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Sample records for a-calcium sulfate hemihydrate

  1. Elution of Clindamycin and Enrofloxacin From Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate Beads In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Heidi; Boothe, Dawn M; Bennett, R Avery

    2015-11-01

    To compare the in vitro elution characteristics of clindamycin and enrofloxacin from calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads containing a single antibiotic, both antibiotics, and each antibiotic incubated in the same eluent well. Experimental in vitro study. Calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads were formed by mixing with clindamycin and/or enrofloxacin to create 4 study groups: (1) 160 mg clindamycin/10 beads; (2) 160 mg enrofloxacin/10 beads; (3) 160 mg clindamycin + 160 mg enrofloxacin/10 beads; and (4) 160 mg clindamycin/5 beads and 160 mg enrofloxacin/5 beads. Chains of beads were formed in triplicate and placed in 5 mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4 and room temperature) with constant agitation. Antibiotic-conditioned PBS was sampled at 14 time points from 1 hour to 30 days. Clindamycin and enrofloxacin concentrations in PBS were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Eluent concentrations from clindamycin-impregnated beads failed to remain sufficiently above minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for common infecting bacteria over the study period. Enrofloxacin eluent concentrations remained sufficiently above MIC for common wound pathogens of dogs and cats and demonstrated an atypical biphasic release pattern. No significant differences in elution occurred as a result of copolymerization of the antibiotics into a single bead or from individual beads co-eluting in the same eluent well. Clindamycin-impregnated beads cannot be recommended for treatment of infection at the studied doses; however, use of enrofloxacin-impregnated beads may be justified when susceptible bacteria are cultured. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. A Novel Injectable Magnesium/Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate Composite Cement for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. A novel injectable magnesium/calcium sulfate hemihydrate (Mg/CSH) composite with improved properties was reported here. Methods. Composition, setting time, injectability, compressive strength, and bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF) of the Mg/CSH composite were evaluated. Furthermore, the cellular responses of canine bone marrow stromal cells (cBMSCs) and bone formation capacity after the implantation of Mg/CSH in tibia defects of canine were investigated. Results. Mg/CSH possessed a prolonged setting time and markedly improved injectability and mechanical property (p < 0.05). Mg/CSH samples showed better degradability than CSH in SBF after 21 days of soaking (p < 0.05). Moreover, the degrees of cell attachment, proliferation, and capability of osteogenic differentiation on the Mg/CSH specimens were higher than those on CSH, without significant cytotoxicity and with the increased proliferation index, ALP activity, and expression levels of integrin β1 and Coll I in cBMSCs (p < 0.05). Mg/CSH enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation at the tibia defect area, including the significantly elevated bone mineral density, bone area fraction, and Coll I expression level (p < 0.05). Conclusions. The results implied that this new injectable bone scaffold exhibited promising prospects for bone repair and had a great potential in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26114102

  3. Elution of platinum from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, Rachel J; Phillips, Heidi; Garrett, Laura D; Dirikolu, Levent; Mitchell, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the elution of platinum from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) beads in vitro. SAMPLE 60 carboplatin-impregnated CSH beads and 9 CSH beads without added carboplatin (controls). PROCEDURES Carboplatin-impregnated CSH beads (each containing 4.6 mg of carboplatin [2.4 mg of platinum]) were placed into separate 10-mL plastic tubes containing 5 mL of PBSS in groups of 1, 3, 6, or 10; 3 control beads were placed into a single tube of PBSS at the same volume. Experiments were conducted in triplicate at 37°C and a pH of 7.4 with constant agitation. Eluent samples were collected at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours. Samples were analyzed for platinum content by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. RESULTS The mean concentration of platinum released per carboplatin-impregnated bead over 72 hours was 445.3 mg/L. Cumulative concentrations of platinum eluted increased as the number of beads per tube increased. There was a significant difference in platinum concentrations over time, with values increasing over the first 12 hours and then declining for all tubes. There was also a significant difference in percentage of total incorporated platinum released into tubes with different numbers of beads: the percentage of eluted platinum was higher in tubes containing 1 or 3 beads than in those containing 6 or 10 beads. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Carboplatin-impregnated CSH beads eluted platinum over 72 hours. Further studies are needed to determine whether implantation of carboplatin-impregnated CSH beads results in detectable levels of platinum systemically and whether the platinum concentrations eluted locally are toxic to tumor cells.

  4. Adsorption and substitution effects of Mg on the growth of calcium sulfate hemihydrate: An ab initio DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yan; Hou, S. C.; Xiang, Lan; Yu, Yang-Xin

    2015-12-01

    Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO4·0.5H2O, CSH) whiskers with high aspect ratio are promising reinforce materials which have drawn much attention. In order to obtain high quality CSH materials, effect of Mg2+ ions on properties of the (0 0 2), (2 0 0)1 and (2 0 0)2 planes of CSH is investigated using an ab initio density functional theory (DFT) with a van der Waals (vdW) dispersion-correction. The computed results show that strong adsorption and substitution effects take place between Mg2+ ion and (2 0 0)1 plane. The adsorption energies of an Mg2+ ion on the (0 0 2), (2 0 0)1 and (2 0 0)2 planes are -0.066, -0.571 and -0.047 eV, respectively. An insight into the electrostatic potential of pristine CSH planes has demonstrated that the (2 0 0)1 plane is much more negatively charged than the (0 0 2) and (2 0 0)2 planes. The energies of the substitution of a Ca atom with an Mg atom on the CSH (0 0 2), (2 0 0)1 and (2 0 0)2 planes are 1.572, 0.063 and 1.349 eV, respectively. It is found that Ca atoms on the (2 0 0)1 plane are relatively easy to be substituted by Mg atoms. The calculation results of a Ca2+ ion adsorption on the Mg-doped (2 0 0)1 plane indicate that the adsorption energies increase apparently as the doping ratio varies from 0 to 1.0. Compared with K+, Na+ and Al3+ ions, Mg2+ ion is the most promising additive to promote the growth of CSH along c axis.

  5. Diosgenin hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Linares, María-Guadalupe; Bernès, Sylvain; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; Guerrero-Luna, Gabriel; Martínez-Gallegos, Anselmo A.

    2012-01-01

    Diosgenin [or (22R,25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol] is the starting material of the Marker degradation, a cheap semi-synthesis of progesterone, which has been designated as an Inter­national Historic Chemical Landmark. Thus far, a single X-ray structure for diosgenin is known, namely its dimethyl sulfoxide solvate [Zhang et al. (2005 ▶). Acta Cryst. E61, o2324–o2325]. We have now determined the structure of the hemihydrate, C27H42O3·0.5H2O. The asymmetric unit contains two diosgenin mol­ecules, with quite similar conformations, and one water mol­ecule. Hy­droxy groups in steroids and water mol­ecules form O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonded R 5 4(10) ring motifs. Fused edge-sharing R(10) rings form a backbone oriented along [100], which aggregates the diosgenin mol­ecules in the crystal structure. PMID:22904823

  6. Development and characterization of an injectable cement of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer/calcium sulfate hemihydrate for bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaotong; Li, Hong; Qiao, Bo; Li, Weichao; Hao, Xinyan; Wu, Jun; Su, Bao; Jiang, Dianming

    2013-01-01

    A novel injectable bone cement was developed by integration of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer (n-CDHA/MAC) and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH; CaSO4 · 1/2H2O). The structure, setting time, and compressive strength of the cement were investigated. The results showed that the cement with a liquid to powder ratio of 0.8 mL/g exhibited good injectability and appropriate setting time and mechanical properties. In vitro cell studies indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite spread well and showed a good proliferation state. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite was significantly higher than that of the cells on pure CSH at 4 and 7 days of culture. The n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement was implanted into critical size defects of the femoral condyle in rabbits to evaluate its biocompatibility and osteogenesis in vivo. Radiological and histological results indicated that introduction of the n-CDHA/MAC into CSH enhanced new bone formation, and the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement exhibited good biocompatibility and degradability. In conclusion, the injectable n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite cement has a significant clinical advantage over pure CSH cement, and may be a promising bone graft substitute for the treatment of bone defects. PMID:24293996

  7. Characterization of long-term elution of platinum from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads in vitro by two distinct sample collection methods.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, Rachel J; Phillips, Heidi; Garrett, Laura D; Dirikolu, Levent; Mitchell, Mark A

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize long-term elution of platinum from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CI-CSH) beads in vitro by comparing 2 distinct sample collection methods designed to mimic 2 in vivo environments. SAMPLES 162 CI-CSH beads containing 4.6 mg of carboplatin (2.4 mg of platinum/bead). PROCEDURES For method 1, which mimicked an in vivo environment with rapid and complete fluid exchange, each of 3 plastic 10-mL conical tubes contained 3 CI-CSH beads and 5 mL of PBS solution. Eluent samples were obtained by evacuation of all fluid at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 hours and 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 22, 26, and 30 days. Five milliliters of fresh PBS solution was then added to each tube. For method 2, which mimicked an in vivo environment with no fluid exchange, each of 51 tubes (ie, 3 tubes/17 sample collection times) contained 3 CI-CSH beads and 5 mL of PBS solution. Eluent samples were obtained from the assigned tubes for each time point. All samples were analyzed for platinum content by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. RESULTS Platinum was released from CI-CSH beads for 22 to 30 days. Significant differences were found in platinum concentration and percentage of platinum eluted from CI-CSH beads over time for each method. Platinum concentrations and elution percentages in method 2 samples were significantly higher than those of method 1 samples, except for the first hour measurements. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Sample collection methods 1 and 2 may provide estimates of the minimum and maximum platinum release, respectively, from CI-CSH beads in vivo.

  8. Improved pharmacokinetics of mercaptopurine afforded by a thermally robust hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Kortney M; Matzger, Adam J

    2016-04-18

    Structural and thermal data were obtained for a novel hemihydrate of 6-mercaptopurine. The hemihydrate shows increased solubility and bioavailability when compared to the monohydrate form, better stability against conversion in aqueous media than the anhydrate form, and a dehydration temperature of 240 °C, the highest of any known hydrate crystal.

  9. Ethane-1,1,2-trisphosphonic acid hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Delain-Bioton, Lise; Lohier, Jean François; Villemin, Didier; Sopková-de Oliveira Santos, Jana; Hix, Gary; Jaffrès, Paul Alain

    2008-02-01

    Ethane-1,1,2-trisphosphonic acid crystallizes as a hemihydrate, C(2)H(9)O(9)P(3).0.5H(2)O, in which the water O atom lies on an inversion centre in the space group P2(1)/c. The acid component, which contains a short but noncentred O-H...O hydrogen bond, adopts a gauche conformation. The acid components are linked by an extensive series of O-H...O hydrogen bonds to form layers, which are linked into pairs by the water molecules.

  10. On the stability of the disordered molecular alloy phase of ammonia hemihydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C. W.; SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ; Bull, C. L.

    The disordered-molecular-alloy phase (DMA) of ammonia hydrates [J. S. Loveday and R. J. Nelmes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4329 (1999)] is unique in that it has substitutional disorder of ammonia and water over the molecular sites of a body centred cubic lattice. Whilst this structure has been observed in ammonia di- and mono-hydrate compositions, it has not been conclusively observed in the ammonia hemihydrate system. This work presents investigations of the structural behaviour of ammonia hemihydrate as a function of P and T. The indications of earlier studies [Ma et al. RSC Adv. 2, 4290 (2012)] that the DMA structuremore » could be produced by compression of ammonia hemihydrate above 20 GPa at ambient temperature are confirmed. In addition, the DMA structure was found to form reversibly both from the melt, and on warming of ammonia hemihydrate phase-II, in the pressure range between 4 and 8 GPa. The route used to make the DMA structure from ammonia mono- and di-hydrates—compression at 170 K to 6 GPa followed by warming to ambient temperature—was found not to produce the DMA structure for ammonia hemihydrate. These results provide the first strong evidence that DMA is a thermodynamically stable form. A high-pressure phase diagram for ammonia hemihydrate is proposed which has importance for planetary modelling.« less

  11. Improving dissolution and oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate by particle surface modification with surfactants and homogenization

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Eun-Sol; Baek, In-hwan; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Jung, Yunjin; Kim, Min-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to develop an oral formulation of pranlukast hemihydrate with improved dissolution and oral bioavailability using a surface-modified microparticle. Based on solubility measurements, surface-modified pranlukast hemihydrate microparticles were manufactured using the spray-drying method with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, sucrose laurate, and water and without the use of an organic solvent. The hydrophilicity of the surface-modified pranlukast hemihydrate microparticle increased, leading to enhanced dissolution and oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate without a change in crystallinity. The surface-modified microparticles with an hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/sucrose laurate ratio of 1:2 showed rapid dissolution of up to 85% within 30 minutes in dissolution medium (pH 6.8) and oral bioavailability higher than that of the commercial product, with approximately 2.5-fold and 3.9-fold increases in area under the curve (AUC0→12 h) and peak plasma concentration, respectively. Therefore, the surface-modified microparticle is an effective oral drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble therapeutic pranlukast hemihydrate. PMID:26150699

  12. The influence of impurities on phosphoric acid hemihydrate crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Leping; Wei, Hongyuan; Zhu, Zheng; Wang, Jingkang

    2007-09-01

    The influence of four typical impurities on phosphoric acid hemihydrate (H 3PO 4·0.5H 2O) crystallization in terms of kinetics and morphology is studied quantitatively. A new method for estimating growth rate is developed by taking the slopes of linearlized lines of transient chord length distribution (CLD) of crystals during the process using an in-line device of Focused Beam Reflectance Monitoring (FBRM). The presence of cations can reduce the nucleation rate of phosphoric acid while anions have less effect. Impurities of Fe 3+, Al 3+, and F - (>50 ppm) can widen the metastable zone to some extent. Adding small amounts of H 2SO 4 (<150 ppm) can enlarge metastable zone, but such effect becomes less after adding more H 2SO 4. The presence of the SO 42- tends to encourage H 3PO 4·0.5H 2O crystal growth in a wide concentration range with the maximum growth rate at 5000 ppm. Addition of Fe 3+ and Al 3+ at low level can increase crystal growth rate until it reaches a maximum at 500, 50, and 100 ppm for F -, Al 3+, and Fe 3+, respectively. Impurities of cations appear to have significant effect on crystal morphology; anions, however, appear not to change crystal shapes much.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No...

  15. Glucosamine Sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glucosamine Sulphate KCl, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate, GS, Mono-Sulfated Saccharide, Poly-(1->3)-N-Acetyl-2-Amino- ... Sulfate de Glucosamine, Sulfate de Glucosamine 2KCl, SG, Sulfated Monosaccharide, Sulfated Saccharide, Sulfato de Glucosamina. Glucosamine Hydrochloride ...

  16. Development and experimental design of a novel controlled-release matrix tablet formulation for indapamide hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Antovska, Packa; Ugarkovic, Sonja; Petruševski, Gjorgji; Stefanova, Bosilka; Manchevska, Blagica; Petkovska, Rumenka; Makreski, Petre

    2017-11-01

    Development, experimental design and in vitro in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of controlled-release matrix formulation. Development of novel oral controlled delivery system for indapamide hemihydrate, optimization of the formulation by experimental design and evaluation regarding IVIVC on a pilot scale batch as a confirmation of a well-established formulation. In vitro dissolution profiles of controlled-release tablets of indapamide hemihydrate from four different matrices had been evaluated in comparison to the originator's product Natrilix (Servier) as a direction for further development and optimization of a hydroxyethylcellulose-based matrix controlled-release formulation. A central composite factorial design had been applied for the optimization of a chosen controlled-release tablet formulation. The controlled-release tablets with appropriate physical and technological properties had been obtained with a matrix: binder concentration variations in the range: 20-40w/w% for the matrix and 1-3w/w% for the binder. The experimental design had defined the design space for the formulation and was prerequisite for extraction of a particular formulation that would be a subject for transfer on pilot scale and IVIV correlation. The release model of the optimized formulation has shown best fit to the zero order kinetics depicted with the Hixson-Crowell erosion-dependent mechanism of release. Level A correlation was obtained.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-18-9 or CaSO4·2H2O, CAS...

  18. The study of intermolecular interactions in NLO crystal melaminium chloride hemihydrate using DFT simulation and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, K.; Kumar, V. R. Suresh; Marchewka, M. K.; Binoy, J.

    2018-05-01

    Since, the intermolecular interactions play a crucial role in the formation of crystalline network, its analysis throws light on structure dependent crystalline properties. In the present study, DFT based vibrational spectral investigation has been performed in the stretching region (3500 cm-1 - 2800 cm-1) of IR and Raman spectra of melaminium chloride hemihydrates. The intermolecular interaction has been investigated by analyzing the half width of the OH and NH stretching profile of the deconvoluted spectra. Correlation of vibrational spectra with Hirshfeld surface analysis and finger print plot has been contemplated and molecular docking studies has been performed on melaminium chloride hemihydrate to assess its role in the drug transport mechanism and toxicity to human body.

  19. An NMR crystallography study of the hemihydrate of 2', 3'-O-isopropylidineguanosine.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G N Manjunatha; Cook, Daniel S; Iuga, Dinu; Walton, Richard I; Marsh, Andrew; Brown, Steven P

    2015-02-01

    An NMR crystallography study of the hemihydrate of 2', 3'-O-isopropylidineguanosine (Gace) is presented, together with powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. (1)H double-quantum and (14)N-(1)H HMQC spectra recorded at 850MHz and 75kHz MAS (using a JEOL 1mm probe) are presented together with a (1)H-(13)C refocused INEPT spectrum recorded at 500MHz and 12.5kHz MAS using eDUMBO-122(1)H homonuclear decoupling. NMR chemical shieldings are calculated using the GIPAW (gauge-including projector augmented wave) method; good two-dimensional agreement between calculation and experiment is observed for (13)C and (1)H chemical shifts for directly bonded CH and CH3 peaks. There are two Gace molecules in the asymmetric unit cell: differences in specific (1)H chemical shifts are rationalised in terms of the strength of CH-π and intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation and characterization of marine sponge collagen nanoparticles and employment for the transdermal delivery of 17beta-estradiol-hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Martina; Schatton, Wolfgang; Heinemann, Sascha; Hanke, Thomas; Kreuter, Jörg

    2009-09-01

    Transdermal administration of estradiol offers advantages over oral estrogens for hormone replacement therapy regarding side effects by bypassing the hepatic presystemic metabolism. The objective of this study was to develop nanoparticles of Chondrosia reniformis sponge collagen as penetration enhancers for the transdermal drug delivery of 17beta-estradiol-hemihydrate in hormone replacement therapy. Collagen nanoparticles were prepared by controlled alkaline hydrolysis and characterized using atomic force microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. Estradiol-hemihydrate was loaded to the nanoparticles by adsorption to their surface, whereupon a drug loading up to 13.1% of sponge collagen particle mass was found. After incorporation of drug-loaded nanoparticles in a hydrogel, the estradiol transdermal delivery from the gel was compared with that from a commercial gel that did not contain nanoparticles. Saliva samples in postmenopausal patients showed significantly higher estradiol levels after application of the gel with nanoparticles. The area under the curve (AUC) for estradiol time-concentration curves over 24 hours was 2.3- to 3.4-fold higher and estradiol levels 24 hours after administration of estradiol were at least twofold higher with the nanoparticle gel. The hydrogel with estradiol-loaded collagen nanoparticles enabled a prolonged estradiol release compared to a commercial gel and yielded a considerably enhanced estradiol absorption. Consequently, sponge collagen nanoparticles represent promising carriers for transdermal drug delivery.

  1. Diethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethyl sulfate ; CASRN 64 - 67 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  2. Dimethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl sulfate ; CASRN 77 - 78 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  3. Barium Sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... and intestine using x-rays or computed tomography (CAT scan, CT scan; a type of body scan that uses a ... be clearly seen by x-ray examination or CT scan. ... more times before an x-ray examination or CT scan.If you are using a barium sulfate enema, ...

  4. Injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair materials with regulable self-setting properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zonggang; Liu, Huanye; Liu, Xi; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2011-12-15

    An injectable and self-setting bone repair materials (nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/calcium sulfate hemihydrate, nHAC/CSH) was developed in this study. The nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (nHAC) composite, which is the mineralized fibril by self-assembly of nano-hydrocyapatite and collagen, has the same features as natural bone in both main hierarchical microstructure and composition. It is a bioactive osteoconductor due to its high level of biocompatibility and appropriate degradation rate. However, this material lacks handling characteristics because of its particle or solid-preformed block shape. Herein, calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) was introduced into nHAC to prepare an injectable and self-setting in situ bone repair materials. The morphology of materials was observed using SEM. Most important and interesting of all, calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD), which is not only the reactant of preparing CSH but also the final solidified product of CSH, was introduced into nHAC as setting accelerator to regulate self-setting properties of injectable nHAC/CSH composite, and thus the self-setting time of nHAC/CSH composite can be regulated from more than 100 min to about 30 min and even less than 20 min by adding various amount of setting accelerator. The compressive properties of bone graft substitute after final setting are similar to those of cancellous bone. CSD as an excellent setting accelerator has no significant effect on the mechanical property and degradability of bone repair materials. In vitro biocompatibility and in vivo histology studies demonstrated that the nHAC/CSH composite could provide more adequate stimulus for cell adhesion and proliferation, embodying favorable cell biocompatibility and a strong ability to accelerate bone formation. It can offer a satisfactory biological environment for growing new bone in the implants and for stimulating bone formation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Aging-driven decomposition in zolpidem hemitartrate hemihydrate and the single-crystal structure of its decomposition products.

    PubMed

    Vega, Daniel R; Baggio, Ricardo; Roca, Mariana; Tombari, Dora

    2011-04-01

    The "aging-driven" decomposition of zolpidem hemitartrate hemihydrate (form A) has been followed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and the crystal and molecular structures of the decomposition products studied by single-crystal methods. The process is very similar to the "thermally driven" one, recently described in the literature for form E (Halasz and Dinnebier. 2010. J Pharm Sci 99(2): 871-874), resulting in a two-phase system: the neutral free base (common to both decomposition processes) and, in the present case, a novel zolpidem tartrate monohydrate, unique to the "aging-driven" decomposition. Our room-temperature single-crystal analysis gives for the free base comparable results as the high-temperature XRPD ones already reported by Halasz and Dinnebier: orthorhombic, Pcba, a = 9.6360(10) Å, b = 18.2690(5) Å, c = 18.4980(11) Å, and V = 3256.4(4) Å(3) . The unreported zolpidem tartrate monohydrate instead crystallizes in monoclinic P21 , which, for comparison purposes, we treated in the nonstandard setting P1121 with a = 20.7582(9) Å, b = 15.2331(5) Å, c = 7.2420(2) Å, γ = 90.826(2)°, and V = 2289.73(14) Å(3) . The structure presents two complete moieties in the asymmetric unit (z = 4, z' = 2). The different phases obtained in both decompositions are readily explained, considering the diverse genesis of both processes. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. (E)-4-Meth-oxy-N'-(2,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzyl-idene)benzohydrazide hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Boonnak, Nawong; Horkaew, Jirapa; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2014-02-01

    The title compound crystallizes as a hemihydrate, C18H20N2O5·0.5H2O. The mol-ecule exists in an E conformation with respect to the C=N imine bond. The 4-meth-oxy-phenyl unit is disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.54 (2):0.46 (2). The dihedral angles between the benzene rings are 29.20 (9) and 26.59 (9)°, respectively, for the major and minor components of the 4-meth-oxy-substituted ring. All meth-oxy substituents lie close to the plane of the attached benzene rings [the Cmeth-yl-O-C-C torsion angles range from -4.0 (12) to 3.9 (2)°]. In the crystal, the components are linked into chains propagating along [001] via N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O inter-actions.

  7. Preliminary design specifications of a calcium model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A list of objectives, requirements, and guidelines are given for a calcium model. Existing models are reviewed and evaluated in relation to the stated objectives and requirements. The reviewed models were either too abstract or apparently invalidated. A technical approach to the design of a desirable model is identified.

  8. EPR study of gamma-irradiated N-methyl-L-alanine, DL-2-methyl glutamic acid hemihydrate and Di-leucine hydrochloride in solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sütçü, Kerem; Osmanoğlu, Y. Emre

    2017-12-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate ɣ-irradiated powders of N-methyl-L-alanine (NMLA), DL-2-methyl glutamic acid hemihydrate (DL2MGAH), and Di-leucine hydrochloride (DLHCl) at room temperature by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. After the γ-irradiation the samples indicated the existence of the CH3ĊNHCH3COOH, HOOCCH3NH2CĊHCH2COOH·1/2H2O and (CH3)2ĊCH2CH NHCOOHCOCH (NH2HCl) CH2CH (CH3)2 radicals, respectively. The spectral parameters of the radicals were determined. The results were compared with the earlier studies and discussed accordingly.

  9. Roles of Heparan Sulfate Sulfation in Dentinogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Hayano, Satoru; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Takeshi; Kalus, Ina; Milz, Fabian; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Islam, Md. Nurul; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Saito, Masahiro; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Adachi, Taiji; Dierks, Thomas; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential regulator of cell signaling and development. HS traps signaling molecules, like Wnt in the glycosaminoglycan side chains of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), and regulates their functions. Endosulfatases Sulf1 and Sulf2 are secreted at the cell surface to selectively remove 6-O-sulfate groups from HSPGs, thereby modifying the affinity of cell surface HSPGs for its ligands. This study provides molecular evidence for the functional roles of HSPG sulfation and desulfation in dentinogenesis. We show that odontogenic cells are highly sulfated on the cell surface and become desulfated during their differentiation to odontoblasts, which produce tooth dentin. Sulf1/Sulf2 double null mutant mice exhibit a thin dentin matrix and short roots combined with reduced expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) mRNA, encoding a dentin-specific extracellular matrix precursor protein, whereas single Sulf mutants do not show such defective phenotypes. In odontoblast cell lines, Dspp mRNA expression is potentiated by the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. In addition, pharmacological interference with HS sulfation promotes Dspp mRNA expression through activation of Wnt signaling. On the contrary, the silencing of Sulf suppresses the Wnt signaling pathway and subsequently Dspp mRNA expression. We also show that Wnt10a protein binds to cell surface HSPGs in odontoblasts, and interference with HS sulfation decreases the binding affinity of Wnt10a for HSPGs, which facilitates the binding of Wnt10a to its receptor and potentiates the Wnt signaling pathway, thereby up-regulating Dspp mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that Sulf-mediated desulfation of cellular HSPGs is an important modification that is critical for the activation of the Wnt signaling in odontoblasts and for production of the dentin matrix. PMID:22351753

  10. Automotive sulfate emission data.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, J H

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses automotive sulfate emission results obtained by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and Esso. This work has been directed towards obtaining sulfate emission factors for cars with and without catalyst. While the EPA and Chrysler investigations have found significant sulfate formation in noncatalyst cars, GM, Ford, and Esso have found only trace levels from noncatalyst cars. All of these investigators agree that much higher quantities of sulfate are emitted from catalyst cars. The work done to date shows pelleted catalysts to have much lower sulfate emissions over the low speed-EPA Federal Test Procedures than monolith catalysts. This is probably due to temporary storage of sulfates on the catalyst due to chemical interaction with the alumina pellets. The sulfate compounds are, to a large degree, emitted later under higher speed conditions which result in higher catalyst temperatures which decompose the alumina salt. Future work will be directed towards further elucidation of this storage mechanism as well as determining in detail how factors such as air injection rate and catalyst location affect sulfate emissions. PMID:50932

  11. Sulfation and cation effects on the conformational properties of the glycan backbone of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Faller, Christina E; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-05-21

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is one of several glycosaminoglycans that are major components of proteoglycans. A linear polymer consisting of repeats of the disaccharide -4GlcAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-, CS undergoes differential sulfation resulting in five unique sulfation patterns. Because of the dimer repeat, the CS glycosidic "backbone" has two distinct sets of conformational degrees of freedom defined by pairs of dihedral angles: (ϕ1, ψ1) about the β1-3 glycosidic linkage and (ϕ2, ψ2) about the β1-4 glycosidic linkage. Differential sulfation and the possibility of cation binding, combined with the conformational flexibility and biological diversity of CS, complicate experimental efforts to understand CS three-dimensional structures at atomic resolution. Therefore, all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations with Adaptive Biasing Force sampling of the CS backbone were applied to obtain high-resolution, high-precision free energies of CS disaccharides as a function of all possible backbone geometries. All 10 disaccharides (β1-3 vs β1-4 linkage × five different sulfation patterns) were studied; additionally, ion effects were investigated by considering each disaccharide in the presence of either neutralizing sodium or calcium cations. GlcAβ1-3GalNAc disaccharides have a single, broad, thermodynamically important free-energy minimum, whereas GalNAcβ1-4GlcA disaccharides have two such minima. Calcium cations but not sodium cations bind to the disaccharides, and binding is primarily to the GlcA -COO(-) moiety as opposed to sulfate groups. This binding alters the glycan backbone thermodynamics in instances where a calcium cation bound to -COO(-) can act to bridge and stabilize an interaction with an adjacent sulfate group, whereas, in the absence of this cation, the proximity of a sulfate group to -COO(-) results in two like charges being both desolvated and placed adjacent to each other and is found to be destabilizing. In addition to providing information

  12. Sulfation and Cation Effects on the Conformational Properties of the Glycan Backbone of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Faller, Christina E.; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is one of several glycosaminoglycans that are major components of proteoglycans. A linear polymer consisting of repeats of the disaccharide -4GlcAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-, CS undergoes differential sulfation resulting in five unique sulfation patterns. Because of the dimer repeat, the CS glycosidic “backbone” has two distinct sets of conformational degrees of freedom defined by pairs of dihedral angles: (ϕ1, ψ1) about the β1-3 glycosidic linkage and (ϕ2, ψ2) about the β1-4 glycosidic linkage. Differential sulfation and the possibility of cation binding, combined with the conformational flexibility and biological diversity of CS, complicate experimental efforts to understand CS three-dimensional structures at atomic resolution. Therefore, all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations with Adaptive Biasing Force sampling of the CS backbone were applied to obtain high resolution, high precision free energies of CS disaccharides as a function of all possible backbone geometries. All ten disaccharides (β1-3 vs. β1-4 linkage x five different sulfation patterns) were studied; additionally, ion effects were investigated by considering each disaccharide in the presence of either neutralizing sodium or calcium cations. GlcAβ1-3GalNAc disaccharides have a single, broad, thermodynamically important free-energy minimum whereas GalNAcβ1-4GlcA disaccharides have two such minima. Calcium cations but not sodium cations bind to the disaccharides, and binding is primarily to the GlcA –COO− moiety as opposed to sulfate groups. This binding alters the glycan backbone thermodynamics in instances where a calcium cation bound to –COO− can act to bridge and stabilize an interaction with an adjacent sulfate group, whereas, in the absence of this cation, the proximity of a sulfate group to –COO− results in two like charges being both desolvated and placed adjacent to each other and is found to be destabilizing. In addition to providing

  13. Sulfates in Indiana substrates.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-06-01

    This study was undertaken to develop modifications for improving cost and time efficiencies without sacrificing accuracy and precision to : the current method employed by the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) for determining sulfate conten...

  14. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  15. Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrazine / Hydrazine sulfate ; CASRN 302 - 01 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  16. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Aranghel, D., E-mail: daranghe@nipne.ro; Extreme Light Intrastructure Nuclear Physics; Badita, C. R.

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca{sup 2+} cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca{sup 2+} by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS).more » CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl{sub 2}) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.« less

  17. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranghel, D.; Badita, C. R.; Radulescu, A.; Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O.; Balasoiu, M.

    2016-03-01

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca2+ cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca2+ by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl2) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food... GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate, Fe... pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate produces...

  19. Protein Precipitation Using Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The basic theory of protein precipitation by addition of ammonium sulfate is presented, and the most common applications are listed. Tables are provided for calculating the appropriate amount of ammonium sulfate to add to a particular protein solution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Thermal analysis of calcium sulfate dihydrate sources used to manufacture gypsum wallboard

    DOE PAGES

    Engbrecht, Dick C.; Hirschfeld, Deidre A.

    2016-07-27

    Gypsum wallboard has been used for over 100 years as a barrier to the spread of fire in residential and commercial structures. The gypsum molecule, CaSO 4·2H 2O, provides two crystalline waters that are released upon heating providing an endothermic effect. Manufacturers have recognized that the source of the gypsum ore is a factor that affects all aspects of its performance; thus, it is hypothesized that the impurities present in the gypsum ore are the causes of the performance differences. Differential Thermal Analysis/Thermogravimetric Analysis (DTA/TGA) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used in this paper to compare and characterize samples ofmore » gypsum ore representing sources of natural, synthetic from a Flue Gas Desulfurization process (FGD) and blends thereof. The hemihydrate phase of representative natural, FGD, and reagent grade calcium sulfate were rehydrated with distilled water and evaluated by DTA/TGA. Analysis of the data shows distinct areas of similarity separated by the conversion to anhydrite ~250 °C. Compositional reconstructions based on DTA/TGA and XRD data were compared and although, the results were comparable, the DTA/TGA suggests thermally active compounds that were not detected by XRD. Anhydrite, silica and halite were reported by XRD but were not thermally reactive in the temperature range evaluated by DTA/TGA (ambient to 1050 °C). Finally, the presence of carbonate compounds (e.g., calcite and dolomite) were indicated by XRD and estimated from the thermal decomposition reaction ~700 °C.« less

  1. INTRACELLULAR SYNTHESIS OF CHONDROITIN SULFATE

    PubMed Central

    Dziewiatkowski, Dominic D.

    1962-01-01

    In autoradiograms of slices of costal cartilage, incubated for 4 hours in a salt solution containing S35-sulfate and then washed extensively and dehydrated, about 85 per cent of the radioactivity was assignable to the chondrocytes. From alkaline extracts of similarly prepared slices of cartilage, 64 to 83 per cent of the total sulfur-35 in the slices was isolated as chondroitin sulfate by chromatography on an anion-exchange resin. In view of the estimate that only about 15 per cent of the radioactivity was in the matrix, the isolation of 64 to 83 per cent of the total sulfur-35 as chondroitin sulfate is a strong argument that the chondrocytes are the loci in which chondroitin sulfate(s) is synthesized. PMID:13888910

  2. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  3. Simultaneous quantification of cholesterol sulfate, androgen sulfates, and progestagen sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Oji, Vinzenz; Hartmann, Michaela F; Traupe, Heiko; Wudy, Stefan A

    2015-09-01

    Steroids are primarily present in human fluids in their sulfated forms. Profiling of these compounds is important from both diagnostic and physiological points of view. Here, we present a novel method for the quantification of 11 intact steroid sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS. The compounds analyzed in our method, some of which are quantified for the first time in blood, include cholesterol sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone sulfate, 16-α-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenediol sulfate, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone sulfate, epitestosterone sulfate, and dihydrotestosterone sulfate. The assay was conceived to quantify sulfated steroids in a broad range of concentrations, requiring only 300 μl of serum. The method has been validated and its performance was studied at three quality controls, selected for each compound according to its physiological concentration. The assay showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.99) and recovery for all the compounds, with limits of quantification ranging between 1 and 80 ng/ml. Averaged intra-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation) and accuracies (relative errors) were below 10%. The method has been successfully applied to study the sulfated steroidome in diseases such as steroid sulfatase deficiency, proving its diagnostic value. This is, to our best knowledge, the most comprehensive method available for the quantification of sulfated steroids in human blood. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Simultaneous quantification of cholesterol sulfate, androgen sulfates, and progestagen sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS[S

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Oji, Vinzenz; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Traupe, Heiko; Wudy, Stefan A.

    2015-01-01

    Steroids are primarily present in human fluids in their sulfated forms. Profiling of these compounds is important from both diagnostic and physiological points of view. Here, we present a novel method for the quantification of 11 intact steroid sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS. The compounds analyzed in our method, some of which are quantified for the first time in blood, include cholesterol sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone sulfate, 16-α-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenediol sulfate, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone sulfate, epitestosterone sulfate, and dihydrotestosterone sulfate. The assay was conceived to quantify sulfated steroids in a broad range of concentrations, requiring only 300 μl of serum. The method has been validated and its performance was studied at three quality controls, selected for each compound according to its physiological concentration. The assay showed good linearity (R2 > 0.99) and recovery for all the compounds, with limits of quantification ranging between 1 and 80 ng/ml. Averaged intra-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation) and accuracies (relative errors) were below 10%. The method has been successfully applied to study the sulfated steroidome in diseases such as steroid sulfatase deficiency, proving its diagnostic value. This is, to our best knowledge, the most comprehensive method available for the quantification of sulfated steroids in human blood. PMID:26239050

  5. p-Cresyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Gryp, Tessa; Vanholder, Raymond; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Glorieux, Griet

    2017-01-01

    If chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an impairment of kidney function, several uremic solutes are retained. Some of these exert toxic effects, which are called uremic toxins. p-Cresyl sulfate (pCS) is a prototype protein-bound uremic toxin to which many biological and biochemical (toxic) effects have been attributed. In addition, increased levels of pCS have been associated with worsening outcomes in CKD patients. pCS finds its origin in the intestine where gut bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine and phenylalanine, leading to phenolic end products, of which pCS is one of the components. In this review we summarize the biological effects of pCS and its metabolic origin in the intestine. It appears that, according to in vitro studies, the intestinal bacteria generating phenolic compounds mainly belong to the families Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Veillonellaceae. Since pCS remains difficult to remove by dialysis, the gut microbiota could be a future target to decrease pCS levels and its toxicity, even at earlier stages of CKD, aiming at slowing down the progression of the disease and decreasing the cardiovascular burden. PMID:28146081

  6. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate. 558.364 Section 558.364 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin sulfate. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated article: 325 grams per.... (c) [Reserved] (d) Conditions of use. Neomycin sulfate is used as follows: Neomycin Sulfate...

  7. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate. 558.364 Section 558.364 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin sulfate. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated article: 325 grams per.... (c) [Reserved] (d) Conditions of use. Neomycin sulfate is used as follows: Neomycin Sulfate...

  8. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate. 558.364 Section 558.364 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin sulfate. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated article: 325 grams per.... (c) [Reserved] (d) Conditions of use. Neomycin sulfate is used as follows: Neomycin Sulfate...

  9. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate. 558.364 Section 558.364 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin sulfate. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated article: 325 grams per.... (c) [Reserved] (d) Conditions of use. Neomycin sulfate is used as follows: Neomycin Sulfate...

  10. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate. 558.364 Section 558.364 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin sulfate. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated article: 325 grams per.... (c) [Reserved] (d) Conditions of use. Neomycin sulfate is used as follows: Neomycin Sulfate...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of the ophthalmic preparation contains 5.0 milligrams neomycin sulfate (3.5...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of the ophthalmic preparation contains 5.0 milligrams neomycin sulfate (3.5...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of the ophthalmic preparation contains 5.0 milligrams neomycin sulfate (3.5...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of the ophthalmic preparation contains 5.0 milligrams neomycin sulfate (3.5...

  15. Diverse Aqueous Conditions on Mars from New Orbital Detections of Carbonate and Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, James J.; Squyres, S. W.

    2010-10-01

    Diverse aqueous environments on ancient Mars have been a key inference from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which has identified many alteration minerals in a range of settings [e.g., 1-4]. Here we report two new minerals detected using CRISM. In the southern highlands northwest of the Hellas basin, a mid-sized crater exposes carbonate in its central uplift. Spectral absorptions at 1, 2.33, and 2.53 microns are most consistent with Fe-carbonate, distinct from the Mg-carbonates identified from orbit by [5]. Fe-carbonate is associated with Mg-phyllosilicate in fractured materials formerly buried kilometers beneath the surface, and--like the Mg/Fe-carbonate found by the Spirit rover [6]--suggests a reducing, neutral-to-alkaline alteration environment. One of the largest phyllosilicate exposures on Mars occurs in the Mawrth Vallis region [e.g., 7]. We identify bassanite (Ca-sulfate hemihydrate) in layers underlying the phyllosilicate-bearing beds [8], a stratigraphy distinct from that predicted by global models of martian aqueous history [9]. Bassanite could have formed via acid-sulfate alteration of Ca-carbonate, through dehydration of gypsum, or under hydrothermal conditions [10]. These detections expand the known mineralogic diversity of Mars and the range of environments to explore for past habitability. [1] Mustard, J. F. et al. (2008) Nature 454, 305-309. [2] Murchie, S. L. et al. (2009) J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06. [3] Ehlmann, B. L. et al. (2009) J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D08. [4] Wray, J. J. et al. (2009) Geology 37, 1043-1046. [5] Ehlmann, B. L. et al. (2008) Science 322, 1828-1832. [6] Morris, R. V. et al. Science, in press, doi:10.1126/science.1189667. [7] Poulet, F. et al. (2005) Nature 438, 623-627. [8] Wray, J. J. et al. Icarus, in press, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.06.001. [9] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2006) Science 312, 400-404. [10] Vaniman, D. T. et al. (2009) LPSC 40, 1654.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric sulfate. 184.1307 Section 184.1307 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric sulfate. 184.1307 Section 184.1307 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric sulfate. 184.1307 Section 184.1307 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric sulfate. 184.1307 Section 184.1307 Food and....1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric sulfate. 184.1307 Section 184.1307 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by...

  1. Improvement of mechanical strength and osteogenic potential of calcium sulfate-based hydroxyapatite 3-dimensional printed scaffolds by ε-polycarbonate coating.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Yang, Sun-Sik; Park, Ho; Lee, Se-Hwan; Cho, Young-Sam; Lee, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Powder-based three-dimensional (3D) printing is an excellent method to fabricate complex-shaped scaffolds for tissue engineering. However, their lower mechanical strength restricts their application in bone tissue engineering. Here, we created a 3D-printed scaffold coated with a ε-polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer solution (5 and 10 w/v %) to improve the mechanical strength of the scaffold. The 3D scaffold was fabricated from calcium sulfate hemihydrate powder (CaSO 4 -1/2 H 2 O), transformed into hydroxyapatite (HAp) by treatment with a hydrothermal reaction in an NH 4 H 2 PO 4 solution. The surface properties and composition of the scaffold were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. We demonstrated that the 3D scaffold coated with PCL had an improved mechanical modulus. Coating with 5 and 10% PCL increased the compressive strength significantly, by about 2-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared with that of uncoated scaffolds. However, the porosity was reduced significantly by coating with 10% PCL. In vitro biological evaluation demonstrated that MG-63 cells adhered well and proliferated on the 3D scaffold coated with PCL, and the scaffold was not cytotoxic. In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity and real time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that osteoblast differentiation also improved in the PCL-coated 3D scaffolds. These results indicated that PCL polymer coating could improve the compressive strength and biocompatibility of 3D HAp scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.

  2. Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate sulfatases from mammals and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumin; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Sulfatases that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of the sulfate groups on chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) poly- and oligosaccharides belong to the formylglycine-dependent family of sulfatases and have been widely found in various mammalian and bacterial organisms. However, only a few types of CS/DS sulfatase have been identified so far. Recently, several novel CS/DS sulfatases have been cloned and characterized. Advanced studies have provided significant insight into the biological function and mechanism of action of CS/DS sulfatases. Moreover, further studies will provide powerful tools for structural and functional studies of CS/DS as well as related applications. This article reviews the recent progress in CS/DS sulfatase research and is expected to initiate further research in this field.

  3. Methods of producing sulfate salts of cations from heteroatomic compounds and dialkyl sulfates and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2015-09-29

    Methods of preparing sulfate salts of heteroatomic compounds using dialkyl sulfates as a primary reactant are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of making ionic liquids from the sulfate salts of the heteroatomic compound, and electrochemical cells comprising the ionic liquids.

  4. Computational study of a calcium release-activated calcium channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil

    2016-05-01

    The naturally occurring proteins that form hole in membrane are commonly known as ion channels. They play multiple roles in many important biological processes. Deletion or alteration of these channels often leads to serious problems in the physiological processes as it controls the flow of ions through it. The proper maintenance of the flow of ions, in turn, is required for normal health. Here we have investigated the behavior of a calcium release-activated calcium ion channel with pdb entry 4HKR in Drosophila Melanogaster. The equilibrium energy as well as molecular dynamics simulation is performed first. The protein is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to find their energy minimized value. Simulation of the protein in the environment of water and ions has given us important results too. The solvation energy is also found using Charmm potential.

  5. Aerobic sulfate reduction in microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Donald E.; Des Marais, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of bacterial sulfate reduction and dissolved oxygen (O2) in hypersaline bacterial mats from Baja California, Mexico, revealed that sulfate reduction occurred consistently within the well-oxygenated photosynthetic zone of the mats. This evidence that dissimilatory sulfate reduction can occur in the presence of O2 challenges the conventional view that sulfate reduction is a strictly anaerobic process. At constant temperature, the rates of sulfate reduction in oxygenated mats during daytime were similar to rates in anoxic mats at night: thus, during a 24-hour cycle, variations in light and O2 have little effect on rates of sulfate reduction in these mats.

  6. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  7. EGFR Activation Mediates Inhibition of Axon Regeneration by Myelin and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprivica, Vuk; Cho, Kin-Sang; Park, Jong Bae; Yiu, Glenn; Atwal, Jasvinder; Gore, Bryan; Kim, Jieun A.; Lin, Estelle; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Chen, Dong Feng; He, Zhigang

    2005-10-01

    Inhibitory molecules associated with myelin and the glial scar limit axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying signaling mechanisms of regeneration inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we show that suppressing the kinase function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocks the activities of both myelin inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in inhibiting neurite outgrowth. In addition, regeneration inhibitors trigger the phosphorylation of EGFR in a calcium-dependent manner. Local administration of EGFR inhibitors promotes significant regeneration of injured optic nerve fibers, pointing to a promising therapeutic avenue for enhancing axon regeneration after CNS injury.

  8. Effects of Calcium Sulfate Combined with Platelet-rich Plasma on Restoration of Long Bone Defect in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua; Ji, Xin-Ran; Zhang, Qun; Tian, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Bo-Xun; Tang, Pei-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The treatment for long bone defects has been a hot topic in the field of regenerative medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of calcium sulfate (CS) combined with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on long bone defect restoration. Methods: A radial bone defect model was constructed through an osteotomy using New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group): a CS combined with PRP (CS-PRP) group, a CS group, a PRP group, and a positive (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2) control group. PRP was prepared from autologous blood using a two-step centrifugation process. CS-PRP was obtained by mixing hemihydrate CS with PRP. Radiographs and histologic micrographs were generated. The percentage of bone regenerated bone area in each rabbit was calculated at 10 weeks. One-way analysis of variance was performed in this study. Results: The radiographs and histologic micrographs showed bone restoration in the CS-PRP and positive control groups, while nonunion was observed in the CS and PRP groups. The percentages of bone regenerated bone area in the CS-PRP (84.60 ± 2.87%) and positive control (52.21 ± 4.53%) groups were significantly greater than those in the CS group (12.34 ± 2.17%) and PRP group (16.52 ± 4.22%) (P < 0.001). In addition, the bone strength of CS-PRP group (43.10 ± 4.10%) was significantly greater than that of the CS group (20.10 ± 3.70%) or PRP group (25.10 ± 2.10%) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: CS-PRP functions as an effective treatment for long bone defects through stimulating bone regeneration and enhancing new bone strength. PMID:26904990

  9. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  10. DYNAMICS OF AUTOMOTIVE SULFATE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A preliminary assessment of the potential environmental impact of automotive sulfuric acid (or sulfate) aerosol has been made by analyzing the aerosol dynamics. This analysis leads to the prediction of ambient automotive sulfuric acid aerosol concentrations over and around a larg...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-63-0) is prepared by the action of sulfuric acid on...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7785-0987-097) is a... of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal, followed by leaching and...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-63-0) is prepared by the action of sulfuric acid on...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal...

  18. Method of coating a substrate with a calcium phosphate compound

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Yufei; Campbell, Allison A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a method of coating a substrate with a calcium phosphate compound using plasma enhanced MOCVD. The substrate is a solid material that may be porous or non-porous, including but not limited to metal, ceramic, glass and combinations thereof. The coated substrate is preferably used as an implant, including but not limited to orthopaedic, dental and combinations thereof. Calcium phosphate compound includes but is not limited to tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and combinations thereof. TCP is preferred on a titanium implant when implant resorbability is desired. HA is preferred when the bone bonding of new bone tissue into the structure of the implant is desired. Either or both of TCP and/or HA coated implants may be placed into a solution with an agent selected from the group of protein, antibiotic, antimicrobial, growth factor and combinations thereof that can be adsorbed into the coating before implantation. Once implanted, the release of TCP will also release the agent to improve growth of new bone tissues and/or to prevent infection.

  19. 21 CFR 524.960 - Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions. 524.960 Section 524.960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.960 Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate...

  20. 21 CFR 524.960 - Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions. 524.960 Section 524.960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.960 Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-20-2) occurs...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 556.300 - Gentamicin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate. 556.300 Section 556.300 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.300 Gentamicin sulfate. (a) A tolerance of 0.1 part per million is established for negligible residues of gentamicin sulfate in the uncooked edible tissues of...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 556.300 - Gentamicin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate. 556.300 Section 556.300 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.300 Gentamicin sulfate. (a) A tolerance of 0.1 part per million is established for negligible residues of gentamicin sulfate in the uncooked edible tissues of...

  3. 21 CFR 556.300 - Gentamicin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate. 556.300 Section 556.300 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.300 Gentamicin sulfate. (a) A tolerance of 0.1 part per million is established for negligible residues of gentamicin sulfate in the uncooked edible tissues of...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Treesearch

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs.... It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium carbonate...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  2. (+/-)-cis-2-methylspiro[1,3-oxathiolane-5,3'-quinuclidine] hydrochloride, hemihydrate (SNI-2011, cevimeline hydrochloride) induces saliva and tear secretions in rats and mice: the role of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Iga, Y; Arisawa, H; Ogane, N; Saito, Y; Tomizuka, T; Nakagawa-Yagi, Y; Masunaga, H; Yasuda, H; Miyata, N

    1998-11-01

    We investigated effects of (+/-)-cis-2-methylspiro[1,3-oxathiolane-5,3'-quinuclidine] hydrochloride, hemihydrate (SNI-2011, cevimeline hydrochloride), a rigid analogue of acetylcholine, on saliva and tear secretions in rats and mice to evaluate its therapeutical efficacy for xerostomia and xerophthalmia in patients with Sjogren's syndrome and X-ray exposure in the head and neck. Intraduodenal administrations of SNI-2011 increased saliva secretion in a dose-dependent manner at doses ranging from 3 to 30 mg/kg in normal rats and mice, two strains of autoimmune disease mice and X-irradiated saliva secretion defective rats. The salivation elicited by SNI-2011 was completely inhibited by atropine. A similar atropine-sensitive response was observed in tear secretion. In rat submandibular/sublingual gland membranes, [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding was saturable, and Scatchard plot analysis revealed a single population of binding sites with a Kd of 22 pM and a maximal binding capacity of 60 fmol/mg protein. The competitive inhibition curve of the [3H]QNB binding by SNI-2011 was obtained, and its dissociation constant value calculated from IC50 was 1-2 microM. These results suggest that SNI-2011 increases saliva and tear secretions through a direct stimulation to muscarinic receptors in salivary and lacrimal glands, and they suggest that SNI-2011 should be beneficial to patients with Sjögren's syndrome and X-ray exposure in the head and neck.

  3. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    DOEpatents

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  4. Mixtures of Sulfates in Melas Chasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-04

    In this image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, layering within the light-toned sulfate deposit is the result of different states of hydration. Some of the layers have sulfates with little water (known as monohydrated sulfates) whereas other layers have higher amounts of water (called polyhydrated sulfates). The different amounts of water within the sulfates may reflect changes in the water chemistry during deposition of the sulfates, or may have occurred after the sulfates were laid down when heat or pressure forced the water out of some layers, causing a decrease in the hydration state. Many locations on Mars have sulfates, which are sedimentary rocks formed in water. Within Valles Marineris, the large canyon system that cuts across the planet, there are big and thick sequences of sulfates. The CRISM instrument on MRO is crucial for telling scientists which type of sulfate is associated with each layer, because each hydration state will produce a spectrum with absorptions at specific wavelengths depending upon the amount of water contained within the sulfate. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21935

  5. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  6. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  7. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  8. Reduced Sulfation of Chondroitin Sulfate but Not Heparan Sulfate in Kidneys of Diabetic db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Reine, Trine M.; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G.; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes. PMID:23757342

  9. Reduced sulfation of chondroitin sulfate but not heparan sulfate in kidneys of diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Reine, Trine M; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O

    2013-08-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes.

  10. Monohydrated Sulfates in Aurorae Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Aurorae Chaos was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0653 UTC (2:53 a.m. EDT) on June 10, 2007, near 7.5 degrees south latitude, 327.25 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Aurorae Chaos lies east of the Valles Marineris canyon system. Its western edge extends toward Capri and Eos Chasmata, while its eastern edge connects with Aureum Chaos. Some 750 kilometers (466 miles) wide, Aurorae Chaos is most likely the result of collapsed surface material that settled when subsurface ice or water was released.

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area featuring several knobs of erosion-resistant material at one end of what appears to be a large teardrop shaped plateau. Similar plateaus occur throughout the interior of Valles Marineris, and they are formed of younger, typically layered rocks that post-date formation of the canyon system. Many of the deposits contain sulfate-rich layers, hinting at ancient saltwater.

    The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals a swath of light-colored material draped over the knobs. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral).

    The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 5 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the monohydrated sulfate-containing deposits drape over the knobs and also an outcrop in lower-elevation parts of the

  11. Significant role of organic sulfur in supporting sedimentary sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Li, Jiying; Katsev, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) is a major carbon mineralization pathway in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater, which regulates the production of hydrogen sulfide and the mobilization rates of biologically important elements such as phosphorus and mercury. It has been widely assumed that water-column sulfate is the main sulfur source to fuel this reaction in sediments. While this assumption may be justified in high-sulfate environments such as modern seawater, we argue that in low-sulfate environments mineralization of organic sulfur compounds can be an important source of sulfate. Using a reaction-transport model, we investigate the production of sulfate from sulfur-containing organic matter for a range of environments. The results show that in low sulfate environments (<500 μM) the in-sediment production of sulfate can support a substantial portion (>50%) of sulfate reduction. In well-oxygenated systems, porewater sulfate profiles often exhibit sub-interface peaks so that sulfate fluxes are directed out of the sediment. Our measurements in Lake Superior, the world's largest lake, corroborate this conclusion: offshore sediments act as sources rather than sinks of sulfate for the water column, and sediment DSR is supported entirely by the in-sediment production of sulfate. Sulfate reduction rates are correlated to the depth of oxygen penetration and strongly regulated by the supply of reactive organic matter; rate co-regulation by sulfate availability becomes appreciable below 500 μM level. The results indicate the need to consider the mineralization of organic sulfur in the biogeochemical cycling in low-sulfate environments, including several of the world's largest freshwater bodies, deep subsurface, and possibly the sulfate-poor oceans of the Early Earth.

  12. Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Hsieh, Y.P.

    1998-07-01

    Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated the potential of sulfate reduction in the wetland soils by adding sulfate, organic substrate, and lime. Sulfate reduction was found to be an active process in both swamp soils without any amendment, where the pore water pH was as lowmore » as 3.6 and sulfate concentration was as low as 5 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Without amendment, 11 to 14% of organic C was oxidized through sulfate reduction in the swamp soils. Sulfate loading, liming, and substrate addition significantly increased sulfate reduction in the black gum swamp soil, but none of those treatments increase sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil. The limiting factor for sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil were likely texture and soil aggregate related properties. The results suggested that wastewater loading may increase sulfate reduction in some freshwater wetlands such as the black swamps while it has no stimulating effect on other wetlands such as the titi swamps.« less

  13. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Hydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; OConnor, V.; Cloutis, E.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals have been identified in Martian meteorites and on Mars using a suite of instruments aboard the MER rovers. These results have confirmed previous groundbased observations and orbital measurements that suggested their presence. The orbiting OMEGA instrument on Mars Express is also finding evidence for sulfate. In order to better interpret remote-sensing data, we present here the results of a coordinated visible/near infrared (VNIR) reflectance, Moussbauer (MB), and thermal emittance study of wellcharacterized hydrous sulfate minerals.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10034-99-8) occurs...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The...

  18. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The...

  19. [Regulation of sulfates, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals in technogenic reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria].

    PubMed

    Hudz', S P; Peretiatko, T B; Moroz, O M; Hnatush, S O; Klym, I R

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Ya-11 in the presence of sulfates and organic compounds in the medium reduce sulfates to hydrogen sulfide (dissimilatory sulfate reduction). Heavy metals in concentration over 2 mM inhibit this process. Pb2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Fe2+ and Cd2+ ions in concentration 1-1.5 mM display insignificant inhibiting effect on sulfate reduction process, and metals precipitate in the form of sulfides. At concentrations of heavy metals 2-3 mM one can observe a decrease of sulfates reduction intensity, and a percent of metals binding does not exceed 72%. Obtained results give reason to confirm, that sulfate-reducing bacteria play an important role in regulation of the level of sulfates, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals in reservoirs and they may be used for purification of water environment from these compounds.

  20. A modified sulfate process to lunar oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A modified sulfate process which produces oxygen from iron oxide-bearing minerals in lunar soil is under development. Reaction rates of ilmenite in varying strength sulfuric acid have been determined. Quantitative conversion of ilmenite to ferrous sulfate was observed over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Data has also been developed on the calcination of by-product sulfates. System engineering for overall operability and simplicity has begun, suggesting that a process separating the digestion and sulfate dissolution steps may offer an optimum process.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate...) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The ingredients...

  2. Immunoblotting assays for keratan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Hae; Brooks, Randolph; Halper, Jaroslava

    2002-07-15

    The detection of microquantities of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in biological samples has been hampered by the lack of sensitive methods. In this paper we describe the modification and development of three sensitive assays capable of detecting nanogram quantities of GAGs in biological samples. The first assay detects total GAGs. It is a modified Alcian blue dye precipitation assay in which the dye binds to the negatively charged GAGs in CsCl-fractionated extracts from chicken tendons. This assay compares favorably with the widely used uronic acid assay in terms of its sensitivity and ability to detect all classes of GAGs, including keratan sulfate (KS). Two other assays, dot-blotting and immunoblotting, detect KS in complex mixtures and can be easily adapted for the detection of other GAGs. Both take advantage of binding of carboxyl and sulfate groups of GAGs to trivalent neodymium. In dot-blotting, samples were directly blotted onto nitrocellulose membrane soaked in Nd(2)(SO(4))(3) buffer, and KS was detected with the monoclonal anti-KS 5-D-4 antibody and an avidin-biotin complex detection system. In immunoblotting, the samples were first separated in 28% polyacrylamide gels, transferred onto a Nd(2)(SO(4))(3)-soaked nitrocellulose membrane using a phosphate buffer system, and stained and developed using the same protocol as in dot-blotting. Whereas dot-blotting allows the use of very low quantities of samples because of its high sensitivity (lower detection limit was 5 ng), immunoblotting provides more specificity.

  3. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822... Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely used in food in accordance... of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting chiefly of sodium lauryl sulfate [CH2(CH2)10CH2OSO2Na]. (2) It...

  4. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates.

  5. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Anhydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; Dyar, M. D.; Cloutis, E.; Forray, F. L.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfates have been identified in Martian soils and bedrock and are emerging as an important indicator for aqueous activity on Mars. Sulfate minerals can form in a variety of low-temperature (evaporitic; chemical-weathering) and high-temperature (volcanic/fumarolic; hydrothermal) environments and their formational environments can range from alkaline to acidic. Although sulfates generally form in the presence of water, not all sulfates are hydrous or contain water in their structures. Many of these anhydrous sulfates (Dana group 28; Strunz class 67A) are minerals that form as accompanying phases to the main minerals in ore deposits or as replacement deposits in sedimentary rocks. However, some form from thermal decomposition of OH or H2O-bearing sulfates, such as from the reaction [1]: jarosite = yavapaiite + Fe2O3 + H2O. Where known, the stability fields of these minerals all suggest that they would be stable under martian surface conditions [2]. Thus, anhydrous sulfate minerals may contribute to martian surface mineralogy, so they must be well-represented in spectral libraries used for interpretation of the Martian surface. We present here the preliminary results of an integrated study of emittance, reflectance, and Mossbauer spectroscopy of a suite of wel-lcharacterized anhydrous sulfates.

  6. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Hydrazine sulfate has shown no anticancer activity in randomized clinical trials. It was reported in some clinical trials to be helpful in treating poor appetite and weight loss due to cancer. Learn more about hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  7. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product...

  9. The ammonium sulfate inhibition of human angiogenin.

    PubMed

    Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Tsirkone, Vicky G; Dossi, Kyriaki; Kassouni, Aikaterini G; Liggri, Panagiota G V; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Stravodimos, George A; Balatsos, Nikolaos A A; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the inhibition of human angiogenin by ammonium sulfate. The inhibitory potency of ammonium sulfate for human angiogenin (IC50 = 123.5 ± 14.9 mm) is comparable to that previously reported for RNase A (119.0 ± 6.5 mm) and RNase 2 (95.7 ± 9.3 mm). However, analysis of two X-ray crystal structures of human angiogenin in complex with sulfate anions (in acidic and basic pH environments, respectively) indicates an entirely distinct mechanism of inhibition. While ammonium sulfate inhibits the ribonucleolytic activity of RNase A and RNase 2 by binding to the active site of these enzymes, sulfate anions bind only to peripheral substrate anion-binding subsites of human angiogenin, and not to the active site. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature tomore » guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.« less

  11. Negative Electron Transfer Dissociation Sequencing of 3-O-Sulfation-Containing Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiandong; Wei, Juan; Hogan, John D.; Chopra, Pradeep; Joshi, Apoorva; Lu, Weigang; Klein, Joshua; Boons, Geert-Jan; Lin, Cheng; Zaia, Joseph

    2018-03-01

    Among dissociation methods, negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) has been proven the most useful for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sequencing because it produces informative fragmentation, a low degree of sulfate losses, high sensitivity, and translatability to multiple instrument types. The challenge, however, is to distinguish positional sulfation. In particular, NETD has been reported to fail to differentiate 4-O- versus 6-O-sulfation in chondroitin sulfate decasaccharide. This raised the concern of whether NETD is able to differentiate the rare 3-O-sulfation from predominant 6-O-sulfation in heparan sulfate (HS) oligosaccharides. Here, we report that NETD generates highly informative spectra that differentiate sites of O-sulfation on glucosamine residues, enabling structural characterizations of synthetic HS isomers containing 3-O-sulfation. Further, lyase-resistant 3-O-sulfated tetrasaccharides from natural sources were successfully sequenced. Notably, for all of the oligosaccharides in this study, the successful sequencing is based on NETD tandem mass spectra of commonly observed deprotonated precursor ions without derivatization or metal cation adduction, simplifying the experimental workflow and data interpretation. These results demonstrate the potential of NETD as a sensitive analytical tool for detailed, high-throughput structural analysis of highly sulfated GAGs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Tyrosine sulfation in precursors of collagen V.

    PubMed

    Fessler, L I; Brosh, S; Chapin, S; Fessler, J H

    1986-04-15

    Radioactive labeling of p-collagens V, collagens V, and, to a small extent, of procollagen V occurred when [35S]sulfate was incubated with tendons or primary tendon cell cultures, or blood vessels and crops of 17- to 19-day-old chick embryos, or with lung slices from neonatal rats. Most or all of this label is in the form of 1 or more sulfated tyrosine residues/chain of p alpha 1(V), alpha 1(V), p alpha 1'(V), alpha 1'(V), p alpha 2(V), and alpha 2(V), and it remains attached through purification by dialysis, ammonium sulfate precipitation, CsCl-GdnCl2 equilibrium buoyant density and velocity sedimentations, ion-exchange chromatography, and sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Radioactive tyrosine sulfate was identified in alkaline hydrolysates of these collagen V chains, after labeling the tissues with either [35S]sulfate or [3H]tyrosine, by electrophoretic and chromatographic comigration with a tyrosine sulfate standard. Tunicamycin A1, which inhibits the attachment of N-linked complex carbohydrate, did not interfere with the sulfation process. The tyrosine sulfate is located in a noncollagenous domain, which is probably adjacent to the amino end of the collagen helix, and is retained throughout the physiological proteolytic processing of procollagens V. After digestion with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, 35S-labeled p alpha 1(V) and alpha 1(V) chains gave the same map of labeled peptides, and this differed from the map given by p alpha 1'(V) and alpha 1'(V) chains. Little sulfation of p alpha 2(V) and alpha 2(V) chains occurs. The implications of these observations for the structure and properties of procollagens V and their derivatives are considered.

  13. Complex Sulfate Deposits in Coprates Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of layered sulfate-containing deposits in the Coprates Chasma region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1827UTC (1:27 p.m. EST) on December 12, 2006 near 10.2 degrees south latitude, 68.8 degrees west longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (6.8 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Coprates Chasma forms part of the backbone of the Valles Marineris canyon system. It extends approximately east-west for roughly 966 kilometers (600 miles), and is one of the larger chasmata in the Valles Marineris system.

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area centered on a knob near the chasma's northern wall.

    The center left image, an infrared false color image, shows the knob's layered morphology. The center right image unveils the mineralogical signatures of some of those layers, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral) and purple representing polyhydrated sulfates (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule).

    The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 3 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the sulfate deposits relate to that topography. Darker polyhydrated sulfates (purple) lie along the knob's western flank. Brighter, monohydrated sulfates (yellow) appear to be superimposed on polyhydrated sulfate deposits in the southwest corner of the image. These coarsely banded deposits continue along the southeast side of the knob.

    There are two possible explanations for the compositional banding of these sulfates. The first is deposition of

  14. Heterogeneous Production of Sulfate Aerosol over China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, J.; Alexander, B.; Chen, Q.; Zhang, L.; Wang, Y.; Xie, Z.; He, P.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate is thought to be the main contributor to the growth of PM2.5 during the severe haze pollution over China, but most studies have shown that traditional gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry cannot explain the rapid sulfate production during haze events, suggesting a missing heterogeneous oxidation mechanism. In this work, we implement heterogeneous sulfate formation into a 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to evaluate the different pathways for global and regional sulfate production, including SO2 oxidation by NO2, O3, H2O2, and TMI+O2. Heterogeneous sulfate production rates and the dominant heterogeneous sulfate formation mechanism depends on calculations of aerosol pH, which is in turn is dependent upon thermodynamic state assumptions. We evaluate the influence of aerosol pH and potential impacts of aerosol ionic strength on sulfate production rates and mechanisms in the model, and its implications for PM2.5 in Chinese haze events.

  15. Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Coates, J.D.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

  16. The role of sulfate in aerobic granular sludge process for emerging sulfate-laden wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Xue, Weiqi; Hao, Tianwei; Mackey, Hamish R; Li, Xiling; Chan, Richard C; Chen, Guanghao

    2017-11-01

    Sulfate-rich wastewaters pose a major threat to mainstream wastewater treatment due to the unpreventable production of sulfide and associated shift in functional bacteria. Aerobic granular sludge could mitigate these challenges in view of its high tolerance and resilience against changes in various environmental conditions. This study aims to confirm the feasibility of aerobic granular sludge in the treatment of sulfate containing wastewater, investigate the impact of sulfate on nutrient removal and granulation, and reveal metabolic relationships in the above processes. Experiments were conducted using five sequencing batch reactors with different sulfate concentrations operated under alternating anoxic/aerobic condition. Results showed that effect of sulfate on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal is negligible, while phosphate removal was enhanced from 12% to 87% with an increase in sulfate from 0 to 200 mg/L. However, a long acclimatization of the biomass (more than 70 days) is needed at a sulfate concentration of 500 mg/L and a total deterioration of phosphate removal at 1000 mg/L. Batch tests revealed that sulfide promoted volatile fatty acids (VFAs) uptake, producing more energy for phosphate uptake when sulfate concentrations were beneath 200 mg/L. However, sulfide detoxification became energy dominating, leaving insufficient energy for Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis and phosphate uptake when sulfate content was further increased. Granulation accelerated with increasing sulfate levels by enhanced production of N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), a kind of quorum sensing (QS) auto-inducer, using S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAM) as primer. The current study demonstrates interactions among sulfate metabolism, nutrients removal and granulation, and confirms the feasibility of using the aerobic granular sludge process for sulfate-laden wastewaters treatment with low to medium sulfate content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using Terrestrial Sulfate Efflorescences as an Analogue of Hydrated Sulfate Formation in Valles Marineris on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. C.; Szynkiewicz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrated sulfate minerals provide conclusive evidence that a hydrologic cycle was once active on the surface of Mars. Two classes of hydrated sulfate minerals have been detected by robotic instruments on Mars: monohydrated sulfate minerals comprised of kieserite and gypsum, and various polyhydrated sulfates with Fe-Ca-Na-Mg-rich compositions. These minerals are found in various locations on Mars, including large surface exposures in valley settings of Valles Marineris. However, the sulfate sources and formation mechanisms of these minerals are not yet well understood.Recently, it has been suggested that the sulfate minerals in Valles Marineris might have formed in a manner similar to sulfate efflorescences found in dry environments on Earth. In this study, we use sulfate effloresences from the Rio Puerco Watershed, New Mexico as a terrestrial analogue to assess major factors that might have led to deposition of sulfate minerals in Valles Marineris. In different seasons indicative of dry and wet conditions, we collected field photographs and sediment samples for chemical and stable isotopic analyses (sulfur content, δ34S) to determine major sources of sulfate ions for efflorescences and to assess how the seasonal changes in surface/groundwater activity affect their formation. Preliminary sulfur isotope results suggest that oxidation of bedrock sulfides (0.01-0.05 wt. S %) is a major source of sulfate ion for efflorescences formation because their δ34S varied in negative range (-28 to -20‰) similar to sulfides (average -32‰). Using field photographs collected in Oct 2006, Feb and Nov 2012, May 2013, Mar and Oct 2014, we infer that the highest surface accumulation of sulfate efflorescences in the studied analog site was observed after summer monsoon seasons when more water was available for surface and subsurface transport of solutes from chemical weathering. Conversely, spring snow melt led to enhanced dissolution of sulfate efflorescences.

  18. Phyllosilicate and Hydrated Sulfate Deposits in Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, S. M.; Avidson, R. E.; Murchie, S.; Poulet, F.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Morris, R. V.; Seelos, F. P.

    2008-01-01

    Several phyllosilicate and hydrated sulfate deposits in Meridiani have been mapped in detail with high resolution MRO CRISM [1] data. Previous studies have documented extensive exposures of outcrop in Meridiani (fig 1), or etched terrain (ET), that has been interpreted to be sedimentary in origin [e.g., 2,3]. These deposits have been mapped at a regional scale with OMEGA data and show enhanced hydration (1.9 m absorption) in several areas [4]. However, hydrated sulfate detections were restricted to valley exposures in northern Meridiani ET [5]. New high resolution CRISM images show that hydrated sulfates are present in several spatially isolated exposures throughout the ET (fig 1). The hydrated sulfate deposits in the valley are vertically heterogeneous with layers of mono and polyhydrated sulfates and are morphologically distinct from other areas of the ET. We are currently mapping the detailed spatial distribution of sulfates and searching for distinct geochemical horizons that may be traced back to differential ground water recharge and/or evaporative loss rates. The high resolution CRISM data has allowed us to map out several phyllosilicate deposits within the fluvially dissected Noachian cratered terrain (DCT) to the south and west of the hematite-bearing plains (Ph) and ET (fig 1). In Miyamoto crater, phyllosilicates are located within 30km of the edge of Ph, which is presumably underlain by acid sulfate deposits similar to those explored by Opportunity. The deposits within this crater may record the transition from fluvial conditions which produced and/or preserved phyllosilicates deposits to a progressively acid sulfate dominated groundwater system in which large accumulations of sulfate-rich evaporites were deposited .

  19. Nitrate reduction in sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marietou, Angeliki

    2016-08-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) gain their energy by coupling the oxidation of organic substrate to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Several SRBs are able to use alternative terminal electron acceptors to sulfate such as nitrate. Nitrate-reducing SRBs have been isolated from a diverse range of environments. In order to be able to understand the significance of nitrate reduction in SRBs, we need to examine the ecology and physiology of the nitrate-reducing SRB isolates. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Novel Alkylsulfatases Required for Biodegradation of the Branched Primary Alkyl Sulfate Surfactant 2-Butyloctyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Andrew J.; Hales, Stephen G.; Ur-Rehman, Naheed G. A.; White, Graham F.

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports show that contrary to common perception, branched alkyl sulfate surfactants are readily biodegradable in standard biodegradability tests. We report here the isolation of bacteria capable of biodegrading 2-butyloctyl sulfate and the identification of novel enzymes that initiate the process. Enrichment culturing from activated sewage sludge yielded several strains capable of growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Of these, two were selected for further study and identified as members of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain AE-A was able to utilize either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 2-butyloctyl sulfate as a carbon and energy source for growth, but strain AE-D utilized only the latter. Depending on growth conditions, strain AE-A produced up to three alkylsulfatases, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis zymography. Growth on either SDS or 2-butyloctyl sulfate or in nutrient broth produced an apparently constitutive, nonspecific primary alkylsulfatase, AP1, weakly active on SDS and on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate produced a second enzyme, AP2, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS, and growth on SDS produced a third enzyme, AP3, active on SDS but not on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. In contrast, strain AE-D, when grown on 2-butyloctyl sulfate (no growth on SDS), produced a single enzyme, DP1, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS. DP1 was not produced in broth cultures. DP1 was induced when residual 2-butyloctyl sulfate was present in the growth medium, but the enzyme disappeared when the substrate was exhausted. Gas chromatographic analysis of products of incubating 2-butyloctyl sulfate with DP1 in gels revealed the formation of 2-butyloctanol, showing the enzyme to be a true sulfatase. In contrast, Pseudomonas sp. strain C12B, well known for its ability to degrade linear SDS, was unable to grow on 2-butyloctyl sulfate, and its alkylsulfatases responsible for initiating the degradation of SDS by releasing the parent

  1. Protective performances of two anti-graffiti treatments towards sulfite and sulfate formation in SO 2 polluted model environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Quiroga, Paula María; Panas, Itai; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Johansson, Lars-Gunnar; Blanco-Varela, María Teresa; Martínez-Ramírez, Sagrario

    2010-11-01

    Specific strategies for protection are being developed to counter both the staining and corrosive effects of polluted air in cities, as well as to allow for efficient removal of unwanted graffiti paintings. These protection strategies employ molecules with tailored functionalities, e.g. being hydrophobic, while maintaining porosity for molecular water vapour permeation. The present study employs SO 2 and water to probe the behaviors of two anti-graffiti treatments, a water-base fluoroalkylsiloxane ("Protectosil Antigraffiti" marketed by Degussa) and an organically modified silicate (Ormosil) synthesized from a polymer chain (polydimethyl siloxane, PDMS) and two network forming alkoxides (Zr propoxide and methyl triethoxy silane, MTES) dissolved in n-propanol, on five building materials, comprising limestone, aged lime mortar, hydrated cement mortar, granite, and brick material. The materials were exposed to a synthetic atmosphere for 20 h in a climate chamber, 0.78 ± 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and 95% RH. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DR-FTIR) spectra were registered before and after exposure in the climate chamber in the cases of both treated and untreated samples. DR-FTIR, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, suggest the anti-graffiti Ormosil to suppress formation of calcium sulfite hemihydrate (the primary initial product of the reaction of calcium compounds with SO 2 and water) on carbonate materials (limestone and lime mortar). In case of the granite, brick and cement mortar, Ormosil has a negligible influence on the SO 2 capture. While no sulfite formation was detected by DR-FTIR, gypsum is inferred to form due to metal oxides and minority compounds catalysed oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. In case of brick, this understanding finds support from SEM images as well as EDX. A priori presence of gypsum in hydrated cement mortars prevents positive identification by SEM. However, support for sulfur

  2. Possible Sulfate Deposits in West Melas Chasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-04

    Melas Chasma is the widest segment of Valles Marineris, the largest canyon in the Solar System as seen by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. In this region, hydrated sulfate salts have been detected.

  3. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  4. Sulfates and Clays in Columbus Crater, Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-21

    Sulfates are found overlying clay minerals in sediments within Columbus Crater, a depression that likely hosted a lake in the past in this image based on information from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate... § 170.3(o)(24) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The...

  6. Efflorescence relative humidity for ammonium sulfate particles.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yonggang; Chen, Shing Bor; Yu, Liya E

    2006-06-22

    The classical homogeneous nucleation theory was employed to calculate the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of airborne ammonium sulfate particles with a wide size range (8 nm to 17 microm) at room temperature. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimentally measured values. When the ammonium sulfate particle is decreased in size, the ERH first decreases, reaches a minimum around 30% for particle diameter equal to about 30 nm, and then increases. It is for the first time that the Kelvin effect is theoretically verified to substantially affect the ERH of ammonium sulfate particles smaller than 30 nm, while the aerosol size is the dominant factor affecting the efflorescent behavior of ammonium sulfate particles larger than 50 nm.

  7. Recalibrating the concentration of Precambrian seawater sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, D. T.; Bradley, A. S.; Hoarfrost, A.; Girguis, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    The isotopic offset between sulfate sulfur and sulfide sulfur (δ34Ssulfate-sulfide) is widely used in the Precambrian as a paleo-indicator of seawater sulfate concentrations. Popularized by experimental work proposing an increase in seawater sulfate at the Archean - Proterozoic boundary, the concept of using a calibrated physiological process (dissimilatory sulfate reduction) to extract environmental information holds the potential to unlock numerous geological questions. To that end, the interpretability of sulfur isotope records relies on the degree to which strict quantitative constraints have been placed on the relationship between sulfate concentrations and sulfate reducing bacteria. Our work serves to extend those constraints. Here we present data from a series of replicate quasi-chemostat microbial reactors, inoculated with marine sediment from Monterey Bay and incubated with artificial seawater ([SO42-]< 5 mM). Our experimental design continuously removes sulfide and allows for systematic tracking of the dependence of δ34Ssulfate-sulfide on seawater sulfate concentration. In addition to expanding the existing δ34S context, we target high-precision multiple sulfur isotope data, which allows for a greater interpretability of both the overall result and its mapping onto environmental records. Further, we use natural abundance and δ18O spiked water within our experiments to assay rates of cellular re-oxidation (within the sulfate reduction pathway) and to constrain natural δ18O effects within these systems. Finally, we use modern molecular biological techniques to track community structure as a function of time and environmental conditions. Together, these data provide an integrated metric with which to interpret complex natural sulfur isotope records.

  8. 21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. 520.1044c... Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of gentamicin sulfate soluble powder contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 16.7, 66.7, or 333.3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate powder. 520.1044c Section 520... sulfate powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to: (1) 16... colibacillosis: Gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 25 mg of gentamicin per gallon of drinking water to provide 0.5...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate powder. 520.1044c Section 520... sulfate powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to: (1) 16... colibacillosis: Gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 25 mg of gentamicin per gallon of drinking water to provide 0.5...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. 520.1044c... Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of gentamicin sulfate soluble powder contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 16.7, 66.7, or 333.3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  12. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate... following specifications: (1) It is a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting chiefly of sodium lauryl...

  13. Divergent Synthesis of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfates are implicated in a wide range of biological processes. A major challenge in deciphering their structure and activity relationship is the synthetic difficulties to access diverse heparan sulfate oligosaccharides with well-defined sulfation patterns. In order to expedite the synthesis, a divergent synthetic strategy was developed. By integrating chemical synthesis and two types of O-sulfo transferases, seven different hexasaccharides were obtained from a single hexasaccharide precursor. This approach combined the flexibility of chemical synthesis with the selectivity of enzyme-catalyzed sulfations, thus simplifying the overall synthetic operations. In an attempt to establish structure activity relationships of heparan sulfate binding with its receptor, the synthesized oligosaccharides were incorporated onto a glycan microarray, and their bindings with a growth factor FGF-2 were examined. The unique combination of chemical and enzymatic approaches expanded the capability of oligosaccharide synthesis. In addition, the well-defined heparan sulfate structures helped shine light on the fine substrate specificities of biosynthetic enzymes and confirm the potential sequence of enzymatic reactions in biosynthesis. PMID:26574650

  14. Biogenic barite preciptiation at micromolar ambient sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, T. J.; Pryer, H. V.; Nielsen, S.; Ricketts, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Earth's early oceans were essentially devoid of sulfate, yet barium sulfate (barite) deposits are common to ancient sediments. Most explanations for this `barite paradox' overlook biogenic barite precipitation—the dominant vector of particulate barium cycling in modern seawater—as the ancient oceans were presumably strongly undersaturated with respect to barite. We tested whether biogenic barite could indeed precipitate at trace sulfate by examining the particulate multi-element and Ba-isotopic geochemistry of one of the largest trace-sulfate ecosystems on Earth: Lake Superior. Despite exceptional levels of barite undersaturation in Lake Superior, we find unambiguous evidence of biogenic barite precipitation that is correlated with the depths of greatest organic matter remineralization in the water column. The overall pattern of particulate barium cycling in Lake Superior is strikingly similar to that seen in the open ocean, supporting the critical role of particle-associated `microenvironments' that become rich in respired sulfate as protected sites of biogenic barite formation. Our observations offer a microbially-mediated mechanism for barite formation at micromolar ambient sulfate and thus also a potential resolution to the barite paradox in the ancient oceans.

  15. Identical Origin for Halide and Sulfate Efflorescences on Meteorite Finds and Sulfate Veins in Orgueil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Halide and sulfate efflorescences are common on meteorite finds, especially those from cold deserts. Meanwhile, the late-stage sulfate veins in Orgueil are universally accepted as having originated by the action of late-stage high fO2 aqueous alteration on an asteroid. I suggest here that these phenomena have essentially the same origin.

  16. Identical Origin for Halide and Sulfate Efflorescences On Meteorite Finds and Sulfate Veins In Orgueil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Halide and sulfate efflorescences are common on meteorite finds, especially those from cold deserts. Meanwhile, the late-stage sulfate veins in Orgueil are universally accepted as having originated by the action of late-stage high fO2 aqueous alteration on an asteroid. I suggest here that these phenomena have essentially the same origin.

  17. Cellular mechanisms of renal adaptation of sodium dependent sulfate cotransport to altered dietary sulfate in rats.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, K; DuBois, D C; Almon, R R; Murer, H; Morris, M E

    1998-12-01

    The renal transport and fractional reabsorption of inorganic sulfate is altered under conditions of sulfate deficiency or excess. The objective of this study was to examine the cellular mechanisms of adaptation of renal sodium/sulfate cotransport after varying dietary intakes of a sulfur containing amino acid, methionine. Female Lewis rats were divided into four groups and fed diets containing various concentrations of methionine (0, 0.3, 0.82 and 2.46%) for 8 days. Urinary excretion rates and renal clearance of sulfate were significantly decreased in the animals fed a 0% methionine diet or a 0.3% methionine diet, and significantly increased in the animals fed a 2.46% methionine diet when evaluated on days 4 and 7. Serum sulfate concentrations were unchanged by diet treatment in all animals. The fractional reabsorption of sulfate was significantly increased in the animals fed the 0% methionine diet and the 0.3% methionine diets, and decreased in the animals fed the 2.46% methionine diet. Increased mRNA and protein levels for the sodium/sulfate transporter (NaSi-1) were found in the kidney cortex following treatment with the 0 and 0.3% methionine diet groups. Sulfate homeostasis by renal reabsorption is maintained by an up-regulation of steady state levels of NaSi-1 mRNA and protein when the diet is low in methionine.

  18. Mono- and Polyhydrated Sulfates in Tithonium Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Tithonium Chasma was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1538 UTC (11:38 a.m. EDT) on August 31, 2007 near 5.22 degrees south latitude, 270.48 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Tithonium Chasma lies at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system. It extends approximately east-west for roughly 810 kilometers (503 miles), varies in width from approximately 10 to 110 kilometers (6 to 68 miles), and cuts into the Martian surface to a maximum depth of roughly 6 kilometers (4 miles).

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area centered on a ridge of erosion-resistant rock.

    The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals banded, light-colored material draped on the ridge. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral) and purple polyhydrated sulfates (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule).

    The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 7 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the sulfate deposits both cover and flank the ridge. Brighter, monohydrated sulfate (yellow) deposits revealed in the lower right image lies along the ridge's northwest side and fall off into a small valley or depression, while darker polyhydrated sulfates (purple) lie along the ridge's northeast flank. A deposit of both mono- and polyhydrated sulfates spanning the ridge

  19. The heparanome--the enigma of encoding and decoding heparan sulfate sulfation.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, William C; Kalus, Ina; Padva, Michael; Baldwin, Rebecca J; Merry, Catherine L R; Dierks, Thomas

    2007-04-30

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a cell surface carbohydrate polymer modified with sulfate moieties whose highly ordered composition is central to directing specific cell signaling events. The ability of the cell to generate these information rich glycans with such specificity has opened up a new field of "heparanomics" which seeks to understand the systems involved in generating these cell type and developmental stage specific HS sulfation patterns. Unlike other instances where biological information is encrypted as linear sequences in molecules such as DNA, HS sulfation patterns are generated through a non-template driven process. Thus, deciphering the sulfation code and the dynamic nature of its generation has posed a new challenge to system biologists. The recent discovery of two sulfatases, Sulf1 and Sulf2, with the unique ability to edit sulfation patterns at the cell surface, has opened up a new dimension as to how we understand the regulation of HS sulfation patterning and pattern-dependent cell signaling events. This review will focus on the functional relationship between HS sulfation patterning and biological processes. Special attention will be given to Sulf1 and Sulf2 and how these key editing enzymes might act in concert with the HS biosynthetic enzymes to generate and regulate specific HS sulfation patterns in vivo. We will further explore the use of knock out mice as biological models for understanding the dynamic systems involved in generating HS sulfation patterns and their biological relevance. A brief overview of new technologies and innovations summarizes advances in the systems biology field for understanding non-template molecular networks and their influence on the "heparanome".

  20. Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

    2013-01-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

  1. Acetate production from oil under sulfate-reducing conditions in bioreactors injected with sulfate and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Callbeck, Cameron M; Agrawal, Akhil; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2013-08-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266-269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields.

  2. Shock vaporization of carbonate and sulfate minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. H.; Ahrens, T. J.; O'Keefe, J. D.

    2001-12-01

    Strong shock waves induced by impacts can cause vaporization of rocks and minerals. The products of such process play important roles in planetary differentiation (Yakovlev et al., Geochem. International, 38, 1027, 2000) and in effecting the planetary climate. Many experiments and computer simulations have been performed to simulate the Chicxulub impact at Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (see, for example, Pierazzo et al., J. Geophys. Res., 103, 28607, 1998 and Pope et al., J. Geophys. Res., 102, 21645, 1997). However, the pressure range for incipient and complete vaporization of carbonates and sulfates are not well constrained, especially, for minerals with various initial porosities. Furthermore, evidence for chemical species in the products of vaporized carbonate and sulfate minerals is almost non-existing. In this study, we employed published Hugoniot data for carbonate and sulfate minerals. By using the methods described in Ahrens (J. Appl. Phys., 43, 2443, 1972) and Ahrens and O'Keefe (The Moon, 4, 214, 1972), we calculated the entropy associated with the thermodynamic states produced by hypervelocity impacts at various velocities for carbonate and sulfate minerals with different initial porosities. The results were compared with the entropy of incipient vaporization and complete vaporization of these minerals to determine the degree of vaporization due to impacts. Moreover, these results are utilized to guide our experimental study in speciation reactions in shock-induced vaporization of carbonates and sulfates.

  3. Sulfation in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherino, Henry A.; Feres, Fred F.; Trinidad, Francisco

    Virtually, all military land vehicle systems use a lead-acid battery to initiate an engine start. The maintainability of these batteries and as a consequence, system readiness, has suffered from a lack of understanding of the reasons for battery failure. Often, the term most commonly heard for explaining the performance degradation of lead-acid batteries is the word, sulfation. Sulfation is a residual term that came into existence during the early days of lead-acid battery development. The usage is part of the legend that persists as a means for interpreting and justifying the eventual performance deterioration and failure of lead-acid batteries. The usage of this term is confined to the greater user community and, over time, has encouraged a myriad of remedies for solving sulfation problems. One can avoid the connotations associated with the all-inclusive word, sulfation by visualizing the general "sulfation" effect in terms of specific mechanistic models. Also, the mechanistic models are essential for properly understanding the operation and making proper use this battery system. It is evident that the better the model, the better the level of understanding.

  4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria: Microbiology and physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, H. D.

    1985-01-01

    The sulfate reducing bacteria, the first nonphotosynthetic anaerobic bacteria demonstrated to contain c type cytochromes, perform electron transfer coupled to phosphorylation. A new bioenergetic scheme for the formation of a proton gradient for growth of Desulfovibrio on organic substrates and sulfate involving vectors electron transfer and consistent with the cellular localization of enzymes and electron transfer components was proposed. Hydrogen is produced in the cytoplasm from organic substrates and, as a permease molecule diffuses rapidly across the cytoplasmic membrane, it is oxidized to protons and electrons by the periplasmic hydrogenase. The electrons only are transferred across the cytoplasmic membrane to the cytoplasm where they are used to reduce sulfate to sulfide. The protons are used for transport or to drive a reversible ATPOSE. The net effect is the transfer of protons across the cytoplasmic membrane with the intervention of a proton pump. This type of H2 cycling is relevant to the bioenergetics of other types of anaerobic microorganisms.

  5. Sulfated Glycopeptide Nanostructures for Multipotent Protein Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungsoo S.; Fyrner, Timmy; Chen, Feng; Álvarez, Zaida; Sleep, Eduard; Chun, Danielle S.; Weiner, Joseph A.; Cook, Ralph W.; Freshman, Ryan D.; Schallmo, Michael S.; Katchko, Karina M.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Smith, Justin T.; Yun, Chawon; Singh, Gurmit; Hashmi, Sohaib Z.; McClendon, Mark T.; Yu, Zhilin; Stock, Stuart R.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems have evolved to utilize numerous proteins with capacity to bind polysaccharides for the purpose of optimizing their function. A well-known subset of these proteins with binding domains for the highly diverse sulfated polysaccharides are important growth factors involved in biological development and tissue repair. We report here on supramolecular sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures, which display a trisulfated monosaccharide on their surfaces and bind five critical proteins with very different polysaccharide binding domains. Binding does not disrupt the filamentous shape of the nanostructures or their internal β-sheet backbone, but must involve accessible adaptive configurations to interact with such different proteins. The glycopeptide nanostructures amplified signaling of bone morphogenetic protein 2 significantly more than the natural sulfated polysaccharide heparin, and promoted regeneration of bone in the spine with a protein dose that is 100-fold lower than expected. These super-bioactive nanostructures may enable many therapies in the horizon involving proteins. PMID:28650443

  6. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  7. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, John A.; Turner, Clarence B.; Johnson, Irving

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  8. A CONSIDERATION OF THE PERMEABILITY OF CARTILAGE TO INORGANIC SULFATE

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Robert D.; Dziewiatkowski, Dominic D.

    1961-01-01

    On the basis of an examination of autoradiograms of knee-joints fixed so as to remove chondroitin sulfate or inorganic sulfate, or to minimize the loss of both, it is suggested that the cartilage is permeable to inorganic sulfate in vivo and in vitro. In vivo and in vitro, almost as rapidly as it enters the cartilage, inorganic sulfate is utilized by the cells in the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate. The net result is a continuing low concentration of inorganic sulfate in the cartilage. PMID:13690307

  9. Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H2 or organic electron donors oxidized S0 to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S0 with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S0 + 3 MnO2 + 4H+ ???SO42- + 3Mn(II) + 2H2O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S0 as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S0 in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S0 as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O???SO42- + 3HS- + 5 H+. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S0 as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S0 oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S0.

  11. Modeling Reduction of Uranium U(VI) under Variable Sulfate Concentrations by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Spear, John R.; Figueroa, Linda A.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics for the reduction of sulfate alone and for concurrent uranium [U(VI)] and sulfate reduction, by mixed and pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at 21 ± 3°C were studied. The mixed culture contained the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris along with a Clostridium sp. determined via 16S ribosomal DNA analysis. The pure culture was Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 7757). A zero-order model best fit the data for the reduction of sulfate from 0.1 to 10 mM. A lag time occurred below cell concentrations of 0.1 mg (dry weight) of cells/ml. For the mixed culture, average values for the maximum specific reaction rate, Vmax, ranged from 2.4 ± 0.2 μmol of sulfate/mg (dry weight) of SRB · h−1) at 0.25 mM sulfate to 5.0 ± 1.1 μmol of sulfate/mg (dry weight) of SRB · h−1 at 10 mM sulfate (average cell concentration, 0.52 mg [dry weight]/ml). For the pure culture, Vmax was 1.6 ± 0.2 μmol of sulfate/mg (dry weight) of SRB · h−1 at 1 mM sulfate (0.29 mg [dry weight] of cells/ml). When both electron acceptors were present, sulfate reduction remained zero order for both cultures, while uranium reduction was first order, with rate constants of 0.071 ± 0.003 mg (dry weight) of cells/ml · min−1 for the mixed culture and 0.137 ± 0.016 mg (dry weight) of cells/ml · min−1 (U0 = 1 mM) for the D. desulfuricans culture. Both cultures exhibited a faster rate of uranium reduction in the presence of sulfate and no lag time until the onset of U reduction in contrast to U alone. This kinetics information can be used to design an SRB-dominated biotreatment scheme for the removal of U(VI) from an aqueous source. PMID:10966381

  12. Mechanisms and Effectivity of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mining-influenced water (MIW) is the main environmental challenges associated with the mining industry. Passive MIW remediation can be achieved through microbial activity in sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs), but their actual removal rates depend on different factors, one of which is the substrate composition. Chitinous materials have demonstrated high metal removal rates, particularly for the two recalcitrant MIW contaminants Zn and Mn, but their removal mechanisms need further study. We studied Cd, Fe, Zn, and Mn removal in bioactive and abiotic SRBRs to elucidate the metal removal mechanisms and the differences in metal and sulfate removal rates using a chitinous material as substrate. We found that sulfate-reducing bacteria are effective in increasing metal and sulfate removal rates and duration of operation in SRBRs, and that the main mechanism involved was metal precipitation as sulfides. The solid residues provided evidence of the presence of sulfides in the bioactive column, more specifically ZnS, according to XPS analysis. The feasibility of passive treatments with a chitinous substrate could be an important option for MIW remediation. Mining influenced water (MIW) remediation is still one of the top priorities for the agency because it addresses the most important environmental problem associated with the mining industry and that affects thousands of communities in the U.S. and worldwide. In this paper, the MIW bioremediation mechanisms are studied

  13. Effects of suspended sulfates on human health.

    PubMed Central

    French, J G

    1975-01-01

    Recent evidence from epidemiologic studies conducted in several areas of the United States shows an association of excess risk of asthmatic attacks with elevated levels of suspended sulfates within specific temperature ranges. These findings are disscussed in the context of experimental animal studies which tend to support these observations. PMID:1157797

  14. Status of copper sulfate research at SNARC

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate will be given. The change in Sponsorship will also be discussed. The Initial label claim will be “For the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis)...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  16. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Hydrazine sulfate has shown no anticancer activity in randomized clinical trials. Data on its effectiveness in cancer-related cachexia are inconclusive. Get detailed information about hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  17. MEASUREMENT AND QUANTIFICATION OF SULFATES IN MINING INFLUENCED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most hard rock (mineral) mine drainages contain metals and sulfates higher than current water quality standards permit for discharge. In treating these wastes with passive systems, scientists and engineers have concentrated on using sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs) and their ...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  1. Controlling sulfate attack in Mississippi Department of Transportation structures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-08-01

    At some construction sites in Mississippi, deterioration of concrete in contact with the surrounding soil could be related to the high sulfate content of the adjacent soils. Studies dating to 1966 have documented sulfate attack associated with sp...

  2. 21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... edible vegetable oil using 1-butanol. Following sulfation, the reaction mixture is washed with water and neutralized with aqueous sodium or potassium hydroxide. Prior to sulfation, the butyl oleate reaction mixture...

  3. Controlling sulfate attack in Mississippi Department of Transportation structures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-08-01

    At some construction sites in Mississippi, deterioration of concrete in contact with the surrounding soil could be related to the high sulfate content of the adjacent soils. Studies dating to 1966 have documented sulfate attack associated with specif...

  4. Mono- & Polyhydrated Sulfates in Aureum Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of layered deposits in Aureum Chaos was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on June 6, 2007 at 0347 UTC (11:47 p.m. EDT on June 5, 2007), near 3.5 degrees south latitude, 333.25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Aureum Chaos lies in the eastern part of the Valles Marineris canyon system, southwest of a 280 kilometer (174 mile) diameter, highly modified impact crater called Aram Chaos. Both regions hold examples of chaotic terrain that is characterized by randomly oriented, large-scale mesas and knobs. In this region of Mars, these features range in size from a few kilometers to tens of kilometers wide and tend to be heavily eroded. As its name implies, chaotic terrain is extremely irregular. It is most likely the result of collapsed surface material that settled when subsurface ice, water, or magma was released.

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data cover an area riddled with knobs. The lower two images were constructed by draping CRISM images over topography and exaggerating the vertical scale to better illustrate the region's topography. The upper right is an infrared, false color image that reveals layered deposits of a light-colored material along the flanks of several knobs. The lower-left image reveals the mineralogical composition of these layers, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral) and blue polyhydrated sulfates (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule). There are two possible explanations for the compositional banding. The first is deposition of

  5. Synthesis, physicochemical characterization and biological evaluation of chitosan sulfate as heparan sulfate mimics.

    PubMed

    Doncel-Pérez, Ernesto; Aranaz, Inmaculada; Bastida, Agatha; Revuelta, Julia; Camacho, Celia; Acosta, Niuris; Garrido, Leoncio; Civera, Concepción; García-Junceda, Eduardo; Heras, Angeles; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso

    2018-07-01

    Despite the relevant biological functions of heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans, their limited availability and the chemical heterogeneity from natural sources hamper their use for biomedical applications. Chitosan sulfates (ChS) exhibit structural similarity to HSs and may mimic their biological functions. We prepared a variety of ChS with different degree of sulfation to evaluate their ability to mimic HS in protein binding and to promote neural cell division and differentiation. The structure of the products was characterized using various spectroscopic and analytical methods. The study of their interaction with different growth factors showed that ChS bound to the proteins similarly or even better than heparin. In cell cultures, a transition effect on cell number was observed as a function of ChS concentration. Differences in promoting the expression of the differentiation markers were also found depending on the degree of sulfation and modification in the chitosan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulating Inhibitors of Transthyretin Fibrillogenesis via Sulfation: Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sulfates as Models1

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Fabian A.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Robertson, Larry W.; Duffel, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Small molecules that bind with high affinity to thyroxine (T4) binding sites on transthyretin (TTR) kinetically stabilize the protein’s tetrameric structure, thereby efficiently decreasing the rate of tetramer dissociation in TTR related amyloidoses. Current research efforts aim to optimize the amyloid inhibiting properties of known inhibitors, such as derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans and benzooxazoles, by chemical modification. In order to test the hypothesis that sulfate group substituents can improve the efficiencies of such inhibitors, we evaluated the potential of six polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates to inhibit TTR amyloid fibril formation in vitro. In addition, we determined their binding orientations and molecular interactions within the T4 binding site by molecular docking simulations. Utilizing this combined experimental and computational approach, we demonstrated that sulfation significantly improves the amyloid inhibiting properties as compared to both parent and hydroxylated PCBs. Importantly, several PCB sulfates were of equal or higher potency than some of the most effective previously described inhibitors. PMID:25595224

  7. Sources of sulfate supporting anaerobic metabolism in a contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, G.A.; Breit, G.N.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Suflita, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Field and laboratory techniques were used to identify the biogeochemical factors affecting sulfate reduction in a shallow, unconsolidated alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate. Depth profiles of 35S-sulfate reduction rates in aquifer sediments were positively correlated with the concentration of dissolved sulfate. Manipulation of the sulfate concentration in samples revealed a Michaelis-Menten-like relationship with an apparent Km and Vmax of approximately 80 and 0.83 ??M SO4-2??day-1, respectively. The concentration of sulfate in the core of the leachate plume was well below 20 ??M and coincided with very low reduction rates. Thus, the concentration and availability of this anion could limit in situ sulfate-reducing activity. Three sulfate sources were identified, including iron sulfide oxidation, barite dissolution, and advective flux of sulfate. The relative importance of these sources varied with depth in the alluvium. The relatively high concentration of dissolved sulfate at the water table is attributed to the microbial oxidation of iron sulfides in response to fluctuations of the water table. At intermediate depths, barite dissolves in undersaturated pore water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved barium (???100 ??M) and low concentrations of sulfate. Dissolution is consistent with the surface texture of detrital barite grains in contact with leachate. Laboratory incubations of unamended and barite-amended aquifer slurries supported the field observation of increasing concentrations of barium in solution when sulfate reached low levels. At a deeper highly permeable interval just above the confining bottom layer of the aquifer, sulfate reduction rates were markedly higher than rates at intermediate depths. Sulfate is supplied to this deeper zone by advection of uncontaminated groundwater beneath the landfill. The measured rates of sulfate reduction in the aquifer also correlated with the abundance of accumulated iron sulfide

  8. The Importance of Sulfate Adenylyl Transferase in S and O Fractionation by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Johnston, D. T.; Bradley, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) is critical to the oxidation of organic matter in modern and ancient oceans, and plays an important role in regulating the redox state of the Earth's surface. The sulfur and oxygen isotopic composition of seawater sulfate and of sulfate minerals reflect the biogeochemical processes that cycle sulfur, of which MSR is among the most important. MSR is a multi-enzymatic reaction network that partitions the isotopes of sulfur and oxygen as a consequence of both the flux of sulfate through this biochemical network and the fractionation imposed by each individual enzyme. MSR affects the δ18O of residual, extracellular sulfate mainly by the equilibration of the MSR intermediate sulfite with extracellular water (Antler et al., 2013 GCA, Wankel et al., 2013 Geobiol). A series of oxidative and exchange reactions catalyzed by APS reductase (APSr), sulfate adenylyl transferase (Sat), and sulfate transporters promote the conversion of water-equilibrated intracellular sulfite to extracellular sulfate. The flux of sulfoxy anions via these proteins will be, at least in part, dependent on the activity of these enzymes. To test this, we examined sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation in genetically engineered mutants of the sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH). In these mutants, the activity of Sat has been artificially increased by perturbing the (i) transcriptional repressor Rex and (ii) its binding site upstream of the gene encoding Sat (Christensen et al., 2015 J. Bacteriol). It was predicted that this would minimize the back reaction of Sat, enhance the intracellular pool of APS, and minimize the equilibration between sulfite and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Both mutants, along with the wild type DvH were grown in batch culture made with water enriched in 18O. Samples were collected throughout batch growth, and we report the evolution of the S and O isotopic composition of sulfate, and of the S isotopic

  9. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1 1...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1 1...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. 520.1044a... Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 50 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See Nos. 000061 and 054925 in § 510.600(c...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. 520.1044a... Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 50 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See Nos. 000061 and 054925 in § 510.600(c...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  3. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856, 057561...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1044c... § 524.1044c Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061 and 043264 in...

  5. 21 CFR 529.50 - Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529.50... Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 250 milligrams of amikacin (as the sulfate). (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 and 059130 in § 510.600(c...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327) are...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327) are...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1044c... § 524.1044c Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061 and 025463 in...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. 520.1044a... Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 50 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See Nos. 000061 and 054925 in § 510.600(c...

  14. 21 CFR 522.650 - Dihydrostreptomycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dihydrostreptomycin sulfate injection. 522.650... § 522.650 Dihydrostreptomycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains dihydrostreptomycin sulfate equivalent to 500 milligrams of dihydrostreptomycin. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 054771 and...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

  17. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856, 057561...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1044c... § 524.1044c Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061 and 025463 in...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

  3. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856, 057561...

  4. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1 1...

  5. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856, 000859...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327) are...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1 1...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. 520.1044a... Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 50 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See Nos. 000061 and 054925 in § 510.600(c...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection...

  13. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327) are...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1044c... § 524.1044c Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061 and 025463 in...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  18. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following... subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the pectin. ...

  1. STATISTICAL METHOD FOR DETECTION OF A TREND IN ATMOSPHERIC SULFATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily atmospheric concentrations of sulfate collected in northeastern Pennsylvania are regressed against meteorological factors, ozone, and time in order to determine if a significant trend in sulfate can be detected. he data used in this analysis were collected during the Sulfat...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc methionine sulfate. 172.399 Section 172.399... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine... conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL...

  12. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfate production subcategory. 415.630 Section 415.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  13. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfate production subcategory. 415.630 Section 415.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  14. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfate production subcategory. 415.630 Section 415.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  15. Comparison of magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate for removal of water from pesticide extracts of foods.

    PubMed

    Schenck, Frank J; Callery, Patrick; Gannett, Peter M; Daft, Jonathan R; Lehotay, Steven J

    2002-01-01

    Water-miscible solvents, such as acetone and acetonitrile, effectively extract both polar and nonpolar pesticide residues from nonfatty foods. The addition of sodium chloride to the resulting acetonitrile-water or acetone-water extract (salting out) results in the separation of the water from the organic solvent. However, the organic solvent layer (pesticide extract) still contains some residual water, which can adversely affect separation procedures that follow, such as solid-phase extraction and/or gas chromatography. Drying agents, such as sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate, are used to remove the water from the organic extracts. In the present study, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the composition of the phases resulting from salting out and to compare the effectiveness of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate as drying agents. The study showed that considerable amounts of water remained in the organic phase after phase separation. Sodium sulfate was a relatively ineffective drying agent, removing little or no residual water from the organic solvent. Magnesium sulfate proved to be a much more effective drying agent.

  16. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed on the Gusev Crater plains west of the Columbia Hills in January, 2004, during the Martian summer (sol 0; sol = 1 Martian day = 24 hr 40 min). Spirit explored the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater in the vicinity of Home Plate at the onset on its second winter (sol approximately 900) until the onset of its fourth winter (sol approximately 2170). At that time, Spirit became mired in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate-rich soil with dust-covered solar panels and unfavorable pointing of the solar arrays toward the sun. Spirit has not communicated with the Earth since sol 2210 (January, 2011). Like its twin rover Opportunity, which landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridiani Planum, Spirit has an Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument for chemical analyses and a Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) for measurement of iron redox state, mineralogical speciation, and quantitative distribution among oxidation (Fe(3+)/sigma Fe) and coordination (octahedral versus tetrahedral) states and mineralogical speciation (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, carbonate, and sulfate). The concentration of SO3 in Gusev rocks and soils varies from approximately 1 to approximately 34 wt%. Because the APXS instrument does not detect low atomic number elements (e.g., H and C), major-element oxide concentrations are normalized to sum to 100 wt%, i.e., contributions of H2O, CO2, NO2, etc. to the bulk composition care not considered. The majority of Gusev samples have approximately 6 plus or minus 5 wt% SO3, but there is a group of samples with high SO3 concentrations (approximately 30 wt%) and high total iron concentrations (approximately 20 wt%). There is also a group with low total Fe and SO3 concentrations that is also characterized by high SiO2 concentrations (greater than 70 wt%). The trend labeled "Basaltic Soil" is interpreted as mixtures in variable proportions between unaltered igneous material and oxidized and SO3-rich basaltic

  17. The fate of sulfate in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Koning, Anne M.; Meijers, Wouter C.; Minović, Isidor; Post, Adrian; Feelisch, Martin; Pasch, Andreas; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2017-01-01

    New leads to advance our understanding of heart failure (HF) pathophysiology are urgently needed. Previous studies have linked urinary sulfate excretion to a favorable cardiovascular risk profile. Sulfate is not only the end product of hydrogen sulfide metabolism but is also directly involved in various (patho)physiological processes, provoking scientific interest in its renal handling. This study investigates sulfate clearance in chronic HF (CHF) patients and healthy individuals and considers its relationship with disease outcome. Parameters related to renal sulfate handling were determined in and compared between 96 previously characterized CHF patients and sex-matched healthy individuals. Among patients, sulfate clearance was analyzed for associations with clinical and outcome parameters. In CHF patients, plasma sulfate concentrations are significantly higher, whereas 24-h urinary excretion, fractional excretion, and clearance of sulfate are significantly lower, compared with healthy individuals. Among patients, sulfate clearance is independently associated with diuretics use, creatinine clearance and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Sulfate clearance is associated with favorable disease outcome [hazard ratio per SD increase 0.38 (95% confidence interval 0.23–0.63), P < 0.001]. Although significance was lost after adjustment for creatinine clearance, the decrease of sulfate clearance in patients is independent of this parameter, indicating that sulfate clearance is not merely a reflection of renal function. This exploratory study reveals aberrant sulfate clearance as a potential contributor to CHF pathophysiology, with reduced levels in patients and a positive association with favorable disease outcome. Further research is needed to unravel the nature of its involvement and to determine its potential as a biomarker and target for therapy. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Sulfate clearance is decreased in chronic heart failure patients compared with healthy individuals. Among

  18. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment. 524.155 Section 524.155 Food and... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... hydrocortisone. (2) To 043264; each gram of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of...

  19. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment. 524.155 Section 524.155 Food and... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... hydrocortisone. (2) To 025463; each gram of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of...

  20. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment. 524.155 Section 524.155 Food and... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... hydrocortisone. (2) To 025463; each gram of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of...

  1. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment. 524.155 Section 524.155 Food and... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... hydrocortisone. (2) To 025463; each gram of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of...

  2. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.154 Section 524.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B...

  3. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.154 Section 524.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B...

  4. Constraining Δ33S signatures of Archean seawater sulfate with carbonate-associated sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.; Bao, H.; Bekker, A.; Hofmann, A.

    2017-12-01

    Non-mass dependent sulfur isotope deviation of S-bearing phases in Archean sedimentary strata, and expressed as Δ33S, has a consistent pattern, i.e., sulfide (pyrite) predominantly bear positive Δ33S values, while Paleoarchean sulfate (barite) has negative Δ33S values. This pattern was later corroborated by observations of negative Δ33S values in Archean volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and negative Δ33S values in early diagenetic nodular pyrite with a wide range of δ34S values, which is thought to be due to microbial sulfate reduction. These signatures have provided a set of initial conditions for a mechanistic interpretation at physical chemistry level. Unlike the younger geological times when large bodies of seawater evaporite deposits are common, to expand seawater sulfate records, carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) was utilized as a proxy for ancient seawater sulfate. CAS extracted from the Archean carbonates carries positive Δ33S values. However, CAS could be derived from pyrite oxidation following exposure to modern oxidizing conditions and/or during laboratory extraction procedures. It is, therefore, important for us understanding context of the overall early earth atmospheric condition to empirically confirm whether Archean seawater sulfate was generally characterized by negative Δ33S signatures. Combined δ18O, Δ17O, δ34S, and Δ33S analyses of sequentially extracted water-leachable sulfate (WLS) and acid-leachable sulfate (ALS = CAS) and δ34S and Δ33S analyses of pyrite can help to identify the source of extracted sulfate. We studied drill-core samples of Archean carbonates from the 2.55 Ga Malmani and Campell Rand supgroups, South Africa. Our preliminary results show that 1) neither WLS nor ALS were extracted from samples with extremely low pyrite contents (less than 0.05 wt.%); 2) extractable WLS and ALS is present in samples with relatively high pyrite contents (more than 1 wt.%), and that δ34S and Δ33S values of WLS, ALS, and

  5. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R; Bebout, Brad M; Habicht, Kirsten S; Webb, Samuel M; Stahl, David A

    2007-08-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community was shown to sustain a highly active sulfur cycle. The highest rates of sulfate respiration were measured close to the surface of the mat late in the day when photosynthetic oxygen production ceased and were associated with a Thermodesulfovibrio-like population. Reduced activity at greater depths was correlated with novel populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms, unrelated to characterized species, and most likely due to both sulfate and carbon limitation.

  6. High Rates of Sulfate Reduction in a Low-Sulfate Hot Spring Microbial Mat Are Driven by a Low Level of Diversity of Sulfate-Respiring Microorganisms▿

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Jesse G.; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R.; Bebout, Brad M.; Habicht, Kirsten S.; Webb, Samuel M.; Stahl, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community was shown to sustain a highly active sulfur cycle. The highest rates of sulfate respiration were measured close to the surface of the mat late in the day when photosynthetic oxygen production ceased and were associated with a Thermodesulfovibrio-like population. Reduced activity at greater depths was correlated with novel populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms, unrelated to characterized species, and most likely due to both sulfate and carbon limitation. PMID:17575000

  7. Sulfate resistance of high calcium fly ash concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhole, Rajaram

    Sulfate attack is one of the mechanisms which can cause deterioration of concrete. In general, Class C fly ash mixtures are reported to provide poor sulfate resistance. Fly ashes, mainly those belonging to the Class C, were tested as per the ASTM C 1012 procedure to evaluate chemical sulfate resistance. Overall the Class C fly ashes showed poor resistance in the sulfate environment. Different strategies were used in this research work to improve the sulfate resistance of Class C fly ash mixes. The study revealed that some of the strategies such as use of low W/CM (water to cementing materials by mass ratio), silica fume or ultra fine fly ash, high volumes of fly ash and, ternary or quaternary mixes with suitable supplementary cementing materials, can successfully improve the sulfate resistance of the Class C fly ash mixes. Combined sulfate attack, involving physical and chemical action, was studied using sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate solutions. The specimens were subjected to wetting-drying cycles and temperature changes. These conditions were found to accelerate the rate of degradation of concrete placed in a sodium sulfate environment. W/CM was found to be the main governing factor in providing sulfate resistance to mixes. Calcium sulfate did not reveal damage as a result of mainly physical action. Characterization of the selected fly ashes was undertaken by using SEM, XRD and the Rietveld analysis techniques, to determine the relation between the composition of fly ashes and resistance to sulfate attack. The chemical composition of glass represented on the ternary diagram was the main factor which had a significant influence on the sulfate resistance of fly ash mixtures. Mixes prepared with fly ashes containing significant amounts of vulnerable crystalline phases offered poor sulfate resistance. Comparatively, fly ash mixes containing inert crystalline phases such as quartz, mullite and hematite offered good sulfate resistance. The analysis of hydrated lime

  8. BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-03-10

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibilitymore » issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].« less

  9. Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  10. Effective Synthesis of Sulfate Metabolites of Chlorinated Phenols

    PubMed Central

    Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Li, Xueshu; Duffel, Michael W.; Parkin, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophenols are an important class of persistent environmental contaminants and have been implicated in a range of adverse health effects, including cancer. They are readily conjugated and excreted as the corresponding glucuronides and sulfates in the urine of humans and other species. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of ten chlorophenol sulfates by sulfation of the corresponding chlorophenols with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl (TCE) chlorosulfate using N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as base. Deprotection of the chlorophenol diesters with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the respective chlorophenol sulfate ammonium salts in good yield. The molecular structure of three TCE-protected chlorophenol sulfate diesters and one chlorophenol sulfate monoester were confirmed by X-ray crystal structure analysis. The chlorophenol sulfates were stable for several months if stored at −20 °C and, thus, are useful for future toxicological, environmental and human biomonitoring studies. PMID:23906814

  11. Chondroitin-4-sulfation negatively regulates axonal guidance and growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; McCann, Thomas E.; Unsworth, Edward; Goldsmith, Paul; Yu, Zu-Xi; Tan, Fei; Santiago, Lizzie; Mills, Edward M.; Wang, Yu; Symes, Aviva J.; Geller, Herbert M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains endow extracellular matrix proteoglycans with diversity and complexity based upon the length, composition, and charge distribution of the polysaccharide chain. Using cultured primary neurons, we show that specific sulfation in the GAG chains of chondroitin sulfate (CS) mediates neuronal guidance cues and axonal growth inhibition. Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS-A), but not chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS-C), exhibits a strong negative guidance cue to mouse cerebellar granule neurons. Enzymatic and gene-based manipulations of 4-sulfation in the GAG side chains alter their ability to direct growing axons. Furthermore, 4-sulfated CS GAG chains are rapidly and significantly increased in regions that do not support axonal regeneration proximal to spinal cord lesions in mice. Thus, our findings provide the evidence showing that specific sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function. PMID:18768934

  12. Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Sean A; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei; Jones, CarriAyne; Kim, Sang-Tae; Zerkle, Aubrey L; Nomosatryo, Sulung; Fowle, David A; Adkins, Jess F; Sessions, Alex L; Farquhar, James; Canfield, Donald E

    2014-11-07

    In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column of Lake Matano, Indonesia, a low-sulfate analog for the Archean ocean, we find large (>20 per mil) sulfur isotope fractionations between sulfate and sulfide, but the underlying sediment sulfides preserve a muted range of δ(34)S values. Using models informed by sulfur cycling in Lake Matano, we infer Archean seawater sulfate concentrations of less than 2.5 micromolar. At these low concentrations, marine sulfate residence times were likely 10(3) to 10(4) years, and sulfate scarcity would have shaped early global biogeochemical cycles, possibly restricting biological productivity in Archean oceans. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Biosynthesis and function of chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Tadahisa; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are principal pericellular and extracellular components that form regulatory milieu involving numerous biological and pathophysiological phenomena. Diverse functions of CSPGs can be mainly attributed to structural variability of their polysaccharide moieties, chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAG). Comprehensive understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for CS biosynthesis and its catabolic processes is required in order to understand those functions. Here, we focus on recent advances in the study of enzymatic regulatory pathways for CS biosynthesis including successive modification/degradation, distinct CS functions, and disease phenotypes that have been revealed by perturbation of the respective enzymes in vitro and in vivo. Fine-tuned machineries for CS production/degradation are crucial for the functional expression of CS chains in developmental and pathophysiological processes. Control of enzymes responsible for CS biosynthesis/catabolism is a potential target for therapeutic intervention for the CS-associated disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  15. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-06-30

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance. 6 figs.

  16. Sodium sulfate crystallisation monitoring using IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, P.; Thomachot-Schneider, C.; Mouhoubi, K.; Bodnar, J.-L.; Avdelidis, N. P.; Charles, D.; Benavente, D.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the evaporation of sodium sulfate droplets with different concentrations and at different temperatures were studied using infrared thermography (IRT). IRT allows to detect the evaporation evolution, the crystal growth and for the first time, to observe in vivo the heat release related to sodium sulfate crystallisation. A detailed study revealed that dendritic Thenardite III crystals appeared at the edge of all the crystallised droplets, though they showed a fast increase of temperature related to crystallisation only when a hydrated phase crystallised also from the droplet. The observation of the heat of crystallisation is thus directly related to the supersaturation of the droplet and consequently to temperature. In addition, IRT detection is circumscribed by the location of crystallisation. The heat can be observed and measured only when the crystallisation occurs in the interface solution - air.

  17. Zinc sulfate therapy of vocal process granuloma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guang-Bin; Sun, Na; Tang, Hai-Hong; Zhu, Qiu-Bei; Wen, Wu; Zheng, Hong-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Vocal process granuloma is a benign lesion that occurs on the arytenoid cartilage. It tends to recur locally, and there is a great diversity of methods to treat it. Here, we reviewed the effects of zinc sulfate therapy program in 16 patients with vocal process granulomas. Eleven patients had a history of trauma or laryngeal intubation and five patients had unknown origin. Eleven had recurrence after one to three failed surgeries, and the others had no prior treatment. Symptoms included hoarseness, sore throat, lump sensation in the throat and cough that apparently improved. The granulomas did not recur for at least 1 year. No complications occurred. For vocal process granuloma, zinc sulfate therapy is good either as an initial or compensatory treatment.

  18. Noncomparative contraceptive efficacy of cellulose sulfate gel.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Christine K; Freziers, Ron G; Walsh, Terri L; Peacock, Karen; Schwartz, Jill L; Callahan, Marianne M

    2008-03-01

    To estimate the 6-month cumulative probability of pregnancy, short-term adverse effects, and acceptability of cellulose sulfate vaginal contraceptive gel. Two hundred fertile heterosexual couples were enrolled in this single-center, phase II, 6-month noncomparative study conducted at the California Family Health Council in Los Angeles, California. Couples did not desire pregnancy, were at low risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and agreed to use 3.5 mL of cellulose sulfate gel intravaginally before each coital act as their primary means of contraception. Scheduled follow-up visits took place after one menstrual cycle and at study completion, which occurred after 6 months and six menstrual cycles had elapsed. In addition, participants were instructed to call the site at the onset of each menses to review their diary cards. The cumulative probabilities of pregnancy during 6 months and six cycles of typical use were 13.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.5-19.4%) and 13.9% (95% CI 7.7-20.2%), respectively, and during 6 cycles of correct and consistent ("perfect") use: 3.9% (95% CI 0.0-9.2%). Slightly over one fourth of the women and one man reported experiencing gel-related adverse events, two thirds of which were mild and only possibly related to the gel. Three quarters of women and men reported that they would buy cellulose sulfate gel for contraception. Cellulose sulfate vaginal gel yields pregnancy rates comparable to nonoxynol-9 and few adverse events among couples at low risk for sexually transmitted diseases.

  19. Optical constants of concentrated aqueous ammonium sulfate.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Using experimental data obtained from applying spectroscopy to a 39-wt-% aqueous ammonium sulfate solution, it is shown that, even though specific aerosol optical constants appear quite accurate, spectral variations may exist as functions of material composition or concentration or both. Prudent users of optical constant data must then include liberal data error estimates when performing calculations or in interpreting spectroscopic surveys of collected aerosol material.

  20. Fundamental Mvssbauer Parameters of Hydrous Iron Sulfates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothstein, Y.; Dyar, M. D.; Schaefer, M. W.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrous iron sulfates, which form as alteration products of sulfides, are rare on Earth. On Mars, the low temperature and pH found in the martian permafrost create ideal conditions for the formation of this group of minerals [1], which includes such phases as coquimbite (Fe2(SO4) 9H2O) and amarantite (FeSO4(OH) 3H2O). Viking, Mars Pathfinder, MER and OMEGA data [e.g., [2

  1. Anthropogenic Sulfate, Clouds, and Climate Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghan, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    This research work is a joint effort between research groups at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Virginia Tech University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Texas A&M University. It has been jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this research, a detailed tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model that predicts oxidant concentrations as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosols has been coupled to a general circulation model that distinguishes between cloud water mass and cloud droplet number. The coupled model system has been first validated and then used to estimate the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. Both the direct radiative impact of the aerosols and their indirect impact through their influence on cloud droplet number are represented by distinguishing between sulfuric acid vapor and fresh and aged sulfate aerosols, and by parameterizing cloud droplet nucleation in terms of vertical velocity and the number concentration of aged sulfur aerosols. Natural sulfate aerosols, dust, and carbonaceous and nitrate aerosols and their influence on the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, through competition as cloud condensation nuclei, will also be simulated. Parallel simulations with and without anthropogenic sulfur emissions are performed for a global domain. The objectives of the research are: To couple a state-of-the-art tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model with a global climate model. To use field and satellite measurements to evaluate the treatment of tropospheric chemistry and aerosol physics in the coupled model. To use the coupled model to simulate the radiative (and ultimately climatic) impacts of anthropogenic sulfur emissions.

  2. Sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures for multipotent protein activation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sungsoo S.; Fyrner, Timmy; Chen, Feng

    Biological systems have evolved to utilize numerous proteins with capacity to bind polysaccharides for the purpose of optimizing their function. A well-known subset of these proteins with binding domains for the highly diverse sulfated polysaccharides are important growth factors involved in biological development and tissue repair. We report here on supramolecular sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures, which display a trisulfated monosaccharide on their surfaces and bind five critical proteins with different polysaccharide-binding domains. Binding does not disrupt the filamentous shape of the nanostructures or their internal β-sheet backbone, but must involve accessible adaptive configurations to interact with such different proteins. The glycopeptidemore » nanostructures amplified signalling of bone morphogenetic protein 2 significantly more than the natural sulfated polysaccharide heparin, and promoted regeneration of bone in the spine with a protein dose that is 100-fold lower than that required in the animal model. These highly bioactive nanostructures may enable many therapies in the future involving proteins.« less

  3. Regulation of Sulfate Assimilation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Brunold, Christian; Schmidt, Ahlert

    1978-01-01

    When 0.5 mm cysteine is added to cultures of Lemna minor L. growing with sulfate as the sole sulfur source, there is a rapid 80% loss of extractable adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase. This loss is accompanied by an inhibition of sulfate uptake; however, lack of sulfate is not responsible for the decreasing adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase activity. Cultivation with cysteine causes an increase in the cyst(e)ine pool of L. minor. This fact taken together with the observed inactivation of adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase in crude extracts by cysteine suggests that the cysteine pool is involved in the in vivo regulation of the enzyme. The activity of adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase is restored within 24 hours after transfer to a culture medium without cysteine. This restoration is partially blocked by 6-methyl purine and actinomycin D and completely by cycloheximide. Cycloheximide added to cultures of L. minor L. causes a loss of extractable APSTase comparable to the one obtained with cysteine. This loss may be in part due to cysteine, since cycloheximide causes a pronounced increase in the cysteine pool of L. minor. PMID:16660289

  4. Additionally sulfated xylomannan sulfates from Scinaia hatei and their antiviral activities.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sayani; Pujol, Carlos A; Damonte, Elsa B; Ray, Bimalendu

    2015-10-20

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) display affinity for cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans with biological relevance in virus entry. This study demonstrates the potential of chemically engineered sulfated xylomannans from Scinaia hatei as antiHSV drug candidate. Particularly, a dimethylformamide -SO3/pyridine based procedure has been employed for the generation of anionic polysaccharides. This one-step procedure has the power of providing a spectrum of xylomannans with varying molecular masses (<12-74kDa), sulfate content (1-50%) and glycosyl composition. Especially, the sulfated xylomannans S1F1 and S2F1 possessed altered activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 compared to the parental compound (F1) and that too in the absence of drug-induced cytotoxicity. Regarding methodological facet, the directive decoration of hydroxyl functionality with sulfate group plus changes in the molecular mass and sugar composition during isolation by the used reagent opens a door for the production of new molecular entity with altered biological activity from other natural sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Purification and sequence characterization of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate from fishes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Na; Mo, Xiaoli; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) were extracted and purified from skins or bones of salmon (Salmo salar), snakehead (Channa argus), monkfish (Lophius litulon) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). Size, structural sequences and sulfate groups of oligosaccharides in the purified CS and DS could be characterized and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with Orbitrap mass spectrometry. CS and DS chain structure varies depending on origin, but motif structure appears consistent. Structures of CS and DS oligosaccharides with different size and sulfate groups were compared between fishes and other animals, and results showed that some minor differences of special structures could be identified by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-liquid chromatography-fourier transform-mass/mass spectrometry (HILIC-LC-FT-MS/MS). For example, data showed that salmon and skipjack CS had a higher percentage content of high-level sulfated oligosaccharides than that porcine CS. In addition, structural information of different origins of CS and DS was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and results showed that CS and DS samples could be differentiated according to their molecular conformation and oligosaccharide fragments information. Understanding CS and DS structure derived from different origins may lead to the production of CS or DS with unique disaccharides or oligosaccharides sequence composition and biological functions.

  6. Sulfation degree not origin of chondroitin sulfate derivatives modulates keratinocyte response.

    PubMed

    Corsuto, Luisana; Rother, Sandra; Koehler, Linda; Bedini, Emiliano; Moeller, Stephanie; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Hintze, Vera; Schiraldi, Chiara; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2018-07-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) sulfation-dependently binds transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and chronic wounds often accompany with epidermal hyperproliferation due to downregulated TGF-β signaling. However, the impact of CS on keratinocytes is unknown. Especially biotechnological-chemical strategies are promising to replace animal-derived CS. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the effects of CS derivatives on the interaction with vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and on keratinocyte response. Over-sulfated CS (sCS3) interacts stronger with VEGF-A than CS. Furthermore, collagen coatings with CS variants are prepared by in vitro fibrillogenesis. Stability analyses demonstrate that collagen is firmly integrated, while the fibril diameters decrease with increasing sulfation degree. CS variants sulfation-dependently decelerate keratinocyte (HaCaT) migration and proliferation in a scratch assay. HaCaT cultured on sCS3-containing coatings produced increased amounts of solute active TGF-β1 which could be translated into biomaterials able to decrease epidermal hyperproliferation in chronic wounds. Overall, semi-synthetic and natural CS yield to comparable responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tracing sources of streamwater sulfate during snowmelt using S and O isotope ratios of sulfate and 35S activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, J.B.; Mayer, B.; Mitchell, M.J.; Michel, R.L.; Bailey, S.W.; Kendall, C.

    2005-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of sulfur (S) was studied during the 2000 snowmelt at Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont, USA using a hydrochemical and multi-isotope approach. The snowpack and 10 streams of varying size and land use were sampled for analysis of anions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 35S activity, and ?? 34S and ?? 18O values of sulfate. At one of the streams, ?? 18O values of water also were measured. Apportionment of sulfur derived from atmospheric and mineral sources based on their distinct ?? 34S values was possible for 7 of the 10 streams. Although mineral S generally dominated, atmospheric-derived S contributions exceeded 50% in several of the streams at peak snowmelt and averaged 41% overall. However, most of this atmospheric sulfur was not from the melting snowpack; the direct contribution of atmospheric sulfate to streamwater sulfate was constrained by 35S mass balance to a maximum of 7%. Rather, the main source of atmospheric sulfur in streamwater was atmospheric sulfate deposited months to years earlier that had microbially cycled through the soil organic sulfur pool. This atmospheric/pedospheric sulfate (pedogenic sulfate formed from atmospheric sulfate) source is revealed by ?? 18O values of streamwater sulfate that remained constant and significantly lower than those of atmospheric sulfate throughout the melt period, as well as streamwater 35S ages of hundreds of days. Our results indicate that the response of streamwater sulfate to changes in atmospheric deposition will be mediated by sulfate retention in the soil. ?? Springer 2005.

  8. The preparation and antioxidant activity of glucosamine sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Wang, Lin; Cai, Shengbao; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-05-01

    Glucosamine sulfate was prepared from glucosamine hydrochloride that was produced by acidic hydrolysis of chitin by ion-exchange method. Optical rotation and elemental analysis characterized the degree of its purity. In addition, the antioxidant potency of chitosan derivative-glucosamine sulfate was investigated in various established in vitro systems, such as superoxide (O{2/-})/hydroxyl (·OH) radicals scavenging, reducing power, iron ion chelating. The following results are obtained: first, glucosamine sulfate had pronounced scavenging effect on superoxide radical. For example the O{2/-} scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was 92.11% at 0.8 mg/mL. Second, the ·OH scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was also strong, and was about 50% at 3.2 mg/mL. Third, the reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was more pronounced. The reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was 0.643 at 0.75 mg/mL. However, its potency for ferrous ion chelating was weak. Furthermore, except for ferrous ion chelating potency, the scavenging rate of radical and reducing power of glucosamine sulfate were concentration-dependent and increased with their increasing concentrations, but its ferrous ion chelating potency decreased with the increasing concentration. The multiple antioxidant activities of glucosamine sulfate were evidents of reducing power and superoxide/hydroxyl radicals scavenging ability. These in vitro results suggest the possibility that glucosamine sulfate could be used effectively as an ingredient in health or functional food, to alleviate oxidative stress.

  9. Crystallization of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme from Sulfate Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    It has been "known" that chicken egg white lysozyme does not crystallize from sulfate, particularly ammonium sulfate, salts, but instead gives amorphous precipitates. This has been the basis of several studies using lysozyme comparing macromolecule crystal nucleation and amorphous precipitation. Recently Ries-Kautt et al (Acta Cryst D50, (1994) 366) have shown that purified isoionic CEWL could be crystallized from low concentrations of sulfate at basic pH, and we subsequently showed that in fact CEWL could be purified in both the tetragonal and orthorhombic forms using ammonium sulfate over the pH range 4.0 to 7.8 (Acta Cryst D53, (1997) 795). We have now extended these observations to include a range of common sulfate salts, specifically sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates. In all cases but the manganese sulfates both the familiar tetragonal and orthorhombic forms were obtained, with unit cell dimensions close to those known for the "classic" sodium chloride crystallized forms. Manganese sulfate has only yielded orthorhombic crystals to date. All crystallizations were carried out using low (typically less than or equal to 6 M) salt and high (greater than approximately 90 mg/ml) protein concentrations. As with ammonium sulfate, the tetragonal - orthorhombic phase shift appears to be a function of both the temperature and the protein concentration, with higher temperatures and concentrations favoring the orthorhombic and lower the tetragonal form. The phase change range is somewhat reduced for the sulfate salts, depending upon conditions being typically between approximately 15 - 20 C. Both the magnesium and manganese sulfates gave crystals at salt concentrations over 0.6 M as well, with magnesium sulfate giving a very slowly nucleating and growing hexagonal form. A triclinic crystal form, characterized by aggressively small crystals (typically 0.1 mm in size) has been occasionally obtained from ammonium sulfate. Finally, preliminary spot

  10. Sulfate Metabolites of 4-Monochlorobiphenyl in Whole Poplar Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Guangshu; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2013-01-01

    4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) has been proven to be transformed into hydroxylated metabolites of PCB3 (OH-PCB3s) in whole poplar plants in our previous work. However, hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs, including OH-PCB3s, as the substrates of sulfotransferases have not been studied in many organisms including plants in vivo. Poplar (Populus deltoides × nigra, DN34) was used to investigate the further metabolism from OH-PCB3s to PCB3 sulfates because it is a model plant and one that is frequently utilized in phytoremediation. Results showed poplar plants could metabolize PCB3 into PCB3 sulfates during 25 day exposures. Three sulfate metabolites, including 2′-PCB3 sulfate, 3′-PCB3 sulfate and 4′-PCB3 sulfate, were identified in poplar roots and their concentrations increased in the roots from day 10 to day 25. The major products were 2′-PCB3 sulfate and 4′-PCB3 sulfate. However, the concentrations of PCB3 sulfates were much lower than those of OH-PCB3s in the roots, suggesting the sequential transformation of these hydroxylated PCB3 metabolites into PCB3 sulfates in whole poplars. In addition, 2′-PCB3 sulfate or 4′-PCB3 sulfate was also found in the bottom wood samples indicating some translocation or metabolism in woody tissue. Results suggested that OH-PCB3s were the substrates of sulfotransferases which catalyzed the formation of PCB3 sulfates in the metabolic pathway of PCB3. PMID:23215248

  11. Purification of Keratan Sulfate-endogalactosidase and its action on keratan sulfates of different origin.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, K; Suzuki, S

    1975-02-10

    A glycosidase which attacks corneal keratan sulfate was purified from extracts of Pseudomonas sp. IFO-13309. When corneal keratan sulfate was degraded by the purified enzyme, Sephadex G-50 chromatography indicated the presence of a number of oligosaccharides differing in size and sulfate content. The characterization of two major fractions of the oligosaccharides indicated that the point of enzyme attack is limited to the endo-beta-D-galactoside bonds in which nonsulfated D-galactose residues participate. The enzyme, unlike ordinary exo-beta-D-galactosidases, did not catalyze the hydrolysis of phenyl beta-D-galactoside. Moreover, beta-D-galactosyl-(1 leads to 3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucosyl-(1 leads to 3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1 leads to 4)-D-glucose ("lacto-N-tetraose") was completely refractory to the action of this enzyme, suggesting that a structure of the type, X-(1 leads to 3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1 leads to 4)-Y, is not the only specificity-determining factor, i.e. neighboring sugars, X and Y, or even larger portions of substrate molecule must have an important effect. Compared with corneal keratan sulfate, keratan sulfates from human nucleus pulposus and shark cartilage were attacked at lower rates with a resultant production of oligosaccharides of relatively large size. The result is in agreement with the view that considerable variations exist in the structure of keratan sulfates of different origin, and further suggests that the enzyme may serve as a useful reagent in studying these variations.

  12. A potential role for chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate in arm regeneration in Amphiura filiformis.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Dupont, Sam T; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2017-05-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) from various vertebrate and invertebrate sources are known to be involved in diverse cellular mechanisms during repair and regenerative processes. Recently, we have identified CS/DS as the major GAG in the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, with high proportions of di- and tri-O-sulfated disaccharide units. As this echinoderm is known for its exceptional regeneration capacity, we aimed to explore the role of these GAG chains during A. filiformis arm regeneration. Analysis of CS/DS chains during the regeneration process revealed an increase in the proportion of the tri-O-sulfated disaccharides. Conversely, treatment of A. filiformis with sodium chlorate, a potent inhibitor of sulfation reactions in GAG biosynthesis, resulted in a significant reduction in arm growth rates with total inhibition at concentrations higher than 5 mM. Differentiation was less impacted by sodium chlorate exposure or even slightly increased at 1-2 mM. Based on the structural changes observed during arm regeneration we identified chondroitin synthase, chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2 and dermatan-4-O-sulfotransferase as candidate genes and sought to correlate their expression with the expression of the A. filiformis orthologue of bone morphogenetic factors, AfBMP2/4. Quantitative amplification by real-time PCR indicated increased expression of chondroitin synthase and chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2, with a corresponding increase in AfBMP2/4 during regeneration relative to nonregenerating controls. Our findings suggest that proper sulfation of GAGs is important for A. filiformis arm regeneration and that these molecules may participate in mechanisms controlling cell proliferation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Global source attribution of sulfate aerosol and its radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, H.; Smith, S.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. L.; Qian, Y.; Li, C.; Yu, H.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate is an important aerosol that poses health risks and influences climate. Due to long-range atmospheric transport, local sulfate pollution could result from intercontinental influences, making domestic efforts of improving air quality inefficient. Accurate understanding of source attribution of sulfate and its radiative forcing is important for both regional air quality improvement and global climate mitigation. In this study, for the first time, a sulfur source-tagging capability is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) to quantify the global source-receptor relationships of sulfate and its direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF). Near-surface sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate is primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. The export of SO2 and sulfate from Europe contributes 20% of sulfate concentrations over North Africa, Russia and Central Asia. Sources from the Middle East account for 20% of sulfate over North Africa, Southern Africa and Central Asia in winter and autumn, and 20% over South Asia in spring. East Asia accounts for about 50% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in winter and autumn, 15% over Russia in summer, and 10% over North America in spring. South Asia contributes to 25% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in spring. Lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is found to determine regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is -0.42 W m-2, with 75% contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and 25% contributed by natural sulfate. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes the most to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20-30% over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high-latitudes. A 20% perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate IRF of -0.44 W m-2. DMS has the

  15. The crystal chemistry of four thorium sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Amanda J.; Sigmon, Ginger E.; Moore-Shay, Laura

    2011-07-15

    Four thorium sulfate compounds have been synthesized and characterized. [Th(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}].2H{sub 2}O (ThS1) crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}/m, a=7.2488(4), b=12.1798(7), c=8.0625(5) A, {beta}=98.245(1){sup o}; Na{sub 10}[Th{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 9}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O (ThS2), Pna2{sub 1}, a=17.842(2), b=6.9317(8), c=27.550(3) A; Na{sub 2}[Th{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}].H{sub 2}O (ThS3), C2/c, a=16.639(2), b=9.081(1), c=25.078(3) A, {beta}= 95.322(2){sup o}; [Th{sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 7}(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}].2H{sub 2}O (ThS4), Pnma, a=18.2127(9), b=11.1669(5), c=14.4705(7) A. In all cases the Th cations are coordinated by nine O atoms corresponding to SO{sub 4} tetrahedra, OH groups, and H{sub 2}O groups. The structural unitmore » of ThS1 is an isolated cluster consisting of a single Th polyhedron with two monodentate SO{sub 4} tetrahedra and seven H{sub 2}O groups. A double-wide Th sulfate chain is the basis of ThS2. The structures of ThS3 and ThS4 are frameworks of Th polyhedra and sulfate tetrahedra, and each contains channels that extend through the framework. One of the Th cations in ThS3 is coordinated by a bidentate SO{sub 4} tetrahedron, and ThS4 is unusual in the presence of a pair of Th cations that share a polyhedral face. - Graphical abstract: The structures of four hydrous thorium sulfates are reported that have structural units consisting of finite clusters, chains, and frameworks. Highlights: > Four hydrous thorium sulfates have structural units consisting of finite clusters, chains, and frameworks. > In each the Th cations are coordinated by nine O atoms from SO{sub 4} tetrahedra, OH groups, and H{sub 2}O groups. > The details of the linkages of ThO{sub 9} polyhedra and sulfate tetrahedra vary considerably in these structures.« less

  16. Metabolic interactions in methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Stams, A J M; Plugge, C M; de Bok, F A M; van Houten, B H G W; Lens, P; Dijkman, H; Weijma, J

    2005-01-01

    In environments where the amount of electron acceptors is insufficient for complete breakdown of organic matter, methane is formed as the major reduced end product. In such methanogenic environments organic acids are degraded by syntrophic consortia of acetogenic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Hydrogen consumption by methanogens is essential for acetogenic bacteria to convert organic acids to acetate and hydrogen. Several syntrophic cocultures growing on propionate and butyrate have been described. These syntrophic fatty acid-degrading consortia are affected by the presence of sulfate. When sulfate is present sulfate-reducing bacteria compete with methanogenic archaea for hydrogen and acetate, and with acetogenic bacteria for propionate and butyrate. Sulfate-reducing bacteria easily outcompete methanogens for hydrogen, but the presence of acetate as carbon source may influence the outcome of the competition. By contrast, acetoclastic methanogens can compete reasonably well with acetate-degrading sulfate reducers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria grow much faster on propionate and butyrate than syntrophic consortia.

  17. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  18. Sulfate and nitrate collected by filter sampling near the tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.; Otterson, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Filter samples collected near the tropopause with an F-106 aircraft and two Boeing 747 aircraft were analyzed for sulfate and nitrate ion content. Within the range of routine commercial flight altitudes (at or below 12.5 km), stratospheric mass mixing ratios for the winter-spring group averaged 0.26 ppbm for sulfate and 0.35 ppbm for nitrate. For the summer-fall group, stratosphere mixing ratios averaged 0.13 ppbm and 0.25 ppbm for sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Winter-spring group tropospheric mass mixing ratios averaged 0.08 ppbm for sulfate and 0.10 ppbm for nitrate, while summer-fall group tropospheric mixing ratios averaged 0.05 ppbm for sulfate and 0.08 ppbm for nitrate. Correlations of the filter data with available ozone data suggest that the sulfate and nitrate are transported from the stratosphere to the troposphere.

  19. Sequence determination of synthesized chondroitin sulfate dodecasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Watanabe, Hideto; Sugiura, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear acidic polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine. The polysaccharide is modified with sulfate groups at different positions by a variety of sulfotransferases. CS chains exhibit various biological and pathological functions by interacting with cytokines and growth factors and regulating their signal transduction. The fine structure of the CS chain defines its specific biological roles. However, structural analysis of CS has been restricted to disaccharide analysis, hampering the understanding of the structure-function relationship of CS chains. Here, we chemo-enzymatically synthesized CS dodecasaccharides having various sulfate modifications using a bioreactor system of bacterial chondroitin polymerase mutants and various CS sulfotransferases. We developed a sequencing method for CS chains using the CS dodecasaccharides. The method consists of (i) labeling a reducing end with 2-aminopyridine (PA), (ii) partial digestion of CS with testicular hyaluronidase, followed by separation of PA-conjugated oligosaccharides with different chain lengths, (iii) limited digestion of these oligosaccharides with chondroitin lyase AC II into disaccharides, followed by labeling with 2-aminobenzamide, (iv) CS disaccharide analysis using a dual-fluorescence HPLC system (reversed-phase ion-pair and ion-exchange chromatography), and (v) estimation of the composition by calculating individual disaccharide ratios. This CS chain sequencing allows characterization of CS-modifying enzymes and provides a useful tool toward understanding the structure-function relationship of CS chains. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Histomorphometric evaluation of a calcium-phosphosilicate putty bone substitute in extraction sockets.

    PubMed

    Kotsakis, Georgios A; Joachim, Frederic P C; Saroff, Stephen A; Mahesh, Lanka; Prasad, Hari; Rohrer, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate bone regeneration in 24 sockets grafted with a calcium phosphosilicate putty alloplastic bone substitute. A core was obtained from 17 sockets prior to implant placement for histomorphometry at 5 to 6 months postextraction. Radiographic analysis during the same postextraction healing period showed radiopaque tissue in all sockets. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a mean vital bone content of 31.76% (± 14.20%) and residual graft content of 11.47% (± 8.99%) after a mean healing period of 5.7 months. The high percentage of vital bone in the healed sites in combination with its timely absorption rate suggest that calcium phosphosilicate putty can be a reliable choice for osseous regeneration in extraction sockets.

  1. Transport of steroid 3-sulfates and steroid 17-sulfates by the sodium-dependent organic anion transporter SOAT (SLC10A6).

    PubMed

    Grosser, Gary; Bennien, Josefine; Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Bakhaus, Katharina; Döring, Barbara; Hartmann, Michaela; Wudy, Stefan A; Geyer, Joachim

    2018-05-01

    The sodium-dependent organic anion transporter SOAT/Soat shows highly specific transport activity for sulfated steroids. SOAT substrates identified so far include dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 16α-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrone-3-sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, 17β-estradiol-3-sulfate, and androstenediol sulfate. Apart from these compounds, many other sulfated steroids occur in mammals. Therefore, we aimed to expand the substrate spectrum of SOAT and analyzed the SOAT-mediated transport of eight different sulfated steroids by combining in vitro transport experiments in SOAT-transfected HEK293 cells with LC-MS/MS analytics of cell lysates. In addition, we aimed to better understand the structural requirements for SOAT substrates and so selected structural pairs varying only at specific positions: 3α/3β-sulfate, 17α/17β-sulfate, mono-sulfate/di-sulfate, and 17α-hydroxylation. We found significant and sodium-dependent SOAT-mediated transport of 17α-hydroxypregnenolone sulfate, 17β-estradiol-17-sulfate, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone sulfate, epitestosterone sulfate, and 5α-dihydrotestosterone sulfate. However, 17β-estradiol-3,17-disulfate was not transported by SOAT. SOAT substrates from the group of sulfated steroids are characterized by a planar and lipophilic steroid backbone in trans-trans-trans conformation of the rings and a negatively charged mono-sulfate group at positions 3' or 17' with flexibility for α- or β- orientation. Furthermore, 5α-reduction, 16α-hydroxylation, and 17α-hydroxylation are acceptable for SOAT substrate recognition, whereas addition of a second negatively charged sulfate group seems to abolish substrate binding to SOAT, and so 17β-estradiol-3,17-disulfate is not transported by SOAT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, S.; Lawson, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    A process for recovering zinc-rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered by distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10 C, separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream. 1 figure.

  3. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon; Lawson, Daniel B.

    1994-01-01

    A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

  4. Modulating inhibitors of transthyretin fibrillogenesis via sulfation: polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates as models.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Fabian A; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Robertson, Larry W; Duffel, Michael W

    2015-02-25

    Small molecules that bind with high affinity to thyroxine (T4) binding sites on transthyretin (TTR) kinetically stabilize the protein's tetrameric structure, thereby efficiently decreasing the rate of tetramer dissociation in TTR related amyloidoses. Current research efforts aim to optimize the amyloid inhibiting properties of known inhibitors, such as derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans and benzooxazoles, by chemical modification. In order to test the hypothesis that sulfate group substituents can improve the efficiencies of such inhibitors, we evaluated the potential of six polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates to inhibit TTR amyloid fibril formation in vitro. In addition, we determined their binding orientations and molecular interactions within the T4 binding site by molecular docking simulations. Utilizing this combined experimental and computational approach, we demonstrated that sulfation significantly improves the amyloid inhibiting properties as compared to both parent and hydroxylated PCBs. Importantly, several PCB sulfates were of equal or higher potency than some of the most effective previously described inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. HIGH-TEMPERATURE, SHORT-TIME SULFATION OF CALCIUM- BASED SORBENTS. 1. THEORETICAL SULFATION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical model for the sulfation of CaO is developed around the overlapping grain concept. The potential influence of high mass-transfer rates from simultaneous calcination of CaCO3 or Ca(OH)2 is incorporated in the mass-transfer coefficient for SO2 diffusion to the partic...

  6. Purification, structural characterization and antiproliferative properties of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate from tunisian fish skins.

    PubMed

    Krichen, Fatma; Volpi, Nicola; Sila, Assaâd; Maccari, Francesca; Mantovani, Veronica; Galeotti, Fabio; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Bougatef, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate GAGs were extracted and purified from the skins of grey triggerfish (GTSG) and smooth hound (SHSG). The disaccharide composition produced by chondroitinase ABC treatment showed the presence of nonsulfated disaccharide, monosulfated disaccharides ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S, and disulfated disaccharides in different percentages. In particular, the nonsulfated disaccharide ΔDi0S of GTSG and SHSG were 3.5% and 5.5%, respectively, while monosulfated disaccharides ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S were evaluated to be 18.2%, 59% and 14.6%, 47.0%, respectively. Capillary elecrophoresis analysis of GTSG and SHSG contained 99.2% and 95.4% of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, respectively. PAGE analysis showed a GTSG and SHSG having molecular masses with average values of 41.72KDa and 23.8KDa, respectively. HCT116 cell proliferation was inhibited (p<0.05) by 70.6% and 72.65% at 200μg/mL of GTSG and SHSG respectively. Both GTSG and SHSG demonstrated promising antiproliferative potential, which may be used as a novel, effective agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inter vs. intraglycosidic acetal linkages control sulfation pattern in semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Laezza, Antonio; De Castro, Cristina; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Bedini, Emiliano

    2014-11-04

    Microbial-sourced unsulfated chondroitin could be converted into chondroitin sulfate (CS) polysaccharide by a multi-step strategy relying upon benzylidenation and acetylation reactions as key-steps for its regioselective protection. By conducting the two reactions one- or two-pots, CSs with different sulfation patterns could be obtained at the end of the semi-synthesis. In particular, a CS polysaccharide possessing sulfate groups randomly distributed between positions 4 and 6 of N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) units could be obtained through the two-pots route, whereas the one-pot pathway allowed an additional sulfation at position 3 of some glucuronic acid (GlcA) units. This difference was ascribed to the stabilization of a labile interglycosidic benzylidene acetal involving positions O-3 and O-6 of some GlcA and GalNAc, respectively, when the benzylidene-acetylation reactions were conducted in a one-pot fashion. Isolation and characterization of a polysaccharide intermediate showing interglycosidic acetal moieties was accomplished. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Calcium sulfate crystallization along citrus root channels in a Florida soil exhibiting acid sulfate properties

    SciTech Connect

    Syslo, S.K.; Myhre, D.L.; Harris, W.G.

    1988-02-01

    The authors observed euhedral crystals in Manatee soil in a citrus grove in St. Lucie County, Florida. The material was identified as gypsum (CaSO/sub 4/ /times/ 2H/sub 2/O) using x-ray diffraction and infrared spectra. Photomicrography and scanning electron microscopy revealed that gypsum accumulated both in old root channels and within citrus root tissue of the Btg horizon. The subsurface horizons had elevated sulfate levels, a low initial pH, a drop (0.5 unit) in pH upon air-drying. Electrical conductivity paralleled the concentration of water-soluble sulfate. High levels of calcium and sulfate occurred for horizons above the water table. This accumulation ismore » attributed to groundwater bearing these ions and subsequently discharging them to the overlying soil. Dead citrus roots appear to act as wicks to aid water transfer from lower to higher horizons. The roots and their empty channels provide spaces in which the gypsum can precipitate if the concentrations of calcium and sulfate in the evaporating groundwater exceed the solubility product of gypsum.« less

  9. Theoretical study on the reactivity of sulfate species with hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qisheng; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Amrani, Alon; Zhang, Tongwei; Tang, Yongchun

    2008-09-01

    The abiotic, thermochemically controlled reduction of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbons, is termed thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), and is an important alteration process that affects petroleum accumulations in nature. Although TSR is commonly observed in high-temperature carbonate reservoirs, it has proven difficult to simulate in the laboratory under conditions resembling nature. The present study was designed to evaluate the relative reactivities of various sulfate species in order to provide greater insight into the mechanism of TSR and potentially to fill the gap between laboratory experimental data and geological observations. Accordingly, quantum mechanics density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the activation energy required to reach a potential transition state for various aqueous systems involving simple hydrocarbons and different sulfate species. The entire reaction process that results in the reduction of sulfate to sulfide is far too complex to be modeled entirely; therefore, we examined what is believed to be the rate limiting step, namely, the reduction of sulfate S(VI) to sulfite S(IV). The results of the study show that water-solvated sulfate anions SO42- are very stable due to their symmetrical molecular structure and spherical electronic distributions. Consequently, in the absence of catalysis, the reactivity of SO42- is expected to be extremely low. However, both the protonation of sulfate to form bisulfate anions ( HSO4-) and the formation of metal-sulfate contact ion-pairs could effectively destabilize the sulfate molecular structure, thereby making it more reactive. Previous reports of experimental simulations of TSR generally have involved the use of acidic solutions that contain elevated concentrations of HSO4- relative to SO42-. However, in formation waters typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, the concentration of HSO4- is likely to be significantly lower than the levels

  10. Sulfate Formation on Mars by Volcanic Aerosols: A New Look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.

    1996-03-01

    Sulfur was measured at both Viking Lander sites in abundances of 5-9 wt % SO3. Because the sulfur was more concentrated in clumps which disintegrated and the general oxidized nature of the Martian soil, these measurements led to the assumption that a sulfate duricrust existed. Two types of models for sulfate formation have been proposed. One is a formation by upwardly migrating ground water. The other is the formation of sulfates by the precipitation of volcanic aerosols. Most investigators have tended to favor the ground water origin of sulfates on Mars. However, evidence assemble since Viking may point to a volcanic aerosol origin.

  11. Synthesis and anticoagulant activity of the quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lihong; Wu, Penghui; Zhang, Jinrong; Gao, Song; Wang, Libo; Li, Mingjia; Sha, Mingming; Xie, Weiguo; Nie, Min

    2012-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates with diverse degrees of substitution (DS) ascribed to sulfate groups between 0.52 and 1.55 were synthesized by reacting quaternary ammonium chitosan with an uncommon sulfating agent (N(SO(3)Na)(3)) that was prepared from sodium bisulfite (NaHSO(3)) through reaction with sodium nitrite (NaNO(2)) in the aqueous system homogeneous. The structures of the derivatives were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The factors affecting DS of quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates which included the molar ratio of NaNO(2) to quaternary ammonium chitosan, sulfated temperature, sulfated time and pH of sulfated reaction solution were investigated in detail. Its anticoagulation activity in vitro was determined by an activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay, a thrombin time (TT) assay and a prothrombin time (PT) assay. Results of anticoagulation assays showed quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates significantly prolonged APTT and TT, but not PT, and demonstrated that the introduction of sulfate groups into the quaternary ammonium chitosan structure improved its anticoagulant activity obviously. The study showed its anticoagulant properties strongly depended on its DS, concentration and molecular weight. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. METHOD OF INHIBITING CORROSION IN URANYL SULFATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Bohlmann, E.G.; Griess, J.C. Jr.

    1960-08-23

    A method is given for treating a uranyl sulfate solution to inhibit the corrosiveness of the solution and elevate the phase separation temperature of the solution. Lithium sulfate is added to the solution in an amount ranging from 0.25 to 1.3 times the uranyl sulfate concentration. The corrosiveness of the solution with respect to stainless steel is substantially decreased by this means. This treatment also serves to raise the phase separation temperature of the solution (above 250 deg C), at which time the uranyl sulfate solution separates into two liquid phases of unequal uranium concentration and thus becomes unsuitable as nuclear reactor fuel.

  13. Theoretical study on the reactivity of sulfate species with hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ma, Q.; Ellis, G.S.; Amrani, A.; Zhang, T.; Tang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The abiotic, thermochemically controlled reduction of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbons, is termed thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), and is an important alteration process that affects petroleum accumulations in nature. Although TSR is commonly observed in high-temperature carbonate reservoirs, it has proven difficult to simulate in the laboratory under conditions resembling nature. The present study was designed to evaluate the relative reactivities of various sulfate species in order to provide greater insight into the mechanism of TSR and potentially to fill the gap between laboratory experimental data and geological observations. Accordingly, quantum mechanics density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the activation energy required to reach a potential transition state for various aqueous systems involving simple hydrocarbons and different sulfate species. The entire reaction process that results in the reduction of sulfate to sulfide is far too complex to be modeled entirely; therefore, we examined what is believed to be the rate limiting step, namely, the reduction of sulfate S(VI) to sulfite S(IV). The results of the study show that water-solvated sulfate anions SO42 - are very stable due to their symmetrical molecular structure and spherical electronic distributions. Consequently, in the absence of catalysis, the reactivity of SO42 - is expected to be extremely low. However, both the protonation of sulfate to form bisulfate anions (HSO4-) and the formation of metal-sulfate contact ion-pairs could effectively destabilize the sulfate molecular structure, thereby making it more reactive. Previous reports of experimental simulations of TSR generally have involved the use of acidic solutions that contain elevated concentrations of HSO4- relative to SO42 -. However, in formation waters typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, the concentration of HSO4- is likely to be significantly lower than the levels

  14. Divergent Synthesis of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides and Identification of Sulfate Motifs that Inhibit Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei Poh, Zhong; Heng Gan, Chin; Lee, Eric J.; Guo, Suxian; Yip, George W.; Lam, Yulin

    2015-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulate many important physiological processes. A pertinent issue to address is whether GAGs encode important functional information via introduction of position specific sulfate groups in the GAG structure. However, procurement of pure, homogenous GAG motifs to probe the “sulfation code” is a challenging task due to isolation difficulty and structural complexity. To this end, we devised a versatile synthetic strategy to obtain all the 16 theoretically possible sulfation patterns in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) repeating unit; these include rare but potentially important sulfated motifs which have not been isolated earlier. Biological evaluation indicated that CS sulfation patterns had differing effects for different breast cancer cell types, and the greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the most aggressive, triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

  15. Acute Exacerbations of COPD Are Associated With Increased Expression of Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate in BAL.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Klagas, Ioannis; Roth, Michael; Tamm, Michael; Stolz, Daiana

    2016-03-01

    Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPDs) are associated with accelerated aggravation of clinical symptoms and deterioration of pulmonary function. The mechanisms by which exacerbations may contribute to airway remodeling and declined lung function are poorly understood. We investigated whether AECOPDs are associated with differential expression of glycosaminoglycans in BAL in a cohort of 97 patients with COPD. Patients with COPD with either stable disease (n = 53) or AECOPD (n = 44) and undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy were matched for demographics and lung function parameters. Levels of heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in BAL were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were significantly increased in BAL of patients during exacerbations. Levels of heparan sulfate were higher in the BAL of patients with microbial infections. Chondroitin sulfate was negatively correlated with FEV1 % predicted but not with diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % predicted, indicating that chondroitin sulfate is associated with airway remodeling, leading to obstruction rather than to emphysema. Furthermore, heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were significantly correlated with MMP-9, MMP-2, and MMP-12 in BAL, indicating that they were cleaved from their respective proteoglycans by MMPs and subsequently washed out in BAL. During AECOPD, there is increased expression of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in BAL. These molecules are significantly correlated with MMPs in BAL, indicating that they may be associated with airway remodeling and may lead to lung function decline during exacerbations of COPD. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acidic sulfate aerosols: characterization and exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, P J; Waldman, J M

    1989-01-01

    Exposures to acidic aerosol in the atmosphere are calculated from data reported in the scientific literature. The majority of date was not derived from studies necessarily designed to examine human exposures. Most of the studies were designed to investigate the characteristics of the atmosphere. However, the measurements were useful in defining two potential exposure situations: regional stagnation and transport conditions and local plume impacts. Levels of acidic aerosol in excess of 20 to 40 micrograms/m3 (as H2SO4) have been observed for time durations ranging from 1 to 12 hr. These were associated with high, but not necessarily the highest, atmospheric SO4(2)- levels. Exposures of 100 to 900 micrograms/m3/hr were calculated for the acid events that were monitored. In contrast, earlier London studies indicated that apparent acidity in excess of 100 micrograms/m3 (as H2SO4) was present in the atmosphere, and exposures less than 2000 micrograms/m3/hr were possible. Our present knowledge about the frequency, magnitude, and duration of acidic sulfate aerosol events and episodes is insufficient. Efforts must be made to gather more data, but these should be done in such a way that evaluation of human exposure is the focus of the research. In addition, further data are required on the mechanisms of formation of H2SO4 and on what factors can be used to predict acidic sulfate episodes. PMID:2651103

  17. Medical Gains of Chondroitin Sulfate Upon Fucosylation.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of alternating N-acetyl galactosamine and glucuronic acid units within disaccharide building blocks. CS is a key functional component in proteoglycans of cartilaginous tissues. Owing to its numerous biological roles, CS is widely explored in the pharmaceutical market as nutraceutical ingredient commonly utilized against arthritis, osteoarthrosis, and sometimes osteoporosis. Tissues like shark cartilage and bovine trachea are common sources of CS. Nonetheless, a new CS type has been introduced and investigated in the last few decades in what regards its medical potentials. It is named fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS). This less common CS type is isolated exclusively from the body wall of sea cucumbers. The presence of fucosyl branching units in the holothurian FucCS gives to this unique GAG, therapeutic properties in various pathophysiological systems which are inexistent in the common CS explored in the market. Examples of these systems are coagulation, thrombosis, hemodialysis, atherosclerosis, cellular growth, angiogenesis, fibrosis, tumor growth, inflammation, viral and protozoan infections, hyperglycemia, diabetes-related pathological events and tissue damage. This report aims at describing the medical benefits gained upon fucosylation of CS. Clinical prospects of these medical benefits are also discussed herein.

  18. The Polar Mesopause Sulfate Aerosol Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, M. J.; Toon, O. B.; Thomas, G.; Solomon, S.

    2001-05-01

    Noctilucent ("night-luminous") clouds (NLC), or as seen from space, Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC), are typically 1 to 2 km thick and located at altitudes of 80 to 85 km, where the temperature is near 150K. NLC generally occur between 50 degrees latitude to the pole from May to August in the Northern Hemisphere, with occasional sightings at lower latitudes. An extraordinary low-latitude sighting occurred on June 21, 1999 at 41oN. Direct evidence that PMC are composed of water ice was recently reported from satellite observations made in the near infrared. The formation of ice clouds in the upper atmosphere has been studied extensively as a result of the role of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC) in polar ozone depletion. There exists ample evidence that preexisting stratospheric liquid sulfate aerosol plays an important role in the formation of solid PSC particles. Until recent laboratory measurements showed otherwise, however, it was believed that photolysis of sulfuric acid in the upper stratosphere would prevent the formation of such aerosol in the mesosphere. We present here calculations from a microphysical atmospheric model which point to sulfate from volcanic and non-volcanic sources alike as the origin of nuclei on which PMC and NLC form. Current theories have relied on meteor 'smoke' particles arising from meteor ablation and recondensation to explain the nucleation of NLC/PMC ice particles. Our calculated sizes and concentrations of high latitude summer mesosphere sulfate aerosol particles are comparable to or exceed those expected of the meteor source. The model shows that large volcanic eruptions will add significantly to this particle population, several years following the injection. The record of the number of NLC sightings in response to large volcanic eruptions is contradictory. However, microphysical models show that injections of particles may result in positive, negative or neutral response in the visual brightness of NLC, depending on sulfur

  19. 40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sodium sulfate subcategory. 436.150 Section 436.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfate Subcategory § 436.150 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of sodium sulfate. Sodium sulfate...

  20. 40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sodium sulfate subcategory. 436.150 Section 436.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Sodium Sulfate Subcategory § 436.150 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of sodium sulfate. Sodium sulfate obtained from...

  1. 40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sodium sulfate subcategory. 436.150 Section 436.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfate Subcategory § 436.150 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of sodium sulfate. Sodium sulfate...

  2. 40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sodium sulfate subcategory. 436.150 Section 436.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfate Subcategory § 436.150 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of sodium sulfate. Sodium sulfate...

  3. 40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium sulfate subcategory. 436.150 Section 436.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Sodium Sulfate Subcategory § 436.150 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of sodium sulfate. Sodium sulfate obtained from...

  4. The stability of sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals near ambient conditions and their significance in environmental and planetary sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I-Ming; Seal, Robert R.; Wang, Alian

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals are abundant and ubiquitous on the surface of the Earth and also on other planets and their satellites. The humidity-buffer technique has been applied to study the stability of some of these minerals at 0.1MPa in terms of temperature-relative humidity space on the basis of hydration-dehydration reversal experiments. Updated phase relations in the binary system MgSO"4-H"2O are presented, as an example, to show how reliable thermodynamic data for these minerals could be obtained based on these experimental results and thermodynamic principles. This approach has been applied to sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals of other metals, including Fe (both ferrous and ferric), Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, and Cu. Metal-sulfate salts play important roles in the cycling of metals and sulfate in terrestrial systems, and the number of phases extends well beyond the simple sulfate salts that have thus far been investigated experimentally. The oxidation of sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, is a common process that initiates the formation of efflorescent metal-sulfate minerals. Also, the overall abundance of iron-bearing sulfate salts in nature reflects the fact that the weathering of pyrite or pyrrhotite is the ultimate source for many of these phases. Many aspects of their environmental significance are reviewed, particularly in acute effects to aquatic ecosystems related to the dissolution of sulfate salts during rain storms or snow-melt events. Hydrous Mg, Ca, and Fe sulfates were identified on Mars, with wide distribution and very large quantities at many locations, on the basis of spectroscopic observations from orbital remote sensing and surface explorations by rovers. However, many of these findings do not reveal the detailed information on the degree of hydration that is essential for rigorous interpretation of the hydrologic history of Mars. Laboratory experiments on stability fields, reactions pathways, and reaction rates of hydrous

  5. The stability of sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals near ambient conditions and their significance in environmental and planetary sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I-Ming; Seal, Robert R.; Wang, Alian

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals are abundant and ubiquitous on the surface of the Earth and also on other planets and their satellites. The humidity-buffer technique has been applied to study the stability of some of these minerals at 0.1 MPa in terms of temperature-relative humidity space on the basis of hydration-dehydration reversal experiments. Updated phase relations in the binary system MgSO4-H2O are presented, as an example, to show how reliable thermodynamic data for these minerals could be obtained based on these experimental results and thermodynamic principles. This approach has been applied to sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals of other metals, including Fe (both ferrous and ferric), Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, and Cu. Metal-sulfate salts play important roles in the cycling of metals and sulfate in terrestrial systems, and the number of phases extends well beyond the simple sulfate salts that have thus far been investigated experimentally. The oxidation of sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, is a common process that initiates the formation of efflorescent metal-sulfate minerals. Also, the overall abundance of iron-bearing sulfate salts in nature reflects the fact that the weathering of pyrite or pyrrhotite is the ultimate source for many of these phases. Many aspects of their environmental significance are reviewed, particularly in acute effects to aquatic ecosystems related to the dissolution of sulfate salts during rain storms or snow-melt events. Hydrous Mg, Ca, and Fe sulfates were identified on Mars, with wide distribution and very large quantities at many locations, on the basis of spectroscopic observations from orbital remote sensing and surface explorations by rovers. However, many of these findings do not reveal the detailed information on the degree of hydration that is essential for rigorous interpretation of the hydrologic history of Mars. Laboratory experiments on stability fields, reactions pathways, and reaction rates of hydrous sulfates

  6. Multiple stable oxygen isotopic studies of atmospheric sulfate: A new quantitative way to understand sulfate formation processes in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Charles Chi-Woo

    2000-11-01

    Sulfate is an important trace species in the Earth's atmosphere because of its roles in numerous atmospheric processes. In addition to its inherent light-scattering properties, sulfate can serve as cloud condensation nucleus (CCN), affecting cloud formation as well as microphysical properties of clouds. Consequently, atmospheric sulfate species influence the global radiative energy balance. Sulfate is known to increase acidity of rainwater with negative consequences in both natural and urban environments. In addition, aerosol sulfate (<=2.5 μm) is respirable and poses a threat to human health as a potential carrier of toxic pollutants through the respiratory tract. Despite intense investigative effort, uncertainty regarding the relative significance of gas and aqueous phase oxidation pathways still remains. Acquisition of such information is important because the lifetime and transport of S(IV) species and sulfate aerosols are influenced by the oxidative pathways. In addition, sulfate formation processes affect the aerosol size distribution, which ultimately influences radiative properties of atmospheric aerosols. Therefore, the budgetary information of the sulfur cycle, as well as the radiative effects of sulfate on global climate variation, can be attained from better quantitative understanding of in situ sulfate formation processes in the atmosphere. Multiple stable oxygen isotopic studies of atmospheric sulfate are presented as a new tool to better comprehend the atmospheric sulfate formation processes. Coupled with isotopic studies, 35S radioactivity measurements have been utilized to assess contribution of sulfate from high altitude air masses. Atmospheric sulfate (aerosols and rainwater) samples have been collected from diverse environments. Laboratory experiments of gas and aqueous phase S(IV) oxidation by various oxidants, as well as biomass burning experiments, have also been conducted. The main isotopic results from these studies are as follows: (1

  7. Upper tropospheric ice sensitivity to sulfate geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visioni, Daniele; Pitari, Giovanni; Mancini, Eva

    2017-04-01

    In light of the Paris Agreement which aims to keep global warming under 2 °C in the next century and considering the emission scenarios produced by the IPCC for the same time span, it is likely that to remain below that threshold some kind of geoengineering technique will have to be deployed. Amongst the different methods, the injection of sulfur into the stratosphere has received much attention considering its effectiveness and affordability. Aside from the rather well established surface cooling sulfate geoengineering (SG) would produce, the investigation on possible side-effects of this method is still ongoing. For instance, some recent studies have investigated the effect SG would have on upper tropospheric cirrus clouds, expecially on the homogenous freezing mechanisms that produces the ice particles (Kuebbeler et al., 2012). The goal of the present study is to better understand the effect of thermal and dynamical anomalies caused by SG on the formation of ice crystals via homogeneous freezing by comparing a complete SG simulation with a RCP4.5 reference case and with a number of sensitivity studies where atmospheric temperature changes in the upper tropospheric region are specified in a schematic way as a function of the aerosol driven stratospheric warming and mid-lower tropospheric cooling. These changes in the temperature profile tend to increase atmospheric stabilization, thus decreasing updraft and with it the amount of water vapor available for homogeneous freezing in the upper troposphere. However, what still needs to be assessed is the interaction between this dynamical effect and the thermal effects of tropospheric cooling (which would increase ice nucleation rates) and stratospheric warming (which would probably extend to the uppermost troposphere via SG aerosol gravitational settling, thus reducing ice nucleation rates), in order to understand how they combine together. Changes in ice clouds coverage could be important for SG, because cirrus ice

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Sulfate in Water by Indirect EDTA Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle-Oudry, Deirdre

    2008-01-01

    The determination of sulfate concentration in water by indirect EDTA titration is an instructive experiment that is easily implemented in an analytical chemistry laboratory course. A water sample is treated with excess barium chloride to precipitate sulfate ions as BaSO[subscript 4](s). The unprecipitated barium ions are then titrated with EDTA.…

  9. An Efficient Approach to Sulfate Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueshu; Parkin, Sean; Duffel, Michael W.; Robertson, Larry W.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a major class of persistent organic pollutants, are metabolized to hydroxylated PCBs. Several hydroxylated PCBs are substrates of cytosolic phase II enzymes, such as phenol and hydroxysteroid (alcohol) sulfotransferases; however, the corresponding sulfation products have not been isolated and characterized. Here we describe a straightforward synthesis of a series of ten PCB sulfate monoesters from the corresponding hydroxylated PCBs. The hydroxylated PCBs were synthesized by coupling chlorinated benzene boronic acids with appropriate brominated (chloro-)anisoles, followed by demethylation with boron tribromide. The hydroxylated PCBs were sulfated with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chlorosulfate using DMAP as base. Deprotection with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the ammonium salts of the desired PCB sulfate monoesters in good yields when the sulfated phenyl ring contained no or one chlorine substituent. However, no PCB sulfate monoesters were isolated when two chlorines were present ortho to the sulfated hydroxyl group. To aid with future quantitative structure activity relationship studies, the structures of two 2,2,2-trichloroethyl-protected PCB sulfates were verified by X-ray diffraction. PMID:19345419

  10. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine... conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL...

  11. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine sulfate, CAS Reg. No. 56329-42-1, may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the...

  12. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine... conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1044 - Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms. 520.1044 Section 520.1044 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... sulfate oral dosage forms. ...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1044 - Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms. 520.1044 Section 520.1044 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... sulfate oral dosage forms. ...

  15. Some considerations on the washout of sulfate from stack plumes

    Treesearch

    Leonard K. Peters

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the contribution to rainwater sulfate concentration by precipitation scavenging of gaseous SO2 and sulfate containing aerosols is presented. Aspects, such as the proper choice of mean raindrop diameter, are discussed in detail, and guidelines for their use are explored. Sample calculations are provided in which emissions...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1044 - Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms. 520.1044 Section 520.1044 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... sulfate oral dosage forms. ...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1044 - Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms. 520.1044 Section 520.1044 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... sulfate oral dosage forms. ...

  18. Estrogen-Mediated Breast Carcinogenesis: The Role of Sulfation Pharmacogenetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    Cipkus, L.A. and Taylor, C.J. Mechanism of action of minoxidil sulfate- induced vasodilation: a role for increased K+ permeability. J. Pharmacol...1993. Meisheri, K.D., Cipkus, L.A. and Taylor, C.J. Mechanism of action of minoxidil sulfate-induced vasodilation: a role for increased K

  19. Sulfate mobility in an outwash soil in western Washington

    Treesearch

    D. W. Johnson; D. W. Cole

    1976-01-01

    The effect of acidic precipitation on cation leaching in a second-growth Douglas-fir ecosystem at the Thompson Research Center is reviewed. Sulfate mobility and soil pH buffering power were tested by applications of heavy doses of sulfuric acid to the study plot. Sulfate at high concentrations proved to be immobilized, presumably by adsorption to soil sesquioxide...

  20. Extraction and determination of chondroitin sulfate from fish processing byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) refers to a group of sulfated glycosaminoglycan containing a chain of alternating N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid sugars. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix of cartilage and attached to proteins. CS is usually an over the counter dietary supplement...

  1. Carbonate and sulfate minerals in the Chassigny meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Gooding, James L.

    1991-01-01

    SO2 and CO2 from pyrolysis and combustion of bulk Chassigny and infrared traces of sulfate and carbonate minerals have been previously reported. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x ray spectrometry (EDS), portions of these samples are searched, and a Ca-sulfate/carbonate association is confirmed.

  2. Novel Thermally Stable Poly (vinyl chloride) Composites for Sulfate Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    BaCO3 dispersed PVC composites were prepared through a polymer re-precipitation method. The composites were tested for sulfate removal using rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) and found to significantly reduce sulfate concentration. The method was extended to synthe...

  3. Sulfur accumulation and atmospherically deposited sulfate in the Lake States.

    Treesearch

    Mark B. David; George Z. Gernter; David F. Grigal; Lewis F. Ohmann

    1989-01-01

    Characterizes the mass of soil sulfur (adjusted for nitrogen), and atmospherically deposited sulfate along an acid precipitation gradient from Minnesota to Michigan. The relationship of these variables, presented graphically through contour mapping, suggests that patterns of atmospheric wet sulfate deposition are reflected in soil sulfur pools.

  4. Experimental sulfate amendment alters peatland bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Strickman, R J S; Fulthorpe, R R; Coleman Wasik, J K; Engstrom, D R; Mitchell, C P J

    2016-10-01

    As part of a long-term, peatland-scale sulfate addition experiment, the impact of varying sulfate deposition on bacterial community responses was assessed using 16S tag encoded pyrosequencing. In three separate areas of the peatland, sulfate manipulations included an eight year quadrupling of atmospheric sulfate deposition (experimental), a 3-year recovery to background deposition following 5years of elevated deposition (recovery), and a control area. Peat concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg), a bioaccumulative neurotoxin, were measured, the production of which is attributable to a growing list of microorganisms, including many sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. The total bacterial and Deltaproteobacterial community structures in the experimental treatment differed significantly from those in the control and recovery treatments that were either indistinguishable or very similar to one another. Notably, the relatively rapid return (within three years) of bacterial community structure in the recovery treatment to a state similar to the control, demonstrates significant resilience of the peatland bacterial community to changes in atmospheric sulfate deposition. Changes in MeHg accumulation between sulfate treatments correlated with changes in the Deltaproteobacterial community, suggesting that sulfate may affect MeHg production through changes in the community structure of this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA IN THE SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrasses are rooted in anoxic sediments that support high levels of microbial activity including utilization of sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor which is reduced to sulfide. Sulfate reduction in seagrass bed sediments is stimulated by input of organic carbon through the ...

  6. Effects of chlorate on the sulfation process of Trypanosoma cruzi glycoconjugates. Implication of parasite sulfates in cellular invasion.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Maximiliano R; Soprano, Luciana L; Acosta, Diana M; García, Gabriela A; Esteva, Mónica I; Couto, Alicia S; Duschak, Vilma G

    2014-09-01

    Sulfation, a post-translational modification which plays a key role in various biological processes, is inhibited by competition with chlorate. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, sulfated structures have been described as part of glycolipids and we have reported sulfated high-mannose type oligosaccharides in the C-T domain of the cruzipain (Cz) glycoprotein. However, sulfation pathways have not been described yet in this parasite. Herein, we studied the effect of chlorate treatment on T. cruzi with the aim to gain some knowledge about sulfation metabolism and the role of sulfated molecules in this parasite. In chlorate-treated epimastigotes, immunoblotting with anti-sulfates enriched Cz IgGs (AS-enriched IgGs) showed Cz undersulfation. Accordingly, a Cz mobility shift toward higher isoelectric points was observed in 2D-PAGE probed with anti-Cz antibodies. Ultrastructural membrane abnormalities and a significant decrease of dark lipid reservosomes were shown by electron microscopy and a significant decrease in sulfatide levels was confirmed by TLC/UV-MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Altogether, these results suggest T. cruzi sulfation occurs via PAPS. Sulfated epitopes in trypomastigote and amastigote forms were evidenced using AS-enriched IgGs by immunoblotting. Their presence on trypomastigotes surface was demonstrated by flow cytometry and IF with Cz/dCz specific antibodies. Interestingly, the percentage of infected cardiac HL-1 cells decreased 40% when using chlorate-treated trypomastigotes, suggesting sulfates are involved in the invasion process. The same effect was observed when cells were pre-incubated with dCz, dC-T or an anti-high mannose receptor (HMR) antibody, suggesting Cz sulfates and HMR are also involved in the infection process by T. cruzi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Acidic Fluids Across Mars: Detections of Magnesium-Nickel Sulfates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, A. S.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Vaniman, D. T.; Thompson, L. M.; Morris, R. V.; Clark, B. C.; VanBommel, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    Calcium, magnesium and ferric iron sulfates have been detected by the instrument suites on the Mars rovers. A subset of the magnesium sulfates show clear associations with nickel. These associations indicate Ni(2+) co-precipitation with or substitution for Mg(2+) from sulfate-saturated solutions. Nickel is ex-tracted from primary rocks almost exclusively at pH values less than 6, constraining the formation of these Mg-Ni sulfates to mildly to strongly acidic conditions. There is clear evidence for aqueous alteration at the rim of Endeavour Crater (Meridiani Planum), in the Murray formation mudstone (Gale Crater), and near Home Plate (Gusev Crater). The discovery of Mg-Ni sulfates at these locations indicates a history of fluid-rock interactions at low pH.

  8. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  9. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  10. IRON-PEROXYMONOSULFATE: A NOVEL SULFATE RADICAL BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY FOR DEGRADATION OF PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates the degradation of recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) using sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies. Sulfate radicals are generated through coupling of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) with iron (Fe(II), Fe(III)). Sulfate radicals have very ...

  11. Pressure effect on dissimilatory sulfate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, A. J.; Carlson, H. K.; Coates, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Biosouring is the production of H2S by sulfate reducing microorganisms (SRM) in-situ or in the produced fluids of oil reservoirs. Sulfide is explosive, toxic and corrosive which can trigger equipment and transportation failure, leading to environmental catastrophe. As oil exploration and reservoir development continue, subsequent enhanced recovery is occurring in progressively deeper formations and typical oil reservoir pressures range from 10-50 MPa. Therefore, an understanding of souring control effects will require an accurate understanding of the influence of pressure on SRM metabolism and the efficacy of souring control treatments at high pressure. Considerable work to date has focussed on souring control at ambient pressure; however, the influence of pressure on biogeochemical processes and souring treatments in oil reservoirs is poorly understood. To explore the impact of pressure on SRM, wild type Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 (isolated from a producing oil well in Ventura County, California) was grown under a range of pressures (0.1-14 MPa) at 30 °C. Complete sulfate reduction occurred in all pressures tested within 3 days, but microbial growth was inhibited with increasing pressure. Bar-seq identified several genes associated with flagella biosynthesis (including FlhB) and assembly as important for survival at elevated pressure and fitness was confirmed using individual transposon mutants. Flagellar genes have previously been implicated with biofilm formation and confocal microscopy on glass slides incubated with wild type D. alaskensis G20 showed more biomass associated with surfaces under pressure, highlighting the link between pressure, flagellar and biofilm formation. To determine the effect of pressure on the efficacy of SRM inhibitors, IC50 experiments were conducted and D. alaskensis G20 showed a greater resistance to nitrate and the antibiotic chloramphenicol, but a lower resistance to perchlorate. These results will be discussed in the context of

  12. Heparan sulfate niche for cell proliferation in the adult brain.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Frederic; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri

    2012-02-29

    In adulthood, new neurons and glial cells are generated from stem cells in restricted zones of the brain, namely the olfactory bulb (OB), rostral migratory stream (RMS), subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, sub-callosum zone (SCZ) and sub-granular layer (SGL) of the dentate gyrus. What makes these zones germinal? We previously reported that N-sulfated heparan sulfates (N-sulfated HS) present in specialized extracellular matrix structures (fractones) and vascular basement membranes bind the neurogenic factor FGF-2 (fibroblast growth factor-2) next to stem cells in the anterior SVZ of the lateral ventricle, the most neurogenic zone in adulthood. To determine to which extent cell proliferation is associated with N-sulfated HS, we mapped N-sulfated HS and proliferating cells by immunohistochemistry throughout the adult mouse brain. We found that cell proliferation is associated with N-sulfated HS in the OB, RMS, the whole germinal SVZ, and the SCZ. Cell proliferation was weakly associated with N-sulfated HS in the SGL, but the SGL was directly connected to a sub-cortical N-sulfated HS+ extension of the meninges. The NS-sulfated HS+ structures were blood vessels in the OB, RMS and SCZ, and primarily fractones in the SVZ. N-sulfated HS+ fractones, blood vessels and meninges formed a continuum that coursed along the OB, SVZ, RMS, SCZ and SGL, challenging the view that these structures are independent germinal entities. These results support the possibility that a single anatomical system might be globally responsible for mitogenesis and ultimately the production of new neurons and glial cells in the adult brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans Are Targeted by Bleomycin in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiulian; Lan, Ying; He, Yanli; Liu, Yong; Luo, Heng; Yu, Haibo; Song, Ni; Ren, Sumei; Liu, Tianwei; Hao, Cui; Guo, Yunliang; Zhang, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Bleomycin is a clinically used anti-cancer drug that produces DNA breaks once inside of cells. However, bleomycin is a positively charged molecule and cannot get inside of cells by free diffusion. We previously reported that the cell surface negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may be involved in the cellular uptake of bleomycin. We also observed that a class of positively charged small molecules has Golgi localization once inside of the cells. We therefore hypothesized that bleomycin might perturb Golgi-operated GAG biosynthesis. We used stable isotope labeling coupled with LC/MS analysis of GAG disaccharides simultaneously from bleomycin-treated and non-treated cancer cells. To further understand the cytotoxicity of bleomycin and its relationship to GAGs, we used sodium chlorate to inhibit GAG sulfation and commercially available GAGs to compete for cell surface GAG/bleomycin interactions in seven cell lines including CHO745 defective in both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. we discovered that heparan sulfate GAG was significantly undersulfated and the quantity and disaccharide compositions of GAGs were changed in bleomycin-treated cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We revealed that bleomycin-induced cytotoxicity was directly related to cell surface GAGs. GAGs were targeted by bleomycin both at cell surface and at Golgi. Thus, GAGs might be the biological relevant molecules that might be related to the bleomycin-induced fibrosis in certain cancer patients, a severe side effect with largely unknown molecular mechanism. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Role of protein sulfation in vasodilation induced by minoxidil sulfate, a K+ channel opener

    SciTech Connect

    Meisheri, K.D.; Oleynek, J.J.; Puddington, L.

    Evidence from contractile, radioisotope ion flux and electrophysiological studies suggest that minoxidil sulfate (MNXS) acts as a K+ channel opener in vascular smooth muscle. This study was designed to examine possible biochemical mechanisms by which MNXS exerts such an effect. Experiments performed in the isolated rabbit mesenteric artery (RMA) showed that MNXS, 5 microM, but not the parent compound minoxidil, was a potent vasodilator. Whereas the relaxant effects of an another K+ channel opener vasodilator, BRL-34915 (cromakalim), were removed by washing with physiological saline solution, the effects of MNXS persisted after repeated washout attempts. Furthermore, after an initial exposure ofmore » segments of intact RMA to (35S) MNXS, greater than 30% of the radiolabel was retained 2 hr after removal of the drug. In contrast, retention of radiolabel was not detected with either (3H)MNXS (label on the piperidine ring of MNXS) or (3H)minoxidil (each less than 3% after a 2-hr washout). These data suggested that the sulfate moiety from MNXS was closely associated with the vascular tissue. To determine if proteins were the acceptors of sulfate from MNXS, intact RMAs were incubated with (35S)MNXS, and then 35S-labeled proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analyzed by fluorography. Preferential labeling of a 116 kD protein was detected by 2 and 5 min of treatment. A 43 kD protein (resembling actin) also showed significant labeling. A similar profile of 35S-labeled proteins was observed in (35S) MNXS-treated A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells, suggesting that the majority of proteins labeled by (35S)MNXS in intact RMA were components of smooth muscle cells.« less

  15. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A CALCIUM-BASED SORBENT FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K. Constant

    1999-10-01

    The development and testing of potential calcium-based sorbents for hot gas cleanup continued. One of the most promising materials combines powdered limestone and a calcium aluminate cement by two step pelletization followed by steam curing. Reasonably strong pellets are produced with good adsorption characteristics by incorporating 20 wt.% cement in the core and 40 wt.% cement in the shell. The resulting 4.76 mm diameter pellets are capable of withstanding a crushing force approaching 11.5 N/mm before breaking and are also capable of removing H{sub 2}S from dilute, hot gas streams. The pellets are also regenerable and reusable. Another promising materialmore » combines calcium carbonate powder and finely ground calcined alumina in tablet form. The small tablets are prepared by mixing the materials with water to form a thick paste which is then molded and dried. The tablets are hardened by calcining at either 1000 to 1100 C. The resulting tablets are strong and capable of removing H{sub 2}S from a dilute, hot gas stream.« less

  17. Setting characteristics and mechanical behaviour of a calcium phosphate bone cement containing tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Ratier, A; Gibson, I R; Best, S M; Freche, M; Lacout, J L; Rodriguez, F

    2001-05-01

    Calcium phosphate cements are used for bone defect filling and they may also be used as delivery systems for active agents. The physicochemical behaviour of an ionic cement, with a final composition of hydroxyapatite, containing tetracycline hydrochloride was investigated. Chemical characterisation, X-ray diffraction analysis, compressive strength and tensile strength were performed. It is known that the antibiotic can be adsorbed on calcium phosphate compounds and the presence of chloride ions can strongly influence the behaviour of the cement. Adding more than 1% (w/w) of 95% pure tetracycline hydrochloride in the solid phase led to a cement with poor mechanical properties, but which, in addition to hydroxyapatite, contained residual starting reagents. For this reason, experiments were also performed with tetracycline previously treated with a calcium sulphate solution. Using a treated tetracycline, it was possible to introduce at least 7% (w/w) of active ingredient whilst still allowing the reaction to proceed to completion i.e. the formation of hydroxyapatite with good mechanical properties. Therefore, treating the tetracycline HCI with calcium sulphate solution prior to reaction conserved the activity of the antibiotic, limited the influence of the antibiotic on the cement evolution and retained the physical properties of the cement.

  18. Hake fish bone as a calcium source for efficient bone mineralization.

    PubMed

    Flammini, Lisa; Martuzzi, Francesca; Vivo, Valentina; Ghirri, Alessia; Salomi, Enrico; Bignetti, Enrico; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is recognized as an essential nutritional factor for bone health. An adequate intake is important to achieve or maintain optimal bone mass in particular during growth and old age. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of hake fish bone (HBF) as a calcium source for bone mineralization: in vitro on osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells, cultured in Ca-free osteogenic medium (OM) and in vivo on young growing rats fed a low-calcium diet. Lithotame (L), a Ca supplement derived from Lithothamnium calcareum, was used as control. In vitro experiments showed that HBF supplementation provided bone mineralization similar to standard OM, whereas L supplementation showed lower activity. In vivo low-Ca HBF-added and L-added diet similarly affected bone deposition. Physico-chemical parameters concerning bone mineralization, such as femur breaking force, tibia density and calcium/phosphorus mineral content, had beneficial effects from both Ca supplementations, in the absence of any evident adverse effect. We conclude HBF derived from by-product from the fish industry is a good calcium supplier with comparable efficacy to L.

  19. Systems Biology Approach Reveals a Calcium-Dependent Mechanism for Basal Toxicity in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Antczak, Philipp; White, Thomas A; Giri, Anirudha; Michelangeli, Francesco; Viant, Mark R; Cronin, Mark T D; Vulpe, Chris; Falciani, Francesco

    2015-09-15

    The expanding diversity and ever increasing amounts of man-made chemicals discharged to the environment pose largely unknown hazards to ecosystem and human health. The concept of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) emerged as a comprehensive framework for risk assessment. However, the limited mechanistic information available for most chemicals and a lack of biological pathway annotation in many species represent significant challenges to effective implementation of this approach. Here, a systems level, multistep modeling strategy demonstrates how to integrate information on chemical structure with mechanistic insight from genomic studies, and phenotypic effects to define a putative adverse outcome pathway. Results indicated that transcriptional changes indicative of intracellular calcium mobilization were significantly overrepresented in Daphnia magna (DM) exposed to sublethal doses of presumed narcotic chemicals with log Kow ≥ 1.8. Treatment of DM with a calcium ATPase pump inhibitor substantially recapitulated the common transcriptional changes. We hypothesize that calcium mobilization is a potential key molecular initiating event in DM basal (narcosis) toxicity. Heart beat rate analysis and metabolome analysis indicated sublethal effects consistent with perturbations of calcium preceding overt acute toxicity. Together, the results indicate that altered calcium homeostasis may be a key early event in basal toxicity or narcosis induced by lipophilic compounds.

  20. Shigella entry unveils a calcium/calpain-dependent mechanism for inhibiting sumoylation

    PubMed Central

    Lhocine, Nouara; Andrieux, Alexandra; Nigro, Giulia; Mounier, Joëlle

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of the sumoylation/desumoylation equilibrium is associated with several disease states such as cancer and infections, however the mechanisms regulating the global SUMO balance remain poorly defined. Here, we show that infection by Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of human bacillary dysentery, switches off host sumoylation during epithelial cell infection in vitro and in vivo and that this effect is mainly mediated by a calcium/calpain-induced cleavage of the SUMO E1 enzyme SAE2, thus leading to sumoylation inhibition. Furthermore, we describe a mechanism by which Shigella promotes its own invasion by altering the sumoylation state of RhoGDIα, a master negative regulator of RhoGTPase activity and actin polymerization. Together, our data suggest that SUMO modification is essential to restrain pathogenic bacterial entry by limiting cytoskeletal rearrangement induced by bacterial effectors. Moreover, these findings identify calcium-activated calpains as powerful modulators of cellular sumoylation levels with potentially broad implications in several physiological and pathological situations. PMID:29231810

  1. Inhibition of parathyroid hormone release by maitotoxin, a calcium channel activator

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, L.A.; Yasumoto, T.; Aurbach, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    Maitotoxin, a toxin derived from a marine dinoflagellate, is a potent activator of voltage-sensitive calcium channels. To further test the hypothesis that inhibition of PTH secretion by calcium is mediated via a calcium channel we studied the effect of maitotoxin on dispersed bovine parathyroid cells. Maitotoxin inhibited PTH release in a dose-dependent fashion, and inhibition was maximal at 1 ng/ml. Chelation of extracellular calcium by EGTA blocked the inhibition of PTH by maitotoxin. Maitotoxin enhanced the effects of the dihydropyridine calcium channel agonist (+)202-791 and increased the rate of radiocalcium uptake in parathyroid cells. Pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylates and inactivatesmore » a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein that interacts with calcium channels in the parathyroid cell, did not affect the inhibition of PTH secretion by maitotoxin. Maitotoxin, by its action on calcium channels allows entry of extracellular calcium and inhibits PTH release. Our results suggest that calcium channels are involved in the release of PTH. Inhibition of PTH release by maitotoxin is not sensitive to pertussis toxin, suggesting that maitotoxin may act distal to the site interacting with a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein, or maitotoxin could interact with other ions or second messengers to inhibit PTH release.« less

  2. Effect of a calcium glycerophosphate fluoride dentifrice formulation on enamel demineralization in situ.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Cenci, Maximiliano Sergio; Cury, Altair A Del Bel; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado; Moi, Gisele Pedroso; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate in situ the effect and mechanisms involved in the anticariogenic effect of a calcium glycerophosphate fluoride dentifrice. In a double-blind, crossover design, a non-F dentifrice (negative control), a F dentifrice and a F dentifrice containing 0.13% CaGP were compared regarding the inhibition of enamel demineralization. Both F dentifrices contained 1500 microg F/g (w/w) as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP). Bovine enamel blocks were mounted in contact with a S. mutans test plaque, in palatal appliances worn by 10 volunteers. 30 minutes after treatment with the dentifrices, a sucrose rinse was performed and enamel demineralization was assessed after an additional 45 minutes. No significant difference was observed among groups in the calcium and inorganic phosphate concentrations in the fluid phase of the test plaque 30 minutes after the dentifrice use (P > 0.05), but F concentration was significantly higher for both F dentifrices (P < 0.05). Also, the dentifrices did not differ regarding the pH before or 5 minutes after the sugar challenge (P > 0.05). A higher mineral loss was observed for the non-F dentifrice group (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed between the F dentifrices containing CaGP or not (P > 0.05). Using this in situ model, the findings suggested that CaGP at the concentration tested did not enhance the inhibition of enamel demineralization promoted by F dentifrice.

  3. Opiate-like excitatory effects of steroid sulfates and calcium-complexing agents given cerebroventricularly.

    PubMed

    LaBella, F S; Havlicek, V; Pinsky, C

    1979-01-12

    Intracerebroventricular administration of 10--20 microgram of steroid-O-sulfates induced hypermotility, agitation, salivation, EEG abnormalities, stereotypies, wet dog shakes and seizures. Equivalent effects resulted from 30--200 microgram morphine sulfate (H2SO4 salt), 50 microgram EGTA or 300--400 microgram of sodium sulfate or phosphate, but not chloride, nitrate or acetate. Non-steroid sulfates, steroid glucuronides and steroid phosphates were inactive. Naloxone, previously found to antagonize the excitatory effects of androsterone sulfate, failed to antagonize those of cortisol sulfate, sodium sulfate or EGTA. These findings suggest a role for extracellular calcium ions and for sulfate derived from circulating steroids in central responses to opiates.

  4. Sulfates on Mars: TES Observations and Thermal Inertia Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. D.; Mustard, J. F.

    2001-05-01

    The high resolution thermal emission spectra returned by the TES spectrometer on the MGS spacecraft have allowed the mapping of a variety of minerals and rock types by different sets of researchers. Recently, we have used a linear deconvolution approach to compare sulfate-palagonite soil mixtures created in the laboratory with Martian surface spectra. This approach showed that a number of areas on Mars have spectral properties that match those of sulfate-cemented soils (but neither loose powder mixtures of sulfates and soils nor sand-sized grains of disaggregated crusted soils). These features do not appear to be caused by atmospheric or instrumental effects and are thus believed to be related to surface composition and texture. The distribution and physical state of sulfate are important pieces of information for interpreting surface processes on Mars. A number of different mechanisms could have deposited sulfate in surface layers. Some of these include evaporation of standing bodies of water, aerosol deposition of volcanic gases, hydrothermal alteration from groundwater, and in situ interaction between the atmosphere and soil. The areas on Mars with cemented sulfate signatures are spread across a wide range of elevations and are generally large in spatial scale. Some of the areas are associated with volcanic regions, but many are in dark red plains that have previously been interpreted as duricrust deposits. Our current work compares the distribution of sulfate-cemented soils as mapped by the spectral deconvolution approach with thermal inertia maps produced from both Viking and MGS-TES. Duricrust regions, interpreted from intermediate thermal inertia values, are large regions thought to be sulfate-cemented soils similar to coherent, sulfate-rich materials seen at the Viking lander sites. Our observations of apparent regions of cemented sulfate are also large in spatial extent. This scale information is important for evaluating formation mechanisms for the

  5. Ferric sulfates on Mars: Surface Explorations and Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Ling, Z.; Freeman, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Recent results from missions to Mars have reinforced the importance of sulfates for Mars science. They are the hosts of water, the sinks of acidity, and maybe the most active species in the past and current surface/near-surface processes on Mars. Fe-sulfate was found frequently by Spirit and Opportunity rovers: jarosite in Meridiani Planum outcrops and a less specific "ferric sulfate" in the salty soils excavated by Spirit at Gusev Crater. Pancam spectral analysis suggests a variety of ferric sulfates in these soils, i.e. ferricopiapite, jarosite, fibroferrite, and rhomboclase. A change in the Pancam spectral features occurred in Tyrone soils after ~ 190 sols of exposure to surface conditions. Dehydration of ferric sulfate is a possible cause. We synthesized eight ferric sulfates and conducted a series of hydration/dehydration experiments. Our goal was to establish the stability fields and phase transition pathways of these ferric sulfates. In our experiments, water activity, temperature, and starting structure are the variables. No redox state change was observed. Acidic, neutral, and basic salts were used. Ferric sulfate sample containers were placed into relative humidity buffer solutions that maintain static relative humidity levels at three temperatures. The five starting phases were ferricopiapite (Fe4.67(SO4)6(OH)2.20H2O), kornelite (Fe2(SO4)3.7H2O), rhomboclase (FeH(SO4)2.4H2O), pentahydrite (Fe2(SO4)3.5H2O), and an amorphous phase (Fe2(SO4)3.5H2O). A total of one hundred fifty experiments have been running for nearly ten months. Thousands of coupled Raman and gravimetric measurements were made at intermediate steps to monitor the phase transitions. The first order discovery from these experiments is the extremely large stability field of ferricopiapite. Ferricopiapite is the major ferric sulfate to precipitate from a Fe3+-S-rich aqueous solution at mid-low temperature, and it has the highest H2O/Fe ratio (~ 4.3). However, unlike the Mg-sulfate with highest

  6. Setting constraints on the nature and origin of the two major hydrous sulfates on Mars: Monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alian; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Liu, Yang; Connor, Kathryn

    2016-04-01

    Monohydrated Mg sulfate (MgSO4·H2O) and polyhydrated sulfate are the most common and abundant hydrous sulfates observed thus far on Mars. They are widely distributed and coexist in many locations. On the basis of results from two new sets of experiments, in combination with past experimental studies and the subsurface salt mineralogy observed at a saline playa (Dalangtan, DLT) in a terrestrial analogue hyperarid region on the Tibet Plateau, we can now set new constraints on the nature and origin of these two major Martian sulfates. Starkeyite (MgSO4·4H2O) is the best candidate for polyhydrated sulfate. MgSO4·H2O in the form of "LH-1w," generated from dehydration of Mg sulfates with high degrees of hydration, is the most likely mineral form for the majority of Martian monohydrated Mg sulfate. Two critical properties of Mg sulfates are responsible for the coexistence of these two phases that have very different degrees of hydration: (1) the metastability of a substructural unit in starkeyite at relatively low temperatures, and (2) catalytic effects attributed to coprecipitated species (sulfates, chlorides, oxides, and hydroxides) from chemically complex brines that help overcome the metastability of starkeyite. The combination of these two properties controls the coexistence of the LH-1w layer and starkeyite layers at many locations on Mars, which sometimes occur in an interbedded stratigraphy. The structural H2O held by these two broadly distributed sulfates represents a large H2O reservoir at the surface and in the shallow subsurface on current Mars.

  7. Determining Oxygen Isotopic Fractionation between the ferrous sulfate, melanterite, and aqueous sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulaker, D. Z.; Kohl, I.; Coleman, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Studying regions on Earth that are analogous to Mars serve as case studies for studying astrobiology and planetary surface rock formation processes. Rio Tinto, Spain is very rich in iron sulfates, and has an environment that is possibly very similar to the former environment on Mars. Certain bacteria play significant roles in accelerating pyrite oxidation rates, the products of which contribute to the formation of ferrous sulfates, such as melanterite. During mineral crystallization in an aqueous solution, there are systematic isotopic differences between dissolved species and solid phases. Quantifying this fractionation enables isotopic analysis to be used to trace the original isotopic signature of the dissolved species. Isotope fractionation has been determined for minerals such as gypsum and epsomite, and from these results and theoretical predictions, it is expected that melanterite, a mineral potentially found on Mars, would be more enriched in oxygen-18 relative to the aqueous solution from which it crystallized.Thus, determining the oxygen-18 isotopic fractionation between melanterite and dissolved sulfate has many potential benefits for understanding surface processes on Mars and its past environment. To investigate the oxygen isotope fractionation for melanterite, acidic aqueous solutions saturated with dissolved hydrated ferrous sulfate were evaporated at 25 deg C and 40 deg C and under different conditions to induce different evaporation rates. During evaporation, the aqueous solution and crystallized melanterite were sampled at different stages. Oxygen-18 isotopic compositions were then measured. However, the fractionations observed in the experiments were opposite from predictions. At 25 deg C without enhanced evaporation, the dissolved sulfate was +5.5 per mil relative to the solid, while at 40 deg C it was +4.3 per mil. With enhanced evaporation, fractionation was +2.1 per mil, while at 40 deg C it was +3.6 per mil. In addition, at 40 deg C

  8. XANES mapping of organic sulfate in three scleractinian coral skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Dauphin, Yannicke; Doucet, Jean; Salome, Murielle; Susini, Jean

    2003-01-01

    The presence and localization of organic sulfate within coral skeletons are studied by using X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) fluorescence. XANES spectra are recorded from four reference sulfur-bearing organic molecules: three amino acids (H-S-C bonds in cysteine; C-S-C bonds in methionine; one disulfide bond C-S-S-C bonds in cystine) and a sulfated sugar (C-SO 4 bonds in chondroitin sulfate). Spectral responses of three coral skeletons show that the sulfated form is extremely dominant in coral aragonite, and practically exclusive within both centres of calcification and the surrounding fibrous tissues of coral septa. Mapping of S-sulfate concentrations in centres and fibres gives us direct evidence of high concentration of organic sulfate in centres of calcification. Additionally, a banding pattern of S-sulfate is visible in fibrous part of the coral septa, evidencing a biochemical zonation that corresponds to the step-by-step growth of fibres.

  9. Interpreting isotopic analyses of microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, C. G.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Druhan, J. L.; Cheng, Y.; Li, L.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Coates, J. D.; Conrad, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs is often associated with secondary production of oil where seawater (28 mM sulfate) is commonly injected to maintain reservoir pressure and displace oil. The hydrogen sulfide produced can cause a suite of operating problems including corrosion of infrastructure, health exposure risks and additional processing costs. We propose that monitoring of the sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate can be used as early indicators that microbial sulfate reduction is occurring, as this process is well known to cause substantial isotopic fractionation. This approach relies on the idea that reactions with reservoir (iron) minerals can remove dissolved sulfide, thereby delaying the transport of the sulfide through the reservoir relative to the sulfate in the injected water. Changes in the sulfate isotopes due to microbial sulfate reduction may therefore be measurable in the produced water before sulfide is detected. However, turning this approach into a predictive tool requires (i) an understanding of appropriate fractionation factors for oil reservoirs, (ii) incorporation of isotopic data into reservoir flow and reactive transport models. We present here the results of preliminary batch experiments aimed at determining fractionation factors using relevant electron donors (e.g. crude oil and volatile fatty acids), reservoir microbial communities and reservoir environmental conditions (pressure, temperature). We further explore modeling options for integrating isotope data and discuss whether single fractionation factors are appropriate to model complex environments with dynamic hydrology, geochemistry, temperature and microbiology gradients.

  10. Sulfated modification and anti-tumor activity of laminarin.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chen-Feng; Ji, Yu-Bin; Meng, DE-You

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sulfated modification of laminarin and the changes in structure and antitumor activity. The chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method was applied for sulfated modification. The molecular weights of laminarin and laminarin sulfate (LAMS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and IR and NMR spectra were also recorded. The surface conformations of laminarin and LAMS were observed with a scanning electron microscope. The antitumor activities of the two polysaccharides were also evaluated using an MTT assay. LAMS with a sulfate content of 45.92% and a molecular weight of 16,000 was synthesized. The IR spectra of laminarin and LAMS showed the characteristic absorption peaks of a polysaccharide, and LAMS also had the characteristic absorption peaks of sulfate moieties. The NMR spectra showed that laminarin and LAMS had β-(1→3) glycosidic bonds forming the main chain, and sulfate substitution was at the hydroxyl groups of C 2 and C 6 . Under the scanning electron microscope, there were clear differences in surface conformation between laminarin and LAMS; laminarin was cloud-like and spongy, while LAMS was block-like and flaky. The MTT results showed that laminarin and LAMS had inhibitory effects on LoVo cell growth, and the antitumor activity of LAMS was higher than that of laminarin at the same concentration. This suggests that sulfated modification was able to change the laminarin structure and markedly enhance the antitumor activity.

  11. The Regulation of Steroid Action by Sulfation and Desulfation

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jonathan W.; Gilligan, Lorna C.; Idkowiak, Jan; Arlt, Wiebke

    2015-01-01

    Steroid sulfation and desulfation are fundamental pathways vital for a functional vertebrate endocrine system. After biosynthesis, hydrophobic steroids are sulfated to expedite circulatory transit. Target cells express transmembrane organic anion-transporting polypeptides that facilitate cellular uptake of sulfated steroids. Once intracellular, sulfatases hydrolyze these steroid sulfate esters to their unconjugated, and usually active, forms. Because most steroids can be sulfated, including cholesterol, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estrone, understanding the function, tissue distribution, and regulation of sulfation and desulfation processes provides significant insights into normal endocrine function. Not surprisingly, dysregulation of these pathways is associated with numerous pathologies, including steroid-dependent cancers, polycystic ovary syndrome, and X-linked ichthyosis. Here we provide a comprehensive examination of our current knowledge of endocrine-related sulfation and desulfation pathways. We describe the interplay between sulfatases and sulfotransferases, showing how their expression and regulation influences steroid action. Furthermore, we address the role that organic anion-transporting polypeptides play in regulating intracellular steroid concentrations and how their expression patterns influence many pathologies, especially cancer. Finally, the recent advances in pharmacologically targeting steroidogenic pathways will be examined. PMID:26213785

  12. Sulfation of LH Does Not Affect Intracellular Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Boime, Irving

    2009-01-01

    LH and FSH are produced by the same gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary but differ in their mode of secretion. LH secretion is primarily episodic, or regulated, while FSH secretion is primarily basal, or constitutive. The asparagine (N)-linked oligosaccharides of LH and FSH terminate with sulfate and sialic acid, respectively. TSH also contains sulfated N-linked oligosaccharides and is secreted through the regulated pathway. It has been hypothesized that sulfate plays a role in segregating LH to the regulated pathway. Using a mouse pituitary model, we tested this hypothesis by examining the secretory fate of LH from pituitaries treated with sodium chlorate, a known inhibitor of sulfation. Here we show that mouse LH is sulfated and secreted through the regulated pathway, while FSH is secreted constitutively. LH secretion from chlorate treated pituitaries, which showed complete inhibition of sulfation, was similar to untreated pituitaries. These data suggest that the metabolic role for sulfated N-linked oligosaccharides is not for intracellular trafficking but for the extracellular bioactivity of LH. PMID:19647136

  13. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Thelin, Martin A; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, Åke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

    2013-05-01

    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse regulatory functions. Iduronic acid is formed by two epimerases (i.e. dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2) that have different tissue distribution and properties. The role of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate is highlighted by the vast changes in connective tissue features in patients with a new type of Ehler-Danlos syndrome: adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome. Future research aims to understand the roles of the two epimerases and their interplay with the sulfotransferases involved in chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Furthermore, a better definition of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate functions using different knockout models is needed. In this review, we focus on the two enzymes responsible for iduronic acid formation, as well as the role of iduronic acid in health and disease. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  14. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Thelin, Martin A; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, Åke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse regulatory functions. Iduronic acid is formed by two epimerases (i.e. dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2) that have different tissue distribution and properties. The role of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate is highlighted by the vast changes in connective tissue features in patients with a new type of Ehler–Danlos syndrome: adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome. Future research aims to understand the roles of the two epimerases and their interplay with the sulfotransferases involved in chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Furthermore, a better definition of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate functions using different knockout models is needed. In this review, we focus on the two enzymes responsible for iduronic acid formation, as well as the role of iduronic acid in health and disease. PMID:23441919

  15. Localized sulfate-reducing zones in a coastal plain aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C.J.; Coates, J.D.; Schoonen, M.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved iron in ground water of coastal plain or alluvial aquifers contribute to the biofouling of public supply wells for which treatment and remediation is costly. Many of these aquifers, however, contain zones in which microbial sulfate reduction and the associated precipitation of iron-sulfide minerals decreases iron mobility. The principal water-bearing aquifer (Magothy Aquifer of Cretaceous age) in Suffolk County, New York, contains localized sulfate-reducing zones in and near lignite deposits, which generally are associated with clay lenses. Microbial analyses of core samples amended with [14C]-acetate indicate that microbial sulfate reduction is the predominant terminal-electron-accepting process (TEAP) in poorly permeable, lignite-rich sediments at shallow depths and near the ground water divide. The sulfate-reducing zones are characterized by abundant lignite and iron-sulfide minerals, low concentrations of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and by proximity to clay lenses that contain pore water with relatively high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved organic carbon. The low permeability of these zones and, hence, the long residence time of ground water within them, permit the preservation and (or) allow the formation of iron-sulfide minerals, including pyrite and marcasite. Both sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) are present beneath and beyond the shallow sulfate-reducing zones. A unique Fe(III)-reducing organism, MD-612, was found in core sediments from a depth of 187 m near the southern shore of Long Island. The distribution of poorly permeable, lignite-rich, sulfate-reducing zones with decreased iron concentration is varied within the principal aquifer and accounts for the observed distribution of dissolved sulfate, iron, and iron sulfides in the aquifer. Locating such zones for the placement of production wells would be difficult, however, because these zones are of limited aerial extent.

  16. Morphological, structural, and spectral characteristics of amorphous iron sulfates

    PubMed Central

    Sklute, E. C.; Jensen, H. B.; Rogers, A. D.; Reeder, R. J.

    2018-01-01

    Current or past brine hydrologic activity on Mars may provide suitable conditions for the formation of amorphous ferric sulfates. Once formed, these phases would likely be stable under current Martian conditions, particularly at low- to mid-latitudes. Therefore, we consider amorphous iron sulfates (AIS) as possible components of Martian surface materials. Laboratory AIS were created through multiple synthesis routes and characterized with total X-ray scattering, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, visible/near-infrared (VNIR), thermal infrared (TIR), and Mössbauer techniques. We synthesized amorphous ferric sulfates (Fe(III)2(SO4)3 · ~ 6–8H2O) from sulfate-saturated fluids via vacuum dehydration or exposure to low relative humidity (<11%). Amorphous ferrous sulfate (Fe(II)SO4 · ~1H2O) was synthesized via vacuum dehydration of melanterite. All AIS lack structural order beyond 11 Å. The short-range (<5 Å) structural characteristics of amorphous ferric sulfates resemble all crystalline reference compounds; structural characteristics for the amorphous ferrous sulfate are similar to but distinct from both rozenite and szomolnokite. VNIR and TIR spectral data for all AIS display broad, muted features consistent with structural disorder and are spectrally distinct from all crystalline sulfates considered for comparison. Mössbauer spectra are also distinct from crystalline phase spectra available for comparison. AIS should be distinguishable from crystalline sulfates based on the position of their Fe-related absorptions in the visible range and their spectral characteristics in the TIR. In the NIR, bands associated with hydration at ~1.4 and 1.9 μm are significantly broadened, which greatly reduces their detectability in soil mixtures. AIS may contribute to the amorphous fraction of soils measured by the Curiosity rover. PMID:29675340

  17. Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Hailong; Smith, Steven J.

    Source attributions of Arctic sulfate and its direct radiative effect for 2010–2014 are quantified in this study using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) equipped with an explicit sulfur source-tagging technique. Regions that have high emissions and/or are near/within the Arctic present relatively large contributions to Arctic sulfate burden, with the largest contribution from sources in East Asia (27%). East Asia and South Asia together have the largest contributions to Arctic sulfate concentrations at 9–12 km, whereas sources within or near the Arctic account largely below 2 km. For remote sources with strong emissions, their contributions to Arctic sulfate burdenmore » are primarily driven by meteorology, while contributions of sources within or near the Arctic are dominated by their emission strength. The sulfate direct radiative effect (DRE) is –0.080 W m-2 at the Arctic surface, offsetting the net warming effect from the combination of in-snow heating and DRE cooling from black carbon. East Asia, Arctic local and Russia/Belarus/Ukraine sources contribute –0.017, –0.016 and –0.014 W m-2, respectively, to Arctic sulfate DRE. A 20% reduction in anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to a net increase of +0.013 W m-2 forcing at the Arctic surface. These results indicate that a joint reduction in BC emissions could prevent possible Arctic warming from future reductions in SO2 emissions. Sulfate DRE efficiency calculations suggest that short transport pathways together with meteorology favoring long sulfate lifetimes make certain sources more efficient in influencing the Arctic sulfate DRE.« less

  18. Development of affinity-based delivery of NGF from a chondroitin sulfate biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Karen Chao; Conovaloff, Aaron W; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a major component of the extracellular matrix in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Chondroitin sulfate is upregulated at injury, thus methods to promote neurite extension through chondroitin sulfate-rich matrices and synthetic scaffolds are needed. We describe the use of both chondroitin sulfate and a novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide to control the release of nerve growth factor. Interestingly, the novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide enhances the controlled release properties of the chondroitin sulfate gels. While introduction of chondroitin sulfate into a scaffold inhibits primary cortical outgrowth, the combination of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide and nerve growth factor promotes primary cortical neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels.

  19. Formation and deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settle, M.

    1979-01-01

    The paper considers the formation and deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols on Mars. The rate limiting step in sulfate aerosol formation on Mars is the gas phase oxidation of SO2 by chemical reactions with O, OH, and HO2; submicron aerosol particles would circuit Mars and then be removed from the atmosphere by gravitational forces, globally dispersed, and deposited over a range of equatorial and mid-latitudes. Volcanic sulfate aerosols on Mars consist of liquid droplets and slurries containing sulfuric acid; aerosol deposition on a global or hemispheric scale could account for the similar concentrations of sulfur within surficial soils at the two Viking lander sites.

  20. Micro-SHINE Uranyl Sulfate Irradiations at the Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Youker, Amanda J.; Kalensky, Michael; Chemerisov, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    Peroxide formation due to water radiolysis in a uranyl sulfate solution is a concern for the SHINE Medical Technologies process in which Mo-99 is generated from the fission of dissolved low enriched uranium. To investigate the effects of power density and fission on peroxide formation and uranyl-peroxide precipitation, uranyl sulfate solutions were irradiated using a 50-MeV electron linac as part of the micro-SHINE experimental setup. Results are given for uranyl sulfate solutions with both high and low enriched uranium irradiated at different linac powers.

  1. Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, H. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans), ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application. PMID:21566795

  2. Recycling ferrous sulfate via super-oxidant synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanari, N.; Evrard, O.; Neveux, N.; Ninane, L.

    2001-11-01

    Hydrated ferrous sulfate, a by-product of the titanium-dioxide and steel-surface-treatment industries, is usually disposed of as waste at a significant extra cost for these industries. Due to tight environmental regulations in the European countries, waste disposal of ferrous sulfate will not be an acceptable solution in the near future. Consequently, the waste will have to be treated. Recently, ferrous sulfate was successfully used to synthesize a novel superoxidant material (potassium ferrate) containing iron in hexavalent state (FeVI). With ferrates synthesis, innovative applications are possible in different industrial sectors, such as treatment of water and wastewater and effluent decontamination.

  3. A Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Is Systemically Induced upon Wounding in Tomato Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Chico, José Manuel; Raíces, Marcela; Téllez-Iñón, María Teresa; Ulloa, Rita María

    2002-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone (LeCDPK1) from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) encoding a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) was isolated by screening a cDNA library from tomato cell cultures exposed to Cladosporium fulvum elicitor preparations. The predicted amino acid sequence of the cDNA reveals a high degree of similarity with other members of the CDPK family. LeCDPK1 has a putative N-terminal myristoylation sequence and presents a possible palmitoylation site. The in vitro translated protein conserves the biochemical properties of a member of the CDPK family. In addition, CDPK activity was detected in soluble and particulate extracts of tomato leaves. Basal levels of LeCDPK1 mRNA were detected by northern-blot analysis in roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of tomato plants. The expression of LeCDPK1 was rapidly and transiently enhanced in detached tomato leaves treated with pathogen elicitors and H2O2. Moreover, when tomato greenhouse plants were subjected to mechanical wounding, a transient increase of LeCDPK1 steady-state mRNA levels was detected locally at the site of the injury and systemically in distant non-wounded leaves. The increase observed in LeCDPK1 mRNA upon wounding correlates with an increase in the amount and in the activity of a soluble CDPK detected in extracts of tomato leaves, suggesting that this kinase is part of physiological plant defense mechanisms against biotic or abiotic attacks. PMID:11788771

  4. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Accelerates Resorption of a Calcium Carbonate Biomaterial in Periodontal Defects.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ki-Tae; Susin, Cristiano; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Choi, Seong-Ho; Kim, Chong-Kwan

    2007-04-01

    In a previous study, recombinant human transforming growth factor-beta1 (rhTGF-β 1 ) in a calcium carbonate carrier was implanted into critical-size, supraalveolar periodontal defects under conditions for guided tissue regeneration (GTR) to study whether rhTGF-β 1 would enhance or accelerate periodontal regeneration. The results showed minimal benefits of rhTGF-β 1 , and a clear account for this could not be offered. One potential cause may be that the rhTGF-β 1 formulation was biologically inactive. Several growth or differentiation factors have been suggested to accelerate degradation of biomaterials used as carriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible activity of rhTGF-β 1 on biodegradation of the calcium carbonate carrier. rhTGF-β 1 in a putty-formulated particulate calcium carbonate carrier was implanted into critical-size, supraalveolar periodontal defects under conditions for GTR in five beagle dogs. Contralateral defects received the calcium carbonate carrier combined with GTR without rhTGF-β 1 (control). The animals were euthanized at week 4 post-surgery and block biopsies of the defect sites were collected for histologic and histometric analysis. Radiographs were obtained at defect creation and weeks 2 and 4 after defect creation. No statistically significant differences were observed in new bone formation (bone height and area) among the treatments. However, total residual carrier was significantly reduced in sites receiving rhTGF-β 1 compared to control (P = 0.04). Similarly, carrier density was considerably reduced in sites receiving rhTGF-β 1 compared to control; the difference was borderline statistically significant (P = 0.06). Within the limitations of the study, it may be concluded that rhTGF-β 1 accelerates biodegradation of a particulate calcium carbonate biomaterial, indicating a biologic activity of the rhTGF-β 1 formulation apparently not encompassing enhanced or accelerated periodontal regeneration. © 2007

  5. Transforming growth factor-beta1 accelerates resorption of a calcium carbonate biomaterial in periodontal defects.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ki-Tae; Susin, Cristiano; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Choi, Seong-Ho; Kim, Chong-Kwan

    2007-04-01

    In a previous study, recombinant human transforming growth factor-beta1 (rhTGF-beta(1)) in a calcium carbonate carrier was implanted into critical-size, supraalveolar periodontal defects under conditions for guided tissue regeneration (GTR) to study whether rhTGF-beta(1) would enhance or accelerate periodontal regeneration. The results showed minimal benefits of rhTGF-beta(1), and a clear account for this could not be offered. One potential cause may be that the rhTGF-beta(1) formulation was biologically inactive. Several growth or differentiation factors have been suggested to accelerate degradation of biomaterials used as carriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible activity of rhTGF-beta(1) on biodegradation of the calcium carbonate carrier. rhTGF-beta(1) in a putty-formulated particulate calcium carbonate carrier was implanted into critical-size, supraalveolar periodontal defects under conditions for GTR in five beagle dogs. Contralateral defects received the calcium carbonate carrier combined with GTR without rhTGF-beta(1) (control). The animals were euthanized at week 4 post-surgery and block biopsies of the defect sites were collected for histologic and histometric analysis. Radiographs were obtained at defect creation and weeks 2 and 4 after defect creation. No statistically significant differences were observed in new bone formation (bone height and area) among the treatments. However, total residual carrier was significantly reduced in sites receiving rhTGF-beta(1) compared to control (P = 0.04). Similarly, carrier density was considerably reduced in sites receiving rhTGF-beta(1) compared to control; the difference was borderline statistically significant (P = 0.06). Within the limitations of the study, it may be concluded that rhTGF-beta(1) accelerates biodegradation of a particulate calcium carbonate biomaterial, indicating a biologic activity of the rhTGF-beta(1) formulation apparently not encompassing enhanced or accelerated

  6. Biological Sulfate Reduction Rates in Hydrothermal Recharge Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, B.; Lowell, R. P.

    2007-12-01

    We develop a model to determine the rate of removal of seawater sulfate in the recharge regions of deep-sea hydrothermal systems as a result of biogenic sulfate reduction. The rate of sulfate reduction as a function of temperature derived from laboratory measurements on cores from the Guaymas Basin in Mexico [Jorgensen et al., 1992] is incorporated into a steady state 1-D advection-diffusion temperature equation, and a 1-D, steady- state, advection dominated conservation of solute equation. The diffusivity of sulfate in seawater is on the order of ~ 10-10 m2/s, and unless the flow speeds are < 10-12 m/s, the effects of diffusion are negligible, except within thin diffusive boundary layers. This model is then compared with a model that utilizes Gibbs free energy to quantify biogenic sulfate reduction [Bach and Edwards, 2003] in the upper oceanic crust of aging lithosphere. Using the high rates determined by Jorgensen et al. [1992], our model indicates that biological activity would reduce all seawater sulfate transported into the system within the upper 10 meters or less of the crust, which is inconsistent with the estimates of Bach and Edwards [2003]. Sulfate concentrations from ODP borehole Legs 64 and 168, at the sedimented Guaymas Basin and Juan de Fuca Ridge, respectively, show that most of the seawater sulfate is removed in the upper 100 meters. If the sulfate is assumed to all be reduced biogenically, the sulfate reduction rates at the ODP sites are at least 2 orders of magnitude less than the laboratory estimates of Jorgenson et al. [1992]. Finally, we compare the rate of seawater sulfate removal as a result of the precipitation of anhydrite, with the rate of biogenic sulfate reduction. We find that if hydrothermal recharge occurs rapidly through highly permeable faults, that biogenic sulfate reduction is negligible and that anhydrite precipitation would rapidly clog the recharge zone [Lowell and Yao, 2002]. If recharge occurs through broad zones of slow

  7. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate renal carcinoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Henry; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Song, Jonathan W; Cancel, Limary M; Huang, Peigen; Zeng, Ye; Roberge, Sylvie; Munn, Lance L; Tarbell, John M

    2016-12-15

    The surface proteoglycan/glycoprotein layer (glycocalyx) on tumor cells has been associated with cellular functions that can potentially enable invasion and metastasis. In addition, aggressive tumor cells with high metastatic potential have enhanced invasion rates in response to interstitial flow stimuli in vitro. Our previous studies suggest that heparan sulfate (HS) in the glycocalyx plays an important role in this flow mediated mechanostransduction and upregulation of invasive and metastatic potential. In this study, highly metastatic renal cell carcinoma cells were genetically modified to suppress HS production by knocking down its synthetic enzyme NDST1. Using modified Boyden chamber and microfluidic assays, we show that flow-enhanced invasion is suppressed in HS deficient cells. To assess the ability of these cells to metastasize in vivo, parental or knockdown cells expressing fluorescence reporters were injected into kidney capsules in SCID mice. Histological analysis confirmed that there was a large reduction (95%) in metastasis to distant organs by tumors formed from the NDST1 knockdown cells compared to control cells with intact HS. The ability of these cells to invade surrounding tissue was also impaired. The substantial inhibition of metastasis and invasion upon reduction of HS suggests an active role for the tumor cell glycocalyx in tumor progression. © 2016 UICC.

  8. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans regulate autophagy in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Reynolds-Peterson, Claire E; Zhao, Na; Xu, Jie; Serman, Taryn M; Xu, Jielin; Selleck, Scott B

    2017-08-03

    Heparan sulfate-modified proteoglycans (HSPGs) are important regulators of signaling and molecular recognition at the cell surface and in the extracellular space. Disruption of HSPG core proteins, HS-synthesis, or HS-degradation can have profound effects on growth, patterning, and cell survival. The Drosophila neuromuscular junction provides a tractable model for understanding the activities of HSPGs at a synapse that displays developmental and activity-dependent plasticity. Muscle cell-specific knockdown of HS biosynthesis disrupted the organization of a specialized postsynaptic membrane, the subsynaptic reticulum (SSR), and affected the number and morphology of mitochondria. We provide evidence that these changes result from a dysregulation of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy). Cellular and molecular markers of autophagy are all consistent with an increase in the levels of autophagy in the absence of normal HS-chain biosynthesis and modification. HS production is also required for normal levels of autophagy in the fat body, the central energy storage and nutritional sensing organ in Drosophila. Genetic mosaic analysis indicates that HS-dependent regulation of autophagy occurs non-cell autonomously, consistent with HSPGs influencing this cellular process via signaling in the extracellular space. These findings demonstrate that HS biosynthesis has important regulatory effects on autophagy and that autophagy is critical for normal assembly of postsynaptic membrane specializations.

  9. Monitoring sulfide and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Simple yet precise and accurate methods for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfide remain useful for the study of bacterial souring and corrosion. Test kits are available to measure sulfide in field samples. A more precise methylene blue sulfide assay for both field and laboratory studies is described here. Improved media, compared to that in API RP-38, for enumeration of SRB have been formulated. One of these, API-RST, contained cysteine (1.1 mM) as a reducing agent, which may be a confounding source of sulfide. While cysteine was required for rapid enumeration of SRB from environmental samples, the concentration of cysteinemore » in medium could be reduced to 0.4 mM. It was also determined that elevated levels of yeast extract (>1 g/liter) could interfere with enumeration of SRB from environmental samples. The API-RST medium was modified to a RST-11 medium. Other changes in medium composition, in addition to reduction of cysteine, included reduction of the concentration of phosphate from 3.4 mM to 2.2 mM, reduction of the concentration of ferrous iron from 0.8 mM to 0.5 mM and preparation of a stock mineral solution to ease medium preparation. SRB from environmental samples could be enumerated in a week in this medium.« less

  10. Quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, and keratan sulfate by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Osago, Harumi; Shibata, Tomoko; Hara, Nobumasa; Kuwata, Suguru; Kono, Michihaya; Uchio, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Mikako

    2014-12-15

    We developed a method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode for simultaneous quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Using one-shot analysis with our MS/MS method, we demonstrated the simultaneous quantification of a total of 23 variously sulfated disaccharides of four GAG classes (8 chondroitin/dermatan sulfates, 1 hyaluronic acid, 12 heparan sulfates, and 2 keratan sulfates) with a sensitivity of less than 0.5 pmol within 20 min. We showed the differences in the composition of GAG classes and the sulfation patterns between porcine articular cartilage and yellow ligament. In addition to the internal disaccharides described above, some saccharides derived from the nonreducing terminal were detected simultaneously. The simultaneous quantification of both internal and nonreducing terminal saccharides could be useful to estimate the chain length of GAGs. This method would help to establish comprehensive "GAGomic" analysis of biological tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Light-regulated root gravitropism: a role for, and characterization of, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Y. T.; Feldman, L. J.

    1997-01-01

    Roots of many species grow downward (orthogravitropism) only when illuminated. Previous work suggests that this is a calcium-regulated response and that both calmodulin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases participate in transducing gravity and light stimuli. A genomic sequence has been obtained for a calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase homolog (MCK1) expressed in root caps, the site of perception for both light and gravity. This homolog consists of 7265 base pairs and contains 11 exons and 10 introns. Since MCK1 is expressed constitutively in both light and dark, it is unlikely that the light directly affects MCK1 expression, though the activity of the protein may be affected by light. In cultivars showing light-regulated gravitropism, we hypothesize that MCK1, or a homolog, functions in establishing the auxin asymmetry necessary for orthogravitropism.

  12. Age of Sulfate Methane Transition Zone Determined by Modelling Barium Sulfate Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S.; Wang, W. C.; Lien, K. L.; Liu, C. C.; Fan, L. F.

    2017-12-01

    Methane seep to the sediment/water interface could initiate anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) with subsequent build up of chemosynthetic community, carbonate, pyrite and a number of other authigenic mineral formation. Determination the duration, sequence and time of methane seeps are keys to understand how methane seep to the environment and degree of alteration to the vicinity area. However, limited method existed in defining time of methane seep since there are some known problems involving typical dating methods, i.e. old carbon on C14 of fossil test or authigenic carbonate, thorium from surrounding matrix on U/Th authigenic carbonate dating. In this study, we have employed barium determination method (Dickens, 2001) to model timing of methane seep at two locations in the South China Sea. Our objective is to compare timing of the barium accumulation near the sulfate methane transition zone (SMTZ) on these two different locations and to seek if a similar mechanism driving the methane seep at two locations far apart. Dissolved barium, total sediment barium and aluminum were measured as well as pore water sulfate, and sediment pyrite concentrations. Time for the barium sulfate accumulation is calculated by: T = C/F, C= ∫ I x p x (1-Ø) Our results show that SMTZ is stabilized at each site for a duration of about 4000-5000 years. AOM process have been active at both sites at about the same time. In conjunction, pyrite also accumulated at a depth near the SMTZ as a result of methane oxidation. This result show that AOM could stay at the SMTZ for a relatively long period of time, on a scale of thousands of years.

  13. Exploring Archean seawater sulfate via triple S isotopes in carbonate associated sulfate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, G.; Fischer, W. W.; Sessions, A. L.; Adkins, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple sulfur isotope ratios in Archean sedimentary rocks provide powerful insights into the behavior of the ancient sulfur cycle, the redox state of fluid Earth, and the timing of the rise of atmospheric oxygen [1]. The Archean sulfur isotope record is marked by pronounced mass-independent fractionation (Δ33S≠0)—signatures widely interpreted as the result of SO2 photolysis from "short-wavelength" UV light resulting in a reduced phase carrying positive Δ33S values (ultimately recorded in pyrite) and an oxidized phase carrying negative Δ33S values carried by sulfate [2]. Support for this hypothesis rests on early laboratory experiments and observations of negative Δ33S from barite occurrences in mixed volcanic sedimentary strata in Mesoarchean greenstone terrains. Despite forming the framework for understanding Archean sulfur cycle processes, this hypothesis is still largely untested, notably due to the lack of sulfate minerals in Archean strata. Using a new MC-ICP-MS approach combined with petrography and X-ray spectroscopy we have generated a growing S isotope dataset from CAS extracted from Archean carbonates from a range of sedimentary successions, including: the 2.6 to 2.521 Ga Campbellrand-Malmani carbonate platform (Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa), 2.7 Ga Cheshire Formation (Zimbabwe), and 2.9 Ga Steep Rock Formation (Canada). Importantly, we observe positive δ34S and Δ33S values across a range of different lithologies and depositional environments. These results demonstrate that dissolved sulfate in seawater was characterized by positive Δ33S values—a result that receives additional support from recent laboratory and theoretical experiments [e.g. 4, 5]. [1] Farquhar et al., 2000, Science [2] Farquhar et al., 2001, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets [3] Paris et al., 2014, Science. [4] Whitehill et al., 2013, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. [5] Claire et al., 2014 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

  14. Antibody recognizing 4-sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans restores memory in tauopathy-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sujeong; Hilton, Sam; Alves, João Nuno; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy; Matthews, Russell T; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Kwok, Jessica C F; Fawcett, James W

    2017-11-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the main active component of perineuronal nets (PNNs). Digestion of the glycosaminoglycan chains of CSPGs with chondroitinase ABC or transgenic attenuation of PNNs leads to prolongation of object recognition memory and activation of various forms of plasticity in the adult central nervous system. The inhibitory properties of the CSPGs depend on the pattern of sulfation of their glycosaminoglycans, with chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) being the most inhibitory form. In this study, we tested a number of candidates for functional blocking of C4S, leading to selection of an antibody, Cat316, which specifically recognizes C4S and blocks its inhibitory effects on axon growth. It also partly blocks binding of semaphorin 3A to PNNs and attenuates PNN formation. We asked whether injection of Cat316 into the perirhinal cortex would have the same effects on memory as chondroitinase ABC treatment. We found that masking C4S with the Cat316 antibody extended long-term object recognition memory in normal wild-type mice to 24 hours, similarly to chondroitinase or transgenic PNN attenuation. We then tested Cat316 for restoration of memory in a neurodegeneration model. Mice expressing tau with the P301S mutation showed profound loss of object recognition memory at 4 months of age. Injection of Cat316 into the perirhinal cortex normalized object recognition at 3 hours in P301S mice. These data indicate that Cat316 binding to C4S in the extracellular matrix can restore plasticity and memory in the same way as chondroitinase ABC digestion. Our results suggest that antibodies to C4S could be a useful therapeutic to restore memory function in neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expanding the role of 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate in herpes simplex virus type-1 entry

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, Christopher D., E-mail: codonn3@uic.ed; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612; Kovacs, Maria, E-mail: marcsika101@yahoo.co

    2010-02-20

    Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are commonly exploited by multiple viruses for initial attachment to host cells. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is unique because it can use HS for both attachment and penetration, provided specific binding sites for HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein gD are present. The interaction with gD is mediated by specific HS moieties or 3-O sulfated HS (3-OS HS), which are generated by all but one of the seven isoforms of 3-O sulfotransferases (3-OSTs). Here we demonstrate that several common experimental cell lines express unique sets of 3-OST isoforms. While the isoforms 3-OST-3, -5 and -6 were most commonly expressed,more » isoforms 3-OST-2 and -4 were undetectable in the cell lines examined. Since most cell lines expressed multiple 3-OST isoforms, we addressed the significance of 3-OS HS in HSV-1 entry by down-regulating 2-O-sulfation, a prerequisite for 3-OS HS formation, by knocking down 2-OST expression by RNA interference (RNAi). 2-OST knockdown was verified by reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot analysis, while 3-OS HS knockdown was verified by immunofluorescence. Cells showed a significant decrease in viral entry, suggesting an important role for 3-OS HS. Implicating 3-OS HS further, cells knocked down for 2-OST expression also demonstrated decreased cell-cell fusion when cocultivated with effector cells transfected with HSV-1 glycoproteins. Our findings suggest that 3-OS HS may play an important role in HSV-1 entry into many different cell lines.« less

  16. Wound healing and antibacterial activities of chondroitin sulfate- and acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, A.-Rang; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-10-01

    For topical applications in wound healing, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much attention as antibacterial agents. Herein, we describe a green-synthetic route for the production of biocompatible and crystalline AgNPs using two glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and acharan sulfate (AS), as reducing agents. The synthetic approach avoids the use of toxic chemicals, and the yield of AgNPs formation is found to be 98.1% and 91.1% for the chondroitin sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and the acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (AS-AgNPs), respectively. Nanoparticles with mostly spherical and amorphous shapes were observed, with an average diameter of 6.16 ± 2.26 nm for CS-AgNPs and 5.79 ± 3.10 nm for AS-AgNPs. Images of the CS-AgNPs obtained from atomic force microscopy revealed the self-assembled structure of CS was similar to a densely packed woven mat with AgNPs sprinkled on the CS. These nanoparticles were stable under cell culture conditions without any noticeable aggregation. An approximately 128-fold enhancement of the antibacterial activities of the AgNPs was observed against Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli when compared to CS and AS alone. In addition, an in vivo animal model of wound healing activity was tested using mice that were subjected to deep incision wounds. In comparison to the controls, the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs stimulated wound closure under histological examination and accelerated the deposition of granulation tissue and collagen in the wound area. The wound healing activity of the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs are comparable to that of a commercial formulation of silver sulfadiazine even though the newly prepared ointments contain a lower silver concentration. Therefore, the newly prepared AgNPs demonstrate potential for use as an attractive biocompatible nanocomposite for topical applications in the treatment of wounds.

  17. A Demonstration of Bacterial Reduction of Inorganic Sulfate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinard, W. Frank

    1979-01-01

    This experiment demonstrates the reduction of inorganic sulfate to sulfide in the pore water of estuarine muds. Procedures involve the incubation of mud samples for varying amounts of time followed by gravimetric determination. (Author/SA)

  18. SULFATE REDUCTION IN GROUNDWATER: CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATIONS FOR REMEDIATION

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Z.; Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, K. C.; Carreón-Diazconti, C.; Johnson, B.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate is ubiquitous in groundwater, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sulfate reduction reactions play a significant role in mediating redox conditions and biogeochemical processes for subsurface systems. They also serve as the basis for innovative in-situ methods for groundwater remediation. An overview of sulfate reduction in subsurface environments is provided, along with a brief discussion of characterization methods and applications for addressing acid mine drainage. We then focus on two innovative, in-situ methods for remediating sulfate-contaminated groundwater, the use of zero-valent iron (ZVI) and the addition of electron-donor substrates. The advantages and limitations associated with the methods are discussed, with examples of prior applications. PMID:21947714

  19. Recoverable immobilization of transuranic elements in sulfate ash

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash at least about 20% of which is sulfates of transuranic elements. The ash is mixed with a metal which can be aluminum, cerium, samarium, europium, or a mixture thereof, in amounts sufficient to form an alloy with the transuranic elements, plus an additional amount to reduce the transuranic element sulfates to elemental form. Also added to the ash is a fluxing agent in an amount sufficient to lower the percentage of the transuranic element sulfates to about 1% to about 10%. The mixture of the ash, metal, and fluxing agent is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the fluxing agent and the metal. The mixture is then cooled and the alloy is separated from the remainder of the mixture.

  20. SULFATE RADICAL-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES- ACS MEETING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will present an overview of sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies for the destruction of environmentally toxic chemicals in wastewater, industrial water, groundwater and sources of water supply. The paper will include fundamental aspects of the generati...

  1. Chondroitin sulfate effects on neural stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Canning, David R; Brelsford, Natalie R; Lovett, Neil W

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the role chondroitin sulfate has on cell interactions during neural plate formation in the early chick embryo. Using tissue culture isolates from the prospective neural plate, we have measured neural gene expression profiles associated with neural stem cell differentiation. Removal of chondroitin sulfate from stage 4 neural plate tissue leads to altered associations of N-cadherin-positive neural progenitors and causes changes in the normal sequence of neural marker gene expression. Absence of chondroitin sulfate in the neural plate leads to reduced Sox2 expression and is accompanied by an increase in the expression of anterior markers of neural regionalization. Results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of chondroitin sulfate in the anterior chick embryo is instrumental in maintaining cells in the neural precursor state.

  2. Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on bovine testicular hyaluronidase.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Koizumi, Hideyo; Chen, Fengchao; Endo, Masahiko

    2015-05-05

    Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates are prominent components of the extracellular matrices of animal tissues; however, their functions in relation to their oligosaccharide structures have not yet been fully elucidated. The oligosaccharides of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were prepared and used to investigate their effects on the hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase when hyaluronan was used as a substrate. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities were assessed in independent reaction systems by analyzing the products by HPLC. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were dose-dependently inhibited by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, but not by hyaluronan or chondroitin oligosaccharides. A kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction using hyaluronan octasaccharide revealed that the inhibition mode by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides was competitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cloud condensation nucleus-sulfate mass relationship and cloud albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegg, Dean A.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of previously published, simultaneous measurements of cloud condensation nucleus number concentration and sulfate mass concentration suggest a nonlinear relationship between the two variables. This nonlinearity reduces the sensitivity of cloud albedo to changes in the sulfur cycle.

  4. EFFECT OF BACTERIAL SULFATE REDUCTION ON IRON-CORROSION SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron-sulfur geochemistry is important in many natural and engineered environments including drinking water systems. In the anaerobic environment beneath scales of corroding iron drinking water distribution system pipes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulfide from natura...

  5. 21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transesterification of an edible vegetable oil using 1-butanol. Following sulfation, the reaction mixture is washed... oleate reaction mixture meets the following specifications: (1) Not less than 90 percent butyl oleate. (2...

  6. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  7. Reconstruction of secular variation in seawater sulfate concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algeo, T. J.; Luo, G. M.; Song, H. Y.; Lyons, T. W.; Canfield, D. E.

    2015-04-01

    Long-term secular variation in seawater sulfate concentrations ([SO42-]SW) is of interest owing to its relationship to the oxygenation history of Earth's surface environment. In this study, we develop two complementary approaches for quantification of sulfate concentrations in ancient seawater and test their application to late Neoproterozoic (635 Ma) to Recent marine units. The "rate method" is based on two measurable parameters of paleomarine systems: (1) the S-isotope fractionation associated with microbial sulfate reduction (MSR), as proxied by Δ34SCAS-PY, and (2) the maximum rate of change in seawater sulfate, as proxied by &partial; δ 34SCAS/∂ t(max). The "MSR-trend method" is based on the empirical relationship of Δ34SCAS-PY to aqueous sulfate concentrations in 81 modern depositional systems. For a given paleomarine system, the rate method yields an estimate of maximum possible [SO42-]SW (although results are dependent on assumptions regarding the pyrite burial flux, FPY), and the MSR-trend method yields an estimate of mean [SO42-]SW. An analysis of seawater sulfate concentrations since 635 Ma suggests that [SO42-]SW was low during the late Neoproterozoic (<5 mM), rose sharply across the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary (~5-10 mM), and rose again during the Permian (~10-30 mM) to levels that have varied only slightly since 250 Ma. However, Phanerozoic seawater sulfate concentrations may have been drawn down to much lower levels (~1-4 mM) during short (<~2 Myr) intervals of the Cambrian, Early Triassic, Early Jurassic, and Cretaceous as a consequence of widespread ocean anoxia, intense MSR, and pyrite burial. The procedures developed in this study offer potential for future high-resolution quantitative analyses of paleo-seawater sulfate concentrations.

  8. Aqueous sulfate separation by crystallization of sulfate–water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu; Williams, Neil J.; Seipp, Charles A.

    An effective approach to separating sulfates from aqueous solutions is based on the crystallization of extended [SO 4(H 2O) 5 2-] n sulfate–water clusters with a bis(guanidinium) ligand. The ligand was generated in situ by hydrazone condensation in water, thus avoiding elaborate syntheses, tedious purifications, and organic solvents. Crystallization of sulfate–water clusters represents an alternative to the now established sulfate separation strategies that involve encapsulating the “naked” anion.

  9. Successful magnesium sulfate tocolysis: is "weaning" the drug necessary?

    PubMed

    Lewis, D F; Bergstedt, S; Edwards, M S; Burlison, S; Gallaspy, J W; Brooks, G G; Adair, C D

    1997-10-01

    Magnesium sulfate is the most commonly used tocolytic agent for preterm labor. A common clinical practice is to slowly discontinue the drug (wean) after successful tocolysis. Our objective was to determine the necessity of this practice. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was performed from June 1993 to July 1996. After successful magnesium sulfate tocolysis, patients with preterm labor were randomized to two groups: stopping the drug abruptly (no weaning) or gradually weaning the drug (approximately 1 gm every 4 hours). Preterm labor was defined as documented cervical change with regular uterine contractions or regular uterine contractions with a cervix of 2 cm and 75% effacement. The primary outcome variable was the necessity to reinstitute magnesium sulfate therapy within 24 hours of discontinuation of successful tocolysis. One hundred forty-one patients completed the study. No patient in the no-wean group required retocolysis within 24 hours of magnesium discontinuation. However, eight patients in the wean group required retocolysis within 24 hours of magnesium discontinuation (p = 0.01). Significantly more patients in the wean group had retocolysis during pregnancy (3 vs 12, p = 0.03). Patients in the wean group were also in the labor and delivery unit longer and, as would be anticipated, received magnesium sulfate significantly longer. No differences in the neonatal outcomes were noted between the two groups. Seventy-seven percent of the patients in the study were delivered prematurely. This study demonstrated an increased need for retocolysis in the group weaned from magnesium sulfate. We also found that patients in the wean group had an increased labor and delivery time and a longer administration time of magnesium sulfate. Thus weaning magnesium sulfate increases health care cost. The practice of weaning magnesium sulfate does not appear beneficial.

  10. Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under sulfate-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, J.D.; Anderson, R.T.; Lovley, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    [14C]naphthalene and phenanthrene were oxidized to 14CO2 without a detectable lag under strict anaerobic conditions in sediments from San Diego Bay, San Diego, Calif., that were heavily contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but not in less contaminated sediments. Sulfate reduction was necessary for PAH oxidation. These results suggest that the self-purification capacity of PAH-contaminated sulfate-reducing environments may be greater than previously recognized.

  11. A novel chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conovaloff, Aaron William

    Brachial plexus injuries affect numerous patients every year, with very debilitating results. The majority of these cases are very severe, and involve damage to the nerve roots. To date, repair strategies for these injuries address only gross tissue damage, but do not supply cells with adequate regeneration signals. As a result, functional recovery is often severely lacking. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel that delivers neurotrophic signals to damaged neurons is proposed as a scaffold to support nerve root regeneration. Capillary electrophoresis studies revealed that chondroitin sulfate can physically bind with a variety of neurotrophic factors, and cultures of chick dorsal root ganglia demonstrated robust neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate hydrogels. Outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels was greater than that observed in control gels of hyaluronic acid. Furthermore, the chondroitin sulfate hydrogel's binding activity with nerve growth factor could be enhanced by incorporation of a synthetic bioactive peptide, as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. This enhanced binding was observed only in chondroitin sulfate gels, and not in hyaluronic acid control gels. This enhanced binding activity resulted in enhanced dorsal root ganglion neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels. Finally, the growth of regenerating dorsal root ganglia in these gels was imaged using label-free coherent anti-Stokes scattering microscopy. This technique generated detailed, high-quality images of live dorsal root ganglion neurites, which were comparable to fixed, F-actin-stained samples. Taken together, these results demonstrate the viability of this chondroitin sulfate hydrogel to serve as an effective implantable scaffold to aid in nerve root regeneration.

  12. Evolutionary Relationships and Functional Diversity of Plant Sulfate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hideki; Buchner, Peter; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR, and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26). The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1–SULTR4) in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologs from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4), and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR, and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13) and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT). The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1) and SAC1-like transporters (SLT) of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte, and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae. PMID:22629272

  13. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideki; Buchner, Peter; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR, and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26). The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1-SULTR4) in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologs from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4), and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR, and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13) and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT). The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1) and SAC1-like transporters (SLT) of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte, and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  14. Aqueous sulfate separation by crystallization of sulfate–water clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Custelcean, Radu; Williams, Neil J.; Seipp, Charles A.

    2015-08-07

    An effective approach to separating sulfates from aqueous solutions is based on the crystallization of extended [SO 4(H 2O) 5 2-] n sulfate–water clusters with a bis(guanidinium) ligand. The ligand was generated in situ by hydrazone condensation in water, thus avoiding elaborate syntheses, tedious purifications, and organic solvents. Crystallization of sulfate–water clusters represents an alternative to the now established sulfate separation strategies that involve encapsulating the “naked” anion.

  15. Tyrosine sulfation modulates activity of tick-derived thrombin inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert E.; Liu, Xuyu; Ripoll-Rozada, Jorge; Alonso-García, Noelia; Parker, Benjamin L.; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Payne, Richard J.

    2017-09-01

    Madanin-1 and chimadanin are two small cysteine-free thrombin inhibitors that facilitate blood feeding in the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. Here, we report a post-translational modification—tyrosine sulfation—of these two proteins that is critical for potent anti-thrombotic and anticoagulant activity. Inhibitors produced in baculovirus-infected insect cells displayed heterogeneous sulfation of two tyrosine residues within each of the proteins. One-pot ligation-desulfurization chemistry enabled access to homogeneous samples of all possible sulfated variants of the proteins. Tyrosine sulfation of madanin-1 and chimadanin proved crucial for thrombin inhibitory activity, with the doubly sulfated variants three orders of magnitude more potent than the unmodified inhibitors. The three-dimensional structure of madanin-1 in complex with thrombin revealed a unique mode of inhibition, with the sulfated tyrosine residues binding to the basic exosite II of the protease. The importance of tyrosine sulfation within this family of thrombin inhibitors, together with their unique binding mode, paves the way for the development of anti-thrombotic drug leads based on these privileged scaffolds.

  16. Physiochemical properties of alkylaminium sulfates: hygroscopicity, thermostability, and density.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chong; Zhang, Renyi

    2012-04-17

    Although heterogeneous interaction of amines has been recently shown to play an important role in the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols, little information is available on the physicochemical properties of aminium sulfates. In this study, the hygroscopicity, thermostability, and density of alkylaminium sulfates (AASs) have been measured by an integrated aerosol analytical system including a tandem differential mobility analyzer and an aerosol particle mass analyzer. AAS aerosols exhibit monotonic size growth at increasing RH without a well-defined deliquescence point. Mixing of ammonium sulfate (AS) with AASs lowers the deliquescence point corresponding to AS. Particles with AASs show comparable or higher thermostability than that of AS. The density of AASs is determined to be 1.2-1.5 g cm(-3), and an empirical model is developed to predict the density of AASs on the basis of the mole ratio of alkyl carbons to total sulfate. Our results reveal that the heterogeneous uptake of amines on sulfate particles may considerably alter the aerosol properties. In particular, the displacement reaction of alkylamines with ammonium sulfate aerosols leads to a transition from the crystalline to an amorphorous phase and an improved water uptake, considerably enhancing their direct and indirect climate forcing.

  17. Matrix Disruptions, Growth, and Degradation of Cartilage with Impaired Sulfation*

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Edward L.; Facchini, Marcella; Pham, Anna T.; Gualeni, Benedetta; De Leonardis, Fabio; Rossi, Antonio; Forlino, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is an incurable recessive chondrodysplasia caused by mutations in the SLC26A2 transporter responsible for sulfate uptake by chondrocytes. The mutations cause undersulfation of glycosaminoglycans in cartilage. Studies of dtd mice with a knock-in Slc26a2 mutation showed an unusual progression of the disorder: net undersulfation is mild and normalizing with age, but the articular cartilage degrades with age and bones develop abnormally. To understand underlying mechanisms, we studied newborn dtd mice. We developed, verified and used high-definition infrared hyperspectral imaging of cartilage sections at physiological conditions, to quantify collagen and its orientation, noncollagenous proteins, and chondroitin chains, and their sulfation with 6-μm spatial resolution and without labeling. We found that chondroitin sulfation across the proximal femur cartilage varied dramatically in dtd, but not in the wild type. Corresponding undersulfation of dtd was mild in most regions, but strong in narrow articular and growth plate regions crucial for bone development. This undersulfation correlated with the chondroitin synthesis rate measured via radioactive sulfate incorporation, explaining the sulfation normalization with age. Collagen orientation was reduced, and the reduction correlated with chondroitin undersulfation. Such disorientation involved the layer of collagen covering the articular surface and protecting cartilage from degradation. Malformation of this layer may contribute to the degradation progression with age and to collagen and proteoglycan depletion from the articular region, which we observed in mice already at birth. The results provide clues to in vivo sulfation, DTD treatment, and cartilage growth. PMID:22556422

  18. Identification of the yeast mitochondrial transporter for oxaloacetate and sulfate.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, L; Vozza, A; Agrimi, G; De Marco, V; Runswick, M J; Palmieri, F; Walker, J E

    1999-08-06

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes 35 members of the mitochondrial carrier family, including the OAC protein. The transport specificities of some family members are known, but most are not. The function of the OAC has been revealed by overproduction in Escherichia coli, reconstitution into liposomes, and demonstration that the proteoliposomes transport malonate, oxaloacetate, sulfate, and thiosulfate. Reconstituted OAC catalyzes both unidirectional transport and exchange of substrates. In S. cerevisiae, OAC is in inner mitochondrial membranes, and deletion of its gene greatly reduces transport of oxaloacetate sulfate, thiosulfate, and malonate. Mitochondria from wild-type cells swelled in isoosmotic solutions of ammonium salts of oxaloacetate, sulfate, thiosulfate, and malonate, indicating that these anions are cotransported with protons. Overexpression of OAC in the deletion strain increased greatly the [(35)S]sulfate/sulfate and [(35)S]sulfate/oxaloacetate exchanges in proteoliposomes reconstituted with digitonin extracts of mitochondria. The main physiological role of OAC appears to be to use the proton-motive force to take up into mitochondria oxaloacetate produced from pyruvate by cytoplasmic pyruvate carboxylase.

  19. Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gehui; Zhang, Renyi; Gomez, Mario E.; Yang, Lingxiao; Levy Zamora, Misti; Hu, Min; Lin, Yun; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Jianjun; Cheng, Chunlei; Hu, Tafeng; Ren, Yanqin; Wang, Yuesi; Gao, Jian; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng; Zhou, Weijian; Li, Guohui; Wang, Jiayuan; Tian, Pengfei; Marrero-Ortiz, Wilmarie; Secrest, Jeremiah; Du, Zhuofei; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Wang, Weigang; Huang, Yao; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Yujiao; Li, Yixin; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Cai, Li; Cheng, Yuting; Ji, Yuemeng; Zhang, Fang; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Liss, Peter S.; Duce, Robert A.; Kolb, Charles E.; Molina, Mario J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate aerosols exert profound impacts on human and ecosystem health, weather, and climate, but their formation mechanism remains uncertain. Atmospheric models consistently underpredict sulfate levels under diverse environmental conditions. From atmospheric measurements in two Chinese megacities and complementary laboratory experiments, we show that the aqueous oxidation of SO2 by NO2 is key to efficient sulfate formation but is only feasible under two atmospheric conditions: on fine aerosols with high relative humidity and NH3 neutralization or under cloud conditions. Under polluted environments, this SO2 oxidation process leads to large sulfate production rates and promotes formation of nitrate and organic matter on aqueous particles, exacerbating severe haze development. Effective haze mitigation is achievable by intervening in the sulfate formation process with enforced NH3 and NO2 control measures. In addition to explaining the polluted episodes currently occurring in China and during the 1952 London Fog, this sulfate production mechanism is widespread, and our results suggest a way to tackle this growing problem in China and much of the developing world. PMID:27849598

  20. Profile of irritant patch testing with detergents: sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureth sulfate and alkyl polyglucoside.

    PubMed

    Löffler, H; Happle, R

    2003-01-01

    The cutaneous reaction to detergents follows distinct kinetic rules: the duration of application and the irritant concentration are of major importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in kinetics of skin reaction between the standard irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and 2 modern detergents: sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) and alkyl polyglucoside (APG). We performed patch testing with SLS and SLES (or APG) at different concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) and with different exposure times (6, 12 and 24 h). Evaluation was conducted by measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LD) 24 h, 7 and 10 days after patch removal. We found a pronounced reaction to SLS, and a far milder one to SLES. Even at the highest concentration the skin reaction to APG was hard to detect. During the regeneration period (day 3-10) SLS showed even at day 10 an increased TEWL at all concentrations tested. The irritation due to SLES was convincingly detectable only up to day 7, whereas the APG-tested skin areas showed no significant reaction even at day 3. These results demonstrate the improvement in reduction of skin irritation achieved by development of novel detergents.

  1. The production of p-cresol sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in vegetarians versus omnivores.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kajal P; Luo, Frank J-G; Plummer, Natalie S; Hostetter, Thomas H; Meyer, Timothy W

    2012-06-01

    The uremic solutes p-cresol sulfate (PCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) are generated by colon bacteria acting on food components that escape absorption in the small bowel. The production of these potentially toxic compounds may thus be influenced by diet. This study examined whether production of PCS and IS is different in vegetarians and omnivores. The production of PCS and IS was assessed by measuring their urinary excretion rates in participants with normal kidney function. Studies were carried out in 15 vegetarians and 11 individuals consuming an unrestricted diet. Participants recorded food intake over 4 days and collected urine over the final 2 days of each of two study periods, which were 1 month apart. Average PCS excretion was 62% lower (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 15-83) and average IS excretion was 58% lower (95% CI, 39-71) in vegetarians than in participants consuming an unrestricted diet. Food records revealed that lower excretion of PCS and IS in vegetarians was associated with a 69% higher (95% CI, 20-139) fiber intake and a 25% lower (95% CI, 3-42) protein intake. PCS and IS excretion rates varied widely among individual participants and were not closely correlated with each other but tended to remain stable in individual participants over 1 month. PCS and IS production rates are markedly lower in vegetarians than in individuals consuming an unrestricted diet.

  2. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... organisms. (3) Limitations. Laboratory tests should be conducted including in vitro culturing and... sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Sponsor. To firms identified in § 510.600(c) of this chapter as follows...

  3. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... organisms. (3) Limitations. Laboratory tests should be conducted including in vitro culturing and... sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Sponsor. To firms identified in § 510.600(c) of this chapter as follows...

  4. Relationship between microbial sulfate reduction rates and sulfur isotopic fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsu'Ura, F.

    2009-12-01

    Sulfate reduction is one of the common processes to obtain energy for certain types of microorganisms.They use hydrogen gas or organic substrates as electron donor and sulfates as electron acceptor, and reduce sulfates to sulfides. Sulfate reducing microbes extend across domains Archea and Bacteria, and are believed to be one of the earliest forms of terrestrial life (Shen 2004). The origin of 34S-depleted (light) sulfide sulfur, especially δ34S < -30 ‰, around hydrothermal vents or beneath the sea-floor is speculated to be the products of sulfate reducers. But laboratory experiments using sulfate reducers fail to produce such light sulfur, and many models were proposed to explain the discrepancy. Canfield et al. (2006) proposed so-called "standard model" based on previous studies. The standard model explained the reason for the large fractionation by temperature dependence of sulfur isotopic fractionation factor and rate of sulfate reduction, which indicated the growth conditions of microbes. However, they failed to prove their model by their other experiments (Canfield et al., 2006). In this study, I performed laboratory culture experiment of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) to explain the 34S-depleted sulfide sulfur. [Experiments] To compare the result with Canfield et al. (2006), I used Desulfovibrio desulfuricans for my laboratory culture experiment. D. desulfuricans was inoculated into glass vials, which contain 40ml of liquid culture media slightly modified from DSMZ #63 medium.Excess amount of Fe (II) is added to the DSMZ#63 medium to precipitate sulfide as iron sulfide. The vials were incubated at 25°C, 30°C, and 37°C, respectively. 21 vials were used for one temperature and sulfide and sulfate was collected from each three glass vials at every 12 hours from 72 hours to 144 hours after start of incubation. The sulfide was precipitated as iron sulfide and the sulfate was precipitated as barite. Sulfur isotope compositions of sulfate and sulfide were

  5. Highly sulfated hexasaccharide sequences isolated from chondroitin sulfate of shark fin cartilage: insights into the sugar sequences with bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Murakoshi, Saori; Kalayanamitra, Kittiwan; Deepa, Sarama Sathyaseelan; Fukui, Shigeyuki; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Yamada, Shuhei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2013-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains regulate the development of the central nervous system in vertebrates and are linear polysaccharides consisting of variously sulfated repeating disaccharides, [-4GlcUAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-](n), where GlcUA and GalNAc represent D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, respectively. CS chains containing D-disaccharide units [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)] are involved in the development of cerebellar Purkinje cells and neurite outgrowth-promoting activity through interaction with a neurotrophic factor, pleiotrophin, resulting in the regulation of signaling. In this study, to obtain further structural information on the CS chains containing d-disaccharide units involved in brain development, oligosaccharides containing D-units were isolated from a shark fin cartilage. Seven novel hexasaccharide sequences, ΔO-D-D, ΔA-D-D, ΔC-D-D, ΔE-A-D, ΔD-D-C, ΔE-D-D and ΔA-B-D, in addition to three previously reported sequences, ΔC-A-D, ΔC-D-C and ΔA-D-A, were isolated from a CS preparation of shark fin cartilage after exhaustive digestion with chondroitinase AC-I, which cannot act on the galactosaminidic linkages bound to D-units. The symbol Δ stands for a 4,5-unsaturated bond of uronic acids, whereas A, B, C, D, E and O represent [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-, 6-O-sulfate)] and [GlcUA-GalNAc], respectively. In binding studies using an anti-CS monoclonal antibody, MO-225, the epitopes of which are involved in cerebellar development in mammals, novel epitope structures, ΔA-D-A, ΔA-D-D and ΔA-B-D, were revealed. Hexasaccharides containing two consecutive D-units or a B-unit will be useful for the structural and functional analyses of CS chains particularly in the neuroglycobiological fields.

  6. Chemoenzymatic synthesis and structural characterization of 2-O-sulfated glucuronic acid-containing heparan sulfate hexasaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Po-Hung; Xu, Yongmei; Keire, David A; Liu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate and heparin are highly sulfated polysaccharides that consist of a repeating disaccharide unit of glucosamine and glucuronic or iduronic acid. The 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid (IdoA2S) residue is commonly found in heparan sulfate and heparin; however, 2-O-sulfated glucuronic acid (GlcA2S) is a less abundant monosaccharide (∼<5% of total saccharides). Here, we report the synthesis of three GlcA2S-containing hexasaccharides using a chemoenzymatic approach. For comparison purposes, additional IdoA2S-containing hexasaccharides were synthesized. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses were performed to obtain full chemical shift assignments for the GlcA2S- and IdoA2S-hexasaccharides. These data show that GlcA2S is a more structurally rigid saccharide residue than IdoA2S. The antithrombin (AT) binding affinities of a GlcA2S- and an IdoA2S-hexasaccharide were determined by affinity co-electrophoresis. In contrast to IdoA2S-hexasaccharides, the GlcA2S-hexasaccharide does not bind to AT, confirming that the presence of IdoA2S is critically important for the anticoagulant activity. The availability of pure synthetic GlcA2S-containing oligosaccharides will allow the investigation of the structure and activity relationships of individual sites in heparin or heparan sulfate. PMID:24770491

  7. Biogeochemical controls on interactions of microbial iron and sulfate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, M. F.; Paper, J. M.; Haller, B. R.; Shodunke, G. O.; Marquart, K. A.; Jin, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Although iron and sulfate reduction are two of the most common microbial electron accepting processes in anoxic settings, the relative influences of environmental factors that guide interactions between each are poorly known. Identifying these factors is a key to predicting how those interactions will respond to future environmental changes. In this study, we used semi-continuous bioreactors to examine the influence of pH, electron donor flux, and sulfate availability. The reactors contained 100 mL of aqueous media and 1 g of marsh sediment amended with goethite (1 mmol). One set of reactors received acidic media (pH 6) while the other set received alkaline media (pH 7.5). Media for both sets of reactors included acetate (0.25 and 1 mM), which served as an electron donor, and sulfate (2.5 mM). We also included sets of sulfate-deficient and acetate-deficient control reactors. We maintained a fluid residence time of 35 days in the reactors by sampling and feeding them every seven days during the 91-day incubation. Our results show that, under the conditions tested, pH had a larger influence on the balance between each reaction than acetate concentration. In acidic reactors, the molar amount of iron reduced exceeded the amount of sulfate reduced by a factor of 3 in reactors receiving media with 0 and 0.25 mM acetate and a factor of 2 in reactors receiving 1 mM acetate. Under alkaline conditions, iron and sulfate were reduced in nearly equal proportions, regardless of influent acetate concentration. Results from sulfate-deficient control reactors show that the presence of sulfate reduction increased the extent of iron reduction in all reactors, but particularly those with alkaline pH. Under acidic conditions, the amount of iron reduced was greater by a factor of 1.2 if sulfate reduction occurred simultaneously than if it did not. Under alkaline conditions, that factor increased to 8.2. Hence, pH influenced the extent to which sulfate reduction promoted iron reduction.

  8. Olivine Weathering aud Sulfate Formation Under Cryogenic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, Paul B.; Golden, D. C.; Michalski, J.

    2013-01-01

    High resolution photography and spectroscopy of the martian surface (MOC, HiRISE) from orbit has revolutionized our view of Mars with one of the most important discoveries being wide-spread layered sedimentary deposits associated with sulfate minerals across the low to mid latitude regions of Mars. The mechanism for sulfate formation on Mars has been frequently attributed to playa-like evaporative environments under prolonged warm conditions. An alternate view of the ancient martian climate contends that prolonged warm temperatures were never present and that the atmosphere and climate has been similar to modern conditions throughout most of its history. This view has had a difficult time explaining the sedimentary history of Mars and in particular the presence of sulfate minerals which seemingly need more water. We suggest here that mixtures of atmospheric aerosols, ice, and dust have the potential for creating small films of cryo-concentrated acidic solutions that may represent an important unexamined environment for understanding weathering processes on Mars. This study seeks to test whether sulfate formation may be possible at temperatures well below 0degC in water limited environments removing the need for prolonged warm periods to form sulfates on early Mars. To test this idea we performed laboratory experiments to simulate weathering of mafic minerals under Mars-like conditions. The weathering rates measured in this study suggest that fine grained olivine on Mars would weather into sulfate minerals in short time periods if they are exposed to H2SO4 aerosols at temperatures at or above -40degC. In this system, the strength of the acidic solution is maximized through eutectic freezing in an environment where the silicate minerals are extremely fine grained and have high surface areas. This provides an ideal environment despite the very low temperatures. On Mars the presence of large deposits of mixed ice and dust is undisputed. The presence of substantial

  9. Origin of secondary sulfate minerals on active andesitic stratovolcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimbelman, D.R.; Rye, R.O.; Breit, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals in altered rocks on the upper flanks and summits of active andesitic stratovolcanoes result from multiple processes. The origin of these sulfates at five active volcanoes, Citlalte??petl (Mexico), and Mount Adams, Hood, Rainier, and Shasta (Cascade Range, USA), was investigated using field observations, petrography, mineralogy, chemical modeling, and stable-isotope data. The four general groups of sulfate minerals identified are: (1) alunite group, (2) jarosite group, (3) readily soluble Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates, and (4) simple alkaline-earth sulfates such as anhydrite, gypsum, and barite. Generalized assemblages of spatially associated secondary minerals were recognized: (1) alunite+silica??pyrite??kaolinite?? gypsum??sulfur, (2) jarosite+alunite+silica; (3) jarosite+smectite+silica??pyrite, (4) Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates+silica, and (5) simple sulfates+silica??Al-hydroxysulfates??alunite. Isotopic data verify that all sulfate and sulfide minerals and their associated alteration assemblages result largely from the introduction of sulfur-bearing magmatic gases into meteoric water in the upper levels of the volcanoes. The sulfur and oxygen isotopic data for all minerals indicate the general mixing of aqueous sulfate derived from deep (largely disproportionation of SO2 in magmatic vapor) and shallow (oxidation of pyrite or H2S) sources. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of alunite indicate the mixing of magmatic and meteoric fluids. Some alunite-group minerals, along with kaolinite, formed from sulfuric acid created by the disproportionation of SO2 in a condensing magmatic vapor. Such alunite, observed only in those volcanoes whose interiors are exposed by erosion or edifice collapse, may have ??34S values that reflect equilibrium (350??50 ??C) between aqueous sulfate and H2S. Alunite with ??34S values indicating disequilibrium between parent aqueous sulfate and H2S may form from aqueous sulfate created in higher level low

  10. Kinetics of sulfate and hydrogen uptake by the thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria thermodesulfobacterium sp. Strain JSP and thermodesulfovibrio sp. Strain R1Ha3

    PubMed

    Sonne-Hansen; Westermann; Ahring

    1999-03-01

    Half-saturation constants (Km), maximum uptake rates (Vmax), and threshold concentrations for sulfate and hydrogen were determined for two thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in an incubation system without headspace. Km values determined for the thermophilic SRB were similar to the constants described for mesophilic SRB isolated from environments with low sulfate concentrations.

  11. Kinetics of Sulfate and Hydrogen Uptake by the Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Thermodesulfobacterium sp. Strain JSP and Thermodesulfovibrio sp. Strain R1Ha3

    PubMed Central

    Sonne-Hansen, Jacob; Westermann, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    1999-01-01

    Half-saturation constants (Km), maximum uptake rates (Vmax), and threshold concentrations for sulfate and hydrogen were determined for two thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in an incubation system without headspace. Km values determined for the thermophilic SRB were similar to the constants described for mesophilic SRB isolated from environments with low sulfate concentrations. PMID:10049897

  12. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    DOE PAGES

    Kwong, Kai Chung; Chim, Man Mei; Davies, James F.; ...

    2018-02-27

    Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this study investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH 3SO 4Na) droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH) of 85%. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time,more » DART) coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO 4 -) has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH 2O) and a sulfate radical anion (SO 4 .-) upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19) × 10 -13cm 3molecule -1s -1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γ eff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40% of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27 × 10 12molecule cm -3s), only a 3% decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we firstly demonstrate that the heterogeneous OH oxidation of an

  13. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung Kwong, Kai; Chim, Man Mei; Davies, James F.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Nin Chan, Man

    2018-02-01

    Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH3SO4Na) droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH) of 85 %. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time, DART) coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO4-) has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH2O) and a sulfate radical anion (SO4 ṡ -) upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γeff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40 % of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27 × 1012 molecule cm-3 s), only a 3 % decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we firstly demonstrate that the heterogeneous OH oxidation of an

  14. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, Kai Chung; Chim, Man Mei; Davies, James F.

    Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this study investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH 3SO 4Na) droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH) of 85%. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time,more » DART) coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO 4 -) has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH 2O) and a sulfate radical anion (SO 4 .-) upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19) × 10 -13cm 3molecule -1s -1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γ eff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40% of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27 × 10 12molecule cm -3s), only a 3% decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we firstly demonstrate that the heterogeneous OH oxidation of an

  15. Annual sulfate budgets for Dutch lowland peat polders: The soil is a major sulfate source through peat and pyrite oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermaat, Jan E.; Harmsen, Joop; Hellmann, Fritz A.; van der Geest, Harm G.; de Klein, Jeroen J. M.; Kosten, Sarian; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Verhoeven, Jos T. A.; Mes, Ron G.; Ouboter, Maarten

    2016-02-01

    Annual sulfate mass balances have been constructed for four low-lying peat polders in the Netherlands, to resolve the origin of high sulfate concentrations in surface water, which is considered a water quality problem, as indicated amongst others by the absence of sensitive water plant species. Potential limitation of these plants to areas with low sulfate was analyzed with a spatial match-up of two large databases. The peat polders are generally used for dairy farming or nature conservation, and have considerable areas of shallow surface water (mean 16%, range 6-43%). As a consequence of continuous drainage, the peat in these polders mineralizes causing subsidence rates generally ranging between 2 and 10 mm y-1. Together with pyrite oxidation, this peat mineralization the most important internal source of sulfate, providing an estimated 96 kg SO4 ha-1 mm-1 subsidence y-1. External sources are precipitation and water supplied during summer to compensate for water shortage, but these were found to be minor compared to internal release. The most important output flux is discharge of excess surface water during autumn and winter. If only external fluxes in and out of a polder are evaluated, inputs average 37 ± 9 and exports 169 ± 17 kg S ha-1 y-1. During summer, when evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall, sulfate accumulates in the unsaturated zone, to be flushed away and drained off during the wet autumn and winter. In some polders, upward seepage from early Holocene, brackish sediments can be a source of sulfate. Peat polders export sulfate to the regional water system and the sea during winter drainage. The available sulfate probably only plays a minor role in the oxidation of peat: we estimate that this is less than 10% whereas aerobic mineralization is the most important. Most surface waters in these polders have high sulfate concentrations, which generally decline during the growing season when aquatic sediments are a sink. In the sediment, this sulfur is

  16. Carbonate-sulfate volcanism on Venus?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Venusian canali, outflow channels, and associated volcanic deposits resemble fluvial landforms more than they resmeble volcanic features on Earth and Mars. Some canali have meandering habits and features indicative of channel migration that are very similar to meandering river channels and flood plains on Earth, venusian outflow channels closely resemble water-carved outflow channels on Mars and the Channeled Scabland in Washington, collapsed terrains at the sources of some venusian channels resemble chaotic terrains at the sources of martian outflow channels, venusian lava deltas are similar to bird's-foot deltas such as the Mississippi delta, and venusian valley networks indicate sapping. We have developed an alternative possibility that the lava had a water-like rheology and a melting point slightly greater than Venus' surface temperature, thus accounting for the unusual behavior of the lava. Unlike silicate lavas, some carbonatites (including carbonate-sulfate-rich liquids) have these properties; thus they can flow great distances while retaining a high fluidity, significant mechanical erosiveness, and substantial capacity to transport and deposit sediment. Venusian geochemistry and petrology are consistent with extensive eruptions of carbonatite lavas, which could have crustal and/or mantle origins. Venus' atmosphere (especially CO2, HCl, and HF abundances) and rocks may be in local chemical equilibrium, which suggests that the upper crust contains large amounts of calcite, anhydrite, and other salts. Chemical analyses indicate, according to some models, that Venusian rocks may contain 4-19% calcite and anhydrite. Mixtures of crustal salts could melt at temperatures a few tens to a few hundred Kelvins higher than Venus' surface temperature; hence, melting may be induced by modest endogenetic or impact heating. Salts may have many of the same geologic roles on Venus as water and ice have on Mars. A molten salt (carbonatite) 'aquifer' may exist beneath a few

  17. Characterization of the interaction of interleukin-8 with hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and their sulfated derivatives by spectroscopy and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Pichert, Annelie; Samsonov, Sergey A; Theisgen, Stephan; Thomas, Lars; Baumann, Lars; Schiller, Jürgen; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Huster, Daniel; Pisabarro, M Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The interactions between glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), important components of the extracellular matrix, and proteins such as growth factors and chemokines play critical roles in cellular regulation processes. Therefore, the design of GAG derivatives for the development of innovative materials with bio-like properties in terms of their interaction with regulatory proteins is of great interest for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Previous work on the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) has focused on its interaction with heparin and heparan sulfate, which regulate chemokine function. However, the extracellular matrix contains other GAGs, such as hyaluronic acid (HA), dermatan sulfate (DS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), which have so far not been characterized in terms of their distinct molecular recognition properties towards IL-8 in relation to their length and sulfation patterns. NMR and molecular modeling have been in great part the methods of choice to study the structural and recognition properties of GAGs and their protein complexes. However, separately these methods have challenges to cope with the high degree of similarity and flexibility that GAGs exhibit. In this work, we combine fluorescence spectroscopy, NMR experiments, docking and molecular dynamics simulations to study the configurational and recognition properties of IL-8 towards a series of HA and CS derivatives and DS. We analyze the effects of GAG length and sulfation patterns in binding strength and specificity, and the influence of GAG binding on IL-8 dimer formation. Our results highlight the importance of combining experimental and theoretical approaches to obtain a better understanding of the molecular recognition properties of GAG-protein systems.

  18. Combinatorial Roles of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans and Heparan Sulfates in Caenorhabditis elegans Neural Development

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, Tarja K.

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play critical roles in the development and adult physiology of all metazoan organisms. Most of the known molecular interactions of HSPGs are attributed to the structurally highly complex heparan sulfate (HS) glycans. However, whether a specific HSPG (such as syndecan) contains HS modifications that differ from another HSPG (such as glypican) has remained largely unresolved. Here, a neural model in C. elegans is used to demonstrate for the first time the relationship between specific HSPGs and HS modifications in a defined biological process in vivo. HSPGs are critical for the migration of hermaphrodite specific neurons (HSNs) as genetic elimination of multiple HSPGs leads to 80% defect of HSN migration. The effects of genetic elimination of HSPGs are additive, suggesting that multiple HSPGs, present in the migrating neuron and in the matrix, act in parallel to support neuron migration. Genetic analyses suggest that syndecan/sdn-1 and HS 6-O-sulfotransferase, hst-6, function in a linear signaling pathway and glypican/lon-2 and HS 2-O-sulfotransferase, hst-2, function together in a pathway that is parallel to sdn-1 and hst-6. These results suggest core protein specific HS modifications that are critical for HSN migration. In C. elegans, the core protein specificity of distinct HS modifications may be in part regulated at the level of tissue specific expression of genes encoding for HSPGs and HS modifying enzymes. Genetic analysis reveals that there is a delicate balance of HS modifications and eliminating one HS modifying enzyme in a compromised genetic background leads to significant changes in the overall phenotype. These findings are of importance with the view of HS as a critical regulator of cell signaling in normal development and disease. PMID:25054285

  19. Rationally designed fluorescently labeled sulfate-binding protein mutants: evaluation in the development of a sensing system for sulfate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrestha, Suresh; Salins, Lyndon L E.; Mark Ensor, C.; Daunert, Sylvia

    2002-01-01

    Periplasmic binding proteins from E. coli undergo large conformational changes upon binding their respective ligands. By attaching a fluorescent probe at rationally selected unique sites on the protein, these conformational changes in the protein can be monitored by measuring the changes in fluorescence intensity of the probe which allow the development of reagentless sensing systems for their corresponding ligands. In this work, we evaluated several sites on bacterial periplasmic sulfate-binding protein (SBP) for attachment of a fluorescent probe and rationally designed a reagentless sensing system for sulfate. Eight different mutants of SBP were prepared by employing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to introduce a unique cysteine residue at a specific location on the protein. The sites Gly55, Ser90, Ser129, Ala140, Leu145, Ser171, Val181, and Gly186 were chosen for mutagenesis by studying the three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure of SBP. An environment-sensitive fluorescent probe (MDCC) was then attached site-specifically to the protein through the sulfhydryl group of the unique cysteine residue introduced. Each fluorescent probe-conjugated SBP mutant was characterized in terms of its fluorescence properties and Ser171 was determined to be the best site for the attachment of the fluorescent probe that would allow for the development of a reagentless sensing system for sulfate. Three different environment-sensitive fluorescent probes (1,5-IAEDANS, MDCC, and acylodan) were studied with the SBP171 mutant protein. A calibration curve for sulfate was constructed using the labeled protein and relating the change in the fluorescence intensity with the amount of sulfate present in the sample. The detection limit for sulfate was found to be in the submicromolar range using this system. The selectivity of the sensing system was demonstrated by evaluating its response to other anions. A fast and selective sensing system with detection limits for sulfate in the

  20. Antifouling potential of Nature-inspired sulfated compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Joana R.; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Antunes, Jorge; Pinto, Madalena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cunha, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds 2 and 12 were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound 12 showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50 = 8.95 μg.mL-1), compound 2 also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20 = 12.5 μg.mL-1). All the three bioactive compounds 2, 6, and 12 were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina (<10% mortality at 250 μM) and Vibrio fischeri (LC50 > 1000 μg.mL-1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents.

  1. ARSENIC MOBILIZATION FROM SEDIMENTS IN MICROCOSMS UNDER SULFATE REDUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Quicksall, Andrew N.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Bostick, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is often assumed to be immobile in sulfidic environments. Here, laboratory-scale microcosms were conducted to investigate whether microbial sulfate reduction could control dissolved arsenic concentrations sufficiently for use in groundwater remediation. Sediments from the Vineland Superfund site and the Coeur d'Alene mining district were amended with different combination of lactate and sulfate and incubated for 30 to 40 days. In general, sulfate reduction in Vineland sediments resulted in transient and incomplete arsenic removal, or arsenic release from sediments. Sulfate reduction in the Coeur d'Alene sediments was more effective at removing arsenic from solution than the Vineland sediments, probably by arsenic substitution and adsorption within iron sulfides. X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated that the Vineland sediments initially contained abundant reactive ferrihydrite, and underwent extensive sulfur cycling during incubation. As a result, arsenic in the Vineland sediments could not be effectively converted to immobile arsenic-bearing sulfides, but instead a part of the arsenic was probably converted to soluble thioarsenates. These results suggest that coupling between the iron and sulfur redox cycles must be fully understood for in situ arsenic immobilization by sulfate reduction to be successful. PMID:27037658

  2. Ambient aerosols remain highly acidic despite dramatic sulfate reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead

    2016-04-01

    The pH of fine particles has many vital environmental impacts. By affecting aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity, particle pH is linked to regional air quality and climate, and adverse effects on human health. Sulfate is often the main acid component that drives pH of fine particles (i.e., PM2.5) and is neutralized to varying degrees by gas phase ammonia. Sulfate levels have decreased by approximately 70% over the Southeastern United States in the last fifteen years, but measured ammonia levels have been fairly steady implying the aerosol may becoming more neutral. Using a chemically comprehensive data set, combined with a thermodynamic analysis, we show that PM2.5 in the Southeastern U.S. is highly acidic (pH between 0 and 2), and that pH has remained relatively unchanged throughout the past decade and a half of decreasing sulfate. Even with further sulfate reductions, pH buffering by gas-particle partitioning of ammonia is expected to continue until sulfate drops to near background levels, indicating that fine particle pH will remain near current levels into the future. These results are non-intuitive and reshape expectations of how sulfur emission reductions impact air quality in the Southeastern U.S. and possibly other regions across the globe.

  3. The role of sulfates on antifreeze protein activity.

    PubMed

    Meister, Konrad; Duman, John G; Xu, Yao; DeVries, Arthur L; Leitner, David M; Havenith, Martina

    2014-07-17

    In the present study, we have investigated the effect of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) buffer on the antifreeze activity of DAFP-1, the primary AFP in the hemolymph of the beetle Dendroides canadensis. In contrast to previous studies, we found evidence that sodium sulfate does not suppress antifreeze activity of DAFP-1. Terahertz absorption spectroscopy (THz) studies were combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the change in collective hydrogen bond dynamics in the vicinity of the AFP upon addition of sodium sulfate. The MD simulations revealed that the gradient of H-bond dynamics toward the ice-binding site is even more pronounced when adding sodium sulfate: The cosolute dramatically slows the hydrogen bond dynamics on the ice-binding plane of DAFP-1, whereas it has a more modest effect in the vicinity of other parts of the protein. These theoretical predictions are in agreement with the experimentally observed increase in THz absorption for solvated DAFP-1 upon addition of sodium sulfate. These studies support our previously postulated mechanism for AF activity, with a preferred ice binding by threonine on nanoice crystals which is supported by a long-range effect on hydrogen bond dynamics.

  4. Preparation and anticoagulant activity of N-succinyl chitosan sulfates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tan; Zhou, Yue; Xie, Weiguo; Chen, Lingyun; Zheng, Hua; Fan, Lihong

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop a promising substitute for heparin, N-succinyl chitosan (NSC) was chemically modified by sulfating agent N(SO(3)Na)(3), which were synthesized with sodium bisulfite and sodium nitrite in aqueous solution. The N-succinyl chitosan sulfates (NSCS) products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and (13)C NMR. The degree of substitution (DS) of NSCS depended on the ratio of sulfating agent to N-succinyl chitosan, reaction temperature, reaction time and pH of sulfation agent. N-succinyl chitosan sulfates with DS of 1.97 were obtained under optimal conditions. The in vitro coagulation assay of NSCS was determined by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT) assays. The results showed that NSCS obviously prolonged APTT. The anticoagulant activity strongly depended on DS, molecular weight (M(w)) and concentration of NSCS. The anticoagulant activity of NSCS promoted with the increase of DS and concentration, and NSCS exhibited the best anticoagulant activity with the M(w) of 1.37×10(4). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Antifouling potential of Nature-inspired sulfated compounds

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Joana R.; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Antunes, Jorge; Pinto, Madalena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cunha, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds 2 and 12 were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound 12 showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50 = 8.95 μg.mL−1), compound 2 also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20 = 12.5 μg.mL−1). All the three bioactive compounds 2, 6, and 12 were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina (<10% mortality at 250 μM) and Vibrio fischeri (LC50 > 1000 μg.mL−1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents. PMID:28205590

  6. Characterization of a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve root regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conovaloff, Aaron; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-10-01

    Brachial plexus injury is a serious medical problem that affects many patients annually, with most cases involving damage to the nerve roots. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel was designed to both serve as a scaffold for regenerating root neurons and deliver neurotrophic signals. Capillary electrophoresis showed that chondroitin sulfate has a dissociation constant in the micromolar range with several common neurotrophins, and this was determined to be approximately tenfold stronger than with heparin. It was also revealed that nerve growth factor exhibits a slightly stronger affinity for hyaluronic acid than for chondroitin sulfate. However, E8 chick dorsal root ganglia cultured in the presence of nerve growth factor revealed that ganglia cultured in chondroitin sulfate scaffolds showed more robust growth than those cultured in control gels of hyaluronic acid. It is hypothesized that, despite the stronger affinity of nerve growth factor for hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate serves as a better scaffold for neurite outgrowth, possibly due to inhibition of growth by hyaluronic acid chains.

  7. Sulfate radicals enable a non-enzymatic Krebs cycle precursor

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Markus A.; Kampjut, Domen; Harrison, Stuart A.; Ralser, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), or Krebs cycle, are so far unclear. Despite a few years ago, the existence of a simple non-enzymatic Krebs-cycle catalyst has been dismissed ‘as an appeal to magic’, citrate and other intermediates have meanwhile been discovered on a carbonaceous meteorite and do interconvert non-enzymatically. To identify the non-enzymatic Krebs cycle catalyst, we used combinatorial, quantitative high-throughput metabolomics to systematically screen iron and sulfate reaction milieus that orient on Archean sediment constituents. TCA cycle intermediates are found stable in water and in the presence of most iron and sulfate species, including simple iron-sulfate minerals. However, we report that TCA intermediates undergo 24 interconversion reactions in the presence of sulfate radicals that form from peroxydisulfate. The non-enzymatic reactions critically cover a topology as present in the Krebs cycle, the glyoxylate shunt and the succinic semialdehyde pathways. Assembled in a chemical network, the reactions achieve more than ninety percent carbon recovery. Our results show that a non-enzymatic precursor for the Krebs cycle is biologically sensible, efficient, and forms spontaneously in the presence of sulfate radicals. PMID:28584880

  8. A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Presents a 10-hour chemistry experiment using copper sulfate that has three steps: (1) purification of an ore containing copper sulfate and insoluble basic copper sulfates; (2) determination of the number of water molecules in hydrated copper sulfate; and (3) recovery of metallic copper from copper sulfate. (Author/YDS)

  9. Isotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Pengzhen; Alexander, Becky; Geng, Lei; Chi, Xiyuan; Fan, Shidong; Zhan, Haicong; Kang, Hui; Zheng, Guangjie; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing

    2018-04-01

    Discerning mechanisms of sulfate formation during fine-particle pollution (referred to as haze hereafter) in Beijing is important for understanding the rapid evolution of haze and for developing cost-effective air pollution mitigation strategies. Here we present observations of the oxygen-17 excess of PM2.5 sulfate (Δ17O(SO42-)) collected in Beijing haze from October 2014 to January 2015 to constrain possible sulfate formation pathways. Throughout the sampling campaign, the 12-hourly averaged PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 16 to 323 µg m-3 with a mean of (141 ± 88 (1σ)) µg m-3, with SO42- representing 8-25 % of PM2.5 mass. The observed Δ17O(SO42-) varied from 0.1 to 1.6 ‰ with a mean of (0.9 ± 0.3) ‰. Δ17O(SO42-) increased with PM2.5 levels in October 2014 while the opposite trend was observed from November 2014 to January 2015. Our estimate suggested that in-cloud reactions dominated sulfate production on polluted days (PDs, PM2.5 ≥ 75 µg m-3) of Case II in October 2014 due to the relatively high cloud liquid water content, with a fractional contribution of up to 68 %. During PDs of Cases I and III-V, heterogeneous sulfate production (Phet) was estimated to contribute 41-54 % to total sulfate formation with a mean of (48 ± 5) %. For the specific mechanisms of heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, chemical reaction kinetics calculations suggested S(IV) ( = SO2 ⚫ H2O + HSO3- + SO32-) oxidation by H2O2 in aerosol water accounted for 5-13 % of Phet. The relative importance of heterogeneous sulfate production by other mechanisms was constrained by our observed Δ17O(SO42-). Heterogeneous sulfate production via S(IV) oxidation by O3 was estimated to contribute 21-22 % of Phet on average. Heterogeneous sulfate production pathways that result in zero-Δ17O(SO42-), such as S(IV) oxidation by NO2 in aerosol water and/or by O2 via a radical chain mechanism, contributed the remaining 66-73 % of Phet. The assumption about the thermodynamic state of aerosols

  10. Artificial electron acceptors decouple archaeal methane oxidation from sulfate reduction.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Silvan; Yu, Hang; Chadwick, Grayson L; McGlynn, Shawn E; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-02-12

    The oxidation of methane with sulfate is an important microbial metabolism in the global carbon cycle. In marine methane seeps, this process is mediated by consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) that live in syntrophy with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The underlying interdependencies within this uncultured symbiotic partnership are poorly understood. We used a combination of rate measurements and single-cell stable isotope probing to demonstrate that ANME in deep-sea sediments can be catabolically and anabolically decoupled from their syntrophic SRB partners using soluble artificial oxidants. The ANME still sustain high rates of methane oxidation in the absence of sulfate as the terminal oxidant, lending support to the hypothesis that interspecies extracellular electron transfer is the syntrophic mechanism for the anaerobic oxidation of methane. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Gilani, Mehryar Taghavi; Zirak, Nahid; Razavi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution) was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF) reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked. PMID:25422620

  12. Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Mehryar Taghavi; Zirak, Nahid; Razavi, Majid

    2014-10-01

    Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution) was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF) reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

  13. Sulfate burial constraints on the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Itay; Peters, Shanan E; Fischer, Woodward W

    2012-07-20

    The sulfur cycle influences the respiration of sedimentary organic matter, the oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans, and the composition of seawater. However, the factors governing the major sulfur fluxes between seawater and sedimentary reservoirs remain incompletely understood. Using macrostratigraphic data, we quantified sulfate evaporite burial fluxes through Phanerozoic time. Approximately half of the modern riverine sulfate flux comes from weathering of recently deposited evaporites. Rates of sulfate burial are unsteady and linked to changes in the area of marine environments suitable for evaporite formation and preservation. By contrast, rates of pyrite burial and weathering are higher, less variable, and largely balanced, highlighting a greater role of the sulfur cycle in regulating atmospheric oxygen.

  14. Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabra, Swapnil R; Keller, Kimberly L.; Wall, Judy D.

    Sulfate reducing bacteria are physiologically important given their nearly ubiquitous presence and have important applications in the areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides details on the steps used for homologous-recombination mediated chromosomal manipulation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a well-studied sulfate reducer. More specifically, we focus on the implementation of a 'parts' based approach for suicide vector assembly, important aspects of anaerobic culturing, choices for antibiotic selection, electroporation-based DNA transformation, as well as tools for screening and verifying genetically modified constructs. These methods, which in principle may be extended to other sulfate-reducing bacteria, are applicable for functional genomics investigations,more » as well as metabolic engineering manipulations.« less

  15. Treatment of cotton textile wastewater using lime and ferrous sulfate.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, D; Aivazidis, A; Hatiras, J; Gimouhopoulos, K

    2003-05-01

    This technical note summarizes the results of a textile wastewater treatment process aiming at the destruction of the wastewater's color by means of coagulation/flocculation techniques using ferrous sulfate and/or lime. All the experiments were run in a pilot plant that simulated an actual industrial wastewater treatment plant. Treatment with lime alone proved to be very effective in removing the color (70-90%) and part of the COD (50-60%) from the textile wastewater. Moreover, the treatment with ferrous sulfate regulating the pH in the range 9.0+/-0.5 using lime was equally effective. Finally, the treatment with lime in the presence of increasing doses of ferrous sulfate was tested successfully, however; it proved to be very costly mainly due to the massive production of solids that precipitated.

  16. Carbonate-Sulfate Volcanism on Venus?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kargel, J.S.; Kirk, R.L.; Fegley, B.; Treiman, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Venusian canali, outflow channels, and associated volcanic deposits resemble fluvial landforms more than they resemble volcanic features on Earth and Mars. Some canali have meandering habits and features indicative of channel migration that are very similar to meandering river channels and flood plains on Earth, venusian outflow channels closely resemble water-carved outflow channels on Mars and the Channeled Scabland in Washington, collapsed terrains at the sources of some venusian channels resemble chaotic terrains at the sources of martian outflow channels, venusian lava deltas are similar to bird's-foot deltas such as the Mississippi delta, and venusian valley networks indicate sapping. The depositional fluvial-type features (deltas, braided bars, and channeled plains) are generally among the smoothest terrains at the Magellan radar wavelength (12.6 cm) on Venus. These features suggest the involvement of an unusual lava, unexpected processes, and/or extraordinary eruption conditions. Possibly the lava was an ordinary silicate lava such as basalt or a less common type of silicate lava, and conditions unique to Venus or to those particular eruptions may have caused an unusual volcanological behavior. We have developed the alternative possibility that the lava had a water-like rheology and a melting point slightly greater than Venus' surface temperature, thus accounting for the unusual behavior of the lava. Unlike silicate lavas, some carbonatites (including carbonate-sulfate-rich liquids) have these properties; thus they can flow great distances while retaining a high fluidity, significant mechanical erosiveness, and substantial capacity to transport and deposit sediment. Venusian geochemistry and petrology are consistent with extensive eruptions of carbonatite lavas, which could have crustal and/or mantle origins. Venus' atmosphere (especially CO2, HCl, and HF abundances) and rocks may be in local chemical equilibrium, which suggests that the upper crust

  17. Chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 is necessary for chain extension of chondroitin sulfate but not critical for skeletal development.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Hatano, Sonoko; Sugiura, Nobuo; Nagai, Naoko; Sato, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsuji; Kimata, Koji; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Watanabe, Hideto

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear polysaccharide consisting of repeating disaccharide units of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-glucuronic acid residues, modified with sulfated residues at various positions. Based on its structural diversity in chain length and sulfation patterns, CS provides specific biological functions in cell adhesion, morphogenesis, neural network formation, and cell division. To date, six glycosyltransferases are known to be involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin saccharide chains, and a hetero-oligomer complex of chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (CSS1)/chondroitin synthase-1 and chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 (CSS2)/chondroitin polymerizing factor is known to have the strongest polymerizing activity. Here, we generated and analyzed CSS2(-/-) mice. Although they were viable and fertile, exhibiting no overt morphological abnormalities or osteoarthritis, their cartilage contained CS chains with a shorter length and at a similar number to wild type. Further analysis using CSS2(-/-) chondrocyte culture systems, together with siRNA of CSS1, revealed the presence of two CS chain species in length, suggesting two steps of CS chain polymerization; i.e., elongation from the linkage region up to Mr ∼10,000, and further extension. There, CSS2 mainly participated in the extension, whereas CSS1 participated in both the extension and the initiation. Our study demonstrates the distinct function of CSS1 and CSS2, providing a clue in the elucidation of the mechanism of CS biosynthesis.

  18. Synthesis of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan from methyl oleate with O-sulfate chitosan as edible film material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel; Sihaloho, O.; Saleh, C.; Magdaleni, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    The research on the synthesis of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan through sulfonation reaction on chitosan with ammonium sulfate and followed by amidation reaction using methyl oleate has been done. In this study, chitosan was chemically modified into N-oleyl O-sulfatechitosan as an edible film making material. N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan was synthesized by reaction between methyl oleate and O-sulfate chitosan. Wherein the depleted chitosan of O-sulfate chitosan into O-sulfate chitosan was obtained by reaction of sulfonation between ammonium sulfate and chitosan aldimine. While chitosan aldimine was obtained through reaction between chitosan with acetaldehyde. The structure of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan was characterized by FT-IR analysis which showed vibration uptake of C-H sp3 group, S=O group, and carbonyl group C=O of the ester. The resulting of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan yielded a percentage of 93.52%. Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) test results gave a value of 6.68. In the toxicity test results of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan obtained LC50 value of 3738.4732 ppm. In WVTR (Water Vapor Transmission Rate) test results for chitosan film was 407.625 gram/m2/24 hours and N-oleylO-sulfate chitosan film was 201.125 gram/m2/24 hours.

  19. Octamethyl-octaundecylcyclo[8]pyrrole: A Promising Sulfate Anion Extractant

    SciTech Connect

    Eller, Leah R; Stepien, Marcin; Fowler, Christopher J

    The diprotonated form of an organic-solubilized cyclo[8]pyrrole derivative, bearing eight undecyl chains on the {beta}-pyrrolic positions, was found to extract sulfate anion effectively from neutral aqueous media into a toluene organic phase. The kinetics of sulfate anion exchange between the two phases were found to be exceedingly slow in the absence of the phase-transfer catalyst, Aliquat 336-nitrate (A336N), but appreciable in its presence. The bisnitrate anion bound form of this cyclo[8]pyrrole could be generated in situ by subjecting the toluene phase containing initially 0.5 mM of the sulfate anion bound form and 0.1 mM trioctylamine (TOA) to successive equilibrations withmore » aqueous 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} until sulfate was no longer detected in the aqueous phase. This bisnitrate complex, when studied as a 0.5 mM solution in toluene in the presence of 0.1 mM (TOAH){sup +}(NO{sub 3}{sup -}), was also found to be an effective extractant for sulfate anion. D{sub SO4} values of 0.001 and 1000 were observed at 1 M NaNO{sub 3}(aq) and 0.3 mM NaNO{sub 3}(aq), respectively, and the logarithm of the conditional exchange constant, log(K{prime}{sub exch}), was calculated to be 4.9 {+-} 0.4. The present cyclo[8]pyrrole system is thus noteworthy as being the first synthetic receptor that displays a high selectivity for sulfate anion in the presence of excess nitrate under conditions of solvent extraction.« less

  20. Kinetics of sulfate and hydrogen uptake by the thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria Thermodesulfobacterium sp. strain JSP and Thermodesulfovibrio sp. strain R1Ha3

    SciTech Connect

    Sonne-Hansen, J.; Ahring, B.K.; Westermann, P.

    1999-03-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction and methanogenesis are the main terminal processes in the anaerobic food chain. Both the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and the methane-producing archaea (MPA) use acetate and hydrogen as substrates and, therefore, compete for common electron donors in sulfate-containing natural environments. Due to a higher affinity for the electron donors acetate and hydrogen, SRB outcompete MPA for these compounds whenever sulfate is present in sufficient concentrations. Half-saturation constants (K{sub m}), maximum uptake rates (V{sub max}), and threshold concentrations for sulfate and hydrogen were determined for two thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in an incubation system without headspace. K{sub m} valuesmore » determined for the thermophilic SRB were similar to the constants described for mesophilic SRB isolated from environments with low sulfate concentrations.« less