, I suggest, can illuminate some properties of modern disasters and the many sciences that engage with them.

  18. Survivors and scientists: Hiroshima, Fukushima, and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 1975-2014.

    PubMed

    Lindee, Susan

    2016-04-01

    In this article, I reflect on the Radiation Effects Research Foundation and its ongoing studies of long-term radiation risk. Originally called the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (1947-1975), the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has carried out epidemiological research tracking the biomedical effects of radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki for almost 70 years. Radiation Effects Research Foundation scientists also played a key role in the assessment of populations exposed at Chernobyl and are now embarking on studies of workers at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. I examine the role of estimating dosimetry in post-disaster epidemiology, highlight how national identity and citizenship have mattered in radiation risk networks, and track how participants interpreted the relationships between nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. Industrial interests in Japan and the United States sought to draw a sharp line between the risks of nuclear war and the risks of nuclear power, but the work of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (which became the basis of worker protection standards for the industry) and the activism of atomic bomb survivors have drawn these two nuclear domains together. This is so particularly in the wake of the Fukushima disaster, Japan's 'third atomic bombing'. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation is therefore a critical node in a complex global network of scientific institutions that adjudicate radiation risk and proclaim when it is present and when absent. Its history, I suggest, can illuminate some properties of modern disasters and the many sciences that engage with them. PMID:27263236

  19. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program.

  20. In vivo dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mijnheer, Ben; Beddar, Sam; Izewska, Joanna; Reft, Chester

    2013-07-15

    In vivo dosimetry (IVD) is in use in external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to detect major errors, to assess clinically relevant differences between planned and delivered dose, to record dose received by individual patients, and to fulfill legal requirements. After discussing briefly the main characteristics of the most commonly applied IVD systems, the clinical experience of IVD during EBRT will be summarized. Advancement of the traditional aspects of in vivo dosimetry as well as the development of currently available and newly emerging noninterventional technologies are required for large-scale implementation of IVD in EBRT. These new technologies include the development of electronic portal imaging devices for 2D and 3D patient dosimetry during advanced treatment techniques, such as IMRT and VMAT, and the use of IVD in proton and ion radiotherapy by measuring the decay of radiation-induced radionuclides. In the final analysis, we will show in this Vision 20/20 paper that in addition to regulatory compliance and reimbursement issues, the rationale for in vivo measurements is to provide an accurate and independent verification of the overall treatment procedure. It will enable the identification of potential errors in dose calculation, data transfer, dose delivery, patient setup, and changes in patient anatomy. It is the authors' opinion that all treatments with curative intent should be verified through in vivo dose measurements in combination with pretreatment checks.

  1. EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel: A review.

    PubMed

    Fattibene, Paola; Callens, Freddy

    2010-11-01

    When tooth enamel is exposed to ionizing radiation, radicals are formed, which can be detected using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel is based on the (presumed) correlation between the intensity or amplitude of some of the radiation-induced signals with the dose absorbed in the enamel. In the present paper a critical review is given of this widely applied dosimetric method. The first part of the paper is fairly fundamental and deals with the main properties of tooth enamel and some of its model systems (e.g., synthetic apatites). Considerable attention is also paid to the numerous radiation-induced and native EPR signals and the radicals responsible for them. The relevant methods for EPR detection, identification and spectrum analyzing are reviewed from a general point of view. Finally, the needs for solid-state modelling and studies of the linearity of the dose response are investigated. The second part is devoted to the practical implementation of EPR dosimetry using enamel. It concerns specific problems of preparation of samples, their irradiation and spectrum acquisition. It also describes how the dosimetric signal intensity and dose can be retrieved from the EPR spectra. Special attention is paid to the energy dependence of the EPR response and to sources of uncertainties. Results of and problems encountered in international intercomparisons and epidemiological studies are also dealt with. In the final section the future of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is analyzed.

  2. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Valverde, N.J.; Da Silva, F.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. PMID:26445332

  3. Static magnetic field therapy: dosimetry considerations.

    PubMed

    Colbert, Agatha P; Markov, Marko S; Souder, James S

    2008-06-01

    The widespread use of static magnetic field (SMF) therapy as a self-care physical intervention has led to the conduct of numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A recent systematic review of SMF trials for pain reduction concluded that the evidence does not support the use of permanent magnets for pain relief. We argue that this conclusion is unwarranted if the SMF dosage was inadequate or inappropriate for the clinical condition treated. The purpose of this communication is to (1) provide a rationale and an explanation for each of 10 essential SMF dosing parameters that should be considered when conducting trials of SMF therapy, and (2) advocate for the conduct of Phase I studies to optimize SMF dosimetry for each condition prior to implementing a large-scale RCT. A previous critical review of SMF dosimetry in 56 clinical studies found that reporting SMF dosages in a majority of those studies was of such poor quality that the magnetic field exposure at the target tissue could not be characterized. Without knowing what magnetic field actually reached the target, it is impossible to judge dosage adequacy. In order to quantify SMF exposure at the site of pathology (target tissue/s), that site must be clearly named; the distance of the permanent magnet surface from the target must be delineated; the physical parameters of the applied permanent magnet must be described; and the dosing regimen must be precisely reported. If the SMF dosimetry is inadequate, any inferences drawn from reported negative findings are questionable.

  4. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Peter G. Groer

    2002-09-29

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model.

  5. Effects of temperature variation on MOSFET dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tsang; Butson, Martin J; Yu, Peter K N

    2004-07-01

    This note investigates temperature effects on dosimetry using a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) for radiotherapy x-ray treatment. This was performed by analysing the dose response and threshold voltage outputs for MOSFET dosimeters as a function of ambient temperature. Results have shown that the clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) MOSFET provides stable dose measurements with temperatures varying from 15 degrees C up to 40 degrees C. Thus standard irradiations performed at room temperature can be directly compared to in vivo dose assessments performed at near body temperature without a temperature correction function. The MOSFET dosimeter threshold voltage varies with temperature and this level is dependent on the dose history of the MOSFET dosimeter. However, the variation can be accounted for in the measurement method. For accurate dosimetry, the detector should be placed for approximately 60 s on a patient to allow thermal equilibrium before measurements are taken with the final reading performed whilst still attached to the patient or conversely left for approximately 120 s after removal from the patient if initial readout was measured at room temperature to allow temperature equilibrium to be established. PMID:15285264

  6. Evaluation of radiochromic gel dosimetry and polymer gel dosimetry in a clinical dose verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, Jan; De Deene, Yves

    2013-09-01

    A quantitative comparison of two full three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry techniques was assessed in a clinical setting: radiochromic gel dosimetry with an in-house developed optical laser CT scanner and polymer gel dosimetry with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To benchmark both gel dosimeters, they were exposed to a 6 MV photon beam and the depth dose was compared against a diamond detector measurement that served as golden standard. Both gel dosimeters were found accurate within 4% accuracy. In the 3D dose matrix of the radiochromic gel, hotspot dose deviations up to 8% were observed which are attributed to the fabrication procedure. The polymer gel readout was shown to be sensitive to B0 field and B1 field non-uniformities as well as temperature variations during scanning. The performance of the two gel dosimeters was also evaluated for a brain tumour IMRT treatment. Both gel measured dose distributions were compared against treatment planning system predicted dose maps which were validated independently with ion chamber measurements and portal dosimetry. In the radiochromic gel measurement, two sources of deviations could be identified. Firstly, the dose in a cluster of voxels near the edge of the phantom deviated from the planned dose. Secondly, the presence of dose hotspots in the order of 10% related to inhomogeneities in the gel limit the clinical acceptance of this dosimetry technique. Based on the results of the micelle gel dosimeter prototype presented here, chemical optimization will be subject of future work. Polymer gel dosimetry is capable of measuring the absolute dose in the whole 3D volume within 5% accuracy. A temperature stabilization technique is incorporated to increase the accuracy during short measurements, however keeping the temperature stable during long measurement times in both calibration phantoms and the volumetric phantom is more challenging. The sensitivity of MRI readout to minimal temperature fluctuations is demonstrated which

  7. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-09-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors.

  8. Second Neoplasms in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Findings From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Anna T.; Friedman, Debra L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Yasui, Yutaka; Inskip, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To review the reports of subsequent neoplasms (SNs) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort that were made through January 1, 2006, and published before July 31, 2008, and to discuss the host-, disease-, and therapy-related risk factors associated with SNs. Patients and Methods SNs were ascertained by survivor self-reports and subsequently confirmed by pathology findings or medical record review. Cumulative incidence of SNs and standardized incidence ratios for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) were calculated. The impact of host-, disease-, and therapy-related risk factors was evaluated by Poisson regression. Results Among 14,358 cohort members, 730 reported 802 SMNs (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers). This represents a 2.3-fold increase in the number of SMNs over that reported in the first comprehensive analysis of SMNs in the CCSS cohort, which was done 7 years ago. In addition, 66 cases of meningioma and 1,007 cases of nonmelanoma skin cancer were diagnosed. The 30-year cumulative incidence of SMNs was 9.3% and that of nonmelanoma skin cancer was 6.9%. Risk of SNs remains elevated for more than 20 years of follow-up for all primary childhood cancer diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, risks differ by SN subtype, but include radiotherapy, age at diagnosis, sex, family history of cancer, and primary childhood cancer diagnosis. Female survivors whose primary childhood cancer diagnosis was Hodgkin's lymphoma or sarcoma and who received radiotherapy are at particularly increased risk. Analyses of risk associated with radiotherapy demonstrated different dose-response curves for specific SNs. Conclusion Childhood cancer survivors are at a substantial and increasing risk for SNs, including nonmelanoma skin cancer and meningiomas. Health care professionals should understand the magnitude of these risks to provide individuals with appropriate counseling and follow-up. PMID:19255307

  9. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrović. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G

  10. Contraceptive Practices Among Female Cancer Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Dominick, Sally A.; McLean, Mamie R.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Gorman, Jessica R.; Mersereau, Jennifer E.; Bouknight, Janet M.; Su, H. Irene

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of contraception between reproductive-aged cancer survivors and women in the general U.S. population. Among survivors, the study examined factors associated with use of contraception and emergency contraception. Methods This study analyzed enrollment data from an ongoing national prospective cohort study on reproductive health after cancer entitled the Fertility Information Research Study. We compared current contraceptive use in survivors with that of the general population ascertained by the 2006–2010 National Survey for Family Growth. Log-binomial regression models estimated relative risks for characteristics associated with use of contraception, World Health Organization tiers I–II (sterilization and hormonal) contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception in survivors. Results Data from 295 survivors (mean age 31.6 ± 5.7 years, range 20–44 years) enrolled in this prospective study (85% response rate) were examined. Age-adjusted rates of using tiers I–II contraceptive methods were lower in survivors than the general population (34% [28.8–40.0] compared with 53% [51.5–54.5], P<.01). Only 56% of survivors reported receiving family planning services (counseling, prescription or procedure related to birth control) since cancer diagnosis. In adjusted analysis, receipt of family planning services was associated with both increased use of tiers I–II contraceptive methods (relative risk 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–1.5) and accessing emergency contraception (relative risk 5.0, 95% CI 1.6–16.3) in survivors. Conclusion Lower rates of using Tiers I–II contraceptive methods were found in reproductive-aged cancer survivors compared to the general population of U.S. women. Exposure to family planning services across the cancer care continuum may improve contraception utilization among these women. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01843140. PMID:26181090

  11. Survivorship education for Latina breast cancer survivors: Empowering Survivors through education

    PubMed Central

    Juarez, Gloria; Mayorga, Lina; Hurria, Arti; Ferrell, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Nueva Luz is an English and Spanish quality of life (QOL) intervention developed to address the educational needs of Latina breast cancer survivors and provide strategies to assist in their transition into survivorship. Methods A qualitative approach was used to evaluate the English and Spanish educational intervention (Nueva Luz). A purposive sample of eight Latina breast cancer survivors was selected from the group who received the intervention to participate in a digitally recorded interview. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Findings provide evidence that the one-on-one tailored approach is a feasible and acceptable method of providing a bilingual psychosocial intervention. The provision of printed bilingual information along with the verbal instruction from a bilingual and culturally competent health care provider can be effective in helping Latina breast cancer survivor’s transition successfully into survivorship, improve QOL and contribute to better patient outcomes Conclusions The study informs our understanding of the cultural context in patient education content and delivery of psychosocial interventions. The findings may also have relevance for other ethnic minority cancer survivors. PMID:24416043

  12. Mindfulness intervention for child abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Magyari, Trish; Langenberg, Patricia; Chesney, Margaret; Berman, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-seven adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse participated in a pilot study comprising an 8-week mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction (MBSR) program and daily home practice of mindfulness skills. Three refresher classes were provided through final follow-up at 24 weeks. Assessments of depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and mindfulness, were conducted at baseline, 4, 8, and 24 weeks. At 8 weeks, depressive symptoms were reduced by 65%. Statistically significant improvements were observed in all outcomes post-MBSR, with effect sizes above 1.0. Improvements were largely sustained until 24 weeks. Of three PTSD symptom criteria, symptoms of avoidance/numbing were most greatly reduced. Compliance to class attendance and home practice was high, with the intervention proving safe and acceptable to participants. These results warrant further investigation of the MBSR approach in a randomized, controlled trial in this patient population.

  13. Suicide survivors: psychotherapeutic implications of egocide.

    PubMed

    Rosen, D H

    1976-01-01

    Interviews with seven of ten known survivors of jumps from the Golden Gate Bridge and San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge revealed that all of them experienced transcendence and spiritual rebirth phenomena. The psychotherapeutic implications of these findings lie in helping depressed and suicidal individuals confront death in a symbolic and meaningful way. The issue is one of "egocide" (symbolic suicide) and aiding individuals in the rebirth process. In this way actual suicides can be prevented. When individuals experience partial "deaths" (like loss, failure, rejection, depression, suicidal states, or negative parts of their egos), there is opportunity for "rebirth" (positive transformation, creative change, growth, and significant spiritual reawakening). The therapeutic task is to help individuals differentiate between "ego death" and total death and to discover through the creative process of psychotherapy that overt suicide need not be a solution.

  14. Bereavement, postdisaster trauma, and behavioral changes in tsunami survivors.

    PubMed

    Suar, Damodar; Das, Sitanshu Sekhar; Alat, Priya

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the death of family members intensifies the survivors' posttraumatic stress and behavioral changes. Data were collected by interviewing 416 adult survivors from nine habitations of the Nagapattinam district in the state of Tamil Nadu in India 14 months after the 2004 tsunami. Compared to those nonbereaved, bereaved survivors reported more posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, negative affect, deteriorated mental health, adverse physical health symptoms, alcohol consumption, family conflicts, and fear. When a tsunami trauma includes death of a loved one, psychological, physical, and behavioral ramifications are especially severe.

  15. Psychiatric Sequelae in Adolescent Bone Marrow Transplantation Survivors

    PubMed Central

    STUBER, MARGARET L.; NADER, KATHLEEN O.

    1995-01-01

    Survivors of life-threatening pediatric illness and their families present a number of psychotherapeutic challenges. The authors present pilot data evaluating the long-term psychiatric impact of pediatric bone marrow transplantation on 10 adolescent transplantation survivors compared with a matched control group. On a quantitative assessment of posttraumatic stress symptoms, the survivors reported a consistent but low level of symptoms. Their narratives about the experience suggest the need for ongoing mental health assessment in addition to specific interventions with families early in the treatment. PMID:22700211

  16. Survivor guilt: analyzing the concept and its contexts.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Sadie P; Hall, Joanne M; Pack, Frankie L

    2015-01-01

    Survivor guilt, a concept associated with the interpersonal process of "surviving" harm while others do not, increasingly appears in nursing, medicine, and psychology literature. Paradoxically, the phenomenon is rarely defined and often poorly described. Combining Rodger's evolutionary concept analysis with a comprehensive literature review, we explain the attributes, antecedents, consequences, related concepts, and surrogate terms of survivor guilt. A new definition emerged from the evolving use of the concept in new contexts. Survivor guilt is a valid form of suffering for which effective interventions need to be developed. This analysis extends the concept, laying the foundation for comprehensive treatment strategies. PMID:25635503

  17. Osteoporosis in survivors of early life starvation.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M; Albury, William R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide evidence for the association of early life nutritional deprivation and adult osteoporosis, in order to suggest that a history of such deprivation may be an indicator of increased risk of osteoporosis in later life. The 'fetal programming' of a range of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in adults was first proposed in the 1990s and more recently extended to disorders of bone metabolism. Localised famines during World War II left populations in whom the long-term effects of maternal, fetal and infantile nutritional deprivation were studied. These studies supported the original concept of 'fetal programming' but did not consider bone metabolism. The present paper offers clinical data from another cohort of World War II famine survivors - those from the Holocaust. The data presented here, specifically addressing the issue of osteoporosis, report on 11 Holocaust survivors in Australia (five females, six males) who were exposed to starvation in early life. The cases show, in addition to other metabolic disorders associated with early life starvation, various levels of osteoporosis, often with premature onset. The cohort studied is too small to support firm conclusions, but the evidence suggests that the risk of adult osteoporosis in both males and females is increased by severe starvation early in life - not just in the period from gestation to infancy but also in childhood and young adulthood. It is recommended that epidemiological research on this issue be undertaken, to assist planning for the future health needs of immigrants to Australia coming from famine affected backgrounds. Pending such research, it would be prudent for primary care health workers to be alert to the prima facie association between early life starvation and adult osteoporosis, and to take this factor into account along with other indicators when assessing a patient's risk of osteoporosis in later life.

  18. Automatic in vivo portal dosimetry of all treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaciregui-Ruiz, I.; Rozendaal, R.; Mijnheer, B.; van Herk, M.; Mans, A.

    2013-11-01

    At our institution EPID (electronic portal imaging device) dosimetry is routinely applied to perform in vivo dose verification of all patient treatments with curative intent since January 2008. The major impediment of the method has been the amount of work required to produce and inspect the in vivo dosimetry reports (a time-consuming and labor-intensive process). In this paper we present an overview of the actions performed to implement an automated in vivo dosimetry solution clinically. We reimplemented the EPID dosimetry software and modified the acquisition software. Furthermore, we introduced new tools to periodically inspect the record-and-verify database and automatically run the EPID dosimetry software when needed. In 2012, 95% of our 3839 treatments scheduled for in vivo dosimetry were analyzed automatically (27 633 portal images of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) fields, 5551 portal image data of VMAT arcs, and 2003 portal images of non-IMRT fields). The in vivo dosimetry verification results are available a few minutes after delivery and alerts are immediately raised when deviations outside tolerance levels are detected. After the clinical introduction of this automated solution, inspection of the detected deviations is the only remaining work. These newly developed tools are a major step forward towards full integration of in vivo EPID dosimetry in radiation oncology practice.

  19. Neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations for HFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T.

    1998-03-01

    Neutron dosimetry measurements have been conducted for various positions of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in order to measure the neutron flux and energy spectra. Neutron dosimetry results and radiation damage calculations are presented for positions V10, V14, and V15.

  20. [Instrumental radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation dosimetry: general principals and modern methodology].

    PubMed

    Perov, S Iu; Kudriashov, Iu B; Rubtsova, N B

    2012-01-01

    The modern experimental radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry approach has been considered. The main principles of specific absorbed rate measurement are analyzed for electromagnetic field biological effect assessment. The general methodology of specific absorbed rate automated dosimetry system applied to establish the compliance of radiation sources with the safety standard requirements (maximum permissible levels and base restrictions) is described.

  1. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Fantuzzi, E; Harrison, R; Schuhmacher, H; Vanhavere, F; Alves, J; Bottollier Depois, J F; Fattibene, P; Knežević, Ž; Lopez, M A; Mayer, S; Miljanić, S; Neumaier, S; Olko, P; Stadtmann, H; Tanner, R; Woda, C

    2016-02-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises-based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members-five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS website (www.eurados.org). PMID:25752758

  2. Dosimetry Methods of Fast Neutron Using the Semiconductor Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. Zaki, Dizaji; Kakavand, T.; F. Abbasi, Davani

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors based on a silicon pin diode are frequently used in the detection of different nuclear radiations. For the detection and dosimetry of fast neutrons, these silicon detectors are coupled with a fast neutron converter. Incident neutrons interact with the converter and produce charged particles that can deposit their energy in the detectors and produce a signal. In this study, three methods are introduced for fast neutron dosimetry by using the silicon detectors, which are: recoil proton spectroscopy, similarity of detector response function with conversion function, and a discriminator layer. Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the response of dosimetry systems based on these methods. In the different doses of an 241Am-Be neutron source, dosimetry responses are evaluated. The error values of measured data for dosimetry by these methods are in the range of 15-25%. We find fairly good agreement in the 241Am-Be neutron sources.

  3. Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, J C; Jacob, P; Meckbach, R; Cullings, H M

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer risk from radiation exposure has been analyzed in the cohort of Japanese a-bomb survivors using empirical models and mechanistic two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) models with incidence data from 1958 to 1998. TSCE models rely on a phenomenological representation of cell transition processes on the path to cancer. They describe the data as good as empirical models and this fact has been exploited for risk assessment. Adequate models of both types have been selected with a statistical protocol based on parsimonious parameter deployment and their risk estimates have been combined using multi-model inference techniques. TSCE models relate the radiation risk to cell processes which are controlled by age-increasing rates of initiating mutations and by changes in hormone levels due to menopause. For exposure at young age, they predict an enhanced excess relative risk (ERR) whereas the preferred empirical model shows no dependence on age at exposure. At attained age 70, the multi-model median of the ERR at 1 Gy decreases moderately from 1.2 Gy(-1) (90% CI 0.72; 2.1) for exposure at age 25 to a 30% lower value for exposure at age 55. For cohort strata with few cases, where model predictions diverge, uncertainty intervals from multi-model inference are enhanced by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to the preferred empirical model. Multi-model inference provides a joint risk estimate from several plausible models rather than relying on a single model of choice. It produces more reliable point estimates and improves the characterization of uncertainties. The method is recommended for risk assessment in practical radiation protection.

  4. Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, J C; Jacob, P; Meckbach, R; Cullings, H M

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer risk from radiation exposure has been analyzed in the cohort of Japanese a-bomb survivors using empirical models and mechanistic two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) models with incidence data from 1958 to 1998. TSCE models rely on a phenomenological representation of cell transition processes on the path to cancer. They describe the data as good as empirical models and this fact has been exploited for risk assessment. Adequate models of both types have been selected with a statistical protocol based on parsimonious parameter deployment and their risk estimates have been combined using multi-model inference techniques. TSCE models relate the radiation risk to cell processes which are controlled by age-increasing rates of initiating mutations and by changes in hormone levels due to menopause. For exposure at young age, they predict an enhanced excess relative risk (ERR) whereas the preferred empirical model shows no dependence on age at exposure. At attained age 70, the multi-model median of the ERR at 1 Gy decreases moderately from 1.2 Gy(-1) (90% CI 0.72; 2.1) for exposure at age 25 to a 30% lower value for exposure at age 55. For cohort strata with few cases, where model predictions diverge, uncertainty intervals from multi-model inference are enhanced by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to the preferred empirical model. Multi-model inference provides a joint risk estimate from several plausible models rather than relying on a single model of choice. It produces more reliable point estimates and improves the characterization of uncertainties. The method is recommended for risk assessment in practical radiation protection. PMID:21947564

  5. What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available ... Print-Friendly Page April 2016 The Impact of Breast Cancer Other than skin cancer, breast cancer is the ...

  6. Restoring rape survivors: justice, advocacy, and a call to action.

    PubMed

    Koss, Mary P

    2006-11-01

    Rape results in mental and physical health, social, and legal consequences. For the latter, restorative justice-based programs might augment community response, but they generate controversy among advocates and policy makers. This article identifies survivors' needs and existing community responses to them. Survivors feel their legal needs are most poorly met due to justice system problems that can be summarized as attrition, retraumatization, and disparate treatment across gender, class, and ethnic lines. Empirical data support each problem and the conclusion that present justice options are inadequate. The article concludes by identifying common ground in advocacy and restorative justice goals and calls for a holistic approach to the needs of rape survivors that includes advocating for expanded justice alternatives. A call to action is issued to implement restorative alternatives to expand survivor choice and offender accountability. Conventional and restorative justice are often viewed as mutually exclusive whereas the author argues they are complementary.

  7. 5 CFR 831.645 - Elections between survivor annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CSRS, or any other retirement system for Government employees, by reason of the remarriage; and (2) Any...” does not include Survivor Benefit Payments from a military retirement system or social...

  8. The Right Balance: Helping Cancer Survivors Achieve a Healthy Weight

    Cancer.gov

    An article about interventions that aim to help survivors maintain a healthy weight to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and death and decrease the likelihood of chronic and late effects of cancer treatment.

  9. Quality of Life in Younger Leukemia and Lymphoma Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-08-23

    Anxiety Disorder; Cancer Survivor; Fatigue; Leukemia; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults; Lymphoma; Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Pain; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Small Intestine Cancer

  10. Tips for Survivors of a Traumatic Event: Managing Your Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Survivors of a Traumatic Event Managing Your Stress Know When to Get Help Sometimes things become ... anger, or desires revenge; or shows signs of stress (listed on this page) for several days or ...

  11. 5 CFR 837.603 - Increased survivor benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Supplemental survivor annuity. (1) If an annuitant reemployed subject to the provisions of this part dies while... dies while so reemployed, and the annuitant would have been entitled to elect a redetermined...

  12. Survivorship Care in Reducing Symptoms in Young Adult Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Breast Carcinoma; Cancer Survivor; Depression; Fatigue; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Malignant Bone Neoplasm; Malignant Digestive System Neoplasm; Malignant Female Reproductive System Neoplasm; Malignant Male Reproductive System Neoplasm; Pain; Sleep Disorder; Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  13. Aspects of mental health dysfunction among survivors of childhood cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Miranda M; Ziff, Oliver J; Wang, Sarra; Cave, Joshua; Janardhanan, Pradeep; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Mehta, Susan; Jenkinson, Helen; Frobisher, Clare; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some previous studies have reported that survivors of childhood cancer are at an increased risk of developing long-term mental health morbidity, whilst others have reported that this is not the case. Therefore, we analysed 5-year survivors of childhood cancer using the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) to determine the risks of aspects of long-term mental health dysfunction. Procedure: Within the BCCSS, 10 488 survivors completed a questionnaire that ascertained mental health-related information via 10 questions from the Short Form-36 survey. Internal analyses were conducted using multivariable logistic regression to determine risk factors for mental health dysfunction. External analyses were undertaken using direct standardisation to compare mental health dysfunction in survivors with UK norms. Results: This study has shown that overall, childhood cancer survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of mental health dysfunction for 6/10 questions analysed compared to UK norms. Central nervous system (CNS) and bone sarcoma survivors reported the greatest dysfunction, compared to expected, with significant excess dysfunction in 10 and 6 questions, respectively; the excess ranged from 4.4–22.3% in CNS survivors and 6.9–15.9% in bone sarcoma survivors. Compared to expected, excess mental health dysfunction increased with attained age; this increase was greatest for reporting ‘limitations in social activities due to health', where the excess rose from 4.5% to 12.8% in those aged 16–24 and 45+, respectively. Within the internal analyses, higher levels of educational attainment and socio-economic classification were protective against mental health dysfunction. Conclusions: Based upon the findings of this large population-based study, childhood cancer survivors report significantly higher levels of mental health dysfunction than those in the general population, where deficits were observed particularly among CNS and bone sarcoma

  14. Improving neutron dosimetry using bubble detector technology

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.A.

    1993-02-01

    Providing accurate neutron dosimetry for a variety of neutron energy spectra is a formidable task for any dosimetry system. Unless something is known about the neutron spectrum prior to processing the dosimeter, the calculated dose may vary greatly from that actually encountered; that is until now. The entrance of bubble detector technology into the field of neutron dosimetry has eliminated the necessity of having an a priori knowledge of the neutron energy spectra. Recently, a new approach in measuring personnel neutron dose equivalent was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. By using bubble detectors in combination with current thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as a Combination Personnel Neutron Dosimeter (CPND), not only is it possible to provide accurate dose equivalent results, but a simple four-interval neutron energy spectrum is obtained as well. The components of the CPND are a Harshaw albedo TLD and two bubble detectors with theoretical energy thresholds of 100 key and 1500 keV. Presented are (1) a synoptic history surrounding emergence of bubble detector technology, (2) a brief overview of the current theory on mechanisms of interaction, (3) the data and analysis process involved in refining the response functions, (4) performance evaluation of the original CPND and a reevaluation of the same data under the modified method, (5) the procedure used to determine the reference values of component fluence and dose equivalent for field assessment, (6) analysis of the after-modification results, (7) a critique of some currently held assumptions, offering some alternative explanations, and (8) thoughts concerning potential applications and directions for future research.

  15. Model selection for radiochromic film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, I.

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the most accurate model for radiochromic film dosimetry by comparing different channel independent perturbation models. A model selection approach based on (algorithmic) information theory was followed, and the results were validated using gamma-index analysis on a set of benchmark test cases. Several questions were addressed: (a) whether incorporating the information of the non-irradiated film, by scanning prior to irradiation, improves the results; (b) whether lateral corrections are necessary when using multichannel models; (c) whether multichannel dosimetry produces better results than single-channel dosimetry; (d) which multichannel perturbation model provides more accurate film doses. It was found that scanning prior to irradiation and applying lateral corrections improved the accuracy of the results. For some perturbation models, increasing the number of color channels did not result in more accurate film doses. Employing Truncated Normal perturbations was found to provide better results than using Micke-Mayer perturbation models. Among the models being compared, the triple-channel model with Truncated Normal perturbations, net optical density as the response and subject to the application of lateral corrections was found to be the most accurate model. The scope of this study was circumscribed by the limits under which the models were tested. In this study, the films were irradiated with megavoltage radiotherapy beams, with doses from about 20-600 cGy, entire (8 inch  × 10 inch) films were scanned, the functional form of the sensitometric curves was a polynomial and the different lots were calibrated using the plane-based method.

  16. Nuclear war in human perspective: a survivor's report

    SciTech Connect

    Thurlow, S.

    1982-10-01

    A first-hand account of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, as it was experienced by a 13-year-old girl, is presented. The experience is considered in terms of the physical, social, and psychological consequences--and the interaction among them--for the survivors. The role of the survivors in the move to abolish nuclear weapons, and the significance of that role in their own psychological recovery, is emphasized.

  17. Caring for breast cancer survivors in primary care.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Kathryn; Stouder, April

    2016-10-01

    Women with a history of breast cancer compose the largest group of cancer survivors. Physician assistants and nurse practitioners can play a key role in caring for cancer survivors in primary care settings. This article provides a brief overview and synthesis of current breast cancer guidelines, other resources, and clinical observations that may help primary care providers to translate plans developed by oncology specialists into primary care delivery. PMID:27623290

  18. Trauma in children of Holocaust survivors: transgenerational effects.

    PubMed

    Sorscher, N; Cohen, L J

    1997-07-01

    The effect of parental Holocaust trauma on their children's Jewish identity and Holocaust-related ideation was investigated by comparing survivors' children with children of American Jews. Parental communication style as a possible mediating factor was also assessed. Children of survivors showed significantly more Holocaust ideation than did those of American Jews, but did not differ appreciably on measures of Jewish identity. Parental communication style was associated with ethnic identification, suggesting its mediating influence on the transgenerational effects of parental trauma.

  19. Ageing Jewish Holocaust survivors: anxieties in dealing with health professionals.

    PubMed

    Joffe, H I; Joffe, C F; Brodaty, H

    1996-11-01

    Jewish Holocaust survivors who emigrated to Australia after World War II are ageing and having more frequent contact with health services. Health professionals often lack the knowledge, training, skill or personal assurance to deal with the effects of massive trauma. Increased awareness of and sensitivity to older Holocaust survivors can lessen their anxieties and, potentially, improve treatment outcome. Such experience may form a useful lesson for health professionals in dealing with refugees from other atrocities as they age.

  20. Brain structural plasticity in survivors of a major earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Su; Chen, Long; Yao, Li; Xiao, Yuan; Wu, Qi-Zhu; Zhang, Jun-Ran; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yu-Qin; Chen, Hua-Fu; Chan, Raymond C.K.; Sweeney, John A.; Gong, Qi-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress responses have been studied extensively in animal models, but effects of major life stress on the human brain remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether survivors of a major earthquake, who were presumed to have experienced extreme emotional stress during the disaster, demonstrate differences in brain anatomy relative to individuals who have not experienced such stressors. Methods Healthy survivors living in an area devastated by a major earthquake and matched healthy controls underwent 3-dimentional high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Survivors were scanned 13–25 days after the earthquake; controls had undergone MRI for other studies not long before the earthquake. We used optimized voxel-based morphometry analysis to identify regional differences of grey matter volume between the survivors and controls. Results We included 44 survivors (17 female, mean age 37 [standard deviation (SD) 10.6] yr) and 38 controls (14 female, mean age 35.3 [SD 11.2] yr) in our analysis. Compared with controls, the survivors showed significantly lower grey matter volume in the bilateral insula, hippocampus, left caudate and putamen, and greater grey matter volume in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and the parietal lobe (all p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparison). Limitations Differences in the variance of survivor and control data could impact study findings. Conclusion Acute anatomic alterations could be observed in earthquake survivors in brain regions where functional alterations after stress have been described. Anatomic changes in the present study were observed earlier than previously reported and were seen in prefrontal–limbic, parietal and striatal brain systems. Together with the results of previous functional imaging studies, our observations suggest a complex pattern of human brain response to major life stress affecting brain systems that modulate and respond to heightened affective arousal. PMID

  1. Characterization of new materials for fiberoptic dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, P.; Santiago, M.; Marcassó, J.; Caselli, E.; Prokic, M.; Khaidukov, N.; Furetta, C.

    2011-09-01

    In this work we have investigated the radioluminescence (RL) characteristics of three materials (Mg2SiO4:Tb, CsY2F7:Tb and KMgF3:Sm) in order to determine whether they can be used as real time dosimeters in the the framework the fiberoptic dosimetry (FOD) technique. This technique is based on the use of scintillating materials coupled to the end of an optical fiber, which collects the light emitted by the scintillator during irradiation. Since usually the intensity of the emitted light is proportional to the dose-rate, the technique provides a reliable measuring method, which can be employed in radiotherapy treatments.

  2. Neutron dosimetry of the Little Boy device

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, R.A.; Plassmann, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron dose rates at several angular locations and at distances out to 0.5 mile have been measured during critical operation of the Little Boy replica. We used modified remmetes and thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques for the measurements. The present status of our analysis is presented including estimates of the neutron-dose-relaxation length in air and the variation of the neutron-to-gamma-ray dose ratio with distance from the replica. These results are preliminary and are subject to detector calibration measurements.

  3. Proton minibeam radiation therapy: Experimental dosimetry evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Peucelle, C.; Martínez-Rovira, I.; Prezado, Y.; Nauraye, C.; Patriarca, A.; Hierso, E.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) is a new radiotherapy (RT) approach that allies the inherent physical advantages of protons with the normal tissue preservation observed when irradiated with submillimetric spatially fractionated beams. This dosimetry work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the technical implementation of pMBRT. This has been performed at the Institut Curie - Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods: Proton minibeams (400 and 700 μm-width) were generated by means of a brass multislit collimator. Center-to-center distances between consecutive beams of 3200 and 3500 μm, respectively, were employed. The (passive scattered) beam energy was 100 MeV corresponding to a range of 7.7 cm water equivalent. Absolute dosimetry was performed with a thimble ionization chamber (IBA CC13) in a water tank. Relative dosimetry was carried out irradiating radiochromic films interspersed in a IBA RW3 slab phantom. Depth dose curves and lateral profiles at different depths were evaluated. Peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDR), beam widths, and output factors were also assessed as a function of depth. Results: A pattern of peaks and valleys was maintained in the transverse direction with PVDR values decreasing as a function of depth until 6.7 cm. From that depth, the transverse dose profiles became homogeneous due to multiple Coulomb scattering. Peak-to-valley dose ratio values extended from 8.2 ± 0.5 at the phantom surface to 1.08 ± 0.06 at the Bragg peak. This was the first time that dosimetry in such small proton field sizes was performed. Despite the challenge, a complete set of dosimetric data needed to guide the first biological experiments was achieved. Conclusions: pMBRT is a novel strategy in order to reduce the side effects of RT. This works provides the experimental proof of concept of this new RT method: clinical proton beams might allow depositing a (high) uniform dose in a brain tumor located in the center of the brain (7.5 cm depth

  4. The next decade in external dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1986-10-01

    As the radiation protection community moves through the last half of the '80s and into the next decade, we can expect the requirements for external dosimetry to become increasingly more restrictive and demanding. As in other health protection fields, growing regulatory and legal pressures, together with a natural evolution in philosophy, require the health physicist to display an increasing degree of accountability, rigor, and professionalism. The good news is that, for the most part, the technology necessary to solve many of the problems will be available or not far behind. This paper describes anticipated technology. 66 refs., 10 figs.

  5. USF/Russian dosimetry on STS-57

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The major purpose of this experiment was to conduct an international comparison of passive dosimetry methods in space. Two APD's were flown in the charged particle directional spectrometer (CPDS)/tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) locker on the space shuttle during the STS-57 mission. Due to placement, the shielding and radiation environment of the APD's were nearly the same and the dosimeters distributed in the two boxes can be considered equally exposed. The dosimeter types included plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's), thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), nuclear emulsions, and thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND's). The USF dosimeters included PNTD's, TLD's, and TRND's, while the Russian dosimeters included PNTD's, TLD's, and nuclear emulsions.

  6. Physical performance limitations in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Ness, Kirsten K; Hudson, Melissa M; Ginsberg, Jill P; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Kaste, Sue C; Marina, Neyssa; Whitton, John; Robison, Leslie L; Gurney, James G

    2009-05-10

    Physical performance limitations are one of the potential long-term consequences following diagnosis and treatment for childhood cancer. The purpose of this review is to describe the risk factors for and the participation restrictions that result from physical performance limitations among childhood cancer survivors who participated in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Articles previously published from the CCSS cohort related to physical performance limitations were reviewed and the results summarized. Our review showed that physical performance limitations are prevalent among childhood cancer survivors and may increase as they age. Host-based risk factors for physical disability include an original diagnosis of bone tumor, brain tumor, or Hodgkin's disease; female sex; and an income less than $20,000 per year. Treatment-based risk factors include radiation and treatment with a combination of alkylating agents and anthracyclines. Musculoskeletal, neurologic, cardiac, pulmonary, sensory, and endocrine organ system dysfunction also increase the risk of developing a physical performance limitation. In summary, monitoring of physical performance limitations in an aging cohort of childhood cancer survivors is important and will help determine the impact of physical performance limitations on morbidity, mortality, and caregiver burden. In addition, in developing restorative and preventive interventions for childhood cancer survivors, we must take into account the special needs of survivors with physical disability to optimize their health and enhance participation in daily living activities. PMID:19332713

  7. Perceptions of Support Among Older African American Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jill B.; Moore, Charles E.; Powe, Barbara D.; Agarwal, Mansi; Martin, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To explore the perceived social support needs among older adult African American cancer survivors. Research Approach Qualitative design using grounded theory techniques. Setting Outpatient oncology clinics in the southeastern United States. Participants Focus groups with 22 older adult African American cancer survivors. Methodologic Approach Purposeful sampling technique was used to identify focus group participants. In-depth interviews were conducted and participants were interviewed until informational redundancy was achieved. Main Research Variables Social support needs of older adult African American patients with cancer. Findings Social support was influenced by (a) symptoms and treatment side effects, (b) perceptions of stigma and fears expressed by family and friends, (c) cultural beliefs about cancer, and (d) desires to lessen any burden or disruption to the lives of family and friends. Survivors navigated within and outside of their networks to get their social support needs met. In some instances, survivors socially withdrew from traditional sources of support for fear of being ostracized. Survivors also described feeling hurt, alone, and socially isolated when completely abandoned by friends. Conclusions The support from family, friends, and fellow church members is important to positive outcomes among older African American cancer survivors. However, misconceptions, fears, and negative cultural beliefs persist within the African American community and negatively influence the social support available to this population. Interpretations Early identification of the factors that influence social support can facilitate strategies to improve outcomes and decrease health disparities among this population. PMID:20591808

  8. A review of breast cancer survivorship issues from survivors' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jihyoung; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Jung Eun; Shim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Nam Hyoung; Kim, Zisun; Sohn, Guiyun; Youn, Hyun Jo; Kim, Ku Sang; Kim, Hanna; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Min Hyuk

    2014-09-01

    Despite the fact that more breast cancer survivors are currently enjoying longer lifespans, there remains limited knowledge about the factors and issues that are of greatest significance for these survivors, particularly from their perspectives. This review was based on the concept that the topics addressed should focus on the perspectives of current survivors and should be extended to future modalities, which physicians will be able to use to gain a better understanding of the hidden needs of these patients. We intended to choose and review dimensions other than the pathology and the disease process that could have been overlooked during treatment. The eight topics upon which we focused included: delay of treatment and survival outcome; sexual well-being; concerns about childbearing; tailored follow-up; presence of a family history of breast cancer; diet and physical activity for survivors and their families; qualitative approach toward understanding of breast cancer survivorship, and; mobile health care for breast cancer survivors. Through this review, we aimed to examine the present clinical basis of the central issues noted from the survivors' perspectives and suggest a direction for future survivorship-related research.

  9. Childhood cancer survivor care: development of the Passport for Care.

    PubMed

    Poplack, David G; Fordis, Michael; Landier, Wendy; Bhatia, Smita; Hudson, Melissa M; Horowitz, Marc E

    2014-12-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk of long-term adverse effects and late effects of the disease and/or its treatment. In response to national recommendations to improve evidence-based follow-up care, a web-based support system for clinical decision making, the Passport for Care (PFC), was developed for use at the point of care to produce screening recommendations individualized to the survivor. To date, the PFC has been implemented in over half of the nearly 200 clinics affiliated with the Children's Oncology Group across the USA. Most clinician users report that the PFC has been integrated into clinic workflows, and that it fosters improved conversations with survivors about the potential late effects a survivor might experience and about the screening and/or behavioural interventions recommended to improve health status. Furthermore, clinicians using the PFC have indicated that they adhered more closely to follow-up care guidelines. Perspectives on the challenges encountered and lessons learned during the development and deployment of the PFC are reviewed and contrasted with other nationwide approaches to the provision of guidance on survivor follow-up care; furthermore, the implications for the care of childhood cancer survivors are discussed.

  10. Surveillance and Care of the Gynecologic Cancer Survivor

    PubMed Central

    MacLaughlin, Kathy L.; Long, Margaret E.; Pruthi, Sandhya; Casey, Petra M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Care of the gynecologic cancer survivor extends beyond cancer treatment to encompass promotion of sexual, cardiovascular, bone, and brain health; management of fertility, contraception, and vasomotor symptoms; and genetic counseling. Methods: This is a narrative review of the data and guidelines regarding care and surveillance of the gynecologic cancer survivor. We searched databases including PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus using the search terms gynecologic cancer, cancer surveillance, and cancer survivor and reached a consensus for articles chosen for inclusion in the review based on availability in the English language and publication since 2001, as well as key older articles, consensus statements, and practice guidelines from professional societies. However, we did not undertake an extensive systematic search of the literature to identify all potentially relevant studies, nor did we utilize statistical methods to summarize data. We offer clinical recommendations for the management of gynecologic cancer survivors based on review of evidence and our collective clinical experience. Results: Key messages include the limitations of laboratory studies, including CA-125, and imaging in the setting of gynecologic cancer surveillance, hormonal and non-hormonal management of treatment-related vasomotor symptoms and genitourinary syndrome of menopause, as well as recommendations for general health screening, fertility preservation, and contraception. Conclusions: A holistic approach to care extending beyond cancer treatment alone benefits gynecologic cancer survivors. In addition to surveillance for cancer recurrence and late treatment side effects, survivors benefit from guidance on hormonal, contraceptive, and fertility management and promotion of cardiovascular, bone, brain, and sexual health. PMID:26208166

  11. Dissociative symptoms and amnesia in Dutch concentration camp survivors.

    PubMed

    Merckelbach, Harald; Dekkers, Theo; Wessel, Ineke; Roefs, Anne

    2003-01-01

    We examined to what extent dissociative phenomena in concentration camp survivors are related to post-traumatic stress symptoms. Self-reports of amnesia for traumatic war events and other dissociative experiences were studied in a sample of 31 Dutch survivors of World War II (WWII) Japanese concentration camps. Seventeen survivors treated for war-related psychiatric symptoms were compared to 14 concentration camp survivors who had no psychiatric diagnosis. Although survivors who received treatment scored significantly higher on the Impact of Event Scale and the Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale than control survivors, the two groups did not differ in terms of accessibility of war memories or dissociative experiences. Levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms were not significantly correlated with dissociative experiences. In both groups, reports of psychogenic amnesia for traumatic events were rare. Our results support previous studies demonstrating that post-traumatic stress symptoms are not necessarily accompanied by dissociative experiences. They also contradict the suggestion that amnesia is a common phenomenon in people who have been exposed to war atrocities.

  12. A review of breast cancer survivorship issues from survivors' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jihyoung; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Jung Eun; Shim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Nam Hyoung; Kim, Zisun; Sohn, Guiyun; Youn, Hyun Jo; Kim, Ku Sang; Kim, Hanna; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Min Hyuk

    2014-09-01

    Despite the fact that more breast cancer survivors are currently enjoying longer lifespans, there remains limited knowledge about the factors and issues that are of greatest significance for these survivors, particularly from their perspectives. This review was based on the concept that the topics addressed should focus on the perspectives of current survivors and should be extended to future modalities, which physicians will be able to use to gain a better understanding of the hidden needs of these patients. We intended to choose and review dimensions other than the pathology and the disease process that could have been overlooked during treatment. The eight topics upon which we focused included: delay of treatment and survival outcome; sexual well-being; concerns about childbearing; tailored follow-up; presence of a family history of breast cancer; diet and physical activity for survivors and their families; qualitative approach toward understanding of breast cancer survivorship, and; mobile health care for breast cancer survivors. Through this review, we aimed to examine the present clinical basis of the central issues noted from the survivors' perspectives and suggest a direction for future survivorship-related research. PMID:25320616

  13. Sexual violence in post-conflict Liberia: survivors and their care.

    PubMed

    Tayler-Smith, K; Zachariah, R; Hinderaker, S G; Manzi, M; De Plecker, E; Van Wolvelaer, P; Gil, T; Goetghebuer, S; Ritter, H; Bawo, L; Davis-Worzi, C

    2012-11-01

    Using routine data from three clinics offering care to survivors of sexual violence (SV) in Monrovia, Liberia, we describe the characteristics of SV survivors and the pattern of SV and discuss how the current approach could be better adapted to meet survivors' needs. There were 1500 survivors seeking SV care between January 2008 and December 2009. Most survivors were women (98%) and median age was 13 years (Interquartile range: 9-17 years). Sexual aggression occurred during day-to-day activities in 822 (55%) cases and in the survivor's home in 552 (37%) cases. The perpetrator was a known civilian in 1037 (69%) SV events. Only 619 (41%) survivors sought care within 72 h. The current approach could be improved by: effectively addressing the psychosocial needs of child survivors, reaching male survivors, targeting the perpetrators in awareness and advocacy campaigns and reducing delays in seeking care.

  14. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  15. Dosimetry of radium-223 and progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Sgouros, G.

    1999-01-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived (11.4 d) alpha emitter with potential applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Radium-223 can be complexed and linked to protein delivery molecules for specific tumor-cell targeting. It decays through a cascade of short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting daughters with emission of about 28 MeV of energy through complete decay. The first three alpha particles are essentially instantaneous. Photons associated with Ra-223 and progeny provide the means for tumor and normal-organ imaging and dosimetry. Two beta particles provide additional therapeutic value. Radium-223 may be produced economically and in sufficient amounts for widescale application. Many aspects of the chemistry of carrier-free isotope preparation, complexation, and linkage to the antibody have been developed and are being tested. The radiation dosimetry of a Ra-223-labeled antibody shows favorable tumor to normal tissue dose ratios for therapy. The 11.4-d half-life of Ra-223 allows sufficient time for immunoconjugate preparation, administration, and tumor localization by carrier antibodies before significant radiological decay takes place. If 0.01 percent of a 37 MBq (1 mCi) injection deposits in a one gram tumor mass, and if the activity is retained with a typical effective half-time (75 h), the absorbed dose will be 163 mGy MBq{sup {minus}1} (600 rad mCi{sup {minus}1}) administered. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Dosimetry of inhaled radon and thoron progeny

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This chapter reviews recent developments in modeling doses received by lung tissues, with particular emphasis on application of ICRP`s new dosimetric model of the respiratory tract for extrapolating to other environments the established risks from exposure to radon progeny in underground mines. Factors discussed include: (1) the influence of physical characteristics of radon progeny aerosols on dose per unit exposure, e.g., the unattached fraction, and the activity-size distributions of clustered and attached progeny; (2) the dependence of dose on breathing rate, and on the exposed subject (man, woman or child); (3) the variability of dose per unit exposure in a home when exposure is expressed in terms of potential {alpha} energy or radon gas concentration; (4) the comparative dosimetry of thoron progeny; and (5) the effects of air-cleaning on lung dose. Also discussed is the apparent discrepancy between lung cancer risk estimates derived purely from dosimetry and the lung cancer incidence observed in the epidemiological studies of radon-exposed underground miners. Application of ICRP`s recommended risk factors appears to overestimate radon lung-cancer risk for miners by a factor of three. ``Normalization`` of the calculated effective dose is therefore needed, at least for {alpha} dose from radon and thoron progeny, in order to obtain a realistic estimate of lung cancer risk.

  17. Radiotherapy dosimetry using a commercial OSL system

    SciTech Connect

    Viamonte, A.; Rosa, L. A. R. da; Buckley, L. A.; Cherpak, A.; Cygler, J. E.

    2008-04-15

    A commercial optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) system developed for radiation protection dosimetry by Landauer, Inc., the InLight microStar reader, was tested for dosimetry procedures in radiotherapy. The system uses carbon-doped aluminum oxide, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C, as a radiation detector material. Using this OSL system, a percent depth dose curve for {sup 60}Co gamma radiation was measured in solid water. Field size and SSD dependences of the detector response were also evaluated. The dose response relationship was investigated between 25 and 400 cGy. The decay of the response with time following irradiation and the energy dependence of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C OSL detectors were also measured. The results obtained using OSL dosimeters show good agreement with ionization chamber and diode measurements carried out under the same conditions. Reproducibility studies show that the response of the OSL system to repeated exposures is 2.5% (1sd), indicating a real possibility of applying the Landauer OSL commercial system for radiotherapy dosimetric procedures.

  18. Radiotherapy dosimetry using a commercial OSL system.

    PubMed

    Viamonte, A; da Rosa, L A R; Buckley, L A; Cherpak, A; Cygler, J E

    2008-04-01

    A commercial optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) system developed for radiation protection dosimetry by Landauer, Inc., the InLight microStar reader, was tested for dosimetry procedures in radiotherapy. The system uses carbon-doped aluminum oxide, Al2O3:C, as a radiation detector material. Using this OSL system, a percent depth dose curve for 60Co gamma radiation was measured in solid water. Field size and SSD dependences of the detector response were also evaluated. The dose response relationship was investigated between 25 and 400 cGy. The decay of the response with time following irradiation and the energy dependence of the Al2O3:C OSL detectors were also measured. The results obtained using OSL dosimeters show good agreement with ionization chamber and diode measurements carried out under the same conditions. Reproducibility studies show that the response of the OSL system to repeated exposures is 2.5% (1sd), indicating a real possibility of applying the Landauer OSL commercial system for radiotherapy dosimetric procedures. PMID:18491518

  19. Eleventh DOE workshop on personnel neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Since its formation, the Office of Health (EH-40) has stressed the importance of the exchange of information related to and improvements in neutron dosimetry. This Workshop was the eleventh in the series sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). It provided a forum for operational personnel at DOE facilities to discuss current issues related to neutron dosimetry and for leading investigators in the field to discuss promising approaches for future research. A total of 26 papers were presented including the keynote address by Dr. Warren K. Sinclair, who spoke on, ``The 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP and their Biological Background.`` The first several papers discussed difficulties in measuring neutrons of different energies and ways of compensating or deriving correction factors at individual facilities. Presentations were also given by the US Navy and Air Force. Current research in neutron dosimeter development was the subject of the largest number of papers. These included a number on the development of neutron spectrometers. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. An absorbed dose calorimeter for IMRT dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duane, S.; Aldehaybes, M.; Bailey, M.; Lee, N. D.; Thomas, C. G.; Palmans, H.

    2012-10-01

    A new calorimeter for dosimetry in small and complex fields has been built. The device is intended for the direct determination of absorbed dose to water in moderately small fields and in composite fields such as IMRT treatments, and as a transfer instrument calibrated against existing absorbed dose standards in conventional reference conditions. The geometry, materials and mode of operation have been chosen to minimize detector perturbations when used in a water phantom, to give a reasonably isotropic response and to minimize the effects of heat transfer when the calorimeter is used in non-reference conditions in a water phantom. The size of the core is meant to meet the needs of measurement in IMRT treatments and is comparable to the size of the air cavity in a type NE2611 ionization chamber. The calorimeter may also be used for small field dosimetry. Initial measurements in reference conditions and in an IMRT head and neck plan, collapsed to gantry angle zero, have been made to estimate the thermal characteristics of the device, and to assess its performance in use. The standard deviation (estimated repeatability) of the reference absorbed dose measurements was 0.02 Gy (0.6%).

  1. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  2. Passive detectors for neutron personal dosimetry: state of the art.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, Francesco; Bos, Adrie J J

    2004-01-01

    Passive, solid-state detectors still dominate the field of neutron personal dosimetry, mainly thanks to their low cost, high reliability and elevated throughput. However, the recent appearance in the market of several electronic personal dosemeters for neutrons presents a challenge to the exclusive use of passive systems for primary or official dosimetry. This scenario drives research and development activities on passive dosemeters towards systems offering greater accuracy of response and lower detection limits. In addition, further applications and properties of the passive detectors, which are not met by the electronic devices, are also being explored. In particular, extensive investigations are in progress on the use of solid-state detectors for aviation and space dosimetry, where high-energy neutron fields are encountered. The present situation is also stimulating an acceleration in the development of international standards on performance and test requirements for passive dosimetry systems, which can expedite significantly the implementation of techniques in commercial personal dosimetry services. Upcoming standards will cover thermoluminescence albedo dosemeters, etched-track detectors, superheated emulsions and direct ion storage chambers, attesting to the level of maturity reached by these techniques. This work reviews the developments in the field of passive neutron dosimetry emerged since the previous Neutron Dosimetry Symposium, reporting on the current status of the subject and indicating the direction of ongoing research. PMID:15353644

  3. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B

    2016-07-21

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these. PMID:27351409

  4. Spirituality in survivors of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Momennasab, Marzieh; Moattari, Marzieh; Abbaszade, Abbas; Shamshiri, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Background: Life-threatening and stressful events, such as myocardial infarction (MI) can lead to an actual crisis, which affects the patients spiritually as well as physically, psychologically, and socially. However, the focus of health care providers is on physical needs. Furthermore, the spirituality of the patients experiencing heart attack in the light of our cultural context is not well addressed in the literature. This study is aimed at exploring the spiritual experiences of the survivors of the MI. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative research a grounded theory approach was used. Key informants were 9 MI patients hospitalized in the coronary care units of 3 hospitals in Shiraz. In addition, 7 nurses participated in the study. In-depth interviews and a focus group were used to generate data. Data analysis was done based on Strauss and Corbin method. Constant comparison analysis was performed until data saturation. Results: Five main categories emerged from the data, including perceived threat, seeking spiritual support, referring to religious values, increasing faith, and realization. The latter with its 3 subcategories was recognized as core category and represents a deep understanding beyond knowing. At the time of encountering MI, spirituality provided hope, strength, and peace for the participants. Conclusion: Based on the results we can conclude that connecting to God, religious values, and interconnectedness to others are the essential components of the participants’ spiritual experience during the occurrence of MI. Spirituality helps patients to overcome this stressful life-threatening situation. PMID:23853646

  5. Penile Rehabilitation Strategies Among Prostate Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in technical and surgical approaches, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains the most common complication among prostate cancer survivors, adversely impacting quality of life. This article analyzes the concept and rationale of ED rehabilitation programs in prostate cancer patients. Emphasis is placed on the pathophysiology of ED after diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer to understand the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in clinical practice. Available evidence shows that ED is a transient complication following prostate biopsy and cancer diagnosis, with no evidence to support rehabilitation programs in these patients. A small increase in ED and in the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors was reported in patients under active surveillance. Patients should be advised that active surveillance is unlikely to severely affect erectile function, but clinically significant changes in sexual function are possible. Focal therapy could be an intermediate option for patients demanding treatment/refusing active surveillance and invested in maintaining sexual activity. Unlike radical prostatectomy, there is no support for PDE5 inhibitor use to prevent ED after highly conformal external radiotherapy or low-dose rate brachytherapy. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for ED in prostate cancer patients, the success rates of rehabilitation programs remain low in clinical practice. Alternative strategies to prevent ED appear warranted, with attention toward neuromodulation, nerve grafting, nerve preservation, stem cell therapy, investigation of neuroprotective interventions, and further refinements of radiotherapy dosing and delivery methods. PMID:27222641

  6. Penile Rehabilitation Strategies Among Prostate Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in technical and surgical approaches, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains the most common complication among prostate cancer survivors, adversely impacting quality of life. This article analyzes the concept and rationale of ED rehabilitation programs in prostate cancer patients. Emphasis is placed on the pathophysiology of ED after diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer to understand the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in clinical practice. Available evidence shows that ED is a transient complication following prostate biopsy and cancer diagnosis, with no evidence to support rehabilitation programs in these patients. A small increase in ED and in the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors was reported in patients under active surveillance. Patients should be advised that active surveillance is unlikely to severely affect erectile function, but clinically significant changes in sexual function are possible. Focal therapy could be an intermediate option for patients demanding treatment/refusing active surveillance and invested in maintaining sexual activity. Unlike radical prostatectomy, there is no support for PDE5 inhibitor use to prevent ED after highly conformal external radiotherapy or low-dose rate brachytherapy. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for ED in prostate cancer patients, the success rates of rehabilitation programs remain low in clinical practice. Alternative strategies to prevent ED appear warranted, with attention toward neuromodulation, nerve grafting, nerve preservation, stem cell therapy, investigation of neuroprotective interventions, and further refinements of radiotherapy dosing and delivery methods. PMID:27222641

  7. Enactment and the treatment of abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Plakun, E M

    1998-01-01

    Regardless of the approach employed, treatment of patients with histories of sexual or other abuse is a formidable challenge. One reason for this is the vulnerability to "enactment" inherent in therapeutic work with such patients. Enactment is a recently elaborated psychoanalytic notion, defined as a pattern of nonverbal interactional behavior between the two parties in a therapeutic situation, with unconscious meaning for both. It involves mutual projective identification between therapist and patient. This paper clarifies the nature of enactment (conceptualized here as involving either refusal or actualization of the transference by the therapist) and its treatment implications. Transference-countertransference enactment paradigms encountered in work with survivors of abuse are presented. The therapeutic consequences of failing to recognize and respond to such enactments in work with these patients are explored. Unrecognized enactments may lead therapists unwittingly to abdicate the therapeutic role by becoming abusive, abused or vicariously traumatized, excessively guilty, seductive, overinvolved, and/or exhortatory or to implant false memories. Ways of utilizing enactment to advance treatment are also described and illustrated.

  8. Enactment and the treatment of abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Plakun, E M

    1998-01-01

    Regardless of the approach employed, treatment of patients with histories of sexual or other abuse is a formidable challenge. One reason for this is the vulnerability to "enactment" inherent in therapeutic work with such patients. Enactment is a recently elaborated psychoanalytic notion, defined as a pattern of nonverbal interactional behavior between the two parties in a therapeutic situation, with unconscious meaning for both. It involves mutual projective identification between therapist and patient. This paper clarifies the nature of enactment (conceptualized here as involving either refusal or actualization of the transference by the therapist) and its treatment implications. Transference-countertransference enactment paradigms encountered in work with survivors of abuse are presented. The therapeutic consequences of failing to recognize and respond to such enactments in work with these patients are explored. Unrecognized enactments may lead therapists unwittingly to abdicate the therapeutic role by becoming abusive, abused or vicariously traumatized, excessively guilty, seductive, overinvolved, and/or exhortatory or to implant false memories. Ways of utilizing enactment to advance treatment are also described and illustrated. PMID:9559350

  9. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-08-28

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document.

  10. Methods and procedures for external radiation dosimetry at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Gupton, E.D.

    1981-09-01

    Procedures, methods, materials, records, and reports used for accomplishing the personnel, external radiation monitoring program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described for the purpose of documenting what is done now for future reference. This document provides a description of the methods and procedures for external radiation metering, monitoring, dosimetry, and records which are in effect at ORNL July 1, 1981. This document does not include procedures for nuclear accident dosimetry except insofar as routine techniques may apply also to nuclear accident dosimetry capability.

  11. a Decade of Dosimetry for Magnox Reactor Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, T. A.; Thornton, D. A.

    2003-06-01

    This paper reviews the reactor dosimetry program that has supported steel pressure vessel integrity assessments for magnox power plants over the last ten years. The dosimetry program has aimed to achieve consistent:. • calculated and measured fast and thermal neutron doses. • data for surveillance specimens and reactor pressure vessels. Throughout the program, the flux measurements on the plants have been judged essential for any doses where a high degree of confidence is required. The work to support operation is now largely complete and the dosimetry is being extended to assess radioactive inventories as part of the decommissioning process.

  12. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part III: Leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma, 1950-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, D.L.; Izumi, Shizue; Kusumi, Shizuyo ); Tomonaga, Masao ); Ron, E. Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima ); Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao ); Dohy, Hiroo ); Matsui, Tatsuki ); Nonaka, Hiroaki )

    1994-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of data on the incidence of leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors during the period from late 1950 through the end of 1987 (93,696 survivors accounting for 2,778,000 person-years). These analyses add 9 additional years of follow-up for leukemia and 12 for myeloma to that in the last comprehensive reports on these diseases. This is the first analysis of the lymphoma incidence data in the cohort. Using both the Leukemia Registry and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, a total of 290 leukemia, 229 lymphoma and 73 myeloma cases were identified. The primary analyses were restricted to first primary tumors diagnosed among residents of the cities or surrounding areas with Dosimetry Systems 1986 dose estimates between 0 and 4 Gy kerma (231 leukemias, 208 lymphomas and 62 myelomas). Analyses focused on time-dependent models for the excess absolute risk. Separate analyses were carried out for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and adult T-cell leukemia in this population. There was strong evidence of radiation-induced risks for all subtypes except ATL, and there were significant subtype differences with respect to the effects of age at exposure and sex and in the temporal pattern of risk. The AML dose-response function was nonlinear, whereas there was no evidence against linearity for the other subtypes. When averaged over the follow-up period, the excess absolute risk (EAR) estimates (in cases per 10[sup 4] PY Sv) for the leukemia subtypes were 0.6, 1.1 and 0.9 for ALL, AML and CML, respectively. The corresponding estimated average excess relative risks at 1 Sv are 9.1, 3.3 and 6.2, respectively. There was some evidence of an increased risk of lymphoma in males (EAR = 0.6 cases per 10[sup 4] PY Sv) but no evidence of any excess in females. 64 refs., 14 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Factors Associated with Fatigue in Korean Gastric Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Wan; Lee, Jung-Kwon; Kim, Cho-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer in Korea. Fatigue is a common symptom among cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with fatigue in gastric cancer survivors. Methods Data were analyzed from 199 gastric cancer survivors who visited a cancer survivor outpatient clinic from July 2013 to June 2014. Patients were surveyed using a questionnaire containing a fatigue severity scale (FSS) and questions regarding associated symptoms. Participants were divided into fatigue (FSS) and non-fatigue groups based on FSS scores (≥4 and <4, respectively). Age, sex, weight, body mass index, cancer stage, pathology, surgery type, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, comorbid disease, family history of cancer, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, and laboratory results were investigated. Results The fatigue and non-fatigue groups contained 42 and 157 survivors, respectively. Their mean age was 58 years, and the mean post-operative period was 6.58 years. Arthralgia (odds ratio [OR], 12.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.21-52.34), dyspnea (OR, 10.54; 95% CI, 2.94-37.80), dyspepsia (OR, 8.26; 95% CI, 2.63-25.96), changed bowel habits (OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.09-19.11), anemia (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.26-8.05), and regular exercise (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.12-0.77) were significantly associated with fatigue in gastric cancer survivors, while weight, treatment, and depressive mood were not. Conclusion Arthralgia, dyspnea, dyspepsia, bowel habit change, anemia, and regular exercise are associated with fatigue in gastric cancer survivors. PMID:26634101

  14. Screening for Vitamin D Insufficiency in Pediatric Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Esbenshade, Adam J.; Sopfe, Jenna; Zhao, Zhiguo; Li, Zeda; Campbell, Kristin; Simmons, Jill H.; Friedman, Debra L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Corticosteroids increase risk for decreased bone mineral density, which can be worsened by vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) or deficiency (VDD). Procedure In the Vanderbilt cancer survivorship clinic, we obtained screening total 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels (VDL) in 171 cancer survivors <23 years old who were treated with prolonged corticosteroids for their cancer, and compared this group to a control group of 97 healthy pediatric patients. Results VDD was diagnosed in 15.8% and VDI in 34.5% of cancer survivors and VDD/VDI combined was associated with body mass index (BMI) >85th percentile (Odds ratio (OR) = 5.4; p<0.001), older age (OR = 2.2; p=0.012), non-Caucasian or Hispanic race (OR = 4.5 p = 0.008) and summer versus winter season (OR= 0.12, p<0.001). In multivariable analysis, VDI/VDD prevalence did not differ from the control group (VDI/VDD (43.3%). In the combined survivor/control group multivariable analysis, cancer diagnosis did not increase VDI/VDD risk, but significant associations persisted with elevated BMI (p <0.001), age (p=0.004), non-Caucasian or Hispanic race (p<0.001), and seasonality (p<0.001). Conclusion VDD/VDI is equally common in pediatric cancer survivors treated with corticosteroids and healthy children. The impact of VDD/VDI in cancer survivors may be greater due to risk for impaired bone health superimposed on that conferred from corticosteroid exposure. Thus, screening VDLs should be obtained in pediatric cancer survivors treated with corticosteroids, particularly in those with elevated BMI, older age, or non-Caucasian race. Prospective studies evaluating the impact of interventions to minimize VDD/VDI on long-term bone health in survivors are required. PMID:24194420

  15. Fear of cancer recurrence in prostate cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    van de Wal, Marieke; van Oort, Inge; Schouten, Joost; Thewes, Belinda; Gielissen, Marieke; Prins, Judith

    2016-07-01

    Background High fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is an understudied topic in prostate cancer (PCa) survivors. This study aimed to detect the prevalence, consequences and characteristics associated with high FCR in PCa survivors. Material and methods This cross-sectional study included patients diagnosed with localized PCa and treated with curative radical prostatectomy between 1992 and 2012. We administered the Cancer Worry Scale (CWS) to assess FCR severity (primary outcome measure). Secondary outcomes included distress, quality of life (QOL), post-traumatic symptoms, and multidimensional aspects of FCR. χ(2)-tests, t-tests and Pearson's correlations examined the relationship between FCR and medical/demographic characteristics. MANOVA analyses and χ2-tests identified differences between PCa survivors with high and low FCR. Results Two hundred eighty-three PCa survivors (median age of 70.0 years) completed the questionnaires a median time of 7.1 years after surgery. About a third (36%) of all PCa survivors experienced high FCR. High FCR was associated with lower QOL, more physical problems, higher distress and more post-traumatic stress symptoms. PCa survivors with high FCR reported disease-related triggers (especially medical examinations), felt helpless and experienced problems in social relationships. High FCR was associated with a younger age and having received adjuvant radiotherapy. Conclusions Results illustrate that FCR is a significant problem in PCa survivors. Younger men and those treated with adjuvant radiotherapy are especially at risk. Those with high FCR experience worse QOL and higher symptom burden. Health care providers should pay specific attention to this problem and provide appropriate psychosocial care when needed. PMID:26935517

  16. Comparison of Real-Time Intraoperative Ultrasound-Based Dosimetry With Postoperative Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry for Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, Subir; Shi Peipei; Liu Bingren; Gupta, Nilendu; Bahnson, Robert R.; Wang, Jian Z.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether real-time intraoperative ultrasound (US)-based dosimetry can replace conventional postoperative computed tomography (CT)-based dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between December 2001 and November 2002, 82 patients underwent {sup 103}Pd prostate brachytherapy. An interplant treatment planning system was used for real-time intraoperative transrectal US-guided treatment planning. The dose distribution was updated according to the estimated seed position to obtain the dose-volume histograms. Postoperative CT-based dosimetry was performed a few hours later using the Theraplan-Plus treatment planning system. The dosimetric parameters obtained from the two imaging modalities were compared. Results: The results of this study revealed correlations between the US- and CT-based dosimetry. However, large variations were found in the implant-quality parameters of the two modalities, including the doses covering 100%, 90%, and 80% of the prostate volume and prostate volumes covered by 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescription dose. The mean relative difference was 38% and 16% for doses covering 100% and 90% of the prostate volume and 10% and 21% for prostate volumes covered by 100% and 150% of the prescription dose, respectively. The CT-based volume covered by 200% of the prescription dose was about 30% greater than the US-based one. Compared with CT-based dosimetry, US-based dosimetry significantly underestimated the dose to normal organs, especially for the rectum. The average US-based maximal dose and volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose for the rectum was 72 Gy and 0.01 cm{sup 3}, respectively, much lower than the 159 Gy and 0.65 cm{sup 3} obtained using CT-based dosimetry. Conclusion: Although dosimetry using intraoperative US-based planning provides preliminary real-time information, it does not accurately reflect the postoperative CT-based dosimetry. Until studies have determined whether US-based dosimetry

  17. Permanent Breast Seed Implant Dosimetry Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Brian M.; Ravi, Ananth; Sankreacha, Raxa; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: A permanent breast seed implant is a novel method of accelerated partial breast irradiation for women with early-stage breast cancer. This article presents pre- and post-implant dosimetric data, relates these data to clinical outcomes, and makes recommendations for those interested in starting a program. Methods and Materials: A total of 95 consecutive patients were accrued into one of three clinical trials after breast-conserving surgery: a Phase I/II trial (67 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma); a Phase II registry trial (25 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma); or a multi-center Phase II trial for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (3 patients). Contouring of the planning target volume (PTV) was done on a Pinnacle workstation and dosimetry calculations, including dose-volume histograms, were done using a Variseed planning computer. Results: The mean pre-implant PTV coverage for the V{sub 90}, V{sub 100}, V{sub 150}, and V{sub 200} were as follows: 98.8% {+-} 1.2% (range, 94.5-100%); 97.3% {+-} 2.1% (range, 90.3-99.9%), 68.8% {+-} 14.3% (range, 32.7-91.5%); and 27.8% {+-} 8.6% (range, 15.1-62.3%). The effect of seed motion was characterized by post-implant dosimetry performed immediately after the implantation (same day) and at 2 months after the implantation. The mean V{sub 100} changed from 85.6% to 88.4% (p = 0.004) and the mean V{sub 200} changed from 36.2% to 48.3% (p < 0.001). Skin toxicity was associated with maximum skin dose (p = 0.014). Conclusions: Preplanning dosimetry should aim for a V{sub 90} of approximately 100%, a V{sub 100} between 95% and 100%, and a V{sub 200} between 20% and 30%, as these numbers are associated with no local recurrences to date and good patient tolerance. In general, the target volume coverage improved over the duration of the seed therapy. The maximum skin dose, defined as the average dose over the hottest 1 Multiplication-Sign 1-cm{sup 2} surface area, should be limited to 90% of the

  18. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Sabine; Fullerton, Heather J.; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy; Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Goldsby, Robert E.; Packer, Roger J.; Sklar, Charles A.; Bowers, Daniel C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively.

  19. Worse quality of life in young and recently diagnosed breast cancer survivors compared with female survivors of other cancers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Eriksson, Mikael; Dar, Huma; Brandberg, Yvonne; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila

    2016-12-01

    Literature focusing on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by cancer site among women only is scarce. This study examines HRQoL of breast cancer (BC) survivors compared with female survivors of other cancers, and to understand which subgroups of BC survivors were particularly at risk of reduced HRQoL. We placed emphasis on young (<50 years) and recently diagnosed (≤5 years) survivors, where the deficits in HRQoL were most pronounced. The cross-sectional study consisted of 2,224 BC survivors, 8,504 non-cancer controls and 2,205 other cancer survivors in the Karma study. We examined HRQoL differences using linear regression analyses in the whole cohort and in a subset of young and recently diagnosed BC survivors (n = 242) and female survivors of other cancers (n = 140) with comparable ages at diagnosis (43.6 vs 43.6, p = 0.917) and time since diagnosis (2.3 vs 2.8 years, p < 0.001). HRQoL was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. While only cognitive functioning was significantly compromised in BC survivors compared with survivors of other cancers when women of all ages were included, young BC survivors reported significantly lower HRQoL on multiple functional scales (global quality of life, emotional, role, social and cognitive functioning) and experienced more fatigue and insomnia. BC survivors with any prior medical history of mental disorders reported poorer HRQoL than those without such a history. We also observed a close-knit relationship between tumor and treatment characteristics. BC survivors perform poorly in HRQoL in comparison with female survivors of other cancers. Our results emphasize the importance of age- and gender-appropriate comparison groups. PMID:27486698

  20. Falls in Korean Polio Survivors: Incidence, Consequences, and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls. PMID:26839487

  1. Media participation and mental health in terrorist attack survivors.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims.

  2. [A childhood and adolescence cancer survivors' association: Les Aguerris].

    PubMed

    Ly, Kai Yan; Vélius, Élodie; Pitot, Maxime; Rivieri, Lionel; Dupont, Morvan

    2015-01-01

    In France, we can estimate that 50,000 adults are childhood or adolescence cancer survivors. Not all of them will experience late effects but they should be informed about their previous disease and should get a detailed summary of treatment information including a personal plan for late effects screening. They also should have access to appropriate follow-up care including detection and treatment of late effects and provision of support and advice. From a follow-up clinic experience, the need of a survivor association has emerged and "Les Aguerris" has been created with several objectives: to improve the quality of life of survivors providing them information about the possible physical, social and psychological consequences of childhood cancer, to raise awareness of public authorities and other actors on questions regarding the need of long-term follow-up of the patients in dedicated clinics, to support researches about late effects of cancer and treatments and to create a network of adult survivors of childhood cancer in relation with other European survivors or parents associations. This paper describes the activities of the association to fulfill its objectives and the annual national meetings they are organizing. PMID:25934653

  3. Understanding economic abuse in the lives of survivors.

    PubMed

    Postmus, Judy L; Plummer, Sara-Beth; McMahon, Sarah; Murshid, N Shaanta; Kim, Mi Sung

    2012-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) often includes economic abuse as one tactic commonly used by an abuser; unfortunately, there is a lack of empirical understanding of economic abuse. Additionally, research is limited on the predictors of economic self-sufficiency in the lives of women experiencing IPV. This paper furthers our knowledge about economic abuse and its relationship with economic self-sufficiency by presenting the results from an exploratory study with IPV survivors participating in a financial literacy program. Of the 120 individuals who participated in the first wave, 94% experienced some form of economic abuse, which also correlated highly with other forms of IPV. Seventy-nine percent experienced some form of economic control, 79% experienced economic exploitative behaviors, and 78% experienced employment sabotage. MANOVA results also indicated that economic control differed significantly based on education with those with a high school education experiencing higher rates than those with less than high school education or those with some college. Finally, results from the OLS regressions indicated that experiencing any form of economic abuse as well as economic control significantly predicted a decrease in economic self sufficiency. Implications suggest that advocates should assess for economic abuse when working with survivors and should be prepared to offer financial tools to increase survivors' economic self-sufficiency. Policymakers should understand the ramifications of economic abuse and create policies that support survivors and prohibit economic abuse. Finally, more research is needed to fully understand economic abuse and its impact on survivors and their economic self-sufficiency.

  4. Falls in Korean Polio Survivors: Incidence, Consequences, and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Yeun; Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young

    2016-02-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls. PMID:26839487

  5. Depression in older breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among U.S. women .The 5-year survival rate for this tumour is nowadays 85%, and the 61% of these women are still alive at 15 years. When depression symptoms are present as a consequence of breast cancer treatments, they may interfere negatively with patients’ quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of breast cancer treatment on the quality of life and the impact of depression on the health-related life. Methods We enrolled 173 women aged 65-75 years with early stage breast cancer diagnosed over the last 10 years, initially recruited to participate in a study examining heath-related quality of life in the first 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Participants were divided into four groups: 1) 46 breast cancer survivors (aged 65-70); 2) 62 women diagnosed with breast cancer (aged 65-69); 3) 32 women with recurrent breast cancer after 10 years (aged 66-75); 4) 30 women in good health status (aged 60-70). The Geriatric Depression Scale was used as a routine part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Collection of data for the application of instruments, such as sociodemographic variables (age, educational level, social state) and clinical date (stage and time of the disease and treatment), was carried out by trained researcher assistants. Results Our results demonstrated the correlation between depression and previous cancer experiences. In fact, in patients with cancer experience, the grade of depression was significantly higher compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the patients with recurrent breast cancer were severely depressed compared to other groups. Conclusions A high percentage of participants were identified as having emotional and/or well being problems. Further investigations on the cause of depression problems cancer-related are needed. PMID:23173836

  6. Thyroid Malignancies in Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelson, Evan M.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Silver, Barbara; Tishler, Roy B.; Marcus, Karen J.; Stevenson, Mary Ann; Ng, Andrea K.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To quantify the incidence of thyroid cancer after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and determine disease characteristics, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Thyroid cancer cases were retrospectively identified from a multi-institutional database of 1981 HL patients treated between 1969 and 2008. Thyroid cancer risk factors were evaluated by a Poisson regression model. Results: With a median follow-up duration of 14.3 years (range, 0-41.2 years), 28 patients (1.4%) developed a thyroid malignancy. The overall incidence rate (expressed as the number of cases per 10,000 person-years) and 10-year cumulative incidence of thyroid cancer were 9.6 and 0.26%, respectively. There were no observed cases of thyroid malignancy in patients who received neck irradiation for HL after age 35 years. Age <20 years at HL diagnosis and female sex were significantly associated with thyroid cancer. The incidence rates of females aged <20 at HL diagnosis in the first 10 years, ≥10 years, ≥15 years, and ≥20 years after treatment were 5, 31, 61, and 75 cases per 10,000 person-years of follow-up, respectively. At a median follow-up of 3.5 years after the thyroid cancer diagnosis, 26 patients (93%) were alive without disease, 1 (4%) was alive with metastatic disease, and 1 (4%) died of metastatic disease, at 6 and 3.6 years after the thyroid cancer diagnosis, respectively. Conclusions: Although HL survivors have an increased risk for thyroid cancer, the overall incidence is low. Routine thyroid cancer screening may benefit females treated at a young age and ≥10 years from HL treatment owing to their higher risk, which increases over time.

  7. Gamma-ray dosimetry measurements of the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We present the current status of our gamma-ray dosimetry results for the Little Boy replica. Both Geiger-Mueller and thermoluminescent detectors were used in the measurements. Future work is needed to test assumptions made in data analysis.

  8. Software for evaluation of EPR-dosimetry performance.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, E A; Timofeev, Yu S; Ivanov, D V

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with tooth enamel is a method extensively used for retrospective external dosimetry. Different research groups apply different equipment, sample preparation procedures and spectrum processing algorithms for EPR dosimetry. A uniform algorithm for description and comparison of performances was designed and implemented in a new computer code. The aim of the paper is to introduce the new software 'EPR-dosimetry performance'. The computer code is a user-friendly tool for providing a full description of method-specific capabilities of EPR tooth dosimetry, from metrological characteristics to practical limitations in applications. The software designed for scientists and engineers has several applications, including support of method calibration by evaluation of calibration parameters, evaluation of critical value and detection limit for registration of radiation-induced signal amplitude, estimation of critical value and detection limit for dose evaluation, estimation of minimal detectable value for anthropogenic dose assessment and description of method uncertainty.

  9. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  10. Albedo neutron dosimetry in Germany: regulations and performance.

    PubMed

    Luszik-Bhadra, M; Zimbal, A; Busch, F; Eichelberger, A; Engelhardt, J; Figel, M; Frasch, G; Günther, K; Jordan, M; Martini, E; Haninger, T; Rimpler, A; Seifert, R

    2014-12-01

    Personal neutron dosimetry has been performed in Germany using albedo dosemeters for >20 y. This paper describes the main principles, the national standards, regulations and recommendations, the quality management and the overall performance, giving some examples. PMID:24639589

  11. USF/Russian dosimetry on STS-57

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The major purpose of this experiment was to conduct an international comparison of passive dosimetry methods in space. Two APD`s were flown in the charged particle directional spectrometer (CPDS)/tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) locker on the space shuttle during the STS-57 mission. Due to placement, the shielding and radiation environment of the APD`s were nearly the same and the dosimeters distributed in the two boxes can be considered equally exposed. The dosimeter types included plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD`s), thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), nuclear emulsions, and thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND`s). The USF dosimeters included PNTD`s, TLD`s, and TRND`s, while the Russian dosimeters included PNTD`s, TLD`s, and nuclear emulsions.

  12. Gastroesophageal scintiscanning in a pediatric population: dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr.

    1986-07-01

    The dosimetry associated with orally administered (/sup 99m/Tc)sulfur colloid for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux has not been adequately described for the pediatric populations. Standard MIRD methodology was performed for the following: newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 yr old, and adult standard man. The critical organ for all pediatric groups was the lower large intestine with absorbed dose of 0.927, 0.380, 0.194, 0.120 and 0.0721 rad/100 microCi, respectively. For the adult the critical organ was the upper large intestine with an absorbed dose of 0.0518 rad/100 microCi. These data should be considered when administering (99mTc)sulfur colloid orally in a pediatric population.

  13. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Evans, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  14. Heat transfer mechanisms and thermal dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Bowman, H F

    1982-06-01

    The heat transfer mechanisms that led to the development of the bioheat equation are reviewed. Thermal modeling and analytical judgments which must be made in application of the equation are noted. Temperature profiles that result from solution of the equation with a simple spherical model are considered with particular emphasis on the influence of thermal conductivity and perfusion. Thermal conductivity values of a host of both normal and tumor tissues are discussed. The importance of adequate macroscopic thermal dosimetry to the evaluation of the ultimate promise of hyperthermia is observed. Experience in the quantification of temperature, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and perfusion from a single, minimally invasive measurement in small volumes of tissue with the thermal diffusion probe is presented.

  15. Novel approaches in radon and thoron dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressyanov, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Dimitrova, I.; Georgiev, S.; Mitev, K.

    2014-07-01

    This report presents some novel approaches for radon/radon progeny and thoron measurements that can help to resolve some long-lasting problems in dosimetry, but which are not yet part of the common practice. The focus is in two directions: The use of CDs/DVDs as radon and thoron detectors and the employment of grab-sampling and/or integrated radon progeny measurements for diagnostic of the air conditions related to mitigation and indoor ventilation. The potential of these approaches is illustrated by several successful applications: (1) Study of the 222Rn distribution in large buildings and identification of places with radon problem; (2) Radon and thoron monitoring in underground mines; (3) Radon measurements in natural waters, including directly in the water source; (4) Grab sampling 222Rn progeny measurements for the purposes of pre- and post-mitigation diagnostic; (5) Integrated measurements of individual 222Rn short-lived decay products for diagnostic of indoor ventilation conditions.

  16. Advanced Semiconductor Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.

    2011-05-05

    Modern radiation therapy is very conformal, resulting in a complexity of delivery that leads to many small radiation fields with steep dose gradients, increasing error probability. Quality assurance in delivery of such radiation fields is paramount and requires real time and high spatial resolution dosimetry. Semiconductor radiation detectors due to their small size, ability to operate in passive and active modes and easy real time multichannel readout satisfy many aspects of in vivo and in a phantom quality assurance in modern radiation therapy. Update on the recent developments and improvements in semiconductor radiation detectors and their application for quality assurance in radiation therapy, based mostly on the developments at the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, is presented.

  17. Dosimetry considerations for electrical stun devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. Patrick; Diamant, Alan M.; Comeaux, James

    2009-03-01

    Electrical dosimetry issues are discussed in relation to electrical stun devices (ESDs). A measure of effectiveness is based on a 'threshold factor,' FT, calculated with a myelinated nerve model that simulates stimulation of a reference-case neuron (20 µm diameter, 1 cm distant). Several ESDs were measured in the laboratory using resistive loads of 100-1000 Ω some included air gaps bridged via an electric arc. Conducted current waveform parameters and the associated threshold factors depend on the resistance of the load. Thresholds were also determined for ideal monophasic and biphasic square-wave stimuli, and compared with measured ESD waveforms. Although FT is proposed as a metric of strength, an approximate surrogate is the charge within the largest phase of the current versus time waveform. The approximation is reasonably accurate for monophasic waveforms with phase durations below about 100 µs, and for charge-balanced biphasic square-wave stimuli with phase durations between about 40 and 100 µs.

  18. Skin cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors from 1958 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Hiromi; Misumi, Munechika; Kishikawa, Masao; Iseki, Masachika; Yonehara, Shuji; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Soda, Midori; Tokuoka, Shoji; Shimizu, Yukiko; Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2014-05-01

    The radiation risk of skin cancer by histological types has been evaluated in the atomic bomb survivors. We examined 80,158 of the 120,321 cohort members who had their radiation dose estimated by the latest dosimetry system (DS02). Potential skin tumors diagnosed from 1958 to 1996 were reviewed by a panel of pathologists, and radiation risk of the first primary skin cancer was analyzed by histological types using a Poisson regression model. A significant excess relative risk (ERR) of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (n = 123) was estimated at 1 Gy (0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26, 1.6) for those age 30 at exposure and age 70 at observation based on a linear-threshold model with a threshold dose of 0.63 Gy (95% CI: 0.32, 0.89) and a slope of 2.0 (95% CI: 0.69, 4.3). The estimated risks were 15, 5.7, 1.3 and 0.9 for age at exposure of 0-9, 10-19, 20-39, over 40 years, respectively, and the risk increased 11% with each one-year decrease in age at exposure. The ERR for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ (n = 64) using a linear model was estimated as 0.71 (95% CI: 0.063, 1.9). However, there were no significant dose responses for malignant melanoma (n = 10), SCC (n = 114), Paget disease (n = 10) or other skin cancers (n = 15). The significant linear radiation risk for BCC with a threshold at 0.63 Gy suggested that the basal cells of the epidermis had a threshold sensitivity to ionizing radiation, especially for young persons at the time of exposure.

  19. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program Manual, PNL-MA-552

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Bihl, Donald E.; Maclellan, Jay A.

    2003-10-10

    This manual is a guide to the services provided by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP). It describes the roles of and relationships between the IDP and site contractors, and provides recommendations and guidance for consideration in implementing bioassay monitoring and internal dosimetry elements of radiation protection programs. Guidance includes identifying conditions under which workers should be placed on bioassay programs, types, descritptions, and capabilities of measurements, suggested routine bioassay programs, limitations on services, and practices for recording and reporting results.

  20. On flattening filter-free portal dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Eduardo; Castro Novais, Juan; Molina López, María Yolanda; Ruiz Maqueda, Sheila

    2016-07-08

    Varian introduced (in 2010) the option of removing the flattening filter (FF) in their C-Arm linacs for intensity-modulated treatments. This mode, called flattening filter-free (FFF), offers the advantage of a greater dose rate. Varian's "Portal Dosimetry" is an electronic portal imager device (EPID)-based tool for IMRT verification. This tool lacks the capability of verifying flattening filter-free (FFF) modes due to saturation and lack of an image prediction algorithm. (Note: the latest versions of this software and EPID correct these issues.) The objective of the present study is to research the feasibility of said verifications (with the older versions of the software and EPID). By placing the EPID at a greater distance, the images can be acquired without saturation, yielding a linearity similar to the flattened mode. For the image prediction, a method was optimized based on the clinically used algorithm (analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA)) over a homogeneous phantom. The depth inside the phantom and its electronic density were tailored. An application was developed to allow the conversion of a dose plane (in DICOM format) to Varian's custom format for Portal Dosimetry. The proposed method was used for the verification of test and clinical fields for the three qualities used in our institution for IMRT: 6X, 6FFF and 10FFF. The method developed yielded a positive verification (more than 95% of the points pass a 2%/2 mm gamma) for both the clinical and test fields. This method was also capable of "predicting" static and wedged fields. A workflow for the verification of FFF fields was developed. This method relies on the clinical algorithm used for dose calculation and is able to verify the FFF modes, as well as being useful for machine quality assurance. The procedure described does not require new hardware. This method could be used as a verification of Varian's Portal Dose Image Prediction.

  1. Biological dosimetry for astronauts: a real challenge.

    PubMed

    Testard, I; Sabatier, L

    1999-12-01

    Manned space missions recently increased in number and duration, thus it became important to estimate the biological risks encountered by astronauts. They are exposed to cosmic and galactic rays, a complex mixture of different radiations. In addition to the measurements realized by physical dosimeters, it becomes essential to estimate real biologically effective doses and compare them to physical doses. Biological dosimetry of radiation exposures has been widely performed using cytogenetic analysis of chromosomes. This approach has been used for many years in order to estimate absorbed doses in accidental or chronic overexposures of humans. In addition to conventional techniques (Giemsa or FPG staining, R- or G-banding), faster and accurate means of analysis have been developed (fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH] painting). As results accumulate, it appears that strong interindividual variability exists in the basal level of aberrations. Moreover, some aberrations such as translocations exhibit a high background level. Radiation exposures seem to induce variability between individual responses. Its extent strongly differs with the mode of exposure, the doses delivered, the kind of radiation, and the cytogenetic method used. This paper aims to review the factors that may influence the reliability of cytogenetic dosimetry. The emphasis is on the exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles in space as recent studies demonstrated interindividual variations in doses estimated from aberration analysis after long-term space missions. In addition to the problem of dose estimates, the heterogeneity of cosmic radiation raises questions relating to the real numbers of damaged cells in an individual, and potential long-term risks. Actually, densely ionizing particles are extremely potent to induce late chromosomal instability, and again, interindividual variability exists in the expression of damage. PMID:10631347

  2. Dosimetry for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D T; McAulay, I R; Schrewe, U J; Schnuer, K; Menzel, H G; Bottollier-Depois, J F; Dietze, G; Gmur, K; Grillmaeir, R E; Heinrich, W; Lim, T; Lindborg, L; Reitz, G; Schraube, H; Spurny, F; Tommasino, L

    1997-01-01

    In the course of their work, aircraft crew and frequent flyers are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, aircraft structure, etc. This has been recognised for some time and estimates of the exposure of aircraft crew have been made previously and included in, for example, UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) publications. The recent increased interest has been brought about by several factors--the consideration that the relative biological effectiveness of the neutron component as being underestimated; the trend towards higher cruising altitudes for subsonic commercial aircraft and business jet aircraft; and, most importantly, the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 60, and the revision of the Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS). In 1992, the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) established a Working Group to consider the exposure to cosmic radiation of aircraft crew, and the scientific and technical problems associated with radiation protection dosimetry for this occupational group. The Working Group was composed of fifteen scientists (plus a corresponding member) involved in this field of study and with knowledge of radiation measurement at aviation altitudes. This paper is based on the findings of this Working Group. Where arrangements are made to take account of the exposure of aircraft crew to cosmic radiation, dose estimation procedures will not be necessary for persons for whom total annual doses are not liable to exceed 1 mSv, and therefore, in general, for crew on aircraft not routinely flying above 8 km. Where estimates of effective dose and, in the case of female staff who are pregnant, equivalent dose to the embryo or fetus, are required (for regulatory or other purposes), it was concluded that the preferred procedure was to determine route doses and

  3. On flattening filter-free portal dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Eduardo; Castro Novais, Juan; Molina López, María Yolanda; Ruiz Maqueda, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Varian introduced (in 2010) the option of removing the flattening filter (FF) in their C-Arm linacs for intensity-modulated treatments. This mode, called flattening filter-free (FFF), offers the advantage of a greater dose rate. Varian's "Portal Dosimetry" is an electronic portal imager device (EPID)-based tool for IMRT verification. This tool lacks the capability of verifying flattening filter-free (FFF) modes due to saturation and lack of an image prediction algorithm. (Note: the latest versions of this software and EPID correct these issues.) The objective of the present study is to research the feasibility of said verifications (with the older versions of the software and EPID). By placing the EPID at a greater distance, the images can be acquired without saturation, yielding a linearity similar to the flattened mode. For the image prediction, a method was optimized based on the clinically used algorithm (analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA)) over a homogeneous phantom. The depth inside the phantom and its electronic density were tailored. An application was developed to allow the conversion of a dose plane (in DICOM format) to Varian's custom format for Portal Dosimetry. The proposed method was used for the verification of test and clinical fields for the three qualities used in our institution for IMRT: 6X, 6FFF and 10FFF. The method developed yielded a positive verification (more than 95% of the points pass a 2%/2 mm gamma) for both the clinical and test fields. This method was also capable of "predicting" static and wedged fields. A workflow for the verification of FFF fields was developed. This method relies on the clinical algorithm used for dose calculation and is able to verify the FFF modes, as well as being useful for machine quality assurance. The procedure described does not require new hardware. This method could be used as a verification of Varian's Portal Dose Image Prediction. PMID:27455487

  4. Neutron dosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.; Miola, U.J.; Ettinger, K.V.

    1981-01-01

    The recent development of various borated compounds and the utilization of one of these (Na/sub 2/B/sub 12/H/sub 11/SH) to treat brain tumors in clinical studies in Japan has renewed interest in neutron capture therapy. In these procedures thermal neutrons interact with /sup 10/B in boron containing cells through the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction producing charged particles with a maximum range of approx. 10..mu..m in tissue. Borated analogs of chlorpromazine, porphyrin, thiouracil and deoxyuridine promise improved tumor uptake and blood clearance. The therapy beam from the Medical Research Reactor in Brookhaven contains neutrons from a modified and filtered fission spectrum and dosimetric consequences of the use of the above mentioned compounds in conjunction with thermal and epithermal fluxes are discussed in the paper. One of the important problems of radiation dosimetry in capture therapy is determination of the flux profile and, hence, the dose profile in the brain. This has been achieved by constructing a brain phantom made of TE plastic. The lyoluminescence technique provides a convenient way of monitoring the neutron flux distributions; the detectors for this purpose utilize /sup 6/Li and /sup 10/B compounds. Such compounds have been synthesized specially for the purpose of dosimetry of thermal and epithermal beams. In addition, standard lyoluminescent phosphors, like glutamine, could be used to determine the collisional component of the dose as well as the contribution of the /sup 14/N(n,p)/sup 14/C reaction. Measurements of thermal flux were compared with calculations and with measurements done with activation foils.

  5. Review of the near-earth space radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianming; Chen, Xiaoqian; Li, Shiyou

    2016-07-01

    The near-earth space radiation environment has a great effect to the spacecraft and maybe do harm to the astronaut's health. Thus, how to measure the radiation has become a serious challenge. In order to provide sufficient protection both for astronauts and for instruments on-board, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer should be measured instead of merely measuring total radiation dose. This paper reviews the methods of radiation measurement and presents a brief introduction of dosimetry instruments. The method can be divided into two different kinds, i.e., positive dosimetry and passive dosimetry. The former usually includes electronic devices which can be used for data storage and can offer simultaneous monitoring on space radiation. The passive dosimetry has a much simple structure, and need extra operation after on-orbit missions for measuring. To get more reliable data of radiation dosimetry, various instruments and methods had been applied in the spacecrafts and the manned spacecrafts in particular. The outlook of the development in the space radiation dosimetry measurement is also presented.

  6. Diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular events in survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation: a report from the bone marrow transplantation survivor study

    PubMed Central

    Scott Baker, K.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Steinberger, Julia; Carter, Andrea; Francisco, Liton; Burns, Linda J.; Sklar, Charles; Forman, Stephen; Weisdorf, Daniel; Gurney, James G.; Bhatia, Smita

    2007-01-01

    We ascertained the prevalence of self-reported late occurrence of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular (CV) disease in 1089 hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors who underwent HCT between 1974 and 1998, survived at least 2 years, and were not currently taking immunosuppressant agents and compared them with 383 sibling controls. All subjects completed a 255-item health questionnaire. The mean age at survey completion was 39.3 years for survivors and 38.6 years for siblings; mean follow-up was 8.6 years. Adjusting for age, sex, race, and body mass index (BMI), survivors of allogeneic HCT were 3.65 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82-7.32) more likely to report diabetes than siblings and 2.06 times (95% CI, 1.39-3.04) more likely to report hypertension compared with siblings but did not report other CV outcomes with any greater frequency. Recipients of autologous HCTs were no more likely than siblings to report any of the outcomes studied. Allogeneic HCT survivors were also more likely to develop hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.45-3.67) than autologous recipients. Total body irradiation (TBI) exposure was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (OR = 3.42; 95% CI, 1.55-7.52). Thus, HCT survivors have a higher age- and BMI-adjusted risk of diabetes and hypertension, potentially leading to a higher than expected risk of CV events with age. PMID:17047152

  7. Adherence to Guidelines for Cancer Survivors and Health-Related Quality of Life among Korean Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Song, Sihan; Hwang, Eunkyung; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jung Eun

    2015-12-01

    There is limited evidence on the association between adherence to guidelines for cancer survivors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In a cross-sectional study of Korean breast cancer survivors, we examined whether adherence to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society (ACS) and World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) for cancer survivors was related to levels of HRQoL, assessed by the Korean version of Core 30 (C30) and Breast cancer module 23 (BR23) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ). We included a total of 160 women aged 21 to 79 years who had been diagnosed with breast cancer according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I to III and had breast cancer surgery at least six months before the interview. Increasing adherence to ACS guidelines was associated with higher scores of social functioning (p for trend = 0.05), whereas increasing adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with higher scores of arm symptoms (p for trend = 0.01). These associations were limited to those with stage II or III cancer. Diet may be an important factor in relation to quality of life among Korean breast cancer survivors, however our findings warrant further prospective studies to evaluate whether healthy diet improves survivors' quality of life.

  8. Adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: suggestions for perinatal caregivers.

    PubMed

    Roussillon, J A

    1998-11-01

    As many as 1 in 4 women are survivors of childhood sexual abuse. This traumatic life event profoundly influences the care that advanced practice nurses provide throughout the life cycle, and particularly the care that is provided during times of physical and emotional stress. Despite the prevalence of sexual abuse, there has been little research on the experiences of survivors during the perinatal period, and few suggestions for interventions. This article reviews the literature on the implications of sexual abuse on a woman's experience of pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding. It emphasizes the importance of routine screening for abuse, as well as assessment of a survivor's stage in the recovery process. Finally, this article suggests topics for appropriate perinatal anticipatory guidance for women who have a history of sexual abuse.

  9. Amnesia, flashbacks, nightmares, and dissociation in aging concentration camp survivors.

    PubMed

    Merckelbach, Harald; Dekkers, Theo; Wessel, Ineke; Roefs, Anne

    2003-03-01

    The current study examined to what extent war memories of Dutch survivors of Japanese/Indonesian concentration camps display characteristics that are often believed to be typical for traumatic memories. Twenty-nine survivors were interviewed about amnesia, flashbacks, nightmares and the sensory quality of their most upsetting war memories. In addition, they completed self-report scales measuring post-traumatic stress symptoms and dissociation. In contrast to prevailing notions, amnesia, flashbacks and nightmares were not typical for this sample. Neither were traumatic memories characterized by a particularly strong sensory loading. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were not related to dissociative experiences. At least for this group of aging survivors, it appears that the pathogenic potential of traumatic memories has more to do with their extremely aversive content than with a qualitatively different type of organization of these memories.

  10. Physiology of the motor cortex in polio survivors.

    PubMed

    Lupu, Vitalie D; Danielian, Laura; Johnsen, Jacqueline A; Vasconcelos, Olavo M; Prokhorenko, Olga A; Jabbari, Bahman; Campbell, William W; Floeter, Mary Kay

    2008-02-01

    We hypothesized that the corticospinal system undergoes functional changes in long-term polio survivors. Central motor conduction times (CMCTs) to the four limbs were measured in 24 polio survivors using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Resting motor thresholds and CMCTs were normal. In 17 subjects whose legs were affected by polio and 13 healthy controls, single- and paired-pulse TMS was used to assess motor cortex excitability while recording from tibialis anterior (TA) muscles at rest and following maximal contraction until fatigue. In polio survivors the slope of the recruitment curve was normal, but maximal motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were larger than in controls. MEPs were depressed after fatiguing exercise. Three patients with central fatigue by twitch interpolation had a trend toward slower recovery. There was no association with symptoms of post-polio syndrome. These changes occurring after polio may allow the motor cortex to activate a greater proportion of the motor neurons innervating affected muscles.

  11. Social work with trauma survivors: collaboration with interpreters.

    PubMed

    Berthold, S Megan; Fischman, Yael

    2014-04-01

    Scant attention has been given to the emotional plight, lack of training, and stressful working conditions of interpreters serving survivors of severe human-perpetrated trauma from different parts of the world. This article addresses the critical need for effective collaboration between social workers and interpreters when the provider and survivor do not speak the same language. The careful selection of interpreters; the training, support, and promotion of self-care of interpreters; the training needs for social workers related to their work with interpreters; and the impact of secondary trauma and organizational support on the work of social workers and interpreters are explored. Proposed curriculum components for training interpreters and the importance of therapy and ongoing supervision for interpreters are highlighted. It is essential to prepare interpreters and social workers for the various challenges they will face in their collaborative efforts to serve survivors of severe human-perpetrated trauma, and organizational support is vital to the success of this work.

  12. Traumatic stress responses in earthquake survivors in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Başoğlu, Metin; Salcioğlu, Ebru; Livanou, Maria

    2002-08-01

    This study examined the rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression and associated risk factors in earthquake survivors in Turkey. A group of 1,000 people from 3 camps and 2 prefabricated housing sites in the epicenter region was assessed using the Screening Instrument for Traumatic Stress in Earthquake Survivors. The estimated rates of PTSD and major depression were 43 and 31 %, respectively. Traumatic stress symptoms related to more intense fear during the earthquake, female gender, having been trapped under rubble, death of a family member, past psychiatric illness, having participated in rescue work, and lower education. Avoidance of trauma reminders was the most common symptom and needs special attention in survivor care because of its mental health, social, and economic implications. PMID:12224798

  13. Motivations associated with physical activity in young breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Voege, Patricia; Bower, Julienne E; Stanton, Annette L; Ganz, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with positive health outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, factors that promote or discourage physical activity in this population are not fully understood. This cross-sectional study was designed to examine approach and avoidance motivations, barriers for exercise, and their association with physical activity in breast cancer survivors younger than 50 years old at time of diagnosis. Current physical activity levels, approach and avoidance motivations, and barriers to exercise were assessed through self-report questionnaires in young breast cancer survivors (N = 156). Results indicated that barriers to exercise were negatively associated with physical activity (p < .01) while approach motivations were positively associated with physical activity (p < .01) and were most relevant in the context of low perceived barriers (p < .05). Avoidance motivations were not associated with physical activity (p = .91).

  14. Working with victims of persecution: lessons from Holocaust survivors.

    PubMed

    Levine, J

    2001-10-01

    It is estimated that 25 to 30 million people are forced to leave their homes because of human rights violations or threats to their lives. Such massive dislocations at the international level result in significant numbers of diverse, persecuted populations seeking asylum in the United States. It is estimated that as many as 400,000 victims of torture now reside in the United States, with many survivors suffering in silence. The challenge for social workers is to discover this often hidden, vulnerable population and to serve them. Among all the populations experiencing the trauma and stress of persecution, most is know about Holocaust survivors. Through examining the long-term effects of massive psychic trauma gleaned from research on Holocaust survivors and their children, this article addresses the skills, techniques, and insights about current refugee populations that can be incorporated into social work practice and training. PMID:11682976

  15. [Late morbidity among Holocaust survivors: myth or fact?].

    PubMed

    Ohry, Avi; Shasha, Shaul M

    2006-04-01

    The harsh life in the ghettos and concentration/extermination camps during the Holocaust was characterized by hunger, exposure to extreme cold temperatures, continuous threats, infectious diseases and injuries with acute or permanent disabilities and extreme psychological stress. There is no definite scientific evidence that the Holocaust survivors are exposed to premature aging or premature appearance of various physical diseases. These aspects were thoroughly investigated in other populations: ex-prisoners of war, ex-displaced persons, prisoners and survivors of torture. Famine, disabilities, diseases and stress, particularly at the beginning of or during puberty, were found to increase vulnerability to later morbidity, especially hypertensive and cardiovascular disease and to increased mortality. This article discusses the possibility of premature aging among Holocaust survivors as a late effect of their life conditions during the Holocaust.

  16. Contaminated generativity: Holocaust survivors and their children in Germany.

    PubMed

    Grünberg, Kurt

    2007-03-01

    This paper addresses the trauma transfer from survivors of the Shoah to the Second Generation in Germany. What does it mean for both generations to beget children after Auschwitz? This necessarily entails perceiving non-Jewish Germans and their way of dealing with history. Survivors cannot live without their memory, nor is it possible for them to conceive of a life unencumbered by this constant "contaminant". It is not possible to integrate the persecution experiences. On the contrary, decades after liberation, dissociated elements of traumatic memories penetrate everyday experiences, thought, affect and imagination as contaminants. Occasionally, these fragments of persecution experiences, like "encapsulated memories" hidden in crypts suddenly break open and frighten the survivors themselves and even more so the people around them.

  17. Highlights and pitfalls of 20 years of application of computerised glow curve analysis to thermoluminescence research and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Y S; Moscovitch, M

    2013-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of computerised glow curve analysis are described in detail including a review of the current 'state-of-the-achieved' in applications to environmental and personal dosimetry, clinical dosimetry, quality control, characterisation of new materials, continuing characterisation of 'old' materials, heavy charged particle dosimetry, mixed field n-gamma dosimetry, X-ray dosimetry and other aspects of thermoluminescence dosimetry. Fearless emphasis is placed on 'pitfalls' as well as successes.

  18. A Dyadic Exercise Intervention to Reduce Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Heckler, Charles; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Peppone, Luke J.; McMahon, James M.; Morrow, Gary R.; Bowen, Deborah; Mustian, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Studies have found disparities in psychological distress between lesbian and gay cancer survivors and their heterosexual counterparts. Exercise and partner support are shown to reduce distress. However, exercise interventions haven't been delivered to lesbian and gay survivors with support by caregivers included. Methods: In this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT), ten lesbian and gay and twelve heterosexual survivors and their caregivers were randomized as dyads to: Arm 1, a survivor-only, 6-week, home-based, aerobic and resistance training program (EXCAP©®); or Arm 2, a dyadic version of the same exercise program involving both the survivor and caregiver. Psychological distress, partner support, and exercise adherence, were measured at baseline and post-intervention (6 weeks later). We used t-tests to examine group differences between lesbian/gay and heterosexual survivors and between those randomized to survivor-only or dyadic exercise. Results: Twenty of the twenty-two recruited survivors were retained post-intervention. At baseline, lesbian and gay survivors reported significantly higher depressive symptoms (P = .03) and fewer average steps walked (P = .01) than heterosexual survivors. Post-intervention, these disparities were reduced and we detected no significant differences between lesbian/gay and heterosexual survivors. Participation in dyadic exercise resulted in a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than participation in survivor-only exercise for all survivors (P = .03). No statistically significant differences emerged when looking across arm (survivor-only vs. dyadic) by subgroup (lesbian/gay vs. heterosexual). Conclusion: Exercise may be efficacious in ameliorating disparities in psychological distress among lesbian and gay cancer survivors, and dyadic exercise may be efficacious for survivors of diverse sexual orientations. Larger trials are needed to replicate these findings. PMID:26652029

  19. Short-term treatment of a Central American torture survivor.

    PubMed

    Munczek, D S

    1998-01-01

    The short-term treatment of a Honduran torture survivor is recounted. Torture--the "counter-therapy of the State" (Ritterman 1987, p. 43)--involves intentional physical and psychological destruction of human beings. The socio-political context in which the traumatic events occurred is described, as are the theoretical and ethical assumptions underlying the work. Treatment of victims of organized violence is a formidable challenge. Obstacles and advantages of short-term psychotherapy and use of the therapist's emotional reactions to understand survivors' experiences are emphasized.

  20. Endocrine complications in long-term survivors of childhood cancers.

    PubMed

    Chemaitilly, Wassim; Sklar, Charles A

    2010-09-01

    Endocrine disturbances are among the most frequently reported complications in childhood cancer survivors, affecting between 20 and 50% of individuals who survive into adulthood. Most endocrine complications are the result of prior cancer treatments, especially radiotherapy. The objective of the present review is to discuss the main endocrine complications observed in this population, including disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, disorders of pubertal development, thyroid dysfunction, gonadal dysfunction, decreased bone mineral density, obesity, and alterations in glucose metabolism with a special focus on recent findings reported from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

  1. Long-Term Pulmonary Function in Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Armenian, Saro H.; Landier, Wendy; Francisco, Liton; Herrera, Claudia; Mills, George; Siyahian, Aida; Supab, Natt; Wilson, Karla; Wolfson, Julie A.; Horak, David; Bhatia, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was undertaken to determine the magnitude of pulmonary dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors when compared with healthy controls and the extent (and predictors) of decline over time. Patients and Methods Survivors underwent baseline (t1) pulmonary function tests, followed by a second comprehensive evaluation (t2) after a median of 5 years (range, 1.0 to 10.3 years). Survivors were also compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls at t2. Results Median age at cancer diagnosis was 16.5 years (range, 0.2 to 21.9 years), and time from diagnosis to t2 was 17.1 years (range, 6.3 to 40.1 years). Compared with odds for healthy controls, the odds of restrictive defects were increased 6.5-fold (odds ratio [OR], 6.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 28.4; P < .01), and the odds of diffusion abnormalities were increased 5.2-fold (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.8 to 15.5; P < .01). Among survivors, age younger than 16 years at diagnosis (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 7.8; P = .02) and exposure to more than 20 Gy chest radiation (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.5 to 21.0; P = .02, referent, no chest radiation) were associated with restrictive defects. Female sex (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.7 to 9.5; P < .01) and chest radiation dose (referent: no chest radiation; ≤ 20 Gy: OR, 6.4; 95% CI, 1.7 to 24.4; P < .01; > 20 Gy: OR, 11.3; 95% CI, 2.6 to 49.5; P < .01) were associated with diffusion abnormalities. Among survivors with normal pulmonary function tests at t1, females and survivors treated with more than 20 Gy chest radiation demonstrated decline in diffusion function over time. Conclusion Childhood cancer survivors exposed to pulmonary-toxic therapy are significantly more likely to have restrictive and diffusion defects when compared with healthy controls. Diffusion capacity declines with time after exposure to pulmonary-toxic therapy, particularly among females and survivors treated with high-dose chest radiation. These individuals could benefit from subsequent monitoring. PMID:25847925

  2. Searching for maintenance in exercise interventions for cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Dwyer, Andrea; Birken, Sarah A.; Risendal, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Translating evidence-based exercise interventions into practice is important for expanding the capacity to support cancer survivors. Using the reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and scoping study methodology, we addressed the research question, “What is known about the maintenance of exercise interventions for cancer survivors that would inform translation from research to practice and community settings?” Maintenance was investigated at the individual and setting level. Methods Literature searches were performed in the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Sport Discus databases for articles published from January 2009 to June 2012. Abstracts were judged using a priori criteria for the survivor population, exercise intervention, and maintenance on the individual or setting level. We included completed and planned randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and other study designs. Publications meeting the criteria were reviewed and coded. Results Of the 211 abstracts meeting patient and exercise criteria, 24 (19 RCTs) met the maintenance criteria. Nine of the 12 completed RCTs demonstrated maintenance of intervention outcomes after 3 to 14 months of follow-up. The planned RCTs described interventions lasting 2 to 4.5 months and maintenance intervals lasting 3 to 12 months following the active intervention. Maintenance at the setting level was reported in one publication. Conclusions On the individual level, intervention outcomes were maintained in most studies, in a variety of settings and survivor subpopulations. Maintenance on the setting level was scarcely addressed. This scoping study suggests several strategies that could be taken by agencies, clinicians, and researchers to develop more effective and sustainable exercise programs for cancer survivors. Implications for Cancer Survivors Many benefits of exercise training are maintained for months after cancer

  3. Message retrieval for survivors of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Burke, Rebecca; Wassink, Kimberlee; Martin, Tracy; Seikel, Anthony J

    2008-03-01

    Survivors of traumatic brain injury often lose their ability to use natural speech to communicate and then rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices. Survivors may also have concomitant cognitive communication disorders that negatively impact memory and organization skills. AAC devices need to incorporate a word retrieval organization strategy that is fast and effective. The current study compared the conditions of topic, place, and alphabet for message recognition. The participants were asked a delayed recall question to elicit a communicative response. Results showed that alphabet is significantly more accurate than place and significantly faster than place and topic. However, participants chose to retrieve words using all three strategies.

  4. Service Patterns of Adult Survivors of Childhood versus Adult Sexual Assault/Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…

  5. Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Terry Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of spiritual coping in adult survivors' responses to current life stressors. Although there has been research on general coping and adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), there has been no work done on spiritual coping behaviour and survivors' current adjustment. Method: One…

  6. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  7. Low levels of energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors: Implications for obesity prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (medi...

  8. 20 CFR 225.24 - SS Earnings PIA used in survivor annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false SS Earnings PIA used in survivor annuities... Amount of the Residual Lump-Sum Payable § 225.24 SS Earnings PIA used in survivor annuities. The Social Security Earnings PIA (SS Earnings PIA) used in survivor annuities may be used in computing the tier...

  9. 20 CFR 228.22 - Entitlement to more than one survivor annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entitlement to more than one survivor annuity. 228.22 Section 228.22 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD... than one survivor annuity. If an individual is entitled to more than one survivor annuity, only...

  10. 20 CFR 216.93 - Entitlement to more than one survivor annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entitlement to more than one survivor annuity... RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Eligibility for More Than One Annuity § 216.93 Entitlement to more than one survivor annuity. If an individual is entitled to more than one survivor annuity, only...

  11. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  12. 5 CFR 838.921 - Determining the amount of a former spouse survivor annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... maintain” the survivor annuity to which he or she was entitled at the time of the divorce satisfies the... divorce. For example, a former spouse of an employee would be entitled to a maximum survivor benefit; a... divorce resulting in the court order) would be entitled to the survivor benefit elected at retirement....

  13. 5 CFR 838.921 - Determining the amount of a former spouse survivor annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maintain” the survivor annuity to which he or she was entitled at the time of the divorce satisfies the... divorce. For example, a former spouse of an employee would be entitled to a maximum survivor benefit; a... divorce resulting in the court order) would be entitled to the survivor benefit elected at retirement....

  14. 5 CFR 838.921 - Determining the amount of a former spouse survivor annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maintain” the survivor annuity to which he or she was entitled at the time of the divorce satisfies the... divorce. For example, a former spouse of an employee would be entitled to a maximum survivor benefit; a... divorce resulting in the court order) would be entitled to the survivor benefit elected at retirement....

  15. 5 CFR 838.912 - Specifying an award of a former spouse survivor annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must contain language such as “survivor annuity,” “death benefits,” “former spouse survivor annuity... “continue as” or “be named as” the beneficiary of CSRS survivor benefits or similar language satisfies the... younger second spouse before retirement or if another former spouse has already been awarded a...

  16. Suicide Survivors' Mental Health and Grief Reactions: A Systematic Review of Controlled Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sveen, Carl-Aksel; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2008-01-01

    There has been a debate over several decades whether suicide survivors experience more severe mental health consequences and grief reactions than those who have been bereaved through other causes of death. This is the first systematic review of suicide survivors' reactions compared with survivors after other modes of death. Studies were identified…

  17. 5 CFR 838.921 - Determining the amount of a former spouse survivor annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... maintain” the survivor annuity to which he or she was entitled at the time of the divorce satisfies the... divorce. For example, a former spouse of an employee would be entitled to a maximum survivor benefit; a... divorce resulting in the court order) would be entitled to the survivor benefit elected at retirement....

  18. Exercise Preference Patterns, Resources, and Environment among Rural Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Laura Q.; Markwell, Stephen J.; Courneya, Kerry S.; McAuley, Edward; Verhulst, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Context: Rural breast cancer survivors may be at increased risk for inadequate exercise participation. Purpose: To determine for rural breast cancer survivors: (1) exercise preference "patterns," (2) exercise resources and associated factors, and (3) exercise environment. Methods: A mail survey was sent to rural breast cancer survivors identified…

  19. Modeling the low-LET dose-response of BCR-ABL formation: predicting stem cell numbers from A-bomb data.

    PubMed

    Radivoyevitch, T; Hoel, D G

    1999-01-01

    Formation of the BCR-ABL chromosomal translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11) is essential to the genesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). An interest in the dose-response of radiation induced CML therefore leads naturally to an interest in the dose-response of BCR-ABL formation. To predict the BCR-ABL dose-response to low-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation, three models valid over three different dose ranges are examined: the first for doses greater than 80 Gy, the second for doses less than 5 Gy and the third for doses greater than 2 Gy. The first of the models, due to Holley and Chatterjee, ignores the accidental binary eurejoining of DNA double-strand break (DSB) free ends ('eurejoining' refers to the accidental restitution of DSB free ends with their own proper mates). As a result, the model is valid only in the limit of high doses. The second model is derived directly from cytogenetic data. This model has the attractive feature that it implicitly accounts for single-track effects at low doses. The third model, based on the Sax-Markov binary eurejoining/misrejoining (SMBE) algorithm, does not account for single-track effects and is therefore limited to moderate doses greater than approximately 2 Gy. Comparing the second model to lifetime excess CML risks expected after 1 Gy, estimates of the number of hematopoietic stem cells capable of causing CML were obtained for male and female atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The stem cell number estimates lie in the range of 5 x 10(7)-3 x 10(8) cells. PMID:10616282

  20. Radiation effects analysis in a group of interventional radiologists using biological and physical dosimetry methods.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M; Montoro, A; Almonacid, M; Ferrer, S; Barquinero, J F; Tortosa, R; Verdú, G; Rodríguez, P; Barrios, L L; Villaescusa, J I

    2010-08-01

    Interventional radiologists and staff members are frequently exposed to protracted and fractionated low doses of ionizing radiation, which extend during all their professional activities. These exposures can derive, due to the effects of direct and scattered radiation, in deterministic effects (radiodermitis, aged skin, cataracts, telangiectasia in nasal region, vasocellular epitelioms, hands depilation) and/or stochastic ones (cancer incidence). A methodology has been proposed for estimating the radiation risk or detriment from a group of six exposed interventional radiologists of the Hospital Universitario La Fe (Valencia, Spain), which had developed general exposition symptoms attributable to deterministic effects of ionizing radiation. Equivalent doses have been periodically registered using TLD's and wrist dosimeters, H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07), respectively, and estimated through the observation of translocations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood (biological methods), by extrapolating the yield of translocations to their respective dose-effect curves. The software RADRISK has been applied for estimating radiation risks in these occupational radiation exposures. This software is based on transport models from epidemiological studies of population exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation, such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors [UNSCEAR, Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: 2006 report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes. New York: United Nations; 2006]. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for skin cancer has been, using wrist physical doses, of [1.03x10(-3), 5.06x10(-2)], concluding that there is not an increased risk of skin cancer incidence. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for leukemia has been, using TLD physical doses, of [7.84x10(-2), 3.36x10(-1)], and using biological doses, of [1.40x10(-1), 1.51], which is considerably higher than incidence rates, showing an excess radio-induced risk of

  1. A probabilistic gastrointestinal tract dosimetry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Chulhaeng

    In internal dosimetry, the tissues of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract represent one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body with the hematopoietic bone marrow. Endoscopic ultrasound is a unique tool to acquire in-vivo data on GI tract wall thicknesses of sufficient resolution needed in radiation dosimetry studies. Through their different echo texture and intensity, five layers of differing echo patterns for superficial mucosa, deep mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria and serosa exist within the walls of organs composing the alimentary tract. Thicknesses for stomach mucosa ranged from 620 +/- 150 mum to 1320 +/- 80 mum (total stomach wall thicknesses from 2.56 +/- 0.12 to 4.12 +/- 0.11 mm). Measurements made for the rectal images revealed rectal mucosal thicknesses from 150 +/- 90 mum to 670 +/- 110 mum (total rectal wall thicknesses from 2.01 +/- 0.06 to 3.35 +/- 0.46 mm). The mucosa thus accounted for 28 +/- 3% and 16 +/- 6% of the total thickness of the stomach and rectal wall, respectively. Radiation transport simulations were then performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP) 4C transport code to calculate S values (Gy/Bq-s) for penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations such as photons, beta particles, conversion electrons and auger electrons of selected nuclides, I123, I131, Tc 99m and Y90 under two source conditions: content and mucosa sources, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate generally good agreement with published data for the stomach mucosa wall. The rectal mucosa data are consistently higher than published data compared with the large intestine due to different radiosensitive cell thicknesses (350 mum vs. a range spanning from 149 mum to 729 mum) and different geometry when a rectal content source is considered. Generally, the ICRP models have been designed to predict the amount of radiation dose in the human body from a "typical" or "reference" individual in a given population. The study has been performed to

  2. Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, H., IV

    2000-03-01

    Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products — Requirements for validation and routine control — Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but

  3. Health behaviors, quality of life, and psychosocial health among survivors of adolescent and young adult cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Gina E.; Zhang, Yingying; McFadden, Molly; Wright, Jennifer; Spraker-Perlman, Holly; Kinney, Anita Y.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer may engage in unhealthy lifestyles (e.g., smoking), potentially heightening their risk for long-term health problems. We assessed health behaviors and constructs including quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial well-being among survivors of AYA cancer compared to the general population. Methods We used 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to evaluate health behaviors for survivors of AYA cancer compared to AYAs without cancer. Multivariable regressions assessed health behaviors (smoking, binge drinking, physical inactivity, and low fruit/vegetable intake) by sex and age between AYA survivors and controls, and among survivors to determine the effects of demographic, QOL, psychosocial, and cancer factors on behaviors. Results A greater proportion of female survivors of AYA cancer smoked than controls (currently aged 20–39: 27 vs. 14.3%, respectively; currently aged 40–64: 29.3 vs. 18.4%, respectively). Generally, survivors and controls were non-adherent to national health behavior guidelines. Uninsured survivors were at greater risk of smoking vs. insured (females, Relative Risk (RR)=1.64, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.43–1.90; males, RR=2.62, 95 % CI 1.71–4.02). Poor social/emotional support was associated with smoking (RR= 1.26, 95 % CI 1.07–1.48) among female survivors and was associated with low fruit/vegetable intake among male (RR= 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01–1.23) and female (RR=1.12, 95 % CI 1.05–1.19) survivors. Female survivors >10 years from diagnosis had higher risk of smoking (RR=1.26–1.91, all p<0.01) than survivors 5–10 years from diagnosis. Conclusions Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors are common in survivors of AYA cancer. Implications for Cancer Survivors AYA survivors require health behavior support. PMID:26248766

  4. Improved dosimetry techniques for intravascular brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehgal, Varun

    Coronary artery disease leads to the accumulation of atheromatous plaque leading to coronary stenosis. Coronary intervention techniques such as balloon angioplasty and atherectomy are used to address coronary stenosis and establish a stable lumen thus enhancing blood flow to the myocardium. Restenosis or re-blockage of the arteries is a major limitation of the above mentioned interventional techniques. Neointimal hyperplasia or proliferation of cells in response to the vascular injury as a result of coronary intervention is considered to be one of the major causes of restenosis. Recent studies indicated that irradiation of the coronary lesion site, with radiation doses ranging from 15 to 30 Gy, leads to diminishing neointimal hyperplasia with subsequent reduction in restenosis. The radiation dose is given by catheter-based radiation delivery systems using beta-emitters 90Sr/90Y, 32P and gamma-emitting 192Ir among others. However the dose schema used for dose prescription for these sources are relatively simplistic, and are based on calculations using uniform homogenous water or tissue media and simple cylinder geometry. Stenotic coronary vessels are invariably lined with atheromatous plaque of heterogeneous composition, the radiation dose distribution obtained from such dosimetry data can cause significant variations in the actual dose received by a given patient. Such discrepancies in dose calculation can introduce relatively large uncertainties in the limits of dose window for effective and safe application of intravascular brachytherapy, and consequently in the clinical evaluation of the efficacy of this modality. In this research study we investigated the effect of different geometrical and material heterogeneities, including residual plaque, catheter non-centering, lesion eccentricity and cardiac motion on the radiation dose delivered at the lesion site. Correction factors including dose perturbation factors and dose variation factors have been calculated

  5. Attributes of Spirituality Described by Survivors of Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapik, Gregory P.; Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire B.; Strickland, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on what aspects of attributes of spirituality as defined by Martsolf and Mickley (1998) are most salient for female and male survivors of sexual violence. Content analysis of secondary narrative data, provided by 50 participants in a study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence, was coded to the five attributes of…

  6. Trauma-Informed Approach to Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Anyikwa, Victoria A

    2016-01-01

    Trauma leads to deleterious effects on individuals and families causing many to seek treatment from social work practitioners across systems of care. Trauma comes in all forms, from community violence to domestic violence, including physical and sexual abuse of children and violence among intimate partners that leaves its victims devastatingly impacted. Women make up the majority of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) with studies revealing significant associated mental health problems. Social workers are bound to work with survivors of IPV and must be prepared to deliver effective trauma-informed services. While trauma-specific services exist for specific populations, researchers are finding that negative events in childhood and in family functioning can impact individuals' lives in negative ways thus having implications for treatment across systems. For women survivors of IPV, the traumatic stress may be cumulative with varied emotional and mental health impacts that may force them to seek services across systems, not just domestic violence specific systems. As such it is imperative that social workers increase awareness of trauma, its impact on women, and the importance of the approach and environment in which they provide services. In this article the author aims to broaden social workers knowledge of the use of a TIC approach developed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration that's applicable across systems of care, particularly when working with women survivors of IPV. PMID:27142906

  7. Counselor Meaning-Making: Working with Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viviani, Anna Michele

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent but taboo topic in society. Conservatively 80,000 new cases are reported each year with many more either unreported or unsubstantiated within the legal system. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse often times seek counseling assistance to manage the variety of short-and long-term emotional issues that may arise…

  8. Neuropsychological Differences between Survivors of Supratentorial and Infratentorial Brain Tumours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, S. K.; Mullins, W. A.; O'Neil, S. H.; Wilson, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between brain tumour location and core areas of cognitive and behavioural functioning for paediatric brain tumour survivors. The extant literature both supports and refutes an association between paediatric brain tumour location and neurocognitive outcomes. We examined…

  9. Resilience in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Healing Power of Illusions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelein, Melissa J.; And Others

    Because research has focused on psychopathology rather than psychological health, little is known about how child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors escape childhood trauma unharmed. This investigation sought to identify cognitive characteristics associated with resilience following a history of CSA. The study sample of 180 women was drawn from a small,…

  10. Metabolic syndrome in childhood leukemia survivors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Delvecchio, Maurizio; Giordano, Paola; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria; Brunetti, Giacomina; Ventura, Annamaria

    2015-06-01

    A significant number of long-term complications have been described in childhood leukemia survivors. In particular, these patients may present features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and therefore increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the prevalence and the risk of MetS in survivors of childhood leukemia. Two authors independently performed a systematic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE to March 2014, reviewed and selected articles, based on pre-determined selection criteria. Twelve articles, comprising 2,337 participants (1,462 cases and 875 controls), were included in the meta-analysis. Only three of them were case-control studies eligible for the meta-analysis. The childhood leukemia survivors showed an increased risk of MetS as compared to healthy controls (OR = 4.36; 95 % CI 1.19-16.22). The risk was significantly increased only in patients treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (OR = 7.79; 95 % CI 1.27-47.77), and not in patients treated with only chemotherapy (OR = 2.35; 95 % CI 0.40-13.78). Childhood leukemia survivors, in particular if treated also with radiotherapy, are prone to develop MetS more than healthy controls. Monitoring of MetS components in these patients is necessary to avoid cardiovascular consequences later in life.

  11. Friends of Survivors: The Community Impact of Unwanted Sexual Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Moynihan, Mary M.; Walsh, Wendy A.; Cohn, Ellen S.; Ward, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Since sexual assault survivors are most likely to disclose their experiences to a friend; prevention efforts increasingly focus on friends as informal helpers. The current study examined friends' perceptions of the disclosure experience. Undergraduates (N = 1,241) at the University of New Hampshire completed a shortened version of the Ahrens and…

  12. Cigarette smoking disparities among sexual minority cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Charles; Blosnich, John R.; Lytle, Megan; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Peppone, Luke J.; Mustian, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) adults smoke cigarettes at higher rates than heterosexual adults. Smoking after receiving a cancer diagnosis is a major health concern, yet risk of continued smoking among sexual minority cancer survivors is as yet unknown. The current study examines current smoking among sexual minority vs. heterosexual adult cancer survivors. Method Data drawn from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in five states (Alaska, California, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and Wisconsin) included items about sexual orientation, cancer diagnosis, and tobacco use. The analytic sample included 124 sexual minority and 248 propensity score matched heterosexual adult cancer survivors. Results Bivariate analysis showed that sexual minority cancer survivors had twice the odds of current smoking as their heterosexual counterparts (OR = 2.03, 95%CI:1.09–3.80). In exploratory analyses stratified by sex, sexual minority disparities in prevalence of smoking post-cancer showed a trend toward significance among females, not males. Conclusion The current study offers preliminary evidence that sexual minority status is one variable among many that must be taken into account when assessing health behaviors post-cancer diagnosis. Future research should identify mechanisms leading from sexual minority status to increased rates of smoking and develop tailored smoking cessation interventions. PMID:25984441

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale in Polio Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Helena; Franchignoni, Franco; Puzic, Natasa; Giordano, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate by means of classical test theory and Rasch analysis the scaling characteristics and psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in polio survivors. A questionnaire, consisting of five general questions (sex, age, age at time of acute polio, sequelae of polio, and new symptoms), the FSS,…

  14. Elderly adult survivors of family violence. Implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Anetzberger, G J

    1997-10-01

    This article on elderly adult survivors of domestic violence (usually women) reviews the literature that examines the impact on later life of domestic violence experienced earlier in life and that examines the effects of elder abuse perpetrated by adult family members. The discussion is illustrated with case studies and figures that list the physical, psychological, behavioral, and social effects of each type of violence as well as intervening variables. Next, the paper reviews the influence of culture and ethnicity on the meaning attached to elder abuse and on help-seeking or accepting behavior. The article then proposes a conceptual framework that uses contributing factors (cultural background, individual influences, and cohort influences), modifying factors (the nature of violence, personal circumstances, and relationship with perpetrator), the meaning of violence, and the effects on the survivor to explain the effects of early or late family violence on elderly adult survivors. The discussion notes that the framework focuses on negative effects but that survivors of domestic violence can experience positive effects, such as the development of personal coping skills. The article ends by noting that this proposed framework has clinical implications because it recognizes that the effects of domestic violence on elderly adults may be complicated, it helps practitioners link symptoms to domestic violence, it helps practitioners realize that the meaning of domestic violence may vary among elderly victims, and it shows that family violence occurs in a social context.

  15. Assessing quality of life in adult cancer survivors (QLACS).

    PubMed

    Avis, Nancy E; Smith, Kevin W; McGraw, Sarah; Smith, Roselyn G; Petronis, Vida M; Carver, Charles S

    2005-05-01

    This article describes development of a quality of life measure designed to assess issues relevant to long-term cancer survivors. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 58 long-term cancer survivors to identify domains most relevant to long-term survivors (> or = 5 years post-diagnosis). Self-report items were developed from these interviews and administered to a second sample of 242 long-term survivors. Domains and items were selected from the item pool by a combination of factor analysis and criterion-based item selection. Five cancer-specific domains were identified (appearance concerns, financial problems, distress over recurrence, family-related distress, and benefits of cancer) along with seven generic QOL domains (negative feelings, positive feelings, cognitive problems, sexual problems, physical pain, fatigue, and social avoidance). Cronbach's alpha was 0.72 or greater for each domain. Correlations between domain scores and criterion measures were 0.72 or higher in all but one generic domain (social avoidance), but somewhat lower on cancer-specific domains. The new multidimensional measure has good internal consistency and validity and is appropriate for comparisons between cancer and non-cancer populations, as well as long-term follow-up of cancer patients.

  16. Exercise for Breast Cancer Survivors: Research Evidence and Clinical Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courneya, Kerry S.; Mackey, John R.; McKenzie, Donald C.

    2002-01-01

    Exercise can significantly benefit breast cancer survivors during and after treatment. Moderate intensity aerobic exercise as well as resistance training are important. Psychological health is optimized by enjoyable exercise that develops new skills, incorporates social interaction, and occurs in a stimulating environment. Several conditions…

  17. The Use of Transpersonal Empathy with Child Abuse Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilewski, Michael J.

    Adult survivors of childhood abuse are some of the more difficult and challenging patients in psychotherapy. This paper applies a transpersonal model of empathy to therapeutic work with these individuals. The transpersonal model of empathy extends traditional humanistic models which strive towards "advanced accurate empathy" to the level at which,…

  18. Using a Metaphor in Working with Disaster Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes group intervention based on the story of The Wizard of Oz, in response to tornado in a small rural community. Approximately 30 people participated in the psychoeducational group led by faculty from a nearby college. The therapeutic metaphor served three functions: to remember, to teach, and to motivate. This allowed survivors to see…

  19. "Survivor" Math: Using Pop Culture to Enhance Learning Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burks, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a modification of the popular TV game show, "Survivor," as conducted in an undergraduate first semester mathematics precalculus course. The objective of this game is a group-based competitive drill and practice activity to help students prepare and review for the fundamental concepts exam. The results of this activity…

  20. Counseling Date Rape Survivors: Implications for College Student Personnel Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sherry K.

    A general legal definition of rape is sexual intercourse forced on an individual by another against his/her will and overcoming his/her resistance. Although the female is usually referred to as the survivor and the male as the perpetrator, there are cases of male rape. Rape may be divided into stranger rape and acquaintance rape. Types of…