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Sample records for a-c coatings acomparative

  1. Wear mechanisms of the biotribological nanocomposite a-C : H coatings implanted by metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Major, L; Janusz, M; Lackner, J M; Kot, M; Dyner, M; Major, B

    2017-10-01

    Recently, to reduce the residual stress and increase the mechanical properties of a-C:H coatings, metallic nanoparticles have been implanted into their structure. In the present work, to improve the properties of the coating, metallic nanoparticles, including Cu, Nb, Ta, Zr, AgPt and Ag, were inserted into the a-C:H structure. The applied biological and mechanical analysis allowed the optimal biotribological parameters to be indicated for the potential application as protective coatings for metallic medical tools. Wear mechanisms operating at the small length of the designed biotribological coating, such as a-C:H implanted by Zr nanoparticles, were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM analysis confirmed very good coating adhesion to the metallic substrate. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. Breakdown of the Coulomb friction law in TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Y. T.; Huizenga, P.; Galvan, D.

    2006-12-01

    Advanced TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings have been produced via reactive deposition in a closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system (Hauzer HTC-1000 or HTC 1200). In this paper, we report on the tribological behavior of TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings in which ultralow friction is tailored with superior wear resistance, two properties often difficult to achieve simultaneously. Tribotests have been performed at room temperature with a ball-on-disk configuration. In situ monitoring of the wear depth of the coated disk together with the wear height of the ball counterpart at nanometer scale reveals that the self-lubricating effects are induced by the formation of transfer films onmore » the surface of the ball counterpart. A remarkable finding is a breakdown of the Coulomb friction law in the TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings. In addition, the coefficient of friction of TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings decreases with decreasing relative humidity. A superior wear resistance of the coated disk at a level of 10{sup -17} m{sup 3}/N m (per lap) has been achieved under the condition of superlow friction and high toughness, both of which require fine TiC nanoparticles (e.g., 2 nm) and a wide matrix separation that must be comparable to the dimensions of the nanoparticles.« less

  3. Improved Tribological Performance of Amorphous Carbon (a-C) Coating by ZrO₂ Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinzhu; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Songwei; Wu, Guizhi; Hu, Litian

    2016-09-22

    Nanomaterials, such as Graphene, h-BN nanoparticles and MoS₂ nanotubes, have shown their ability in improving the tribological performance of amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings. In the current study, the effectiveness of ZrO₂ nanoparticles (ZrO₂-NPs) in lubricating the self-mated nonhydrogenated a-C contacts was investigated in boundary lubrication regime. The results showed that 13% less friction and 50% less wear compared to the base oil were achieved by employing ZrO₂-NPs in the base oil in self-mated a-C contacts. Via analyzing the ZrO₂-NPs and the worn a-C surface after tests, it was found that the improved lubrication by ZrO₂-NPs was based on "polishing effects", which is a new phenomenon observed between a-C and nanoparticles. Under the "polishing effect", micro-plateaus with extremely smooth surface and uniform height were produced on the analyzed a-C surface. The resulting topography of the a-C coating is suitable for ZrO₂-NPs to act as nano-bearings between rubbing surfaces. Especially, the ZrO₂-NPs exhibited excellent mechanical and chemical stability, even under the severe service condition, suggesting that the combination of nonhydrogenated a-C coating with ZrO₂-NPs is an effective, long lasting and environment-friendly lubrication solution.

  4. Improved Tribological Performance of Amorphous Carbon (a-C) Coating by ZrO2 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jinzhu; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Songwei; Wu, Guizhi; Hu, Litian

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials, such as Graphene, h-BN nanoparticles and MoS2 nanotubes, have shown their ability in improving the tribological performance of amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings. In the current study, the effectiveness of ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2-NPs) in lubricating the self-mated nonhydrogenated a-C contacts was investigated in boundary lubrication regime. The results showed that 13% less friction and 50% less wear compared to the base oil were achieved by employing ZrO2-NPs in the base oil in self-mated a-C contacts. Via analyzing the ZrO2-NPs and the worn a-C surface after tests, it was found that the improved lubrication by ZrO2-NPs was based on “polishing effects”, which is a new phenomenon observed between a-C and nanoparticles. Under the “polishing effect”, micro-plateaus with extremely smooth surface and uniform height were produced on the analyzed a-C surface. The resulting topography of the a-C coating is suitable for ZrO2-NPs to act as nano-bearings between rubbing surfaces. Especially, the ZrO2-NPs exhibited excellent mechanical and chemical stability, even under the severe service condition, suggesting that the combination of nonhydrogenated a-C coating with ZrO2-NPs is an effective, long lasting and environment-friendly lubrication solution. PMID:28773916

  5. Tailored synthesis of TiC/a-C nanocomposite tribological coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Martinez, D.; Lopez-Cartes, C.; Justo, A.

    2005-11-15

    Composite coatings made of nanocrystalline TiC (nc-TiC) particles and amorphous carbon (a-C) have been prepared in a double magnetron sputtering system using graphite and titanium targets under Ar bombardment. Chemical composition and microstructure of coatings were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) for a set of samples prepared varying the ratio and intensity of power applied to each magnetron. Changes in coatings microstructure, from a quasipolycrystalline TiC to a nanocomposite formed by nanocrystals of TiC embedded in an amorphous matrix of carbon (nc-TiC/a-C), are observed depending on the synthesis conditions. Tribologicalmore » and mechanical properties of coatings were tested using a pin-on-disk tribometer and an ultramicrohardness indenter, respectively. Coatings with moderate hardness (7-27 GPa), low friction (0.1-0.2), and low wear rates (k{approx}10{sup -7} mm{sup 3}/N m) were obtained. A percentage between 15% and 30% of TiC is found as an optimum value to get a good compromise between good mechanical and tribological properties. Finally, a mapping of the mechanical and tribological properties of the nc-TiC/a-C system is presented for the synthesis conditions employed.« less

  6. Antibacterial Ag/a-C nanocomposite coatings: The influence of nano-galvanic a-C and Ag couples on Ag ionization rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, N. K.; Calderon, S.; Carvalho, I.; Henriques, M.; Cavaleiro, A.; Carvalho, S.

    2016-07-01

    Biofilm formation has been pointed as a major concern in different industrial applications, namely on biomedical implants and surgical instruments, which has prompted the development of new strategies for production of efficient antimicrobial surfaces. In this work, nano-galvanic couples were created to enhance the antibacterial properties of silver, by embedding it into amorphous carbon (a-C) matrix. The developed Ag/a-C nanocomposite coatings, deposited by magnetron sputtering, revealed an outstanding antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, promoting a total reduction in biofilm formation with no bacteria counts in all dilution. The open circuit potential (OCP) tests in 0.9% NaCl confirmed that a-C shows a positive OCP value, in contrast to Ag coating, thus enhancing the ionization of biocidal Ag+ due to the nano-galvanic couple activation. This result was confirmed by the inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), which revealed a higher Ag ionization rate in the nanocomposite coating in comparison with the Ag coating. The surface of Ag/a-C and Ag coatings immersed in 0.9% NaCl were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) over a period of 24 h, being found that the Ag ionization determined by ICP-OES was accompanied by an Ag nanoparticles coalescence and agglomeration in Ag/a-C coating.

  7. Tribological properties of TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings prepared via HiPIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-López, J. C.; Dominguez-Meister, S.; Rojas, T. C.; Colasuonno, M.; Bazzan, M.; Patelli, A.

    2018-05-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) technology has been employed to prepare TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings from a titanium target in acetylene (C2H2) reactive atmospheres. Gas fluxes were varied from 1.3 to 4.4 sccm to obtain C/Ti ratios from 2 to 15 as measured by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate the presence of TiC nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous carbon-based matrix. The hardness properties decrease from 17 to 10 GPa as the carbon content increases. The tribological properties were measured using a pin-on-disk tribometer in ambient air (RH = 30-40%) at 10 cm/s with 5 N of applied load against 6-mm 100Cr6 balls. The friction coefficient and the film wear rates are gradually improved from 0.3 and 7 × 10-6 mm3/N m to 0.15 and 2 × 10-7 mm3/N m, respectively, by increasing the C2H2 flux. To understand the tribological processes appearing at the interface and to elucidate the wear mechanism, microstructural and chemical investigations of the coatings were performed before and after the friction test. EPMA, X-ray photoelectron and electron energy-loss spectroscopies were employed to obtain an estimation of the fraction of the a-C:H phase, which can be correlated with the tribological behavior. Examination of the friction counterfaces (ball and track) by Raman microanalysis reveals an increased ordering of the amorphous carbon phase concomitant with friction reduction. The tribological results were compared with similar TiC/a-C(:H) composites prepared by the conventional direct current process.

  8. Increasing in the wear resistance of injection molds made of 1.2343 steel using Ti/TiN/TiCN/nc-TiCN:a-C/nc-TiC:a-C/a-C nanocomposite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupetsov, Velko; Mishev, Georgi; Dishliev, Stefan; Kopanov, Viktor; Chitanov, Vassiliy; Kolaklieva, Lilyana; Pashinski, Chavdar

    2017-02-01

    Injection molds used in production of plastic components are subject of heavy abrasion wear. The increase of their wear resistance significantly reduces the production cost. In the current work are presented research results of the wear resistance of injection molds made of steel 1.2343, coated with Ti/TiN/TiCN/nc-TiCN: a-C/nc-TiC:a -C/a-C. The study of the wear rate was done using the volumetric method and the influence of the trace length was investigated. The coating thickness, nanohardness, elastic modulus and adhesion were also tested. The coating was applied on unhardened ground specimens, hardened ground specimens and hardened polished specimens.

  9. Microstructure characterization of advanced protective Cr/CrN+a-C:H/a-C:H:Cr multilayer coatings on carbon fibre composite (CFC).

    PubMed

    Major, L; Janusz, M; Lackner, J M; Kot, M; Major, B

    2016-06-01

    Studies of advanced protective chromium-based coatings on the carbon fibre composite (CFC) were performed. Multidisciplinary examinations were carried out comprising: microstructure transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HREM) studies, micromechanical analysis and wear resistance. Coatings were prepared using a magnetron sputtering technique with application of high-purity chromium and carbon (graphite) targets deposited on the CFC substrate. Selection of the CFC for surface modification in respect to irregularities on the surface making the CFC surface more smooth was performed. Deposited coatings consisted of two parts. The inner part was responsible for the residual stress compensation and cracking initiation as well as resistance at elevated temperatures occurring namely during surgical tools sterilization process. The outer part was responsible for wear resistance properties and biocompatibility. Experimental studies revealed that irregularities on the substrate surface had a negative influence on the crystallites growth direction. Chromium implanted into the a-C:H structure reacted with carbon forming the cubic nanocrystal chromium carbides of the Cr23 C6 type. The cracking was initiated at the coating/substrate interface and the energy of brittle cracking was reduced because of the plastic deformation at each Cr interlayer interface. The wear mechanism and cracking process was described in micro- and nanoscale by means of transmission electron microscope studies. Examined materials of coated CFC type would find applications in advanced surgical tools. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Nanocomposite vacuum-Arc TiC/a-C:H coatings prepared using an additional ionization of acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakhtenberg, I. Sh.; Gavrilov, N. V.; Emlin, D. R.; Plotnikov, S. A.; Vladimirov, A. B.; Volkova, E. G.; Rubshtein, A. P.

    2014-07-01

    The composition, structure, and properties of TiC/a-C:H coatings obtained by simultaneous vacuum-arc deposition of titanium and carbon in a low-pressure argon-acetylene medium additionally activated by a low-energy (a few hundreds of electron-volts) electron beam. The creation of conditions under which the decomposition of acetylene is provided by the ionization and dissociation of molecules due to electron impacts and by the recharging of molecules through titanium and argon ions with subsequent dissociation should favor the most complete decomposition of acetylene in a wide range of pressures. With increasing acetylene pressure, the structure of the nanocomposite coating changes: the size of TiC crystallites decreases, and the fraction of interfaces (or the fraction of regions with a disordered (amorphous) structure) increases. The application of a bias voltage leads to an increase in the sizes of TiC nanocrystallites. The coatings with a maximum microhardness (˜40 GPa) have been obtained without the action of an electron beam under an acetylene pressure of ˜0.05-0.08 Pa and the atomic ratio Ti: C ˜ 0.9: 1.1 in the coating.

  11. Silver segregation in Ag/a-C nanocomposite coatings for potential application as antibacterial surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, Noora Kristiina Alves de Sousa

    O desenvolvimento de superficies antibacterianas representa um desafio atual em diferentes aplicacoes industriais, nomeadamente, dispositivos medicos, embalagens alimentares, texteis e sistemas de tratamento de agua. A maioria das bacterias existe em biofilmes que aderem fortemente a diferentes tipos de superficies uma vez que esta adesao representa um mecanismo estrategico de sobrevivencia. O fenomeno da adesao e colonizacao microbiana resulta na falha de diferentes dispositivos e componentes utilizados nas aplicacoes acima mencionadas, tendo como consequencia perdas economicas elevadas e representando tambem um problema de saude publica quando se tratam de aplicacoes como dispositivos medicos ou embalagens alimentares. Neste sentido, ao longo das ultimas decadas o desenvolvimento de superficies antibacterianas tem sido considerada uma estrategia emergente no desenvolvimento de materiais mais eficientes a serem aplicados em diferentes sectores. O objetivo da presente tese consiste no desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de revestimentos nanocompositos multifuncionais baseados em revestimentos de carbono amorfo dopado com nanoparticulas de prata (Ag/a-C) para potencial aplicacao em superficies antibacterianas. A Ag e atualmente considerada como o agente bactericida mais promissor e eficiente, sendo que as nanoparticulas de prata representam o material mais comercializado na area da nanotecnologia. A estrategia de modificacao superficial com revestimentos baseados em carbono amorfo (a-C) tem-se tornado popular do ponto de vista industrial essencialmente, devido entre outras propriedades, a sua resistencia ao desgaste tribologico excecional, que permite combinar uma elevada dureza com um baixo coeficiente de atrito, elevada estabilidade quimica, resistencia a corrosao e biocompatibilidade em diferentes aplicacoes biomedicas. Na atualidade os revestimentos de a-C sao utilizados em diferentes aplicacoes industriais nomeadamente dispositivos medicos, laminas de barbear e

  12. Enhanced Corrosion Resistance and Interfacial Conductivity of TiC x/a-C Nanolayered Coatings via Synergy of Substrate Bias Voltage for Bipolar Plates Applications in PEMFCs.

    PubMed

    Yi, Peiyun; Zhang, Weixin; Bi, Feifei; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    2018-06-06

    Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are one kind of renewable and clean energy conversion device, whose metallic bipolar plates are one of the key components. However, high interfacial contact resistance and poor corrosion resistance are still great challenges for the commercialization of metallic bipolar plates. In this study, we demonstrated a novel strategy for depositing TiC x /amorphous carbon (a-C) nanolayered coatings by synergy of 60 and 300 V bias voltage to enhance corrosion resistance and interfacial conductivity. The synergistic effects of bias voltage on the composition, microstructure, surface roughness, electrochemical corrosion behaviors, and interfacial conductivity of TiC x /a-C coatings were explored. The results revealed that the columnar structures in the inner layer were suppressed and the surface became rougher with the 300 V a-C layer outside. The composition analysis indicated that the sp 2 content increased with an increase of 300 V sputtering time. Due to the synergy strategy of bias voltage, lower corrosion current densities were achieved both in potentiostatic polarization (1.6 V vs standard hydrogen electrode) and potentiodynamic polarization. With the increase of 300 V sputtering time, the interfacial conductivity was improved. The enhanced corrosion resistance and interfacial conductivity of the TiC x /a-C coatings would provide new opportunities for commercial bipolar plates.

  13. Long-term aging of Ag/a-C:H:O nanocomposite coatings in air and in aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drábik, Martin; Pešička, Josef; Biederman, Hynek; Hegemann, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposite coatings of silver particles embedded in a plasma polymer matrix possess interesting properties depending on their microstructure. The film microstructure is affected among others also by the RF power supplied during the deposition, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. The optical properties are characterized by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. An anomalous optical absorption peak from the Ag nanoparticles is observed and related to the microstructure of the nanocomposite films. Furthermore, a long-term aging of the coatings is studied in-depth in ambient air and in aqueous environments. It is shown that the studied films are not entirely stable. The deposition conditions and the microstructure of the films affect the processes taking place during their aging in both environments.

  14. Microbial adhesion on novel yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) implant surfaces with nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:N) coatings.

    PubMed

    Schienle, Stefanie; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Kohal, Ralf Joachim; Bernsmann, Falk; Adolfsson, Erik; Montanaro, Laura; Palmero, Paola; Fürderer, Tobias; Chevalier, Jérôme; Hellwig, Elmar; Karygianni, Lamprini

    2016-09-01

    Biomaterial surfaces are at high risk for initial microbial colonization, persistence, and concomitant infection. The rationale of this study was to assess the initial adhesion on novel implant surfaces of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans upon incubation. The tested samples were 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) samples with nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:N) coating (A) and 3Y-TZP samples coated with ceria-stabilized zirconia-based (Ce-TZP) composite and a-C:H:N (B). Uncoated 3Y-TZP samples (C) and bovine enamel slabs (BES) served as controls. Once the surface was characterized, the adherent microorganisms were quantified by estimating the colony-forming units (CFUs). Microbial vitality was assessed by live/dead staining, and microbial-biomaterial surface topography was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Overall, A and B presented the lowest CFU values for all microorganisms, while C sheltered significantly less E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans than BES. Compared to the controls, B demonstrated the lowest vitality values for E. coli (54.12 %) and C. albicans (67.99 %). Interestingly, A (29.24 %) exhibited higher eradication rates for S. aureus than B (13.95 %). Within the limitations of this study, a-C:H:N-coated 3Y-TZP surfaces tended to harbor less initially adherent microorganisms and selectively interfered with their vitality. This could enable further investigation of the new multi-functional zirconia surfaces to confirm their favorable antimicrobial properties in vivo.

  15. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobarak, H. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mohamad, E. Niza; Kalam, M. A.; Rashedul, H. K.; Rashed, M. M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-10-01

    The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC.

  16. A NASA Technician directs loading of the crated SOFIA primary mirror assembly into a C-17 for shipment to NASA Ames Research Center for finish coating

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-05-01

    Technicians at NASA's Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility in Palmdale, Calif., loaded the German-built primary mirror assembly of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, onto an Air Force C-17 for shipment to NASA's Ames Research Center on May 1, 2008. In preparation for the final finish coating of the mirror, the more than two-ton mirror assembly had been removed from its cavity in the rear fuselage of the highly modified SOFIA Boeing 747SP two weeks earlier. After arrival at NASA Ames at Moffett Field near Mountain View, Calif., the mirror would receive its aluminized finish coating before being re-installed in the SOFIA aircraft.

  17. Effect of the metal concentration on the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of self-organized a-C:Cu hard nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, A.; Buijnsters, J. G.; Endrino, J. L.; Gómez-Aleixandre, C.; Abrasonis, G.; Bonet, R.; Caro, J.

    2013-09-01

    The influence of the metal content (Cu: 0-28 at.%) on the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of amorphous carbon films grown by pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition is investigated. Silicon and AISI 301 stainless steel have been used as substrate materials. The microstructure, composition and bonding structure have been determined by scanning electron microscopy, combined Rutherford backscattered spectroscopy-nuclear reaction analysis, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The mechanical and tribological properties have been assessed using nanoindentation and reciprocating sliding (fretting tests) and these have been correlated with the elemental composition of the films. A self-organized multilayered structure consisting of alternating carbon and copper metal nanolayers (thickness in the 25-50 nm range), whose formation is enhanced by the Cu content, is detected. The nanohardness and Young’s modulus decrease monotonically with increasing Cu content. A maximum value of the Young’s modulus of about 255 GPa is obtained for the metal-free film, whereas it drops to about 174 GPa for the film with a Cu content of 28 at.%. In parallel, a 50% drop in the nanohardness from about 28 GPa towards 14 GPa is observed for these coatings. An increase in the Cu content also produces an increment of the coefficient of friction in reciprocating sliding tests performed against a corundum ball counterbody. As compared to the metal free film, a nearly four times higher coefficient of friction value is detected in the case of a Cu content of 28 at.%. Nevertheless, the carbon-copper composite coatings produced a clear surface protection of the substrate despite an overall increase in wear loss with increasing Cu content in the range 3-28 at.%.

  18. Candidate Gene Identification of Feed Efficiency and Coat Color Traits in a C57BL/6J × Kunming F2 Mice Population Using Genome-Wide Association Study.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yuanxin; Soudy, Fathia; Xu, Zhong; Liao, Mingxing; Zhao, Shuhong; Li, Xinyun

    2017-01-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) is a very important trait in livestock industry. Identification of the candidate genes could be of benefit for the improvement of FE trait. Mouse is used as the model for many studies in mammals. In this study, the candidate genes related to FE and coat color were identified using C57BL/6J (C57) × Kunming (KM) F2 mouse population. GWAS results showed that 61 and 2 SNPs were genome-wise suggestive significantly associated with feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake (FI) traits, respectively. Moreover, the Erbin, Msrb2, Ptf1a, and Fgf10 were considered as the candidate genes of FE. The Lpl was considered as the candidate gene of FI. Further, the coat color trait was studied. KM mice are white and C57 ones are black. The GWAS results showed that the most significant SNP was located at chromosome 7, and the closely linked gene was Tyr. Therefore, our study offered useful target genes related to FE in mice; these genes may play similar roles in FE of livestock. Also, we identified the major gene of coat color in mice, which would be useful for better understanding of natural mutation of the coat color in mice.

  19. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  20. Aluminide coatings

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr; Charles, H [Kennewick, WA; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA; Samuels, William D [Richland, WA

    2009-08-18

    Disclosed herein are aluminide coatings. In one embodiment coatings are used as a barrier coating to protect a metal substrate, such as a steel or a superalloy, from various chemical environments, including oxidizing, reducing and/or sulfidizing conditions. In addition, the disclosed coatings can be used, for example, to prevent the substantial diffusion of various elements, such as chromium, at elevated service temperatures. Related methods for preparing protective coatings on metal substrates are also described.

  1. Metal Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, General Magnaplate Corporation developed process techniques for bonding dry lubricant coatings to space metals. The coatings were not susceptible to outgassing and offered enhanced surface hardness and superior resistance to corrosion and wear. This development was necessary because conventional lubrication processes were inadequate for lightweight materials used in Apollo components. General Magnaplate built on the original technology and became a leader in development of high performance metallurgical surface enhancement coatings - "synergistic" coatings, - which are used in applications from pizza making to laser manufacture. Each of the coatings is designed to protect a specific metal or group of metals to solve problems encountered under operating conditions.

  2. Multispectral Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    failure, whereas the polymer nanocomposite gave ductile failure with less surface damage. Task 2. Highly reflective self-assembled coatings . The...AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2010-4036 MULTISPECTRAL COATINGS Eric Grulke University of Kentucky Thad Druffel Optical Dynamics JANUARY...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) January 2010 Final 28 November 2005 – 30 September 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MULTISPECTRAL COATINGS 5a

  3. Photoemissive coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Polystyrene coating is applied to holographic storage tube substrate via glow discharge polymerization in an inert environment. After deposition of styrene coating, antimony and then cesium are added to produce photoemissive layer. Technique is utilized in preparing perfectly organized polymeric films useful as single-crystal membranes.

  4. Coatings Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Coatings Guide is a free online information resource that focuses on alternative, low-emission coatings for metal, plastic, and architectural substrates. Developed cooperatively by the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development and Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Interna...

  5. Strand Burner Results of AFP-001 Propellant with Inert Coating for Temperature Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    there were 4 different configurations: baseline, a C-100 coated, an SC-11 coated, and a urethane acrylate (UA) coated. C-100 is a polyurea based...phenomena associated with coated AFP-001 propellant. Three different coating polymers were chosen for the experiments: an epoxy (SC-11), polyurea (C-100

  6. Versatile Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A radome at Logan Airport and a large parabolic antenna at the Wang Building in Massachusetts are protected from weather, corrosion and ultraviolet radiation by a coating, specially designed for antennas and radomes, known as CRC Weathertite 6000. The CRC 6000 line that emerged from Boyd Coatings Research Co., Inc. is a solid dispersion of fluorocarbon polymer and polyurethane that yields a tough, durable film with superior ultraviolet resistance and the ability to repel water and ice over a long term. Additionally, it provides resistance to corrosion, abrasion, chemical attacks and impacts. Material can be used on a variety of substrates, such as fiberglass, wood, plastic and concrete in addition to steel and aluminum. In addition Boyd Coatings sees CRC 6000 applicability as an anti-icing system coated on the leading edge of aircraft wings.

  7. Protective Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Inorganic Coatings, Inc.'s K-Zinc 531 protective coating is water-based non-toxic, non-flammable and has no organic emissions. High ratio silicate formula bonds to steel, and in 30 minutes, creates a very hard ceramic finish with superior adhesion and abrasion resistance. Improved technology allows application over a minimal commercial sandblast, fast drying in high humidity conditions and compatibility with both solvent and water-based topcoats. Coating is easy to apply and provides long term protection with a single application. Zinc rich coating with water-based potassium silicate binder offers cost advantages in materials, labor hours per application, and fewer applications over a given time span.

  8. Diamond Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Advances in materials technology have demonstrated that it is possible to get the advantages of diamond in a number of applications without the cost penalty, by coating and chemically bonding an inexpensive substrate with a thin film of diamond-like carbon (DLC). Diamond films offer tremendous technical and economic potential in such advances as chemically inert protective coatings; machine tools and parts capable of resisting wear 10 times longer; ball bearings and metal cutting tools; a broad variety of optical instruments and systems; and consumer products. Among the American companies engaged in DLC commercialization is Diamonex, Inc., a diamond coating spinoff of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Along with its own proprietary technology for both polycrystalline diamond and DLC coatings, Diamonex is using, under an exclusive license, NASA technology for depositing DLC on a substrate. Diamonex is developing, and offering commercially, under the trade name Diamond Aegis, a line of polycrystalline diamond-coated products that can be custom tailored for optical, electronic and engineering applications. Diamonex's initial focus is on optical products and the first commercial product is expected in late 1990. Other target applications include electronic heat sink substrates, x-ray lithography masks, metal cutting tools and bearings.

  9. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  10. Gold Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Epner Technology Inc. responded to a need from Goddard Space Flight Center for the ultimate in electroplated reflectivity needed for the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Made of beryllium, the MOLA mirror was coated by Epner Technology Laser Gold process, specially improved for the project. Improved Laser Gold- coated reflectors have found use in an epitaxial reactor built for a large semiconductor manufacturer as well as the waveguide in Braun-Thermoscan tympanic thermometer and lasing cavities in various surgical instruments.

  11. COATING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, R.G.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for protectively coating beryllium metal by etching the metal in an acid bath, immersing the etched beryllium in a solution of sodium zincate for a brief period of time, immersing the beryllium in concentrated nitric acid, immersing the beryhlium in a second solution of sodium zincate, electroplating a thin layer of copper over the beryllium, and finally electroplating a layer of chromium over the copper layer.

  12. Thermal radiative properties: Coatings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    This volume consists, for the most part, of a presentation of numerical data compiled over the years in a most comprehensive manner on coatings for all applications, in particular, thermal control. After a moderately detailed discussion of the theoretical nature of the thermal radiative properties of coatings, together with an overview of predictive procedures and recognized experimental techniques, extensive numerical data on the thermal radiative properties of pigmented, contact, and conversion coatings are presented. These data cover metallic and nonmetallic pigmented coatings, enamels, metallic and nonmetallic contact coatings, antireflection coatings, resin coatings, metallic black coatings, and anodized and oxidized conversion coatings.

  13. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  14. Corrosion resistant coating

    DOEpatents

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.; Thompson, K.G.; Bryan, C.J.

    1997-08-19

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  15. Corrosion resistant coating

    DOEpatents

    Wrobleski, Debra A.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Thompson, Karen G.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1997-01-01

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  16. The Chemistry of Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, James R.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of natural and synthetic polymeric "coatings" are reviewed, including examples and uses of such coatings as cellulose nitrate lacquers (for automobile paints), polyethylene, and others. (JN)

  17. Tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnetron sputtered titanium-amorphous carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhandapani, Vishnu Shankar; Subbiah, Ramesh; Thangavel, Elangovan; Arumugam, Madhankumar; Park, Kwideok; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Veeraragavan, Veeravazhuthi; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous carbon incorporated with titanium (a-C:Ti) was coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) by magnetron sputtering technique to attain superior tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The morphology, topography and functional groups of the nanostructured a-C:Ti coatings in various concentrations were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman and XPS analyses confirmed the increase in sp2 bonds with increasing titanium content in the a-C matrix. TEM analysis confirmed the composite nature of the coating and the presence of nanostructured TiC for Ti content of 2.33 at.%. This coating showed superior tribological properties compared to the other a-C:Ti coatings. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion studies were performed against stimulated body fluid medium in which all the a-C:Ti coatings showed improved corrosion resistance than the pure a-C coating. Preosteoblasts proliferation and viability on the specimens were tested and the results showed that a-C:Ti coatings with relatively high Ti (3.77 at.%) content had better biocompatibility. Based on the results of this work, highly durable coatings with good biocompatibility could be achieved by incorporation of optimum amount of Ti in a-C coatings deposited on SS by magnetron sputtering technique.

  18. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  19. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  20. Multi-layer coatings

    DOEpatents

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze'ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  1. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    DOEpatents

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  2. Seal coat research project

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-12-01

    This study evaluates the use of seal coating as a method to protect bituminous pavements from oxidation, water infiltration, and raveling. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) applied seal coating to a roadway segment of Trunk Highway ...

  3. Experiments with ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, E. K.; Rollins, C. T.

    1968-01-01

    Report describes the procedures and techniques used in the application of a ceramic coating and the evaluation of test parts through observation of the cracks that occur in this coating due to loading.

  4. Evaluation of masonry coatings.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1969-08-01

    This report describes the evaluation of five coating systems to replace the conventional Class 2 rubbed finish now required on concrete structures. The evaluation consisted of preparing test specimens with each of the five coatings and conducting abs...

  5. Corrosion inhibiting organic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sasson, E.

    1984-10-16

    A corrosion inhibiting coating comprises a mixture of waxes, petroleum jelly, a hardener and a solvent. In particular, a corrosion inhibiting coating comprises candelilla wax, carnauba wax, microcrystalline waxes, white petrolatum, an oleoresin, lanolin and a solvent.

  6. METHOD FOR TESTING COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.

    1958-09-01

    A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.

  7. Spin coating of electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1989-01-01

    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  8. Protective Coatings for Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggieri, D. J.; Rowe, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    Report evaluates protective coatings for metal structures in seashore and acid-cloud environments. Evaluation result of study of coating application characteristics, repair techniques, and field performance. Products from variety of manufacturers included in study. Also factory-coated panels and industrial galvanized panels with and without topcoats.

  9. Ceramic with zircon coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An article comprises a silicon-containing substrate and a zircon coating. The article can comprise a silicon carbide/silicon (SiC/Si) substrate, a zircon (ZrSiO.sub.4) intermediate coating and an external environmental/thermal barrier coating.

  10. Lubricant Coating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    "Peen Plating," a NASA developed process for applying molybdenum disulfide, is the key element of Techniblast Co.'s SURFGUARD process for applying high strength solid lubricants. The process requires two machines -- one for cleaning and one for coating. The cleaning step allows the coating to be bonded directly to the substrate to provide a better "anchor." The coating machine applies a half a micron thick coating. Then, a blast gun, using various pressures to vary peening intensities for different applications, fires high velocity "media" -- peening hammers -- ranging from plastic pellets to steel shot. Techniblast was assisted by Rural Enterprises, Inc. Coating service can be performed at either Techniblast's or a customer's facility.

  11. Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce heat transfer between a hot gas heat source and a metallic engine component, a thermal insulating layer of material is placed between them. This thermal barrier coating is applied by plasma spray processing the thin films. The coating has been successfully employed in aerospace applications for many years. Lewis Research Center, a leader in the development engine components coating technology, has assisted Caterpillar, Inc. in applying ceramic thermal barrier coatings on engines. Because these large engines use heavy fuels containing vanadium, engine valve life is sharply decreased. The barrier coating controls temperatures, extends valve life and reduces operating cost. Additional applications are currently under development.

  12. Coating Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Gedwill, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Hot-section gas-turbine components typically require some form of coating for oxidation and corrosion protection. Efficient use of coatings requires reliable and accurate predictions of the protective life of the coating. Currently engine inspections and component replacements are often made on a conservative basis. As a result, there is a constant need to improve and develop the life-prediction capability of metallic coatings for use in various service environments. The purpose of this present work is aimed at developing of an improved methodology for predicting metallic coating lives in an oxidizing environment and in a corrosive environment.

  13. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  14. Vacuum plasma spray coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

  15. Coatings for directional eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the development of an environmentally stable coating for a very high strength, directionally solidified eutectic alloy designated NiTaC-13. Three duplex (two-layer) coatings survived 3,000 hours on a cyclic oxidation test (1,100 C to 90 C). These coatings were fabricated by first depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam heated source, followed by depositing an aluminizing overlayer. The alloy after exposure with these coatings was denuded of carbide fibers at the substrate/coating interface. It was demonstrated that TaC fiber denudation can be greatly retarded by applying a carbon-bearing coating. The coating was applied by thermal spraying followed by aluminization. Specimens coated with NiCrAlCY+Al survived over 2,000 hours in the cyclic oxidation test with essentially no TaC denudation. Coating ductility was studied for coated and heat-treated bars, and stress rupture life at 871 C and 1,100 C was determined for coated and cycled bars.

  16. Coated Aerogel Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  17. Strain isolated ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolokan, R. P.; Brady, J. B.; Jarrabet, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are used in gas turbine engines to improve component temperature capability and cooling air efficiency. A compliant metal fiber strain isolator between a plasma sprayed ceramic coating and a metal substrate improves ceramic durability while allowing thicker coatings for better insulation. Development of strain isolated coatings has concentrated on design and fabrication of coatings and coating evaluation via thermal shock testing. In thermal shock testing, five types of failure are possible: buckling failure im compression on heat up, bimetal type failure, isothermal expansion mismatch failure, mudflat cracking during cool down, and long term fatigue. A primary failure mode for thermally cycled coatings is designated bimetal type failure. Bimetal failure is tensile failure in the ceramic near the ceramic-metal interface. One of the significant benefits of the strain isolator is an insulating layer protecting the metal substrate from heat deformation and thereby preventing bimetal type failure.

  18. Pixelated coatings and advanced IR coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradal, Fabien; Portier, Benjamin; Oussalah, Meihdi; Leplan, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Reosc developed pixelated infrared coatings on detector. Reosc manufactured thick pixelated multilayer stacks on IR-focal plane arrays for bi-spectral imaging systems, demonstrating high filter performance, low crosstalk, and no deterioration of the device sensitivities. More recently, a 5-pixel filter matrix was designed and fabricated. Recent developments in pixelated coatings, shows that high performance infrared filters can be coated directly on detector for multispectral imaging. Next generation space instrument can benefit from this technology to reduce their weight and consumptions.

  19. Coatings for graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Graphite fibers released from composites during burning or an explosion caused shorting of electrical and electronic equipment. Silicon carbide, silica, silicon nitride and boron nitride were coated on graphite fibers to increase their electrical resistances. Resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than uncoated fiber were attained without any significant degradation of the substrate fiber. An organo-silicone approach to produce coated fibers with high electrical resistance was also used. Celion 6000 graphite fibers were coated with an organo-silicone compound, followed by hydrolysis and pyrolysis of the coating to a silica-like material. The shear and flexural strengths of composites made from high electrically resistant fibers were considerably lower than the shear and flexural strengths of composites made from the lower electrically resistant fibers. The lower shear strengths of the composites indicated that the coatings on these fibers were weaker than the coating on the fibers which were pyrolyzed at higher temperature.

  20. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  1. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  2. Optical coating in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunner, A. N.

    1983-01-01

    A technological appraisal of the steps required to approach the goal of in-situ optical coating, cleaning and re-coating the optical elements of a remote telescope in space is reported. Emphasis is placed on the high ultraviolet throughput that a telescope using bare aluminum mirrors would offer. A preliminary design is suggested for an Orbital Coating Laboratory to answer basic technical questions.

  3. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A series of studies in which films and liquid spray-on materials were evaluated in the laboratory for transport aircraft external surface coatings are summarized. Elastomeric polyurethanes were found to best meet requirements. Two commercially available products, CAAPCO B-274 and Chemglaze M313, were subjected to further laboratory testing, airline service evaluations, and drag-measurement flight tests. It was found that these coatings were compatible with the severe operating environment of airlines and that coatings reduced airplane drag. An economic analysis indicated significant dollar benefits to airlines from application of the coatings.

  4. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  5. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  6. Silica coatings on clarithromycin.

    PubMed

    Bele, Marjan; Dmitrasinovic, Dorde; Planinsek, Odon; Salobir, Mateja; Srcic, Stane; Gaberscek, Miran; Jamnik, Janko

    2005-03-03

    Pre-crystallized clarithromycin (6-O-methylerythromycin A) particles were coated with silica from the tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-ethanol-aqueous ammonia system. The coatings had a typical thickness of 100-150 nm and presented about 15 wt.% of the silica-drug composite material. The properties of the coatings depended on reactant concentration, temperature and mixing rate and, in particular, on the presence of a cationic surfactant (cetylpyridinium chloride). In the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride the silica coatings slightly decreased the rate of pure clarithromycin dissolution.

  7. Coatings for Graphite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Several approaches for applying high resistance coatings continuously to graphite yarn were investigated. Two of the most promising approaches involved (1) chemically vapor depositing (CVD) SiC coatings on the surface of the fiber followed by oxidation, and (2) drawing the graphite yarn through an organo-silicone solution followed by heat treatments. In both methods, coated fibers were obtained which exhibited increased electrical resistances over untreated fibers and which were not degraded. This work was conducted in a previous program. In this program, the continuous CVD SiC coating process used on HTS fiber was extended to the coating of HMS, Celion 6000, Celion 12000 and T-300 graphite fiber. Electrical resistances three order of magnitude greater than the uncoated fiber were measured with no significant degradation of the fiber strength. Graphite fibers coated with CVD Si3N4 and BN had resistances greater than 10(exp 6) ohm/cm. Lower pyrolysis temperatures were used in preparing the silica-like coatings also resulting in resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than the uncoated fiber. The epoxy matrix composites prepared using these coated fibers had low shear strengths indicating that the coatings were weak.

  8. Optical coatings on polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    Optical transparent polymers are used for technical optics for more than 50 years and currently replace glass as optical material in several application fields. Optical functional coatings like mirrors, filters, beam splitters and anti-reflection coatings gain increasingly in importance. New light sources and head mounted systems need light and effective reflector designs. The paper gives an overview about vacuum coating technologies for metal and dielectric layers on polymers for technical optics. Especially for polymers controlling the complete process chain from injection moulding to storing, coating and shipping decides on the technological and commercial success.

  9. Innovations in coating technology.

    PubMed

    Behzadi, Sharareh S; Toegel, Stefan; Viernstein, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Despite representing one of the oldest pharmaceutical techniques, coating of dosage forms is still frequently used in pharmaceutical manufacturing. The aims of coating range from simply masking the taste or odour of drugs to the sophisticated controlling of site and rate of drug release. The high expectations for different coating technologies have required great efforts regarding the development of reproducible and controllable production processes. Basically, improvements in coating methods have focused on particle movement, spraying systems, and air and energy transport. Thereby, homogeneous distribution of coating material and increased drying efficiency should be accomplished in order to achieve high end product quality. Moreover, given the claim of the FDA to design the end product quality already during the manufacturing process (Quality by Design), the development of analytical methods for the analysis, management and control of coating processes has attracted special attention during recent years. The present review focuses on recent patents claiming improvements in pharmaceutical coating technology and intends to first familiarize the reader with the available procedures and to subsequently explain the application of different analytical tools. Aiming to structure this comprehensive field, coating technologies are primarily divided into pan and fluidized bed coating methods. Regarding pan coating procedures, pans rotating around inclined, horizontal and vertical axes are reviewed separately. On the other hand, fluidized bed technologies are subdivided into those involving fluidized and spouted beds. Then, continuous processing techniques and improvements in spraying systems are discussed in dedicated chapters. Finally, currently used analytical methods for the understanding and management of coating processes are reviewed in detail in the last section of the review.

  10. Durable Hybrid Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    be an adequate alternative for chromate-based coatings [Nanna,   2004] for the protection of aluminum alloys from corrosion . Its protection behavior ...alternative for chromate-based coatings for the protection of aluminum alloys from corrosion . Their protection behavior was attributed to a combination...Topcoat Under Prohesion® Conditions ........ 12 2.4 Remote Corrosion Sensor Design

  11. Coated electroactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-08-30

    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  12. Thermal barrier coating

    DOEpatents

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles; Sabol, Stephen M.; Goedjen, John G.

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  13. Materials Coating Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    applications from decorative to utilitarian over significant segments of the engineering, chemical, nuclear , microelectronics, and related Industries. PVD...Thermal-control coating. Boron 2430 Cermet component, nuclear shielding and controlrod material; Carbide wear- and temperature-resistant. Calcium...Zirconium Oxide (Hafnia-Pree � Thermal-barrier coatings for nuclear applications. Lime Stabi!Aed) Zirconium 2563 Resistant to high-temperature

  14. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  15. Molecular Adsorber Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straka, Sharon; Peters, Wanda; Hasegawa, Mark; Hedgeland, Randy; Petro, John; Novo-Gradac, Kevin; Wong, Alfred; Triolo, Jack; Miller, Cory

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a zeolite-based sprayable molecular adsorber coating that has been developed to alleviate the size and weight issues of current ceramic puck-based technology, while providing a configuration that more projects can use to protect against degradation from outgassed materials within a spacecraft, particularly contamination-sensitive instruments. This coating system demonstrates five times the adsorption capacity of previously developed adsorber coating slurries. The molecular adsorber formulation was developed and refined, and a procedure for spray application was developed. Samples were spray-coated and tested for capacity, thermal optical/radiative properties, coating adhesion, and thermal cycling. Work performed during this study indicates that the molecular adsorber formulation can be applied to aluminum, stainless steel, or other metal substrates that can accept silicate-based coatings. The coating can also function as a thermal- control coating. This adsorber will dramatically reduce the mass and volume restrictions, and is less expensive than the currently used molecular adsorber puck design.

  16. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-04-07

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  17. Duplex aluminized coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Grisaffe, S. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    The surface of a metallic base system is initially coated with a metallic alloy layer that is ductile and oxidation resistant. An aluminide coating is then applied to the metallic alloy layer. The chemistry of the metallic alloy layer is such that the oxidation resistance of the subsequently aluminized outermost layer is not seriously degraded.

  18. Aerocoat 7 Replacement Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center has used Aerocoat 7 (AR-7) to protect stainless-steel flex hoses at Launch Complex (LC-39) and hydraulic lines of the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) because it provides excellent corrosion protection in low-temperature applications. The Sovereign Company produced AR-7 exclusively for NASA but discontinued production because the coating released high levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and had a significant environmental impact. The purpose of this project was to select and evaluate potential replacement coatings for AR-7 that would be more environmentally sound. The physical and mechanical properties of commercially available coatings were investigated through the Internet. The ideal coating would be fluid enough to penetrate the outer mesh of a stainless-steel flex hose and coat the inner hose, and flexible enough to withstand the movement of the hose, as well as the expansion and contraction of its metal caused by changes in temperature.

  19. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores onmore » its surface.« less

  20. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  1. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Alvin, Mary Anne [Pittsburg, PA

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  2. LEVELING METAL COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Gage, H.A.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for applying metallic coatings to a cylinder of uranium. An aluminum-silicon coat is applied by a process consisting of first cleaning the article by immersion for 5 minutes in 50% nitric acid at 65 C. The article then is dipped through a flux, prepared by adding 10% sodium fluoride to 90% of a flux comprising 53% potassium chloride, 42% lithium chloride, and 5% sodium chloride at 560 for 2 minutes and then directly into a molten metal bath comprising 99% aluminun and 12% silicon at 620 C for 3 minutes. While the coating is yet molten the article is transferred to a pair of steel rollers and rolled until the coating solidifies. By varying the composition of the flux other metals such as zinc, lead or the like may be coated on uranium in a similar manner.

  3. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  4. Investigation of surface finishing of carbon based coated tools for dry deep drawing of aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, J.; Andreas, K.; Merklein, M.

    2016-11-01

    Global trends like growing environmental awareness and demand for resource efficiency motivate an abandonment of lubricants in metal forming. However, dry forming evokes increased friction and wear. Especially, dry deep drawing of aluminum alloys leads to intensive interaction between tool and workpiece due to its high adhesion tendency. One approach to improve the tribological behavior is the application of carbon based coatings. These coatings are characterized by high wear resistance. In order to investigate the potential of carbon based coatings for dry deep drawing, friction and wear behavior of different coating compositions are evaluated in strip drawing tests. This setup is used to model the tribological conditions in the flange area of deep drawing operations. The tribological behavior of tetrahedral amorphous (ta-C) and hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings with and without tungsten modification (a-C:H:W, a-C:H) is investigated. The influence of tool topography is analyzed by applying different surface finishing. The results show reduced friction with decreased roughness for coated tools. Besides tool topography the coating type determines the tribological conditions. Smooth tools with ta-C and a-C:H coatings reveal low friction and prevent adhesive wear. In contrast, smooth a-C:H:W coated tools only lead to slight improvement compared to rough, uncoated specimen.

  5. Ebonics and Dr. Ernie Adolphus Smith toward Acomparative and Holistic Paradigm in Black Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minamoto, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    One African-centered linguistic paradigm argues the primary language of most descendants of enslaved Africans in the United States is not English but an African language. The language is called "Ebonics." Clinical linguist Dr. Ernie Adolphus Smith (1938-) is the most conspicuous figure in the history of the paradigm. The reconstructed…

  6. Going home after a C-section

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000624.htm Going home after a C-section To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. You are going home after a C-section. You should expect to need help caring ...

  7. Phenol-formaldehyde intumescent coating composition and coating prepared therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salyer, Ival O. (Inventor); Fox, Bernard L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Intumescent coatings which form a thick, uniform, fine celled, low density foam upon exposure to a high intensity heat flux or flame are disclosed, the invention coatings comprise phenolic resin prepolymer containing a blowing agent and a nucleating agent; in the preferred embodiments the coatings also contains a silicone surfactant, the coatings are useful in thermal and fire protection systems.

  8. Isomolybdate conversion coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating solution and process forms a stable and corrosion-resistant layer on metal substrates or layers or, more preferably, on a boehmite layer or other base conversion coating. The conversion coating process involves contacting the substrate, layer or coating with an aqueous alkali metal isomolybdate solution in order to convert the surface of the substrate, layer or coating to a stable conversion coating. The aqueous alkali metal molybdates are selected from sodium molybdate (Na.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), lithium molybdate (Li.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), potassium molybdate (K.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), or combinations thereof, with the most preferred alkali metal molybdate being sodium molybdate. The concentration of alkali metal molybdates in the solution is preferably less than 5% by weight. In addition to the alkali metal molybdates, the conversion coating solution may include alkaline metal passivators selected from lithium nitrate (LiNO.sub.3), sodium nitrate (NaNO.sub.3), ammonia nitrate (NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3), and combinations thereof; lithium chloride, potassium hexafluorozirconate (K.sub.2 ZrF.sub.6) or potassium hexafluorotitanate (K.sub.2 TiF.sub.6).

  9. COATING URANIUM FROM CARBONYLS

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Storrs, S.S.

    1959-07-14

    Methods are described for making adherent corrosion resistant coatings on uranium metal. According to the invention, the uranium metal is heated in the presence of an organometallic compound such as the carbonyls of nickel, molybdenum, chromium, niobium, and tungsten at a temperature sufficient to decompose the metal carbonyl and dry plate the resultant free metal on the surface of the uranium metal body. The metal coated body is then further heated at a higher temperature to thermally diffuse the coating metal within the uranium bcdy.

  10. Stable White Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerlaut, Gene A.; Gilligan, J. E.; Harada, Y.

    1965-01-01

    In a previous research program for the Jet Propulsion- Laboratory, extensive studies led to the development and specifications of three zinc oxide-pigmented thermal-control coatings. The principal objectives of this program are: improvement of the three paints (as engineering materials), determination of the validity of our accelerated space-simulation testing, and continuation of the zinc oxide photolysis studies begun in the preceding program. Specific tasks that are discussed include: improvement of potassium silicate coatings as engineering materials and elucidation of their storage and handling problems; improvement of methyl silicone coatings as engineering materials; studies of zinc oxide photolysis to establish reasons for the observed stability of zinc oxide; and determination of space-simulation parameters such as long-term stability (to 8000 ESH), effect of coating surface temperature on the rate of degradation, and validity of accelerated testing (by reciprocity and wavelength dependency studies).

  11. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  12. Multilayer optical dielectric coating

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, John L.

    1990-01-01

    A highly damage resistant, multilayer, optical reflective coating includes alternating layers of doped and undoped dielectric material. The doping levels are low enough that there are no distinct interfaces between the doped and undoped layers so that the coating has properties nearly identical to the undoped material. The coating is fabricated at high temperature with plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques to eliminate defects, reduce energy-absorption sites, and maintain proper chemical stoichiometry. A number of differently-doped layer pairs, each layer having a thickness equal to one-quarter of a predetermined wavelength in the material are combined to form a narrowband reflective coating for a predetermined wavelength. Broadband reflectors are made by using a number of narrowband reflectors, each covering a portion of the broadband.

  13. Aluminum phosphate coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sambasivan, Sankar; Steiner, Kimberly A.; Rangan, Krishnaswamy K.

    2007-12-25

    Aluminophosphate compounds and compositions as can be used for substrate or composite films and coating to provide or enhance, without limitation, planarization, anti-biofouling and/or anti-microbial properties.

  14. Preventing Cracking of Anodized Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Charles C.; Heslin, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    Anodized coatings have been used as optical and thermal surfaces in spacecraft. Particulate contamination from cracked coatings is a concern for many applications. The major cause for the cracking is the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide coatings and the aluminum substrate. The loss of water when the coating is exposed to a vacuum also could induce cracking of the coating. Hot-water sealing was identified as the major cause for the cracking of the coatings because of the large temperature change when the parts were immersed in boiling water and the water was absorbed in the coating. when the hot-water sealing process was eliminated, the cracking resistance of the anodized coatings was greatly improved. Also, it was found that dyed black coatings were more susceptible than clear coatings to cracking during thermo-vacuum cyclings.

  15. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: khalidrafi@gmail.com

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material formore » friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.« less

  16. Dielectric Coating Thermal Stabilization During GaAs-Based Laser Fabrication for Improved Device Yield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-25

    1 Dielectric coating thermal stabilization during GaAs-based laser fabrication for improved device yield 1 Michael K. Connors a, c), Jamal...side contact metal, underlying SiO2 dielectric coating, and semiconductor surface. A thermal-anneal procedure developed for the fabrication of GaAs...slab coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) ridge waveguide devices stabilizes the SiO2 dielectric coating, by means of outgassing and stress reduction

  17. Intumescent coating development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayler, I. O.; Griffen, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    A program was completed at the University of Dayton Research Institute in which polyimide and phenolic intumescent coatings were evaluated as supplemental thermal insulation for the sprayed-on foam insulation on the aft bulkhead of the space shuttle external tank. The purpose of the intumescent coating was to provide additional thermal protection during lift-off in order to replace the ablative heat resistant layer with a lighter weight material for increased payload in the shuttle.

  18. Ceramic electrolyte coating methods

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2004-10-12

    Processes for preparing aqueous suspensions of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia. The invention also includes a process for preparing an aqueous coating slurry of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material. The invention further includes a process for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material on pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  19. METAL COATING BATHS

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, J.W.

    1958-08-26

    A method is presented for restoring the effectiveness of bronze coating baths used for hot dip coating of uranium. Such baths, containing a high proportion of copper, lose their ability to wet uranium surfaces after a period of use. The ability of such a bath to wet uranium can be restored by adding a small amount of metallic aluminum to the bath, and skimming the resultant hard alloy from the surface.

  20. Spin coating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  1. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  2. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification--hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas.

    PubMed

    Murmu, Peter P; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min(-1). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp(3) bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time.

  3. Controlled Thermal Expansion Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J. (Inventor); Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Aikin, Beverly J. M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A improved thermal barrier coating and method for producing and applying such is disclosed herein. The thermal barrier coating includes a high temperature substrate, a first bond coat layer applied to the substrate of MCrAlX, and a second bond coat layer of MCrAlX with particles of a particulate dispersed throughout the MCrAlX and the preferred particulate is Al2O3. The particles of the particulate dispersed throughout the second bond coat layer preferably have a diameter of less then the height of the peaks of the second bond coat layer, or a diameter of less than 5 microns. The method of producing the second bond coat layer may either include the steps of mechanical alloying of particles throughout the second bond coat layer, attrition milling the particles of the particulate throughout the second bond coat layer, or using electrophoresis to disperse the particles throughout the second bond coat layer. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the first bond coat layer is applied to the substrate, and then the second bond coat layer is thermally sprayed onto the first bond coat layer. Further, in a preferred embodiment of die invention, a ceramic insulating layer covers the second bond coat layer.

  4. Effect of structure and deposition technology on tribological properties of DLC coatings alloyed with VIA group metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrushchov, M.; Levin, I.; Marchenko, E.; Avdyukhina, V.; Petrzhik, M.

    2016-07-01

    The results of a comprehensive research on atomic structure, phase composition, micromechanical and tribological characteristics of alloyed DLC coatings have been presented. The coatings have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in acetylene-nitrogen gas mixtures of different compositions (a-C:H:Cr), by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition in atmospheres of silicone-organic precursor gases (a-C:H:Mo:Si), and by nonreactive magnetron sputtering of a composite target (a-C:H:W).

  5. What is a C-section?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What is a C-section? A cesarean delivery, also called a C-section or cesarean birth, is the surgical delivery ... of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). FAQ: Cesarean birth (C-section) . Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://www. ...

  6. Raman and PEELS studies of magnetron sputtered a-C

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.; Jen, T.M.; Zeng, X.

    Amorphous carbon coatings (a-C, a-C:H) of less than 100 nm thick were deposited on KBr pellets and silicon wafer substrate via magnetron sputtering of graphic target in argon, argon/hydrogen and argon/nitrogen atmosphere. Parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) analysis was used to quantify the sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} bonding in carbon films. Stand-alone films of amorphous carbon were produced by sputtering onto compressed KBr pellets and then floating off in distilled water for PEELS study. Raman spectroscopy was used to measure the peak intensity ratio of D-band to that of the G-band (I{sub d}/I{sub g}). It shows that higher sp{sup 3}more » fraction often associates with Raman peak ratio I{sub d}/I{sub g}. At the same time, G-band peak position P{sub g} decreases while sp{sup 3} fraction increases.« less

  7. Mechanical and tribological properties of gradient a-C:H/Ti coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batory, D.; Szymański, W.; Cłapa, M.

    2013-08-01

    The unusual combination of high hardness and very low friction coefficient are the most attractive tribological parameters of DLC (diamond-like carbon) layers. However, their usability is strongly restricted by the limited thickness due to high residual stress. The main goal of the presented work was to obtain thick, wear resistant and well adherent DLC layers while keeping their perfect friction parameters. As a proposed solution a Ti-Ti x C y gradient layer was manufactured as the adhesion improving interlayer followed by a thick diamond-like carbon film. This kind of combination seems to be very promising for many applications, where dry friction conditions for highly loaded elements can be observed. Both layers were obtained in one process using a hybrid deposition system combining PVD and CVD techniques in one reaction chamber. The investigation was performed on nitrided samples made from X53CrMnNiN21-9 valve steel. Structural features, surface topography, tribological and mechanical properties of manufactured layers were evaluated. The results of the investigation confirmed that the presented deposition technique makes it possible to manufacture thick and well adherent carbon layers with high hardness and very good tribological parameters. Preliminary investigation results prove the possibility of application of presented technology in automotive industry.

  8. Protective broadband window coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel; Narayanan, Authi A.

    1997-06-01

    Optical windows employed in current and future airborne and ground based optical sensor systems are required to provide long service life under extreme environmental conditions including blowing sand and high speed rain. State of the art sensor systems are employing common aperture windows which must provide optical bandpasses from the TV to the LWIR. Operation Desert Storm experience indicates that current optical coatings provide limited environmental protection which adversely affects window life cycle cost. Most of these production coatings also have limited optical bandpasses (LWIR, MWIR, or TV-NIR). A family of optical coatings has been developed which provide a significant increase in rain and sand impact protection to current optical window materials. These coatings can also be tailored to provide either narrow optical bandwidth (e.g., LWIR) or broadband transmittance (TV- LWIR). They have been applied to a number of standard optical window materials. These coating have successfully completed airborne rain and sand abrasion test with minimal impact on optical window performance. Test results are presented. Low cost service life is anticipated as well as the ability to operate windows in even more taxing environments than currently feasible.

  9. Coatings for directional eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Coatings developed to provide oxidation protection for the directionally-solidified eutectic alloy NiTaC-B (4.4 weight percent Cr) were evaluated. Of seven Co-, Fe- and Ni-base coatings that were initially investigated, best resistance to cyclic oxidation was demonstrated by duplex coatings fabricated by depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam source followed by deposition of an Al overlayer using the pack cementation process. It was found that addition of carbon to the coating alloy substantially eliminated the problem of fiber denudation in TaC-type eutectic alloys. Burner rig cycled NiTaC-B samples coated with Ni-20Cr-5Al-0.1C-0.1Y+Al and rupture-tested at 1100 deg C performed as well as or better than uncoated, vacuum cycled and air-tested NiTaC-13; however, a slight degradation with respect to uncoated material was noted in air-stress rupture tests at 870 deg C for both cycled and uncycled samples.

  10. METHOD OF PROTECTIVELY COATING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Eubank, L.D.; Boller, E.R.

    1959-02-01

    A method is described for protectively coating uranium with zine comprising cleaning the U for coating by pickling in concentrated HNO/sub 3/, dipping the cleaned U into a bath of molten zinc between 430 to 600 C and containing less than 0 01% each of Fe and Pb, and withdrawing and cooling to solidify the coating. The zinccoated uranium may be given a; econd coating with another metal niore resistant to the corrosive influences particularly concerned. A coating of Pb containing small proportions of Ag or Sn, or Al containing small proportions of Si may be applied over the zinc coatings by dipping in molten baths of these metals.

  11. Thermally Oxidized C, N Co-Doped ANATASE-TiO2 Coatings on Stainless Steel for Tribological Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hefeng; Shu, Xuefeng; Li, Xiuyan; Tang, Bin; Lin, Naiming

    2013-07-01

    Ti(C, N) coatings were prepared on stainless steel (SS) substrates by plasma surface alloying technique. Carbon-nitrogen co-doped titanium dioxide (C-N-TiO2) coatings were fabricated by oxidative of the Ti(C, N) coatings in air. The prepared C-N-TiO2 coatings were characterized by SEM, XPS and XRD. Results reveal that the SS substrates were entirely shielded by the C-N-TiO2 coatings. The C-N-TiO2 coatings are anatase in structure as characterized by X-ray diffraction. The tribological behavior of the coatings was tested with ball-on-disc sliding wear and compared with substrate. Such a C-N-TiO2 coatings showed good adhesion with the substrate and tribological properties of the SS in terms of much reduced friction coefficient and increased wear resistance.

  12. Templated biomimetic multifunctional coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chih-Hung; Gonzalez, Adriel; Linn, Nicholas C.; Jiang, Peng; Jiang, Bin

    2008-02-01

    We report a bioinspired templating technique for fabricating multifunctional optical coatings that mimic both unique functionalities of antireflective moth eyes and superhydrophobic cicada wings. Subwavelength-structured fluoropolymer nipple arrays are created by a soft-lithography-like process. The utilization of fluoropolymers simultaneously enhances the antireflective performance and the hydrophobicity of the replicated films. The specular reflectivity matches the optical simulation using a thin-film multilayer model. The dependence of the size and the crystalline ordering of the replicated nipples on the resulting antireflective properties have also been investigated by experiment and modeling. These biomimetic materials may find important technological application in self-cleaning antireflection coatings.

  13. Fiber coating method

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot

    2003-04-15

    A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

  14. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    DOEpatents

    Branson, Eric D [Albuquerque, NM; Shah, Pratik B [Albuquerque, NM; Singh, Seema [Rio Rancho, NM; Brinker, C Jeffrey [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  15. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  16. Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; White, Rickey L.; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.

    2000-01-01

    An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

  17. Aesthetic coatings for steel bridge components.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of aesthetic coating systems for steel bridges was studied. Twelve 2-coat, 3-coat, and duplex : coating systems were selected and subjected to a series of accelerated weathering and mechanical tests to : determine their performance....

  18. Protective coating for ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Churchward, Rex A. (Inventor); Lowe, David M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A protective coating for ceramic materials such as those made of silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, aluminoborosilicate and silicon dioxide, and a thermal control structure comprising a ceramic material having coated thereon the protective coating. The protective coating contains, in admixture, silicon dioxide powder, colloidal silicon dioxide, water, and one or more emittance agents selected from silicon tetraboride, silicon hexaboride, silicon carbide, molybdenum disilicide, tungsten disilicide and zirconium diboride. In another aspect, the protective coating is coated on a flexible ceramic fabric which is the outer cover of a composite insulation. In yet another aspect, a metallic foil is bonded to the outer surface of a ceramic fabric outer cover of a composite insulation via the protective coating. A primary application of this invention is as a protective coating for ceramic materials used in a heat shield for space vehicles subjected to very high aero-convective heating environments.

  19. Field tack coat evaluator (ATACKer).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-12-14

    Asphalt tack coats are applied during pavement construction to ensure bond between pavement layers, thus providing : a more durable pavement. A prototype tack coat evaluation device (TCED) was developed to evaluate the tensile and : torque-shear stre...

  20. Field tack coat evaluator (ATACKer)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-12-15

    Asphalt tack coats are applied during pavement construction to ensure bond between pavement layers, thus providing a more durable pavement. A prototype tack coat evaluation device (TCED) was developed to evaluate the tensile and torque-shear strength...

  1. water-soluble fluorocarbon coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanelli, P.

    1979-01-01

    Water-soluble fluorocarbon proves durable nonpolluting coating for variety of substrates. Coatings can be used on metals, masonry, textiles, paper, and glass, and have superior hardness and flexibility, strong resistance to chemicals fire, and weather.

  2. Coated article and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Lee, Kang Neung (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An article includes a silicon-containing substrate and a modified mullite coating. The modified mullite coating comprises mullite and a modifier component that reduces cracks in the modified mullite coating. The article can further comprise a thermal barrier coating applied to the modified mullite coating. The modified mullite coating functions as a bond coating between the external environmental/thermal barrier coating and the silicon-containing substrate. In a method of forming an article, a silicon-containing substrate is formed and a modified mullite coating is applied. The modified mullite coating comprises mullite and a modifier component that reduces cracks in the modified mullite coating.

  3. Coated article and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Lee, Kang Neung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An article includes a silicon-containing substrate and a modified mullite coating. The modified mullite coating comprises mullite and a modifier component that reduces cracks in the modified mullite coating. The article can further comprise a thermal barrier coating applied to the modified mullite coating. The modified mullite coating functions as a bond coating between the external environmental/thermal barrier coating and the silicon-containing substrate. In a method of forming an article, a silicon-containing substrate is formed and a modified mullite coating is applied. The modified mullite coating comprises mullite and a modifier component that reduces cracks in the modified mullite coating.

  4. Evaluation of waveguide coating materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W. C. J.; Baker, B. W.

    1982-01-01

    Waveguide coating materials were tested at 8470 MHz for insertion loss. Samples of these coatings on waveguide pieces without flanges were tested in an environmental chamber to simulate the effects of high power microwave heating. Test results indicated that three types of coating materials are acceptable with regard to insertion loss. However, simulated microwave heating caused debonding of Metcot 7 and BD-991 coatings, resulting in peelings in the waveguide. The higher cost Chemglaze R104 does not exhibit this problem.

  5. Expedient Encapsulation: Protective Structural Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-16

    strippable coating applied to the interior of a portable ‘office’ shed. The barrier polymer was assessed for its ability to significantly diminish the...proof-of-concept study that will assess the application of two select coatings on a large-scale (approximately 8’ x 8’ x 8’) shelter interior...available coating applied to a portable storage building. The coating selected for use in the study was developed for radiological surface

  6. Thermal Barrier Coating Workshop, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains papers from the 1997 Thermal Barrier Coatings Workshop, sponsored by the TBC Interagency Coordination Committee. The Workshop was held in Fort Mitchell, Kentucky, May 19-21, 1997. The papers cover the topics of heat transfer and conductivity of thermal barrier coatings, failure mechanisms and characterization of the coatings as well as characterization of coating deposition methods. Speakers included research, development and user groups in academia, industry and government.

  7. METHOD OF APPLYING METALLIC COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, J.W.; Eubank, L.D.

    1961-08-01

    A method for applying a protective coating to a uranium rod is described. The steps include preheating the unanium rod to the coating temperature, placement of the rod between two rotating rollers, pouring a coating metal such as aluminum-silicon in molten form between one of the rotating rollers and the uranium rod, and rotating the rollers continually until the coating is built up to the desired thickness. (AEC)

  8. COATING COLUMBIUM FOR HIGH TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoz, G.

    1960-04-01

    An investigation was conducted to find a coating for niobium to make it oxidation resistaat. The results obtained at the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory using zinc as a coating are reported. Tests conducted on molten zinc dipped niobium with an intentional flaw after coating, revealed a moderate hardness increase near the flaw. No indication of oxygen absorption or other embrittlement after 5 hours at 2000 deg F was observed in the coated metal. (B.O.G.)

  9. Silicone Coating on Polyimide Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Silicone coatings applied to polyimide sheeting for variety of space-related applications. Coatings intended to protect flexible substrates of solar-cell blankets from degradation by oxygen atoms, electrons, plasmas, and ultraviolet light in low Earth orbit and outer space. Since coatings are flexible, generally useful in forming flexible laminates or protective layers on polyimide-sheet products.

  10. UV Coatings, Polarization, and Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Quijada, Manuel; West, Garrett; Balasubramanian, Bala; Krist, John; Martin, Stefan; Sabatke, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Presenation for the Large UltraViolet Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) and Habitable Exoplanet Imager (HabEx) Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDT) on technical considerations regarding ultraviolet coatings, polarization, and coronagraphy. The presentations review the state-of-the-art in ultraviolet coatings, how those coatings generate polarization aberrations, and recent study results from both the LUVOIR and HabEx teams.

  11. Ceramic coatings on smooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A. (Inventor); Brindley, W. J. (Inventor); Rouge, C. J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A metallic coating is plasma sprayed onto a smooth surface of a metal alloy substitute or on a bond coating. An initial thin ceramic layer is low pressure sprayed onto the smooth surface of the substrate or bond coating. Another ceramic layer is atmospheric plasma sprayed onto the initial ceramic layer.

  12. Impact-Resistant Ceramic Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, W. H.; Creedon, J. F.; Izu, Y. D.

    1986-01-01

    Refractory fibers more than double strength of coating. Impact strengths of ceramic coatings increase with increasing whisker content. Silicon carbide whiskers clearly produce largest increase, and improvement grows even more with high-temperature sintering. Coating also improves thermal and mechanical properties of electromagnetic components, mirrors, furnace linings, and ceramic parts of advanced internal-combustion engines.

  13. REFRACTORY COATING FOR GRAPHITE MOLDS

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.

    1958-06-24

    Refractory coating for graphite molds used in the casting of uranium is described. The coating is an alumino-silicate refractory composition which may be used as a mold surface in solid form or as a coating applied to the graphite mold. The composition consists of a mixture of ball clay, kaolin, alumina cement, alumina, water, sodium silicate, and sodium carbonate.

  14. Rheology of Coating Materials and Their Coating Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabsch, C.; Grüner, S.; Otto, F.; Sommer, K.

    2008-07-01

    Lots of particles used in the pharmaceutical and the food industry are coated to protect the core material. But almost no investigations about the coating material behavior do exist. In this study the focus was on the rheological material properties of fat based coating materials. Rotational shear experiments to determine the viscosity of a material were compared to oscillatory shear tests to get information about the vicoelastic behavior of the coating materials. At the liquid state the viscosity and the viscoelastic properties showed a good analogy. The viscoelastic properties of the solid coating materials yielded differences between materials that have the same properties at the liquid state.

  15. Erosion resistant coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falco, L.; Cushini, A.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring the resistance of materials to erosion is examined and a scheme for standardization of the test parameters is described. Current materials being used for protecting aircraft parts from erosion are surveyed, their chief characteristics being given. The superior properties of urethane coatings are pointed out. The complete cycle for painting areas subject to erosion is described.

  16. Ultraviolet reflective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    Composition consists of dispersion of barium sulphate in aqueous solution of water-soluble inorganic binder. Binder is selected from group consisting of alkali metal sulphates. Coating exhibits high reflectance of ultraviolet light to wavelengths of approximately 200.0 nm, which compares favorably with high reflectance of virgin barium sulphate power.

  17. Sprayable lightweight ablative coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G. (Inventor); Sharpe, Max H. (Inventor); Hill, William E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved lightweight, ablative coating is disclosed that may be spray applied and cured without the development of appreciable shrinkage cracks. The ablative mixture consists essentially of phenolic microballoons, hollow glass spheres, glass fibers, ground cork, a flexibilized resin binder, and an activated colloidal clay.

  18. Coating method for graphite

    DOEpatents

    Banker, John G.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided comprising coating the graphite surface with a suspension of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4% by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

  19. Coating method for graphite

    DOEpatents

    Banker, J.G.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1975-11-06

    A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided. The graphite surface is coated with a suspension of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

  20. Polydopamine-coated capsules

    SciTech Connect

    White, Scott R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Kang, Sen

    One aspect of the invention is a polymer material comprising a capsule coated with PDA. In certain embodiments, the capsule encapsulates a functional agent. The encapsulated functional agent may be an indicating agent, healing agent, protecting agent, pharmaceutical drug, food additive, or a combination thereof.

  1. Optical Thin Film Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    implantation prevents the formation of CuO (which is thermally unstable), in favor of CuAlO2 which is a more stable oxide. This process may produce...coatings for Lambda Physik’s exclmer lasers. In-housp damage threshold tests are performed using either of two Nd:YAC lasers. One laser produces a

  2. Active coatings technologies for tailorable military coating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, J. L., III

    2007-04-01

    The main objective of the U.S. Army's Active Coatings Technologies Program is to develop technologies that can be used in combination to tailor coatings for utilization on Army Materiel. The Active Coatings Technologies Program, ACT, is divided into several thrusts, including the Smart Coatings Materiel Program, Munitions Coatings Technologies, Active Sensor packages, Systems Health Monitoring, Novel Technology Development, as well as other advanced technologies. The goal of the ACT Program is to conduct research leading to the development of multiple coatings systems for use on various military platforms, incorporating unique properties such as self repair, selective removal, corrosion resistance, sensing, ability to modify coatings' physical properties, colorizing, and alerting logistics staff when tanks or weaponry require more extensive repair. A partnership between the U.S. Army Corrosion Office at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ along with researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ, Clemson University, SC, University of New Hampshire, NH, and University of Massachusetts (Lowell), MA, are developing the next generation of Smart Coatings Materiel via novel technologies such as nanotechnology, Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS), meta-materials, flexible electronics, electrochromics, electroluminescence, etc. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Active Coatings Technologies Program, including an update of the on-going Smart Coatings Materiel Program, its progress thus far, description of the prototype Smart Coatings Systems and research tasks as well as future nanotechnology concepts, and applications for the Department of Defense.

  3. Low friction and galling resistant coatings and processes for coating

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Roger N.

    1987-01-01

    The present invention describes coating processes and the resultant coated articles for use in high temperature sodium environments, such as those found in liquid metal fast breeder reactors and their associated systems. The substrate to which the coating is applied may be either an iron base or nickel base alloy. The coating itself is applied to the substrate by electro-spark deposition techniques which result in metallurgical bonding between the coating and the substrate. One coating according to the present invention involves electro-spark depositing material from a cemented chromium carbide electrode and an aluminum electrode. Another coating according to the present invention involves electro-spark depositing material from a cemented chromium carbide electrode and a nickel-base hardfacing alloy electrode.

  4. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Drews, M. J.; Ellison, M. S.; Gantt, B. W.

    1989-01-01

    A process is being developed which evenly coats individual carbon fibers with thermoplastic polymers. In this novel, continuous coating process, the fiber tow bundle is first spread cover a series of convex rollers and then evenly coated with a fine powder of thermoplastic matrix polymer. Next, the fiber is heated internally by passing direct current through the powder coated fiber. The direct current is controlled to allow the carbon fiber temperature to slightly exceed the flow temperature of the matrix polymer. Analysis of the thermoplastic coated carbon fiber tows produced using this continuous process indicates that 30 to 70 vol pct fiber prepregs can be obtained.

  5. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  6. New temperable solar coatings: Tempsol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiryont, Hulya

    2001-11-01

    This paper deals with the large area deposition and coating properties of the thermo-stable (temperable/bendable) solar coating material, CuO, and some new optical coating systems comprising CuO films for architectural and automotive/transportation applications. The CuO solar coating is combined with other coating layers, for example, an anti-reflection film, a reflection film, a coloration coating layer, etc., which are also thermo-stable. The film systems are developed at the research laboratory by D.C. Magnetron reactive sputtering process. The new developed technologies then transferred to the production line. Product performances are compared before and after heat treatment of the coating systems. Performance tables and other physical properties, including optical parameters, mechanical and environmental stability, storage properties, etc., are also presented for this new product series.

  7. Flow accelerated organic coating degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qixin

    Applying organic coatings is a common and the most cost effective way to protect metallic objects and structures from corrosion. Water entry into coating-metal interface is usually the main cause for the deterioration of organic coatings, which leads to coating delamination and underfilm corrosion. Recently, flowing fluids over sample surface have received attention due to their capability to accelerate material degradation. A plethora of works has focused on the flow induced metal corrosion, while few studies have investigated the flow accelerated organic coating degradation. Flowing fluids above coating surface affect corrosion by enhancing the water transport and abrading the surface due to fluid shear. Hence, it is of great importance to understand the influence of flowing fluids on the degradation of corrosion protective organic coatings. In this study, a pigmented marine coating and several clear coatings were exposed to the laminar flow and stationary immersion. The laminar flow was pressure driven and confined in a flow channel. A 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution and pure water was employed as the working fluid with a variety of flow rates. The corrosion protective properties of organic coatings were monitored inline by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. Equivalent circuit models were employed to interpret the EIS spectra. The time evolution of coating resistance and capacitance obtained from the model was studied to demonstrate the coating degradation. Thickness, gloss, and other topography characterizations were conducted to facilitate the assessment of the corrosion. The working fluids were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and conductivity measurement. The influence of flow rate, fluid shear, fluid composition, and other effects in the coating degradation were investigated. We conclude that flowing fluid on the coating surface accelerates the transport of water, oxygen, and ions into the coating, as

  8. Zircon-Based Ceramics Composite Coating for Environmental Barrier Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M.; Sodeoka, S.; Inoue, T.

    2008-09-01

    Studies on plasma spraying of zircon (ZrSiO4) have been carried out by the authors as one of the candidates for an environmental barrier coating (EBC) application, and had reported that substrate temperature is one of the most important factors to obtain crack-free and highly adhesive coating. In this study, several amounts of yttria were added to zircon powder, and the effect of the yttria addition on the structure and properties of the coatings were evaluated to improve the stability of the zircon coating structure at elevated temperature. The coatings obtained were composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), glassy silica, whereas the one prepared from monolithic zircon powder was composed of the metastable high temperature tetragonal phase of zirconia and glassy silica. After the heat treatment over 1200 °C, silica and zirconia formed zircon in all coatings. However, coatings with higher amounts of yttria exhibited lower amounts of zircon. This resulted in the less open porosity of the coating at elevated temperature. These yttria-added coatings also showed good adhesion even after the heat treatment, while monolithic zircon coating pealed off.

  9. Environmental Barrier Coatings Having a YSZ Top Coat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N.; Gray, Hugh (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) with a Si bond coat, a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat, and various intermediate coats were investigated. EBCs were processed by atmospheric pressure plasma spraying. The EBC durability was determined by thermal cycling tests in water vapor at 1300 C and 1400 C, and in air at 1400 C and 1500 C. EBCs with a mullite (3Al2O3 (dot) 2SiO2) + BSAS (1 - xBaO (dot) xSrO (dot) Al2O3 (dot) 2SiO2) intermediate coat were more durable than EBCs with a mullite intermediate coat, while EBCs with a mullite/BSAS duplex intermediate coat resulted in inferior durability. The improvement with a mullite + BSAS intermediate coat was attributed to enhanced compliance of the intermediate coat due to the addition of a low modulus BSAS second phase. Mullite + BSAS/YSZ and BSAS/YSZ interfaces produced a low melting (less than 1400 C) reaction product, which is expected to degrade the EBC performance by increasing the thermal conductivity. EBCs with a mullite + BSAS / graded mullite + YSZ intermediate coat showed the best durability among the EBCs investigated in this study. This improvement was attributed to diffused CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatch stress and improved chemical stability due to the compositionally graded mullite+YSZ layer.

  10. Antithrombogenic Polymer Coating.

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Zhi Heng; McDonald, William F.; Wright, Stacy C.; Taylor, Andrew C.

    2003-01-21

    An article having a non-thrombogenic surface and a process for making the article are disclosed. The article is formed by (i) coating a polymeric substrate with a crosslinked chemical combination of a polymer having at least two amino substituted side chains, a crosslinking agent containing at least two crosslinking functional groups which react with amino groups on the polymer, and a linking agent containing a first functional group which reacts with a third functional group of the crosslinking agent, and (ii) contacting the coating on the substrate with an antithrombogenic agent which covalently bonds to a second functional group of the linking agent. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone, the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl, the linking agent is a polyhydrazide and the antithrombogenic agent is heparin.

  11. Oxygen diffusion barrier coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unnam, Jalaiah (Inventor); Clark, Ronald K. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method for coating a titanium panel or foil with aluminum and amorphous silicon to provide an oxygen barrier abrogating oxidation of the substrate metal is developed. The process is accomplished with known inexpensive procedures common in materials research laboratories, i.e., electron beam deposition and sputtering. The procedures are conductive to treating foil gage titanium and result in submicron layers which virtually add no weight to the titanium. There are no costly heating steps. The coatings blend with the substrate titanium until separate mechanical properties are subsumed by those of the substrate without cracking or spallation. This method appreciably increases the ability of titanium to mechanically perform in high thermal environments such as those witnessed on structures of space vehicles during re-entry

  12. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  13. Polymer Coatings Degradation Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    undertaken 124). The Box-Jenkins approach first evaluates the partial auto -correlation function and determines the order of the moving average memory function...78 - Tables 15 and 16 show the resalit- f- a, the partial auto correlation plots. Second order moving .-. "ra ;;th -he appropriate lags were...coated films. Kaempf, Guenter; Papenroth, Wolfgang; Kunststoffe Date: 1982 Volume: 72 Number:7 Pages: 424-429 Parameters influencing the accelerated

  14. Anti-Corrosion Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    SuperSpan RM 8000 is an anti-corrosion coating which effectively counteracts acid degradation, abrasive wear, and cracking in power industry facilities. It was developed by RM Industrial Products Company, Inc. with NERAC assistance. It had previously been necessary to shut down plants to repair or replace corroded duct-work in coal burning utilities. NASA-developed technology was especially useful in areas relating to thermoconductivity of carbon steel and the bonding characteristics of polymers. The product has sold well.

  15. Scientific coats of arms.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2005-09-01

    With their mythical creatures and arcane symbolism, coats of arms seem to have little connection with modern science. Yet despite its chivalric origins, the ancient language of heraldry has long fascinated famous scientists. Although this idiosyncratic tradition was parodied by Victorian geologists, who laughingly replaced unicorns and griffins with images of dinosaurs that they had recently discovered, it has been perpetuated since by Ernest Rutherford, who liked to present himself as a new alchemist.

  16. Self-Cleaning Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Canada), telle que representee par le ministre de la Defense nationale, 2014 i Abstract Under certain conditions, military coatings...μm Particle C: a compound of fluorinated polymer and polypropylene , mean particle size 9 μm Due to the fact that all three types of particles have...functional particles, which are either pure fluorinated polymer or compound of fluorinated polymer and polypropylene , possessing certain degrees of

  17. Composite coatings improve engines

    SciTech Connect

    Funatani, K.; Kurosawa, K.

    1994-12-01

    About 40% of the power loss in engine systems is attributed to the adverse effects of friction in reciprocating engine components. Over half of this power loss is caused by friction between pistons, piston rings, and cylinder bores. In addition, engine parts may be attacked by corrosive gasoline substitutes such as liquid propane gas and alcohol/gasoline mixtures. To solve both friction and corrosion problems, Nihon Parkerizing Co. has improved the nickel-phosphorus based ceramic composite (NCC) plating technology that was developed for cylinder bores and pistons by Suzuki Motor Co. in the mid 1970s. Iron and nickel-based composite plating technologies havemore » been investigated since the early 1970s, and a few have been used on small two-stroke motorcycle, outboard marine, snowmobile, and some luxury passenger car engine components. Both nickel- and iron-base plating processes are used on cylinders and pistons because they offer excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Nickel-base films have higher corrosion resistance than those based on iron, and are capable of withstanding the corrosive conditions characteristic of high methanol fuels. Unfortunately, they experience a decrease in hardness as operating temperatures increase. However, NCC coatings with phosphorus additions have high hardness even under severe operating conditions, and hardness increases upon exposure to elevated temperatures. In addition to high hardness and corrosion resistance, NCC coatings provide a low friction coefficient, which contributes to the reduction of friction losses between sliding components. When used in low-quality or alcohol fuels, the corrosion resistance of NCC coatings is far higher than that of Fe-P plating. Additionally, the coatings reduce wall and piston temperature, wear of ring groove and skirt, and carbon deposit formation, and they improve output power and torque. These advantages all contribute to the development of light and efficient engines with better fuel

  18. Multifunctional Ceramic Nanostructured Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    silicon carbide composites // J. Europ. Cer. Soc. − 2004. − Vol. 24. − P. 2169−2179. 22. Yu. P. Udalov, E. E. Valova, S. S. Ordanian. Fabrication and...by the titanium and tungsten borides and carbides . The analysis was done using the X-ray and electron-optical methods. This information expands our...coating compositions should be based on limited solubility materials. Such systems include carbides , nitrides, borides and silicides based on

  19. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  20. Corrosion resistant coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. K.; Thakoor, A. P.; Williams, R. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method of coating a substrate with an amorphous metal is described. A solid piece of the metal is bombarded with ions of an inert gas in the presence of a magnetic field to provide a vapor of the metal which is deposited on the substrate at a sufficiently low gas pressure so that there is formed on the substrate a thin, uniformly thick, essentially pinhole-free film of the metal.

  1. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Maghsoodi, Sina; Colson, Thomas E.; Yang, Yu S.; Abrams, Ze'ev R.

    2016-04-19

    Disclosed is a coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly, systems and methods for curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using high temperature air-knives, infrared emitters and direct heat applicators are disclosed.

  2. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  3. Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating and Molecular Adsorber Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor, Kenneth M.; Abraham, Nithin S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed two unique coating formulations that will keep surfaces clean and sanitary and contain contaminants.The Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating, modeled after the self-cleaning, water-repellant lotus leaf, disallows buildup of dust, dirt, water, and more on surfaces. This coating, has been successfully tested on painted, aluminum, glass, silica, and some composite surfaces, could aid in keeping medical assets clean.The Molecular Adsorber Coating is a zeolite-based, sprayable molecular adsorber coating, designed to prevent outgassing in materials in vacuums. The coating works well to adsorb volatiles and contaminates in manufacturing and processing, such as in pharmaceutical production. The addition of a biocide would also aid in controlling bacteria levels.

  4. Friction and wear performance of bearing ball sliding against diamond-like carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shenjiang; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Kar, Satyananda; Li, Dangjuan; Su, Junhong

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the tribological properties of bearing steel ball (Japan standard, SUJ2) sliding against tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) coatings and amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings. The reciprocating sliding testes are performed with ball-on-plate friction tester in ambient air condition. Analysis of friction coefficient, wear volume and microstructure in wear scar are carried out using optical microscopy, atom force morphology (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show the SUJ2 on ta-C coating has low friction coefficient (around 0.15) but high wear loss. In contrast, the low wear loss of SUJ2 on a-C:H coating with high (around 0.4) and unsteady friction coefficient. Some Fe2O3, FeO and graphitization have been found on the wear scar of SUJ2 sliding against ta-C coating. Nearly no oxide materials exist on the wear scar of SUJ2 against a-C:H coating. The mechanism and hypothesis of the wear behavior have been investigated according to the measurement results. This study will contribute to proper selection and understand the tribological performance of bearing steels against DLC coatings.

  5. Hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings on implants drastically reduce biofilm formation and water permeation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernsmann, Falk; Laube, Norbert; Baldsiefen, Gerhard; Castellucci, Mattia

    2014-11-01

    Inflammations and crystalline bacterial biofilms (encrustations) remain a major complication in long-term artificial urinary tract drainage. To solve this problem we present urological implants with coatings made of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) that show excellent protection from encrustation in-vitro as well as in-vivo. Part of the success of a-C:H coatings is attributed to their ability to act as a diffusion barrier between an implant and the body, which prevents leaching of solvents from polymeric implants. To further enhance their barrier properties a-C:H coatings are combined with parylene coatings to develop diffusion-barrier multilayer coatings with a total thickness between 0.2 μm and 0.8 μm. The combination of the two types of coatings leads to a reduction of water diffusion by a factor of up to ten with respect to uncoated 25 μm thick polyimide sub-strates. The diffusion of water vapour from a controlled atmospheric pressure chamber through coated foils to a vacuum chamber is measured in a custom-built device.

  6. Advanced Coats' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Haik, B G

    1991-01-01

    Advanced Coats' disease and retinoblastoma can both present with the triad of a retinal detachment, the appearance of a subretinal mass, and dilated retinal vessels. Thus, even the most experienced observer may not be able to differentiate these entities on ophthalmoscopic findings alone. Coats' disease is the most common reason for which eyes are enucleated with the misdiagnosis of retinoblastoma. Ultrasonography is the auxiliary diagnostic test most easily incorporated into the clinical examination, and can be utilized repeatedly without biologic tissue hazard. Ultrasonically identifiable features allowing differentiation between Coats' disease and retinoblastoma include the topography and character of retinal detachment and presence or absence of subretinal calcifications. Ultrasonography is of lesser use in poorly calcified retinoblastoma and in detecting optic nerve or extraocular extension in heavily calcified retinoblastoma. CT is perhaps the single most valuable test because of its ability to: (a) delineate intraocular morphology, (b) quantify subretinal densities, (c) identify vascularities within the subretinal space through the use of contrast enhancement, and (d) detected associated orbital or intracranial abnormalities. Optimal computed tomographic studies, however, require multiple thin slices both before and after contrast introduction and expose the child to low levels of radiation if studies are repeated periodically. MR imaging is valuable for its multiplanar imaging capabilities, its superior contrast resolution, and its ability to provide insights into the biochemical structure and composition of tissues. It is limited in its ability to detect calcium, which is the mainstay of ultrasonic and CT differentiation. Aqueous LDH and isoenzyme levels were not valuable in distinguishing between Coats' disease and retinoblastoma. The value of aqueous NSE levels in the differentiation of advanced Coats' disease and exophytic retinoblastoma deserves

  7. Dense protective coatings, methods for their preparation and coated articles

    SciTech Connect

    Tulyani, Sonia; Bhatia, Tania; Smeggil, John G.

    A method for depositing a protective coating on a complex shaped substrate includes the steps of: (1) dipping a complex shaped substrate into a slurry to form a base coat thereon, the slurry comprising an aqueous solution, at least one refractory metal oxide, and at least one transient fluid additive present in an amount of about 0.1 percent to 10 percent by weight of the slurry; (2) curing the dipped substrate; (3) dipping the substrate into a precursor solution to form a top barrier coat thereon; and (4) heat treating the dipped, cured substrate to form a protective coating.

  8. Method for coating ultrafine particles, system for coating ultrafine particles

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jie; Liu, Yung

    The invention provides a method for dispersing particles within a reaction field, the method comprising confining the particles to the reaction field using a standing wave. The invention also provides a system for coating particles, the system comprising a reaction zone; a means for producing fluidized particles within the reaction zone; a fluid to produce a standing wave within the reaction zone; and a means for introducing coating moieties to the reaction zone. The invention also provides a method for coating particles, the method comprising fluidizing the particles, subjecting the particles to a standing wave; and contacting the subjected particlesmore » with a coating moiety.« less

  9. Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coat or Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses the problem of coatings (meant to reduce gas permeation) applied to polymer matrix composites spalling off in service due to incompatibility with the polymer matrix. A bond coat/coating has been created that uses chemically functionalized nanoparticles (either clay or graphene) to create a barrier film that bonds well to the matrix resin, and provides an outstanding barrier to gas permeation. There is interest in applying clay nanoparticles as a coating/bond coat to a polymer matrix composite. Often, nanoclays are chemically functionalized with an organic compound intended to facilitate dispersion of the clay in a matrix. That organic modifier generally degrades at the processing temperature of many high-temperature polymers, rendering the clay useless as a nano-additive to high-temperature polymers. However, this innovation includes the use of organic compounds compatible with hightemperature polymer matrix, and is suitable for nanoclay functionalization, the preparation of that clay into a coating/bondcoat for high-temperature polymers, the use of the clay as a coating for composites that do not have a hightemperature requirement, and a comparable approach to the preparation of graphene coatings/bond coats for polymer matrix composites.

  10. Modeling of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, B. L.; Petrus, G. J.; Krauss, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    The project examined the effectiveness of studying the creep behavior of thermal barrier coating system through the use of a general purpose, large strain finite element program, NIKE2D. Constitutive models implemented in this code were applied to simulate thermal-elastic and creep behavior. Four separate ceramic-bond coat interface geometries were examined in combination with a variety of constitutive models and material properties. The reason for focusing attention on the ceramic-bond coat interface is that prior studies have shown that cracking occurs in the ceramic near interface features which act as stress concentration points. The model conditions examined include: (1) two bond coat coefficient of thermal expansion curves; (2) the creep coefficient and creep exponent of the bond coat for steady state creep; (3) the interface geometry; and (4) the material model employed to represent the bond coat, ceramic, and superalloy base.

  11. Coatings on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2015-01-01

    Coatings have always been spearheading technology developments, as they have to function faultlessly in very demanding conditions. Coatings for use on spacecraft and launch vehicle launch environments offer technological challenges beyond the normal boundaries of most coatings service environments. Among all the space environments, the most treacherous is that of the launch environment. To ensure the success of space missions, NASA must rely on the best materials available, and that very much includes coatings. What kind of technology can meet those challenges? What is expected of coatings manufacturers wanting to join the space race? What insights can the whole industry gain? Luz Marina Calle will present an overview of corrosion protective coatings at NASA.

  12. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and requirements will be discussed. An experimental approach is established to monitor in real time the thermal conductivity of the coating systems subjected to high-heat-flux, steady-state and cyclic temperature gradients. Advanced low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have also been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability. The durability and erosion resistance of low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have been improved utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, in conjunction with more sophisticated modeling and design tools.

  13. Tablet coating by injection molding technology - Optimization of coating formulation attributes and coating process parameters.

    PubMed

    Desai, Parind M; Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, David; Halkude, Bhakti S; Hartman, Jeremy E; Wahane, Aniket V; Martinez, Alexander R; Jensen, Keith D; Harinath, Eranda; Braatz, Richard D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2018-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a solvent-free injection molding (IM) coating technology that could be suitable for continuous manufacturing via incorporation with IM tableting. Coating formulations (coating polymers and plasticizers) were prepared using hot-melt extrusion and screened via stress-strain analysis employing a universal testing machine. Selected coating formulations were studied for their melt flow characteristics. Tablets were coated using a vertical injection molding unit. Process parameters like softening temperature, injection pressure, and cooling temperature played a very important role in IM coating processing. IM coating employing polyethylene oxide (PEO) based formulations required sufficient room humidity (>30% RH) to avoid immediate cracks, whereas other formulations were insensitive to the room humidity. Tested formulations based on Eudrajit E PO and Kollicoat IR had unsuitable mechanical properties. Three coating formulations based on hydroxypropyl pea starch, PEO 1,000,000 and Opadry had favorable mechanical (<700MPa Young's modulus, >35% elongation, >95×10 4 J/m 3 toughness) and melt flow (>0.4g/min) characteristics, that rendered acceptable IM coats. These three formulations increased the dissolution time by 10, 15 and 35min, respectively (75% drug release), compared to the uncoated tablets (15min). Coated tablets stored in several environmental conditions remained stable to cracking for the evaluated 8-week time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 100% Solids Polyurethane Sequestration Coating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-11

    Distribution Unlimited 100% Solids Polyurethane Sequestration Coating The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the...Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: 100% Solids Polyurethane Sequestration Coating Report Title Report developed under Topic #CBD13-101...Final Technical Report Contract #: W911NF-13-P-0010 Proposal #: 63958CHSB1 Project: 100% Solids Polyurethane Sequestration Coating

  15. Antibacterial potency of V.A.C. GranuFoam Silver(®) Dressing.

    PubMed

    Sachsenmaier, Saskia; Peschel, Andreas; Ipach, Ingmar; Kluba, Torsten

    2013-10-01

    V.A.C.(®) GranuFoam™ therapy is regularly used in the surgical therapy of infected wounds and soft tissue injuries. Silver nanoparticles can destroy bacterial cell walls and inhibit enzymes for cell replication. Silver dressings are therefore successfully used for many indications in wound therapy. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial potency of ionic silver released from the silver-coated V.A.C.(®) GranuFoam™ during vacuum therapy. Silver dressing was exposed to agar plates populated with bacteria to measure silver release. A total of 15 agar plates colonised with either Staphylococcus aureus populations or with Staphylococcus epidermidis, were loaded with V.A.C. GranuFoam Silver(®) Dressing polyurethane foam (KCI, San Antonio, Texas). Each of 13 pieces of silver-coated foam was applied to an agar plate. Two plates were loaded with conventional black foam without any coating. After connecting to a vacuum pump, the vacuum therapy of the 15 plates lasted 5 days. The zone of inhibition of bacterial growth around the foam was measured daily. Silver release was also determined as a function of time. At each time point, there was evidence of silver in the agar independent of bacterial colonisation. The S. aureus agar showed a consecutive increase in silver concentration from baseline upon 48 h after exposure to the negative pressure of V.A.C. therapy. An increasing mean silver level after 48, 72 and 96 h was measured under V.A.C. therapy with a peak value after 120 h. In contrast, the results from the S. epidermidis plates did not follow a linear pattern. At the beginning of vacuum therapy, we documented a rise in silver concentration. After 48-96h, the silver levels fluctuated. A maximum zone of inhibition in both bacterial colonised plates (S. aureus and S. epidermidis) was found 39 h after the start of the V.A.C. GranuFoam Silver(®) therapy. From our results, we confirmed the antimicrobial effect of the silver ions against S. aureus and S

  16. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  17. Space stable thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harada, Y.

    1982-01-01

    A specification quality zinc orthotitanate coating was developed. This silicate-bonded Zn2TiO4 coating is discussed. The effects of precursor chemistry, precursor mixing procedures, stoichiometry variations, and of different heat treatments on the physical and optical properties of Zn2TiO4 are investigated. Inorganic silicates are compared to organic silicone binder systems. The effects of pigment to binder ratio, water content, and of different curing procedures on the optical and physical properties of Zn2TiO4 potassium silicate coatings are also studied. Environmental tests were conducted to determine the UV vacuum stability of coatings for durations up to 5000 equivalent Sun hours.

  18. Ceramic electrolyte coating and methods

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M [Columbus, OH; Swartz, Scott L [Columbus, OH; Dawson, William J [Dublin, OH; McCormick, Buddy E [Dublin, OH

    2007-08-28

    Aqueous coating slurries useful in depositing a dense coating of a ceramic electrolyte material (e.g., yttrium-stabilized zirconia) onto a porous substrate of a ceramic electrode material (e.g., lanthanum strontium manganite or nickel/zirconia) and processes for preparing an aqueous suspension of a ceramic electrolyte material and an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material. The invention also includes processes for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material onto pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  19. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Allen, L. E.; Mccollum, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    A continuous powder coating system was developed for coating carbon fiber with LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center-Thermoplastic Polyimide), a high-temperature thermoplastic polymide invented by NASA-Langley. The coating line developed used a pneumatic fiber spreader to separate the individual fibers. The polymer was applied within a recirculating powder coating chamber then melted using a combination of direct electrical resistance and convective heating to make it adhere to the fiber tow. The tension and speed of the line were controlled with a dancer arm and an electrically driven fiber wind-up and wind-off. The effects of heating during the coating process on the flexibility of the prepreg produced were investigated. The uniformity with which the fiber tow could be coated with polymer also was examined. Composite specimens were fabricated from the prepreg and tested to determine optimum process conditions. The study showed that a very uniform and flexible prepeg with up to 50 percent by volume polymer could be produced with this powder coating system. The coating line minimized powder loss and produced prepeg in lengths of up to 300 m. The fiber spreading was found to have a major effect on the coating uniformity and flexibility. Though test results showed low composite tensile strengths, analysis of fracture surfaces under scanning electron microscope indicated that fiber/matrix adhesion was adequate.

  20. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  1. Carbonaceous film coating

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    1989-01-01

    A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris[1,3,2]diazaborine[1,2-a:1'2'-c:1"2"-e]borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

  2. Carbonaceous film coating

    DOEpatents

    Maya, L.

    1988-04-27

    A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris(1,3,2)diazaborine(1,2-a:1'2'-c:1''2''-e)borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

  3. Space Coatings for Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Ball Aerospace developed entirely new space lubrication technologies. A new family of dry lubricants emerged from Apollo, specifically designed for long life in space, together with processes for applying them to spacecraft components in microscopically thin coatings. Lubricants worked successfully on seven Orbiting Solar Observatory flights over the span of a decade and attracted attention to other contractors which became Ball customers. The company has developed several hundred variations of the original OSO technology generally designed to improve the quality and useful life of a wide range of products or improve efficiency of the industrial processes by which such products are manufactured.

  4. THE COATINGS GUIDE: AN INTEGRATED TOOL FOR COATINGS DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Coatings Guide, formerly known as the Coatings Alternative Guide (CAGE), is a free Internet pollution prevention tool designed to help small-business coaters of metal and plastic substrates identify alternatives as potential drop-in replacements for existing operations. As sh...

  5. Dry coating, a novel coating technology for solid pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanfeng; Zhu, Jesse; Ma, Yingliang; Zhang, Hui

    2008-06-24

    Dry coating is a coating technology for solid pharmaceutical dosage forms derived from powder coating of metals. In this technology, powdered coating materials are directly coated onto solid dosage forms without using any solvent, and then heated and cured to form a coat. As a result, this technology can overcome such disadvantages caused by solvents in conventional liquid coating as serious air pollution, high time- and energy-consumption and expensive operation cost encountered by liquid coating. Several dry coating technologies, including plasticizer-dry-coating, electrostatic-dry-coating, heat-dry-coating and plasticizer-electrostatic-heat-dry-coating have been developed and extensively reported. This mini-review summarized the fundamental principles and coating processes of various dry coating technologies, and thoroughly analyzed their advantages and disadvantages as well as commercialization potentials.

  6. Evaluation of zinc coating procedures : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-01-01

    This research project was conducted in order to compare the existing procedure of zinc coating by hot-dip galvanizing with the other zinc coating systems of painting and electroplating. : Hardware coated by these processes was exposed to varied labor...

  7. Federal Highway Administration 100-year coating study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Highway Administration 100-Year Coating Study was initiated in August 2009 to search for durable : coating systems at a reasonable cost. The objective of the study was to identify and evaluate coating materials that can : provide 100 year...

  8. A continuous silicon-coating facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butter, C.; Heaps, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Automatic continuous silicon-coating facility is used to process 100 by 10 cm graphite-coated ceramic substrates for silicon solar cells. Process reduces contamination associated with conventional dip-coating processes, improving material service life.

  9. Cell Membrane Coating Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ronnie H; Kroll, Ashley V; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang

    2018-06-01

    Nanoparticle-based therapeutic, prevention, and detection modalities have the potential to greatly impact how diseases are diagnosed and managed in the clinic. With the wide range of nanomaterials available, the rational design of nanocarriers on an application-specific basis has become increasingly commonplace. Here, a comprehensive overview is provided on an emerging platform: cell-membrane-coating nanotechnology. As a fundamental unit of biology, cells carry out a wide range of functions, including the remarkable ability to interface and interact with their surrounding environment. Instead of attempting to replicate such functions via synthetic techniques, researchers are now directly leveraging naturally derived cell membranes as a means of bestowing nanoparticles with enhanced biointerfacing capabilities. This top-down technique is facile, highly generalizable, and has the potential to greatly augment existing nanocarriers. Further, the introduction of a natural membrane substrate onto nanoparticles surfaces has enabled additional applications beyond those traditionally associated with nanomedicine. Despite its relative youth, there exists an impressive body of literature on cell membrane coating, which is covered here in detail. Overall, there is still significant room for development, as researchers continue to refine existing workflows while finding new and exciting applications that can take advantage of this developing technology. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Decoding white coat hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-01-01

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the “white coat” condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure. PMID:28352632

  11. Superheating in coated niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junginger, T.; Wasserman, W.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Using muon spin rotation it is shown that the field of first flux penetration {H}{entry} in Nb is enhanced by about 30% if coated with an overlayer of Nb3Sn or MgB2. This is consistent with an increase from the lower critical magnetic field {H}{{c}1} up to the superheating field {H}{sh} of the Nb substrate. In the experiments presented here coatings of Nb3Sn and MgB2 with a thickness between 50 and 2000 nm have been tested. {H}{entry} does not depend on material or thickness. This suggests that the energy barrier at the boundary between the two materials prevents flux entry up to {H}{sh} of the substrate. A mechanism consistent with these findings is that the proximity effect recovers the stability of the energy barrier for flux penetration, which is suppressed by defects for uncoated samples. Additionally, a low temperature baked Nb sample has been tested. Here a 6% increase of {H}{entry} was found, also pushing {H}{entry} beyond {H}{{c}1}.

  12. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  13. Environmentally Compliant Coating Remover Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-30

    22 9 Total of 491 products evaluated 7 Background • Many DoD depainting operations currently use environmentally compliant peroxide -assisted... benzyl alcohol strippers • These strippers have acceptable coating removal rates with minimal physical damage to metallic substrates • However, several...Coatings • Environmentally compliant benzyl alcohol product • Passed corrosion testing conducted by SMI in 2011 11 Laboratory Testing Scope

  14. POWDER COATINGS: A TECHNOLOGY REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1995, surface coatings accounted for nearly 2.55 million Mg of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions nationally, which is more than 12% of VOC emissions from all sources. In recent years, powder coatings have been steadily gaining popularity as an alternative to solvent-bo...

  15. Improved fire-resistant coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutt, J. B.; Stuart, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Water-base coatings containing potassium silicate show improvement in areas of quick air-drying, crack, craze, and abrasion resistance, adherence, and leach resistance. Coatings are useful as thermal-barrier layers in furnaces, and as general purpose fire resistant surfaces where vapor impermeability is not a requirement.

  16. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Haas, Terry; Wong, Kwok-Keung; Seward, George

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  17. Coating of plasma polymerized film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

  18. Coatings on reflective mask substrates

    DOEpatents

    Tong, William Man-Wai; Taylor, John S.; Hector, Scott D.; Mangat, Pawitter J. S.; Stivers, Alan R.; Kofron, Patrick G.; Thompson, Matthew A.

    2002-01-01

    A process for creating a mask substrate involving depositing: 1) a coating on one or both sides of a low thermal expansion material EUVL mask substrate to improve defect inspection, surface finishing, and defect levels; and 2) a high dielectric coating, on the backside to facilitate electrostatic chucking and to correct for any bowing caused by the stress imbalance imparted by either other deposited coatings or the multilayer coating of the mask substrate. An film, such as TaSi, may be deposited on the front side and/or back of the low thermal expansion material before the material coating to balance the stress. The low thermal expansion material with a silicon overlayer and a silicon and/or other conductive underlayer enables improved defect inspection and stress balancing.

  19. Protective coatings for sensitive materials

    DOEpatents

    Egert, Charles M.

    1997-01-01

    An enhanced protective coating to prevent interaction between constituents of the environment and devices that can be damaged by those constituents. This coating is provided by applying a synergistic combination of diffusion barrier and physical barrier materials. These materials can be, for example, in the form of a plurality of layers of a diffusion barrier and a physical barrier, with these barrier layers being alternated. Further protection in certain instances is provided by including at least one layer of a getter material to actually react with one or more of the deleterious constituents. The coating is illustrated by using alternating layers of an organic coating (such as Parylene-C.TM.) as the diffusion barrier, and a metal coating (such as aluminum) as the physical barrier. For best results there needs to be more than one of at least one of the constituent layers.

  20. Protective coatings for sensitive materials

    DOEpatents

    Egert, C.M.

    1997-08-05

    An enhanced protective coating is disclosed to prevent interaction between constituents of the environment and devices that can be damaged by those constituents. This coating is provided by applying a synergistic combination of diffusion barrier and physical barrier materials. These materials can be, for example, in the form of a plurality of layers of a diffusion barrier and a physical barrier, with these barrier layers being alternated. Further protection in certain instances is provided by including at least one layer of a getter material to actually react with one or more of the deleterious constituents. The coating is illustrated by using alternating layers of an organic coating (such as Parylene-C{trademark}) as the diffusion barrier, and a metal coating (such as aluminum) as the physical barrier. For best results there needs to be more than one of at least one of the constituent layers. 4 figs.

  1. Understanding particulate coating microstructure development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Christine Cardinal

    How a dispersion of particulates suspended in a solvent dries into a solid coating often is more important to the final coating quality than even its composition. Essential properties like porosity, strength, gloss, particulate order, and concentration gradients are all determined by the way the particles come together as the coating dries. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryoSEM) is one of the most effective methods to directly visualize a drying coating during film formation. Using this method, the coating is frozen, arresting particulate motion and solidifying the sample so that it be imaged in an SEM. In this thesis, the microstructure development of particulate coatings was explored with several case studies. First, the effect of drying conditions was determined on the collapse of hollow latex particles, which are inexpensive whiteners for paint. Using cryoSEM, it was found that collapse occurs during the last stages of drying and is most likely to occur at high drying temperatures, humidity, and with low binder concentration. From these results, a theoretical model was proposed for the collapse of a hollow latex particle. CryoSEM was also used to verify a theoretical model for the particulate concentration gradients that may develop in a coating during drying for various evaporation, sedimentation and particulate diffusion rates. This work created a simple drying map that will allow others to predict the character of a drying coating based on easily calculable parameters. Finally, the effect of temperature on the coalescence and cracking of latex coatings was explored. A new drying regime for latex coatings was identified, where partial coalescence of particles does not prevent cracking. Silica was shown to be an environmentally friendly additive for preventing crack formation in this regime.

  2. Coated substrates and process

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Wei-kan; Childs, Charles B.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a coated substrate and a process for forming films on substrates and for providing a particularly smooth film on a substrate. The method of this invention involves subjecting a surface of a substrate to contact with a stream of ions of an inert gas having sufficient force and energy to substantially change the surface characteristics of said substrate, and then exposing a film-forming material to a stream of ions of an inert gas having sufficient energy to vaporize the atoms of said film-forming material and to transmit the vaporized atoms to the substrate surface with sufficient force to form a film bonded to the substrate. This process is particularly useful commercially because it forms strong bonds at room temperature. This invention is particularly useful for adhering a gold film to diamond and forming ohmic electrodes on diamond, but also can be used to bond other films to substrates.

  3. Ceramic composite coating

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.

    1997-01-01

    A thin, room-temperature-curing, ceramic composite for coating and patching etal substrates comprises a sol gel silica glass matrix filled with finely ground particles or fibers, preferably alumina. The sol gel glass is made by adding ethanol to water to form a first mixture, then separately adding ethanol to tetraethyl orthosilicate to form a second mixture, then slowly adding the first to the second mixture to make a third mixture, and making a slurry by adding the finely ground particles or fibers to the third mixture. The composite can be applied by spraying, brushing or trowelling. If applied to patch fine cracks, densification of the ceramic composite may be obtained to enhance sealing by applying heat during curing.

  4. Ceramic composite coating

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.

    1997-01-21

    A thin, room-temperature-curing, ceramic composite for coating and patching metal substrates comprises a sol gel silica glass matrix filled with finely ground particles or fibers, preferably alumina. The sol gel glass is made by adding ethanol to water to form a first mixture, then separately adding ethanol to tetraethyl orthosilicate to form a second mixture, then slowly adding the first to the second mixture to make a third mixture, and making a slurry by adding the finely ground particles or fibers to the third mixture. The composite can be applied by spraying, brushing or trowelling. If applied to patch fine cracks, densification of the ceramic composite may be obtained to enhance sealing by applying heat during curing.

  5. Metasurface optical antireflection coating

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Boyang; Hendrickson, Joshua; Nader, Nima; ...

    2014-12-15

    Light reflection at the boundary of two different media is one of the fundamental phenomena in optics, and reduction of reflection is highly desirable in many optical systems. Traditionally, optical antireflection has been accomplished using single- or multiple-layer dielectric films and graded index surface structures in various wavelength ranges. However, these approaches either impose strict requirements on the refractive index matching and film thickness, or involve complicated fabrication processes and non-planar surfaces that are challenging for device integration. Here, we demonstrate an antireflection coating strategy, both experimentally and numerically, by using metasurfaces with designer optical properties in the mid-wave infrared.more » Our results show that the metasurface antireflection is capable of eliminating reflection and enhancing transmission over a broad spectral band and a wide incidence angle range. In conclusion, the demonstrated antireflection technique has no requirement on the choice of materials and is scalable to other wavelengths.« less

  6. Gear Performance Improved by Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2004-01-01

    Gears, bearings, and other mechanical elements transmit loads through contacting surfaces. Even if properly designed, manufactured, installed, and maintained, gears and bearings will eventually fail because of the fatigue of the working surfaces. Economical means for extending the fatigue lives of gears and bearings are highly desired, and coatings offer the opportunity to engineer surfaces to extend the fatigue lives of mechanical components. A tungsten-containing diamondlike-carbon coating exhibiting high hardness, low friction, and good toughness was evaluated for application to spur gears. Fatigue testing was done at the NASA Glenn Research Center on both uncoated and coated spur gears. The results showed that the coating extended the surface fatigue lives of the gears by a factor of about 5 relative to the uncoated gears. For the experiments, a lot of spur test gears made from AISI 9310 gear steel were case-carburized and ground to aerospace specifications. The geometries of the 28-tooth, 8-pitch gears were verified as meeting American Gear Manufacturing Association (AGMA) quality class 12. One-half of the gears were randomly selected for coating. The method of coating was selected to achieve desired adherence, toughness, hardness, and low-friction characteristics. First the gears to be coated were prepared by blasting (vapor honing) with Al2O3 particles and cleaning. Then, the gears were provided with a thin adhesion layer of elemental chromium followed by magnetron sputtering of the outer coating consisting of carbon (70 at.%), hydrogen (15 at.%), tungsten (12 at.%), and nickel (3 at.%) (atomic percent at the surface). In total, the coating thickness was about 2.5 to 3 microns. As compared with the steel substrate, the coated surface was harder by a factor of about 2 and had a smaller elastic modulus. All gears were tested using a 5-centistoke synthetic oil, a 10,000-rpm rotation speed, and a hertzian contact stress of at least 1.7 GPa (250 ksi). Tests were

  7. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  8. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  9. Top coat or no top coat for immersion lithography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanenko, N.; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kishimura, S.; Van Den Heuvel, D.; Vandenbroeck, N.; Kocsis, M.; Foubert, P.; Maenhoudt, M.; Ercken, M.; Van Roey, F.; Gronheid, R.; Pollentier, I.; Vangoidsenhoven, D.; Delvaux, C.; Baerts, C.; O'Brien, S.; Fyen, W.; Wells, G.

    2006-03-01

    Since the moment immersion lithography appeared in the roadmaps of IC manufacturers, the question whether to use top coats has become one of the important topics for discussions. The top coats used in immersion lithography have proved to serve as good protectors from leaching of the resist components (PAGs, bases) into the water. However their application complicates the process and may lead to two side effects. First, top coats can affect the process window and resist profile depending on the material's refractive index, thickness, acidity, chemical interaction with the resist and the soaking time. Second, the top coat application may increase the total amount of defects on the wafer. Having an immersion resist which could work without the top coat would be a preferable solution. Still, it is quite challenging to make such a resist as direct water/resist interaction may also result in process window changes, CD variations, generation of additional defects. We have performed a systematic evaluation of a large number of immersion resist and top coat combinations, using the ASML XT:1250Di scanner at IMEC. The samples for the experiments were provided by all the leading resist and top coat suppliers. Particular attention was paid to how the resist and top coat materials from different vendors interacted with each other. Among the factors which could influence the total amount of defects or CD variations on the wafer were: the material's dynamic contact angle and its interaction with the scanner stage speed, top coat thickness and intermixing layer formation, water uptake and leaching. We have examined the importance of all mentioned factors, using such analytical techniques as Resist Development Analyser (RDA), Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM), Mass Spectroscopy (MS) and scatterometry. We have also evaluated the influence of the pre- and pos- exposure rinse processes on the defectivity. In this paper we will present the data on imaging and defectivity performance of

  10. Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  11. Method of measuring metal coating adhesion

    DOEpatents

    Roper, J.R.

    A method for measuring metal coating adhesion to a substrate material comprising the steps of preparing a test coupon of substrate material having the metal coating applied to one surface thereof, applying a second metal coating of gold or silver to opposite surfaces of the test coupon by hot hollow cathode process, applying a coating to one end of each of two pulling rod members, joining the coated ends of the pulling rod members to said opposite coated surfaces of the test coupon by a solid state bonding technique and finally applying instrumented static tensile loading to the pulling rod members until fracture of the metal coating adhesion to the substrate material occurs.

  12. Method of measuring metal coating adhesion

    DOEpatents

    Roper, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A method for measuring metal coating adhesion to a substrate material comprising the steps of preparing a test coupon of substrate material having the metal coating applied to one surface thereof, applying a second metal coating of gold or silver to opposite surfaces of the test coupon by hot hollow cathode process, applying a coating to one end of each of two pulling rod members, joining the coated ends of the pulling rod members to said opposite coated surfaces of the test coupon by a solid state bonding technique and finally applying instrumented static tensile loading to the pulling rod members until fracture of the metal coating adhesion to the substrate material occurs.

  13. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  14. Black chrome solar selective coating

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.; Sowell, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Electrodeposited black chrome solar selective coatings have frequently experienced thermal stability problems when heated to temperatures above 250/sup 0/C (480/sup 0/F) in air. By reducing the trivalent chromium concentration in the standard black chrome plating bath, coatings on nickel substrates are obtained which are stable for thousands of hours at 350/sup 0/C (660/sup 0/F) and for hundreds of hours at 400/sup 0/C (750/sup 0/F). These results have been obtained consistently on a laboratory scale, but difficulty in reproducing the results has been encountered in a production environment. A current study of the effects of known plating variables on the opticalmore » properties and thermal stability of coatings is aimed at establishing an acceptable range for each plating parameter. A preliminary process specification for electroplating mild steel substrates with a stable black chrome coating is presented.« less

  15. Coating for hot sliding seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, J.

    1979-01-01

    Heat resistant paint is effective surface coating for sliding seals that must operate at elevated temperatures. Economical paint is easy to apply, offers minimal friction, and improves reliability of seals.

  16. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality. PMID:25802848

  17. Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wendy; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  18. Seal coat binder performance specifications.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    Need to improve seal coat binder specs: replace empirical tests (penetration, ductility) with : performance-related tests applicable to both : unmodified and modified binders; consider temperatures that cover entire in service : range that are tied t...

  19. Vacuum deposited optical coatings experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlier, Jean

    1992-01-01

    The 138-4 Frecopa experiment consisted of 20 sorts of optical components and coatings subjected to space exposure. They covered a large range of use from the UV to IR spectrum: filters, mirrors, dichroics, beam splitters, and antireflection coatings made of several different materials as layers and substrates. By comparing pre- and post-flight spectral performances, it was possible to put into evidence the alterations due to space exposure.

  20. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor); Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  1. Mechanisms of Military Coatings Degradation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    fluoride (DuPont Inc., Buffalo, NY) release film. Additionally a primer and topcoat system were also prepared onto a stainless steel mesh substrate...Based Epoxy Surface Treatment: TT- C-490 Zinc Phosphate on a steel s B=(64159), LOW VOC and Zero HAP ARMY SYSTEM Top Coat: MIL-DTL-64159 Water...Zinc Phosphate on a steel su C=(85285), NAVY CONTROL SYSTEM Top Coat: MIL-C-85285 Solvent based Polyurethane Alip polyols Primer: MIL-P

  2. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOEpatents

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  3. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOEpatents

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1990-03-13

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  4. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOEpatents

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  5. PROCESS FOR REMOVING ALUMINUM COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Flox, J.

    1959-07-01

    A process is presented for removing aluminum jackets or cans from uranium slugs. This is accomplished by immersing the aluminum coated uranium slugs in an aqueous solution of 9 to 20% sodium hydroxide and 35 to 12% sodium nitrate to selectively dissolve the aluminum coating, the amount of solution being such as to obtain a molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to aluminum of at least

  6. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  7. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  8. Chemical Processing of Nanostructured Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    increasing particle loading in sol-gel process (8-10). This approach involved dispersing large ceramic powders in sol-gel solution, and the mixture...the high loading of ceramic powders. One way to prepare thicker coatings is to add powders into the sol. This helps to reduce the capillary stresses...thickness that range between 2 and 4 microns. In order to investigate the nature and origin of the textured region of the coatings, GIXS was used to

  9. Coated substrate apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Zhenan; Diao, Ying; Mannsfeld, Stefan Christian Bernhardt

    A coated substrate is formed with aligned objects such as small molecules, macromolecules and nanoscale particulates, such as inorganic, organic or inorganic/organic hybrid materials. In accordance with one or more embodiments, an apparatus or method involves an applicator having at least one surface patterned with protruded or indented features, and a coated substrate including a solution-based layer of objects having features and morphology attributes arranged as a function of the protruded or indented features.

  10. Spacecraft Thermal Control Coatings References

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauder, Lonny

    2005-01-01

    The successful thermal design of spacecraft depends in part on a knowledge of the solar absorption and hemispherical emittance of the thermal control coatings used in and on the spacecraft. Goddard Space Flight Center has had since its beginning a group whose mission has been to provide thermal/optical properties data of thermal control coatings to thermal engineers. This handbook represents a summary of the data and knowledge accumulated over many years at GSFC.

  11. Biologically Active Polymeric Coating Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    unsaturated alkyds , or through a condensation reaction of an organometallic oxide and a resin containing carboxylic acid groups as side chains. The...extend the service life of antifouling coatings by means of polymerization of toxicant into paint resins . The coating binder is so constructed that the...from styrene (s6) and polyester (P54, figure 5) organometallic resins . To date, the antifouling performance of epoxy (WS 52B, figure 6) and

  12. Transparent conductive coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashok, S.

    1983-01-01

    Thin film transparent conductors are discussed. Materials with electrical conductivity and optical transparency are highly desirable in many optoelectronic applications including photovoltaics. Certain binary oxide semiconductors such as tin oxide (SnO2) and indium oxide (In2O3) offer much better performance tradeoff in optoelectronics as well as better mechanical and chemical stability than thin semitransparent films. These thin-film transparent conductors (TC) are essentially wide-bandgap degenerate semiconductors - invariably n-type - and hence are transparent to sub-bandgap (visible) radiation while affording high electrical conductivity due to the large free electron concentration. The principal performance characteristics of TC's are, of course, electrical conductivity and optical transmission. The TC's have a refractive index of around 2.0 and hence act as very efficient antireflection coatings. For using TC's in surface barrier solar cells, the photovoltaic barrier is of utmost importance and so the work function or electron affinity of the TC is also a very important material parameter. Fabrication processes are discussed.

  13. Material Science Smart Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, A. I.; Sabirianov, R. F.; Namavar, Fereydoon

    2014-07-01

    The contribution of electrostatic interactions to the free energy of binding between model protein and a ceramic implant surface in the aqueous solvent, considered in the framework of the nonlocal electrostatic model, is calculated as a function of the implant low-frequency dielectric constant. We show that the existence of a dynamically ordered (low-dielectric) interfacial solvent layer at the protein-solvent and ceramic-solvent interface markedly increases charging energy of the protein and ceramic implant, and consequently makes the electrostatic contribution to the protein-ceramic binding energy more favorable (attractive). Our analysis shows that the corresponding electrostatic energy between protein and oxide ceramics dependsmore » nonmonotonically on the dielectric constant of ceramic, ε C. Obtained results indicate that protein can attract electrostatically to the surface if ceramic material has a moderate ε C below or about 35 (in particularly ZrO 2 or Ta 2O 5). This is in contrast to classical (local) consideration of the solvent, which demonstrates an unfavorable electrostatic interaction of protein with typical metal oxide ceramic materials (ε C>10). Thus, a solid implant coated by combining oxide ceramic with a reduced dielectric constant can be beneficial to strengthen the electrostatic binding of the protein-implant complex.« less

  14. Spray-Deposited Superconductor/Polymer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Tran, Sang Q.; Hooker, Matthew W.

    1993-01-01

    Coatings that exhibit the Meissner effect formed at relatively low temperature. High-temperature-superconductor/polymer coatings that exhibit Meissner effect deposited onto components in variety of shapes and materials. Simple, readily available equipment needed in coating process, mean coatings produced economically. Coatings used to keep magnetic fields away from electronic circuits in such cryogenic applications as magnetic resonance imaging and detection of infrared, and in magnetic suspensions to provide levitation and/or damping of vibrations.

  15. Switchable antifouling coatings and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Denton, Michele L. Baca; Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross Stefan

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to antifouling coatings capable of being switched by using heat or ultraviolet light. Prior to switching, the coating includes an onium cation component having antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Upon switching, the coating is converted to a conjugated polymer state, and the cationic component is released with any adsorbed biofilm layer. Thus, the coatings herein have switchable and releasable properties. Methods of making and using such coatings are also described.

  16. Polymeric Coatings for Combating Biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing; Yuan, Shaojun; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Li; Liang, Bin; Pehkonen, Simo O.

    2018-03-01

    Biocorrosion has been considered as big trouble in many industries and marine environments due to causing great economic loss. The main disadvantages of present approaches to prevent corrosion include being limited by environmental factors, being expensive, inapplicable to field, and sometimes inefficient. Studies show that polymer coatings with anti-corrosion and anti-microbial properties have been widely accepted as a novel and effective approach to preventbiocorrosion. The main purpose of this review is to summarize up the progressive status of polymer coatings used for combating microbially-induced corrosion. Polymers used to synthesize protective coatings are generally divided into three categories: i) traditional polymers incorporated with biocides, ii) antibacterial polymers containing quaternary ammonium compounds, and iii) conductive polymers. The strategies to synthesize polymer coatings resort mainly to grafting anti-bacterial polymers from the metal substrate surface using novel surface-functionalization approaches, such as free radical polymerization, chemically oxidative polymerization and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, as opposed to the traditional approaches of dip coating or spin coating.

  17. Graphene: corrosion-inhibiting coating.

    PubMed

    Prasai, Dhiraj; Tuberquia, Juan Carlos; Harl, Robert R; Jennings, G Kane; Rogers, Bridget R; Bolotin, Kirill I

    2012-02-28

    We report the use of atomically thin layers of graphene as a protective coating that inhibits corrosion of underlying metals. Here, we employ electrochemical methods to study the corrosion inhibition of copper and nickel by either growing graphene on these metals, or by mechanically transferring multilayer graphene onto them. Cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that the graphene coating effectively suppresses metal oxidation and oxygen reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that while graphene itself is not damaged, the metal under it is corroded at cracks in the graphene film. Finally, we use Tafel analysis to quantify the corrosion rates of samples with and without graphene coatings. These results indicate that copper films coated with graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition are corroded 7 times slower in an aerated Na(2)SO(4) solution as compared to the corrosion rate of bare copper. Tafel analysis reveals that nickel with a multilayer graphene film grown on it corrodes 20 times slower while nickel surfaces coated with four layers of mechanically transferred graphene corrode 4 times slower than bare nickel. These findings establish graphene as the thinnest known corrosion-protecting coating.

  18. Solventless pharmaceutical coating processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sagarika; Bogner, Robin H

    2007-01-01

    Coatings are an essential part in the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage form to achieve superior aesthetic quality (e.g., color, texture, mouth feel, and taste masking), physical and chemical protection for the drugs in the dosage forms, and modification of drug release characteristics. Most film coatings are applied as aqueous- or organic-based polymer solutions. Both organic and aqueous film coating bring their own disadvantages. Solventless coating technologies can overcome many of the disadvantages associated with the use of solvents (e.g., solvent exposure, solvent disposal, and residual solvent in product) in pharmaceutical coating. Solventless processing reduces the overall cost by eliminating the tedious and expensive processes of solvent disposal/treatment. In addition, it can significantly reduce the processing time because there is no drying/evaporation step. These environment-friendly processes are performed without any heat in most cases (except hot-melt coating) and thus can provide an alternative technology to coat temperature-sensitive drugs. This review discusses and compares six solventless coating methods - compression coating, hot-melt coating, supercritical fluid spray coating, electrostatic coating, dry powder coating, and photocurable coating - that can be used to coat the pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  19. Different spectrophotometric methods applied for the analysis of simeprevir in the presence of its oxidative degradation product: Acomparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; El-Abasawi, Nasr M.; El-Olemy, Ahmed; Serag, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    Five simple spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of simeprevir in the presence of its oxidative degradation product namely, ratio difference, mean centering, derivative ratio using the Savitsky-Golay filters, second derivative and continuous wavelet transform. These methods are linear in the range of 2.5-40 μg/mL and validated according to the ICH guidelines. The obtained results of accuracy, repeatability and precision were found to be within the acceptable limits. The specificity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. Furthermore, these methods were statistically comparable to RP-HPLC method and good results were obtained. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of simeprevir in quality-control laboratories.

  20. Stress evolution in solidifying coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Jason Alan

    The goal of this study is to measure, in situ, and control the evolution of stress in liquid applied coatings. In past studies, the stress in a coating was determined after processing (i.e., drying or curing). However, by observing a coating during drying or curing, the effects of processing variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, composition, etc.) on the stress state can be better determined. To meet the project goal, two controlled environment stress measurement devices, based on a cantilever deflection measurement principle, were constructed. Stress evolution experiments were completed for a number of coating systems including: solvent-cast homopolymers, tape-cast ceramics, aqueous gelatins, and radiation-cured multifunctional acrylates. In the majority of systems studied here, the final stresses were independent of coating thickness and solution concentration. Typical stress magnitudes for solvent-cast polymers ranged from zero to 18 MPa depending upon the pure polymer glass transition temperature (Tsb{g}), the solvent volatility, and additional coating components, such as plasticizers. Similar magnitudes and dependencies were observed in tape-cast ceramic layers. Stresses in gelatin coatings reached 50 MPa (due to the high Tsb{g} of the gelatin) and were highly dependent upon drying temperature and relative humidity. In contrast to the aforementioned coatings, stress in UV-cured tri- and tetrafunctional acrylate systems showed a large thickness dependence. For these materials, stress evolution rate and magnitude increased with photoinitiator concentration and with light intensity. Somewhat unexpectedly, larger monomer functionality led to greater stresses at faster rates even though the overall conversion fell. The stress magnitude and evolution rate at any stage in the solidification process are the result of a competition between shrinkage (due to drying, curing, etc.) and stress relaxation. A firm understanding of the mechanical, the thermal, and

  1. Application of amorphous carbon based materials as antireflective coatings on crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, D. S.; Côrtes, A. D. S.; Oliveira, M. H.; Motta, E. F.; Viana, G. A.; Mei, P. R.; Marques, F. C.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the investigation of the potential application of different forms of amorphous carbon (a-C and a-C:H) as an antireflective coating for crystalline silicon solar cells. Polymeric-like carbon (PLC) and hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) was deposited by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique. Those three different amorphous carbon structures were individually applied as single antireflective coatings on conventional (polished and texturized) p-n junction crystalline silicon solar cells. Due to their optical properties, good results were also obtained for double-layer antireflective coatings based on PLC or ta-C films combined with different materials. The results are compared with a conventional tin dioxide (SnO2) single-layer antireflective coating and zinc sulfide/magnesium fluoride (ZnS/MgF2) double-layer antireflective coatings. An increase of 23.7% in the short-circuit current density, Jsc, was obtained using PLC as an antireflective coating and 31.7% was achieved using a double-layer of PLC with a layer of magnesium fluoride (MgF2). An additional increase of 10.8% was obtained in texturized silicon, representing a total increase (texturization + double-layer) of about 40% in the short-circuit current density. The potential use of these materials are critically addressed considering their refractive index, optical bandgap, absorption coefficient, hardness, chemical inertness, and mechanical stability.

  2. Versatile device for in-situ discharge cleaning and multiple coatings of long, small diameter tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.

    Electron clouds, which can limit machine performance, have been observed in many accelerators including RHIC at BNL. Additional concern for the RHIC machine, whose vacuum chamber is made from relatively high resistivity 316LN stainless steel, is high wall resistivity that can result in unacceptably high ohmic heating for superconducting magnets. The high resistivity can be addressed with a copper (Cu) coating; a reduction in the secondary electron yield can be achieved with a TiN or amorphous carbon (a-C) coating. Applying such coatings in an already constructed machine is rather challenging. We have been developing a robotic plasma deposition technique formore » in-situ coating of long, small diameter tubes. The technique entails fabricating a device comprising of staged magnetrons mounted on a mobile mole for deposition of about 5 ?m of Cu followed by about 0.1 ?m of a-C. As a first step, a 15-cm Cu cathode magnetron was designed, fabricated, and 30-cm long samples of the RHIC pipe have been coated with 2 ?m to 5.6 ?m of copper. Deposition rates of up to 92 A/sec with an average coating rate of 30 A/sec were measured. Effects on RF resistivity is also to be measured.« less

  3. Spacecraft thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillaumon, Jean-Claude; Paillous, Alain

    1992-01-01

    The Experiment AO 138-6 was located on the trailing edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility as part of the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) Experiment. It was purely passive in nature: material specimens 2 x 2 cm, independently mounted in sample-holders, with their surface in the same reference plane, were exposed to space. Thirty samples were set in a vacuum-tight canister which was opened in space a few days after LDEF deployment and closed while still in orbit ten months later; twenty-four samples were directly exposed to space for the total flight duration (preflight handling, shuttle bay environment, separation from shuttle, shuttle environment, LEO environment, docking, descent, transfer to KSC). Materials included paints (conductive or nonconductive), SSM's, polymeric films, surface coatings, composite materials, and metals. After sample retrieving, inspection and measurements were carried out in atmospheric laboratory conditions on each sample: observation with binocular lenses and scanning electron microscopy, spectral relectance and transmittance using an integrating sphere in the wavelength range 280-2300 nm, emissivity by the means of a Gier & Dunkle portable reflectometer, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis-x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA-XPS), and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) measurements on some selected samples. The results obtained from flight were compared to laboratory data obtained in UV-irradiation tests when these data were available. As a general statement a good spectral concordance is observed for all samples not in the canister so long as air recoveries are taken into account. For one material, the degradation is more important for the sample in the canister than for those of the same material mounted at the surface of the tray; for most samples in the canister the degradation is slightly higher than the one which can be predicted from laboratory standard irradiations. Contamination problems having

  4. Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Duncan, Peter; Coupland, Duncan; Rigali, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    A process for coating carbon fibers with platinum has been developed. The process may also be adaptable to coating carbon fibers with other noble and refractory metals, including rhenium and iridium. The coated carbon fibers would be used as ingredients of matrix/fiber composite materials that would resist oxidation at high temperatures. The metal coats would contribute to oxidation resistance by keeping atmospheric oxygen away from fibers when cracks form in the matrices. Other processes that have been used to coat carbon fibers with metals have significant disadvantages: Metal-vapor deposition processes yield coats that are nonuniform along both the lengths and the circumferences of the fibers. The electrical resistivities of carbon fibers are too high to be compatible with electrolytic processes. Metal/organic vapor deposition entails the use of expensive starting materials, it may be necessary to use a furnace, and the starting materials and/or materials generated in the process may be hazardous. The present process does not have these disadvantages. It yields uniform, nonporous coats and is relatively inexpensive. The process can be summarized as one of pretreatment followed by electroless deposition. The process consists of the following steps: The surfaces of the fiber are activated by deposition of palladium crystallites from a solution. The surface-activated fibers are immersed in a solution that contains platinum. A reducing agent is used to supply electrons to effect a chemical reduction in situ. The chemical reduction displaces the platinum from the solution. The displaced platinum becomes deposited on the fibers. Each platinum atom that has been deposited acts as a catalytic site for the deposition of another platinum atom. Hence, the deposition process can also be characterized as autocatalytic. The thickness of the deposited metal can be tailored via the duration of immersion and the chemical activity of the solution.

  5. Ion Beam Sputtered Coatings of Bioglass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hench, Larry L.; Wilson, J.; Ruzakowski, Patricia Henrietta Anne

    1982-01-01

    The ion beam sputtering technique available at the NASA-Lewis was used to apply coatings of bioglass to ceramic, metallic, and polymeric substrates. Experiments in vivo and in vitro described investigate these coatings. Some degree of substrate masking was obtained in all samples although stability and reactivity equivalent to bulk bioglass was not observed in all coated samples. Some degree of stability was seen in all coated samples that were reacted in vitro. Both metallic and ceramic substrates coated in this manner failed to show significantly improved coatings over those obtained with existing techniques. Implantation of the coated ceramic substrate samples in bone gave no definite bonding as seen with bulk glass; however, partial and patchy bonding was seen. Polymeric substrates in these studies showed promise of success. The coatings applied were sufficient to mask the underlying reactive test surface and tissue adhesion of collagen to bioglass was seen. Hydrophilic, hydrophobic, charged, and uncharged polymeric surfaces were successfully coated.

  6. Activation of electrocatalytic properties of a-C films by doping with MoSe x clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, S. N.; Fominski, V. Y.; Romanov, R. I.; Volosova, M. A.; Fominski, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    Nanocomposite a-C(Mo/MoSe x ) thin films containing amorphous carbon matrix a-C, nano-Mo and MoSe x ≥2 clusters were obtained by pulsed laser co-deposition of carbon and MoSe2. The deposition was carried out at room temperature onto a graphite substrate. Atomic content of the MoSe x≥2 phase did not exceed 25%. The use of a buffer gas at a pressure of 10 Pa allowed to obtain the maximum Se/Mo ratio in the films and to increase the concentration of sp2-hybridized C atoms for high conductivity realization. The formation of MoSe x≥2 cluster inclusions was the essential factor for activation of hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in 0.5 M H2SO4 aqueous solution. These clusters also promoted cathodic deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the surface of a-C(Mo/MoSe x ) in a H2SO4/KCl solution when a Pt anode was used as a source of Pt. Hybrid Pt/a-C(Mo/MoSe x ) thin-film coatings with a low Pt loading (~6 μg/cm2) exhibit excellent HER property, which noticeably exceeds that of relatively thick Pt coating prepared on a graphite substrate by pulsed laser deposition.

  7. Evanescent wave assisted nanomaterial coating.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Samir K; Pal, Sudipta Sarkar; Kumbhakar, Dharmadas; Tiwari, Umesh; Bhatnagar, Randhir

    2013-08-01

    In this work we present a novel nanomaterial coating technique using evanescent wave (EW). The gradient force in the EW is used as an optical tweezer for tweezing and self-assembling nanoparticles on the source of EW. As a proof of the concept, we have used a laser coupled etched multimode optical fiber, which generates EW for the EW assisted coating. The section-wise etched multimode optical fiber is horizontally and superficially dipped into a silver/gold nanoparticles solution while the laser is switched on. The fiber is left until the solution recedes due to evaporation leaving the fiber in air. The coating time usually takes 40-50 min at room temperature. The scanning electron microscope image shows uniform and thin coating of self-assembled nanoparticles due to EW around the etched section. A coating thickness <200 nm is achieved. The technique could be useful for making surface-plasmon-resonance-based optical fiber probes and other plasmonic circuits.

  8. Testing and Evaluation of Multifunctional Smart Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhrow, Jerry; Li, Wenyan; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz M.; Pearman, Benjamin; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    A smart coating system, based on pH sensitive microcontainers (microparticles and microcapsules) has been developed. Various corrosion inhibitors have been encapsulated and incorporated into commercial and formulated coatings to test the functionality imparted on the coating by the incorporation of the inhibitor microcontainers. Coated carbon steel and aluminum alloy panels were tested using salt immersion, salt fog, and coastal atmospheric exposure conditions. This paper provides the details on coating sample preparation, evaluation methods, as well as test results of the inhibiting function of smart coatings.

  9. HVOF coatings of Diamalloy 2002 and Diamalloy 4010 onto steel: Tensile and bending response of coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Shehri, Y. A.; Hashmi, M. S. J.; Yilbas, B. S.

    HVOF coating of Diamalloy 2002 powders and Diamalloy 4010 powders as well as two-layered coatings consisting of these powders is carried out. In the two-layered structure, Diamalloy 4010 is sprayed at the substrate surface while Diamalloy 2002 is sprayed on the top of Diamalloy 4010 coating. The mechanical properties of the coatings are examined through tensile and three-point bending tests. The coating microstructure and morphology are examined using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that the coating produced is free from defects including voids and cracks. The failure mechanism ofmore » coating during tensile and three-point bending tests is mainly crack formation and propagation in the coating. The elastic modulus of coating produced from Diamalloy 2002 is higher than that of Diamalloy 4010 coating, which is due to the presence of 12% WC in the coating.« less

  10. After a C-section - in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000620.htm After a C-section - in the hospital To use the sharing ... for your baby. What to Expect after a C-section Right after surgery you may feel: Groggy ...

  11. Environmentally-Preferable Launch Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of NASA and the GSDO Program, the objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of environmentally friendly corrosion protecting coatings for launch facilities and ground support equipment (GSE). The focus of the project is corrosion resistance and survivability with the goal to reduce the amount of maintenance required to preserve the performance of launch facilities while reducing mission risk. The project compares coating performance of the selected alternatives to existing coating systems or standards.

  12. Thermal insulating coating for spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Raj K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    To protect spacecraft and their contents from excessive heat thermal protection systems are essential. For such thermal protection, metal coatings, ceramic materials, ablative materials, and various matrix materials have all been tried, but none have been found entirely satisfactory. The basis for this thermal protection system is the fact that the heat required to melt a substance is 80 to 100 times larger than the heat required to raise its temperature one degree. This led to the use herein of solid-liquid phase change materials. Unlike conventional heat storage materials, when phase change materials reach the temperature at which they change phase they absorb large amounts of heat without getting hotter. By this invention, then, a coating composition is provided for application to substrates subjected to temperatures above 100? F. The coating composition includes a phase change material.

  13. Thermal Insulating Coating for Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Raj K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    To protect spacecraft and their contents from excessive heat thermal protection system are essential. For such thermal protection, metal coatings, ceramic materials, ablative materials, and various matrix materials have all been tried, but none have been found entirely satisfactory. The basis for this thermal protection system is the fact that the heat required to melt a substance is 80 to 100 times larger than the heat required to raise its temperature one degree. This led to the use herein of solid-liquid phase change materials. Unlike conventional heat storage materials, when phase change materials reach the temperature at which they change phase they absorb large amounts of heat without getting hotter. By this invention, then, a coating composition is provided for application to substrates subjected to temperatures above 100 F. The coating composition includes a phase change material.

  14. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the leastmore » increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.« less

  15. Space station protective coating development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.; Hill, S. G.

    1989-01-01

    A generic list of Space Station surfaces and candidate material types is provided. Environmental exposures and performance requirements for the different Space Station surfaces are listed. Coating materials and the processing required to produce a viable system, and appropriate environmental simulation test facilities are being developed. Mass loss data from the original version of the atomic oxygen test chamber and the improved facility; additional environmental exposures performed on candidate materials; and materials properties measurements on candidate coatings to determine the effects of the exposures are discussed. Methodologies of production, and coating materials, used to produce the large scale demonstration articles are described. The electronic data base developed for the contract is also described. The test chamber to be used for exposure of materials to atomic oxygen was built.

  16. Optical characterization of antirelaxation coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, S.; Gateva, S.; Cartaleva, S.; Mariotti, E.; Nasyrov, K.

    2018-03-01

    Antirelaxation coatings (ARC) are used in optical cells containing alkali metal vapor to reduce the depolarization of alkali atoms after collisions with the cell walls. The long-lived ground state polarization is a basis for development of atomic clocks, magnetometers, quantum memory, slow light experiments, precision measurements of fundamental symmetries etc. In this work, a simple method for measuring the number of collisions of the alkali atoms with the cell walls without atomic spin randomization (Nasyrov et al., Proc. SPIE (2015)) was applied to characterize the AR properties of two PDMS coatings prepared from different solutions in ether (PDMS 2% and PDMS 5%). We observed influence of the light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD) on the AR properties of coatings.

  17. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    SciTech Connect

    Brophy, Brenor

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs andmore » a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.« less

  18. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Pilsner, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    This is the first report of the first phase of a 3-year program. Its objectives are to determine the predominant modes of degradation of a plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system, then to develop and verify life prediction models accounting for these degradation modes. The first task (Task I) is to determine the major failure mechanisms. Presently, bond coat oxidation and bond coat creep are being evaluated as potential TBC failure mechanisms. The baseline TBC system consists of an air plasma sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 top coat, a low pressure plasma sprayed NiCrAlY bond coat, and a Rene'80 substrate. Pre-exposures in air and argon combined with thermal cycle tests in air and argon are being utilized to evaluate bond coat oxidation as a failure mechanism. Unexpectedly, the specimens pre-exposed in argon failed before the specimens pre-exposed in air in subsequent thermal cycles testing in air. Four bond coats with different creep strengths are being utilized to evaluate the effect of bond coat creep on TBC degradation. These bond coats received an aluminide overcoat prior to application of the top coat to reduce the differences in bond coat oxidation behavior. Thermal cycle testing has been initiated. Methods have been selected for measuring tensile strength, Poisson's ratio, dynamic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion both of the bond coat and top coat layers.

  19. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2006-12-12

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  20. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  1. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Drews, M. J.; Ellison, M. S.; Allen, L. E.; Mccollum, J. R.; Thomas, H. L.

    1988-01-01

    Now that quantities of prepreg were made on the thermoplastic coating line, they are being formed into both textile preform structures and directly into composite samples. The textile preforms include both woven and knitted structures which will be thermoformed into a finished part. In order to determine if the matrix resin is properly adhering to the fibers or if voids are being formed in the coating process, the tensile strength and modulus of these samples will be tested. The matrix uniformity of matrix distribution in these samples is also being determined using an image analyzer.

  2. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (<100 C) is also a key to generating these ceramic coatings on the plastics. One possible way of processing nanoceramic coatings at low temperatures (< 90 C) is to take advantage of in-situ precipitated nanoparticles and nanostructures grown from aqueous solution. These nanostructures can be tailored to ceramic film formation and the subsequent microstructure development. In addition, the process provides environment- friendly processing because of the

  3. Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab's Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Backfish, Michael

    This paper documents the use of four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) to measure electron cloud signals created in Fermilab’s Main Injector during 120 GeV operations. The first data set was taken from September 11, 2009 to July 4, 2010. This data set is used to compare two different types of beam pipe that were installed in the accelerator. Two RFAs were installed in a normal steel beam pipe like the rest of the Main Injector while another two were installed in a one meter section of beam pipe that was coated on the inside with titanium nitride (TiN). A secondmore » data run started on August 23, 2010 and ended on January 10, 2011 when Main Injector beam intensities were reduced thus eliminating the electron cloud. This second run uses the same RFA setup but the TiN coated beam pipe was replaced by a one meter section coated with amorphous carbon (aC). This section of beam pipe was provided by CERN in an effort to better understand how an aC coating will perform over time in an accelerator. The research consists of three basic parts: (a) continuously monitoring the conditioning of the three different types of beam pipe over both time and absorbed electrons (b) measurement of the characteristics of the surrounding magnetic fields in the Main Injector in order to better relate actual data observed in the Main Injector with that of simulations (c) measurement of the energy spectrum of the electron cloud signals using retarding field analyzers in all three types of beam pipe.« less

  4. Albizia lebbeck Seed Coat Proteins Bind to Chitin and Act as a Defense against Cowpea Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nadia C M; De Sá, Leonardo F R; Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Costa, Monique N; Ferreira, Andre T S; Perales, Jonas; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, Jose; Oliveira, Antonia E A

    2016-05-11

    The seed coat is an external tissue that participates in defense against insects. In some nonhost seeds, including Albizia lebbeck, the insect Callosobruchus maculatus dies during seed coat penetration. We investigated the toxicity of A. lebbeck seed coat proteins to C. maculatus. A chitin-binding protein fraction was isolated from seed coat, and mass spectrometry showed similarity to a C1 cysteine protease. By ELM program an N-glycosylation interaction motif was identified in this protein, and by molecular docking the potential to interact with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) was shown. The chitin-binding protein fraction was toxic to C. maculatus and was present in larval midgut and feces but not able to hydrolyze larval gut proteins. It did not interfere, though, with the intestinal cell permeability. These results indicate that the toxicity mechanism of this seed coat fraction may be related to its binding to chitin, present in the larvae gut, disturbing nutrient absorption.

  5. Coated foams, preparation, uses and articles

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-10-21

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tension of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  6. Aesthetic coatings for concrete bridge components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriha, Brent R.

    This thesis evaluated the durability and aesthetic performance of coating systems for utilization in concrete bridge applications. The principle objectives of this thesis were: 1) Identify aesthetic coating systems appropriate for concrete bridge applications; 2) Evaluate the performance of the selected systems through a laboratory testing regimen; 3) Develop guidelines for coating selection, surface preparation, and application. A series of site visits to various bridges throughout the State of Wisconsin provided insight into the performance of common coating systems and allowed problematic structural details to be identified. To aid in the selection of appropriate coating systems, questionnaires were distributed to coating manufacturers, bridge contractors, and various DOT offices to identify high performing coating systems and best practices for surface preparation and application. These efforts supplemented a literature review investigating recent publications related to formulation, selection, surface preparation, application, and performance evaluation of coating materials.

  7. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  8. Evaluation of epoxy coated reinforcing steel.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-01-01

    Epoxy coated deck reinforcement was evaluated during the construction of two bridges on Rte. I-77 in Carroll County. The contractor was favorably impressed with the coated steel, which sustained no damage during shipping or deck construction. Among t...

  9. Ensuring the Consistency of Silicide Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramani, V.; Lampson, F. K.

    1982-01-01

    Diagram specifies optimum fusing time for given thicknesses of refractory metal-silicide coatings on columbium C-103 substrates. Adherence to indicated fusion times ensures consistent coatings and avoids underdiffusion and overdiffusion. Accuracy of diagram has been confirmed by tests.

  10. Epoxy coated reinforcement study : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-06-01

    This report evaluates the use of Scotchlite 213 epoxy coated reinforcement in Oregon coastal environments. There is an extensive body of knowledge documenting epoxy coated reinforcement research in North America in the last 20 years. The research has...

  11. Aesthetic coatings for Wisconsin bridge components : [brief].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-03-01

    Over the past several years, the Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) has : experienced performance-related issues with aesthetic and protective coatings used on : Wisconsin bridges. Public agencies make significant investments in coating ...

  12. Stress and structure development in polymeric coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaessen, Diane Melissa

    2002-09-01

    The main goal of this research is to measure the stress evolution in various polymer coating systems to establish the mechanisms responsible for stress development, stress relaxation, and defect formation. Investigated systems include ultraviolet (UV)-curable coatings, dense and porous coatings from polymer solutions, and latex coatings. Coating stress was measured using a controlled environment stress apparatus based on a cantilever deflection principle. For acrylate coatings, it was found that by cycling a UV-lamp on and off, keeping the total dose constant, coating stress was lowered by 60% by decreasing the cycle period. A stress minimum was also found to exist for a given dose of radiation. The lower stress is attributed to stress relaxation and/or slower reaction during dark periods. A viscoelastic stress model of this process was formulated and predicted stress values close to those observed experimentally. During drying of cellulose acetate (CA) coatings cast in acetone, final stress increased from 10 to 45 MPa as coating thickness decreased from 60 to 10 mum. This thickness dependent coating stress for a solvent-cast polymer coating is a new finding and is attributed to (1) less shrinkage in thicker coatings due to more trapped solvent (from skinning) and (2) greater amounts of polymer stress relaxation in thicker coatings. For porous CA coatings prepared by dry-cast phase separation, final in-plane stresses ranged from 20 MPa for coatings containing small pores (˜1 mum) to 5 MPa for coatings containing small pores and macrovoids (˜200 mum). For these coatings, a small amount of stress relaxation occurs due to capillary pressure relief. A stress plateau for the macrovoid-containing coating is likely caused by stress-induced rupture of the polymer-rich phase. Measured stress in pigment-free latex coatings was much lower (˜0.3 MPa) than UV-curable and solvent-cast polymer coatings and was found to increase with increasing latex glass transition

  13. Friction- and wear-reducing coating

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Dong [Farmington Hills, MI; Milner, Robert [Warren, MI; Elmoursi, Alaa AbdelAzim [Troy, MI

    2011-10-18

    A coating includes a first layer of a ceramic alloy and a second layer disposed on the first layer and including carbon. The coating has a hardness of from 10 to 20 GPa and a coefficient of friction of less than or equal to 0.12. A method of coating a substrate includes cleaning the substrate, forming the first layer on the substrate, and depositing the second layer onto the first layer to thereby coat the substrate.

  14. Laser reflector with an interference coating

    SciTech Connect

    Vol'pyan, O D; Semenov, A A; Yakovlev, P P

    1998-10-31

    An analysis was made of the reflectivity of interference coatings intended for the use in optical pumping of solid-state lasers. Ruby and Nd{sup 3+}:YAG lasers were used as models in comparative pumping efficiency measurements, carried out employing reflectors with interference and silver coatings. Estimates of the service life of reflectors with interference coatings were obtained. The power of a thermo-optical lens was reduced by the use of such coatings in cw lasers. (laser system components)

  15. Laser modification of thermally sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglov, A. A.; Fomin, A. D.; Naumkin, A. O.; Pekshev, P. Iu.; Smurov, I. Iu.

    1987-08-01

    Experimental results are reported on the modification of thermally sprayed coatings on steels and aluminum alloys using pulsed YAG and CW CO2 lasers. In particular, results obtained for self-fluxing Ni9CrBSi powders, ZRO2 ceramic, and titanium are examined. It is shown that the laser treatment of thermally sprayed coatings significantly improves their physicomechanical properties; it also makes it possible to obtain refractory coatings on low-melting substrates with good coating-substrate adhesion.

  16. Sputter coating of microspherical substrates by levitation

    DOEpatents

    Lowe, A.T.; Hosford, C.D.

    Microspheres are substantially uniformly coated with metals or nonmetals by simltaneously levitating them and sputter coating them at total chamber pressures less than 1 torr. A collimated hole structure comprising a parallel array of upwardly projecting individual gas outlets is machined out to form a dimple. Glass microballoons,, which are particularly useful in laser fusion applications, can be substantially uniformly coated using the coating method and apparatus.

  17. Sputter coating of microspherical substrates by levitation

    DOEpatents

    Lowe, Arthur T.; Hosford, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Microspheres are substantially uniformly coated with metals or nonmetals by simultaneously levitating them and sputter coating them at total chamber pressures less than 1 torr. A collimated hole structure 12 comprising a parallel array of upwardly projecting individual gas outlets 16 is machined out to form a dimple 11. Glass microballoons, which are particularly useful in laser fusion applications, can be substantially uniformly coated using the coating method and apparatus.

  18. Coated woven materials and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    McCreary, W.J.; Carroll, D.W.

    Coating of woven materials so that not only the outer surfaces are coated has been a problem. Now, a solution to that problem is by coating with materials, with metals or with pyrolytic carbon. Materials are deposited in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CND) reactions using a fluidized bed so that the porosity of the woven materials is retained and the tiny filaments which make up the strands which are woven (including inner as well as outer filaments) are substantially uniformly coated.

  19. Corrosion Protection by Calcite-Type Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    CORROSION PROTECTION BY CALCITE -TYPE COATINGS OCTOBER, 1989 Prepared by: OCEAN CITY RESEARCH CORPORATION Tennessee Avenue & Beach Thorofare Ocean...REPORT DATE OCT 1989 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Corrosion Protection by Calcite -Type Coatings 5a. CONTRACT... calcite -type coatings to segregated seawater ballast tanks. If perfected, a calcite coating approach could substantially reduce the cost of corrosion

  20. Tests of Zinc Rich Anticorrosion Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. D.; Paton, W. J.; Rowe, A.

    1986-01-01

    Condition of zinc-rich anticorrosion coatings after 10 years of exposure discussed in status report, which follows up on 18-month study of anticorrosion coatings on steel started in 1971. Test panels with various coatings mounted on racks on beach and checked periodically. Of panels with inorganic zinc-rich coatings, only one slightly rusted. Panels were in such good condition they were returned to beach for more exposure.

  1. Fusion silicide coatings for tantalum alloys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnock, R. V.; Stetson, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the performance of fusion silicide coatings under simulated atmospheric reentry conditions to a maximum temperature of 1810 K (2800 F). Both recently developed and commercially available coatings are included. Data are presented on oxidation rate with and without intentional defecting, the influence of the coatings on the ductile-brittle bend transition temperature, and the mechanical properties. Coatings appear capable of affording protection for at least 100 simulated cycles to 2600 F and 63 cycles to 2800 F.

  2. Effects of coating thickness on high power metal coated fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Jae M. O.; Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Clarkson, W. Andrew; Haub, John

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the effects of coating thickness on the scattering losses of metal coated active fibre. A range of low numerical aperture metal coated optical fibres are placed in etchant solutions whilst measuring propagation loss as a function of time. By utilising concurrent coating diameter measurements, we are able to correlate propagation losses with coating thickness. Experimentally we find a monotonic dependence on coating thickness and scattering loss. We present the results of this work, providing useful parameters for high power metal coated fibre laser designs.

  3. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1998-06-23

    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound. 2 figs.

  4. Tribological performance of an H-DLC coating prepared by PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, J.; Zhao, H.; Wang, C.; Verduzco, J. A.; Bueno, A. S.; Neville, A.

    2016-10-01

    Carbon-based coatings are of wide interest due to their application in machine elements subjected to continuous contact where fluid lubricant films are not permitted. This paper describes the tribological performance under dry conditions of duplex layered H-DLC coating sequentially deposited by microwave excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition on AISI 52100 steel. The architecture of the coating comprised Cr, WC, and DLC (a-C:H) with a total thickness of 2.8 μm and compressive residual stress very close to 1 GPa. Surface hardness was approximately 22 GPa and its reduced elastic modulus around 180 GPa. Scratch tests indicated a well adhered coating achieving a critical load of 80 N. The effect of normal load on the friction and wear behaviours were investigated with steel pins sliding against the actual coating under dry conditions at room temperature (20 ± 2 °C) and 35-50% RH. The results show that coefficient of friction of the coating decreased from 0.21 to 0.13 values with the increase in the applied loads (10-50 N). Specific wear rates of the surface coating also decrease with the increase in the same range of applied loads. Maximum and minimum values were 14 × 10-8 and 5.5 × 10-8 mm-3/N m, respectively. Through Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy it was confirmed the carbon-carbon contact, due to the tribolayer formation on the wear scars of the coating and pin. In order to further corroborate the experimental observations regarding the graphitisation behaviour, the existing mathematical relationships to determine the graphitisation temperature of the coating/steel contact as well as the flash temperature were used.

  5. Trough Coating Solar Cells Without Spillover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Problem with trough coating of silicon on ceramic - spillover of molten silicon - overcome by combination of redesigned heaters and tiltable trough. Modifications make it possible to coat virtually any length of ceramic with film of solar-cell-grade silicon. Previously, maximum length coated before spillover occurred was 2 inches (5.1 cm).

  6. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and Technology (CIGMAT) Laboratory at the University of Houston. Testing was conducted over a period of six months to evaluate the coating’s (1) chemical resistance and (2) bonding strength for infrastructure applications. For chemical resistance, coated concrete and clay bricks with holidays (holes created in the coating) were used to evaluate the chemical resistance of the coating/substrate bond under a corrosive environment. Twenty coated concrete (dry and wet) and 20 coated clay brick (dry and wet) specimens were exposed to DI water and sulfuric acid solution (pH=1), and the specimens were visually inspected and weight changes measured. Evaluation of the coating-to-substrate bonding strength was determined using two modified ASTM test methods – one to determine bond strength of the coating with two specimens sandwiched together using the coating, and the second to determine the bond strength by applying a tensile load to the coating applied to specimens of each substrate. Forty-eight bonding tests were performed over the six month evaluation. The tests resulted in the following conclusions about Standard Cement’s SEC 4553 coating: • After the six-month chemi

  7. Coatings Boost Solar-Cell Outputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Campbell, Robert B.; O'Keefe, T. W.; Rai-Choudbury, Posenjit; Hoffman, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Efficiencies increased by more-complete utilization of incident light. Electrical outputs of thin solar photovoltaic cells made of dendritic-web silicon increased by combination of front-surface, antireflective coatings and back-surface, reflective coatings. Improvements achieved recently through theoretical and experimental studies of ways to optimize coatings for particular wavelengths of incident light, cell thicknesses, and cell materials.

  8. A plasma-sprayed valve coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, A.; Olmore, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Need to reduce wear on nickel alloy seats and poppets for Space Shuttle main engine led to fused cobalt/tungsten carbide coating. Coating, which is dense, wear-resistant, and nonporous, can be applied in controlled amounts to various substrate configurations. Ease of application to parts with intricate shapes and contours should make coating useful in automotive and aircraft manufacturing.

  9. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sarin, Vinod; Mulpuri, Rao

    1998-01-01

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  10. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  11. Rocket thrust chamber thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batakis, A. P.; Vogan, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A research program was conducted to generate data and develop analytical techniques to predict the performance and reliability of ceramic thermal barrier coatings in high heat flux environments. A finite element model was used to analyze the thermomechanical behavior of coating systems in rocket thrust chambers. Candidate coating systems (using a copper substrate, NiCrAlY bond coat and ZrO2.8Y2O3 ceramic overcoat) were selected for detailed study based on photomicrographic evaluations of experimental test specimens. The effects of plasma spray application parameters on the material properties of these coatings were measured and the effects on coating performance evaluated using the finite element model. Coating design curves which define acceptable operating envelopes for seleted coating systems were constructed based on temperature and strain limitations. Spray gun power levels was found to have the most significant effect on coating structure. Three coating systems were selected for study using different power levels. Thermal conductivity, strain tolerance, density, and residual stress were measured for these coatings. Analyses indicated that extremely thin coatings ( 0.02 mm) are required to accommodate the high heat flux of a rocket thrust chamber and ensure structural integrity.

  12. Coat Hangers across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    2012-01-01

    There are many ways in which wire coat hangers can be used other than for suspending clothes. The author has been making use of them in his teaching for many years--copying ideas from colleagues and creating some for himself. In this article, he shares five examples that can enrich learning about science. (Contains 6 figures.)

  13. Failure Mechanisms of the Coating/Metal Interface in Waterborne Coatings: The Effect of Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Hongxia; Song, Dongdong; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Dawei; Gao, Jin; Du, Cuiwei

    2017-01-01

    Waterborne coating is the most popular type of coating, and improving its performance is a key point of research. Cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings. It refers to the weakening or loss of adhesion between the coating and substrate. Physical and chemical characteristics of coatings have been studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Early heterogeneous swelling at the metal-coating interface in non-defective coated metals was elucidated using frequency-dependent alternating-current scanning electrochemical microscopy. Two types of coatings (styrene-acrylic coating and terpolymer coating) were compared. The effects of thickness, surface roughness, and chemical bonding on cathodic delamination were investigated. PMID:28772757

  14. Status of black chrome coating research

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.; Sowell, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Recent results regarding the optimization of electrodeposited black chrome solar selective coatings for operation in solar collectors to temperatures up to 300/sup 0/C are summarized. Careful control of the electroplating-bath composition and special regard for bath contamination are required in order to obtain coatings that will survive daily collector operation for tens of years. An accelerated temperature aging test is presented which can be used both to estimate the coating lifetime and to monitor the coating during production. Finally, the use of sol-gel protective films to extend the lifetime of the black chrome coating is also discussed.

  15. Measuring Thicknesses of Coatings on Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotty, Glenn M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Digital light sensor and eddy-current sensor measure thickness without contact. Surface of Coating reflects laser beam to optical sensor. Position of reflected spot on sensor used by microcomputer to calculate coating thickness. Eddy-current sensor maintains constant distance between optical sensor and metal substrate. When capabilities of available components fully exploited, instrument measures coatings from 0.001 to 6 in. (0.0025 to 15 cm) thick with accuracy of 1 part in 4,000. Instrument readily incorporated in automatic production and inspection systems. Used to inspect thermal-insulation layers, paint, and protective coatings. Also used to control application of coatings to preset thicknesses.

  16. Thin Film Coating Technology For Ophthalmic Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, K. H.

    1986-05-01

    Coating of ophthalmic lenses is an application of high-vacuum coating technology which must satisfy not only physical and technical requirements but also customer demands with respect to aesthetics, color fidelity, and exchangeability of coated ophthalmic lenses. Because this application caters specifically to the consumer market, ophthalmic lenses are subject to certain fashion trends which frequently require quick adaptation of the coating technique. The state-of-the-art of ophthalmic lens coating is reviewed in this paper, with particular emphasis on the durability requirements in daily use by untrained consumers as well as on the applicable testing methods.

  17. Method for making nanoporous hydrophobic coatings

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng

    2013-04-23

    A simple coating method is used to form nanoporous hydrophobic films that can be used as optical coatings. The method uses evaporation-induced self-assembly of materials. The coating method starts with a homogeneous solution comprising a hydrophobic polymer and a surfactant polymer in a selective solvent. The solution is coated onto a substrate. The surfactant polymer forms micelles with the hydrophobic polymer residing in the particle core when the coating is dried. The surfactant polymer can be dissolved and selectively removed from the separated phases by washing with a polar solvent to form the nanoporous hydrophobic film.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of DLC coated microdimples on hip prosthesis heads.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Dipankar; Ay Ching, Hee; Mamat, Azuddin Bin; Cizek, Jan; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Vrbka, Martin; Hartl, Martin; Krupka, Ivan

    2015-07-01

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) is applied as a thin film onto substrates to obtain desired surface properties such as increased hardness and corrosion resistance, and decreased friction and wear rate. Microdimple is an advanced surface modification technique enhancing the tribological performance. In this study, DLC coated microdimples were fabricated on hip prosthesis heads and their mechanical, material and surface properties were characterized. An Electro discharge machining (EDM) oriented microdrilling was utilized to fabricate a defined microdimple array (diameter of 300 µm, depth of 70 µm, and pitch of 900 µm) on stainless steel (SS) hip prosthesis heads. The dimpled surfaces were then coated by hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (Ta-C) layers by using a magnetron sputtering technology. A preliminary tribology test was conducted on these fabricated surfaces against a ceramic ball in simulated hip joint conditions. It was found that the fabricated dimples were perpendicular to the spherical surfaces and no cutting-tools wear debris was detected inside the individual dimples. The a-C:H and Ta-C coatings increased the hardness at both the dimple edges and the nondimpled region. The tribology test showed a significant reduction in friction coefficient for coated surfaces regardless of microdimple arrays: the lowest friction coefficient was found for the a-C:H samples (µ = 0.084), followed by Ta-C (µ = 0.119), as compared to the SS surface (µ = 0.248). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Decomposed Fragment Identification in C_8F_18 RF Plasma for a-C:F Film Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yosuke; Tazawa, Shota; Bratescu, Maria; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Hirotake

    2004-09-01

    Amorphous fluorocarbon polymer (a-C:F) film shows excellent insulation properties such as low dielectric constant (<2.5), high dielectric strength (>2 MV/cm), low surface energy, and chemical inertness. Therefore, we have studied this film for a purpose of an additional insulator to enhance the breakdown voltage in an alternative to a SF6 gas insulation system. The films are prepared using a C_8F_18 vapor RF plasma. When per-fluorocarbon, such as C_8F_18 as source gases, then the deposition rate becomes roughly two orders of magnitude higher than that obtained from conventional low molecular-weight source monomers (CF_4, C_2F_6, C_3F_6, and C_4F_8) [1]. The breakdown voltage (V_s) of N_2, Ar and He gases between the a-C:F film coated Al sphere-sphere electrodes for a gas pressure (p) times gap length (d), pd=0.1-100 Torr¥cm, was studied as well. Then, Vs between the a-C:F film coated electrodes was a several times higher than that between the Al electrodes in the present pd range[2]. In this work, the decomposed species of C_8F_18 in the plasma were identified using emission spectra from the plasma and Quadra-pole mass spectrograph, and the reason why the high deposition rate was obtained was discussed. The physical and chemical properties of a-C:F film was analyzed. [1] C.P.Lungu, et.al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38 (12B) L1544 - L1546 (1999) [2] C.Biloiu, et.al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42 (2B) L 201- L203 (2003) Work supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), JSPS.

  20. Black Molecular Adsorber Coatings for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Hasegawa, Mark Makoto; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  1. Rocket thrust chamber thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quentmeyer, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Subscale rocket thrust chamber tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of thin yttria stabilized zirconium oxide coatings applied to the thrust chamber hot-gas side wall. The fabrication consisted of arc plasma spraying the ceramic coating and bond coat onto a mandrell and then electrodepositing the copper thrust chamber wall around the coating. Chambers were fabricated with coatings .008, and .005 and .003 inches thick. The chambers were thermally cycled at a chamber pressure of 600 psia using oxygen-hydrogen as propellants and liquid hydrogen as the coolant. The thicker coatings tended to delaminate, early in the cyclic testing, down to a uniform sublayer which remained well adhered during the remaining cycles. Two chambers with .003 inch coatings were subjected to 1500 thermal cycles with no coating loss in the throat region, which represents a tenfold increase in life over identical chambers having no coatings. An analysis is presented which shows that the heat lost to the coolant due to the coating, in a rocket thrust chamber design having a coating only in the throat region, can be recovered by adding only one inch to the combustion chamber length.

  2. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  3. Black molecular adsorber coatings for spaceflight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-09-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  4. Solar Absorptance of Cermet Coatings Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic, are being considered for the heat inlet surface of solar Stirling convertors. In this application, the key role of the cermet coating is to absorb as much of the incident solar energy as possible. To achieve this objective, the cermet coating has a high solar absorptance value. Cermet coatings are manufactured utilizing sputter deposition, and many different metal and ceramic combinations can be created. The ability to mix metal and ceramic at the atomic level offers the opportunity to tailor the composition, and hence, the optical properties of these coatings. The NASA Glenn Research Center has prepared and characterized a wide variety of cermet coatings utilizing different metals deposited in an aluminum oxide ceramic matrix. In addition, the atomic oxygen durability of these coatings has been evaluated.

  5. Electrostatic coating technologies for food processing.

    PubMed

    Barringer, Sheryl A; Sumonsiri, Nutsuda

    2015-01-01

    The application of electrostatics in both powder and liquid coating can improve the quality of food, such as its appearance, aroma, taste, and shelf life. Coatings can be found most commonly in the snack food industry, as well as in confectionery, bakery, meat and cheese processing. In electrostatic powder coating, the most important factors influencing coating quality are powder particle size, density, flowability, charge, and resistivity, as well as the surface properties and characteristics of the target. The most important factors during electrostatic liquid coating, also known as electrohydrodynamic coating, include applied voltage and electrical resistivity and viscosity of the liquid. A good understanding of these factors is needed for the design of optimal coating systems for food processing.

  6. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  7. The durability of ceramic coated dental instruments.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, R D; Robinson, P B; Rogers, P S

    1995-09-01

    This study investigates the hardness, structure, composition, and thickness of coatings on two dental instruments and the changes which occurred when the instruments were subjected to conditions that closely match their clinical use. One group of instruments had a titanium nitride coating that was approximately 8 micrometers thick and had a hardness of 19.5 GN/m2. The coating on the other instrument was alumina (aluminium oxide) and contained some microcracks even when new; this coating was thicker (approximately 30 micrometers) and had a hardness less than the titanium nitride coating (15.8 GN/m2). The results showed that the titanium nitride coating was structurally superior compared with the aluminium oxide coating. Laboratory wear tests against composite resin showed that the wear resistance of titanium nitride was superior to that of stainless steel whether assessed in terms of weight or volume loss.

  8. Electrical contact arrangement for a coating process

    DOEpatents

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; McCamy, James W; Boyd, Donald W

    2013-09-17

    A protective coating is applied to the electrically conductive surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by biasing a conductive member having a layer of a malleable electrically conductive material, e.g. a paste, against a portion of the conductive surface while moving an electrodepositable coating composition over the conductive surface. The moving of the electrodepositable coating composition over the conductive surface includes moving the solar mirror through a flow curtain of the electrodepositable coating composition and submerging the solar mirror in a pool of the electrodepositable coating composition. The use of the layer of a malleable electrically conductive material between the conductive member and the conductive surface compensates for irregularities in the conductive surface being contacted during the coating process thereby reducing the current density at the electrical contact area.

  9. Positron lifetime spectroscopy in thin polymer coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1990-01-01

    Polymer coatings are finding increasing applications in aerospace industry. The effectiveness of coatings depends strongly on their microstructure and adhesion to the substrates. Currently, there is no technique for adequately monitoring the quality of the coatings. We adapted positron lifetime spectroscopy for the investigation of thin coatings. Results of measurements on 0.001-in-thick polyurethane coatings on aluminum and steel substrates and thicker (0.080-in.) self-standing polyurethane discs were compared. In all cases, we find positron lifetime groups centered around 560 ps, corresponding to the presence of 0.9 A exp 3 free volume cells. However, the number of free volume cells in thin coatings is larger, suggesting that the morphology of thin coatings is different from that of bulk polyurethane. These results and their structural implications are discussed.

  10. Armor systems including coated core materials

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; McHugh, Kevin M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  11. Armor systems including coated core materials

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

    2013-10-08

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  12. Dry rotary swaging with structured and coated tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Marius; Schenck, Christian; Kuhfuss, Bernd

    2018-05-01

    Rotary swaging is a cold bulk forming process for manufacturing of complex bar and tube profiles like axles and gear shafts in the automotive industry. Conventional rotary swaging is carried out under intense use of lubricant usually based on mineral oil. Besides lubrication the lubricant fulfills necessary functions like lubrication, flushing and cooling, but generates costs for recycling, replacement and cleaning of the workpieces. Hence, the development of a dry process design is highly desirable, both under economic and ecological points of view. Therefore, it is necessary to substitute the functions of the lubricant. This was realized by the combination of newly developed a-C:H:W coating systems on the tools to minimize the friction and to avoid adhesion effects. With the application of a deterministic structure in the forging zone of the tools the friction conditions are modified to control the axial process forces. In this study infeed rotary swaging with functionalized tools was experimentally investigated. Therefore, steel and aluminum tubes were formed with and without lubricant. Different structures which were coated and uncoated were implemented in the reduction zone of the tools. The antagonistic effects of coating and structuring were characterized by measuring the axial process force and the produced workpiece quality in terms of roundness and surface roughness. Thus, the presented results allow for further developments towards a dry rotary swaging process.

  13. Wrinkling of solidifying polymeric coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Soumendra Kumar

    2005-07-01

    In coatings, wrinkles are viewed as defects or as desired features for low gloss, and texture. In either case, discovering the origin of wrinkles and the conditions that lead to their formation is important. This research examines what wrinkling requires and proposes a mechanism to explain the observations. All curing wrinkling coatings contain multi-functional reactants. Upon curing, all develop a depth-wise gradient in solidification that result in a cross-linked elastic skin atop a viscous bottom layer. It is hypothesized that compressive stress develops in the skin when liquid below diffuses up into the skin. High enough compressive stress buckles the skin to produce wrinkles. The hypothesis is substantiated by experimental and theoretical evidences. Effects of various application and compositional parameters on wrinkle size in a liquid-applied acrylic coating and a powder-applied epoxy coating were examined. All three components, namely resin, cross-linker and catalyst blocked with at least equimolar volatile blocker, proved to be required for wrinkling. The wrinkling phenomenon was modeled with a theory that accounts for gradient generation, cross-linking reaction and skinning; predictions compared well with observations. Two-layer non-curing coatings that have a stiff elastic layer atop a complaint elastic bottom layer wrinkled when the top layer is compressed. The top layer was compressed by either moisture absorption or differential thermal expansion. Experimental observations compared well with predictions from a theory based on force balance in multilayer systems subjected to differential contraction or expansion. A model based on the Flory-Rehner free energy of a constrained cross-linked gel was constructed that predicts the compressive stress generated in a coating when it absorbs solvent. Linear stability analysis predicts that when a compressed elastic layer is attached atop a viscous layer, it is always unstable to buckles whose wavelength exceeds a

  14. Thermomechanical Behavior of Developmental Thermal Barrier Coating Bond Coats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Amit; Tolpygo, Vladimir K.; Hemker, Kevin J.

    2013-04-01

    Thermal expansion, microtensile, and stress relaxation experiments have been performed to contrast and compare the thermal and mechanical response of two experimental (L1 and H1) coatings provided by Honeywell Corporation (Morristown, NY). Thermal expansion experiments reveal that both coatings have coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) that vary with temperature and that the CTE mismatch between the coatings and superalloy substrate is significant in the case of L1 as compared to H1. Values of the 0.2% offset yield stress (YS), Young's modulus ( E), and hardening exponent ( n) are reported. Room-temperature microtensile experiments show higher strain hardening and a very low value of failure strain for L1 as compared to H1. At elevated temperatures, there is a significant decrease in the YS of as-received L1 for (924 MPa at room temperature to 85 MPa at 1000°C) as compared to H1. Finally, a power law creep description for high-temperature stress relaxation is developed and the measured values of the stress exponent ( n = 3) and activation energies ( Q creep = 200-250 kJ/mol) are shown to be consistent with power law creep.

  15. Residual Stresses Modeled in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freborg, A. M.; Ferguson, B. L.; Petrus, G. J.; Brindley, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) applications continue to increase as the need for greater engine efficiency in aircraft and land-based gas turbines increases. However, durability and reliability issues limit the benefits that can be derived from TBC's. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms that cause TBC failure is a key to increasing, as well as predicting, TBC durability. Oxidation of the bond coat has been repeatedly identified as one of the major factors affecting the durability of the ceramic top coat during service. However, the mechanisms by which oxidation facilitates TBC failure are poorly understood and require further characterization. In addition, researchers have suspected that other bond coat and top coat factors might influence TBC thermal fatigue life, both separately and through interactions with the mechanism of oxidation. These other factors include the bond coat coefficient of thermal expansion, the bond coat roughness, and the creep behavior of both the ceramic and bond coat layers. Although it is difficult to design an experiment to examine these factors unambiguously, it is possible to design a computer modeling "experiment" to examine the action and interaction of these factors, as well as to determine failure drivers for TBC's. Previous computer models have examined some of these factors separately to determine their effect on coating residual stresses, but none have examined all the factors concurrently. The purpose of this research, which was performed at DCT, Inc., in contract with the NASA Lewis Research Center, was to develop an inclusive finite element model to characterize the effects of oxidation on the residual stresses within the TBC system during thermal cycling as well as to examine the interaction of oxidation with the other factors affecting TBC life. The plasma sprayed, two-layer thermal barrier coating that was modeled incorporated a superalloy substrate, a NiCrAlY bond coat, and a ZrO2-8 wt % Y2O3 ceramic top coat. We

  16. Method of Producing Controlled Thermal Expansion Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J. (Inventor); Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Aikin, Beverly J. M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved thermal barrier coating and method for producing and applying such is disclosed herein. The thermal barrier coatings includes a high temperature substrate, a first bond coat layer applied to the substrate of MCrAlX and a second bond coat layer of MCrAlX with particles of a particulate dispersed throughout the MCrAlX and the preferred particulate is Al2O3. The particles of the particulate dispersed throughout the second bond coat layer preferably have a diameter of less then the height of the peaks of the second bond coat layer or a diameter of less than 5 micron. The method of producing the second bond coat layer may either include the steps of mechanical alloying of particles throughout the second bond coat layer, attrition milling the particles of the particulate throughout the second bond coat layer, or using electrophoresis to disperse the particles throughout the second bond coat layer. In the preferred embodiment of the invention the first bond coat layer is applied to the substrate. and then the second bond coat layer is thermally sprayed onto the first bond coat layer. Further, in a preferred embodiment of the invention a ceramic insulating layer covers the second bond coat layer.

  17. Quantitative image analysis for evaluating the coating thickness and pore distribution in coated small particles.

    PubMed

    Laksmana, F L; Van Vliet, L J; Hartman Kok, P J A; Vromans, H; Frijlink, H W; Van der Voort Maarschalk, K

    2009-04-01

    This study aims to develop a characterization method for coating structure based on image analysis, which is particularly promising for the rational design of coated particles in the pharmaceutical industry. The method applies the MATLAB image processing toolbox to images of coated particles taken with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CSLM). The coating thicknesses have been determined along the particle perimeter, from which a statistical analysis could be performed to obtain relevant thickness properties, e.g. the minimum coating thickness and the span of the thickness distribution. The characterization of the pore structure involved a proper segmentation of pores from the coating and a granulometry operation. The presented method facilitates the quantification of porosity, thickness and pore size distribution of a coating. These parameters are considered the important coating properties, which are critical to coating functionality. Additionally, the effect of the coating process variations on coating quality can straight-forwardly be assessed. Enabling a good characterization of the coating qualities, the presented method can be used as a fast and effective tool to predict coating functionality. This approach also enables the influence of different process conditions on coating properties to be effectively monitored, which latterly leads to process tailoring.

  18. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    Using a continuous powder coating process, more than 1500 meters of T 300/LaRC-TPI prepreg were produced. Two different types of heating sections in the coating line, namely electrical resistance and convection heating, were utilized. These prepregs were used to fabricate unidirectional composites. During composite fabrication the cure time of the consolidation was varied, and composites samples were produced with and without vacuum. Under these specimens, the effects of the different heating sections and of the variation of the consolidation parameters on mechanical properties and void content were investigated. The void fractions of the various composites were determined from density measurements, and the mechanical properties were measured by tensile testing, short beam shear testing and dynamic mechanical analysis.

  19. Electrodeposition of Refractory Carbide Coatings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-30

    refractory carbide coatings from molten salts is described. It consists of the simultaneous reduction of the appropriate metal species dissolved in the...Electrodeposition Molden salts 20. ASSTRACT (Continue an reve.e. 0g.. It necooom wed identify bp block nu.be) A novel method for electrodepositing...respectively. Electrolysis resulted in the formation of millimeter-size crystals on the walls of the graphite crucible which served as the cathode. Analysis of

  20. High temperature solar selective coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (suchmore » as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.« less

  1. Ion-Deposited Polished Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.

    1986-01-01

    Polished, dense, adherent coatings relatively free of imperfections. New process consists of using broad-beam ion source in evacuated chamber to ion-clean rotating surface that allows grazing incidence of ion beam. This sputter cleans off absorbed gases, organic contaminants, and oxides of mirror surface. In addition to cleaning, surface protrusions sputter-etched away. Process particularly adaptable to polishing of various substrates for optical or esthetic purposes.

  2. Corrosion-Resistant Alkyd Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-18

    molecule. Examples of such acid compounds include the aliphatic saturated dibasic acids such as succinic acid , adipic acid , azelaic acid , sebacic...of a benzoic acid . 15. SUBJECT TERMS corrosion control, single topcoat, one coat 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: unclassified a. REPORT...consisting essentially of critical amounts of at least one zinc phos- phate, zinc molybdate and at least one zinc salt of a benzoic acid . 15

  3. Multiphase-Multifunctional Ceramic Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-30

    were conducted at 1200-1600° C from 10-24 h. Densification of powders in the pyrochlore-fuorite system was also performed by Spark Plasma Sintering ...capability with emphasis on improving toughness and phase stability. The primary goal was clearly accomplished by developing an instrumented air plasma ...composition. Coating compositions were synthesized by atmospheric plasma spray (APS) at CINVESTAV facilities, and dense monolithic counterparts were

  4. Durable antistatic coating for polymethylmethacrylate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadek, V.; Somoano, R. B.; Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A durable antistatic coating is achieved on polymethylmethacrylate plastic without affecting its optical clarity by applying to the surface of the plastic a low molecular weight solvent having a high electron affinity and a high dipole moment, such as acentonitrile or nitromethane alone or in the presence of photopolymerizable monomer. The treated polymethylmethacrylate plastic dissipates most of the induced electrostatic charge and retains its optical clarity. The antistatic behavior persists after washing, rubbing and vacuum treatment.

  5. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  6. Mie scattering off coated microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelissen, Radboud; Koene, Elmer; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Versluis, Michel

    2002-11-01

    The acoustic behavior of coated microbubbles depends on parameters of the shell coating, which are in turn dependent on bubble size. More intimate knowledge of this size dependence is required for an improved modeling of a distribution of coated microbubbles such as found in ultrasound contrast agents (UCA). Here a setup is designed to simultaneously measure the optical and acoustic response of an ultrasound-driven single bubble contained in a capillary or levitated by the pressure field of a focused transducer. Optical detection is done by Mie scattering through an inverted microscope. Acoustical detection of the single bubble by a receiving transducer is made possible because of the large working distance of the microscope. For Mie scattering investigation of excited bubbles, two regimes can be distinguished, which require different detection techniques: Conventional wide-angle detection through the microscope objective is sufficient for bubbles of radius exceeding 10 mum. For smaller bubbles, two narrow-aperture detectors are used to reconstruct the bubble dynamics from the complex angle-dependence of the scattered light.

  7. Pedestal substrate for coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry N.; Patterson, Steven R.

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  8. Waterjet processes for coating removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, Fletcher; Cosby, Steve; Hoppe, David

    1995-01-01

    USBI and NASA have been testing and investigating the use of high pressure water for coating removal for approximately the past 12 years at the Automated TPS (Thermal Protection System - ablative materials used for thermal protection during ascent and descent of the solid rocket boosters) Removal Facility located in the Productivity Enhancement Complex at Marshall Space Flight Center. Originally the task was to develop and automate the removal process and transfer the technology to a production facility at Kennedy Space Center. Since that time more and more applications and support roles for the waterjet technology have been realized. The facility has become a vital part of development activities ongoing at MSFC. It supports the development of environmentally compliant insulations, sealants, and coatings. It also supports bonding programs, test motors, and pressure vessels. The most recent role of the cell is supporting Thiokol Corporation's solid rocket motor program in the development of waterjet degreasing and paint stripping methods. Currently vapor degreasing methods use 500,000 lbs. of ozone depleting chemicals per year. This paper describes the major cell equipment, test methods practiced, and coatings that have been removed.

  9. 40 CFR Appendixes A-C to Part 403 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true [Reserved] A Appendixes A-C to Part 403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION Appendixes A-C to Part 403...

  10. Kinetic regulation of coated vesicle secretion

    PubMed Central

    Foret, Lionel; Sens, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The secretion of vesicles for intracellular transport often relies on the aggregation of specialized membrane-bound proteins into a coat able to curve cell membranes. The nucleation and growth of a protein coat is a kinetic process that competes with the energy-consuming turnover of coat components between the membrane and the cytosol. We propose a generic kinetic description of coat assembly and the formation of coated vesicles and discuss its implication to the dynamics of COP vesicles that traffic within the Golgi and with the endoplasmic reticulum. We show that stationary coats of fixed area emerge from the competition between coat growth and the recycling of coat components, in a fashion resembling the treadmilling of cytoskeletal filaments. We further show that the turnover of coat components allows for a highly sensitive switching mechanism between a quiescent and a vesicle producing membrane, upon a slowing down of the exchange kinetics. We claim that the existence of this switching behavior, also triggered by factors, such as the presence of cargo and variation of the membrane mechanical tension, allows for efficient regulation of vesicle secretion. We propose a model, supported by different experimental observations, in which vesiculation of secretory membranes is impaired by the energy-consuming desorption of coat proteins, until the presence of cargo or other factors triggers a dynamical switch into a vesicle producing state. PMID:18824695

  11. Liquid-Solid Self-Lubricated Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armada, S.; Schmid, R.; Equey, S.; Fagoaga, I.; Espallargas, N.

    2013-02-01

    Self-lubricated coatings have been a major topic of interest in thermal spray in the last decades. Self-lubricated coatings obtained by thermal spray are exclusively based on solid lubricants (PTFE, h-BN, graphite, MoS2, etc.) embedded in the matrix. Production of thermal spray coatings containing liquid lubricants has not yet been achieved because of the complexity of keeping a liquid in a solid matrix during the spraying process. In the present article, the first liquid-solid self-lubricating thermal spray coatings are presented. The coatings are produced by inserting lubricant-filled capsules inside a polymeric matrix. The goal of the coating is to release lubricant to the system when needed. The first produced coatings consisted solely of capsules for confirming the feasibility of the process. For obtaining such a coating, the liquid-filled capsules were injected in the thermal spray flame without any other feedstock material. Once the concept and the idea were proven, a polymer was co-sprayed together with the capsules to obtain a coating containing the lubricant-filled capsules distributed in the solid polymeric matrix. The coatings and the self-lubricated properties have been investigated by means of optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and tribological tests.

  12. Brush seal shaft wear resistant coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Harold

    1995-03-01

    Brush seals suffer from high wear, which reduces their effectiveness. This work sought to reduce brush seal wear by identifying and testing several industry standard coatings. One of the coatings was developed for this work. It was a co-sprayed PSZ with boron-nitride added for a high temperature dry lubricant. Other coatings tested were a PSZ, chrome carbide and a bare rotor. Testing of these coatings included thermal shocking, tensile testing and wear/coefficient of friction testing. Wear testing consisted of applying a coating to a rotor and then running a sample tuft of SiC ceramic fiber against the coating. Surface speeds at point of contact were slightly over 1000 ft/sec. Rotor wear was noted, as well as coefficient of friction data. Results from the testing indicates that the oxide ceramic coatings cannot withstand the given set of conditions. Carbide coatings will not work because of the need for a metallic binder, which oxidizes in the high heat produced by friction. All work indicated a need for a coating that has a lubricant contained within itself and the coating must be resistant to an oxidizing environment.

  13. Microfluidic Controlled Conformal Coating of Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Scott; Wexler, Jason; Wan, Jiandi; Stone, Howard

    2011-11-01

    Coating flows are an important class of fluid mechanics problems. Typically a substrate is coated with a moving continuous film, but it is also possible to consider coating of discrete objects. In particular, in applications involving coating of particles that are useful in drug delivery, the coatings act as drug-carrying vehicles, while in cell therapy a thin polymeric coating is required to protect the cells from the host's immune system. Although many functional capabilities have been developed for lab-on-a-chip devices, a technique for coating has not been demonstrated. We present a microfluidic platform developed to coat micron-size spheres with a thin aqueous layer by magnetically pulling the particles from the aqueous phase to the non-aqueous phase in a co-flow. Coating thickness can be adjusted by the average fluid speed and the number of beads encapsulated inside a single coat is tuned by the ratio of magnetic to interfacial forces acting on the beads.

  14. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Pilsner, B. H.; Mcknight, R. L.; Cook, T. S.; Hartle, M. S.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes work performed to determine the predominat modes of degradation of a plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system and to develop and verify life prediction models accounting for these degradation modes. The primary TBC system consisted of a low pressure plasma sprayed NiCrAlY bond coat, an air plasma sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 top coat, and a Rene' 80 substrate. The work was divided into 3 technical tasks. The primary failure mode to be addressed was loss of the zirconia layer through spalling. Experiments showed that oxidation of the bond coat is a significant contributor to coating failure. It was evident from the test results that the species of oxide scale initially formed on the bond coat plays a role in coating degradation and failure. It was also shown that elevated temperature creep of the bond coat plays a role in coating failure. An empirical model was developed for predicting the test life of specimens with selected coating, specimen, and test condition variations. In the second task, a coating life prediction model was developed based on the data from Task 1 experiments, results from thermomechanical experiments performed as part of Task 2, and finite element analyses of the TBC system during thermal cycles. The third and final task attempted to verify the validity of the model developed in Task 2. This was done by using the model to predict the test lives of several coating variations and specimen geometries, then comparing these predicted lives to experimentally determined test lives. It was found that the model correctly predicts trends, but that additional refinement is needed to accurately predict coating life.

  15. Mixed zirconia calcium phosphate coatings for dental implants: tailoring coating stability and bioactivity potential.

    PubMed

    Pardun, Karoline; Treccani, Laura; Volkmann, Eike; Streckbein, Philipp; Heiss, Christian; Li Destri, Giovanni; Marletta, Giovanni; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-03-01

    Enhanced coating stability and adhesion are essential for long-term success of orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, the effect of coating composition on mechanical, physico-chemical and biological properties of coated zirconia specimens is investigated. Zirconia discs and dental screw implants are coated using the wet powder spraying (WPS) technique. The coatings are obtained by mixing yttria-stabilized zirconia (TZ) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in various ratios while a pure HA coating served as reference material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometer analysis confirm a similar coating morphology and roughness for all studied coatings, whereas the coating stability can be tailored with composition and is probed by insertion and dissections experiments in bovine bone with coated zirconia screw implants. An increasing content of calcium phosphate (CP) resulted in a decrease of mechanical and chemical stability, while the bioactivity increased in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro experiments with human osteoblast cells (HOB) revealed that the cells grew well on all samples but are affected by dissolution behavior of the studied coatings. This work demonstrates the overall good mechanical strength, the excellent interfacial bonding and the bioactivity potential of coatings with higher TZ contents, which provide a highly interesting coating for dental implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-coated spheres: recommended electrorheological particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. W.; Conrad, H.

    1998-11-01

    This paper considers the design of electrorheological (ER) particles. Multi-coated particles suspended in insulating (very weakly conducting) oil are recommended for obtaining high-performance ER suspensions. Only the outer two coatings determine the ER strength. The outermost coating should be a material with high dielectric constant, high electrical breakdown strength and a reasonable level of conductivity. The coating immediately below should be a highly conducting material. The inner coatings, including the core (which can be void), can be of any material having such a density that the composite particle has substantially the same density as the host liquid. Our analysis gives that multi-coated particles can have an ER shear strength as high as 29 kPa when the volume fraction of particles is 0.4 and the applied field is 5 kV 0022-3727/31/22/021/img5. Results in the literature provide support for the concept and analysis.

  17. Microneedle Coating Techniques for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Haj-Ahmad, Rita; Khan, Hashim; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Rasekh, Manoochehr; Hussain, Amjad; Walsh, Susannah; Li, Xiang; Chang, Ming-Wei; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    Drug administration via the transdermal route is an evolving field that provides an alternative to oral and parenteral routes of therapy. Several microneedle (MN) based approaches have been developed. Among these, coated MNs (typically where drug is deposited on MN tips) are a minimally invasive method to deliver drugs and vaccines through the skin. In this review, we describe several processes to coat MNs. These include dip coating, gas jet drying, spray coating, electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA) based processes and piezoelectric inkjet printing. Examples of process mechanisms, conditions and tested formulations are provided. As these processes are independent techniques, modifications to facilitate MN coatings are elucidated. In summary, the outcomes and potential value for each technique provides opportunities to overcome formulation or dosage form limitations. While there are significant developments in solid degradable MNs, coated MNs (through the various techniques described) have potential to be utilized in personalized drug delivery via controlled deposition onto MN templates. PMID:26556364

  18. Simulation to coating weight control for galvanizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junsheng; Yan, Zhang; Wu, Kunkui; Song, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Zinc coating weight control is one of the most critical issues for continuous galvanizing line. The process has the characteristic of variable-time large time delay, nonlinear, multivariable. It can result in seriously coating weight error and non-uniform coating. We develop a control system, which can automatically control the air knives pressure and its position to give a constant and uniform zinc coating, in accordance with customer-order specification through an auto-adaptive empirical model-based feed forward adaptive controller, and two model-free adaptive feedback controllers . The proposed models with controller were applied to continuous galvanizing line (CGL) at Angang Steel Works. By the production results, the precise and stability of the control model reduces over-coating weight and improves coating uniform. The product for this hot dip galvanizing line does not only satisfy the customers' quality requirement but also save the zinc consumption.

  19. Crystallization of DNA-coated colloids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yufeng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Ducrot, Étienne; Yodh, Jeremy S.; Weck, Marcus; Pine, David J.

    2015-01-01

    DNA-coated colloids hold great promise for self-assembly of programmed heterogeneous microstructures, provided they not only bind when cooled below their melting temperature, but also rearrange so that aggregated particles can anneal into the structure that minimizes the free energy. Unfortunately, DNA-coated colloids generally collide and stick forming kinetically arrested random aggregates when the thickness of the DNA coating is much smaller than the particles. Here we report DNA-coated colloids that can rearrange and anneal, thus enabling the growth of large colloidal crystals from a wide range of micrometre-sized DNA-coated colloids for the first time. The kinetics of aggregation, crystallization and defect formation are followed in real time. The crystallization rate exhibits the familiar maximum for intermediate temperature quenches observed in metallic alloys, but over a temperature range smaller by two orders of magnitude, owing to the highly temperature-sensitive diffusion between aggregated DNA-coated colloids. PMID:26078020

  20. The self-healing composite anticorrosion coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhao; Wei, Zhang; Le-ping, Liao; Hong-mei, Wang; Wu-jun, Li

    Self-healing coatings, which autonomically repair and prevent corrosion of the underlying substrate, are of particular interest for the researchers. In the article, effectiveness of epoxy resin filled microcapsules was investigated for healing of cracks generated in coatings. Microcapsules were prepared by in situ polymerization of urea-formaldehyde resin to form shell over epoxy resindroplets. Characteristics of these capsules were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and particle size analyzer. The model system of self-healing antisepsis coating consists of an epoxy resin matrix, 10 wt% microencapsulated healing agent, 2wt% catalyst solution. The self-healing function of this coating system is evaluated through corrosion testing of damaged and healed coated steel samples compared to control samples. Electrochemical testing provides further evidence of passivation of the substrate by self-healing coatings.

  1. Laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.

    PubMed

    Comesaña, R; Quintero, F; Lusquiños, F; Pascual, M J; Boutinguiza, M; Durán, A; Pou, J

    2010-03-01

    Laser cladding by powder injection has been used to produce bioactive glass coatings on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Bioactive glass compositions alternative to 45S5 Bioglass were demonstrated to exhibit a gradual wetting angle-temperature evolution and therefore a more homogeneous deposition of the coating over the substrate was achieved. Among the different compositions studied, the S520 bioactive glass showed smoother wetting angle-temperature behavior and was successfully used as precursor material to produce bioactive coatings. Coatings processed using a Nd:YAG laser presented calcium silicate crystallization at the surface, with a uniform composition along the coating cross-section, and no significant dilution of the titanium alloy was observed. These coatings maintain similar bioactivity to that of the precursor material as demonstrated by immersion in simulated body fluid. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Design of Aerosol Coating Reactors: Precursor Injection

    PubMed Central

    Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Particles are coated with thin shells to facilitate their processing and incorporation into liquid or solid matrixes without altering core particle properties (coloristic, magnetic, etc.). Here, computational fluid and particle dynamics are combined to investigate the geometry of an aerosol reactor for continuous coating of freshly-made titanium dioxide core nanoparticles with nanothin silica shells by injection of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapor downstream of TiO2 particle formation. The focus is on the influence of HMDSO vapor jet number and direction in terms of azimuth and inclination jet angles on process temperature and coated particle characteristics (shell thickness and fraction of uncoated particles). Rapid and homogeneous mixing of core particle aerosol and coating precursor vapor facilitates synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles with uniform shell thickness and high coating efficiency (minimal uncoated core and free coating particles). PMID:23658471

  3. The application of epoxy resin coating in grounding grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q.; Chen, Z. R.; Xi, L. J.; Wang, X. Y.; Wang, H. F.

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy resin anticorrosion coating is widely used in grounding grid corrosion protection because of its wide range of materials, good antiseptic effect and convenient processing. Based on the latest research progress, four kinds of epoxy anticorrosive coatings are introduced, which are structural modified epoxy coating, inorganic modified epoxy coating, organic modified epoxy coating and polyaniline / epoxy resin composite coating. In this paper, the current research progress of epoxy base coating is analyzed, and prospected the possible development direction of the anti-corrosion coating in the grounding grid, which provides a reference for coating corrosion prevention of grounding materials.

  4. Protection of alodine coatings from thermal aging by removable polymer coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagstaff, Brett R.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Whinnery, LeRoy L., Jr.

    2006-12-01

    Removable polymer coatings were evaluated as a means to suppress dehydration of Alodine chromate conversion coatings during thermal aging and thereby retain the corrosion protection afforded by Alodine. Two types of polymer coatings were applied to Alodine-treated panels of aluminum alloys 7075-T73 and 6061-T6 that were subsequently aged for 15 to 50 hours at temperatures between 135 F to 200 F. The corrosion resistance of the thermally aged panels was evaluated, after stripping the polymer coatings, by exposure to a standard salt-fog corrosion test and the extent of pitting of the polymer-coated and untreated panels compared. Removable polymer coatings mitigatedmore » the loss of corrosion resistance due to thermal aging experienced by the untreated alloys. An epoxide coating was more effective than a fluorosilicone coating as a dehydration barrier.« less

  5. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  6. Low-Temperature Plasma Coating for Aluminum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    AFRL-ML-WP-TR-2001-4104 LOW-TEMPERATURE PLASMA COATING FOR ALUMINUM DR. HIROTSUGU YASUDA CENTER FOR SURFACE SCIENCE & PLASMA TECHNOLOGY...Date 00032001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Low-Temperature Plasma Coating for Aluminum Contract Number...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final, 6/29/1996 - 3/31/2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LOW-TEMPERATURE PLASMA COATING FOR ALUMINUM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C

  7. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor description (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard power or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increase upon being exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicates that if these coatings reach a temperature above

  8. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard powder or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as-fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicate that if these coatings reach a temperature above 1100 C

  9. Cermet Coatings for Solar Stirling Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power converter. This paper will discuss the solar absorption characteristics of as-deposited cermet coatings as well as the solar absorption characteristics of the coatings after heating. The role of diffusion and island formation, during the deposition process and during heating will also be discussed.

  10. Advanced optical coatings for astronomical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradal, Fabien; Leplan, Hervé; Vayssade, Hervé; Geyl, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Recently Safran Reosc worked and progressed on various thin film technology for: Large mirrors with low stress and stable coatings. Large lens elements with strong curvature and precise layer specifications. Large filters with high spectral response uniformity specifications. IR coatings with low stress and excellent resistance to cryogenic environment for NIR to LWIR domains. Pixelated coatings. Results will be presented and discussed on the basis of several examples.

  11. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2016-02-09

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  12. Continuous Sputter Deposition Coating of Long Monofilaments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    sectional view of sample 1. Using SEM, the copper coated monofilament was observed to be smooth with little to no indications of flaking or cracked...monofilament. The magnetron sputter deposition (MSD) process was used to apply copper coatings on the order of 10–100 nanometers thick onto both nylon...of monofilaments. Though only copper coatings are discussed in this report, the system could also be used to apply a variety of sputtered metal or

  13. Coated Metal Articles and Method of Making

    DOEpatents

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  14. 1997 Spacecraft Contamination and Coatings Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T. (Compiler); Benner, Steve M. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains the presentation charts of talks given at the "1997 Spacecraft Contamination and Coatings Workshop," held July 9-10, 1997, in Annapolis, Maryland. The workshop was attended by representatives from NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Defense, industry, and universities concerned with the the spacecraft contamination engineering and thermal control coatings. The workshop provided a forum for exchanging new developments in spacecraft contamination and coatings.

  15. Porosity determination of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Roode, Mark; Beardsley, Brad

    1988-01-01

    Coating porosity is believed to be a critical factor for the thermal conductivity of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). A number of different techniques have been used to determine the porosities of thermal barrier coatings for diesel applications as part of a NASA/DOE sponsored study. A comparison is made between methods based on water immersion, optical microscopy, eddy current thickness measurements, and Archimedes principle for TBC porosity determination.

  16. Protective Coats For Zinc-Rich Primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G, III

    1993-01-01

    Report describes tests of topcoats for inorganic zinc-rich primers on carbon steel. Topcoats intended to provide additional protection against corrosion in acidic, salty seacoast-air/rocket-engine-exhaust environment of Space Shuttle launch site. Tests focused on polyurethane topcoats on epoxy tie coats on primers. Part of study involved comparison between "high-build" coating materials and thin-film coating materials.

  17. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Neumann, J. F.; Tasooji, A.

    1985-01-01

    This program focuses on predicting the lives of two types of strain-tolerant and oxidation-resistant thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems that are produced by commercial coating suppliers to the gas turbine industry. The plasma-sprayed TBC system is composed of a low pressure, plasma sprayed applied, oxidation resistant NiCrAlY bond coating. The other system is an air plasma sprayed yttria (8 percent) partially stabilized zirconia insulative layer.

  18. New PVD Technologies for New Ordnance Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    characteristics using a Tantalum and a Chrome target; 4) Deposition of Ta coatings and reactive deposition of CrN; 5) Deposition parameters affecting film...Vapor Deposition (PVD); High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS); Modulated Pulsed Power (MPP); Tantalum; Chrome ; Ta coatings; CrN; coating...The pre-production chemicals and acids are hazardous and hexavalent Cr is a known carcinogen. Significant annual expenditures are necessary to

  19. Improved method of edge coating flat ribbon wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Method to coat the edges of flat ribbon wire is devised by using enamel with modified flow properties due to addition of 2 to 4 percent silicon. Conventional coating procedes several edge coatings to minimize oxidation and additional conventional coats are applied after edge coating to build up thickness.

  20. Method for partially coating laser diode facets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dholakia, Anil R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Bars of integral laser diode devices cleaved from a wafer are placed with their p regions abutting and n regions abutting. A thin BeCu mask having alternate openings and strips of the same width as the end facets is used to mask the n region interfaces so that multiple bars can be partially coated over their exposed p regions with a reflective or partial reflective coating. The partial coating permits identification of the emitting facet from the fully coated back facet during a later device mounting procedure.

  1. Zinc-rich coatings: A market survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizak, R.

    1975-01-01

    Zinc-rich coatings with both organic and inorganic binders were considered for coastal bridges which require more corrosion protection than inland bridges because of exposure to salt spray and fog. Inorganics give longer protection and may be applied without a finish coat; those currently available are harder to apply than organics. The NASA potassium silicate/zinc - dust coating appears to provide longer protection, resist thermal shock, and overcome the application problem. Panels coated with the formulation withstood 5308 hours in a salt spray chamber with no rusting or blistering.

  2. Hybrid Calcium Phosphate Coatings for Titanium Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharapudchenko, E.; Ignatov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Tverdokhlebov, S.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid multilayer coatings were obtained on titanium substrates by the combination of two methods: the micro-arc oxidation in phosphoric acid solution with the addition of calcium compounds to high supersaturated state and RF magnetron sputtering of the target made of synthetic hydroxyapatite. 16 different groups of coatings were formed on titanium substrates and in vitro studies were conducted in accordance with ISO 23317 in the solution simulating body fluid. The studies using SEM, XRD of the coatings of the samples before and after exposure to SBF were performed. The features of morphology, chemical and phase composition of the studied coatings are shown.

  3. Stripping and splicing polyimide-coated fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Douglas; Kanda, Yoshiharu; Tobita, Kenyo; Yamauchi, Ryozo

    2011-05-01

    Polyimide is often used as a coating material for optical fibers used in high temperature environments such as aerospace or oil and gas sensor applications. Unfortunately, polyimide coating is very difficult to strip by conventional mechanical stripping methods. The glass fiber is easily damaged if the stripping process is not extremely well controlled. Stripping the polyimide coating by heating with a flame or arc typically results in a significant reduction in fiber strength. Strength may be maintained by using hot acid stripping, however the use of the strong hot acid presents safety hazards and also requires controlled and safe waste disposal. Another issue with polyimide coating is variability of the coating diameter from various manufacturers or due to different polyimide coating processes. This not only complicates the polyimide stripping issue, but also presents problems with precise clamping and alignment during splicing, especially when it is necessary to splice with a short cleave length. In this paper, we present new polyimide coating stripping technology. The significant feature of this stripping technology is achievement of good strength while avoiding the use of hot acid or heating. We also developed a new specialty fiber fusion splicer that enables precise alignment and splicing regardless of the variability of polyimide coating diameter, even when clamping on the coating.

  4. Gold ink coating of thermocouple sheaths

    DOEpatents

    Ruhl, H. Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    A method is provided for applying a gold ink coating to a thermocouple sheath which includes the steps of electropolishing and oxidizing the surface of the thermocouple sheath, then dipping the sheath into liquid gold ink, and finally heat curing the coating. The gold coating applied in this manner is highly reflective and does not degrade when used for an extended period of time in an environment having a temperature over 1000.degree. F. Depending on the application, a portion of the gold coating covering the tip of the thermocouple sheath is removed by abrasion.

  5. Coated woven materials and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    McCreary, William J.; Carroll, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Coating of woven materials so that not only the outer surfaces are coated has been a problem. Now, a solution to that problem is the following: Woven materials are coated with materials, for example with metals or with pyrolytic carbon, which materials are deposited in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactions using a fluidized bed so that the porosity of the woven material is retained and so that the tiny filaments which make up the strands which are woven (including inner as well as outer filaments) are substantially uniformly coated.

  6. Metal-coated optical fiber damage sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chia-Chen; Sirkis, James S.

    1993-07-01

    A process which uses electroplating methods has been developed to fabricate metal coated optical fiber sensors. The elastic-plastic characteristics of the metal coatings have been exploited to develop a sensor capable of `remembering' low velocity impact damage. These sensors have been investigated under uniaxial tension testing of unembedded sensors and under low velocity impact of graphite/epoxy specimens with embedded sensors using both Michelson and polarimetric optical arrangements. The tests show that coating properties alter the optical fiber sensor performance and that the permanent deformation in the coating can be used to monitor composite delamination/impact damage.

  7. Self-assembled biomimetic antireflection coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linn, Nicholas C.; Sun, Chih-Hung; Jiang, Peng; Jiang, Bin

    2007-09-01

    The authors report a simple self-assembly technique for fabricating antireflection coatings that mimic antireflective moth eyes. Wafer-scale, nonclose-packed colloidal crystals with remarkable large hexagonal domains are created by a spin-coating technology. The resulting polymer-embedded colloidal crystals exhibit highly ordered surface modulation and can be used directly as templates to cast poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) molds. Moth-eye antireflection coatings with adjustable reflectivity can then be molded against the PDMS master. The specular reflection of replicated nipple arrays matches the theoretical prediction using a thin-film multilayer model. These biomimetic films may find important technological application in optical coatings and solar cells.

  8. Method of identifying defective particle coatings

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Mark E.; Whiting, Carlton D.

    1986-01-01

    A method for identifying coated particles having defective coatings desig to retain therewithin a build-up of gaseous materials including: (a) Pulling a vacuum on the particles; (b) Backfilling the particles at atmospheric pressure with a liquid capable of wetting the exterior surface of the coated particles, said liquid being a compound which includes an element having an atomic number higher than the highest atomic number of any element in the composition which forms the exterior surface of the particle coating; (c) Drying the particles; and (d) Radiographing the particles. By television monitoring, examination of the radiographs is substantially enhanced.

  9. Optical coatings for laser fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowdermilk, W. H.; Milam, D.; Rainer, F.

    1980-04-01

    Lasers for fusion experiments use thin-film dielectric coatings for reflecting antireflecting and polarizing surface elements. Coatings are most important to the Nd:glass laser application. The most important requirements of these coatings are accuracy of the average value of reflectance and transmission, uniformity of amplitude and phase front of the reflected or transmitted light, and laser damage threshold. Damage resistance strongly affects the laser's design and performance. The success of advanced lasers for future experiments and for reactor applications requires significant developments in damage resistant coatings for ultraviolet laser radiation.

  10. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Conductive Polymer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; MacDowell, Louis G.

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the corrosion protection performance of twenty nine proprietary conductive polymer coatings for cold rolled steel under immersion in 3.55 percent NaCl. Corrosion potential as well as Bode plots of the data were obtained for each coating after one hour immersion, All coatings, with the exception of one, have a corrosion potential that is higher in the positive direction than the corrosion potential of bare steel under the same conditions. Group A consisted of twenty one coatings with Bode plots indicative of the capacitive behavior characteristic of barrier coatings. An equivalent circuit consisting of a capacitor in series with a resistor simulated the experimental EIS data for these coatings very well. Group B consisted of eight coatings that exhibited EIS spectra showing an inflection point which indicates that two time constants are present. This may be caused by an electrochemical process taking place which could be indicitive of coating failing. These coatings have a lower impedance that those in Group A.

  11. Biomedical coatings on magnesium alloys - a review.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, H; Virtanen, S; Boccaccini, A R

    2012-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers research carried out in the field of degradable coatings on Mg and Mg alloys for biomedical applications. Several coating methods are discussed, which can be divided, based on the specific processing techniques used, into conversion and deposition coatings. The literature review revealed that in most cases coatings increase the corrosion resistance of Mg and Mg alloys. The critical factors determining coating performance, such as corrosion rate, surface chemistry, adhesion and coating morphology, are identified and discussed. The analysis of the literature showed that many studies have focused on calcium phosphate coatings produced either using conversion or deposition methods which were developed for orthopaedic applications. However, the control of phases and the formation of cracks still appear unsatisfactory. More research and development is needed in the case of biodegradable organic based coatings to generate reproducible and relevant data. In addition to biocompatibility, the mechanical properties of the coatings are also relevant, and the development of appropriate methods to study the corrosion process in detail and in the long term remains an important area of research. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coated particles for lithium battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Pratt, Russell Clayton

    Particles of cathodic materials are coated with polymer to prevent direct contact between the particles and the surrounding electrolyte. The polymers are held in place either by a) growing the polymers from initiators covalently bound to the particle, b) attachment of the already-formed polymers by covalently linking to functional groups attached to the particle, or c) electrostatic interactions resulting from incorporation of cationic or anionic groups in the polymer chain. Carbon or ceramic coatings may first be formed on the surfaces of the particles before the particles are coated with polymer. The polymer coating is both electronically and ionically conductive.

  13. Nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications

    PubMed Central

    CATLEDGE, S.A.; THOMAS, V.; VOHRA, Y.K.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing numbers of orthopaedic devices being implanted, greater emphasis is being placed on ceramic coating technology to reduce friction and wear in mating total joint replacement components, in order to improve implant function and increase device lifespan. In this chapter, we consider ultra-hard carbon coatings, with emphasis on nanostructured diamond, as alternative bearing surfaces for metallic components. Such coatings have great potential for use in biomedical implants as a result of their extreme hardness, wear resistance, low friction and biocompatibility. These ultra-hard carbon coatings can be deposited by several techniques resulting in a wide variety of structures and properties. PMID:25285213

  14. Silver-doped nanocomposite carbon coatings (Ag-DLC) for biomedical applications - Physiochemical and biological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bociaga, Dorota; Komorowski, Piotr; Batory, Damian; Szymanski, Witold; Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof; Jakubowski, Witold

    2015-11-01

    The formation of bacteria biofilm on the surface of medical products is a major clinical issue nowadays. Highly adaptive ability of bacteria to colonize the surface of biomaterials causes a lot of infections. This study evaluates samples of the AISI 316 LVM with special nanocomposite silver-doped (by means of ion implantation) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating prepared by hybrid RF/MS PACVD (radio frequency/magnetron sputtering plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition) deposition technique in order to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of biomaterials and add new features such as antibacterial properties. The aim of the following work was to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy and biocompatibility of gradient a-C:H/Ti + Ag coatings in relation to the physiochemical properties of the surface and chemical composition of coating. For this purpose, samples were tested in live/dead test using two cell strains: human endothelial cells (Ea.hy926) and osteoblasts-like cells (Saos-2). For testing bactericidal activity of the coatings, an exponential growth phase of Escherichia coli strain DH5α was used as a model microorganism. Surface condition and its physicochemical properties were investigated using SEM, AFM and XPS. Examined coatings showed a uniformity of silver ions distribution in the amorphous DLC matrix, good biocompatibility in contact with mammalian cells and an increased level of bactericidal properties. What is more, considering very good mechanical parameters of these Ag including gradient a-C:H/Ti coatings, they constitute an excellent material for biomedical application in e.g. orthopedics or dentistry.

  15. Hydroxyapatite/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) double coating on magnesium for enhanced corrosion resistance and coating flexibility.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ji-Hoon; Li, Yuanlong; Kim, Sae-Mi; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag

    2013-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite was deposited on pure magnesium (Mg) with a flexible poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer to reduce the corrosion rate of Mg and enhance coating flexibility. The poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer was uniformly coated on Mg by a spraying method, followed by hydroxyapatite deposition on the poly(ε-caprolactone) using an aerosol deposition method. In scanning electron microscopy observations, inorganic/organic composite-like structure was observed between the hydroxyapatite and poly(ε-caprolactone) layers, resulting from the collisions of hydroxyapatite particles into the poly(ε-caprolactone) matrix at the initial stage of the aerosol deposition. The corrosion resistance of the coated Mg was examined using potentiodynamic polarization tests. The hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating remarkably improved the corrosion resistance of Mg in Hank's solution. In the in vitro cell tests, the coated Mg showed better cell adhesion compared with the bare Mg due to the reduced corrosion rate and enhanced biocompatibility. The stability and flexibility of hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy inspections after the coated Mg was deformed. The hydroxyapatite coating on the poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer revealed enhanced coating stability and flexibility without cracking or delamination during bending and stretching compared with the hydroxyapatite single coating. These results demonstrated that the hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating significantly improved the surface corrosion resistance of Mg and enhanced coating flexibility for use of Mg as a biodegradable implant.

  16. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

    1986-08-27

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  17. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Bystroff, Roman I.; Miller, Dale E.

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  18. Wear Resistant Coatings for Titanium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    A-AllI 716 PRATT AND WHITNEY AIRCRAFT GROUP WEST PALM BEACH FL O-ETC P/f 11/6 WEAR RESISTANT COATINGS FOR TITANI WI.(U) OCT GO P L MCDANIEL, R E...treat cycle should be com- patible with previous heat-treat history and selected in accordance with MIL-H-81200. 11. (Option) - Vapor blast surfaces. 27...heat-treat history of the base metal and selected in accordance with MIL-H-81200 unless otherwise specified (see 6.2). Titanium alloys not covered by

  19. Protective Coatings for Aluminum Torpedoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Circeo it Cmader and Director of CERL, and Dr. L . R. Shaffer is Technical Director. 3 = -. =-e ° 𔄁 -i , i ..... rar DD FORM 1473 2 FOREWORD 3 LIST...Amerccat 9 Thinner 72 A12 Gas Chrouatogrm flughson VIS 3236-26 Wash Primer 73 L FIGURES (Cont’d) Number Page A13 .as Chroasatogram: Hughson TS 3236-23...intercoat adhesion problems providing the old surface is clean. A vinyl coating system manufactured by Ameron, 201 North Berry Street, Bret, CA 92621, was

  20. Omental Lipid-Coated Mesh

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-16

    healing of hernia defects repaired with mesh . Pairing this angiogenic and inflammatory ability with biologic mesh is the goal. The use of...omental coating is encouraging. 10. ::’UD./CI.I I CI’IIVI::’ Omentum, Mesh , Hernia 𔃺. ::.CI.Utill , I.LA::’::’II"II.A IIUN UI": I-­ a -.-I’I-c­...-u...infection and wound healing . These benefits would be important in improving surgical care for all wounds , but they may greatly improve

  1. Corrosion-Inhibiting Coating Composition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    acrylic polymers were designed for compatibility with the alkyd resins and are useful therefore in preparing coatings of improved hardness...Hydrocarbon solvents 10 to 50 Componentam PatIbyWih Acrylic resin (B-67) 17.3 Silicone resin (SR-80M) 17.3 Silicone- alkyd resin 8.6 (V(ARKYD 385-50E...aichol e.6 VM&P Naphtha 17.1 Example II I ComponentPatbyWgh Acrylic resin 17.3 15 Silicone resin 17.3 Silicone- alkyd resin 8.6 Alkyl

  2. Functional Multi-Nanolayer Coatings of Amorphous Carbon/Tungsten Carbide with Exceptional Mechanical Durability and Corrosion Resistance.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Narguess; Bozorg, Mansoor; Penkov, Oleksiy V; Shin, Dong-Gap; Sadighzadeh, Asghar; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2017-09-06

    A novel functional multilayer coating with periodically stacked nanolayers of amorphous carbon (a:C)/tungsten carbide (WC) and an adhesion layer of chromium (Cr) was deposited on 304 stainless steel using a dual magnetron sputtering technique. Through process optimization, highly densified coatings with high elasticity and shear modulus, excellent wear resistance, and minimal susceptibility to corrosive and caustic media could be acquired. The structural and mechanical properties of the optimized coatings were studied in detail using a variety of analytical techniques. Furthermore, finite element method simulations indicated that the stress generated due to contact against a steel ball was distributed well within the coating, which allowed the stresses to be lower than the yield threshold of the coating. Thus, an ultralow wear rate of ∼10 -12 mm 3 /N mm could be achieved in dry sliding conditions under relatively high Hertzian contact pressures of ∼0.4-0.9 GPa. The amorphous and pinhole-free structure of the individual layers, sufficient number of pairs, and the relatively dense stacked layers resulted in significant polarization resistance (Z″ = 5.5 × 10 6 Ω cm 2 ) and increased the corrosion resistance of the coating by 10-fold compared to that of recently reported corrosion-resistant coatings.

  3. Influence of trimethylsilane flow on the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of CrSiCN coatings in water lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Fei; Wang, Qianzhi; Zhou, Zhifeng; Yan, Jiwang; Li, Lawrence Kwok-Yan

    2015-11-01

    CrSiCN coatings with different silicon and carbon contents were deposited on silicon wafers and 316L stainless steels using unbalanced magnetron sputtering via adjusting trimethylsilane (TMS) flow, and their microstructure and mechanical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy(XPS) and nano-indenter, respectively. The tribological properties of CrSiCN coatings sliding against SiC balls in water were investigated using ball-on-disk tribometer. The results showed that the CrSiCN coatings had fine composite microstructure consisting of nanocrystallites of Cr(C, N) crystal and amorphous phases such as a-Si3N4 and a-C(a-CNx). The typical columnar structures changed from fine cluster to coarse ones when the Si content was beyond 3.4 at.%. With an increase in the TMS flow, the hardness and Young's modulus of Corsican coatings all first increased, and then rapidly decreased, but the compressive stress in the coatings varied in the range of 2.8-4.8 GPa. When the TMS flow was 10 sccm, the CrSiCN coatings exhibited the highest hardness of 21.3 GPa and the lowest friction coefficient (0.11) and wear rate (8.4 × 10-8 mm3/N m). But when the TMS flow was beyond 15 sccm, the tribological properties of CrSiCN coatings in water became poor.

  4. Enhancing RHIC luminosity capabilities with in-situ beam piple coating

    SciTech Connect

    Herschcovitch,A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.

    Electron clouds have been observed in many accelerators, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). They can limit the machine performance through pressure degradation, beam instabilities or incoherent emittance growth. The formation of electron clouds can be suppressed with beam pipe surfaces that have low secondary electron yield. At the same time, high wall resistivity in accelerators can result in levels of ohmic heating unacceptably high for superconducting magnets. This is a concern for the RHIC machine, as its vacuum chamber in the superconducting dipoles is made from relatively high resistivity 316LN stainless steel.more » The high resistivity can be addressed with a copper (Cu) coating; a reduction in the secondary electron yield can be achieved with a titanium nitride (TiN) or amorphous carbon (a-C) coating. Applying such coatings in an already constructed machine is rather challenging. We started developing a robotic plasma deposition technique for in-situ coating of long, small diameter tubes. The technique entails fabricating a device comprised of staged magnetrons and/or cathodic arcs mounted on a mobile mole for deposition of about 5 {micro}m (a few skin depths) of Cu followed by about 0.1 {micro}m of TiN (or a-C).« less

  5. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  6. Thermal coatings for titanium-aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnington, George R.; Clark, Ronald K.; Robinson, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Titanium aluminides and titanium alloys are candidate materials for use in hot structure and heat-shield components of hypersonic vehicles because of their good strength-to-weight characteristics at elevated temperature. However, in order to utilize their maximum temperature capability, they must be coated to resist oxidation and to have a high total remittance. Also, surface catalysis for recombination of dissociated species in the aerodynamic boundary layer must be minimized. Very thin chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coatings are attractive candidates for this application because of durability and very light weight. To demonstrate this concept, coatings of boron-silicon and aluminum-boron-silicon compositions were applied to the titanium-aluminides alpha2 (Ti-14Al-21Nb), super-alpha2 (Ti-14Al-23-Nb-2V), and gamma (Ti-33Al-6Nb-1Ta) and to the titanium alloy beta-21S (Ti-15Mo-3Al-3Nb-0.2Si). Coated specimens of each alloy were subjected to a set of simulated hypersonic vehicle environmental tests to determine their properties of oxidation resistance, surface catalysis, radiative emittance, and thermal shock resistance. Surface catalysis results should be viewed as relative performance only of the several coating-alloy combinations tested under the specific environmental conditions of the LaRC Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) arc-plasma-heated hypersonic wind tunnel. Tests were also conducted to evaluate the hydrogen transport properties of the coatings and any effects of the coating processing itself on fatigue life of the base alloys. Results are presented for three types of coatings, which are as follows: (1) a single layer boron silicon coating, (2) a single layer aluminum-boron-silicon coating, and (3) a multilayer coating consisting of an aluminum-boron-silicon sublayer with a boron-silicon outer layer.

  7. Vacuum application of thermal barrier plasma coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Mckechnie, T. N.

    1988-01-01

    Coatings are presently applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbine blades for protection against the harsh environment realized in the engine during lift off-to-orbit. High performance nickel, chromium, aluminum, and yttrium (NiCrAlY) alloy coatings, which are applied by atmospheric plasma spraying, crack and spall off because of the severe thermal shock experienced during start-up and shut-down of the engine. Ceramic coatings of yttria stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-Y2O3) were applied initially as a thermal barrier over coating to the NiCrAlY but were removed because of even greater spalling. Utilizing a vacuum plasma spraying process, bond coatings of NiCrAlY were applied in a low pressure atmosphere of argon/helium, producing significantly improved coating-to-blade bonding. The improved coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles, cycling between 1700 and -423 F. The current atmospheric plasma NiCrAlY coatings spalled during 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2-Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the vacuum plasma process. The improved thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles without spalling. Hot firing in an SSME turbine engine is scheduled for the blades. Tooling was installed in preparation for vacuum plasma spray coating other SSME hardware, e.g., the titanium main fuel valve housing (MFVH) and the fuel turbopump nozzle/stator.

  8. Investigation of metallurgical coatings for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jun Feng

    Metallurgical coatings have been widely used in the automotive industry from component machining, engine daily running to body decoration due to their high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and low friction coefficient. With high demands in energy saving, weight reduction and limiting environmental impact, the use of new materials such as light Aluminum/magnesium alloys with high strength-weight ratio for engine block and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) with better performance in crash energy management for die stamping, are increasing. However, challenges are emerging when these new materials are applied such as the wear of the relative soft light alloys and machining tools for hard AHSS. The protective metallurgical coatings are the best option to profit from these new materials' advantages without altering largely in mass production equipments, machinery, tools and human labor. In this dissertation, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating processing on aluminum alloys was introduced in engine cylinder bores to resist wear and corrosion. The tribological behavior of the PEO coatings under boundary and starve lubrication conditions was studied experimentally and numerically for the first time. Experimental results of the PEO coating demonstrated prominent wear resistance and low friction, taking into account the extreme working conditions. The numerical elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and asperity contact based tribological study also showed a promising approach on designing low friction and high wear resistant PEO coatings. Other than the fabrication of the new coatings, a novel coating evaluation methodology, namely, inclined impact sliding tester was presented in the second part of this dissertation. This methodology has been developed and applied in testing and analyzing physical vapor deposition (PVD)/ chemical vapor deposition (CVD)/PEO coatings. Failure mechanisms of these common metallurgical hard coatings were systematically

  9. Coatings and Surface Treatments for Reusable Entry Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2016-01-01

    This talk outlines work in coatings for TPS done at NASA Ames. coatings and surface treatments on reusable TPS are critical for controlling the behavior of the materials. coatings discussed include RCG, TUFI and HETC. TUFROc is also discussed.

  10. Investigation to identify paint coatings resistive to microorganism growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, C. W.; Kemp, H. T.

    1971-01-01

    All selected coatings contain nutrients that support microbial growth and survival. Incorporation of microbiocidal agents into coatings more susceptible to attack is recommended for improved inhibition of microorganism growth and for increased protection against deterioration of coatings by microorganisms.

  11. Process to minimize cracking of pyrolytic carbon coatings

    DOEpatents

    Lackey, Jr., Walter J.; Sease, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Carbon-coated microspheroids useful as fuels in nuclear reactors are produced with a low percentage of cracked coatings and are imparted increased strength and mechanical stability characteristics by annealing immediately after the carbon coating processes.

  12. An update on pharmaceutical film coating for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Felton, Linda A; Porter, Stuart C

    2013-04-01

    Pharmaceutical coating processes have generally been transformed from what was essentially an art form in the mid-twentieth century to a much more technology-driven process. This review article provides a basic overview of current film coating processes, including a discussion on polymer selection, coating formulation additives and processing equipment. Substrate considerations for pharmaceutical coating processes are also presented. While polymeric coating operations are commonplace in the pharmaceutical industry, film coating processes are still not fully understood, which presents serious challenges with current regulatory requirements. Novel analytical technologies and various modeling techniques that are being used to better understand film coating processes are discussed. This review article also examines the challenges of implementing process analytical technologies in coating operations, active pharmaceutical ingredients in polymer film coatings, the use of high-solids coating systems and continuous coating and other novel coating application methods.

  13. Method for non-destructive evaluation of ceramic coatings

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kristen A.; Rosen, Elias P.; Jordan, Eric H.; Shahbazmohamadi, Sina; Vakhtin, Andrei B.

    2016-11-08

    A method for evaluating the condition of a ceramic coating deposited on a substrate comprising illuminating the ceramic coating with light, measuring the intensity of light returned from the ceramic coating as function of depth in the coating and transverse position on the coating, and analyzing the measured light intensities to obtain one or more of intensity of the light returned from the exposed coating surface relative to the intensity of light returned from the coating/substrate interface, intensity of the light returned from the coating/substrate interface relative to the intensity of light returned from the bulk of the ceramic coating, determination of roughness at the exposed surface of the ceramic coating, and determination of roughness of the interface between the ceramic coating and underlying bond coat or substrate.

  14. Performance evaluation of one coat systems for new steel bridges.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-06-01

    In an effort to address cost issues associated with shop application of conventional three-coat systems, the Federal : Highway Administration completed a study to investigate the performance of eight one-coat systems and two control : coatings for co...

  15. Bioresponsive polymer coating on nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laemthong, Tunyaboon

    Nanotechnology incorporated with molecular biology became a promising way to treat cancer. The size of nanoparticles enables them to overcome the side effects noticed in cancer treatment like chemotherapy and surgery. Various types and shapes of nanoparticles have been synthesized and used in drug delivery to tumor sites. However, one of problems of using these nanoparticles is the aggregation after injecting them into human body due to flow rate of bloodstream. The coagulation and aggregation will result in clogging blood vessel and lower therapeutic efficacy. In this thesis, a solution to the aggregation problem was proposed, which is coating biopolymer on nanoparticles (NPs). The experimental sections covered synthesis and characterization of breast cancer specific targeting drug-encapsulated NPs and biopolymer coating on the surface of Au-Fe3O4 NPs for thermal therapy. Furthermore, in vitro studies of these NPs with breast cancer cells were also included. The specific targeting anticancer drug-encapsulated NRs showed significant inhibition in BT-474 breast cancer cell growth. The Au-Fe3O4 NPs has a possibility to treat cancer cells using the thermal therapy approach.

  16. Measure Guideline. Transitioning From Three-Coat Stucco to One-Coat Stucco With EPS

    SciTech Connect

    Brozyna, K.; Davis, G.; Rapport, A.

    2012-04-01

    This measure guideline has been developed to help builders transition from using a traditional three-coat stucco wall-cladding system to a one-coat stucco wall-cladding system with expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulated sheathing. The one-coat system maintains the look of a traditional stucco system but uses only a base layer and a finish coat over EPS insulation that achieves higher levels of energy efficiency. Potential risks associated with the installation of a one-coat stucco system are addressed in terms of design, installation, and warranty concerns such as cracking and delamination, along with mitigation strategies to reduce these risks.

  17. Evaluation of vibrated fluidized bed techniques in coating hemosorbents.

    PubMed

    Morley, D B

    1991-06-01

    A coating technique employing a vibrated fluidized bed was used to apply an ultrathin (2 microns) cellulose nitrate coating to synthetic bead activated charcoal. In vitro characteristics of the resulting coated sorbent, including permeability to model small and middle molecules, and mechanical integrity, were evaluated to determine the suitability of the process in coating granular sorbents used in hemoperfusion. Initial tests suggest the VFB-applied CN coating is both highly uniform and tightly adherent and warrants further investigation as a hemosorbent coating.

  18. Research into properties of wear resistant ceramic metal plasma coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancivsky, V. V.; Skeeba, V. Yu; Zverev, E. A.; Vakhrushev, N. V.; Parts, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    The study considers one of the promising ways to improve the quality of wear resistant plasma ceramic coatings by implementing various powder mixtures. The authors present the study results of the nickel-ceramic and cobalt-ceramic coating properties and describe the specific character of the investigated coatings composition. The paper presents the results of the coating microhardness, chemical and adhesive strength studies. The authors conducted wear resistance tests of composite coatings in comparison with the plasma coatings of initial powder components.

  19. Ball Aerospace SBMD Coating Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert; Lightsey, Paul; Russell, J. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Sub-scale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator that was successfully tested to demonstrate cryogenic figuring of a bare mirror has been coated with a protected gold reflective surface and retested at cryogenic temperatures. Results showing less than 9 nm rms surface distortion attributable to the added coating are presented.

  20. Chemical Agent Resistant Coatings: Status Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Phosphate Alternatives for Ferrous  Low Solar Absorbing and Insulative Reactive or self decontaminating • Super hydrophobic & olephobic coatings • UV... epoxy primer (0.8 - 1.2 mils) Substrate (ferrous or nonferrous) CARC Camouflage Polyurethane Topcoat (1.8 mil) Chemical Conversion Coating (0.2-0.3

  1. Coating for prevention of titanium combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, V. G.; Funkhouser, M.; Mcdaniel, P.

    1980-01-01

    A limited number of coating options for titanium gas turbine engine components were explored with the objective of minimizing potential combustion initiation and propagation without adversely affecting component mechanical properties. Objectives were met by two of the coatings, ion-plated platinum plus electroplated copper plus electroplated nickel and ion vapor deposited aluminum.

  2. Low Temperature Cure Powder Coatings (LTCPC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    17  3.2.2.5  Abrasion Resistance ...criteria • N/A Field Service Evaluation: • Coating Appearance • Adhesion • Fluids Resistance • Humidity Resistance • Abrasion Resistance • Low...Results • Abrasion Resistance • Low Temperature Flexibility humidity • Document occurrences of coating abrasions during

  3. Innovative Coatings Potentially Lower Facility Maintenance Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Through extensive testing at Stennis Space Center, Nanocepts Inc. of Lexington, Kentucky, received key validation of the effectiveness of its photocatalytic coatings. Now a NASA Dual Use Technology partner, the company s commercial coatings offer unique environmental and medical benefits, and their self-cleaning properties help limit grime buildup on buildings.

  4. Mechanical characterization of enamel coated steel bars.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the corrosion process of enamel-coated deformed rebar completely immersed in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was evaluated : over a period of 84 days by EIS testing. Three types of enamel coating were investigated: pure enamel, 50/50 enamel coa...

  5. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    DOEpatents

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  6. THE COATINGS GUIDE: AN ONLINE INFORMATION RESOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the Coatings Guide, a free online information training resource that focuses on alternative low-emission coatings for metal and plastic substrates. Developed cooperatively by the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development and Research Triangle Institute, it...

  7. Adhesion of new bioactive glass coating.

    PubMed

    Schrooten, J; Van Oosterwyck, H; Vander Sloten, J; Helsen, J A

    1999-03-05

    A valuable alternative to the existing biomedical implant coatings is a bioactive glass (BAG) coating that is produced by reactive plasma spraying. A mechanical performance requirement that is of the utmost importance is the adhesion strength of the coating. Considering the application as dental implant, a new adhesion test (shear test), which was close to the service conditions, was designed. A Ti6Al4V rod (3 mm) with a sprayed BAG coating of 50 microm was glued with an epoxy glue to a hollow cylindrical counterpart and was used as such in the tensile machine. This test was evaluated by finite element analysis (FEA). Preliminary experiments showed that a conversion from shear to tensile adhesion strength is possible by using the Von Mises criterion (sigma = 3(1/2)tau), indicating that thin coatings of brittle materials can behave as a ductile material. The new coating technique was proved to produce a high quality coating with an adhesion strength of 40.1 +/- 4.8 MPa in shear and 69.4 +/- 8.4 MPa in tension. The FEA revealed that no one homogeneously distributed shear stress is present but several nonhomogeneously distributed stress components (shear and tensile) are present in the coating. This analysis indicated that real service conditions are much more complicated than standard adhesion tests. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Cirrus Dopant Nano-Composite Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    100 200 300 400 500 600 HARDNESS (HV) MICROHARDNESS - ELECTROPLATED NICKEL STANDARD DC PLATED DOPED DC PLATED DOPED PULSE PLATED ↑48% 10...STANDARD COATING HARDNESS (HV) DOPED COATING MICROHARDNESS - ELECTROPLATED ZN NI ↑32% DC ZnNi Cirrus ZnNi Current Test Applications cirrus nano

  9. Vacuum plasma coatings for turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Turbine blades, vacuum plasma spray coated with NiCrAlY, CoCrAlY or NiCrAlY/Cr2O3, were evaluated and rated superior to standard space shuttle main engine (SSME) coated blades. Ratings were based primarily on 25 thermal cycles in the MSFC Burner Rig Tester, cycling between 1700 F (gaseous H2) and -423 F (liquid H2). These tests showed no spalling on blades with improved vacuum plasma coatings, while standard blades spalled. Thermal barrier coatings of ZrO2, while superior to standard coatings, lacked the overall performance desired. Fatigue and tensile specimens, machined from MAR-M-246(Hf) test bars identical to the blades were vacuum plasma spray coated, diffusion bond treated, and tested to qualify the vacuum plasma spray process for flight hardware testing and application. While NiCrAlY/Cr2O3 offers significant improvement over standard coatings in durability and thermal protection, studies continue with an objective to develop coatings offering even greater improvements.

  10. Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

  11. Iridium-Coated Rhenium Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.

    1994-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium combustion chamber withstands operating temperatures up to 2,200 degrees C. Chamber designed to replace older silicide-coated combustion chamber in small rocket engine. Modified versions of newer chamber could be designed for use on Earth in gas turbines, ramjets, and scramjets.

  12. Ranking protective coatings: Laboratory vs. field experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, Jeffrey A.; Connor, William B.

    1994-12-01

    Environmentally protective coatings are used on a wide range of gas turbine components for survival in the harsh operating conditions of engines. A host of coatings are commercially available to protect hot-section components, ranging from simple aluminides to designer metallic overlays and ceramic thermal barrier coatings. A variety of coating-application processes are available, and they range from simple pack cementation processing to complex physical vapor deposition, which requires multimillion dollar facilities. Detailed databases are available for most coatings and coating/process combinations for a range of laboratory tests. Still, the analysis of components actually used in engines often yields surprises when compared against predicted coating behavior from laboratory testing. This paper highlights recent work to develop new laboratory tests that better simulate engine environments. Comparison of in-flight coating performance as well as industrial and factory engine testing on a range of hardware is presented along with laboratory predictions from standard testing and from recently developed cyclic burner-rig testing.

  13. Low absorptance porcelain-on-aluminum coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, H.

    1979-01-01

    Porcelain thermal-control coating for aluminum sheet and foil has solar absorptance of 0.22. Specially formulated coating absorptance is highly stable, changing only 0.03 after 1,000 hours of exposure to simulated sunlight and can be applied by standard commercial methods.

  14. Optical enhancing durable anti-reflective coating

    DOEpatents

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Varadarajan, Aravamuthan; Movassat, Meisam

    2016-07-05

    Disclosed herein are polysilsesquioxane based anti-reflective coating (ARC) compositions, methods of preparation, and methods of deposition on a substrate. In embodiments, the polysilsesquioxane of this disclosure is prepared in a two-step process of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of organoalkoxysilane followed by addition of tetralkoxysilane that generates silicone polymers with >40 mol % silanol based on Si-NMR. These high silanol siloxane polymers are stable and have a long shelf-life in the polar organic solvents at room temperature. Also disclosed are low refractive index ARC made from these compositions with and without additives such as porogens, templates, Si--OH condensation catalyst and/or nanofillers. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for applying coatings to flat substrates including substrate pre-treatment processes, coating processes including flow coating and roll coating, and coating curing processes including skin-curing using hot-air knives. Also disclosed are coating compositions and formulations for highly tunable, durable, highly abrasion-resistant functionalized anti-reflective coatings.

  15. Corrosion behavior of HVOF coated sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Abdul-Aleem, B. J.; Khalid, M.

    2003-12-01

    High velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating finds application in industry due to its superior resistance to corrosion and thermal loading. In the HVOF process, the metallic powders at elevated temperature are sprayed at supersonic speed onto a substrate material. The powder granules sprayed impact onto each other, forming a mechanical bonding across the coating layer. In most of the cases, the distances among the particles (powder granules sprayed) are not the same, which in turn results in inhomogeneous structure across the coating layer. Moreover, the rate of oxidation of the powder granules during the spraying process varies. Consequently, the electrochemical response of the coating layer surfaces next to the base material and free to atmosphere differs. In the current study, the electrochemical response of a coating sheet formed during HVOF thermal spraying was investigated. NiCrMoNb alloy (similar to Inconel 625) wass used for the powder granules. Thermal spraying was carried out onto a smooth surface of stainless steel workpiece (without grid blasting), and later the coating layer was removed from the surface to obtain the coating sheet for the electrochemical tests. It was found that the corrosion rate of the smooth surface (surface next to the stainless steel surface before its removal) is considerably larger than that corresponding to the rough surface (free surface) of the coating sheet, and no specific patterns were observed for the pit sites.

  16. Aqueous vinylidene fluoride polymer coating composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszek, Edward J. (Inventor); Christofas, Alkis (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A water-based coating composition which may be air dried to form durable, fire resistant coatings includes dispersed vinylidene fluoride polymer particles, emulsified liquid epoxy resin and a dissolved emulsifying agent for said epoxy resin which agent is also capable of rapidly curing the epoxy resin upon removal of the water from the composition.

  17. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, K. D.; Demasi, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology was established to predict thermal barrier coating life in an environment simulative of that experienced by gas turbine airfoils. Specifically, work is being conducted to determine failure modes of thermal barrier coatings in the aircraft engine environment. Analytical studies coupled with appropriate physical and mechanical property determinations are being employed to derive coating life prediction model(s) on the important failure mode(s). An initial review of experimental and flight service components indicates that the predominant mode of TBC failure involves thermomechanical spallation of the ceramic coating layer. This ceramic spallation involves the formation of a dominant crack in the ceramic coating parallel to and closely adjacent to the metal-ceramic interface. Initial results from a laboratory test program designed to study the influence of various driving forces such as temperature, thermal cycle frequency, environment, and coating thickness, on ceramic coating spalling life suggest that bond coat oxidation damage at the metal-ceramic interface contributes significantly to thermomechanical cracking in the ceramic layer. Low cycle rate furnace testing in air and in argon clearly shows a dramatic increase of spalling life in the non-oxidizing environments.

  18. Sensory Quality Preservation of Coated Walnuts.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Antonella L; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory stability of coated walnuts during storage. Four walnut samples were prepared: uncoated (NC), and samples coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (NCMC), methyl cellulose (NMC), or whey protein (NPS). The samples were stored at room temperature for 210 d and were periodically removed from storage to perform a sensory descriptive analysis. A consumer acceptance test was carried out on the fresh product (storage day 0) to evaluate flavor. All samples exhibited significant differences in their sensory attributes initially and after storage. Intensity ratings for oxidized and cardboard flavors increased during storage. NC showed the highest oxidized and cardboard intensity ratings (39 and 22, respectively) and NMC exhibited the lowest intensity ratings for these negative attributes (8 and 17, respectively) after 210 d of storage. Alternatively, the intensity ratings for sweetness and walnut flavors were decreased for all samples. NMC had the lowest decrease at the end of storage for these positive attributes (75.86 in walnut flavor and 12.09 in sweetness). The results of this study suggest a protective effect of the use of an edible coating to preserve sensory attributes during storage, especially for samples coated with MC. The results of the acceptance test showed that addition of the coating negatively affected the flavor acceptance for NMC and NCMC coated walnuts. Edible coatings help to preserve sensory attributes in walnuts, improving their shelf-life, however, these coatings may affect consumer acceptance in some cases. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Thermal stress fracture of ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersson, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal stress failures of ceramic coatings are discussed in terms of fracture mechanics concepts. The effects of transient and residual stresses on single and multiple cycle failure mechanisms are considered. A specific example of a zirconia thermal barrier coating is presented and its endurance calculated using the proposed relationships.

  20. Nanosilica coating for bonding improvements to zirconia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Chen, Gang; Xie, Haifeng; Dai, Wenyong; Zhang, Feimin

    2013-01-01

    Resin bonding to zirconia cannot be established from standard methods that are currently utilized in conventional silica-based dental ceramics. The solution-gelatin (sol-gel) process is a well developed silica-coating technique used to modify the surface of nonsilica-based ceramics. Here, we use this technique to improve resin bonding to zirconia, which we compared to zirconia surfaces treated with alumina sandblasting and tribochemical silica coating. We used the shear bond strength test to examine the effect of the various coatings on the short-term resin bonding of zirconia. Furthermore, we employed field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize the zirconia surfaces. Water-mist spraying was used to evaluate the durability of the coatings. To evaluate the biological safety of the experimental sol-gel silica coating, we conducted an in vitro Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames mutagenicity test), cytotoxicity tests, and in vivo oral mucous membrane irritation tests. When compared to the conventional tribochemical silica coating, the experimental sol-gel silica coating provided the same shear bond strength, higher silicon contents, and better durability. Moreover, we observed no apparent mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, or irritation in this study. Therefore, the sol-gel technique represents a promising method for producing silica coatings on zirconia.

  1. Sol-Gel Derived Hafnia Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Blum, Yigal; Sacks, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sol-gel derived hafnia coatings are being developed to provide an oxidation protection layer on ultra-high temperature ceramics for potential use in turbine engines (ultra-efficient engine technology being developed by NASA). Coatings using hafnia sol hafnia filler particles will be discussed along with sol synthesis and characterization.

  2. Electromagnetic properties of material coated surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, L.; Berrie, J.; Burkholder, R.; Dominek, A.; Walton, E.; Wang, N.

    1989-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of material coated conducting surfaces were investigated. The coating geometries consist of uniform layers over a planar surface, irregularly shaped formations near edges and randomly positioned, electrically small, irregularly shaped formations over a surface. Techniques to measure the scattered field and constitutive parameters from these geometries were studied. The significance of the scattered field from these geometries warrants further study.

  3. Evaluation of epoxy-coated reinforcing steel.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-01-01

    Virginia's first installation of epoxy-coated reinforcing steel, which was opened to traffic in 1977, was evaluated during construction and through 13 years of service. It was apparent at the time of construction that the integrity of the coating app...

  4. Structural steel coatings for corrosion mitigation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-01

    Task 1 of this project was to survey the performance of coating systems for steel bridges in Missouri and to evaluate coating and : recoating practices. Task 1 was led under the direction of Dr. Glenn Washer from the University of Missouri located in...

  5. Ion Assisted Deposition of Optical Coatings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    dielectric films. They repo- ted ion-induced phase transitions and reductions in optical scatter for bombarded films. In this research program, the film...SiO 2 AR coating (20X). 7 7 145 4A I 10 wun Figure VI-6. Micrograph of fluorine damaged AIJO /SiO 2 AR coating (20X); different site than in Figure

  6. Tests Of Protective Coats For Carbon Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G., III

    1995-01-01

    Report describes laboratory and field tests of candidate paints (primers, tie coats, and topcoats) for use in protecting carbon-steel structures against corrosion in seaside environment at Kennedy Space Center. Coating materials selected because of utility in preventing corrosion, also on basis of legal requirements, imposed in several urban areas, for reduction of volatile organic contents.

  7. Assessment of Runoff Toxicity from Coated Surfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented in this paper are results from a field and laboratory study of the potential runoff toxicity from coated surfaces. The study results qualified and quantified the types and concentrations of pollutants in runoff from surfaces sealed with a variety of products. Coatings a...

  8. Thermal Barrier Coatings. Abstracts and figures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Thermal Barrier Coatings Workshop was held May 21 and 22, 1985, at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Six sessions covered Failure Mechanisms and Life Modeling, Effects of Oxidation and Creep, Phase Stability and Microstructural Aspects, Nondestructive and Analytical Assessment, Coating Development, and Alternative Applications.

  9. Assessment of Thermal Control and Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mell, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    This final report is concerned with the tasks performed during the contract period which included spacecraft coating development, testing, and applications. Five marker coatings consisting of a bright yellow handrail coating, protective overcoat for ceramic coatings, and specialized primers for composites (or polymer) surfaces were developed and commercialized by AZ Technology during this program. Most of the coatings have passed space environmental stability requirements via ground tests and/or flight verification. Marker coatings and protective overcoats were successfully flown on the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) and the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiments flown on the Russian space station MIR. To date, most of the coatings developed and/or modified during this program have been utilized on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. For ISS, AZ Technology manufactured the 'UNITY' emblem now being flown on the NASA UNITY node (Node 1) that is docked to the Russian Zarya (FGB) utilizing the colored marker coatings (white, blue, red) developed by AZ Technology. The UNITY emblem included the US American flag, the Unity logo, and NASA logo on a white background, applied to a Beta cloth substrate.

  10. Characterization of Therapeutic Coatings on Medical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormuth, Klaus

    Therapeutic coatings on medical devices such as catheters, guide wires, and stents improve biocompatibility by favorably altering the chemical nature of the device/tissue or device/blood interface. Such coatings often minimize tissue damage (reduce friction), decrease chances for blood clot formation (prevent platelet adsorption), and improve the healing response (deliver drugs). Confocal Raman microscopy provides valuable information about biomedical coatings by, for example, facilitating the measurement of the thickness and swelling of frictionreducing hydrogel coatings on catheters and by determining the distribution of drug within a polymer-based drug-eluting coatings on stents. This chapter explores the application of Raman microscopy to the imaging of thin coatings of cross-linked poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) gels, parylene films, mixtures of dexamethasone with various polymethacrylates, and mixtures of rapamycin with hydrolysable (biodegradable) poly(lactide-co-glycolide) polymers. Raman microscopy measures the thickness and swelling of coatings, reveals the degree of mixing of drug and polymer, senses the hydrolysis of biodegradable polymers, and determines the polymorphic forms of drug present within thin therapeutic coatings on medical devices.

  11. Method of Obtaining Uniform Coatings on Graphite

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I. E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  12. METHOD OF OBTAINING UNIFORM COATINGS ON GRAPHITE

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I.E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  13. Nanosilica coating for bonding improvements to zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Chen, Gang; Xie, Haifeng; Dai, Wenyong; Zhang, Feimin

    2013-01-01

    Resin bonding to zirconia cannot be established from standard methods that are currently utilized in conventional silica-based dental ceramics. The solution–gelatin (sol–gel) process is a well developed silica-coating technique used to modify the surface of nonsilica-based ceramics. Here, we use this technique to improve resin bonding to zirconia, which we compared to zirconia surfaces treated with alumina sandblasting and tribochemical silica coating. We used the shear bond strength test to examine the effect of the various coatings on the short-term resin bonding of zirconia. Furthermore, we employed field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize the zirconia surfaces. Water–mist spraying was used to evaluate the durability of the coatings. To evaluate the biological safety of the experimental sol–gel silica coating, we conducted an in vitro Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames mutagenicity test), cytotoxicity tests, and in vivo oral mucous membrane irritation tests. When compared to the conventional tribochemical silica coating, the experimental sol–gel silica coating provided the same shear bond strength, higher silicon contents, and better durability. Moreover, we observed no apparent mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, or irritation in this study. Therefore, the sol–gel technique represents a promising method for producing silica coatings on zirconia. PMID:24179333

  14. Overlay coating degradation by simultaneous oxidation and coating/substrate interdiffusion. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Degradation of NiCrAlZr overlay coatings on various NiCrAl substrates was examined after cyclic oxidation. Concentration/distance profiles were measured in the coating and substrate after various oxidation exposures at 1150 C. For each stubstrate, the Al content in the coating decreased rapidly. The concentration/distance profiles, and particularly that for Al, reflected the oxide spalling resistance of each coated substrate. A numerical model was developed to simulate diffusion associated with overlay-coating degradation by oxidation and coating/substrate interdiffusion. Input to the numerical model consisted of the Cr and Al content of the coating and substrate, ternary diffusivities, and various oxide spalling parameters. The model predicts the Cr and Al concentrations in the coating and substrate after any number of oxidation/thermal cycles. The numerical model also predicts coating failure based on the ability of the coating to supply sufficient Al to the oxide scale. The validity of the model was confirmed by comparison of the predicted and measured concentration/distance profiles. The model was subsequently used to identify the most critical system parameters affecting coating life.

  15. Coating Layer Characterization of Laser Deposited AlSi Coating over Laser Weld Bead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hongping; Van Gelder, Aldo

    Corrosion protection of steel components is an important topic in automotive industry. Laser beam welding makes a narrow weld bead, thus minimizing the damage to the original coating on the steel material. However, the weld bead loses its original coating and is vulnerable to corrosive attack. It was demonstrated in this study that laser beam generated AlSi coating is an effective way to apply a protective coating on the weld bead. Coatings with different thickness and topography have been deposited under different laser power and processing speed. The microstructure of the as-deposited coating and its evolution after heat treatment has been studied. EDS was employed to analyze the distribution of chemical compositions of the laser generated coatings. Several metallic compounds of Al and iron have been identified. It was found that the type of metallic compounds can be influenced by the laser processing parameters.

  16. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof.

  17. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, O.H.; Curtis, P.G.

    1992-03-31

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof. 1 figure.

  18. KEY INTERACTIONS FOR CLATHRIN COAT STABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Böcking, Till; Aguet, Francois; Rapoport, Iris; Banzhaf, Manuel; Yu, Anan; Zeeh, Jean Christophe; Kirchhausen, Tom

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Clathrin-coated vesicles are major carriers of vesicular traffic in eukaryotic cells. This endocytic pathway relies on cycles of clathrin coat assembly and Hsc70-mediated disassembly. Here we identify histidine residues as major determinants of lattice assembly and stability. They are located at the invariant interface between the proximal and distal segments of clathrin heavy chains, in triskelions centered on two adjacent vertices of the coated-vesicle lattice. Mutation of these histidine to glutamine alters the pH dependence of coat stability. We then describe single-particle fluorescence imaging experiments in which we follow the effect of these histidine mutations on susceptibility to Hsc70-dependent uncoating. Coats destabilized by these mutations require fewer Hsc70 molecules to initiate disassembly as predicted by a model in which Hsc70 traps conformational distortions during the auxilin- and Hsc70:ATP-mediated uncoating reaction. PMID:24815030

  19. Photocathode device that replenishes photoemissive coating

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, Nathan A.; Lizon, David C.

    2016-06-14

    A photocathode device may replenish its photoemissive coating to replace coating material that desorbs/evaporates during photoemission. A linear actuator system may regulate the release of a replenishment material vapor, such as an alkali metal, from a chamber inside the photocathode device to a porous cathode substrate. The replenishment material deposits on the inner surface of a porous membrane and effuses through the membrane to the outer surface, where it replenishes the photoemissive coating. The rate of replenishment of the photoemissive coating may be adjusted using the linear actuator system to regulate performance of the photocathode device during photoemission. Alternatively, themore » linear actuator system may adjust a plasma discharge gap between a cartridge containing replenishment material and a metal grid. A potential is applied between the cartridge and the grid, resulting in ejection of metal ions from the cartridge that similarly replenish the photoemissive coating.« less

  20. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwavemore » plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.« less

  1. Color characterization of coatings with diffraction pigments.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, A; Bernad, B; Campos, J; Perales, E; Velázquez, J L; Martínez-Verdú, F M

    2016-10-01

    Coatings with diffraction pigments present high iridescence, which needs to be characterized in order to describe their appearance. The spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of six coatings with SpectraFlair diffraction pigments were measured using the robot-arm-based goniospectrophotometer GEFE, designed and developed at CSIC. Principal component analysis has been applied to study the coatings of BRDF data. From data evaluation and based on theoretical considerations, we propose a relevant geometric factor to study the spectral reflectance and color gamut variation of coatings with diffraction pigments. At fixed values of this geometric factor, the spectral BRDF component due to diffraction is almost constant. Commercially available portable goniospectrophotometers, extensively used in several industries (automotive and others), should be provided with more aspecular measurement angles to characterize the complex reflectance of goniochromatic coatings based on diffraction pigments, but they would not require either more than one irradiation angle or additional out-of-plane geometries.

  2. Method for smoothing the surface of a protective coating

    DOEpatents

    Sangeeta, D.; Johnson, Curtis Alan; Nelson, Warren Arthur

    2001-01-01

    A method for smoothing the surface of a ceramic-based protective coating which exhibits roughness is disclosed. The method includes the steps of applying a ceramic-based slurry or gel coating to the protective coating surface; heating the slurry/gel coating to remove volatile material; and then further heating the slurry/gel coating to cure the coating and bond it to the underlying protective coating. The slurry/gel coating is often based on yttria-stabilized zirconia, and precursors of an oxide matrix. Related articles of manufacture are also described.

  3. Coatings on Atacama Desert Basalt: A Possible Analog for Coatings on Gusev Plains Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Amundson, R.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Ming, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    Surface coatings on Gusev Plains basalt have been observed and may contain hematite and nanophase Fe-oxides along with enrichments in P, S, Cl, and K relative to the underlying rock. The Gusev coatings may be derived from the dissolution of adhering soil and/or parent rock along with the addition of S and Cl from outside sources. Transient water for dissolution could be sourced from melting snow during periods of high obliquity, acid fog, and/or ground water (Haskin et al., 2005). Coatings on basalt in the hyper-arid (less than 2mm y(sup -1)) Atacama Desert may assist in understanding the chemistry, mineralogy and formation mechanisms of the Gusev basalt coatings. The Atacama Desert climate is proposed to be analogous to a paleo-Mars climate that was characterized by limited aqueous activity when the Gusev coatings could have formed. The objectives of this work are to (i) determine the chemical nature and extent of surface coatings on Atacama Desert basalt, and (ii) assess coating formation mechanisms in the Atacama Desert. Preliminary backscattered electron imaging of Atacama basalt thin-sections indicated that the coatings are as thick as 20 m. The boundary between the coating and the basalt labradorite, ilmenite, and augite grains was abrupt indicating that the basalt minerals underwent no chemical dissolution. The Atacama coatings have been added to the basalt instead of being derived from basalt chemical weathering. Semi-quantitative energy dispersive spectroscopy shows the coatings to be chemically homogeneous. The coating is depleted in Ca (0.9 wt% CaO) and enriched in K (1.3 wt.% K2O) and Si (69.1 wt.% SiO2) relative to the augite and labradorite grains. A dust source enriched in Si (e.g., poorly crystalline silica) and K and depleted in Ca appears to have been added to the basalt surface. Unlike the Gusev coatings, no P, S, and Cl enrichment was observed. However, Fe (3.2 wt.% FeO) was present in the Atacama coatings suggesting the present of Fe

  4. Cellulose nanofibers use in coated paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Finley

    Cellulose Nanofibers (CNF) are materials that can be obtained by the mechanical breakdown of natural fibers. CNF have the potential to be produced at low cost in a paper mill and may provide novel properties to paper, paper coatings, paints, or other products. However, suspensions have a complex rheology even at low solid contents. To be able to coat, pump, or mix CNF at moderate solids, it is critical to understand the rheology of these suspensions and how they flow in process equipment; current papers only report the rheology up to 6% solids. Few publications are available that describe the coating of CNF onto paper or the use of CNF as an additive into a paper coating. The rheology of CNF suspensions and coatings that contain CNF were characterized with parallel-disk geometry in a controlled stress rheometer. The steady shear viscosity, the complex viscosity, the storage modulus, and the yield stress were determined for the range of solids or concentrations (2.5-10.5%). CNF were coated onto paper with a laboratory rod coater, a size press and a high speed cylindrical laboratory coater (CLC). For each case, the coat weights were measures and the properties of the papers were characterized. CNF water base suspension was found to be a shear thinning with a power law index of around 0.1. Oscillatory tests showed a linear viscoelastic region at low strains and significant storage and loss moduli even at low solids. The Cox Merz rule does not hold for CNF suspensions or coating formulations that contain CNF with complex viscosities that are about 100 times larger than the steady shear viscosities. Paper coating formulations that contain CNF were found to have viscosities and storage and loss moduli that are over ten times larger than coatings that contain starch at similar solids. CNF suspensions were coated on papers with low amount transferred on paper either at high solids or high nip loadings. The amount transferred appears to be controlled by an interaction of

  5. Variable anodic thermal control coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliland, C. S.; Duckett, J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A process for providing a thermal control solar stable surface coating for aluminum surfaces adapted to be exposed to solar radiation wherein selected values within the range of 0.10 to 0.72 thermal emittance (epsilon sub tau) and 0.2 to 0.4 solar absorptance (alpha subs) are reproducibly obtained by anodizing the surface area in a chromic acid solution for a selected period of time. The rate voltage and time, along with the parameters of initial epsilon sub tau and alpha subs, temperature of the chromic acid solution, acid concentration of the solution and the material anodized determines the final values of epsilon/tau sub and alpha sub S. 9 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures.

  6. Flexible fluoropolymer filled protective coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Mirtich, Michael J.; Sovey, James S.; Nahra, Henry; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1991-01-01

    Metal oxide films such as SiO2 are known to provide an effective barrier to the transport of moisture as well as gaseous species through polymeric films. Such thin film coatings have a tendency to crack upon flexure of the polymeric substrate. Sputter co-deposition of SiO2 with 4 to 15 percent fluoropolymers was demonstrated to produce thin films with glass-like barrier properties that have significant increases in strain to failure over pure glass films which improves their tolerance to flexure on polymeric substrates. Deposition techniques capable of producing these films on polymeric substrates are suitable for durable food packaging and oxidation/corrosion protection applications.

  7. Coatings for wear and lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in the tribological uses of rf-sputtered and ion plated films of solid film lubricants (laminar solids, soft metals, organic polymers) and wear resistant refractory compounds (carbides, nitrides, silicides) are reviewed. The sputtering and ion plating potentials and the corresponding coatings formed were evaluated relative to the friction coefficient, wear endurance life and mechanical properties. The tribological and mechanical properties for each kind of film are discussed in terms of film adherence, coherence, density, grain size, morphology, internal stresses, thickness, and substrate conditions such as temperature, topography, chemistry and dc-biasing. The ion plated metallic films in addition to improved tribological properties also have better mechanical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue life.

  8. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  9. Research progress of nano self - cleaning anti-fouling coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y. J.; Teng, J. L.; Wang, J. H.; Wu, L. S.; Zheng, Y. L.

    2018-01-01

    There are many methods of evaluating the performance of nano self-cleaning anti-fouling coatings, such as carbon blacking method, coating reflection coefficient method, glass microbead method, film method, contact angle and rolling angle method, organic degradation method, and the application of performance evaluation method in self-cleaning antifouling coating. For the more, the types of nano self-cleaning anti-fouling coatings based on aqueous media was described, such as photocatalytic self-cleaning coatings, silicone coatings, organic fluorine coatings, fluorosilicone coatings, fluorocarbon coatings, polysilazane self-cleaning coatings. The research and application of different kinds of nano self-cleaning antifouling coatings are anlysised, and the latest research results are summed.

  10. Protection of moisture-sensitive drugs with aqueous polymer coatings: importance of coating and curing conditions.

    PubMed

    Bley, O; Siepmann, J; Bodmeier, R

    2009-08-13

    The aim of this study was to better understand the importance of coating and curing conditions of moisture-protective polymer coatings. Tablets containing freeze-dried garlic powder were coated with aqueous solutions/dispersions of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), poly(vinyl alcohol), ethyl cellulose and poly(methacrylate-methylmethacrylates). The water content of the tablets during coating and during storage at different temperatures and relative humidities (RH) was determined gravimetrically. In addition, changes in the allicin (active ingredient in garlic powder) content were monitored. During the coating process, the water uptake was below 2.7% and no drug degradation was detectable. Thermally induced drug degradation occurred only at temperatures above the coating temperatures. Different polymer coatings effectively decreased the rate, but not the extent of water uptake during open storage at room temperature and 75% RH. Tablets coated with poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(methacrylate-methylmethacrylates) showed the lowest moisture uptake rates (0.49 and 0.57%/d, respectively). Curing at elevated temperature after coating did not improve the moisture-protective ability of the polymeric films, but reduced the water content of the tablets. Drug stability was significantly improved with tablets coated with poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(methacrylate-methylmethacrylates).

  11. A novel electrostatic dry powder coating process for pharmaceutical dosage forms: immediate release coatings for tablets.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Mingxi; Zhang, Liqiang; Ma, Yingliang; Zhu, Jesse; Chow, Kwok

    2010-10-01

    An electrostatic dry powder coating process for pharmaceutical solid dosage forms was developed for the first time by electrostatic dry powder coating in a pan coater system. Two immediate release coating compositions with Opadry® AMB and Eudragit® EPO were successfully applied using this process. A liquid plasticizer was sprayed onto the surface of the tablet cores to increase the conductivity of tablet cores to enhance particle deposition, electrical resistivity reduced from greater than 1×10(13)Ωm to less than 1×10(9)Ωm, and to lower the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the coating polymer for film forming in the pan coater. The application of liquid plasticizer was followed by spraying charged coating particles using an electrostatic charging gun to enhance the uniform deposition on tablet surface. The coating particles were coalesced into a thin film by curing at an acceptable processing temperature as formation was confirmed by SEM micrographs. The results also show that the optimized dry powder coating process produces tablets with smooth surface, good coating uniformity and release profile that are comparable to that of the tablet cores. The data also suggest that this novel electrostatic dry powder coating technique is an alternative to aqueous- or solvent-based coating process for pharmaceutical products. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrodeposited silk coatings for bone implants.

    PubMed

    Elia, Roberto; Michelson, Courtney D; Perera, Austin L; Brunner, Teresa F; Harsono, Masly; Leisk, Gray G; Kugel, Gerard; Kaplan, David L

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanical properties and drug elution features of silk protein-based electrodeposited dental implant coatings. Silk processing conditions were modified to obtain coatings with a range of mechanical properties on titanium studs. These coatings were assessed for adhesive strength and dissolution, with properties tuned using water vapor annealing or glycerol incorporation to modulate crystalline content. Coating reproducibility was demonstrated over a range of silk concentrations from 1% to 10%. Surface roughness of titanium substrates was altered using industry relevant acid etching and grit blasting, and the effect of surface topography on silk coating adhesion was assessed. Florescent compounds were incorporated into the silk coatings, which were modulated for crystalline content, to achieve four days of sustained release of the compounds. This silk electrogelation technique offers a safe and relatively simple approach to generate mechanically robust, biocompatible, and degradable implant coatings that can also be functionalized with bioactive compounds to modulate the local regenerative tissue environment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Electrodeposited silk coatings for bone implants

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Roberto; Michelson, Courtney D.; Perera, Austin L.; Brunner, Teresa F.; Harsono, Masly; Leisk, Gray G.; Kugel, Gerard; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanical properties and drug elution features of silk protein-based electrodeposited dental implant coatings. Silk processing conditions were modified to obtain coatings with a range of mechanical properties on titanium studs. These coatings were assessed for adhesive strength and dissolution, with properties tuned using water vapor annealing or glycerol incorporation to modulate crystalline content. Coating reproducibility was demonstrated over a range of silk concentrations from 1 to 10%. Surface roughness of titanium substrates was altered using industry relevant acid etching and grit blasting, and the effect of surface topography on silk coating adhesion was assessed. Florescent compounds were incorporated into the silk coatings, which were modulated for crystalline content, to achieve four days of sustained release of the compounds. This silk electrogelation technique offers a safe and relatively simple approach to generate mechanically robust, biocompatible and degradable implant coatings that can also be functionalized with bioactive compounds to modulate the local regenerative tissue environment. PMID:25545462

  14. Loss/gain-induced ultrathin antireflection coatings

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Lai, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Tradional antireflection coatings composed of dielectric layers usually require the thickness to be larger than quarter wavelength. Here, we demonstrate that materials with permittivity or permeability dominated by imaginary parts, i.e. lossy or gain media, can realize non-resonant antireflection coatings in deep sub-wavelength scale. Interestingly, while the reflected waves are eliminated as in traditional dielectric antireflection coatings, the transmitted waves can be enhanced or reduced, depending on whether gain or lossy media are applied, respectively. We provide a unified theory for the design of such ultrathin antireflection coatings, showing that under different polarizations and incident angles, different types of ultrathin coatings should be applied. Especially, under transverse magnetic polarization, the requirement shows a switch between gain and lossy media at Brewster angle. As a proof of principle, by using conductive films as a special type of lossy antireflection coatings, we experimentally demonstrate the suppression of Fabry-Pérot resonances in a broad frequency range for microwaves. This valuable functionality can be applied to remove undesired resonant effects, such as the frequency-dependent side lobes induced by resonances in dielectric coverings of antennas. Our work provides a guide for the design of ultrathin antireflection coatings as well as their applications in broadband reflectionless devices. PMID:27349750

  15. A protein coated piezoelectric crystal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, Ahmad; Pender, Marie; Ngeh-Ngwainbi, Jerome; Lubrano, Glenn; Guilbault, George

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a protein coated, portable piezoelectric crystal detector for organophosphorus compounds. The performance of acetylcholinesterase, GD-1 anti-soman, anti-DMMP antibody, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) coatings was evaluated. Different immobilization methods were also tested. The responses obtained with the protein coatings immobilized via cross-linking with glutaraldehyde were acceptable, provided that the reference crystal was coated with dextran. The proposed coatings showed good stability and reasonable lifetimes that ranged from approximately three weeks in the case of the antibody coatings to several months in the case of BSA. Although moisture, gasoline, and sulfur are potential interferents, their effects on the sensor were eliminated by using a sodium sulfate scrubber which did not affect the performance of the detector towards organophosphates. A small, battery operated portable instrument capable of real time measurements with alarm function was produced. The instrument can be used in a wide range of applications, depending on the coatings applied to the crystals.

  16. A design perspective on thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soechting, F. O.

    1999-12-01

    This article addresses the challenges for maximizing the benefit of thermal barrier coatings for turbine engine applications. The perspective is from the viewpoint of a customer, a turbine airfoil designer who is continuously challenged to increase the turbine inlet temperature capability for new products while maintaining cooling flow levels or even reducing them. This is a fundamental requirement for achieving increased engine thrust levels. Developing advanced material systems for the turbine flowpath airfoils, such as high-temperature nickel-base superalloys or thermal barrier coatings to insulate the metal airfoils from the hot flowpath environment, is one approach to solve this challenge. The second approach is to increase the cooling performance of the turbine airfoil, which enables increased flowpath temperatures and reduced cooling flow levels. Thermal barrier coatings have been employed in jet engine applications for almost 30 years. The initial application was on augmentor liners to provide thermal protection during afterburner operation. However, the production use of thermal barrier coatings in the turbine section has only occurred in the past 15 years. The application was limited to stationary parts and only recently incorporated on the rotating turbine blades. This lack of endorsement of thermal barrier coatings resulted from the poor initial duratbility of these coatings in high heat flux environments. Significant improvements have been made to enhance spallation resistance and erosion resistance, which has resulted in increased reliability of these coatings in turbine applications.

  17. "Electroless" E-Coating for Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guang-Ling

    By utilizing the unique electrochemistry of Mg, a thin organic film can rapidly be deposited on the surface of a Mg alloy by dipping the Mg alloy in a cathodic E-coating bath solution without applying a current or potential. The self-deposited coating is selectively formed on Mg alloy surfaces. Although the "electroless" E-coating pre-film is relatively thin, it can offer sufficient corrosion protection for Mg alloys in a chloride-containing environment. The stability of the film can be significantly improved after curing. The corrosion resistance of the substrate Mg alloy has an important effect on the corrosion protection performance of the coating. The coating is more protective on a corrosion resistant Mg alloy than on a non-corrosion resistant Mg substrate. The coating protection performance is also influenced by the substrate surface condition or pre-treatment process. Wet cleaning + heat-treatment may be a cost-effective surface preparation/treatment for the "electroless" E-coating in industrial applications.

  18. Polysaccharide based edible coating on sapota fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Joslin; Athmaselvi, K. A.

    2016-10-01

    Sapota fruits are highly perishable and have short shelf life at the ambient conditions. The edible coatings have been used on different agricultural products in order to extend their post harvest life. In the present study, the polysaccharide based edible coating made up of sodium alginate and pectin (2%) was studied on the shelf life of sapota fruits. The coating of the fruits is done by dipping method with two dipping time (2 and 4 min). The both control and coated sapota fruits were stored at refrigerated temperature (4±1°C). The physico-chemical analysis including acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, pH, weight loss, colour and firmness were measured on 1, 8, 15, 23 and 30th day of storage. There was significant difference (p≤0.05) in these physico-chemical parameters between control and coated sapota fruits with 2 and 4 min dipping time. The sensory analysis of control and coated sapota fruits showed that, the polysaccharide coating with 2 minutes dipping time was effective in maintaining the organoleptic properties of the fruits.

  19. Evaluating environmental survivability of optical coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Shay; Yadlovker, Doron; Marcovitch, Orna; Zipin, Hedva

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we report an on going research to correlate between optical coating survivability and military (MIL) standards. For this purpose 8 different types of coatings were deposited on 1" substrates of sapphire, multi-spectral ZnS (MS-ZnS), germanium, silicon and BK7. All coatings underwent MIL standard evaluation as defined by customer specifications and have passed successfully. Two other sets were left to age for 12 months at two different locations, one near central Tel-Aviv and one by the shoreline of the Mediterranean Sea. A third set was aged for 2000 hours at a special environmental chamber simulating conditions of temperature, humidity and ultra-violet (UV) radiation simultaneously. Measurements of optical transmission before and after aging from all 3 sets reveal, in some cases, major transmission loss indicating severe coating damage. The different aging methods and their relation to the MIL standards are discussed in detail. The most pronounced conclusion is that MIL standards alone are not sufficient for predicting the lifetime of an external coated optical element and are only useful in certifying the coating process and comparison between coatings.

  20. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Pilsner, B. H.; Cook, T. S.; Kim, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    This is the second annual report of the first 3-year phase of a 2-phase, 5-year program. The objectives of the first phase are to determine the predominant modes of degradation of a plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system and to develop and verify life prediction models accounting for these degradation modes. The primary TBC system consists of an air plasma sprayed ZrO-Y2O3 top coat, a low pressure plasma sprayed NiCrAlY bond coat, and a Rene' 80 substrate. Task I was to evaluate TBC failure mechanisms. Both bond coat oxidation and bond coat creep have been identified as contributors to TBC failure. Key property determinations have also been made for the bond coat and the top coat, including tensile strength, Poisson's ratio, dynamic modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Task II is to develop TBC life prediction models for the predominant failure modes. These models will be developed based on the results of thermmechanical experiments and finite element analysis. The thermomechanical experiments have been defined and testing initiated. Finite element models have also been developed to handle TBCs and are being utilized to evaluate different TBC failure regimes.

  1. Osteoinductive composite coatings for flexible intramedullary nails.

    PubMed

    Bolbasov, E N; Popkov, A V; Popkov, D A; Gorbach, E N; Khlusov, I A; Golovkin, A S; Sinev, A; Bouznik, V M; Tverdokhlebov, S I; Anissimov, Y G

    2017-06-01

    This work presents composite coatings based on a copolymer of vinylidene fluoride with tetrafluoroethylene (VDF-TeFE) and hydroxyapatite (HA) for flexible intramedullary nails (FIN). The effect of the proportion of VDF-TeFE (100-25% wt.) on physicochemical and biological properties of the composite coatings was investigated. It was shown that a decrease of VDF-TeFE in the coating hinders its crystallization in β and γ forms which have piezoelectric properties. The decrease also reduces an adhesive strength to 9.9±2.4MPa and a relative elongation to 5.9±1.2%, but results in increased osteogenesis. It was demonstrated that the composite coatings with 35% VDF-TeFE has the required combination of physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity. Comparative studies of composite coatings (35% VDF-TeFE) and calcium phosphate coatings produced using micro-arc oxidation, demonstrated comparable results for strength of bonding of these FINs with trabecular bones (~530MPa). It was hypothesized that the high osteoinductive properties of the composite coatings are due to their piezoelectric properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Coating defect evaluation based on stimulated thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Davide; Tamborrino, Rosanna; Galietti, Umberto

    2017-05-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings are used to protect the materials from severe temperature and chemical environments. In particular, these materials are used in the engineering fields where high temperatures, corrosive environments and high mechanical stress are required. Defects present between substrate material and coating, as detachments may cause the break of coating and the consequent possibility to exposure the substrate material to the environment conditions. The capability to detect the defect zones with non-destructive techniques could allow the maintenance of coated components with great advantages in terms of costs and prediction of fatigue life. In this work, two different heat sources and two different thermographic techniques have been used to detect the adhesion defects among the base material and the coating. Moreover, an empirical thermographic method has been developed to evaluate the thickness of the thermal coating and to discriminate between an unevenness of the thickness and a defect zone. The study has been conducted on circular steel specimens with simulated adhesion defect and on specimens prepared with different thicknesses of thermal barrier coating.

  3. Phase composition and tribomechanical properties of Ti-B-C nanocomposite coatings prepared by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-López, J. C.; Abad, M. D.; Justo, A.; Gago, R.; Endrino, J. L.; García-Luis, A.; Brizuela, M.

    2012-09-01

    Protective nanocomposite coatings based on hard ceramic phases (TiC, TiB2) combined with amorphous carbon (a-C) are of interest because of their adequate balance between mechanical and tribological performances. In this work, Ti-B-C nanocomposite coatings were prepared by co-sputtering of graphite and TiB2 targets. Varying the discharge power ratio applied to the graphite and TiB2 targets from 0 to 2, the a-C content in the coatings could be tuned from 0 to 60%, as observed by means of Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The microstructural characterization demonstrated a progressive decrease in crystallinity from an initial nanocrystalline (nc) TiB2-like structure to a distorted TiBxCy ternary compound with increasing C concentration. X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements on the B K-edge helped to determine a hexagonal arrangement around the B atoms in the ternary TiBxCy phase. A fitting analysis of the C 1s XPS peak allowed us to evaluate the relative amount of a-C and TiBxCy components. A drastic change in hardness (from 52 to 13 GPa) and friction coefficient values (from 0.8 to 0.2) is noticed when moving from nc-TiB2 to TiBC/a-C nanocomposites. The fraction of a-C necessary to decrease the friction below 0.2 was found to be 45%. Raman observation of the wear tracks determined the presence of disordered sp2-bonded carbon phase associated with the diminution of the friction level.

  4. Anemhupehins A-C, Podocarpane Diterpenoids from Anemone hupehensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xing; Duan, Kai-Ting; Wang, Zhen-Xiong; Chen, He-Ping; Gan, Xiao-Qing; Huang, Rong; Li, Zheng-Hui; Feng, Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2018-02-01

    Three new podocarpane diterpenoids, namely anemhupehins A-C (1-3), together with four known analogues (4-7), have been isolated from aerial parts of Anemone hupehensis. Their structures were characterized based on extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 4 showed certain cytotoxicities against human cancer cell lines.

  5. Understanding Rotation about a C=C Double Bond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The study focuses on the process and energetic cost of twisting around a C=C double bond and provides instructors with a simple vehicle for rectifying the common misrepresentation of C=C double bonds as rigid and inflexible. Discussions of cis and trans isomers of cycloalkenes are a good entry point for introducing students to the idea of a…

  6. Electrodeposited silk coatings for functionalized implant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elia, Roberto

    The mechanical and morphological properties of titanium as well as its biocompatibility and osteoinductive characteristics have made it the material of choice for dental implant systems. Although the success rate of titanium implants exceeds 90% in healthy individuals, a large subset of the population has one or more risk factors that inhibit implant integration. Treatments and coatings have been developed to improve clinical outcomes via introduction of appropriate surface topography, texture and roughness or incorporation of bioactive molecules. It is essential that the coatings and associated deposition techniques are controllable and reproducible. Currently, methods of depositing functional coatings are dictated by numerous parameters (temperature, particle size distribution, pH and voltage), which result in variable coating thickness, strength, porosity and weight, and hinder or preclude biomolecule incorporation. Silk is a highly versatile protein with a unique combination of mechanical and physical properties, including tunable degradation, biocompatibility, drug stabilizing capabilities and mechanical properties. Most recently an electrogelation technique was developed which allows for the deposition of gels which dry seamlessly over the contoured topography of the conductive substrate. In this work we examine the potential use of silk electrogels as mechanically robust implant coatings capable of sequestering and releasing therapeutic agents. Electrodeposition of silk electrogels formed in uniform electric fields was characterized with respect to field intensity and deposition time. Gel formation kinetics were used to derive functions which allowed for the prediction of coating deposition over a range of process and solution parameters. Silk electrogel growth orientation was shown to be influenced by the applied electric field. Coatings were reproducible and tunable via intrinsic silk solution properties and extrinsic process parameters. Adhesion was

  7. Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L

    2015-04-28

    Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.

  8. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  9. Carbon nanotube coatings as chemical absorbers

    DOEpatents

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Andresen, Brian D.; Alcaraz, Armando

    2004-06-15

    Airborne or aqueous organic compound collection using carbon nanotubes. Exposure of carbon nanotube-coated disks to controlled atmospheres of chemical warefare (CW)-related compounds provide superior extraction and retention efficiencies compared to commercially available airborne organic compound collectors. For example, the carbon nanotube-coated collectors were four (4) times more efficient toward concentrating dimethylmethyl-phosphonate (DMMP), a CW surrogate, than Carboxen, the optimized carbonized polymer for CW-related vapor collections. In addition to DMMP, the carbon nanotube-coated material possesses high collection efficiencies for the CW-related compounds diisopropylaminoethanol (DIEA), and diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP).

  10. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi, J. T.; Sheffler, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this program is to establish a methodology to predict Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) life on gas turbine engine components. The approach involves experimental life measurement coupled with analytical modeling of relevant degradation modes. The coating being studied is a flight qualified two layer system, designated PWA 264, consisting of a nominal ten mil layer of seven percent yttria partially stabilized zirconia plasma deposited over a nominal five mil layer of low pressure plasma deposited NiCoCrAlY. Thermal barrier coating degradation modes being investigated include: thermomechanical fatigue, oxidation, erosion, hot corrosion, and foreign object damage.

  11. Rapidly solidified metal coatings by peen plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, H. P.

    1987-01-01

    Specimens of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy were peen plated with rapidly solidified tin-lead and aluminum powders, and the cross-sections of the coated specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy. The properties of the peen plated specimens were also compared with those of shot peened specimens without any coating. It is found that peen plating with rapidly solidified metals improves the fatigue properties of the coated samples to a greater extent than shot peening alone. Specimens of 7075-T6 alloy peen plated with rapidly solidified tin-lead and aluminum exhibited better fatigue resistance than shot peened specimens in both air and salt water.

  12. Erosion / Corrosion Resistant Coatings for Compressor Airfoils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-29

    Platforms in Evaluation / Qualification T56 for C-130 AE1107 for V-22 T700 for H-60 T55 for MH-47 GE38 for H-53K Gem for Lynx T58 for H-46... T56 Performance Summary Uncoated vs Coated Engine Uncoated Engine (April – May 2011) With “sand turbine” at San Antonio: Coated Engine (July...power retention 2-3% Corrected Fuel Flow 1-2% Specific Fuel Consumption decrease @ 95% shp Coated Engine T56 Sand Ingestion Test 10 Pressure

  13. Porcelain enamel passive thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, H.; King, H. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and evaluation of a highly adherent, low solar absorptance, porcelain enamel thermal control coating applied to 6061 and 1100 aluminum for space vehicle use. The coating consists of a low index of refraction, transparent host frit and a high volume fraction of titania as rutile, crystallized in-situ, as the scattering medium. Solar absorptance is 0.21 at a coating thickness of 0.013 cm. Hemispherical emittance is 0.88. The change in solar absorptance is 0.03, as measured in-situ, after an exposure of 1000 equivalent sun hours in vacuum.

  14. Plasma-Spray Metal Coating On Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, J.

    1994-01-01

    Molds, forms, and other substrates made of foams coated with metals by plasma spraying. Foam might be ceramic, carbon, metallic, organic, or inorganic. After coat applied by plasma spraying, foam left intact or removed by acid leaching, conventional machining, water-jet cutting, or another suitable technique. Cores or vessels made of various foam materials plasma-coated with metals according to method useful as thermally insulating containers for foods, liquids, or gases, or as mandrels for making composite-material (matrix/fiber) parts, or making thermally insulating firewalls in automobiles.

  15. Wear of Selected Oxide Ceramics and Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Sayir, A.; Farmer, S. C.

    2005-01-01

    The use of oxide ceramics and coatings for moving mechanical components operating in high-temperature, oxidizing environments creates a need to define the tribological performance and durability of these materials. Results of research focusing on the wear behavior and properties of Al2O3/ZrO2 (Y2O3) eutectics and coatings under dry sliding conditions are discussed. The importance of microstructure and composition on wear properties of directionally solidified oxide eutectics is illustrated. Wear data of selected oxide-, nitride-, and carbide-based ceramics and coatings are given for temperatures up to 973K in air.

  16. Abrasion-Resistant Coating for Flexible Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mui, D.; Headding, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramic coating increases durability and heat resistance of flexible high-temperature insulation. Coating compatible with quartz-fabric insulation allowing it to remain flexible during and after repeated exposures to temperatures of 1,800 degree F (982 degree C). Prevents fabric from becoming brittle while increasing resistance to aerodynamic abrasion and loading. Coating consists of penetrating precoat and topcoat. Major ingredients high-purity colloidal silica binder and ground silica filler, which ensure stability and compatibility with fabric at high temperatures. Both precoat and topcoat cured at room temperature.

  17. Self-assembled nanolaminate coatings (SV)

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, H.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) are collaborating to develop affordable, self-assembled, nanocomposite coatings and associated fabrication processes that will be tailored to Lockheed Martin product requirements. The purpose of this project is to develop a family of self-assembled coatings with properties tailored to specific performance requirements, such as antireflective (AR) optics, using Sandia-developed self-assembled techniques. The project met its objectives by development of a simple and economic self-assembly processes to fabricate multifunctional coatings. Specifically, materials, functionalization methods, and associated coating processes for single layer and multiple layers coatings have been developed to accomplish high reflectivemore » coatings, hydrophobic coatings, and anti-reflective coatings. Associated modeling and simulations have been developed to guide the coating designs for optimum optical performance. The accomplishments result in significant advantages of reduced costs, increased manufacturing freedom/producibility, improved logistics, and the incorporation of new technology solutions not possible with conventional technologies. These self-assembled coatings with tailored properties will significantly address LMC's needs and give LMC a significant competitive lead in new engineered materials. This work complements SNL's LDRD and BES programs aimed at developing multifunctional nanomaterials for microelectronics and optics as well as structure/property investigations of self-assembled nanomaterials. In addition, this project will provide SNL with new opportunities to develop and apply self-assembled nanocomposite optical coatings for use in the wavelength ranges of 3-5 and 8-12 micrometers, ranges of vital importance to military-based sensors and weapons. The SANC technologies will be applied to multiple programs within the LM Company including the F-35, F-22, ADP (Future Strike Bomber, UAV

  18. Sectioning Coated Specimens Without Edge Rounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1988-01-01

    New method devised for preparation of cross sections of coated specimens for scanning electron microscopy or energy-dispersive analysis without rounding edges of coatings. After cutting and polishing, specimen section remains smooth and flat so it can be examined under high magnification out to edge of coating. Sectioned blade first electroplated with hard nickel 0.003 in., then encapsulated in two layers of material: soft conductive material at bottom and 0.25 in. of hard diallyl phthalate at top. Nickel plate provides electrical path from surface of section to conductive material below.

  19. Magnetism in nanoparticles: tuning properties with coatings.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Patricia; de la Presa, Patricia; Marín, Pilar; Multigner, Marta; Alonso, José María; Rivero, Guillermo; Yndurain, Félix; González-Calbet, José María; Hernando, Antonio

    2013-12-04

    This paper reviews the effect of organic and inorganic coatings on magnetic nanoparticles. The ferromagnetic-like behaviour observed in nanoparticles constituted by materials which are non-magnetic in bulk is analysed for two cases: (a) Pd and Pt nanoparticles, formed by substances close to the onset of ferromagnetism, and (b) Au and ZnO nanoparticles, which were found to be surprisingly magnetic at the nanoscale when coated by organic surfactants. An overview of theories accounting for this unexpected magnetism, induced by the nanosize influence, is presented. In addition, the effect of coating magnetic nanoparticles with biocompatible metals, oxides or organic molecules is also reviewed, focusing on their applications.

  20. Void forming pyrolytic carbon coating process

    DOEpatents

    Beatty, Ronald L.; Cook, Jackie L.

    2000-01-01

    A pyrolytic carbon coated nuclear fuel particle and method of making it. The fuel particle has a core composed of a refractory compound of an actinide metal. The pyrolytic carbon coating surrounds the core so as to provide a void volume therebetween. The coating has an initial density of no greater than 1.45 grams/cm.sup.3 and an anisotropy factor than 3.0 and a final density upon heat treatment above about 2000.degree. C. of greater than 1.7 grams/cm.sup.3 and an anisotropy factor greater than 5.

  1. Fast turn-on osmium coated cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrian, C. R. K.; Haas, G. A.; Shih, A.

    1984-03-01

    This abstract discloses a fast turn-on refractory coated cathode comprising a porous tungsten metal matrix impregnated with barium calcium aluminate and coated with osmium. The osmium coating has a planned series of interruptions with each interruption being on the order of several microns in width to thereby expose the tungsten. These interruptions permit the barium and oxygen from the impregnant to rise to the cathode surface during activation or reactivation to form a desired near monolayer of barium and oxygen to enhance electron emission. Thus, this cathode design provides a fast turn-on characteristic even after shelf storage.

  2. Metallic seal for thermal barrier coating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is particularly concerned with sealing thermal barrier coating systems of the type in use and being contemplated for use in diesel and other internal combustion engines. The invention also would find application in moderately high temperature regions of gas turbine engines and any other application employing a thermal barrier coating at moderate temperatures. Ni-35Cr-6Al-1Y, Ni-35Cr-6Al-1Yb, or other metallic alloy denoted as MCrAlx is applied over a zirconia-based thermal barrier overlayer. The close-out layer is glass-bead preened to densify its surface. This seals and protects the thermal barrier coating system.

  3. Multifunctional biocompatible coatings on magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkova, A. V.; Sorokina, O. N.; Rosenfeld, M. A.; Kovarski, A. L.

    2012-11-01

    Methods for coating formation on magnetic nanoparticles used in biology and medicine are considered. Key requirements to the coatings are formulated, namely, biocompatibility, stability, the possibility of attachment of pharmaceutical agents, and the absence of toxicity. The behaviour of nanoparticle/coating nanosystems in the body including penetration through cellular membranes and the excretion rates and routes is analyzed. Parameters characterizing the magnetic properties of these systems and their magnetic controllability are described. Factors limiting the applications of magnetically controlled nanosystems for targeted drug delivery are discussed. The bibliography includes 405 references.

  4. HIGH TEMPERATURE REFRACTORY COATING FOR GRAPHITE MOLDS

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.

    1958-10-21

    An improved foundry mold coating for use with graphite molds used in the casting of uranium is presented. The refractory mold coating serves to keep the molten uranium from contact with graphite of the mold and thus prevents carbon pickup by the molten metal. The refractory coating is made by dry mixing certain specific amounts of aluminum oxide, bentonite, Tennessee ball clay, and a soluble silicate salt. Water is then added to the mixture and the suspension thus formed is applied by spraying onto the mold.

  5. Aluminide coatings for nickel base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, H. C.; Sieraski, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    The metalliding process was used to aluminide IN-100 and TD NiCr. Aluminum was deposited over a broad range of deposition rates, with two types of coating structures resulting. Chromium, silicon, titanium and yttrium were also individually deposited simutaneously with aluminum on IN-100. None of these had a marked effect on the oxidation resistance of the aluminide coating. Porosity-free aluminide coatings with good oxidation resistance were formed on TD NiCr providing the aluminum concentration did not exceed 8 percent, the limit of solubility in the gamma phase.

  6. Control of electroosmosis in coated quartz capillaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, Blair J.; Van Alstine, James; Snyder, Robert S.; Shafer, Steven G.; Harris, J. Milton

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of various coatings for controlling the electroosmotic fluid flow that hinders electrophoretic processes is studied using analytical particle microelectrophoresis. The mobilities of 2-micron diameter glass and polystyrene latex spheres (exhibiting both negative and zero effective surface charge) were measured in 2-mm diameter quartz capillaries filled with NaCl solutions within the 3.5-7.8 pH range. It is found that capillary inner surface coatings using 5000 molecular weight (or higher) poly(ethylene glycol): significantly reduced electroosmosis within the selected pH range, were stable for long time periods, and appeared to be more effective than dextran, methylcellulose, or silane coatings.

  7. Hard TiCx/SiC/a-C:H nanocomposite thin films using pulsed high energy density plasma focus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Z. A.; Rawat, R. S.; Tan, K. S.; Kumar, A. K.; Ahmad, R.; Hussain, T.; Kloc, C.; Chen, Z.; Shen, L.; Zhang, Z.

    2013-04-01

    Thin films of TiCx/SiC/a-C:H were synthesized on Si substrates using a complex mix of high energy density plasmas and instability accelerated energetic ions of filling gas species, emanated from hot and dense pinched plasma column, in dense plasma focus device. The conventional hollow copper anode of Mather type plasma focus device was replaced by solid titanium anode for synthesis of TiCx/SiC/a-C:H nanocomposite thin films using CH4:Ar admixture of (1:9, 3:7 and 5:5) for fixed 20 focus shots as well as with different number of focus shots with fixed CH4:Ar admixture ratio 3:7. XRD results showed the formation of crystalline TiCx/SiC phases for thin film synthesized using different number of focus shots with CH4:Ar admixture ratio fixed at 3:7. SEM results showed that the synthesized thin films consist of nanoparticle agglomerates and the size of agglomerates depended on the CH4:Ar admixture ratio as well as on the number of focus shots. Raman analysis showed the formation of polycrystalline/amorphous Si, SiC and a-C for different CH4:Ar ratio as well as for different number of focus shots. The XPS analysis confirmed the formation of TiCx/SiC/a-C:H composite thin film. Nanoindentation results showed that the hardness and elastic modulus values of composite thin films increased with increasing number of focus shots. Maximum values of hardness and elastic modulus at the surface of the composite thin film were found to be about 22 and 305 GPa, respectively for 30 focus shots confirming the successful synthesis of hard composite TiCx/SiC/a-C:H coatings.

  8. Study of the recrystallization in coated pellets - effect of coating on API crystallinity.

    PubMed

    Nikowitz, Krisztina; Pintye-Hódi, Klára; Regdon, Géza

    2013-02-14

    Coated diltiazem hydrochloride-containing pellets were prepared using the solution layering technique. Unusual thermal behavior was detected with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and its source was determined using thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and hot-stage microscopy. The coated pellets contained diltiazem hydrochloride both in crystalline and amorphous form. Crystallization occurs on heat treatment causing an exothermic peak on the DSC curves that only appears in pellets containing both diltiazem hydrochloride and the coating. Results indicate that the amorphous fraction is situated in the coating layer. The migration of drugs into the coating layer can cause changes in its degree of crystallinity. Polymeric coating materials should therefore be investigated as possible crystallization inhibitors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Measure Guideline: Transitioning from Three-Coat Stucco to One-Coat Stucco with EPS

    SciTech Connect

    Brozyna, K.; Davis, G.; Rapport, A.

    2012-04-01

    This Measure Guideline has been developed to help builders transition from using a traditional three-coat stucco wall-cladding system to a one-coat stucco wall-cladding system with expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulated sheathing. The three-coat system uses a base layer, a fill layer, and a finish layer. The one-coat system maintains the look of a traditional stucco system but uses only a base layer and a finish coat over EPS insulation that achieves higher levels of energy efficiency. Potential risks associated with the installation of a one-coat stucco system are addressed in terms of design, installation, and warranty concerns such as cracking andmore » delamination, along with mitigation strategies to reduce these risks.« less

  10. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate...) The acrylate ester copolymer is a fully polymerized copolymer of ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate...

  11. Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) materials coating evaluation, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume consists of Appendices A and B to the report on the Weightless Environment Training Facility Materials Coating Evaluation project. The project selected 10 coating systems to be evaluated in six separate exposure environments, and subject to three tests for physical properties. Appendix A holds the coating system, surface preparation, and application data. Appendix B holds the coating material infrared spectra.

  12. 7 CFR 3201.98 - Wastewater systems coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wastewater systems coatings. 3201.98 Section 3201.98... Designated Items § 3201.98 Wastewater systems coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings that protect wastewater... procurement preference for qualifying biobased wastewater systems coatings. By that date, Federal agencies...

  13. 7 CFR 3201.98 - Wastewater systems coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wastewater systems coatings. 3201.98 Section 3201.98... Designated Items § 3201.98 Wastewater systems coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings that protect wastewater... procurement preference for qualifying biobased wastewater systems coatings. By that date, Federal agencies...

  14. Development of Bioactive Ceramic Coating on Titanium Alloy substrate for Biomedical Application Using Dip Coating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmawi, R.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Mustafa, N.; Noranai, Z.

    2017-08-01

    Bioactive apatite, such as hydroxyapatite ceramic (HA), [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] has been extensively investigated for biomedical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility and tissue bioactivity properties. Its bioactivity provides direct bonding to the bone tissue. Because of its similarity in chemical composition to the inorganic matrix of bone, HA is widely used as implant materials for bone. Unfortunately, because of its poor mechanical properties,. this bioactive material is not suitable for load bearing applications. In this study, by the assistance of dip-coating technique, HA coatings were deposited on titanium alloy substrates by employing hydrothermal derived HA powder. The produced coatings then were oven-dried at 130°C for 1 hour and calcined at various temperature over the range of 200-800°C for 1 hour. XRD measurement showed that HA was the only phase present in the coatings. However coatings calcined at 800°C comprised a mixture of HA and tri-calcium phosphate (TCP). FTIR measurement showed the existence of hydroxyl, phosphate, and carbonate bands. PO4 - band became sharper and narrower with the increased of calcination temperature. FESEM observation showed that the coating is polycrystalline with individual particles of nano to submicron size and has an average particle size of 35 nm. The thickness of the coating are direcly propotional with the viscosity of coating slurry. It was shown that the more viscous coating slurry would produce a thicker ceramic coating. Mechanical properties of the coating were measured in term of adhesion strength using a Micro Materials Nano Test microscratch testing machine. The result revealed that the coating had a good adhesion to the titanium alloy substrate.

  15. Method for improving the oxidation-resistance of metal substrates coated with thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Anthony Mark; Gray, Dennis Michael; Jackson, Melvin Robert

    2002-01-01

    A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

  16. Processing of fused silicide coatings for carbon-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The processing and oxidation resistance of fused Al-Si and Ni-Si slurry coatings on ATJ graphite was studied. Ni-Si coatings in the 70 to 90 percent Si range were successfully processed to melt, wet, and bond to the graphite. The molten coatings also infiltrated the porosity in graphite and reacted with it to form SiC in the coating. Cyclic oxidation at 1200 C showed that these coatings were not totally protective because of local attack of the substrate, due to the extreme thinness of the coatings in combination with coating cracks.

  17. Processing of fused silicide coatings for carbon-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The processing and oxidation resistance of fused Al-Si and Ni-Si slurry coatings on ATJ graphite was studied. Ni-Si coatings in the 70 to 90 percent Si range were successfully processed to melt, wet, and bond to the graphite. The molten coatings also infiltrated the porosity in graphite and reacted with it to form SiC in the coating. Cyclic oxidation at 1200 C showed that these coatings were not totally protective because of local attack of the substrate, due to the extreme thinness of the coatings in combination with coating cracks. Previously announced in STAR as N83-27019

  18. Thin film heater for removable volatile protecting coatings.

    PubMed

    Karim, Abid

    2013-01-01

    Freshly coated aluminum mirrors have excellent reflectivity at far ultraviolet wavelengths. However, reflectivity rapidly degrades when the mirror surfaces are exposed to atmosphere. In order to avoid this problem, freshly coated aluminum surface can be protected by over-coating of a removable volatile protecting coating. This protecting coating can be re-evaporated by controlled heating or by some other methods when required. This type of removable coating has immediate application in UV space astronomy. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of re-evaporation of removable volatile Zn protecting coating using a NiCr thin film heater without affecting the reflection properties of Al mirror surfaces.

  19. Anodized aluminum coatings for thermal control. I - Coating process and stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwitt, R. S.; Mcclung, R. C.; Jacobs, S.

    1992-01-01

    Anodized aluminum is a candidate material for use as a thermal radiator surface on Space Station Freedom. Here, results of measurements of coating stress at room temperature are presented. The effects of coating process conditions and also subsequent exposure to different humidities, from above ambient to vacuum, are reported. The most important observation with regard to space applications is that the coating stress is very dependent on humidity, changing from compressive at ambient humidity to strongly tensile in 10 exp -6 torr vacuum. The increase in stress is accompanied by loss of water from the coating, and the process is reversible.

  20. Method for fluidizing and coating ultrafine particles, device for fluidizing and coating ultrafine particles

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jie; Liu, Yung Y

    2015-01-20

    The invention provides a method for dispersing particles within a reaction field, the method comprising confining the particles to the reaction field using a standing wave. The invention also provides a system for coating particles, the system comprising a reaction zone; a means for producing fluidized particles within the reaction zone; a fluid to produce a standing wave within the reaction zone; and a means for introducing coating moieties to the reaction zone. The invention also provides a method for coating particles, the method comprising fluidizing the particles, subjecting the particles to a standing wave; and contacting the subjected particles with a coating moiety.