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Sample records for a-cyclodextrin inclusion compounds

  1. In Situ Visualization of the Local Photothermal Effect Produced on α-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Compound Associated with Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nataly; Muñoz, Camila; Diaz-Marcos, Jordi; Samitier, Josep; Yutronic, Nicolás; Kogan, Marcelo J; Jara, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Evidence of guest migration in α-cyclodextrin-octylamine (α-CD-OA) inclusion compound (IC) generated via plasmonic heating of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been studied. In this report, we demonstrate local effects generated by laser-mediated irradiation of a sample of AuNPs covered with inclusion compounds on surface-derivatized glass under liquid conditions by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Functionalized AuNPs on the glass and covered by the ICs were monitored by recording images by AFM during 5 h of irradiation, and images showed that after irradiation, a drastic decrease in the height of the AuNPs occurred. The absorption spectrum of the irradiated sample showed a hypsochromic shift from 542 to 536 nm, evidence suggesting that much of the population of nanoparticles lost all of the parts of the overlay of ICs due to the plasmonic heat generated by the irradiation. Mass spectrometry matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) performed on a sample containing a collection of drops obtained from the surface of the functionalized glass provided evidence that the irradiation lead to disintegration of the ICs and therefore exit of the octylamine molecule (the guest) from the cyclodextrin cavity (the matrix). Graphical Abstract Atomic Force Microscopy observation of the disintegration of a cyclodextrin inclusion compound by gold nanoparticles photothermal effect.

  2. Twinning, Epitaxy and Domain Switching in Ferroelastic Inclusion Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Mark D.; Peterson, Matthew L.

    2003-01-01

    Our research is in the area of solid-state organic chemistry, which lies at the interface between physical organic chemistry and materials science. We use crystalline solids as models to probe fundamental issues about physical processes, molecular interactions and chemical reactions that are important for fabrication, stabilization and application of technological materials. Much of our most recent work has focused on the phenomena of ferroelastic and ferroelectric domain switching, in which application of an external force or electric field to a crystal causes the molecules inside the crystal to reorient, in tandem, to a new orientational state. To better understand and control the domain switching process, we have designed and synthesized over twenty closely related, ferroelastic organic crystals. Our approach has been to use crystalline inclusion compounds, in which one molecule (the guest) is trapped within the crystalline framework of a second molecule (the host). By keeping the host constant and varying the proportions and kinds of guests, it has been possible to tailor these materials so that domain switching is rapid and reversible (which is desirable for high technology applications). Inclusion compounds therefore serve as powerful systems for understanding the specific molecular mechanisms that control domain switching.

  3. Cyclodextrin inclusion compounds of vanadium complexes: structural characterization and catalytic sulfoxidation.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Ines; Vlay, Kristin; Görls, Helmar; Plass, Winfried

    2009-04-01

    Reaction of potassium vanadate with the hydrazone ligand derived from Schiff-base condensation of salicylaldehyde and biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid hydrazide (H(2)salhybiph) in the presence of two equivalents alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CD) in water yields the 1:2 inclusion compound K[VO(2)(salhybiph)@(alpha-CD)(2)]. Characterization in solution confirmed the integrity of the inclusion compound in the polar solvent water. The inclusion compound crystallizes together with additional water molecules as K[VO(2)(salhybiph)@(alpha-CD)(2)].18H(2)O in the monoclinic space group P2(1). Two alpha-CD rings forming a hydrogen bonded head to head dimer are hosting the hydrophobic biphenyl side chain of the complex K[VO(2)(salhybiph)]. The supramolecular aggregation of the inclusion compound in the solid state is established through hydrogen bonding interactions among adjacent alpha-CD hosts and with vanadate moieties of the guest complexes as well as ionic interactions with the potassium counterions. In contrast the supramolecular structure of the guest complex K[VO(2)(salhybiph)] without the presence of CD host molecules is governed by pi-pi-stacking interactions and additional CH/pi interactions. The new inclusion complex K[VO(2)(salhybiph)@(alpha-CD)(2)] and the analogous 1:1 inclusion compound with beta-CD were tested as catalyst in the oxidation of methyl phenyl sulfide (thioanisol) using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant in a water/ethanol mixture, under neutral as well as acidic conditions.

  4. Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme journal issue focuses on current activities of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services which stress inclusion of students with disabilities in the mainstream. It begins with a message from the Assistant Secretary, Robert R. Davila which examines the full meaning of an "inclusive" education. Next, Barbara…

  5. High-pressure/low-temperature neutron scattering of gas inclusion compounds: Progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yusheng; Xu, Hongwu; Daemen, Luke L.; Lokshin, Konstantin; Tait, Kimberly T.; Mao, Wendy L.; Luo, Junhua; Currier, Robert P.; Hickmott, Donald D.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative energy resources such as hydrogen and methane gases are becoming increasingly important for the future economy. A major challenge for using hydrogen is to develop suitable materials to store it under a variety of conditions, which requires systematic studies of the structures, stability, and kinetics of various hydrogen-storing compounds. Neutron scattering is particularly useful for these studies. We have developed high-pressure/low-temperature gas/fluid cells in conjunction with neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering instruments allowing in situ and real-time examination of gas uptake/release processes. We studied the formation of methane and hydrogen clathrates, a group of inclusion compounds consisting of frameworks of hydrogen-bonded H2O molecules with gas molecules trapped inside the cages. Our results reveal that clathrate can store up to four hydrogen molecules in each of its large cages with an intermolecular H2–H2 distance of only 2.93 Å. This distance is much shorter than that in the solid/metallic hydrogen (3.78 Å), suggesting a strong densification effect of the clathrate framework on the enclosed hydrogen molecules. The framework-pressurizing effect is striking and may exist in other inclusion compounds such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Owing to the enormous variety and flexibility of their frameworks, inclusion compounds may offer superior properties for storage of hydrogen and/or hydrogen-rich molecules, relative to other types of compounds. We have investigated the hydrogen storage properties of two MOFs, Cu3[Co(CN)6]2 and Cu3(BTC)2 (BTC = benzenetricarboxylate), and our preliminary results demonstrate that the developed neutron-scattering techniques are equally well suited for studying MOFs and other inclusion compounds. PMID:17389387

  6. Correction: Cucurbit[7]uril inclusion complexation as a supramolecular strategy for color stabilization of anthocyanin model compounds.

    PubMed

    Held, Barbara; Tang, Hao; Natarajan, Palani; Silva, Cassio Pacheco da; Silva, Volnir de Oliveira; Bohne, Cornelia; Quina, Frank H

    2016-06-08

    Correction for 'Cucurbit[7]uril inclusion complexation as a supramolecular strategy for color stabilization of anthocyanin model compounds' by Barbara Held, et al., Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2016, DOI: 10.1039/c6pp00060f.

  7. Inclusion compounds of dibenzylthiourea with hydroxypropylated-cyclodextrins for corrosion protection of carbon steel in acidic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Thais M.; Cordeiro, Renata F. B.; Viana, Gil M.; Aguiar, Lucia C. S.; de Senna, Lilian F.; Malta, Luiz Fernando B.; D'Elia, Eliane

    2016-12-01

    In this work the complexation of the guest molecule (dibenzylthiourea-DBT) with α and β forms of hydroxypropylated cyclodextrins was evaluated in solution and in the solid state by different techniques. It was shown that the inclusion complexes were obtained and the aromatic moieties of DBT are points of interaction in the structure of the guest. The inhibitory action of these inclusion compounds in carbon steel corrosion in acidic medium was evaluated by polarization curves, electrochemical impedance diagrams and weight loss measurements. There is an enhancement of the inhibitory action against the carbon steel corrosion in HCl solution when the DBT was encapsulated in inclusion compounds whereas the alone hydroxypropylated cyclodextrins did not present an inhibitory effect. It was concluded that these inclusion compounds could be a good alternative to introduce molecules with low solubility in aqueous media and still increase their inhibitory action.

  8. Inclusion complexation of flavour compounds by dispersed high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) in an aqueous model system.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Lihe; Thompson, Donald B; Peterson, Devin G

    2016-05-15

    This study investigated how hydrophobicity, solubility and the concentration of flavour compounds related to inclusion complexation by dispersed native high amylose maize starch (HAMS). The effect of native lipid on flavour retention and the effect of time (one day to one month) on flavour retention and precipitated starch yield was also examined. Flavour-starch complexation was dependent on the flavour compound hydrophobicity, the flavour concentration in a dose-dependent manner and also influenced by time (increased during storage). Flavour composition also influenced starch complexation; no flavour complexes were reported with limonene by itself but were observed when added in binary flavour mixtures with menthone or thymol. Furthermore, no difference in flavour retention was observed for native and lipid-free starch dispersions. In summary, flavour inclusion complexes with HAMS exhibited cooperativity-type binding behaviour; with a critical ligand concentration needed for a stable physical association between flavour compounds and HAMS.

  9. Synthesis and spectral investigation of Al(III) catechin/β-cyclodextrin and Al(III) quercetin/β-cyclodextrin inclusion compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Karina; Nikolaou, Sofia; De Giovani, Wagner F.

    2008-06-01

    Al-catechin/β-cyclodextrin and Al-quercetin/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) inclusion compounds were synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-vis, 1H and 13C NMR and TG and DTA analyses. Because quercetin is sparingly soluble in water, the stability constants of the Al-quercetin/β-CD and Al-catechin/β-CD compounds were determined by phase solubility studies. The A L-type diagrams indicated the formation of 1:1 inclusion compounds and allowed calculation of the stability constants. The thermodynamic parameters were obtained from the dependence of the stability constants on temperature and results indicated that the formation of the inclusion compounds is an enthalpically driven process. The thermal decomposition of the solid Al-quercetin/β-CD and Al-catechin/β-CD inclusion compounds took place at different stages, compared with the respective precursors, proving that an inclusion complexation process really occurred.

  10. The true structural periodicities and superspace group descriptions of the prototypical incommensurate composite materials: Alkane/urea inclusion compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzi, Michel; Guillaume, François; Harris, Kenneth D. M.; Palmer, Benjamin A.; Christensen, Kirsten; Collins, Stephen P.

    2016-12-01

    The prototypical family of incommensurate composite materials are the n-alkane/urea inclusion compounds, in which n-alkane guest molecules are arranged in a periodic manner along one-dimensional tunnels in a urea host structure, with an incommensurate relationship between the periodicities of the host and guest substructures along the tunnel. We develop interpretations of the structural periodicities, superspace group descriptions and symmetry properties of the low-temperature phases of n-alkane/urea inclusion compounds, based in part on a high-resolution synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of n-nonadecane/urea. Specifically, we prove that, on passing from phase I to phase II, the C-centering of the orthohexagonal unit cell is lost for both the host and guest substructures, and that the symmetries of all phases I, II and III are described completely by (3 + 1)-dimensional superspace groups.

  11. A theoretical study of conformational aspects and energy transfer between terthiophene and quinquethiophene in perhydrotriphenylene inclusion compounds.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Sergio O

    2008-09-21

    A theoretical study of models with supramolecular architecture of co-inclusion compounds based on the host perhydrotriphenylene and guests terthiophene and quinquethiophene (PHTP:T3,T5) is carried out to elucidate in detail the conformational aspects of the oligomeric guest species in the PHTP matrix host. The factors that direct the geometry, location and separation of terthiophene and quinquethiophene within the channels of the PHTP host have been studied using semi-empirical and ab initio calculations. The movement of the guests inside the channel is subject to constraints preventing free rotations or axial displacements along the nanochannel. Optimal arrangement and the general trend of the relative order between T3 and T5 in the (PHTP:T3,T5) co-inclusion compound is obtained. Furthermore, excited state calculations allow the explanation of the spectral shifts of the included species in terms of the planarization of their geometries. An analysis of the energy transfer processes between the T3-T5 donor-acceptor pair based on the configurational details of the co-inclusion compound conclude that efficient transfer proceeds only through two different and perpendicular windows for the T3 --> T5 transfer. The results emphasize the importance for better understanding of the directional details of the energy transfer mechanisms in this kind of one-dimensional systems.

  12. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Martin; Denison, Michael S; Birnbaum, Linda S; Devito, Michael J; Fiedler, Heidelore; Falandysz, Jerzy; Rose, Martin; Schrenk, Dieter; Safe, Stephen; Tohyama, Chiharu; Tritscher, Angelika; Tysklind, Mats; Peterson, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future.

  13. Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls: Inclusion in the Toxicity Equivalency Factor Concept for Dioxin-Like Compounds

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future. PMID:23492812

  14. An orally active angiotensin-(1-7) inclusion compound and exercise training produce similar cardiovascular effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Bertagnolli, Mariane; Casali, Karina R; De Sousa, Frederico B; Rigatto, Katya; Becker, Lenice; Santos, Sergio H S; Dias, Lucinara D; Pinto, Graziela; Dartora, Daniela R; Schaan, Beatriz D; Milan, Ruben Dario Sinisterra; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Santos, Robson A S

    2014-01-01

    Low angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) concentration is observed in some cardiovascular diseases and exercise training seems to restore its concentration in the heart. Recently, a novel formulation of an orally active Ang-(1-7) included in hydroxy-propyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPB-CD) was developed and chronically administered in experimental models of cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined whether chronic administration of HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) produces beneficial cardiovascular effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as to compare the results obtained with those produced by exercise training. Male SHR (15-week old) were divided in control (tap water) or treated with HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) (corresponding to 30μgkg(-1)day(-1) of Ang-(1-7)) by gavage, concomitantly or not to exercise training (treadmill, 10 weeks). After chronic treatment, hemodynamic, morphometric and molecular analysis in the heart were performed. Chronic HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) decreased arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in SHR. The inclusion compound significantly improved left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure, restored the maximum and minimum derivatives (dP/dT) and decreased cardiac hypertrophy index in SHR. Chronic treatment improved autonomic control by attenuating sympathetic modulation on heart and vessels and the SAP variability, as well as increasing parasympathetic modulation and HR variability. Overall results were similar to those obtained with exercise training. These results show that chronic treatment with the HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) inclusion compound produced beneficial effects in SHR resembling the ones produced by exercise training. This observation reinforces the potential cardiovascular therapeutic effect of this novel peptide formulation.

  15. Synthesis of the novel β-cyclodextrin-chromophore inclusion compound and research on the electro-optic activity of its systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Shuhui; Chen, Zhuo; Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Xinhou

    2011-10-01

    In the second order nonlinear (NLO) optics, interchromophore electrostatic interactions have been suggested as a major challenge of the poor efficiency in the poling induced polar order. In this article, we formed a β-cyclodextrinchromophore inclusion compound by embedding a dumb-bell shape chromophore in a β-cyclodextrin. Compared to hyperbranched chromophores, this inclusion compound could create a 360° steric hindrance and pull the distance between molecules. Then this inclusion compound could prevent chromophore aggregation and minimize the interactions which hamper higher nonlinear optical activity. The method of the refractive index for electro-optic materials which can determine the degree of chromophore aggregation in polymers was first proposed and confirmed in this work. These properties have provided a great promise in the fabrication of EO materials and devices.

  16. How the inclusion of treated water in beverages influences the appearance of halogenated volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Isabel; Gallego, Mercedes

    2014-10-22

    A simple, robust, and reliable headspace gas chromatography method has been developed for the determination of 14 halogenated volatile organic compounds, including iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs), at nanogram per liter levels in beverages. The main source of the presence of THMs in reconstituted fruit juices, nectars, and soft drinks is the treated water included as an ingredient; the concentration and speciation depend on the volume and disinfection process of the treated water either from the distribution network or from water directly disinfected by the food factory. Chloroform appears at concentrations below 1 μg/L in natural juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water due to contamination from the chlorinated sanitizers usually employed in the food industry. However, the beverages manufactured with treated water contain, in addition to chloroform, brominated THMs and dichloroiodomethane (detected in beverages for the first time), which can be used as indicators of the presence of treated water.

  17. Molecular mobility depending on chain length and thermally induced molecular motion of n-alkane/urea inclusion compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaoki, Takahiko; Nagano, Hiromasa; Yanagida, Toshinori

    2004-08-01

    Solid-state high resolution 13C NMR was used to analyze the end group conformation and molecular mobility of n-alkanes in a urea host as a function of the carbon number of the n-alkane. It was shown that the chemical shift of the inner methylenes could be interpreted by the γ- gauche effect. Of further interest is our finding that the chemical shift of 3-methylene is independent of both chain length and temperature, a result indicating that the torsional rotation of the bond ω 3 between the 4-methylene and 5-methylene carbons is so inhibited that there is little gauche conformation. The chemical shift of the inner methylenes indicated a different tendency between the even- and the odd-numbered n-alkanes. The fact that the signals of the even-numbered n-alkanes were observed at a comparatively more upfield location than those of the odd-numbered ones indicated that the even-numbered n-alkane had a higher molecular mobility and tended to adopt a more gauche conformation. The decomposition temperature obtained by thermal analysis also suggested a difference between the even- and odd-numbered n-alkanes. The decomposition temperature of the even-numbered n-alkane/urea inclusion compounds was a little lower than that of the odd-numbered ones, a disparity corresponding to the higher molecular mobility of the n-alkane in the urea host. The spin-lattice relaxation time ( T1C) increased with increasing chain length for chains with less than the 14 carbon atoms but reached a constant value for all longer chains. This result is completely different from that for the n-alkane crystal, which gave a longer T1C depending on the chain length, and can be explained by a reduced intermolecular interaction between the n-alkane and the urea host. Clearly, T1C measurements can be applied to confirm the formation of inclusion compounds. However, the different T1C values between the methyl, 2-, 3-, and inner methylene carbons indicates that the n-alkane molecule does not rotate so fast

  18. Tumor-specific cytotoxicity and type of cell death induced by beta-cyclodextrin benzaldehyde inclusion compound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Ken; Kikuchi, Hirotaka; Amano, Osamu; Ishihara, Mariko; Kanda, Yumiko; Kunii, Shiro; Kochi, Mutsuyuki; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Guangyan

    2008-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of beta-cyclodextrin benzaldehyde inclusion compound (CDBA) against human normal and cancer cell lines was investigated. CDBA showed slightly higher cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines, as compared to normal cells, with a tumor-specificity index of 2.2. Human myelogenous leukemia cell lines (HL-60, ML-1, KG-1) were the most sensitive to CDBA, followed by human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4) and human glioblastoma (T98G, U87MG). Human normal cells (gingival fibroblasts, pulp cells, periodontal ligament fibroblasts) were the most resistant. CDBA induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells and caspase-3, -8, -9 activation, but to a much lesser extent than that attained by UV irradiation or actinomycin D. On the other hand, CDBA did not induce DNA fragmentation, nor caspase activation in HSC-2, HSC-4 or T98G cells. Electron microscopy demonstrated that CDBA induced the destruction of mitochondrial structure and digestion of broken organelles by secondary lysosomes in all of these cells. CDBA also increased the number of acidic organelles as judged by acridine orange staining. The present study suggests that CDBA induces autophagic cell death in cancer cell lines.

  19. Phase Structure and Properties of a Biodegradable Block Copolymer Coalesced from It's Crystalline Inclusion Compound Formed with alpha-Cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, Xintao; Wei, Min; Probeni, Francis; Bullions, Todd A.; Shin, I. Daniel; Tonelli, Alan E.

    2002-03-01

    A well-defined biodegradable block copolymer of poly(epsilon caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was synthesized and characterized and then included as a guest in an inclusion compound (IC) formed with the host alpha-cyclodextrin (CD). The PCL-b-PLLA block copolymer was subsequently coalesced from it's CD-IC crystals by either treatment with hot water (50 C) or an aqueous amylase solution at 25 C. The coalesced PCL-b-PLLA was examined by FTIR, DSC, TGA, and WAXD and was found to be much more homogeneosly organized, with much less segregation and crystallinity of the PCL and PLLA microphases. The morpholgy, crystallization kinetics, thermal behavior, and biodegradability of the coalesced PCL-b-PLLA block copolymer was studied by comparison to similar observations made on as-synthesized PCL-b-PLLA, PCL and PLLA homopolymers, and their solution-cast blend. The PCL and PLLA blocks are found to be more intimately mixed, with less phase segregation, in the coalesced diblock copolymer, and this leads to homogeneous bulk crystallization, which is not observed for the as-synthesized diblock copolymer. The coalesced PCL-b-PLLA was also found to be more quickly biodegraded (lipase from Rhizopus arrhizus)than the as-synthesized PCL-b-PLLA or the physical blend of PCL and PLLA homopolymers. Overall, the coalescence of the inherently phase segregated diblock copolymer PCL-b-PLLA results in a small amount of compact, chain-extended PCL and PLLA crystals embedded in an amorphous phase, largely consisting of well-mixed PCL and PLLA blocks. Thus, we have demonstrated that it is possible to control the morpholgy of a biodegradable diblock copolymer, thereby significantly modifying it's properties, by coalescence from it's CD-IC crystals.

  20. Volatile organic compound flux from manure of cattle fed diets differing in grain processing method and co-product inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Kristin; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

    2015-01-01

    Odor emissions from livestock production have become increasingly important in the past decade. Odors derived from animal feeding operations are caused by odorous VOC emitted from the mixture of feces and urine, as well as feed and silage which may be experiencing microbial fermentation. Distillers grains are a by-product of corn grain fermentation used to produce fuel ethanol, and this industry has grown rapidly throughout the U.S. in past years. Therefore, the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot cattle diets has also increased. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from feces and urine or a mixture of both, from cattle fed steam flaked or dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing either 0% or 30% WDGS. Flux of dimethyl trisulfide was greater from feces of cattle fed DRC than steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. No other differences in flux from feces were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole, skatole, dimethyl disulfide, and flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids (P > 0.15). Flux of skatole, acetic acid, and valeric acid from urine was greater for cattle fed SFC than DRC diets (P < 0.05). Moreover, dimethyl disulfide flux was greater for cattle fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). When evaluating WDGS inclusion in the diet, flux of acetic acid and heptanoic acid from urine was greater when cattle were fed diets containing 0% WDGS than 30% WDGS (P < 0.05). When combining urine and feces in the ratio in which they were excreted from the animal, flux of propionic acid was greater when cattle were fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). Based on these results, the majority of the VOC, VFA, and odor flux from cattle feeding operations is from the urine. Therefore, dietary strategies to reduce odor from cattle feeding facilities should primarily focus on reducing excretion of odorous compounds in the urine.

  1. The broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 restricts chlamydial inclusion development and bacterial growth and localizes to host cell lipid droplets within treated cells.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Valiant, William G; Eriksen, Steven G; Hruby, Dennis E; Allen, Robert D; Rockey, Daniel D

    2014-07-01

    Novel broad-spectrum antimicrobials are a critical component of a strategy for combating antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In this study, we explored the activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 for activity against different intracellular bacteria and began a characterization of its mechanism of antimicrobial action. ST-669 inhibits the growth of three different species of chlamydia and the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii in Vero and HeLa cells but not in McCoy (murine) cells. The antichlamydial and anti-C. burnetii activity spectrum was consistent with those observed for tested viruses, suggesting a common mechanism of action. Cycloheximide treatment in the presence of ST-669 abrogated the inhibitory effect, demonstrating that eukaryotic protein synthesis is required for tested activity. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that different chlamydiae grow atypically in the presence of ST-669, in a manner that suggests the compound affects inclusion formation and organization. Microscopic analysis of cells treated with a fluorescent derivative of ST-669 demonstrated that the compound localized to host cell lipid droplets but not to other organelles or the host cytosol. These results demonstrate that ST-669 affects intracellular growth in a host-cell-dependent manner and interrupts proper development of chlamydial inclusions, possibly through a lipid droplet-dependent process.

  2. A compound Ca-, Al-rich inclusion from CV3 chondrite Northwest Africa 3118: Implications for understanding processes during CAI formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Lorenz, Cyril A.; Krot, Alexander N.; MacPherson, Glenn J.

    2015-09-01

    A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 3N from the Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 CV3 carbonaceous chondrite is a unique cm-sized compound object, primarily a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) CAI, that encloses at least 26 smaller CAIs of different types, including compact type A (CTA), B, C, and an ultra-refractory inclusion. Relative to typical type A and B CAIs found elsewhere, the bulk compositions of the types A and B CAIs within 3N more closely match the bulk compositions predicted by equilibrium condensation of a gas of solar composition. Being trapped within the FoB melt may have protected them from melt evaporation that affected most "stand-alone" CAIs. 3N originated either as an aggregate of many smaller (mostly types A, B, C) CAIs plus accreted Fo-bearing material (like an amoeboid olivine aggregate) which experienced partial melting of the whole, or else as a FoB melt droplet that collided with and trapped many smaller solid CAIs. In the former case, 3N recorded the earliest accretion of pebble-sized bodies known. In the latter case, the presence of a large number of individual refractory inclusions within 3N suggests a very high local density of refractory solids in the immediate region of the host CAI during the brief time while it was melted. Collisions would have occurred on time scales of hours at most, assuming a melt solidification interval for the host CAI of 300-400 °C (maximum) and a cooling rate of ~10 °C/h.

  3. Inclusion compounds between α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins: iron II lactate: a theoretical and experimental study using diffusion coefficients and molecular mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Rosiley A.; Lino, Antonio C. S.; Takahata, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    The inclusion compounds between iron II lactate and three different cyclodextrins (CDs) were studied by means of experimental and theoretical data. The importance of iron II in the human metabolism effort the necessity of a minimum concentration to the human life. Malnutrition is one great problem in social politics of many countries on the world. The possibility to the development of novel medicines with the iron II species stable look for an increase on the efficiency for this kind of aid. Kinetics measurements confirm the possibility to stop the oxidation reaction. It was the first indication of efficient molecular encapsulation. Diffusion coefficient measurements were carried out by Taylor-Aris diffusion technique. The decrease of diffusion coefficients measured for iron II lactate when alone and forming the inclusion complexes was obtained for all hosts molecules used. Molecular Mechanics calculations were performed to elucidate the perfect arrange of iron II lactate inside CDs cavity. No great differences were obtained to the binding energy for the different hosts. Using the software HyperChem6.03v MM+, AMBER94 and OPLS Forced Fields for iron atom in two chemical environments (a) vacuum and (b) with addition of 250 water molecules (MM+). The solvent treatment was decisive to the order of stability. This order was β-CD>γ-CD>α-CD, the same order of solubility in water. The results contained in this work confirm the possibility to protect iron II lactate against oxidation.

  4. [Animal model of distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles/hereditary inclusion body myopathy and preclinical trial with sugar compounds].

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Satoru; Malicdan, May Christine V; Nishino, Ichizo

    2010-06-01

    Sialic acids are terminal sugars of glycolipids and glycoproteins and are involved in several cellular processes. Sialic acid biosynthesis occurs in the cytosol, where UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is sequentially converted to N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) 6-phosphate by UDP-GlcNAc-2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase enzymes, both of which are encoded by the GNE gene. Since the only existing mouse model of DMRV/hIBM (Gne(-/-)hGNED176VTg) exhibited decreased sialic acid levels in most organs, DMRV/hIBM is thought to be secondary to the metabolic defect in sialic acid production. Theoretically, replenishing sialic acid could be employed as a therapeutic option. It has been reported that N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) and ManNAc are well incorporated into cells and converted to sialic acid. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of ManNAc, NeuAc, and sialyllactose in the Gne(-/-)hGNED176VTg, by orally administering these agents to mice from 5-15 weeks continuously until they reached 54-57 weeks of age. The treatment showed beneficial effects in terms of survival rate, overall motor performance, myofiber size, ex vivo skeletal muscle contractile properties, and pathology. These low-dose compounds showed acceptable kidney and liver toxicity profiles. Thus our results show that the oral therapy with NeuAc and ManNAc or their derivatives is safe and effective in preventing myopathic symptoms in Gne(-/-)hGNED176VTg mice, and could be considered as a guide for further therapeutic trials.

  5. Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzumura, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Nagasako, Naoyuki; Asahi, Ryoji

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Cu-based chalcogenides such as Cu3SbSe4, Cu2Se, and Cu2SnSe3 have attracted much attention because of their high thermoelectric performance and their common feature of very low thermal conductivity. However, for practical use, materials without toxic elements such as selenium are preferable. In this paper, we report Se-free Cu3SbS4 thermoelectric material and improvement of its figure of merit ( ZT) by chemical substitutions. Substitutions of 3 at.% Ag for Cu and 2 at.% Ge for Sb lead to significant reductions in the thermal conductivity by 37% and 22%, respectively. These substitutions do not sacrifice the power factor, thus resulting in enhancement of the ZT value. The sensitivity of the thermal conductivity to chemical substitutions in these compounds is discussed in terms of the calculated phonon dispersion and previously proposed models for Cu-based chalcogenides. To improve the power factor, we optimize the hole carrier concentration by substitution of Ge for Sb, achieving a power factor of 16 μW/cm K2 at 573 K, which is better than the best reported for Se-based Cu3SbSe4 compounds.

  6. Growth characteristic, guest distribution, guest ordering and the stability of urea inclusion compounds with 1-decene, n-decane and mixture of 1-decene and n-decane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Ge, Xihui; Zhang, Minqing; Zhu, Huaigong; Zhang, Zijian; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Growth characteristics of urea inclusion compounds with 1-decene, n-decane and mixture of 1-decene and n-decane (relative mass ratio = 1:1) were studied by CCD high-speed Camera. The present studies show that the speed of UICs growth in tunnel direction is faster than in vertical direction and the length of UICs with 1-decene is shorter than UICs with n-decane, and the length of UICs with mixture is between them due to the influence of the vinyl in 1-decene. The value of R = I(CH2)/I(CH3) and M = I(CHCH2)/I(CH3) in FTIR spectrum of UICs increasing with growth time demonstrates that urea prefers to include n-decane than 1-decene. 13C CP/MAS NMR studies of UICs indicate that the arrangement of 1-decene in UICs is CH3⋯CH3 and CHCH2⋯CH2CH. The arrangement of 1-decene in UICs leads to short chain of UICs with 1-decene in tunnel direction. The 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of UICs with MIX reveal that there are three different types of arrangement: CH3⋯CH3, CHCH2⋯CH3 and CHCH2⋯CH2CH. The methods of FTIR and DSC were used to test the stability of UICs with different guests. The result shows that UICs with n-decane are stable than UICs with 1-decene. And the stability of UICs with mixture is in the middle.

  7. Effect of the inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured "Lacón" from Celta pig breed.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the finishing diet on the volatile compounds throughout the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón" (a Spanish traditional meat product), from the Celta pig breed was studied. Thirty-six pigs were separated into three groups according to the type of feeding during the finish-fattening period of three months (concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut). From the pigs of each diet, four batches of dry-cured "lacón" were manufactured. From each batch, samples of fresh meat, meat after salting, after post-salting, and after 14, 28, 56 and 84 days of drying-ripening were taken. Volatiles were extracted by a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-six volatile compounds were identified and quantified from dry-cured "lacón" samples in pigs finished with chestnut, eighty-two for concentrate fed pigs and eighty in pigs fed with the mixed diet. The number of identified volatile compounds increased during the manufacturing process; at 84 days of drying-ripening, in the dry-cured "lacón" samples from pigs finished with concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut, 54, 58 and 62 volatile compounds were detected, respectively. The most abundant group of flavour compounds at the end of the manufacturing process was hydrocarbons in the three feeding systems, followed by aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Discriminant analysis selected six variables (dodecane, butadienol, pentenol, 2-pentenal, decen-3-ona and pyridine-2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions which allowed verification of chestnut in the finishing diet.

  8. Dyeing and antibacterial activation with methylene blue of a cyclodextrin modified polyester vascular graft.

    PubMed

    Kacem, I; Laurent, T; Blanchemain, N; Neut, C; Chai, F; Haulon, S; Hildebrand, H F; Martel, B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an antiseptic and blue dyed polyester (PET) vascular graft in order to reach two distinct properties: (i) the prevention of postoperative infections, (ii) the improvement of the graft compatibility with the coelioscopy surgical technique. This work consisted of dyeing a vascular prosthesis with methylene blue (MB) which is known as a cationic dye with antiseptic properties. Therefore, the functionalization of the PET fibers of the prosthesis with a cyclodextrin-citric acid polymer (PolyCD) was achieved in order to improve its sorption capacity. The NMR experiments demonstrated that a 1:2 complex occurred between hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HP-βCD) and MB. Kinetic and sorption isotherm studies showed that an impregnation of the polyCD modified prosthesis (PET-CD) in a 1 g L(-1) of MB solution for 150 min was sufficient to reach the saturation of the device. Results proved that the adsorption mechanism followed the Langmuir model and a maximum of 20 mg g(-1) of MB on the graft. A sustained release of MB in batch tests was observed in PBS and in vitro microbiological assays displayed a prolongation of the bactericidal effect of PET-CD whose extent varied with the amount of MB preliminarily adsorbed onto the PET-CD.

  9. Alginate beads as a carrier for omeprazole/SBA-15 inclusion compound: A step towards the development of personalized paediatric dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Del Gaudio, Pasquale; De Cicco, Felicetta; Sansone, Francesca; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Adami, Renata; Ricci, Maurizio; Giovagnoli, Stefano

    2015-11-20

    The treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) shows several issues among paediatric patients. This work aims to the formulation of enteric alginate beads loaded with omeprazole (OME) allowing age- and weight-related personalized dosages in children. OME was entrapped in SBA-15 mesoporous compound, characterized and loaded into alginate beads by prilling at different OME and alginate concentrations. The beads resulted of homogeneous size, spherical morphology and very consistent in drug loading and distribution. Formulations demonstrated limited swelling and release (about 10%) in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) after 2h and a prolonged release in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), till 6h, due to a mixed diffusion-case II transport mechanism. The beads were superior to the market product, which showed lower release in SGF but immediate dissolution in SIF. The high alginate beads uniformity and release properties make them a potential novel tool for a personalized treatment of GERD in children.

  10. Ab initio X-ray structural characterization of an inclusion compound with a compositionally disordered chiral guest: no prior knowledge of the crystal composition.

    PubMed

    Guzei, Ilia A; Miles, Kelsey C

    2016-03-01

    The crystal structure and absolute configuration of a molecular host/guest/impurity inclusion complex were established unequivocally in spite of our having no prior knowledge of its chemical composition. The host (4R,5R)-4,5-bis(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane, (I), displays expected conformational features. The crystal-disordered chiral guest 4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydronaphthalen-2(3H)-one, (II), is present in the crystal 85.1 (4)% of the time. It shares a common site with 4a-hydroperoxymethyl-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydronaphthalen-2(3H)-one, (III), present 14.9 (4)% of the time, which is the product of autoxidation of (II). This minor peroxide impurity was isolated, and the results of nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and X-ray fluorescence studies are consistent with the proposed structure of (III). The complete structure was therefore determined to be (4R,5R)-4,5-bis(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydronaphthalen-2(3H)-one-4a-hydroperoxymethyl-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydronaphthalen-2(3H)-one (1/0.85/0.15), C31H30O4·0.85C10H14O·0.15C10H14O3, (IV). There are host-host, host-guest, and host-impurity hydrogen-bonding interactions of types S and D in the solid state. We believe that the crystals of (IV) were originally prepared to establish the chirality of the guest (II) by means of X-ray diffraction analysis of host/guest crystals obtained in the course of chiral resolution during cocrystallization of (II) with (I). In spite of the absence of `heavy' elements, the absolute configurations of all anomeric centres in the structure are assigned as R based on resonant scattering effects.

  11. Carbonic inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Kerkhof, Alfons; Thiéry, Régis

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the phase relations in carbonic fluid inclusions with pure, binary and ternary mixtures of the system CO 2-CH 4-N 2, compositions, which are frequently found in geological materials. Phase transitions involving liquid, gas and solid phases in the temperature range between -192°C and 31°C are discussed and presented in phase diagrams ( PT, TX and VX projections). These diagrams can be applied for the interpretation of microthermometry data in order to determine fluid composition and molar volume (or density).

  12. Prediction of PAH biodegradation in field contaminated soils using a cyclodextrin extraction technique.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Apostolos; Paton, Graeme I; Reid, Brian J; Semple, Kirk T

    2007-06-01

    Biodegradation has been identified as a major loss process for organic contaminants in soils and, as a result, microbial strategies have been developed for the remediation of contaminated land. Prediction of the biodegradable fraction would be important for determining bioremediation end-points in the clean-up of contaminated land. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a cyclodextrin extraction to predict the extent to which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) would be degraded microbiologically in field contaminated soils; further testing the robustness and reproducibility of this extraction in chemically complex systems. Dichloromethane and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extractable fractions were measured together with the PAH biodegradable fraction in each of the six field contaminated soils. The amounts of PAHs degraded by the catabolic activity of the indigenous microflora in each of the soils were correlated with HPCD-extractable PAH concentrations. The regressions showed that the amounts of lower molecular weight PAHs extracted by the HPCD were not significantly (P > 0.05) different to the amounts that were degraded. However, higher molecular weight PAHs that were extracted by HPCD did differ significantly (P < 0.05) from the amounts degraded. Although the HPCD extraction did overestimate the microbially degradable fraction of the higher molecular weight PAHs, overall the correlations between the HPCD extractable fraction and the microbially degradable fraction were very close, with mean values of the slope of line for the six soils equalling 1. This study further describes the robust and reproducible nature of the aqueous-based soil extraction technique reliably measuring the extent to which PAHs will be microbially degraded in soil.

  13. Fully quantal calculation of H{sub 2} translation-rotation states in the (p-H{sub 2}){sub 2}@5{sup 12}6{sup 4} clathrate hydrate inclusion compound

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, Peter M.

    2014-11-14

    The quantal translation-rotation (TR) states of the (p-H{sub 2}){sub 2}@5{sup 12}6{sup 4} clathrate hydrate inclusion compound have been computed. The ten-dimensional problem (in the rigid-cage and rigid-H{sub 2} approximation) is solved by first approximating the H{sub 2} moieties as spherically symmetric and solving for their 6D translational eigenstates. These are then combined with H{sub 2} free rotational states in a product basis that is used to diagonalize the full TR hamiltonian. The computed low-energy eigenstates have translational components that are essentially identical to the 6D translational eigenstates and rotational components that are 99.9% composed of rotationally unexcited H{sub 2} moieties. In other words, TR coupling is minimal for the low-energy states of the species. The low-energy level structure is found to be substantially more congested than that of the more tightly packed (p-H{sub 2}){sub 4}@5{sup 12}6{sup 4} clathrate species. The level structure is also shown to be understandable in terms of a model of (H{sub 2}){sub 2} as a semirigid diatomic species consisting of two spherically symmetric H{sub 2} pseudo-atoms.

  14. Inclusion and Museums: Developing Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    Recent policy on inclusion has had an impact on the development of museum galleries and related educational provision. Museums are used as learning organisations and, as such, need to consider how to create an inclusive environment. However, inclusive provision for people with learning difficulties in museums tends to be isolated and small scale,…

  15. Inclusive Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu-Tien, Wu

    2007-01-01

    As an echo of the worldwide movement of inclusive education and because of the conviction of inclusive ideas, special education in Taiwan is moving toward a goal of inclusion, though not necessarily full inclusion. While its terminology is as yet undesignated, principles and strategies are significantly reflected in the Special Education Act and…

  16. Limits to Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  17. Triclosan loaded electrospun nanofibers based on a cyclodextrin polymer and chitosan polyelectrolyte complex.

    PubMed

    Ouerghemmi, Safa; Degoutin, Stéphanie; Tabary, Nicolas; Cazaux, Frédéric; Maton, Mickaël; Gaucher, Valérie; Janus, Ludovic; Neut, Christel; Chai, Feng; Blanchemain, Nicolas; Martel, Bernard

    2016-11-20

    This work focuses on the relevance of antibacterial nanofibers based on a polyelectrolyte complex formed between positively charged chitosan (CHT) and an anionic hydroxypropyl betacyclodextrin (CD)-citric acid polymer (PCD) complexing triclosan (TCL). The study of PCD/TCL inclusion complex and its release in dynamic conditions, a cytocompatibility study, and finally the antibacterial activity assessment were studied. The fibers were obtained by electrospinning a solution containing chitosan mixed with PCD/TCL inclusion complex. CHT/TCL and CHT-CD/TCL were also prepared as control samples. The TCL loaded nanofibers were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Nanofibers stability and swelling behavior in aqueous medium were pH and CHT:PCD weight ratio dependent. Such results confirmed that CHT and PCD interacted through ionic interactions, forming a polyelectrolyte complex. A high PCD content in addition to a thermal post treatment at 90°C were necessary to reach a nanofibers stability during 15days in soft acidic conditions, at pH=5.5. In dynamic conditions (USP IV system), a prolonged release of TCL with a reduced burst effect was observed on CHT-PCD polyelectrolyte complex based fibers compared to CHT-CD nanofibers. These results were confirmed by a microbiology study showing prolonged antibacterial activity of the nanofibers against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Such results could be explained by the fact that the stability of the polyelectrolyte CHT-PCD complex in the nanofibers matrix prevented the diffusion of the PCD/triclosan inclusion complex in the supernatant, on the contrary of the similar system including cyclodextrin in its monomeric form.

  18. Thionin in a cyclodextrin nanocavity: Measuring local compressibilities by pressure tuning hole burning spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Christoph; Hermann, Peter; Friedrich, Josef; Chang, Cheng-Chung; Chang, Ta-Chau

    2005-09-01

    We present pressure tuning hole burning experiments on thionin with α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in a glycerol/water glass. The low temperature absorption spectra do not show the formation of a caging complex. The pressure tuning data, however, show that the compressibility of the sample with β-CD, where the formation of an inclusion complex is not restricted due to geometrical reasons increases as compared to the other samples. This is just the opposite of what one would expect. This increase is interpreted in terms of a reduced solvent density around the chromophore due to the hydrophobic effect.

  19. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  20. Creating an Inclusive School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Richard A., Ed.; Thousand, Jacqueline S., Ed.

    This collection of readings in support of inclusive education for students with disabilities offers rationales for inclusion, personal accounts of individuals involved, and strategies for facilitating change. Stressed throughout is the idea that inclusion is an attitude or belief system, not an action or set of actions. The readings identify…

  1. Inclusion in Middle Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Derrick; Ashley, Mandi; Hayes, Brandalyn

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to provide school districts within Tennessee with more research about how weekly hours of inclusion impact student achievement. Specifically, researchers examined which models of inclusion were in use in two school districts in Tennessee, administrators' and teachers' perceptions of inclusion, and whether or…

  2. Footstep towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbas, Faiza; Zafar, Aneeka; Naz, Tayyaba

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education is a rising trend in the world. The first step towards inclusive education is providing the awareness to the general education teachers. This study focused to investigate the general education teachers of primary and secondary level awareness about the special education and inclusive education. This study is descriptive method…

  3. Towards Inclusive Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion is the process that will enable every person in society to participate in normal activities of societies they live in, including education, employment, public services and social recreational activities. For the development of an inclusive society, preparation of younger generation also needs to be inclusive. Our schools must…

  4. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  5. Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-11-13

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

  6. Antiferromagnetic inclusions in lunar glass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Briggs, Charles; Alexander, Corrine

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of 11 glass spherules from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 fines and two specimens of a relatively large glass spherical shell were studied as a function of temperature from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures. All but one specimen showed the presence of antiferromagnetic inclusions. Closely spaced temperature measurements of the magnetic susceptibility below 77 K on five of the specimens showed antiferromagnetic temperature transitions (Ne??el transitions). With the exception of ilmenite in one specimen, these transitions did not correspond to any transitions in known antiferromagnetic compounds. ?? 1974.

  7. What Counts as Inclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, E.; Nel, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the years since the publication in South Africa of White Paper Six: Special needs education (Department of Education (DoE) 2001) various schools in the state and independent sectors have begun to implement inclusive policies and practices. With reference to the Guidelines for full-service/inclusive schools issued in 2009, and by discussing a…

  8. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  9. Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

  10. Handbook for Successful Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochhar, Carol A.; West, Lynda L.

    This manual is intended to help regular and special educators and related professionals to better serve special learners in inclusive settings through identifying practical strategies for the classroom and school, and techniques for overcoming barriers to inclusion. The manual is written in a question-and-answer format. The first chapter addresses…

  11. Learning Styles and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gavin

    2005-01-01

    This book is about learning styles and inclusion, but essentially it is about learning, and how to make learning more effective for all learners. To recognise the needs of learners as well as those of teachers, and at the same time appreciate that the inclusive education environment, irrespective of its merits, will present barriers for learners,…

  12. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  13. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  14. Adapted Aquatics and Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Conatser, Phillip

    2002-01-01

    Presents strategies and techniques to help instructors and directors promote successful inclusive aquatics programs for students with disabilities, discussing the importance of considering issues related to: teaching style, collaborative planning, goal determination, appropriate inclusive placement, personnel preparation, curriculum adaptation,…

  15. The Inclusion Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; Schuh, Mary C.; Nisbet, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion facilitators are educators who do more than teach children with disabilities--they advocate for change in schools and communities, sparking a passion for inclusion in teachers, administrators, and families and giving them the practical guidance they need to make it work. This is an essential new role in today's schools, and this guide…

  16. Fluctuation induced conductivity studies in YBa2Cu3Oy compound embedded by superconducting nano-particles Y-deficient YBa2Cu3Oy: effect of silver inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannachi, E.; Slimani, Y.; Ben Salem, M. K.; Hamrita, A.; Al-Otaibi, A. L.; Almessiere, M. A.; Ben Salem, M.; Ben Azzouz, F.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of superconducting Y-deficient YBa2Cu3Oy nano-particles prepared by the planetary ball milling technique and silver inclusion on electrical fluctuation conductivity of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy has been reported. Samples, synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction technique, have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and electrical resistivity. Scanning electron microscope analyses show that nano-particles of Y-deficient YBa2Cu3Oy are embedded in the superconducting matrix. The density of these nano-particles strongly depends on milling parameters. The fluctuation conductivity has been analyzed as a function of reduced temperature using the Aslamazov-Larkin model. Three different fluctuation regions namely critical, mean-field and short-wave are observed. The zero-temperature coherence length, the effective layer thickness of the two-dimensional system, critical magnetic fields and critical current density are estimated. Superconducting parameters are affected by Y-deficient YBa2Cu3Oy nano-particles. It has been found that attainment of an optimum concentration and well-dispersed of nano-sized inclusions by ball milling process improves the physical properties. On the other hand, the sample with Y-deficient YBa2Cu3Oy nano-particles and Ag exhibits better superconducting properties in comparison with free added one.

  17. Inclusion variations and calcium treatment optimization in pipeline steel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Hua; Wu, Hua-Jie; Bao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Min

    2011-10-01

    SiCa line and SiCaBaFe alloy were injected into liquid pipeline steel at the end of LF refining as calcium treatment, and samples were taken from the ladles, mould, and slabs. Analysis of Ca content and inclusions shows that Ca content in steel decreases obviously in the following process after calcium treatment; the compositions, morphology, and sizes of inclusions also vary much in the production; primary inclusions in the ladles prior to calcium treatment are mainly Al2O3 inclusions, but they turn to fine irregular CaS-CaO-Al2O3 compound inclusions after the treatment, then become fine globular CaO-Al2O3 inclusions in the mould, and finally change to a few larger irregular CaS-CaO-Al2O3 complex inclusions in the slabs. Thermodynamic study reveals that inclusion variations are related with the preferential reactions among Ca, Al2O3, and S and the precipitation of S in CaO-Al2O3 inclusions with high sulfur capacity. New evaluation standards for calcium treatment in high-grade pipeline steel were put forward according to the inclusion variations and requirements of pipeline steel on inclusion controlling, and the calcium process was studied and optimized.

  18. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  19. Novel inclusion in laser crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xiaoshan; Wang Siting; Jin Zhongru; Shen Yafang; Chen Jiaguang

    1986-12-01

    In growing alexandrite crystals, a novel inclusion has been found. The inclusions are quantitatively analyzed by an electronic probe and the mechanism for forming inclusions is suggested. In our Bridgman MgF/sub 2/ crystals, the inclusions in <001> direction have also been observed.

  20. Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie

    2011-01-01

    This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…

  1. Inclusion Body Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare disorders that share many similarities. These include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), necrotizing myopathy (NM), and sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM). Inclusion body myositis is the most common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy after age 50 and it presents with chronic proximal leg and distal arm asymmetric mucle weakness. Despite similarities with PM, it is likely that IBM is primarily a degenerative disorder rather than an inflammatory muscle disease. Inclusion body myositis is associated with a modest degree of creatine kinase (CK) elevation and an abnormal electromyogram demonstrating an irritative myopathy with some chronicity. The muscle histopathology demonstrates inflammatory exudates surrounding and invading nonnecrotic muscle fibers often times accompanied by rimmed vacuoles. In this chapter, we review sporadic IBM. We also examine past, essentially negative, clinical trials in IBM and review ongoing clinical trials. For further details on DM, PM, and NM, the reader is referred to the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies chapter. PMID:23117948

  2. Inclusion polymerization of isoprene in deoxycholic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Franco; Ragni, Pietro; Rosati, Aldo; Ursini, Ornella

    2009-05-01

    The radiation-induced polymerization of isoprene was made on its inclusion (or clathrate) complex with deoxycholic acid (DOCA) at 150 and 300 kGy. The microstructure of the resulting polyisoprene (PIP) was studied by FTIR spectroscopy and found fully comparable to that of PIP prepared by emulsion polymerization by a free radical initiator. Thus, the 1,4-trans content was found to be 48% and that of 1,4-cis units was 28% of the polymer structure; the remaining are being 1,2 and 3,4 units. The PIP irregular microstructure was justified in terms of monomer dynamics inside the DOCA channels. PIP from inclusion polymerization is fully amorphous as studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA) in comparison to an authentic sample of trans-1,4-polyisoprene, which instead has a crystalline melting point of 71.5 °C. The inclusion complex of PIP with DOCA (PIP@DOCA) shows a DTA melting point of 194.4 °C, 12.4 °C higher than the melting point of pure DOCA. PIP isolated from inclusion polymerization from DOCA and its complex PIP@DOCA was studied also by thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). Isoprene does not form inclusion complexes with urea and thiourea. When irradiated with these two compounds it produces an oily PIP oligomer whose microstructure was found by FTIR spectroscopy analogous to that of PIP prepared by emulsion polymerization by a free radical initiator.

  3. Nanotubular Toughening Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Conventional toughening agents are typically rubbery materials or small molecular weight molecules, which mostly sacrifice the intrinsic properties of a matrix such as modulus, strength, and thermal stability as side effects. On the other hand, high modulus inclusions tend to reinforce elastic modulus very efficiently, but not the strength very well. For example, mechanical reinforcement with inorganic inclusions often degrades the composite toughness, encountering a frequent catastrophic brittle failure triggered by minute chips and cracks. Thus, toughening generally conflicts with mechanical reinforcement. Carbon nanotubes have been used as efficient reinforcing agents in various applications due to their combination of extraordinary mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Moreover, nanotubes can elongate more than 20% without yielding or breaking, and absorb significant amounts of energy during deformation, which enables them to also be an efficient toughening agent, as well as excellent reinforcing inclusion. Accordingly, an improved toughening method is provided by incorporating nanotubular inclusions into a host matrix, such as thermoset and thermoplastic polymers or ceramics without detrimental effects on the matrix's intrinsic physical properties.

  4. Nanotubular Toughening Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Conventional toughening agents are typically rubbery materials or small molecular weight molecules, which mostly sacrifice the intrinsic properties of a matrix such as modulus, strength, and thermal stability as side effects. On the other hand, high modulus inclusions tend to reinforce elastic modulus very efficiently, but not the strength very well. For example, mechanical reinforcement with inorganic inclusions often degrades the composite toughness, encountering a frequent catastrophic brittle failure triggered by minute chips and cracks. Thus, toughening generally conflicts with mechanical reinforcement. Carbon nanotubes have been used as efficient reinforcing agents in various applications due to their combination of extraordinary mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Moreover, nanotubes can elongate more than 20% without yielding or breaking, and absorb significant amounts of energy during deformation, which enables them to also be an efficient toughening agent, as well as excellent reinforcing inclusion. Accordingly, an improved toughening method is provided by incorporating nanotubular inclusions into a host matrix, such as thermoset and thermoplastic polymers or ceramics without detrimental effects on the intrinsic physical properties of the matrix.

  5. Bacterial inclusion body purification.

    PubMed

    Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Peternel, Spela; Cano-Garrido, Olivia; Villaverde, Antonio; García-Fruitós, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Purification of bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) is gaining importance due to the raising of novel applications for this type of submicron particulate protein clusters, with potential uses in the biomedical field among others. Here, we present two optimized methods to purify IBs adapting classical procedures to the material nature as well as the requirements of its final application.

  6. Against Being Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The term "inclusive excellence," made popular by the Association of American Colleges and Universities and adopted by many schools across the country is in some ways unfortunate, in that the concept of "including," arguably, assumes the priority and ongoing dominance of a given reality into which one may (or may not) be granted…

  7. Positive Inclusion Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Arselia, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This guide focuses on the use of low-end technology to make education more inclusive for children and adolescents with disabilities. The definition of "assistive technology" is discussed, and low-end technology is defined as simple modification/adaptation of toys and games, design and construction of simple switching devices, and the…

  8. Collaborative Support for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanahuja-Gavaldà, Josep M.; Olmos-Rueda, Patricia; Morón-Velasco, Mar

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, in Catalonia, students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly in regular schools although their presence, participation, learning and success are unequal. Barriers towards inclusion often depend on how to organise supporting at regular schools and the teachers' collaboration during this process. In this paper, the support…

  9. Relationships in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Graça Duarte; Sardinha, Susana; Reis, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Climate in the classroom is one of the determining factors in the development of practices in Inclusive Education. Many factors contribute to the climate in the classroom. However, there are predominance on affective-relational factors, with impact on action, norms and values, social interactions and learning processes. In this paper, the authors…

  10. Education for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Poverty can be both a consequence of, and contributory factor to, educational exclusion. This paper argues that poverty and exclusion are multidimensional. They require a multisectoral and multilevel approach in education if the most vulnerable sectors of society are to benefit from initiatives to turn exclusion into inclusion. This paper also…

  11. Inclusion on the Bookshelf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Camille

    2009-01-01

    Three decades have passed since federal law mandated inclusion--ending, officially at least, a system that segregated students with disabilities from the rest of the student population. The publishing world has yet to catch up. In children's books, characters with disabilities often inhabit their own separate world, where disability is the only…

  12. Exploring Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Black-Hawkins, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study designed to examine teachers' craft knowledge of their practice of "inclusion" in terms of what they do, why and how. The research approach offers an important alternative to studies of students with "additional needs" and the search to articulate the specialist knowledge and skill required to…

  13. Inclusion Strategies that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Alice M.

    2004-01-01

    Many school systems are moving toward an inclusion model for teaching special learners in which all students are included in general classrooms. The basic premise is that all students should first be placed in the general classroom. Students receive as many necessary supplementary aids and services as possible in the general classroom, and then,…

  14. Renal pathophysiologic role of cortical tubular inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A; Stewart, Zachary S; Grzemski, Felicity A; Bobrowski, Walter F

    2013-01-01

    Renal tubular inclusion bodies are rarely associated with drug administration. The authors describe the finding of renal cortical tubular intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with the oral administration of a norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor (NSRI) test article in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats were given an NSRI daily for 4 weeks, and kidney histopathologic, ultrastructural pathology, and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Round eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed histologically in the tubular epithelial cells of the renal cortex in male and female SD rats given the NSRI compound. No evidence of degeneration or necrosis was noted in the inclusion-containing renal cells. By ultrastructural pathology, inclusion bodies consisted of finely granular, amorphous, and uniformly stained nonmembrane-bound material. By immunohistochemistry, inclusion bodies stained positive for d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) protein. In addition, similar inclusion bodies were noted in the cytoplasmic tubular epithelial compartment by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examination.  This is the first description of these renal inclusion bodies after an NSRI test article administration in SD rats. Such drug-induced renal inclusion bodies are rat-specific, do not represent an expression of nephrotoxicity, represent altered metabolism of d-amino acids, and are not relevant to human safety risk assessment.

  15. Structure of an inclusive compound of bis(piperidinium-4-carboxylate)hydrogen semi-tartrate with water and methanol studied by X-ray diffraction, NMR, FTIR and DFT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Fojud, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2009-06-01

    The complex consisting of two piperidine-4-carboxylic acid, L-tartaric acid, water and methanol molecules has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, 1H, 13C NMR, 13C CP MAS NMR, FTIR spectra and DFT calculations. The title complex is composed of the following units: piperidinium-4-carboxylate (P4C), piperidinium-4-carboxylic acid (P4CH), semi-tartrate anion (TA), water and methanol; it crystallizes in orthorhombic space group P2 12 12 1. TA anions form infinite chains through the COOH···OOC hydrogen bond of 2.503(5) Å. The zwitterionic P4C molecules are linked by the N +H···OOC hydrogen bond of 2.780(5) Å into chains. The P4CH cation is a bridge between the TA and P4C chains. P4CH and P4C form a homoconjugated cation through the COOH···OOC hydrogen bonds of 2.559(5) Å. Water interacts with TA and P4CH, while methanol interacts only with water. In the optimized molecule of the (P4C) 2H·TA·H 2O·HOCH 3 complex, the components form a cyclic oligomer through four O-H···O and four N-H···O hydrogen bonds. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra elucidate the structure of the title complex in the aqueous solution. The 13C CP MAS NMR spectrum is consistent with the X-ray results. The FTIR spectrum confirms a very complex structure of the title compound.

  16. Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities when appropriate is an important goal of special education for students with special needs. Full inclusion, meaning no education for any child in a separate setting, is held to be desirable by some, and Italy is likely the nation with an education system most closely approximating full inclusion on the…

  17. Inclusive Flavour Tagging Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Derkach, Denis; Rogozhnikov, Alex

    2016-10-01

    Identifying the flavour of neutral B mesons production is one of the most important components needed in the study of time-dependent CP violation. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present an inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm as an upgrade of the algorithms currently used by the LHCb experiment. Specifically, a probabilistic model which efficiently combines information from reconstructed vertices and tracks using machine learning is proposed. The algorithm does not use information about underlying physics process. It reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus increases the overall performance. The proposed inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm is applicable to tag the flavour of B mesons in any proton-proton experiment.

  18. Making Inclusion Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Jennifer; Colker, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Inclusion is an oft-used buzzword in education. It is also a concept that the author highly values and wants to be a part of her teaching. She feels she would not be teaching to her potential if she was not able to reach all students. She truly wants a classroom in which all children have access. The author was a Sure Start teacher at a U.S.…

  19. Working through the Inclusion Maze.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michelle

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that if inclusion programs are implemented correctly, students with special needs will begin to have more success stories, which will help educators find a pathway out of the dead ends of the inclusion maze. (RS)

  20. Normalizing difference in inclusive teaching.

    PubMed

    Baglieri, Susan; Knopf, Janice H

    2004-01-01

    Inclusion practices and special education can be transformed by using a disability studies perspective, which constructs differences as natural, acceptable, and ordinary. Although inclusion is a moral imperative in promoting social justice, some inclusive practices continue to marginalize students with disabilities. A truly inclusive school reflects a democratic philosophy whereby all students are valued, educators normalize difference through differentiated instruction, and the school culture reflects an ethic of caring and community.

  1. Inclusion: A Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, Susan, Ed.; Stainback, William, Ed.

    This book discusses the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms and describes strategies that enhance the social success and educational achievement for all students. Section 1 provides an introduction to inclusion and contains the following chapters: "Rationale for Inclusive Schooling" (Anastasios Karagiannis and…

  2. Developing Inclusive Schools: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara

    This workbook provides practical information for developing and implementing inclusive school programs through understanding the educator role, using effective problem-solving strategies, and developing a support network to meet the challenges of inclusion. Ten chapters cover the following topics: (1) effective inclusion (an analysis of the trend…

  3. Inclusive Education under Collectivistic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futaba, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses how inclusive education under collective culture is possible. Inclusive education, which more-or-less involves changing the current schools, has been denied, doubted or distorted by both policy-makers and practitioners of general and special education in Japan. Main reason for the setback in inclusive education can be…

  4. Inclusion bodies in Plesiomonas shigelloides.

    PubMed Central

    Pastian, M R; Bromel, M C

    1984-01-01

    Inclusion bodies were discovered in seven environmental isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides and the P. shigelloides control (ATCC 14029). Differential staining indicated that the inclusion bodies may be composed of polyphosphates, and developmental stages of the bodies may occur. The inclusion bodies may be useful for rapid presumptive identification of this organism. Images PMID:6320723

  5. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  6. Singing and social inclusion

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Graham F.; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (“Sing Up”), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008–2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a “normalized singing score”) and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  7. Singing and social inclusion.

    PubMed

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  8. Can We Build Inclusion?

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of children with special needs in kindergartens and preschools may be approached from different angles. This paper raises the question of whether the physical framework of kindergartens makes any difference for daily life at the kindergarten at all, and whether it can support inclusion of some children with special needs. Hence the title - can we build inclusion? In the literature of Universal Design, accommodation and design features seldom reflect the less visible disabilities. The paper is based on a research project initiated to investigate how more or less space influences daily pedagogical practice in general. Twelve interviews were conducted with experienced teachers from twelve different kindergartens with different amounts of space, varying from a ratio of 2.1 m2 play area per child to 5.5 m2. The results indicated that, for a group of children with special needs in particular, the amount of space is crucial. This group consisted of children who were socially very extrovert, and who maybe were noisy, easily provoked, and quick to get involved in arguments with other children. Alternatively, children in the group were very restrained and withdrawn in social interaction. Based on the answers in the interviews, we found support for answering the question in the title in the affirmative; we can build inclusion! This is because the teachers' experience indicated that, if there was sufficient space per child, there were fewer conflicts and the children managed to stay in the same activity for a much longer period. Sufficient space made it possible to divide the children into smaller groups, and use any secluded space. Therefore, it was much easier for other children to include some children with special needs. Accordingly, we can say that, sufficient space per child and an adequate layout and furnishing of the kindergarten is an advantage for all children. This is a clear example of Universal Design in which architectural

  9. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  10. Gas chromatographic analysis of volatiles in fluid and gas inclusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrawes, F.; Holzer, G.; Roedder, E.; Gibson, E.K.; Oro, J.

    1984-01-01

    Most geological samples and some synthetic materials contain fluid inclusions. These inclusions preserve for us tiny samples of the liquid and/or the gas phase that was present during formation, although in some cases they may have undergone significant changes from the original material. Studies of the current composition of the inclusions provide data on both the original composition and the change since trapping. These inclusions are seldom larger than 1 millimeter in diameter. The composition varies from a single major compound (e.g., water) in a single phase to a very complex mixture in one or more phases. The concentration of some of the compounds present may be at trace levels. We present here some analyses of inclusions in a variety of geological samples, including diamonds. We used a sample crusher and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system to analyze for organic and inorganic volatiles present as major to trace constituents in inclusions. The crusher is a hardened stainless-steel piston cylinder apparatus with tungsten carbide crusing surfaces, and is operated in a pure helium atmosphere at a controlled temperature. Samples ranging from 1 mg to 1 g were crushed and the released volatiles were analyzed using multi-chromatographic columns and detectors, including the sensitive helium ionization detector. Identification of the GC peaks was carried out by GC-MS. This combination of procedures has been shown to provide geochemically useful information on the process involved in the history of the samples analyzed. ?? 1984.

  11. Complex anion inclusion compounds: flexible anion-exchange materials.

    PubMed

    Williams, Edward R; Leithall, Rebecca M; Raja, Robert; Weller, Mark T

    2013-01-11

    Copper chloropyrophosphate frameworks have been synthesised with a wide variety of complex inorganic anions trapped in a large, flexible, one-dimensional pore, with anions including chloride, bromide, phosphate and the complex metal halo-anions PtCl(4)(2-), PdBr(4)(2-), CuCl(4)(2-) and AuCl(4)(-).

  12. Inclusive Jets in PHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roloff, P.

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

  13. Len Barton, Inclusion and Critical Disability Studies: Theorising Disabled Childhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodley, Dan; Runswick-Cole, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Len Barton has pioneered the sociological study of education in the areas of disability studies and inclusive education. This paper addresses an argument developed by Len Barton that social exclusion, of which disablism is one element, (1) has many compounding forms of differing exclusions, (2) is not a natural but a socially constructed process,…

  14. Possibilities for an Inclusive Society in Singapore: Becoming Inclusive within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Levan

    2009-01-01

    The envisioning of Singapore as an inclusive society has witnessed the most progressive systemic and policy developments concerning people with disabilities in recent years. The building of "heartware" in society (as in the will, values, and attitudes of its citizens) in order to realize the vision of an inclusive society, however,…

  15. Inclusion in the East: Chinese Students' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinen, Olli-Pekka; Savolainen, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 523 Chinese university students was given a questionnaire on their attitudes towards the inclusion of children with disabilities into regular classrooms. Factor analysis, analysis of variance, t-test and correlations were used to assess the respondents' general attitude towards inclusion, the factor structure of the attitudes, the…

  16. Inclusive Education: Identifying Teachers' Perceived Stressors in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackenreed, Darlene

    2008-01-01

    This research replicates the study conducted by Forlin (2001) in Churchlands, Western Australia. Forlin's Inclusive Education Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire was adapted from the original questionnaire to more accurately reflect the language and practice of inclusion in Ontario (Frost & Brackenreed, 2004). The purpose of this study was…

  17. Enacting Inclusion : A Framework for Interrogating Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Spratt, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the development and use of an analytical framework for interrogating the practice of newly qualified mainstream teachers recently graduated from a one-year Professional Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) that was informed by a concept of inclusive pedagogy. Inclusive pedagogy is an approach to teaching and learning that…

  18. Student Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Inclusion and Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beacham, Nigel; Rouse, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    The beliefs and attitudes of teachers are an important element in the development of inclusive education and its associated practices. Teacher education is seen as crucial in helping to develop positive attitudes and beliefs that are thought to promote inclusion, although attempts to reform teacher education in order to address issues of inclusion…

  19. High efficiency transformation of stevioside into a single mono-glycosylated product using a cyclodextrin glucanotransferase from Paenibacillus sp. CGMCC 5316.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuejian; Yang, Jinshui; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-12-01

    Stevioside is a non-caloric, natural, high-intensity sweetener. However, the bitter aftertaste of stevioside restricts its utilization for human consumption and limits its application in the food industry. In this study, a high efficiency enzymatic modification system was investigated to improve stevioside taste quality. A cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) producing strain Paenibacillus sp. CGMCC 5316 was isolated from Stevia planting soil. With starch as glycosyl donor, this CGTase can transform stevioside into a single specific product which is an isomer of rebaudioside A and identified as mono-glycosylated stevioside. The taste of stevioside is improved noticeably by generating mono-glycosylated stevioside, which possesses a sucrose-like taste and has sweetness increased significantly by 35.4%. Next, the parameters influencing CGTase production were optimized. Compared to initial conditions, CGTase activity increased by 214.7% under optimum conditions of 3.9 g/L starch, 17.9 g/L tryptone, and 67.6 h of culture time, and the transglycosylation rate of stevioside was remarkably increased by 284.8%, reaching 85.6%. This CGTase modification system provides a promising solution for improving the sweetness and taste quality of stevioside. The efficiency of CGTase transformation can be greatly increased by optimizing the culture conditions of Paenibacillus sp. CGMCC 5316.

  20. TRIFLUOROMETHYL COMPOUNDS OF GERMANIUM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FLUORIDES, *GERMANIUM COMPOUNDS, *HALIDES, *ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, ALKYL RADICALS, ARSENIC COMPOUNDS, CHEMICAL BONDS, CHEMICAL REACTIONS ...CHLORIDES, CHLORINE COMPOUNDS, HYDROLYSIS, IODIDES, METHYL RADICALS, POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS, PYROLYSIS, STABILITY, SYNTHESIS, TIN COMPOUNDS.

  1. Social Inclusion and People with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social inclusion is central to disability policies internationally. The high risk of social exclusion for people with intellectual disability is compounded for those with challenging behaviour. Method: A systematic literature review examined how social inclusion of people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour has been…

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  3. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  4. Promoting Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djietror, Beauty B. K.; Okai, Edward; Kwapong, Olivia A. T. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive education is critical for nation building. The government of Ghana has put in measures for promoting inclusion from basic through to tertiary level of education. Some of these measures include expansion of school facilities, implementation of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE); the change of policy on girls who drop…

  5. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  6. Building Inclusive Cities and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiler, Christa

    2008-01-01

    Canada prides itself on being an inclusive country. Immigrants from all over the world arrive in Canada's cities with their families because they feel welcome and safe. According to research, engagement towards social inclusion increased among Canadians during the last 30 last years. These changing values resulted in the creation of official…

  7. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  8. In Support of Unfinished Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausstätter, Rune Sarromaa

    2014-01-01

    This article claims that the radical potential inherent in the origins of inclusive education has been altered into a tool for protecting the status quo. Drawing on ideas from the essay "The Unfinished" by Thomas Mathiesen (1971), I discuss inclusion as a potential alternative to mainstream education and argue that the potential power of…

  9. Creative Educational Practices for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro; Stoltz, Tania; Machado, Jarci

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of gifted students depends on several aspects to happen in the school context, and one of the most important aspects to include these children at school is creative educational practices. Teaching with art is a good possibility to make children feel motivated to attend school. In the school context, the inclusion of these children could…

  10. Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

  11. Friendship in Inclusive Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.

    2009-01-01

    Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical…

  12. Evaluation of a Cyclodextrin-silica Hybrid Microporous Composite for the Solid-phase Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Soler-Seguí, Salomé; Belenguer-Sapiña, Carolinakn-Aut-Sei; Amorós, Pedro; Mauri-Aucejo, Adela

    2016-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection were employed to determine trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. In this way, the use of cartridges containing cyclodextrin-silica hybrid microporous solid phases was proposed. The experimental results indicated that the method provided relative standard deviations of below 15% and detection limits recorded were 12, 1.2, 12, 38, 4, 6 and 4 ng L(-1) for benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[a]anthracene, respectively. Moreover, the method was successfully applied for the determination of these organic compounds in water samples, where they were found to be in the 7 to 580 ng L(-1) range. It can be concluded that the major advantages of cyclodextrin-silica hybrid microporous solid phases are that they reduce the consumption and the toxicity of the solvent and the time consumption of the sample treatment step.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: inclusion body myopathy 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions inclusion body myopathy 2 inclusion body myopathy 2 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Inclusion body myopathy 2 is a condition that primarily affects skeletal muscles , ...

  14. Substitution of egg yolk by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex allows a reduction of the glycerol concentration into the freezing medium of equine sperm.

    PubMed

    Blommaert, Didier; Franck, Thierry; Donnay, Isabelle; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Detilleux, Johann; Serteyn, Didier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to completely replace the egg yolk a classical diluent for freezing equine semen by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex. At the same time, the reduction in the glycerol content used for cryopreservation and the incubation time between sperm and the freezing media were evaluated. Horse ejaculates were frozen with four different freezing extenders: a frozen reference medium (IF) containing egg yolk and 2.5% glycerol and media without egg yolk but supplemented with 1.5 mg 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin cholesterol (HPβCD-C) complex and containing either 1% (G1), 2% (G2) or 3% glycerol (G3). Three incubation times (90, 120 and 180 min) at 4 °C between the fresh semen and the different media were tested before freezing. Viability and motility analyses were performed with computer assisted semen analysis (CASA). Results showed that the freezing media containing the HPβCD-C complex with 1%, 2% and 3% glycerol significantly improve the 3 in vitro parameters of post thawing semen quality (viability, progressive and total mobilities) compared to IF. The best improvement of the parameters was obtained with G1 medium and the longest contact time. The substitution of egg yolk by HPβCD-C complex allows the decrease of protein charge of the medium while favouring the cholesterol supply to membrane spermatozoa offering it a better resistance to osmotic imbalance and a better tolerance to the glycerol toxicity. Our results highlight that the egg yolk of an extender for the freezing of horse semen can be completely substituted by HPβCD-C complex.

  15. A convex hull inclusion test.

    PubMed

    Bailey, T; Cowles, J

    1987-02-01

    A new characterization of the interior of the convex hull of a finite point set is given. An inclusion test based on this characterization is, on average, almost linear in the number of points times the dimensionality.

  16. Inclusion-Body Myositis: Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Make a Donation Matching Gifts Legacy Gifts Product Donations Partner Become an MDA Partner Meet our Partners How to Get Involved Donate Inclusion-Body Myositis (IBM) Share print email share facebook twitter ...

  17. Identification of ROS produced by photodynamic activity of chlorophyll/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Cellamare, Barbara M; Fini, Paola; Agostiano, Angela; Sortino, Salvatore; Cosma, Pinalysa

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a way of treating malignant tumors and hyperproliferative diseases. It is based on the use of photosensitizer, herein the chlorophyll a (chl a), and a light of an appropriate wavelength. The interaction of the photosensitizer (PS) with the light produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), powerful oxidizing agents, which cause critical damage to the tissue. To solubilize chl a in aqueous solution and to obtain it as monomer, we have used cyclodextrins, carriers which are able to interact with the pigment and form the inclusion complex. The aim of this study is to examine which types of ROS are formed by Chl a/cyclodextrin complexes in phosphate buffered solution and cell culture medium, using specific molecules, called primary acceptors, which react selectively with the reactive species. In fact the changes of the absorption and the emission spectra of these molecules after the illumination of the PS provide information on the specific ROS formation. The (1) O2 formation has been tested using chemical methods based on the use of Uric Acid (UA), 9,10-diphenilanthracene (DPA) and Singlet oxygen sensor green (SOSG) and by direct detection of Singlet Oxygen ((1) O2 ) luminescence decay at 1270 nm. Moreover, 2,7-dichlorofluorescin and ferricytochrome c (Cyt Fe(3+) ) have been used to detect the formation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical anion, which reduces Fe(3+) of the ferricytochrome to Fe(2+) , respectively.

  18. Innovation for an Inclusive Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springett, Mark; Rice, Mark; Carmichael, Alex; Griffiths, Richard

    This workshop will focus on setting the agenda for research, practice and policy in support of inclusive design for third generation computer-based products. The next generation of technology represents an unprecedented opportunity to improve the quality of life for groups of users who have previously faced exclusion, such as those with impairments and older citizens. At the same time it risks creating a greater digital divide and further exclusion. How we approach design for this new generation will determine whether or not the third wave will provide positive advances towards an inclusive digital world. We therefore need to put forward both a rationale for inclusive design and provide pointers towards technical development and design practice in support of inclusion. It is our belief that there is not only a strong moral case for design for inclusion but also significant commercial incentive, which may be key to persuading influential players to focus on inclusion. Therefore one of our key objectives is to describe and promote the advantages of designing ‘in from the edges’ of the user population rather than designing for a notional ‘average’ user.

  19. Inclusion of lycorine with natural cyclodextrins (α-, β- and γ-CD): Experimental and in vitro evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Guo, Ya-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Zhi-Kuan; Li, Xiang; Yang, Bo; Yang, Rui

    2017-02-01

    The primary goal of this research was to investigate the effect of spatial compatibility in the inclusion complex formation of cyclodextrins with different cavity size on physicochemical and anticancer properties. For this purpose, the binding behaviors of the complex formations of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins with lycorine were observed by the use of UV, MS, XRD, DSC, TG, 1H, and 2D NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The results displayed that the binding behavior was contrary to the size of the CDs, and the value of binding constant of lycorine/γ-CD was the smallest, while the value of binding constant of lycorine/α-CD was the greatest. In vitro study demonstrated that the lycorine-α-CD and lycorine-β-CD are valuable approaches to enhance lycorine bioavailability. The results deduced that using CDs with moderate cavities (such as α-CD or β-CD) as a cyclodextrin-based delivery system to form the lycorine-type inclusion complex could be more applicable, and further helps to improve the properties of lycorine-type therapeutic agent.

  20. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J [Shelley, ID; Jones, Michael G [Chubbuck, ID; Wertsching, Alan K [Idaho Falls, ID; Luther, Thomas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Trowbridge, Tammy L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-11-22

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  1. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  2. Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane

    2012-01-01

    What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide…

  3. Exploring Preservice Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, Isabel; Woronko, Dagmara; Zaretsky, Hayley

    2014-01-01

    This study responds to a call for research into existing teacher-education programmes and their impact on teacher candidates' attitudes. An inclusive education course that examined the difference between "soft inclusion" (inclusion which addresses the issue of place rather than substance of learning) and genuine inclusion was used to…

  4. Inclusion 101: How To Teach All Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Anne M.; Shea, Thomas M.

    This book is designed to help educators provide effective instruction to students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Chapters address: (1) the concepts of inclusive society, schools, classrooms and services; (2) legal foundations for inclusion and government support for education; (3) the qualities of inclusive schools and classrooms; (4)…

  5. The Contours of Inclusion: Inclusive Arts Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Don; Henderson, Bill; Barnum, Leah; Kronenberg, Deborah; Blair, Kati; Jenkins, Richard; Hurel, Nicole Agois

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to share models and case examples of the process of inclusive arts curriculum design and evaluation. The first section explains the conceptual and curriculum frameworks that were used in the analysis and generation of the featured case studies (i.e. Understanding by Design, Differentiated Instruction, and…

  6. Doing Research Inclusively: Bridges to Multiple Possibilities in Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Vinha, Hilra

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of how people do research that matters to people with learning disabilities and that involves them and their views and experiences. The study was an attempt to bring together people doing inclusive research so that, collectively, we could take stock of our practices. This would add to the individual reports and…

  7. Valuing Student Teachers' Perspectives: Researching Inclusively in Inclusive Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black-Hawkins, Kristine; Amrhein, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how engaging with the principles of inclusive research can enhance research studies that set out to understand the experiences of student teachers on initial teacher education programmes. It does so by describing the methodological development of an on-going study of student teachers' perspectives on working with diverse…

  8. Special Teaching for Special Children? Pedagogies for Inclusion. Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann, Ed.; Norwich, Brahm, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Some special needs groups (for example dyslexia) have argued strongly for the need for particular specialist approaches. In contrast, many proponents of inclusion have argued that "good teaching is good teaching for all" and that all children benefit from similar approaches. Both positions fail to scrutinise this issue rigorously and…

  9. Developing Inclusive Practice in Scotland: The National Framework for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Louise; Beaton, Mhairi; Head, George; McAuliffe, Lisa; Moscardini, Lio; Spratt, Jennifer; Sutherland, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the collaborative development of a "National Framework for Inclusion" under the auspices of the Scottish Teacher Education Committee by a working party representing each of the Scottish Universities providing initial teacher education. Recent research, international legislation and Scottish education policy have…

  10. The Inclusion of Music/the Music of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubet, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to situate music within inclusive education. Intersections of music--widely regarded as a "talent" or hyperability--and disability provide unique perspectives on social organisation in general and human valuation in particular. Music is a ubiquitous and an essential component of learning beginning in infancy.…

  11. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  12. Perfluorinated Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their derivatives are important man-made chemicals that have wide consumer and industrial applications. They are relatively contemporary chemicals, being in use only since the 1950s, and until recently, have be...

  13. The Inclusive Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzano-García, Beatriz; Fernández, María Tomé

    2016-01-01

    One of the phenomena that is of most concern to educational policy in Europe is immigration due to the fact that this is the source of new educational needs. This research looks at how European educational legislation deals with this topic. For this intercultural values that make inclusive education will be evaluated, we will analyze intercultural…

  14. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka

    2016-01-01

    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  15. Developing Movement as Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Melanie; Walter, Ofra

    2010-01-01

    This article details the emergence of a training framework to support professional development in inclusive Movement teaching. This arose from a collaborative research project in spring 2008 (supported by the Training and Development Agency, UK), between two universities in England and Israel. Movement education is surprisingly underused globally,…

  16. Grasping the Promise of Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Fern

    A teacher and mother of a child with mental retardation examined the history and current status of the inclusion movement. A review of the historical background considers the origins of special education, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, major court cases, and requirements of the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with…

  17. Inclusive Education and the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the troubled, problematic and contested field of inclusive education, characterised by antagonisms between so-called inclusionists and special educationists; frustration, particularly among disability activists caused by the abstraction of the social model of disability and the expansion of the special educational needs…

  18. Taking Inclusion into the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Gartner, Alan

    1998-01-01

    According to the reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1997), education of disabled children should produce outcomes akin to those expected of "regular" students, and disabled students should be educated with other kids. Implementing inclusive programs will require visionary leadership, educator collaboration,…

  19. Curriculum Adaptation for Inclusive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Tom; And Others

    This manual on curriculum adaptation for inclusive classrooms was developed as part of the PEERS (Providing Education for Everyone in Regular Schools) Project, a 5-year collaborative systems change project in California to facilitate the integration of students with severe disabilities previously at special centers into services at regular school…

  20. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  1. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  3. Tracing Inclusion: Determining Teacher Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Brenda E.; Wimer, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Though there appears to be an onslaught of No Child Left Behind, there is still more emphasis on testing than ever before. With the new implementation of national common-core standards, many school districts have moved towards full inclusive classrooms. However, it is rare that teachers have any input on whether such major decisions are apropos…

  4. Inclusion in the Microsoft Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Since 1975, Microsoft has been a worldwide leader in software, services, and solutions that help people and businesses realize their full potential. Loren Mikola, the Disability Inclusion Program Manager at Microsoft, ensures that this technology also reaches and includes the special needs population and, through the hiring of individuals with…

  5. Four Inclusion Models that Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Dori; McKenney, Merry

    1998-01-01

    Describes four models that have been shown to be effective in including students with disabilities in regular school programs: consultation, team teaching, aide services, and limited pullout service. Advantages and challenges of inclusion at the middle-school level are addressed. (DB)

  6. Leveraging Technology for Educational Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Sudha; Subramaniam, Radha

    2017-01-01

    The divides created by inequalities of income, lopsided growth and by the vicious circle of poverty has ensnared learning and delayed the planned strategies for educational inclusion. India's eighth Five-Year Plan prioritised and allocated increased funding for education with focus on reach-out to the remote interiors and rural India. However,…

  7. Primordial Compositions of Refractory Inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, L; Simon, S B; Rai, V K; Thiemens, M H; Hutcheon, I D; Williams, R W; Galy, A; Ding, T; Fedkin, A V; Clayton, R N; Mayeda, T K

    2008-02-20

    Bulk chemical and oxygen, magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions were measured for each of 17 Types A and B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites. After bulk chemical compositions were corrected for non-representative sampling in the laboratory, the Mg and Si isotopic compositions of each inclusion were used to calculate its original chemical composition assuming that the heavy-isotope enrichments of these elements are due to Rayleigh fractionation that accompanied their evaporation from CMAS liquids. The resulting pre-evaporation chemical compositions are consistent with those predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for high-temperature nebular condensates but only if different inclusions condensed from nebular regions that ranged in total pressure from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -1} bar, regardless of whether they formed in a system of solar composition or in one enriched in OC dust relative to gas by a factor of ten relative to solar composition. This is similar to the range of total pressures predicted by dynamic models of the solar nebula for regions whose temperatures are in the range of silicate condensation temperatures. Alternatively, if departure from equilibrium condensation and/or non-representative sampling of condensates in the nebula occurred, the inferred range of total pressure could be smaller. Simple kinetic modeling of evaporation successfully reproduces observed chemical compositions of most inclusions from their inferred pre-evaporation compositions, suggesting that closed-system isotopic exchange processes did not have a significant effect on their isotopic compositions. Comparison of pre-evaporation compositions with observed ones indicates that 80% of the enrichment in refractory CaO + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to more volatile MgO + SiO{sub 2} is due to initial condensation and 20% due to subsequent evaporation for both Type A and Type B inclusions.

  8. Inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin-dinitrocompounds as UV absorber for ballpoint pen ink.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Krishnan; Radhakrishnan, S; Stalin, Thambusamy

    2014-08-14

    2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP), 2,4-dinitroaniline (2,4-DNA), 2,6-dinitroaniline (2,6-DNA) and 2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid (2,6-DNB) has appeared for the UV absorption bands in different wavelength region below 400 nm, a combination of these dinitro aromatic compounds gave the broad absorption spectra within the UV region. The absorption intensities have been increased by preparation of the inclusion complex of dinitro compounds with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Prepared inclusion complexes are used to improve the UV protection properties of the ball point pen ink against photo degradation. The formation of solid inclusion complexes was characterized by FT-IR, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The UV protecting properties of these inclusion complexes were calculated their sun protection factor (SPF) is also discussed. The stability of the ballpoint pen ink has been confirmed by UV-Visible spectroscopic method.

  9. Inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin-dinitrocompounds as UV absorber for ballpoint pen ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Krishnan; Radhakrishnan, S.; Stalin, Thambusamy

    2014-08-01

    2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP), 2,4-dinitroaniline (2,4-DNA), 2,6-dinitroaniline (2,6-DNA) and 2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid (2,6-DNB) has appeared for the UV absorption bands in different wavelength region below 400 nm, a combination of these dinitro aromatic compounds gave the broad absorption spectra within the UV region. The absorption intensities have been increased by preparation of the inclusion complex of dinitro compounds with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Prepared inclusion complexes are used to improve the UV protection properties of the ball point pen ink against photo degradation. The formation of solid inclusion complexes was characterized by FT-IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The UV protecting properties of these inclusion complexes were calculated their sun protection factor (SPF) is also discussed. The stability of the ballpoint pen ink has been confirmed by UV-Visible spectroscopic method.

  10. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  11. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  12. Volatile Release From The Siberian Traps Inferred From Melt Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Rowe, Michael C.; Ukstins Peate, Ingrid

    2010-05-01

    The Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province is one of the largest known continental flood volcanic provinces in the Phanerozoic. The quantification of volatile degassing is particularly important because the Siberian Traps have often been invoked as a possible trigger for the end-Permian mass extinction (e.g. Campbell et al., 1992; Wignall, 2001). Volatile degassing provides a crucial mechanism to link mafic volcanic eruption with global environmental change. Mafic flood basalt magmas are expected to have low volatile contents (similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts). However, Siberian Traps magmas were chambered in and erupted through a thick sedimentary basin and may have interacted with, and obtained volatiles from, sedimentary lithologies such as limestone, coal, and evaporite. Melt inclusions from the Siberian Traps provide insight into the potential total volatile budget throughout the evolution of the large igneous province. These droplets of trapped melt may preserve volatile species that would otherwise have degassed at the time of eruption. We present data from the analysis of more than 100 melt inclusions, including both homogenized inclusions and rare glassy inclusions with low crystallinity. Many melt inclusions from tuffs and flows near the base of the Siberian Traps sequence are substantially enriched in chlorine and fluorine compared to Deccan Traps and Laki melt inclusions (Self et al., 2008; Thordarson et al., 1996). These inclusions record chlorine concentrations up to ~1400 ppm, and fluorine concentrations up to ~5000 ppm. Olivines from the Maymechinsky suite, recognized as the last extrusive products of Siberian Traps volcanism, contain melt inclusions with maximum sulfur concentrations in the range of ~5000 ppm and substantial concentrations of chlorine. Intrusive igneous rocks from the province also display significant volatile contents. A sill from the Ust-Ilimsk region yielded plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions which contain chlorine and fluorine

  13. Experimental and theoretical NMR determination of isoniazid and sodium p-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    de Assis, João V; Teixeira, Milena G; Soares, Cássia G P; Lopes, Juliana F; Carvalho, Guilherme S L; Lourenço, Maria C S; de Almeida, Mauro V; de Almeida, Wagner B; Fernandes, Sergio A

    2012-10-09

    In this work the inclusion complex formation of isoniazid with sodium p-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes is reported aiming to improve the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of isoniazid a first line antibuberculosis drug. The architectures of the complexes were proposed according to NMR data Job plot indicating details on the insertion of the isoniazid in the calix[n]arenes cavities. DFT theoretical NMR calculations were also performed for sodium p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene complex with isoniazid, with various modes of complexation being considered, to provide support for the experimental proposal. A comparison between experimental and theoretical ¹H NMR chemical shifts profiles allowed for the inclusion complex characterization confirming the isoniazid inclusion mode which is preferentially through the hydrazide moiety. The remarkable agreement between experimental and theoretical NMR profiles adds support to their use in the structural characterization of inclusion compounds. Antibacterial activity was evaluated and the results indicated the inclusion complexes as a potential strategy for tuberculosis treatment.

  14. Friendship in inclusive physical education.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A

    2009-07-01

    Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) physical disabilities. All participants attended a reversely integrated school and were interviewed using a semistructured, open-ended format. An adapted version of Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom's (1996) interview guide exploring perceptions of peer relationships in the sport domain was used. Four conceptual categories emerged from the analysis: development of friendship, best friend, preferred physical activities and outcomes, and dealing with disability. The results demonstrated the key characteristics of best friends and the influential role they play.

  15. Chemical microsensors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, DeQuan; Swanson, Basil I.

    1995-01-01

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: microvillus inclusion disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions microvillus inclusion disease microvillus inclusion ...

  17. Differentiating inclusion complexes from host molecules by tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Botella, S; Martin, M A; del Castillo, B; Vázquez, L

    1996-01-01

    Tapping-mode atomic force microscopy imaging under different cantilever vibration amplitudes has been used to differentiate the host beta-cyclodextrin nanotubes from retinal/beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex nanotubes. It was observed that both compounds were deformed differently by the applied probe force because of their different local rigidity. This change in the elasticity properties can be explained as a consequence of the inclusion process. This method shows that tapping-mode atomic force microscopy is an useful tool to map soft sample elasticity properties and to distinguish inclusion complexes from their host molecules on the basis of their different mechanical response. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:8804591

  18. Recent patents on amylose-flavor inclusion complex nano particles preparation and their application.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Zhuang, Hai N; Xiao, Zuo B; Tian, Huai X

    2011-09-01

    Lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds that are solubilized in the form of nano-sized particles, or "nanoparticles", can be used in pharmacology, in the production of food additives, cosmetics, and agriculture, as well as in pet foods and veterinary products, amongst other uses. This review focuses on nanoparticles and methods for the production of soluble nanoparticles and, in particular, inclusion complexes of water-insoluble lipophilic and water-soluble hydrophilic organic materials, especially flavor compounds. The host molecule is namely V-amylose or modified starch molecule, which could form a cavity to fix or secure guest molecules. Thus, the V-amylose molecular properties and the molecular inclusion complex formation mechanism is firstly introduced, then amylose-other ingredients inclusion complex preparation and application are listed, finally amylose-flavor molecular inclusion complex preparations and its application have been overviewed. Through this review, it is concluded that amylose-small chemical molecule inclusion complexes, especially amylose-flavor inclusion complexes have a marvelous application prospect and have great significance to develop the nano-product application field. This paper reviews the recent patents on amylose-flavour inclusion complex nano particles preparation and their application.

  19. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  20. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  1. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  2. Elements of Inclusion: Findings from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has set the target of 100% of New Zealand schools to be "mostly" inclusive by 2014. But what are the essential elements of inclusion? This paper explores essential core elements that allow inclusion to flourish. Based on an extensive time in the field as part of a year-long doctoral research project, these…

  3. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  4. Feature Issue on Inclusion and School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandercook, Terri; York-Barr, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    This feature issue on inclusion and school restructuring for students with and without disabilities contains the following articles: (1) "The 7 Habits for Educators" (Terri Vandercook); (2) "The Evolution of Inclusive Education" (Jennifer York-Barr and Terri Vandercook); (3) "Creating Inclusive Schools: What Does the…

  5. Inclusive Classes in Physical Education: Teachers' Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toloi, Gabriela Gallucci; Manzini, Eduardo José; Spoldaro, Diego Machado; Zacarias, Lucas Ventura

    2016-01-01

    The successful inclusion of students with special needs in physical education classes requires much planning and preparation. Lack of preparation of physical education teachers working in inclusive settings in Brazil has demonstrated the need for specialized training in strategies for implementing inclusion. The goal of this study was to identify,…

  6. Inclusive Education: Examining Equity on Five Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Waitoller, Federico R., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the impressive growth of inclusive education around the world, questions and considerations about equity have been neglected. This edited volume makes a major contribution to the field of inclusive education by analyzing equity concerns that have emerged from the implementation of inclusive education models in nine nations on five…

  7. Teachers' Experience with Inclusive Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Chong, Wan Har; Neihart, Maureen F.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' positive attitude is most critically and consistently associated with successful inclusion. However, little is known about teachers' first-hand encounters with inclusive education in Singapore. We present findings from a qualitative study on inclusion based on focus group interviews with 202 teachers from 41 resourced primary schools.…

  8. Extremes of Inclusion: Too Much, Too Little.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Kelvin L.

    This study investigated the inclusion of two children (age 7) in a general education classroom to illustrate the concepts of under inclusion and over inclusion. One child, who was found to be under included, rarely played with classmates on the playground and during "choice time" in class spent most of his time watching other children…

  9. Forging Inclusive Solutions: Experiential Earth Charter Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Linda D.

    2010-01-01

    Forging Inclusive Solutions describes the aims, methodology and outcomes of Inclusive Leadership Adventures, an experiential education curriculum for exploring the Earth Charter. Experiential education builds meaningful relationships, skills, awareness and an inclusive community based on the Earth Charter principles. When we meet people where they…

  10. An inclusion measure between fuzzy sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new inclusion measure between fuzzy sets. Firstly, we select an axiomatic definition for the inclusion measure. Then, we present a new computation formula based on the selected axiomatic definition, and demonstrate its two properties. Finally, we give examples to validate its performance. The results show that the new inclusion measure is rational for fuzzy sets.

  11. Ultrastructural cytochemical analysis of intranuclear arsenic inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, E.M.B.

    1987-01-01

    To establish the chemical composition of the arsenic inclusion, freshly isolated preparations of inclusions and epon-embedded thin sections of inclusions were subjected to ultrastructural cytochemical analysis. Intranuclear inclusions are composed of amorphous, arsenic-containing subunits aligned linearly to form a coiled complex. Lipase, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease, trypsin, pepsin, protease, amylase, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to digest or chelate these inclusions. Following enzymatic digestion or chelation, the electron opacity of inclusions was compared with that of control sections exposed for equal times to equivalent solutions lacking the enzymes. Exposure to amylase caused a consistent reduction in the electron opacity of thin sections of inclusions and almost complete digestion of the freshly isolated preparations of inclusions. This was indicative of the presence of a carbohydrate moiety within arsenic inclusions. Incubation of inclusions with EDTA resulted in solubilization of freshly isolated and thin-sectioned embedded material. These data indicated that the intranuclear arsenic inclusion is composed of both metallic and carbohydrate moieties, confirming earlier studies which identified arsenic within inclusions using instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray microprobe analysis.

  12. Inclusive Education in Schools in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callado Moreno, J. Antonio; Molina Jaén, Ma. Dolores; Pérez Navío, Eufrasio; Rodríguez Moreno, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Since Spain decided to embark on the development of inclusive schooling, studies have taken place to see if the inclusive principle is being developed satisfactorily. Inclusive schooling implies that all students, regardless of their particular characteristics, may be taught in ordinary schools, and in the majority of cases receive help in the…

  13. Deconstructing Normalisation: Clearing the Way for Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culham, Andrew; Nind, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers two major movements affecting the lives of people with intellectual disabilities: normalization and inclusion. It reviews the aims, processes, and outcomes of the normalization and social role valorization movement and explores its compatibility with inclusion. Lessons from normalization are applied to the inclusion movement.…

  14. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  15. Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.

    2014-06-01

    We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-<-| S 373K|-<-550- μV-K-1 for undoped samples, it should be possible to obtain highly efficient thermoelectric materials both by adjusting the carrier concentration and by reducing the thermal conductivity. Here, we report the effects of doping on the thermoelectric properties of FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.

  16. Measuring Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms: Development and Validation of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukakou, Elena P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to assess classroom quality in inclusive preschool programs, the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP). Developing the rating scale entailed systematic fieldwork in inclusive settings and review of the literature on preschool inclusion. Results from the validation…

  17. Questioning Secondary Inclusive Education: Are Inclusive Classrooms Always Best for Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tkachyk, Ruth Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Educating students with special needs in inclusive settings has become a priority for westernized governments as they strive to create more inclusive societies. While recognizing the societal benefits of inclusion, teachers and parents question whether or not implementation of full inclusion will come at the expense of learners' individual…

  18. Melt inclusions in Luna 24 soil fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, W.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Optical examinations of 28 slides of Luna 24 soil fragments revealed melt inclusions in grains of olivine, plagioclase, spinel, and ilmenite as well as interstitial inclusions. In contrast with Apollo samples, the Luna 24 samples contain sulfide melt inclusions, which indicates that saturation with respect to an iron sulfide melt took place throughout much of the crystallization history, even while olivine was crystallizing. The Luna 24 silicate-melt inclusions have recorded a more extensive differentiation toward higher iron magmas than have the Apollo inclusions, but they have also recorded some inexplicably low aluminum values.

  19. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  20. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  1. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  2. The crack-inclusion interaction problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue-Hui, L.; Erdogan, F.

    1984-01-01

    The general plane elastostatic problem of interaction between a crack and an inclusion is considered. The Green's functions for a pair of dislocations and a pair of concentrated body forces are used to generate the crack and the inclusion. Integral equations are obtained for a line crack and an elastic line inclusion having an arbitrary relative orientation and size. The nature of stress singularity around the end points of rigid and elastic inclusions is described and three special cases of this intersection problem are studied. The problem is solved for an arbitrary uniform stress state away from the crack-inclusion region. The nonintersecting crack-inclusion problem is considered for various relative size, orientation, and stiffness parameters, and the stress intensity factors at the ends of the inclusion and the crack are calculated. For the crack-inclusion intersection case, special stress intensity factors are defined and are calculated for various values of the parameters defining the relative size and orientation of the crack and the inclusion and the stiffness of the inclusion.

  3. Cyclodextrin Inclusion Polymers Forming Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun

    This chapter reviews the advances in the developments of supramolecular hydrogels based on the polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes formed by inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins threading onto polymer chains. Both physical and chemical supramolecular hydrogels of many different types are discussed with respect to their preparation, structure, property, and gelation mechanism. A large number of physical supramolecular hydrogels were formed induced by self-assembly of densely packed cyclodextrin rings threaded on polymer or copolymer chains acting as physical crosslinking points. The thermo-reversible and thixotropic properties of these physical supramolecular hydrogels have inspired their applications as injectable drug delivery systems. Chemical supramolecular hydrogels synthesized from polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes were based on the chemical crosslinking of either the cyclodextrin molecules or the included polymer chains. The chemical supramolecular hydrogels were often made biodegradable through incorporation of hydrolyzable threading polymers, end caps, or crosslinkers, for their potential applications as biomaterials.

  4. Inclusion bodies: formation and utilisation.

    PubMed

    Fahnert, Beatrix; Lilie, Hauke; Neubauer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The efficient in vivo folding of many heterologous proteins is a major bottleneck of high level production in bacterial hosts and simple optimisation protocols have not been available yet. Therefore, inclusion body (IB) based processes play a major role as a potential strategy for the production of complex recombinant proteins. These processes combine the advantages of a high accumulation of the target protein in well-characterised bacteria such as Escherichia coli, efficient strategies for IB isolation, purification and in vitro protein refolding without the need of complicated coexpression systems. Recent advances in the molecular physiology of IB formation and resolubilisation allow straight-forward optimisation of fermentation processes to obtain a high-quality product. In addition, simple strategies have been developed to optimise the purification and renaturation of disulfide bond containing proteins making a fast transfer of such processes into the industrial production scale realistic.

  5. Inclusion bodies: not that bad…

    PubMed Central

    Ramón, Ana; Señorale-Pose, Mario; Marín, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    The formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) constitute a frequent event during the production of heterologous proteins in bacterial hosts. Although the mechanisms leading to their formation are not completely understood, empirical data have been exploited trying to predict the aggregation propensity of specific proteins while a great number of strategies have been developed to avoid the generation of IBs. However, in many cases, the formation of such aggregates can be considered an advantage for basic research as for protein production. In this review, we focus on this positive side of IBs formation in bacteria. We present a compilation on recent advances on the understanding of IBs formation and their utilization as a model to understand protein aggregation and to explore strategies to control this process. We include recent information about their composition and structure, their use as an attractive approach to produce low cost proteins and other promising applications in Biomedicine. PMID:24592259

  6. Working towards an inclusive curriculum.

    PubMed

    Wren, Y; Parkhouse, J

    1998-01-01

    The move towards an inclusive model of education presents teachers with the difficulty of differentiating the curriculum for children with speech, language and communication impairments. This paper focuses on the 'WiSaLT Curriculum Appendix'-a tool which can be used by teachers and speech and language therapists to help such children access the mainstream curriculum and to promote improvement in their language and communication skills. As well as highlighting potential areas of difficulty within each attainment target for key stage one, the appendix guides users to specific strategies and activities. Thus the speech and language therapist and teacher can identify which attainment targets might prove problematic for any one child and also have access to ideas which can help.

  7. Selective removal of monoterpenes from bergamot oil by inclusion in deoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Fantin, Giancarlo; Fogagnolo, Marco; Maietti, Silvia; Rossetti, Stefano

    2010-05-12

    A new approach for removing monoterpenes (MTs) from bergamot oil by selective inclusion in deoxycholic acid (DCA) is proposed. The inclusion process is very efficient, the included fraction being composed mainly of limonene (71.7%) and gamma-terpinene (19.8%). On the other hand, the deterpenated bergamot oil fraction showed for the linalool and linalyl acetate derivatives significant increases from 16.6 and 21.4% to 18.3 and 42.2%, respectively. The major advantages of this methodology are its simplicity, the mild conditions employed, and the quantitative recovery of both host (DCA) and guest (monoterpenes) compounds. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffractometry (XRPD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and proton magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) analysis were used to investigate and characterize the inclusion compounds.

  8. Gaseous species in fluid inclusions: A tracer of fluids and indicator of fluid processes

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, David I.; Moore, Joseph N.; Yonaka, Brad; Musgrave, John

    1996-01-24

    Quantitative bulk analysis of fluid inclusion volatiles measures the composition of trapped geothermal liquids and vapor. Fluid-inclusion gas-analyses may identify fluid boiling and mixing, and the analyses can be used as a fluid tracer. Fluid boiling is indicated by excess gaseous species. Linear arrays of data points on gas ratio diagrams indicate fluid mixing. Nitrogen-argon ratios are used to discriminate atmospheric fiom magmatic volatiles. Crustal components in geothermal fluids are best indicated by concentrations of methane and helium. Methane strongly correlates with other organic compounds, and N2-Ar-CH4 plots are similar to N2-Ar-He diagrams. Alkene to alkane ratios of C2-7 organic species indicate the oxidation state of geothermal fluids. The Geysers inclusion analyses are an example of how inclusion fluids may be used to understand the paleo hydrology of a geothermal system.

  9. Shock Re-equilibration of Fluid Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, M. E. Elwood; Horz, F.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Fluid inclusions (microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate) are extremely common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide range of geological conditions from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are nearly ubiquitous, only a few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The scarcity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic materials may be a result of (a) the absence of fluids when the mineral was formed on the meteorite parent body or (b) the destruction of fluid inclusions originally contained in meteoritic materials by subsequent shock metamorphism. However, the effects of impact events on pre-existing fluid inclusions trapped in target and projectile rocks has received little study. Fluid inclusions trapped prior to the shock event may be altered (re-equilibrated) or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by terrestrial and meteoritic shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteorite samples.

  10. Making the case for inclusive design.

    PubMed

    Waller, Sam; Bradley, Mike; Hosking, Ian; Clarkson, P John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the University of Cambridge, Engineering Design Centre's (EDC) case for inclusive design, based on 10 years of research, promotion and knowledge transfer. In summary, inclusive design applies an understanding of customer diversity to inform decisions throughout the development process, in order to better satisfy the needs of more people. Products that are more inclusive can reach a wider market, improve customer satisfaction and drive business success. The rapidly ageing population increases the importance of this approach. The case presented here has helped to convince BT, Nestlé and others to adopt an inclusive approach.

  11. Inclusive breakup of three-fragment weakly bound nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, B. V.; Frederico, T.; Hussein, M. S.

    2017-04-01

    The inclusive breakup of three-fragment projectiles is discussed within a four-body spectator model. Both the elastic breakup and the non-elastic breakup are obtained in a unified framework. Originally developed in the 80's for two-fragment projectiles such as the deuteron, in this paper the theory is successfully generalized to three-fragment projectiles. The expression obtained for the inclusive cross section allows the extraction of the incomplete fusion cross section, and accordingly generalizes the surrogate method to cases such as (t, p) and (t, n) reactions. It is found that two-fragment correlations inside the projectile affect in a conspicuous way the elastic breakup cross section. The inclusive non-elastic breakup cross section is calculated and is found to contain the contribution of a three-body absorption term that is also strongly influenced by the two-fragment correlations. This latter cross section contains the so-called incomplete fusion where more than one compound nuclei are formed. Our theory describes both stable weakly bound three-fragment projectiles and unstable ones such as the Borromean nuclei.

  12. Gassmann-Consistency of Inclusion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, M.; Wollner, U.; Dvorkin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Mathematical inclusion theories predict the effective elastic properties of a porous medium with idealized-shape inclusions as a function of the elastic moduli of the host matrix and those of the inclusions. These effective elastic properties depend on the volumetric concentration of the inclusions (the porosity of the host frame) and the aspect ratio of an inclusion (the ratio between the thickness and length). Seemingly, these models can solve the problem of fluid substitution and solid substitution: any numbers can be used for the bulk and shear moduli of the inclusions, including zero for empty inclusions (dry rock). In contrast, the most commonly used fluid substitution method is Gassmann's (1951) theory. We explore whether inclusion based fluid substitution is consistent with Gassmann's fluid substitution. We compute the effective bulk and shear moduli of a matrix with dry inclusions and then conduct Gassmann's fluid substitution, comparing these results to those from directly computing the bulk and shear moduli of the same matrix but with the inclusions having the bulk modulus of the fluid. A number of examples employing the differential effective medium (DEM) model and self-consistent (SC) approximation indicate that the wet-rock bulk moduli as predicted by DEM and SC are approximately Gassmann-consistent at high aspect ratio and small porosity. However, at small aspect ratios and high porosity, these inclusion models are not Gassmann-consistent. For all cases, the shear moduli are not Gassmann-consistent at all, meaning that the wet-rock shear modulus as given by DEM or SC is very different from the dry-rock moduli as predicted by the same theories. We quantify the difference between the two methods for a range of porosity and aspect ratio combinations.

  13. Alaska Inclusion Training Modules: Building Inclusive Classrooms and Schools. Modules 1-3. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Susan, Ed.; Kurka, Diana, Ed.

    This document presents three inservice training modules which focus on the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular education settings in Alaska schools. Module 1, "Setting our Sights on Inclusion," by Diana Kurka, is a three-hour inservice program which provides an introduction to inclusion via sections on: legal and…

  14. Measuring the Quality of Inclusive Practices: Findings from the Inclusive Classroom Profile Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukakou, Elena P.; Winton, Pam J.; West, Tracey A.; Sideris, John H.; Rucker, Lia M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP), an observation measure designed to assess the quality of classroom practices in inclusive preschool programs. The measure was field tested in 51 inclusive classrooms. Results confirmed and extended previous research findings, providing…

  15. Inclusion in High-Achieving Singapore: Challenges of Building an Inclusive Society in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Zachary; Musti-Rao, Shobana

    2016-01-01

    Building an inclusive society in which all people can participate effectively and live together requires understanding inclusive education and its impact on the social order. As countries of different regions face the vast array of challenges unique to their educational systems, it becomes apparent that inclusive societies are intricately tied to…

  16. Supporting the Development of More Inclusive Practices Using the Index for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hick, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion is a central issue for educational psychologists (EPs) today, yet they have often been portrayed as gatekeepers to special provision. One approach for EPs to promote more inclusive practices in schools is through the Index for Inclusion as a vehicle for consultation. This paper reports a study of EPs acting as "critical friends" to…

  17. Supporting Students with Severe Disabilities in Inclusive Schools: A Descriptive Account From Schools Implementing Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Lyon, Kristin J.; Shogren, Karrie A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate practices that support the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in the learning and social activities of inclusive K-8 schools to inform inclusive school reform research and practice. Eighteen K-8 students with severe disabilities in six schools recognized for their implementation of…

  18. Full Inclusion: The Benefits and Disadvantages of Inclusive Schooling. An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    An overview of debated issues related to the benefits and disadvantages of inclusive schooling. The beliefs of districts, school personnel and parents are widely differing as related to the placement of students with special needs in inclusive settings. The examples of current federal laws help to shape the debate of full inclusion in schools…

  19. Inclusive Education: Teacher Perspectives from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Lucy; Nomanbhoy, Alefiya; Tubpun, Tida

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey of views of inclusive education expressed by nearly 300 Malaysian primary school teachers involved in remedial literacy and numeracy education under the country's Literacy and Numeracy Strategy. Overall, the views expressed were positive towards the principle of inclusion. However, despite common professional…

  20. The Sustainability of Inclusive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Shearer, Deirdre K.; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Liebert, Todd W.

    2006-01-01

    For over a decade, University of Florida researchers worked with middle schools in a large urban and suburban south Florida district, as they developed and then worked to sustain inclusive reform. One middle school, Socrates, was notably successful, having built its inclusion model on a foundation of previous reform and a school culture…

  1. Irish Mathematics Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitty, Elaine; Clarke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This paper through the theoretical framework of constructive attitude theory explores mathematics teachers' attitudes and pedagogical strategies with reference to inclusive practice. The authors argue that though teachers may have formed positive inclusive attitudes, the translation of these into practice does not always occur and poses…

  2. Inclusive Education in Thailand: Practices and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorapanya, Sermsap; Dunlap, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Thailand passed legislation on the educational provisions for students with disabilities to mandate the implementation of inclusive education. This article provides a historical overview of special education in Thailand and the emergence of inclusive education as it moves from policy to practice. To further identify the challenges faced…

  3. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  4. Enhancing Theory Courses with Racially Inclusive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon; Liebler, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a blueprint that instructors of mass media theory courses can adopt to expose students to racially inclusive research in order to encourage students to explore and employ relevant theories when probing media and race questions. Offers examples of inclusive media research, examining six prominent theories: selective-perception theory,…

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion: Focus on Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    Early childhood inclusion is a field characterized by a philosophy and practice that encourages full participation of children with disabilities and their families in everyday activities with their typically developing peers. Noting that success in inclusion endeavors requires substantial changes in the way our society thinks, feels, and acts,…

  6. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  7. Inclusive Discourses in Early Childhood Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warming, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis worldwide on "initiatives by governments", this…

  8. Standards & Inclusion: Can We Have Both?. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Gartner, Alan

    Designed for regular and special educators, this 40-minute video profiles inclusive schools from around the country that have successfully incorporated academic standards. It addresses many of the critical issues facing educators who are supporting students with disabilities in inclusive settings. Topics discussed include: (1) the consequences of…

  9. Faculty Preparedness to Build Cultural Inclusiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Dena Renee

    2010-01-01

    Faculty members play a significant role in retaining diverse students, faculty, and staff on a college campus based on how culturally inclusive their behavior is. This research elucidates the development of a faculty inclusiveness survey, and tests it on a national random sample of 637 faculty members to determine how prepared they are to build…

  10. Diversity ? Inclusion: Promoting Integration in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    I argue that enrollment of a diverse student body is but a pragmatic first step toward the broader social goal of inclusion and ask whether motives for campus diversification are aligned with pedagogic goals. I address this question by focusing on inclusion, namely, organizational strategies and practices that promote meaningful social and…

  11. Attitudes of German Student Teachers on Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…

  12. Secondary General Education Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the inception of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, educators have struggled with including students with disabilities in the general education classroom with their nondisabled peers. The inclusion educational model was utilized in this study to explore secondary teachers' attitudes toward inclusive educational…

  13. Geometric Modeling of Inclusions as Ellipsoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Nonmetallic inclusions in gas turbine disk alloys can have a significant detrimental impact on fatigue life. Because large inclusions that lead to anomalously low lives occur infrequently, probabilistic approaches can be utilized to avoid the excessively conservative assumption of lifing to a large inclusion in a high stress location. A prerequisite to modeling the impact of inclusions on the fatigue life distribution is a characterization of the inclusion occurrence rate and size distribution. To help facilitate this process, a geometric simulation of the inclusions was devised. To make the simulation problem tractable, the irregularly sized and shaped inclusions were modeled as arbitrarily oriented, three independent dimensioned, ellipsoids. Random orientation of the ellipsoid is accomplished through a series of three orthogonal rotations of axes. In this report, a set of mathematical models for the following parameters are described: the intercepted area of a randomly sectioned ellipsoid, the dimensions and orientation of the intercepted ellipse, the area of a randomly oriented sectioned ellipse, the depth and width of a randomly oriented sectioned ellipse, and the projected area of a randomly oriented ellipsoid. These parameters are necessary to determine an inclusion s potential to develop a propagating fatigue crack. Without these mathematical models, computationally expensive search algorithms would be required to compute these parameters.

  14. Inclusive Focus Particles in English and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sang-gu

    2011-01-01

    When discussing focus particles, it has been common practice to rely on the dichotomy of inclusive vs. exclusive particles, "a la" Konig (1991). Inclusive focus particles are often further divided into scalar particles, such as "also", "too", and "either", and non-scalar particles, such as "even". In this thesis, I advance a comparative analysis…

  15. Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

  16. Inclusive Partnership: Enhancing Student Engagement in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Cherry, Niamh; Healey, Ruth; Nicholson, Dawn T.; Andrews, Will

    2016-01-01

    Partnership is currently the focus of much work within higher education and advocated as an important process to address a range of higher education goals. In this paper, we propose the term "inclusive partnership" to conceptualise a non-selective staff-student relationship. While recognising the challenges of inclusive partnership…

  17. Questions of Inclusion in Scotland and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines inclusion in Scotland and in Europe. It considers some of the uncertainties surrounding inclusion and the questions--many of which give cause for concern--that are currently being raised by researchers, teachers and their representative unions, parents and children. The shifting political and policy contexts and recent patterns…

  18. Effective Leadership Makes Schools Truly Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    There's been much commitment and extensive legislation intended to make schools inclusive for all students but not much real progress in improving student outcomes. The authors review and assess several schools that have succeeded at making schools inclusive and effective for all students, including those with disabilities and draw some inferences…

  19. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  20. Inclusive Education Reform: Implications for Teacher Aides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Patricia; Carrington, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    In Queensland, inclusive education reform is on the political agenda, following the report of the Ministerial Taskforce on Inclusive Education (students with disabilities) in 2004. The Government's responses to the initiatives outlined in the taskforce report emphasise a commitment to social justice and equity so that all students can be included…

  1. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  2. Beyond Prejudice: Inclusive Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vikki; Armstrong, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Promoting an inclusive learning environment that caters for all learners and their individual needs and meeting challenging targets set in this area is a huge under taking for providers across the learning and skills sector. This booklet provides an overview that illustrates the breadth and variety that the broad banner of inclusive learning…

  3. Students' Perspectives on LGBTQ-Inclusive Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapp, Shannon D.; Burdge, Hilary; Licona, Adela C.; Moody, Raymond L.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Implementing curriculum that is inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) people has the potential to create an equitable learning environment. In order to learn more about students' experiences of LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum, 26 high school students with diverse racial/ethnic, sexual, and gender identities…

  4. Inclusion body hepatitis in kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of suspected adenovirus etiology was the apparent cause of death of 9 captive kestrels (Falco sparverius). Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion; disseminated hepatocellular necrosis and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Attempts to reproduce the disease, and to propagate and serologically characterize the agent were unsuccessful.

  5. The Inclusive Secondary School Teacher in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the 1992 Disability Discrimination Act in Australia and parental support for inclusion, regular teachers now include students with disabilities in their classes. Inclusion has been more successful in primary than in secondary schools. Secondary schools remain a challenge due to their traditional focus on curriculum, examinations,…

  6. Inclusive Schooling Policy: An Educational Detective Story?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Julianne

    2003-01-01

    Since the publication of the Salamanca statement (UNESCO 1994), inclusive schooling has formed a growing part of the deliberations of the special education community. Inclusive schooling research in Australia in the main continues to reproduce traditions of the special education field, emphasising the dominant psychological perspectives that have…

  7. Moving Forward in Inclusive Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erten, Ozlem; Savage, Robert Samuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address conceptual and methodological challenges of doing research in the field of inclusive education and revisit school effectiveness research literature to inform future research. First, we present the rationale for inclusive education and briefly review the evolution of special needs education. Then, we discuss limitations…

  8. Teachers' Misunderstanding: The Concept of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagi, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' misunderstanding the concept of inclusive education will not lead to good practices, rather make an exclusive environment for pupils with special educational needs in mainstream schools. This study clarified teachers' attitudes towards the image of inclusive education with conjoint analysis and cluster analysis. The participants for this…

  9. Special or Inclusive Education: Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Lani Florian, Professor of Social and Educational Inclusion at the University of Aberdeen, examines the relationships between "special" and "inclusive" education. She looks at the notion of specialist knowledge among teachers and at the roles adopted by staff working with pupils with "additional" or "special" needs in mainstream…

  10. Understanding Principals' Attitudes towards Inclusive Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jeff; du Plessis, Diana

    1997-01-01

    Inclusion is both a philosophy based on social justice and a practice requiring significant adaptations by the school community. This article presents qualitative data on over 200 Queensland (Australia) principals toward inclusion. Responses suggest the majority are "qualified" inclusionists. Although mindful of social-justice…

  11. 75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... BOARD 12 CFR Part 906 FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1207 RIN 2590-AA28 Minority and Women... Mac), and the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and... establish an Office of Minority and Women Inclusion, or designate an office, responsible for carrying...

  12. What's Working: Topics in Inclusive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What's Working, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on what works in inclusive education. A major article is "Inclusive Education: Needs of Minnesota Families--Major Findings from a 'Together We're Better' Study." This article presents findings of a statewide survey of families of children with disabilities. Findings are categorized within four areas: (1)…

  13. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: A Genealogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to engage in an historical analysis of research about two concepts: social justice leadership and leadership for inclusion. Recent experiences have caused me to wonder about our interpretations of justice, equity, and inclusion. Analysis of the relevant literature revealed a lack of consensus among scholars as to a…

  14. Older Women's Career Development and Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…

  15. Leading under Pressure: Leadership for Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muijs, Daniel; Ainscow, Mel; Dyson, Alan; Raffo, Carlo; Goldrick, Sue; Kerr, Kirstin; Lennie, Clare; Miles, Susie

    2010-01-01

    In this study we undertook to look at leadership issues specifically in relation to social inclusion, through a series of six case studies in three districts showing high levels of disadvantage. Findings indicated that schools' views on social inclusion could be typified as leaning towards three main orientations: (1) improving achievement and…

  16. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  17. International Perspectives on Inclusion: Concluding Thoughts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Vianne

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses overall trends and commonalities among previous articles on inclusion in the United Kingdom, Ireland, India, South Africa, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. It concludes that inclusive education must be viewed in a broader context that looks at school reform and the societal context. Teacher education is stressed.…

  18. Inclusive Education: A Series of Issue Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Coalition on School Inclusion, Springfield.

    Thirteen brief papers address issues in inclusive education, with special emphasis on concerns and applications in Illinois. The following issues are discussed: (1) the relationship of the inclusive schools concept to that of providing a continuum of alternative placement options; (2) needed changes in current funding of special education to…

  19. International Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pursley, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of students with disabilities in the general education classroom has become a universally debated topic in education. More schools all over the world are seeking to use inclusion as their main service delivery model for students with disabilities. Much research has been conducted globally to gain insights into general education…

  20. Adolescents and Inclusion: Transforming Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Anne M.; Brown, Glenda Myree

    Written with teachers, administrators, and students of Purcell Marian High School in Cincinnati, Ohio, this book is grounded in a 2-year action research project that created an inclusive high school. Chapter 1 provides snapshots of interactions in an inclusive high school and refutes some of the concerns expressed by teachers and administrators.…

  1. Inclusive Education in Malaysia: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelas, Zalizan M.; Ali, Manisah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia's move towards inclusion was given impetus by its participation in workshops and conferences set up under the auspices of the United Nations (UNESCO 1990; UN 1993; UNESCO 1994). Inclusive education was introduced in the Education Act 1996 as part of the continuum of services available for children with special needs. The purpose of this…

  2. Green Inclusion: Biophilia as a Necessity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrianos, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that there is a strong link between the pedagogy for inclusion and the pedagogy of environmental education and tries to identify any benefits that could be acquired by pupils when the school system tries to use environmental educational programmes to promote inclusion. The idea of promoting a school yard into a school garden is…

  3. Guided Reading in Inclusive Middle Years Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Wanda; Thompson, Scott Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Teachers in inclusive classrooms are challenged to provide reading instruction for students with a wide range of instructional levels. This article reports on the implementation of guided reading in four middle years inclusive classrooms, the impact on student engagement and reading progress, and teacher perspectives on the guided reading…

  4. Tensions around Inclusion: Reframing the Moral Horizon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Jennifer; Murphy, Elizabeth; Almack, Kathryn; Harvey, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Background: Inclusion is one of four policies for people with disabilities in the UK. Criticisms of its three key attributes--mainstreaming, independent living and employment--are reviewed. Methods: This study of 28 young people, most with severe intellectual disabilities, investigated engagement with inclusion at their transition to adult…

  5. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  6. Database of Minerals Inclusions as a Tool of Solution of Genetical and Practical Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, N. I.; Melnikova, N. G.; Yanson, S. Yu.; Michailov, *V. V.; Michailova, A. V.

    The minerals inclusions keep the information about their origin: temperature, pressure associations, solutions compound. The study of inclusions is extremely important as with scientific, and practical point of view. The character and type of mineral inclusion help to determinate: · physic-chemical parameters of mineral and deposit formation, · the origin of precious and semiprecious stones (natural or synthetic/artificial). A lot of papers and several useful, nice books are on this subject, but an electronic database don't exist. A creation of the database (DB) of mineral inclusions was begun at the Mineralogical Department, Geological Faculty, St.-Petersburg State University, Russia in 2000. Its main purpose is to gather and systematize the results of termobarogeochemistry researches made by the authors and the Russian and foreign scientists. DB allows to get fast access to a huge volume of the information on minerals inclusions and their physic-chemical formation parameters. The work version of the database is realized in an environment of MS ACCESS. It contains the following data: - inclusions types in various mineral species; - images/photos of mineral fluid inclusions; - texts of mineral's inclusion papers (in Russian and/or English); - deposit information: deposit names, geographical localities, geological characteristics, maps, the rocks and associated minerals descriptions; - artificial mineral data containing the characteristic of various synthesis methods. The DB structure allows to carry out interactive search and selection of the information. The authors belief that this electronic database will be most useful for mineralogist, geologist and jewelers in their scientific and practical work. It may be used in educational activity of the Univetsities and Highscools. It is planning to make in future a website where will be presented the mineral inclusions database with possibility of interactive search on different parameters.

  7. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  8. Letter : NIR FT-Raman microspectroscopy of fluid inclusions: Comparisons with VIS Raman and FT-IR microspectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pironon, J.; Sawatzki, J.; Dubessy, J.

    1991-12-01

    The first Raman spectra of hydrocarbon inclusions using Fourier transform (FT) Raman microspectroscopy were obtained with a 1064 nm laser excitation in the near-infrared range (NIR FT-Raman). Some inclusions reveal the typical CH vibrational bands of organic compounds, but most of the inclusions that are fluorescent during visible Raman microspectroscopy (514 nm excitation) are still fluorescent in the NIR range. These Raman spectra are presented and compared to the conventional visible (VIS) Raman and FT-IR spectra. For spectra obtained on the same nonfluorescent inclusion, the signal/background ratio is lower in NIR FT-Raman than in VIS Raman. This ratio should be improved by application of more sensitive detectors. The increase of the power density (laser power/impact laser area) could be a future improvement in the limit of thermal background excitation and pyrolysis of the oils trapped in inclusions.

  9. Characterization of Nonmetallic Inclusions in High-Manganese and Aluminum-Alloyed Austenitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jin; Min, Dong Joon

    2012-07-01

    The effects of Al and Mn contents on the size, composition, and three-dimensional morphologies of inclusions formed in Fe- xMn- yAl ( x = 10 and 20 mass pct, y = 1, 3, and 6 mass pct) steels were investigated to enhance our understanding of the inclusion formation behavior in high Mn-Al-alloyed steels. By assuming that the alumina is a dominant oxide compound, the volume fraction of inclusions estimated from the chemical analysis, i.e., insoluble Al, in the Fe-Mn-3Al steels was larger than the inclusion volume fractions in the Fe-Mn-1Al and Fe-Mn-6Al steels. A similar tendency was found in the analysis of inclusions from a potentiostatic electrolytic extraction method. This finding could be explained from the terminal velocities of the compounds, which was affected by the thermophysical properties of Fe-Mn-Al steels. The inclusions formed in the Fe-Mn-Al-alloyed steels are classified into seven types according to chemistry and morphology: (1) single Al2O3 particle, (2) single AlN or AlON particle, (3) MnAl2O4 single galaxite spinel particle, (4) Al2O3(-Al(O)N) agglomerate, (5) single Mn(S,Se) particle, (6) oxide core with Mn(S,Se) skin (wrap), and (7) Mn(S,Se) core with Al2O3(-Al(O)N) aggregate (or bump). The Mn(S,Se) compounds were formed by the contamination of the steels by Se from the electrolytic Mn. Therefore, the raw materials (Mn) should be used carefully in the melting and casting processes of Fe-Mn-Al-alloyed steels.

  10. Crystallographic orientations of olivine inclusions in diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, S.; Nestola, F.; Angel, R. J.; Nimis, P.; Harris, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report for the first time the crystallographic orientations of olivine inclusions trapped in diamonds from the Kaapvaal craton (South Africa) determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and analyze them together with all available data in the literature. The overall data set indicates no preferred orientation of the olivine inclusions with respect to their diamond hosts. However, diamonds containing multiple olivine inclusions sometimes show clusters of olivines with the same orientation in the same diamond host. We conclude that such clusters can only be interpreted as the remnants of single olivine crystals pre-dating the growth of the host diamonds.

  11. Nickel and chromium isotopes in Allende inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birck, J. L.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-precision nickel and chromium isotopic measurements were carried out on nine Allende inclusions. It is found that Ni-62, Ni-64, excesses are present in at least three of the samples. The results suggest that the most likely mechanism for the anomalies is a neutron-rich statistical equilibrium process. An indication of elevated Ni-60 is found in almost every inclusion measured. This effect is thought to be related to the decay of now extinct Fe-60. An upper limit of 1.6 X 10 to the -6th is calculated for the Fe-60/Fe-56 ratio at the time these Allende inclusions crystallized.

  12. Detecting and Correcting Melt Inclusion Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, E.; Kelley, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    Post entrapment diffusive modification of melt inclusions may mute or erase primary signatures. Corrections for post-entrapment crystallization (PEC) and Fe-loss are routinely applied and, because recent experimental studies suggest rapid diffusion of trace components into and out of olivine-hosted inclusions, the ability to discriminate between primary and secondary signatures is now even more critical. Two tools may assist in this endeavor. XANES measurements of Fe3+/ΣFe ratios in undegassed ol-hosted basaltic melt inclusions from global arcs are 16-36% (n=16), significantly higher than the 7-10% commonly assumed, and higher than in MORB or BABB lavas (Kelley and Cottrell, this mtg). The Fe3+/ΣFe ratios indicate melt-host equilibrium, with significantly less PEC or Fe-loss than would have been otherwise assumed. We conclude that Fe2+ diffusion has been minimal; therefore the residence time of these primitive inclusions in an evolved magma must have been short. Fe3+/ΣFe correlates positively with water concentration, but not with CO2 and S concentrations or Mg#. The oxidized nature of arc lavas and melt inclusions may therefore indicate an oxidized source rather than late-stage degassing or fractionation. Trace element concentrations evolve with time if an inclusion is out of equilibrium with its host. The numerical model of Cottrell et al., 2002, makes specific predictions about how suites of melt inclusions evolve, creating a tool to detect post-entrapment modification. Recent laboratory measurements of REE diffusion in olivine greatly diverge (at 1300°C, 1015 vs 1019m2/s). If REE diffusivity is extremely fast, melt inclusion HREE diversity shouldn't survive more than a few years in a magma chamber; but if slow, HREE variance could be preserved for >104 yrs. Model analysis of published suites of ol-hosted inclusions indicates that either REE diffusion is quite slow, or the residence time of melt inclusions at high temperature is very short. Loss of variance

  13. Fluorocarbon compounds in MRI diagnostics and medical therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirogov, Yu

    2016-02-01

    The lecture describes the application of fluorocarbon compounds as blood substitutes and contrasting preparations in MRI diagnostics. A blood substitute product fluorocarbon Perfluorane® has shown effectiveness in oxygen delivery to the tissues of living organisms, and cardioprotective effect which does not depend on the patient's blood group. Inclusion of paramagnetic atoms (gadolinium, iron, etc.) to the Perfluorane® chemical formula creates a new compound with high MRI contrast efficiencies at Larmor frequencies of protons so and fluorine-19 nuclei.

  14. Volatile Release from the Siberian Traps Inferred from Melt Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, B. A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Rowe, M. C.; Ukstins Peate, I.

    2009-12-01

    The Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province is one of the largest known continental flood volcanic provinces in the Phanerozoic. The quantification of volatile degassing is particularly important because the Siberian Traps have often been invoked as a possible trigger for the end-Permian mass extinction (e.g. Campbell et al., 1992; Wignall, 2001). Volatile degassing provides a crucial mechanism to link mafic volcanic eruption to global environmental change. Mafic flood basalt magmas are expected to have low volatile contents (similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts). However, Siberian Traps magmas were chambered in and erupted through a thick sedimentary basin and may have interacted with, and obtained volatiles from, sedimentary lithologies such as limestone, coal, and evaporite. Melt inclusions from the Siberian Traps provide insight into the potential total volatile budget throughout the evolution of the large igneous province. These droplets of trapped melt may preserve volatile species that would otherwise have degassed at the time of eruption (Thordarson et al., 1996). Mafic pyroclastic deposits from the lowermost Arydzhangsky suite (basal Siberian Traps) contain clinopyroxene phenocrysts hosting melt inclusions. Electron microprobe analysis of clinopyroxene-hosted re-homogenized melt inclusions indicates maximum measured concentrations of up to 1500 - 2000 ppm sulfur, 500 - 760 ppm chlorine, and 1900 - 2400 ppm fluorine. Olivines from the Maymechinsky suite, recognized as the last extrusive products of Siberian Traps volcanism, contain melt inclusions with maximum sulfur concentrations in the range of 5000 ppm, and less substantial concentrations of chlorine and fluorine. Intrusive igneous rocks from the province also display significant volatile contents. A sill from the Ust-Ilimsk region yielded plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions which contain chlorine and fluorine concentrations nearing one weight percent. Visscher et al. (2004) proposed that chlorofluorocarbon

  15. Refractory Inclusions in Pristine Chondrites: Population Comparisons and Equilibrium Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S. B.

    2016-08-01

    The refractory inclusion populations of two CO3 chondrites, DOM 08006 and MIL 090019, were investigated. In both samples >10% of the inclusions contain grossite, a predicted solar condensate, rare in most inclusion populations but significant here.

  16. The interaction between inclusions and cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.

    1973-01-01

    Some current fracture theories are reviewed and a group of mechanics problems of practical interest relating to the elastic interaction between cracks and inclusions are identified and results summarized.

  17. Is inclusive education a human right?

    PubMed

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I question the general idea that inclusive education--i.e., to teach all students in one class--is a moral human right. The following discussion shows that the widespread view in disability studies that there is a moral human right to inclusive education can be reasonably called into question by virtue of the proposed counter arguments, but without denying that inclusive education is of utmost importance. Practically speaking, the legal human right to inclusive education is of great practical value for impaired students, and for their basic right to be free from discrimination in education, since their concern thereby gains great legal and moral force. But, theoretically speaking, this particular human right lacks an attainable consensus concerning proper moral justification.

  18. Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Paul

    2011-07-15

    Recent inclusive charged and neutral current scattering data from HERA are presented. Emphasis is placed on the resulting constraints on the proton parton densities and on the influence of low x proton structure on diffraction.

  19. Water loss from olivine hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Provost, A.; Schiano, P.; Cluzel, N.

    2009-12-01

    Water content in melt inclusions has long been used as an important index for the water content of the hosting magma. However, many studies have shown that post-entrapment diffusive re-equilibration can affect the water content of melt inclusions. This process must be considered when using melt inclusions to infer water content of the hosting magma. Theoretical model on the diffusive re-equilibration between melt inclusions and external melts showed that the re-equilibration rate depends on the diffusivity of the re-equilibrating species in the host mineral, the partition coefficient of this species between the host mineral and melt, and the geometry of the melt inclusion and host mineral. The water diffusivity in olivine and water partition coefficient between melt and olivine have been measured by recent studies, therefore the diffusive re-equilibration model can be tested by experiments. In this study, we carried out in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements on the water content of olivine hosted melt inclusions at high temperatures. Initial water content of the melt inclusions is about 4 wt%. A heating stage system is combined with a microscope FTIR and the absorption spectrum through the olivine and melt inclusion is repeatedly measured. Although the absorption band at around 3540 cm-1 has not be calibrated at high temperatures, it is assumed that the absorbance is linearly related to the total water concentration in the melt inclusion, and the relative water content can be inferred. Cautions have been exercised to maintain a consistent measurement spot such that the thickness of the melt inclusion within the beam path did not change significantly during each experiment. Oxygen fugacity in the heating stage is controlled by Zr purified Ar gas to be about 7 logarithm units below the QFM buffer and about 1 logarithm unit above the QIF buffer at 1473 K. Preliminary results showed that at 1430 and 1581 K, the total water content of the

  20. A highly hydrated α-cyclodextrin/1-undecanol inclusion complex: crystal structure and hydrogen-bond network from high-resolution neutron diffraction at 20 K.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, Delphine; Le Bas, Geneviève; Mason, Sax A; Prangé, Thierry; Lesieur, Sylviane

    2013-04-01

    The monoclinic C2 crystal structure of an α-cyclodextrin/1-undecanol host-guest inclusion complex was solved using single-crystal neutron diffraction. Large high-quality crystals were specially produced by optimizing temperature-controlled growth conditions. The hydrate crystallizes in a channel-type structure formed by head-to-head dimer units of α-cyclodextrin molecules stacked like coins in a roll. The alkyl chain of the guest lipid is entirely embedded inside the tubular cavity delimited by the α-cyclodextrin dimer and adopts an all-trans planar zigzag conformation, while the alcohol polar head group is outside close to the α-cyclodextrin primary hydroxyl groups. The cyclodextrin dimer forms columns, which adopt a quasi-square arrangement much less compact than the quasi-hexagonal close packing already observed in the less hydrated α-cyclodextrin channel-type structures usually found with similar linear guests. The lack of compactness of this crystal form is related to the high number of interstitial water molecules. The replacement of 1-undecanol by 1-decanol does not modify the overall crystal structure of the hydrate as shown by additional X-ray diffraction investigations comparing the two host-guest assemblies. This is the first study that analyses the entire hydrogen-bonding network involved in the formation of a cyclodextrin dimer surrounded by its shell of water molecules.

  1. Crack-Inclusion Interaction: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    familiar with basic linear elastic fracture mechanics with enough depth of knowledge in the crack-inclusion interaction problem to understand further...the stress field around an ellipsoidal inclusion using the superposition of two linear elastic problems solved using a Green’s function approach (5...He imagined a homogeneous linear elastic solid volume, for example, figure 5a, with some known elastic constants, say Eijkl. Within this semi

  2. Unusual inclusions found in a national diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, I.S.

    1985-01-01

    Three pale yellow minerals, 100-200 microns in their longest dimension, were extracted from a diamond 2.5 mm in size and examined in an SEM equipped with an X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer. These inclusions were found to be two grains of garnet and a coesite, all of which contain a microscopic grain of Ti-rich biotite, a small amount of sanidine and a number of other minerals. (1) Garnet-biotite-apatite-rutile-sanidine-(Fe,Ca) melt. Attached to one end of this garnet inclusion is a crystal of biotite (50 x 30 ..mu..m) in which an apatite and a rutile are embedded. A thin lamella of sanidine occurs in the biotite near the garnet boundary. (2) Garnet-biotite-apatite-sanidine-rutile-pyrrhotite-(Fe,Ca,K) phase (unidentified). This garnet inclusion partially encased a biotite crystal while all other phases occur as minute prismatic needles or irregular and globular masses on the inclusion surface. (3) Coesite-biotite-sanidine-calcite. They are considered primary phases because the diamond host contains neither internal nor external fractures. Garnet, coesite, biotite and apatite are syngenetic inclusions in this diamond based on their relatively large sizes and their intergrown relationships. All other phases may also be primary or derived from biotite which, in the presence of sulfur, may produce phlogopite + sanidine + pyrrhotite + rutile. The droplets of melt and thin lamella of sanidine in inclusion (1) seem to be products of incongruent melting of biotite during the emplacement of kimberlite.

  3. Do Melt Inclusions Answer Big Questions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Sobolev, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    In a pioneering paper, Sobolev and Shimizu (1993) demonstrated the existence of ultra-depleted melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in MORB. They interpreted these as evidence for the preservation of parental melts formed by progressive near-fractional melting. Subsequently many cases have been described where melt inclusions from single basalt samples display enormous chemical and isotopic heterogeneity. The interpretation of these observations hinges critically on whether such melt inclusions can faithfully preserve primary or parental melt composition. If they do, melt inclusion data can truly answer big questions from small-scale observations. If they do not, they answer rather small questions. Favoring the second possibility, Danyushevsky et al. (2004) have suggested that much of the observed variability of highly incompatible trace elements in melt inclusions “may not represent geologically significant melts, but instead reflect localized, grain-scale reaction processes within the magmatic plumbing system.” We disagree and show that this mechanism cannot, for example, explain isotopic heterogeneity measured in several suites of melt inclusions, nor does it not account for the presence of ultra-depleted melts and "ghost" plagioclase signatures in other inclusions. More recently, Spandler et al. (2007) have suggested on the basis of experimental evidence that diffusion rates for REE in olivine are so rapid that parental melt compositions in melt inclusions are rapidly falsified by diffusional exchange with (evolved) host lava. We show that the very fact that extreme chemical and isotopic heterogeneities are routinely preserved in melt inclusions demonstrates that this conclusion is unwarranted, either because residence times of the olivine phenocrysts are much shorter than assumed by Spandler et al. or because the high experimental diffusion rates are caused by an unknown experimental artifact. Although there is no obvious flaw in design and execution of

  4. One-pot mechanosynthesis with three levels of molecular self-assembly: coordination bonds, hydrogen bonds and host-guest inclusion.

    PubMed

    Friscić, Tomislav; Mestrović, Ernest; Skalec Samec, Dijana; Kaitner, Branko; Fábián, László

    2009-11-23

    Liquid-assisted grinding (LAG) was used to combine three levels of molecular self-assembly into a one-pot mechanochemical approach for the construction of metal-organic materials. The approach was applied for the construction of three adducts of cobalt(II) dibenzoylmethanate with isonicotinamide, nicotinamide and imidazole, to screen for their inclusion compounds. The one-pot process consists of: i) The coordination-driven binding of addends to the equatorially-protected metal ion, resulting in "wheel-and-axle"-shaped complexes; ii) self-assembly of resulting complexes by way of hydrogen-bonded synthons to form metal-organic inclusion hosts; iii) in situ inclusion of the grinding liquid in the resulting host. This approach provided quantitatively and within 20 min the known inclusion compounds of the bis(isonicotinamide) adduct in a single synthetic step. Changing the liquid phase in LAG was used to explore the inclusion behaviour of new wheel-and-axle adducts with nicotinamide and imidazole, revealing several inclusion compounds, as well as two polymorphs, of the bis(nicotinamide) host. Preliminary results suggest that one-pot LAG is superior to solution synthesis in screening for metal-organic inclusion compounds. The difference between the methods is rationalised in terms of reactant solubility and solvent competition. In contrast to the nicotinamide adduct, the bis(imidazole) adduct did not form inclusion compounds. The difference in the inclusion properties of the two adducts is rationalised by structural information gathered by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction.

  5. Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre

    2006-12-15

    In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights.

  6. Mass spectrometric identification of boric acid in fluid inclusions in pegmatite minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.E.; Taylor, M.C.

    1996-09-01

    Direct, on-line mass spectrometric analyses were performed on volatiles released from microscopic fluid inclusions in quartz, feldspar, and tourmaline from the miarolitic Belo Horizonte No. 1 pegmatite in the San Jacinto district, and Himalaya pegmatite dike system in the Mesa Grande district of southern California. These analyses are the first inclusion volatile studies to indicate the presence of significant and variable concentrations of B compounds in pegmatite formation fluids. Boron appears as boric acid B(OH){sub 3}, which is found at levels ranging from less than detection limit (<10{sup {minus}7} mole fraction) to as high as 10{sup {minus}4} mole fraction. High B concentrations are seen in inclusion fluids from miarolite filling quartz, cleavelandite variety albite feldspar, and schorl tourmaline from the Belo Horizonte No. 1, while negligible amounts appear in late-stage green/pink-zoned gem elbaite tourmalines from that mine. Fluid inclusions in quartz, as well as grey and pink tourmaline form the miarolites in the Himalaya mine, have undetectable levels of B compounds. In addition to confirming the presence of very high boric acid concentrations in some pegmatite forming solutions, observations of large variations in abundance may provide new constraints on fluid chemical evolution trends during the genesis of these regionally and paragenetically complex gem deposits. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. When Inclusion Is Innovation: An Examination of Administrator Perspectives on Inclusion in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2011-01-01

    This article examines administrator perspectives of innovative services for the inclusion of young children with disabilities in regular preschool classrooms in China. Twelve directors from 12 pilot inclusion preschools in Beijing participated in this study. Qualitative interview results revealed the following subthemes: definition, advocacy,…

  8. The Inclusion of Inclusive Education in International Development: Lessons from Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Fanu, Guy

    2013-01-01

    A new "inclusive" curriculum has been introduced in Papua New Guinea, with significant levels of support from a bilateral development agency. The curriculum is inclusive in the sense that it is designed to meet the diverse, complex, and ever-changing needs of students. Research indicates the curriculum has been shaped by various…

  9. Exploring the Landscape of Inclusion: Profiles of Inclusive versus Segregated School Districts in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Susan Unok; Kurth, Jennifer A.; Bartz, Jody Marie

    2014-01-01

    Although inclusive education has been increasing in frequency for students with disabilities in the United States, for many students, the opportunity to be educated with their peers without disabilities continues to be out of reach despite decades of efforts by those promoting the vision of inclusion. This exploratory case study used interviews…

  10. Insights into Inclusive Education through a Small Finnish Case Study of an Inclusive School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarr, Jane Mary; Tsokova, Diana; Takkunen, Ulla-Maija

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to present data and discussion arising from a case study of a school in Finland renowned for its practice in the inclusion of learners with additional support requirements due to cognitive and physical disabilities. It aims to establish how the school staff understand their practice with inclusion through day-to-day professional…

  11. Inclusive Education: Identifying Teachers' Strategies for Coping with Perceived Stressors in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackenreed, Darlene

    2011-01-01

    This research replicates the study conducted by Forlin (2001) in Churchlands, Western Australia. Forlin's Inclusive Education "Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire" was adapted from the original questionnaire to more accurately reflect the language and practice of inclusion in Ontario. The purpose of this portion of the study was to…

  12. Supporting the Transition to Inclusive Education: Teachers' Attitudes to Inclusion in the Seychelles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Susan; Chambers, Dianne J.; Sarah, Paulette

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of children with disability in regular classroom settings has been identified worldwide as crucial to the provision of effective education for all children and to the creation of more inclusive societies. To this end there has been significant focus on pre-service and in-service teacher education to ensure that teachers are…

  13. Inclusion "All Present and Correct?" A Critical Analysis of New Labour's Inclusive Education Policy in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on Derrida this paper considers how inclusive education in England was defined and operationalised within New Labour's educational policy and by those teachers who reconstructed this policy within the confines of schools and individual classrooms. The paper has two critical ambitions. First it argues that the epistemology of inclusion was…

  14. Teaching Inclusively: Are Secondary Physical Education Student Teachers Sufficiently Prepared to Teach in Inclusive Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Janine Kim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Contemporary British educational guidelines, such as the National Curriculum (NC) have adopted inclusivity in the way children with special educational needs (SEN) are taught. Therefore, inclusion has risen up the political agenda, resulting in more children with SEN being taught in mainstream environments. Empirical research has…

  15. An Arendtian Perspective on Inclusive Education: Towards a Reimagined Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education currently appears to be undergoing a crisis and re-examination. This paper presents a new approach to thinking about inclusiveness in the school context. Many positions within inclusive education seem to take political, social and ethical perspectives as a starting point, which has allowed inclusive movements and initiatives…

  16. Language and Social Inclusion: Unexplored Aspects of Intercultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Simon; Bradshaw, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Social inclusion policy in Australia has largely ignored key issues of communication for linguistic minorities, across communities and with the mainstream community. In the (now disbanded) Social Inclusion Board's reports (e.g., Social Inclusion Unit, 2009), the emphasis is on the economic aspects of inclusion, while little attention has been paid…

  17. Patterns of Inclusive Education through the Practice of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelides, Panayiotis

    2008-01-01

    For the purpose of moving towards more inclusive practices, the research literature argues that we have to investigate in greater depth the way in which universities respond to inclusive education. This paper investigates the nature of inclusive education through the practice of student teachers and sees how so-called inclusive education manifests…

  18. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for...

  19. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for...

  20. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for...

  1. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for...

  2. Inclusion: What It Is and How It Works Best.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffel, Debora L.; Kallam, Michael; Smith, K. Ninia; Hoernicke, Placido Arturo

    Inclusion is a way of providing a normalized educational experience for all children with disabilities. Educators differ, however, on the meaning of inclusion, from full-inclusion advocates to those who assert "inclusive" means that learning needs are met in a range of service delivery contexts. Three components of inclusionary schooling that are…

  3. Inclusive cultural empathy for successful global leadership.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Paul B; Pope, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Empathy is reported in the research literature as a necessary factor in counseling and psychotherapy, but psychologists have historically interpreted empathy through an exclusively individual focus. Most of the research on empathy has been predicated on a definition of empathy as occurring when one person vicariously experiences the feelings, perceptions, and thoughts of another. In Western cultures, the study of empathy focuses exclusively on the individual, whereas in traditional non-Western cultures, empathy more typically involves an inclusive perspective focusing on the individual and significant others in the societal context. This article explores the reframing of "empathy," based on an individualistic perspective, into "inclusive cultural empathy," based on a more relationship-centered perspective, as an alternative interpretation of the empathic process. Psychologists are both the problem and the solution to this dilemma, and the authors call upon the field to take leadership in applying this "inclusive cultural empathy" model.

  4. Inclusion probability with dropout: an operational formula.

    PubMed

    Milot, E; Courteau, J; Crispino, F; Mailly, F

    2015-05-01

    In forensic genetics, a mixture of two or more contributors to a DNA profile is often interpreted using the inclusion probabilities theory. In this paper, we present a general formula for estimating the probability of inclusion (PI, also known as the RMNE probability) from a subset of visible alleles when dropouts are possible. This one-locus formula can easily be extended to multiple loci using the cumulative probability of inclusion. We show that an exact formulation requires fixing the number of contributors, hence to slightly modify the classic interpretation of the PI. We discuss the implications of our results for the enduring debate over the use of PI vs likelihood ratio approaches within the context of low template amplifications.

  5. Inclusions in freely suspended smectic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Harth, Kirsten

    Smectic liquid crystal phases have a unique property: Like soap solutions, they can form stable freely suspended films. Their aspect ratios can be larger than one million to one. Such films can serve as models for two-dimensional (2D) uids, with or without in-plane anisotropy. Solid or liquid inclusions trapped in these films by capillary forces can move in the film plane and interact with other inclusions, with film thickness gradients or the film boundaries, and even with the local orientation field. We describe preparation techniques to incorporate particles or droplets in thin smectic films, and optical observation methods. Several aspects make inclusions in freely suspended films interesting research objects: They provide rich information on capillary forces as well as surface and interfacial tensions, they can serve as platforms for hydrodynamic studies in 2D, and they may help to understand coalescence dynamics at the transition from 2D to 3D...

  6. αB-crystallin negative astrocytic inclusions.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Brad P; Bressler, Joseph; Chen, Terina; Hutchins, Grover M; Crain, Barbara J; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2011-04-01

    We report on an unusual pathological finding of astrocytes, observed in the brain of a 16-year-old African-American male with severe intellectual disability and spastic quadriplegia. The brain showed bilateral pericentral, perisylvian polymicrogyria and pachygyria, in conjunction with a large number of hypertrophic astrocytes with eosinophilic granular cytoplasmic inclusions. The astrocytic abnormality was more severe in the dysgenetic area but present throughout the cerebral cortex. Astrocytic inclusions stained with acid fuchsin, azocarmine and Holzer's stain, and were immunoreactive for GFAP, S-100, and ubiquitin, but not for αB-crystallin, filamin, vimentin, nestin, tau or α-synuclein. Based on the case and a review of the literature, the authors postulate that these astrocytic inclusions in the cerebral cortex reflect abnormalities in radial glial developmental processes, such as migration, differentiation, or glial-neuronal interaction function during neuronal migration.

  7. History of Inclusive Design in the UK.

    PubMed

    John Clarkson, P; Coleman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The UK Design Council describes Inclusive Design as neither a new genre of design, nor a separate specialism, but as a general approach to designing in which designers ensure that their products and services address the needs of the widest possible audience, irrespective of age or ability. Inclusive Design (also known [in Europe] as Design for All and as Universal Design in the USA) is in essence the inverse of earlier approaches to designing for disabled and elderly people as a sub-set of the population, and an integral part of a more recent international trend towards the integration of older and disabled people in the mainstream of society. This paper describes the development of Inclusive Design in the UK, from its early beginnings, through its subsequent adoption as a topic of academic research, leading to its recent emergence embodied as a framework and toolkit for design.

  8. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  9. Dinitroso and polynitroso compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gowenlock, Brian G.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2005-01-01

    The growing interest in the chemistry of C-nitroso compounds (RN=O; R = alkyl or aryl group) is due in part to the recognition of their participation in various metabolic processes of nitrogen-containing compounds. C-Nitroso compounds have a rich organic chemistry in their own right, displaying interesting intra- and intermolecular dimerization processes and addition reactions with unsaturated compounds. In addition, they have a fascinating coordination chemistry. While most of the attention has been directed towards C-nitroso compounds containing a single –NO moiety, there is an emerging area of research dealing with dinitroso and polynitroso compounds. In this critical review, we present and discuss the synthetic routes and properties of these relatively unexplored dinitroso and polynitroso compounds, and suggest areas of further development involving these compounds. (126 references.) PMID:16100619

  10. Inclusion of Paracetamol into β-cyclodextrin nanocavities in solution and in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kemary, Maged; Sobhy, Saffaa; El-Daly, Samy; Abdel-Shafi, Ayman

    2011-09-01

    We report on steady-state UV-visible absorption and emission characteristics of Paracetamol, drug used as antipyretic agent, in water and within cyclodextrins (CDs): β-CD, 2-hydroxypropyl- β-CD (HP- β-CD) and 2,6-dimethyl- β-CD (Me- β-CD). The results reveal that Paracetamol forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with CD. Upon encapsulation, the emission intensity enhances, indicating a confinement effect of the nanocages on the photophysical behavior of the drug. Due to its methyl groups, the Me- β-CD shows the largest effect for the drug. The observed binding constant showing the following trend: Me- β-CD > HP- β-CD > β-CD. The less complexing effectiveness of HP- β-CD is due to the steric effect of the hydroxypropyl-substituents, which can hamper the inclusion of the guest molecules. The solid state inclusion complex was prepared by co-precipitation method and its characterization was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H NMR and X-ray diffractometry. These approaches indicated that Paracetamol was able to form an inclusion complex with CDs, and the inclusion compounds exhibited different spectroscopic features and properties from Paracetamol.

  11. Synthesis and structure of new carbohydrate metal-organic frameworks and inclusion complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Jing-Quan; Wu, Lian-He; Li, Shu-Xian; Yang, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Qian-Nan; Zhu, Pei-Pei

    2015-12-01

    Two new metal-organic framework compounds based on natural β-cyclodextrin molecules (β-CD) and alkali metals (Na+/K+) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, XPRD and 1HNMR. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compounds 1 and 2 possess the bowl-like pore and the "8" type double channels configuration. Due to the [blow + channel] double configuration, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and Quercetin inclusion complexes of compound 1 are studied, and the results show that the two kinds of drug with different structure and size can be included into the compound at the same time, which is expected to become a new type of multi-functional green crystalline solid material.

  12. Inclusive Jet ALL Measurements at Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszak, D.

    2009-09-01

    We report STAR's preliminary measurement of the inclusive jet longitudinal spin asymmetry ALL using data from the RHIC 2006 run. The 2006 data set was taken with 200 GeV polarized proton-proton collisions and represents 4.7 pb-1 of data. Typical beam polarizations were ~ 55 - 60%. The data are compared with theoretical calculations of ALL based on various GRSV models of the polarized parton distribution functions in the nucleon. Previous STAR inclusive jet ALL and cross section measurements are also presented, as is a discussion of constraints these data place on the allowed theoretical models.

  13. Sulfide Inclusions in Electroslag Remelted Steels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    8089 6ASS ACUET NTO TEC C MDEDP FMTRA EC F01/SULFIDE INCLUSIONS I N ELECTROSLAG REMELTED STEELS (U)~JAN 1 40BOLDY, T FUJII, D R PoI RIER DAAGA6-78-C...NATIONAL BUREAU Of SIAND1ARDS 1963-A A): D O C AMMRC TR 81-4 SULFIDE INCLUSIONS P ELECTROSLAG REMELTED STEELS January 1981 M. D . Boldy, T. Fujii, D . R...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. ELECT S APR8 1981D S[tE TED Prepared for D ARMY MATERIALS AND MECHANICS RESEARCH CENTER Watertown

  14. Deformation initiation and localization around inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Luiz F. G.; Rybacki, Erik; Dresen, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Deformation localization along narrow zones of variable scales is a common feature in orogenic belts. Although there are a number of studies that focus on the evolution of brittle fault zones, little is known about the initiation and localization of ductile shear zones. To study the nucleation and evolution of high temperature shear zones, we performed shear experiments in marbles containing structural heterogeneities and analyzed the deformation microstructures and the resulting crystallographic orientation. Cylindrical samples of coarse-grained Carrara marble containing one or two 1 mm thin artificially prepared sheets of fine-grained Solnhofen limestone were deformed in a Paterson-type gas deformation apparatus at 900 ° C temperature and confining pressures of 300 and 400 MPa. Three samples were deformed in axial compression at a bulk strain rate of 8x10-5s-1to axial strains between 0.02 and 0.21 and 15 samples were twisted in torsion at a bulk shear strain rate of 2x10-4s-1to shear strains between 0.01 and 3.74. At low strains, intense twinning of calcite is observed in the calcite grains of Carrara marble near the inclusion. The distance from the tip of the inclusion in which twinning is observed increases with increasing strain. Orientation of the twin planes may vary from parallel to normal to the tip of the inclusion, and with increasing strain there is a tendency of development of "twin conjugates". Together with twinning, subgrain boundaries are observed in this region, possibly followed by initial grain size reduction. In these experiments, strain is localized into narrow bands, as revealed by misorientation maps showing the degree of internal lattice distortion of individual calcite crystals around the tip of the inclusion, reaching values from 3 to 10° , depending on the strain. Internal misorientation of grains increases with decreasing distance to the inclusion. Strain is localized into narrow, long bands extending several mm into the matrix. The

  15. Social Exclusion/Inclusion: Foucault's Analytics of Exclusion, the Political Ecology of Social Inclusion and the Legitimation of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a broad philosophical and historical background to the dyad of social exclusion/inclusion by examining the analytics and politics of exclusion first by reference to Michel Foucault who studies the modern history of exclusion and makes it central to his approach in understanding the development of modern institutions of emerging…

  16. From Inclusion for Some to Inclusion for All: A Case Study of the Inclusion Program at One Catholic Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paz, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Catholic schools in the United States have grappled with how to serve students with disabilities without the funding sources available to public schools. This mixed methods case study examines the driving forces, restraining forces, and social justice issues that influenced the development of an inclusion program at one Catholic elementary school.…

  17. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro anti-inflammatory evaluation of novel water soluble kamebakaurin/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Aun; Sun, Huifang; Bano, Shumaila; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Xiuquan; Tang, Jian

    2017-02-01

    To enhance the aqueous solubility of kamebakaurin (KA), it was complexed with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD). In this study, the interaction KA with HP-β-CD and their inclusion complex behavior were determined by different characterization techniques such as UV-vis, 1H NMR, FT-IR, PXRD and SEM. All the characterization information proved the development of inclusion complex KA/HP-β-CD, and this inclusion complex demonstrated discriminable spectroscopic characteristics and properties from free compound KA. The results demonstrated that the water solubility of KA was remarkably increased in the presence of HP-β-CD. Furthermore, in vitro anti-inflammatory study showed that inclusion complex KA/HP-β-CD maintained the anti-inflammatory effect of KA. These results demonstrate that HP-β-CD will be promisingly employed in the application of water-insoluble anti-inflammatory phytochemicals such as KA.

  18. Solid inclusion thermobarometry under fire: Heating experiments on encapsulated quartz inclusions in garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Kyle T.; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Bodnar, Robert J.; Darling, Robert S.

    2016-04-01

    Internal pressures of mineral inclusions (Pincl) result from differences in elastic properties of the inclusion mineral and its host mineral. Recent studies utilize pressure-sensitive Raman spectroscopic waveshifts to determine the retained Pincl and apply elastic theory to estimate pressure (or temperature) conditions of entrapment. Quartz inclusions are commonly utilized because quartz is a "soft," compressible mineral that is ubiquitous as an inclusion phase in continental metamorphic rocks. Garnet is a commonly used host because it is rigid and isotropic. Quartz inclusions trapped in garnet at high-P, low-T conditions will retain high Pincl; whereas those trapped at low-P, high-T conditions yield negative waveshifts equating to "negative" pressure, or net tensile stress on the inclusion. While Pincl can be accurately calculated from Raman data, barometry relies also upon the quality of the elastic model, which fundamentally depends on the quality of the P -V -T equations of state (EOS) applied. For quartz, EOS modeling is challenging due to the spontaneous strain that develops close to the lambda transition. In this study we conduct heating experiments on quartz inclusions in garnet from natural samples to assess the response of inclusion pressure to varying temperature (at ambient external pressure), and to evaluate predictions based on commonly applied EOS. Experiments were conducted on two quartz standards (a Herkimer "diamond" and Brazillian quartz) and four completely encapsulated inclusions of quartz in garnet from three tectonically diverse terranes, including: (i) a dilated quartz inclusion (Pincl = -4.3 kbar) from Port Leyden, Adirondack Mountains, New York, (ii) a Barrovian-sequence quartz inclusion from northern Scotland (Pincl = 3.1 kbar), and (iii) two high-pressure (blueschist) quartz inclusions from Sifnos, Greece (Pincl = 7.7 and 8.9 kbar). Standards were heated in 25 ° C increments with smaller increments near the lambda transition. Quartz

  19. Effect of inclusions' distribution on microwave absorbing properties of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Siliang; Wang, Qingguo; Qu, Zhaoming

    2013-03-01

    Effect of inclusions' spatial distributions on the permeability and permittivity of composites is studied using the generalized Maxwell-Garnett equations. The result indicates that inclusions' orientation distribution can increase the longitudinal electromagnetic parameters. For inclusions' random and orientation distribution, single and three-layer absorbers are designed and optimized using genetic algorithm. The result shows that under a given absorbing requirement, absorber with inclusions' orientation distribution is lighter and thinner than absorber with inclusions' random distribution.

  20. Compositional space boundaries for organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Marshall, Alan G; Hsu, Chang Samuel

    2012-04-03

    An upper elemental compositional boundary for fossil hydrocarbons has previously been established as double-bond equivalents (i.e., DBE = rings plus double bonds) not exceeding 90% of the number of carbons. For heteroatom-containing fossil compounds, the 90% rule still applies if each N atom is counted as a C atom. The 90% rule eliminates more than 10% of the possible elemental compositions at a given mass for fossil database molecules. However, some synthetic compounds can fall outside the upper boundary defined for naturally occurring compounds. Their inclusion defines an "absolute" upper boundary as DBE (rings plus double bonds to carbon) equal to carbon number plus one, and applies to all organic compounds including fullerenes and other molecules containing no hydrogen. Finally, the DBE definition can fail for molecules with particular atomic valences. Therefore, we also present a generalized DBE definition that includes atomic valence to enable calculation of the correct total number of rings, double bonds, and triple bonds for heteroatom-containing compounds.

  1. Fluid-deposited graphitic inclusions in quartz: Comparison between KTB (German Continental Deep-Drilling) core samples and artificially reequilibrated natural inclusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pasteris, J.D.; Chou, I.-Ming

    1998-01-01

    We used Raman microsampling spectroscopy (RMS) to determine the degree of crystallinity of minute (2-15 ??m) graphite inclusions in quartz in two sets of samples: experimentally reequilibrated fluid inclusions in a natural quartz grain and biotite-bearing paragneisses from the KTB deep drillhole in SE Germany. Our sequential reequilibration experiments at 725??C on initially pure CO2 inclusions in a quartz wafer and the J. Krautheim (1993) experiments at 900-1100??C on organic compounds heated in gold or platinum capsules suggest that, at a given temperature, (1) fluid-deposited graphite will have a lower crystallinity than metamorphosed organic matter and (2) that the crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is affected by the composition of the fluid from which it was deposited. We determined that the precipitation of more-crystalline graphite is favored by lower fH2 (higher fO2), and that the crystallinity of graphite is established by the conditions (including gas fugacities) that pertain as the fluid first reaches graphite saturation. Graphite inclusions within quartz grains in the KTB rocks show a wide range in crystallinity index, reflecting three episodes of carbon entrapment under different metamorphic conditions. Isolated graphite inclusions have the spectral properties of totally ordered, completely crystalline graphite. Such crystallinity suggests that the graphite was incorporated from the surrounding metasedimentary rocks, which underwent metamorphism at upper amphibolite-facies conditions. Much of the fluid-deposited graphite in fluid inclusions, however, shows some spectral disorder. The properties of that graphite resemble those of experimental precipitates at temperatures in excess of 700??C and at elevated pressures, suggesting that the inclusions represent precipitates from C-O-H fluids trapped under conditions near those of peak metamorphism at the KTB site. In contrast, graphite that is intimately associated with chlorite and other

  2. When social inclusion is not enough: Implicit expectations of extreme inclusion in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    De Panfilis, Chiara; Riva, Paolo; Preti, Emanuele; Cabrino, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) might feel rejected even when socially included by others. A psychological mechanism accounting for this response bias could be that objective social inclusion violates BPD patients' underlying implicit needs of "extreme" inclusion. Thus, this study investigated whether, during interpersonal exchanges, BPD patients report more rejection-related negative emotions and less feelings of social connection than controls unless they are faced with conditions of extreme social inclusion. Sixty-one BPD patients and 61 healthy controls completed a modified Cyberball paradigm. They were randomly assigned to a condition of ostracism, social inclusion, or overinclusion (a proxy for extreme social inclusion). They then rated their emotional states and feelings of social connection immediately and 20 min after the game. BPD patients reported greater levels of negative emotions than controls in the ostracism and the inclusion conditions, but not when overincluded. Furthermore, only for BPD participants was overinclusion associated with experiencing less negative emotions than the ostracism condition. However, BPD patients reported lower feelings of social connection than controls in any experimental situation. Thus, in BPD, a laboratory condition of "overinclusion" is associated with a reduction of negative emotions to levels comparable to those of control participants, but not with similar degrees of social connection. These results suggest that for BPD patients, even "including contexts" activate feelings of rejection. Their implicit expectations of idealized interpersonal inclusion may nullify the opportunity of experiencing "real" social connection and explain their distorted subjective experiences of rejection.

  3. Seamless Teaching: Navigating the Inclusion Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Lois

    2013-01-01

    In schools across the country, students in special education and general education are increasingly learning together in inclusive classrooms. This is a significant civil-rights achievement, but it also means students in special education are being taught by general education teachers who may not have the training and skills to best serve them.…

  4. "Shakespeare with Heart": An Inclusive Drama Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Ilene E.

    2008-01-01

    This article features Shakespeare with Heart, a two week inclusive summer program for middle and high school students with and without disabilities. The program runs each morning until noon, culminating with a workshop performance of a Shakespeare play with full costume and set with a live audience of parents, friends, and community members. The…

  5. Inclusive Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dizdarevic, Alma; Vantic-Tanjic, Medina; Nikolic, Milena

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the different challenges faced by all members of the local community who are directly or indirectly responsible for the educational reform regarding the process of inclusion in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Yugoslavia education system is regulated in canton legislature. Each canton has its own law on preschool, elementary school,…

  6. Equity and Inclusion outside the School's Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ange

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, controversy has reigned over the rights of children with learning disabilities to be educated alongside their peers in a mainstream classroom. Whether this is called integration or inclusion has been another hotly debated discussion among professionals. There have been calls for the abolition of special schools. This paper…

  7. 75 FR 1289 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... each regulated entity's and the Office Finance's annual report on Minority and Women Inclusion. Section... recruiting at historically Black colleges and universities, Hispanic-serving institutions, women's colleges.... FHFA's outreach is intended to ensure that minorities, women and individuals with disabilities,...

  8. Making Campuses More Inclusive of Transgender Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beemyn, Brett Genny

    2005-01-01

    This article examines a number of areas of campus life where transgender students experience discrimination because of gender-exclusive policies and practices: health care, residence halls, bathrooms, locker rooms, records and documents, public inclusion, and programming, training, and support. The specific obstacles faced by transgender students…

  9. Paleotemperatures preserved in fluid inclusions in halite

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.M.; Spencer, R.J.

    1995-10-01

    A variety of paleoclimate proxy records allow determination of relative warming or cooling. However, if we are to understand climate change, quantification of past temperature fluctuations is essential. Our research indicates that fluid inclusions in halite can yield homogenization temperatures that record surface brine temperatures at the time of halite precipitation. To avoid problems with stretching, leaking, and initial trapping of air, samples with primary, single-phase (liquid) fluid inclusions are chilled in a freezer to nucleate vapor bubbles. We tested the reliability of this method of obtaining fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures using modern salts precipitated at Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California. Homogenization temperatures correlate well with measured brine temperatures. The same method is applied to fluid inclusions in Pleistocene halite from a core taken at the same location in Death Valley. Results are at several scales, recording diurnal temperature variations, seasonal temperature fluctuations, and longer-term warming and cooling events that correlate with major changes in the sedimentary environment related to climate. This technique is uniquely instrumental for paleoclimate studies because it offers actual, not just proxy, paleotemperature data. 27 refs., 17 figs.

  10. Understanding Teachers' Concerns about Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Monika; Das, Ajay; Sharma, Sushama; Tiwari, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the concerns of regular elementary school teachers in Gurgaon, India, in order to work with students with disabilities in inclusive education settings. A total of 175 teachers responded to a two-part questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The data indicated that the teachers in Gurgaon,…

  11. How Inclusive Is the Literacy Hour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearmouth, Janice; Soler, Janet

    2001-01-01

    This article explores the implications of recent British government initiatives for pupils who experience difficulties in literacy development. It focuses on the contradictions between the inclusive requirements of the National Curriculum and the prescriptive pedagogy of the National Literacy Strategy. The effect of these contrasting policies and…

  12. Social Inclusion of Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This feature issue presents articles on the social inclusion of people with developmental disabilities into the community and also some related news items. This issue provides profiles of organizations, workplaces, and schools that are successfully integrating people with developmental disabilities into community activities. The articles are:…

  13. Measuring Teacher Efficacy to Implement Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Forlin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure perceived teacher efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. An 18-item scale was developed on a sample of 607 pre-service teachers selected from four countries (Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and India). Factor analysis of responses from the sample revealed three factors: efficacy in…

  14. Building Inclusive Communities: A Social Capital Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Harriet; Laumatia, Laura; Luckey, Brian; Traver, Sue; Nauman, Arlinda; Tifft, Kathee; Liddil, Audrey; Hampton, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Population shifts have changed the face of many Idaho communities, but inclusive relationships among groups can build the social capital required for communities to thrive. University of Idaho Extension developed "Idaho's Journey for Diversity and Human Rights" as a hands-on traveling workshop about past and present issues of human…

  15. IDEA 1997--"Inclusion Is the Law."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Qaisar

    This paper stresses that the word "inclusion" is not used in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that the law calls for students with disabilities to be provided with a free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment. Ten 1997-1999 court cases that address the placement of students with…

  16. High School Teachers' Perceptions of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Carmen Celestine

    2012-01-01

    With the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind, school systems must ensure students with disabilities receive instruction in general education classrooms. Implementing the inclusion model has been challenging for many school systems as the systems try to find ways to meet the needs of their diverse student populations. The purpose of this…

  17. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  18. Changes in Preservice Teacher Attitudes toward Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Kristine D.; Nordness, Philip D.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite federal mandates to educate students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment, teachers continue to have mixed feelings about their own preparedness to educate students with disabilities in the general education setting. However, research has demonstrated that teachers with more positive attitudes toward inclusion are more…

  19. Discourse Practices in Inclusive Elementary Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Cynthia C.; League, Martha B.; Griffin, Valerie L.; Bae, Jungah

    2013-01-01

    In this exploratory study, teachers' use of standards-based, discourse practices and their students' mathematics learning in inclusive elementary mathematics classrooms were examined. Two beginning teachers (one third-grade teacher, one fourth-grade teacher) and six students identified with disabilities or as low performing in mathematics…

  20. Middle Schools Principals' Attitudes about Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Gloria Denise

    2009-01-01

    Important legislation has demanded the education of students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment. Administrators, principals and educators in the local schools are impacted tremendously by this decision. The necessity to provide an appropriate education for special needs children while successfully implementing inclusion is a…

  1. Expanding Opportunities: An Interagency Inclusion Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that both young children with disabilities and their peers benefit from participating together in quality programs and community activities. However, inclusive opportunities for young children with disabilities are often not systematic, comprehensive or necessarily of high quality. Cross-agency dialogue and commitment among…

  2. Inclusion: Is It Stressful for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study involving 225 regular primary school teachers and 42 principals in western Australia found that the inclusion of a child with a mild intellectual disability significantly increased the educators' appraisal of stress severity. Gender and special school/regular school variables were analyzed. (CR)

  3. Inclusion in PK-12: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcic, Svjetlana

    2009-01-01

    With an aim to investigate inclusion across borders, quantitative and qualitative data were examined that came from 18 countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Finland, France, Iceland, India, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the USA. Four themes emerged in this study: (1) concerns…

  4. Transformative Pathways: Inclusive Pedagogies in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guojonsdottir, Hafdis; Cacciattolo, Marcelle; Dakich, Eva; Davies, Anne; Kelly, Claire; Dalmau, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a three-year study of Praxis Inquiry based developments in teacher education undertaken by an international consortium of university colleagues who have worked in Australia, Iceland, Latvia, and the United Kingdom. Our study suggests that the attainment of inclusive community responsive pedagogies--in schools and in teacher…

  5. Expressive Arts--Embodying Inclusive Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Graça Duarte; Lima-Rodrigues, Luzia Mara

    2016-01-01

    The Declaration of Salamanca proposes a deep reformulation of educational praxis which has as a main goal to create an environment where all students can enjoy learning, improve and grow in confidence, in a perspective of Inclusive Education. In this sense, it is necessary that teachers acquire scientific and educational skills but, also,…

  6. Early Childhood Inclusion in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…

  7. "Coming out Crip" in Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erevelles, Nirmala

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: The author argues that within inclusive education's almost obsessive focus on space, there is a tendency to ignore the ideological assumptions that undergird the curricular and extracurricular practices in schools that serve to construct certain student subjectivities as deviant, disturbing, and dangerous, thereby justifying…

  8. Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Arash; Goriely, Alain

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can be described by distributed eigenstrains. Geometrically, the eigenstrains define a Riemannian 3-manifold in which the body is stress-free by construction. The problem of residual stress calculation is then reduced to finding a mapping from the Riemannian material manifold to the ambient Euclidean space. Using this construction, we find the residual stress fields of three model systems with spherical and cylindrical symmetries in both incompressible and compressible isotropic elastic solids. In particular, we consider a finite spherical ball with a spherical inclusion with uniform pure dilatational eigenstrain and we show that the stress in the inclusion is uniform and hydrostatic. We also show how singularities in the stress distribution emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between radial and circumferential eigenstrains at the centre of a sphere or the axis of a cylinder. PMID:24353470

  9. Inclusive Schooling: Are We There yet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causton, Julie; Theoharis, George

    2013-01-01

    Today, when trying to find a way to an unfamiliar destination, many rely on global positioning systems, or GPS technology. "Recalibrating" and "Whenever possible make a legal U-turn" are now ubiquitous phrases in the audio backdrop to many car trips. One can think about modern-day inclusive education in similar terms. The…

  10. Educational Technology for the Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starcic, Andreja Istenic

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates the development of an educational technology curriculum aimed at pre-service, primary education and undergraduates; the focus is on the incorporation of ICT competences for inclusive education. The framework was the introduction of SEVERI e-learning environment in Slovenian schools. Students were able to monitor…

  11. Creating Inclusive Schools for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causton-Theoharis, Julie; Theoharis, George

    2008-01-01

    In this article, a former principal at Falk Elementary School in Madison, Wisconsin, describes his school's shift as it sought to create an inclusive school for all students and establish an authentic sense of belonging. Nationwide, schools and districts from Concord, New Hampshire, to Whittier, California, and from Cambridge, Massachusetts, to…

  12. Inclusive Education--Empirical Experience from Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacevic, Jasmina; Macesic-Petrovic, Dragana

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study finds out the problems most frequently facing the children with special needs in regular schooling. The sample included 500 teachers in elementary schools from Serbia. The results point out the problems in inclusive education. Most educational problems occur in relations and communications with their peers in typical…

  13. Attitudes to Normalisation and Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagi, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to clarify the features of teachers' image on normalisation and inclusive education. The participants of the study were both mainstream teachers and special teachers. One hundred and thirty-eight questionnaires were analysed. (1) Teachers completed the questionnaire of SD (semantic differential) images on…

  14. Academic Freedom and the Inclusive University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Sharon E., Ed.; Pavlich, Dennis, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore issues related to academic freedom and the inclusive university. The first section, Clarifying Concepts in Ideology, Language, and Law, contains these chapters: (1) Whats Sauce for One Goose: The Logic of Academic Freedom (Stanley Fish); (2) Academic Freedom: Rights as Immunities and Privileges (Frederick…

  15. On the Dirt Road to Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiazowski, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education in the Republic of South Africa has been codified and written down in the form of White Papers. From the legislative point of view, the situation is clear. The reality however shows that the implementation of the law is still at its infancy. Students with visual impairments are practically confined to being educated in…

  16. Essential Features of Methodologically Inclusive Research Syntheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suri, Harsh

    Contemporary educational research is marked by diversity, complexity, and richness of purposes, methods, and perspectives. A framework, the Methodologically Inclusive Research Synthesis (MIRS), has been developed to offer a set of guidelines to facilitate informed choices at the critical decision points of any research synthesis process. The MIRS…

  17. Comprehensive School Reform and Inclusive Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the emphasis in public policy and the professional literature on developing inclusive programs for students with disabilities over the past 30 years, surprisingly little progress has been made in this regard in school districts across the United States. One approach to change that is currently being used with some success in general…

  18. 75 FR 10446 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... BOARD 12 CFR Part 906 FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1207 RIN 2590-AA28 Minority and Women... issuing notice and opportunity for the public to comment on this proposed rule on minority and women... to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. Consequently,...

  19. Inclusive Therapeutic Preschool Programs for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William H.

    1995-01-01

    Examines definitions, scope, and negative effects of child abuse and neglect. Recommends inclusive therapeutic preschool programs to address special needs of children with significant histories of child maltreatment. Identifies service coordination for families and integration of early education and related services as critical components of the…

  20. [International aspects of inclusion in schools].

    PubMed

    Häßler, Frank; Burgert, Michael; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Chodan, Wencke

    2015-07-01

    The term inclusion (=admittance, involvement) is used almost synonymously for the concept of the joint schooling of children with and without intellectual disabilities, language disabilities, physical handicaps, or mental disorders. This article addresses the current state of inclusion in Germany as well as the international situation, such as the Salamanca Declaration of the UNESCO, the «Individuals with Disabilities Act» (IDEA) in the United States as well as European developments, particularly in Great Britain, Austria, and Russia. Even though, from a political perspective, the decision in favor of inclusion seems irreversible, there appears to be a lack an agreement on the modality and timeframe. Thus, the average percentage of students with special education needs in Germany amounts to only 28.2%. The reasons behind this situation are presently being analyzed and discussed. A question of key importance concerns the benefit for the persons concerned, since that should be the measure of the success of inclusion. This question will most likely be validly answered only for individual subgroups of disabilities. This field still requires extensive research.

  1. Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2013-01-01

    Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

  2. Student Behaviour Self-Monitoring Enabling Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jull, Stephen K.

    2009-01-01

    Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school…

  3. Student Teacher Perspectives on Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, Ann; Cohen, Judith; Salazar, Liliana; Marshall, Deidre

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discover Florida International University student teachers' perceptions and experiences about inclusive education during their student teaching internship. A total of 271 student teachers (all those enrolled in Spring 06 and Fall 06 student teaching) participated. A mixed methods design was utilized to analyze the…

  4. Inclusion and Equity in Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, David; Graham, Lorraine; Stevens, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a large-scale, in-depth study of secondary schools in one Australian state that were achieving exceptional outcomes. The element of that study on which this paper focuses is equity and inclusion. We examine the Equity programs operating in seven sites where schools were including students experiencing some form of…

  5. Methodological Challenges in Researching Inclusive School Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Benjamin, Shereen; Sheehy, Kieron; Collins, Janet; Hall, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the methodological challenges faced in a pilot study of the processes and cultures of inclusion and exclusion in two primary school classrooms. The authors, who were the research team, engaged with a range of practical and ethical challenges, some of which face any researcher entering classroom contexts and some of which…

  6. Everyday Inclusive Web Design: An Activity Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Website accessibility is a problem that affects millions of people with disabilities. While most current accessibility initiatives target government or commercial sites, a growing segment of online content is being created by non-professionals. This content is often inaccessible to users with disabilities. Everyday inclusive Web…

  7. Negotiating the Path: Towards Diversity and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Letita R.

    2009-01-01

    Global survival hinges on an appreciation that the solutions to problems reside within the collective strength of diversity. However, achieving inclusion is often relegated to periodic infusions of multiculturalism into the mainstream of organizational culture. And "diversity" is quickly becoming the latest buzzword for an idea that, though…

  8. Final state interactions and inclusive nuclear collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Dubey, Rajendra R.

    1993-01-01

    A scattering formalism is developed in a multiple scattering model to describe inclusive momentum distributions for high-energy projectiles. The effects of final state interactions on response functions and momentum distributions are investigated. Calculations for high-energy protons that include shell model response functions are compared with experiments.

  9. Inclusion in Practice: Sofia's Situations for Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandersson, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present findings from a study (Alexandersson, 2007) about how one student--called Sofia--with intellectual disability interacts and communicates with her classmates and her teachers in an inclusive setting. Furthermore, the aim is also to analyse in what way the interaction contributes to Sofia's social participation…

  10. Equity and Inclusion in Physical Education PLC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John

    2014-01-01

    Physical Educationalists in many western and westernised societies across the globe are facing new challenges as system wide changes take place increasing the role of private bodies (e.g. Academy trusts) in the delivery of school based education. This reflective and rather personal paper considers the place and meaning of "inclusion" and…

  11. Inclusion: Professional Development Needs of Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocks, Amanda G.

    2010-01-01

    An attitudinal resistance among teachers regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities is well documented in the literature. Studies collectively highlight two specific areas that contribute to this resistance. First, a lack of teacher knowledge or preparedness for meeting the diverse needs of children with disabilities stimulates…

  12. Numerical Simulations of Inclusion Behavior in Gas-Stirred Ladles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Wentao; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2013-06-01

    A computation fluid dynamics-population balance model (CFD-PBM) coupled model has been proposed to investigate the bubbly plume flow and inclusion behavior including growth, size distribution, and removal in gas-stirred ladles, and some new and important phenomena and mechanisms were presented. For the bubbly plume flow, a modified k- ɛ model with extra source terms to account for the bubble-induced turbulence was adopted to model the turbulence, and the bubble turbulent dispersion force was taken into account to predict gas volume fraction distribution in the turbulent gas-stirred system. For inclusion behavior, the phenomena of inclusions turbulent random motion, bubbles wake, and slag eye forming on the molten steel surface were considered. In addition, the multiple mechanisms both that promote inclusion growth due to inclusion-inclusion collision caused by turbulent random motion, shear rate in turbulent eddy, and difference inclusion Stokes velocities, and the mechanisms that promote inclusion removal due to bubble-inclusion turbulence random collision, bubble-inclusion turbulent shear collision, bubble-inclusion buoyancy collision, inclusion own floatation near slag-metal interface, bubble wake capture, and wall adhesion were investigated. The importance of different mechanisms and total inclusion removal ratio under different conditions, and the distribution of inclusion number densities in ladle, were discussed and clarified. The results show that at a low gas flow rate, the inclusion growth is mainly attributed to both turbulent shear collision and Stokes collision, which is notably affected by the Stokes collision efficiency, and the inclusion removal is mainly attributed to the bubble-inclusion buoyancy collision and inclusion own floatation near slag-metal interface. At a higher gas flow rate, the inclusions appear as turbulence random motion in bubbly plume zone, and both the inclusion-inclusion and inclusion-bubble turbulent random collisions become

  13. Diagenetic palaeotemperatures from aqueous fluid inclusions: re- equilibration of inclusions in carbonate cements by burial heating.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations based on the observed behaviour of inclusions in fluorite under external confining P allows prediction of the T and depths of burial necessary to initiate re-equilibration of aqueous inclusions in the common size range 40-4 mu m. Heating of 20-60oC over the initial trapping T may cause errors of 10-20oC in the homogenization T. This suggests that re-equilibration may cause aqueous inclusions in carbonates to yield a poor record of their low-T history, but a useful record of the maximum T experienced by the host rock. Previous work suggests that inclusions containing petroleum fluids will be less susceptible to re-equilibration.This and the following six abstracts represent papers presented at a joint meeting of the Applied Mineralogy Group of the Mineralogical Society and the Petroleum Group of the Geological Society held in Newcastle upon Tyne in April 1986.-R.A.H.

  14. An American on Paris: Extent of aqueous alteration of a CM chondrite and the petrography of its refractory and amoeboid olivine inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2015-09-01

    Paris is the least aqueously altered CM chondrite identified to date, classified as subtype 2.7; however, literature data indicate that some regions of this apparently brecciated meteorite may be subtype 2.9. The suite of CAIs in Paris includes 19% spinel-pyroxene inclusions, 19% spinel inclusions, 8% spinel-pyroxene-olivine inclusions, 43% pyroxene inclusions, 8% pyroxene-olivine inclusions, and 3% hibonite-bearing inclusions. Both simple and complex inclusions are present; some have nodular, banded, or distended structures. No melilite was identified in any of the inclusions in the present suite, but other recent studies have found a few rare occurrences of melilite in Paris CAIs. Because melilite is highly susceptible to aqueous alteration, it is likely that it was mostly destroyed during early-stage parent-body alteration. Two of the CAIs in this study are part of compound CAI-chondrule objects. Their presence suggests that there were transient heating events (probably associated with chondrule formation) in the nebula after chondrules and CAIs were admixed. Also present in Paris are a few amoeboid olivine inclusions (AOI) consisting of relatively coarse forsterite rims surrounding fine-grained, porous zones containing diopside and anorthite. The interior regions of the AOIs may represent fine-grained rimless CAIs that were incorporated into highly porous forsterite-rich dustballs. These assemblages were heated by an energy pulse that collapsed and coarsened their rims, but failed to melt their interiors.

  15. Neuronal intranuclear inclusions are ultrastructurally and immunologically distinct from cytoplasmic inclusions of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Mosaheb, Sabrina; Thorpe, Julian R; Hashemzadeh-Bonehi, Lida; Bigio, Eileen H; Gearing, Marla; Cairns, Nigel J

    2005-10-01

    Abnormal neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) containing aggregates of alpha-internexin and the neurofilament (NF) subunits, NF-H, NF-M, and NF-L, are the signature lesions of neuronal intermediate filament (IF) inclusion disease (NIFID). The disease has a clinically heterogeneous phenotype, including frontotemporal dementia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs presenting at a young age. NCIs are variably ubiquitinated and about half of cases also have neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), which are also ubiquitinated. NIIs have been described in polyglutamine-repeat expansion diseases, where they are strongly ubiquitin immunoreactive. The fine structure of NIIs of NIFID has not previously been described. Therefore, to determine the ultrastructure of NIIs, immunoelectron microscopy was undertaken on NIFID cases and normal aged control brains. Our results indicate that the NIIs of NIFID are strongly ubiquitin immunoreactive. However, unlike NCIs which contain ubiquitin, alpha-internexin and NF epitopes, NIIs contain neither epitopes of alpha-internexin nor NF subunits. Neither NIIs nor NCIs were recognised by antibodies to expanded polyglutamine repeats. The NII of NIFID lacks a limiting membrane and contains straight filaments of 20 nm mean width (range 11-35 nm), while NCIs contain filaments with a mean width of 10 nm (range 5-18 nm; t-test, P<0.001). Biochemistry revealed no differences in neuronal IF protein mobilities between NIFID and normal brain tissue. Therefore, NIIs of NIFID contain filaments morphologically and immunologically distinct from those of NCIs, and both types of inclusion lack expanded polyglutamine tracts of the triplet-repeat expansion diseases. These observations indicate that abnormal protein aggregation follows separate pathways in different neuronal compartments of NIFID.

  16. Interaction between a crack and a soft inclusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue-Hui, L.; Erdogan, F.

    1985-01-01

    With the application to weld defects in mind, the interaction problem between a planar-crack and a flat inclusion in an elastic solid is considered. The elastic inclusion is assumed to be sufficiently thin so that the thickness distribution of the stresses in the inclusion may be neglected. The problem is reduced to a system of four integral equations having Cauchy-type dominant kernels. The stress intensity factors are calculated and tabulated for various crack-inclusion geometries and the inclusion to matrix modulus ratios, and for general homogeneous loadiong conditions away from the crack-inclusion region.

  17. Diversity in C-Xanes Spectra Obtained from Carbonaceous Solid Inclusions from Monahans Halite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kebukawa, Y.; Zolensky, M. E.; Fries, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Rahman, Z.; Cody, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    Monahans meteorite (H5) contains fluid inclusion- bearing halite (NaCl) crystals [1]. Microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy showed that the fluid in the inclusions is an aqueous brine and they were trapped near 25degC [1]. Their continued presence in the halite grains requires that their incorporation into the H chondrite asteroid was post metamorphism [2]. Abundant solid inclusions are also present in the halites. The solid inclusions include abundant and widely variable organics [2]. Analyses by Raman microprobe, SEM/EDX, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and TEM reveal that these grains include macromolecular carbon similar in structure to CV3 chondrite matrix carbon, aliphatic carbon compounds, olivine (Fo99-59), high- and low-Ca pyroxene, feldspars, magnetite, sulfides, lepidocrocite, carbonates, diamond, apatite and possibly the zeolite phillipsite [3]. Here we report organic analyses of these carbonaceous residues in Monahans halite using C-, N-, and O- X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Samples and Methods: Approximately 100 nm-thick sections were extracted with a focused ion beam (FIB) at JSC from solid inclusions from Monahans halite. The sections were analyzed using the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) on beamline 5.3.2.2 at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for XANES spectroscopy. Results and Discussion: C-XANES spectra of the solid inclusions show micrometer-scale heterogeneity, indicating that the macromolecular carbon in the inclusions have complex chemical variations. C-XANES features include 284.7 eV assigned to aromatic C=C, 288.4-288.8 eV assigned to carboxyl, and 290.6 eV assigned to carbonate. The carbonyl features obtained by CXANES might have been caused by the FIB used in sample preparation. No specific N-XANES features are observed. The CXANES spectra obtained from several areas in the FIB sections include type 1&2 chondritic IOM like, type 3 chondritic IOM like, and none of the above

  18. XAFS Model Compound Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Newville, Matthew

    The XAFS Model Compound Library contains XAFS data on model compounds. The term "model" compounds refers to compounds of homogeneous and well-known crystallographic or molecular structure. Each data file in this library has an associated atoms.inp file that can be converted to a feff.inp file using the program ATOMS. (See the related Searchable Atoms.inp Archive at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/adb/) This Library exists because XAFS data on model compounds is useful for several reasons, including comparing to unknown data for "fingerprinting" and testing calculations and analysis methods. The collection here is currently limited, but is growing. The focus to date has been on inorganic compounds and minerals of interest to the geochemical community. [Copied, with editing, from http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/ModelLib/

  19. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  20. Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Montgomery, Eliza; Kolody, Mark; Curran, Jerry; Back, Teddy; Balles, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings and Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) project is to identify, test, and develop qualification criteria for the use of environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and CPCs for flight hardware and ground support equipment. This document is the Final Report for Phase I evaluations, which included physical property, corrosion resistance, and NASA spaceport environment compatibility testing and analysis of fifteen CPC types. The CPCs consisted of ten different oily film CPCs and five different wax or grease CPC types. Physical property testing encompassed measuring various properties of the bulk CPCs, while corrosion resistance testing directly measured the ability of each CPC material to protect various metals against corrosion. The NASA spaceport environment compatibility testing included common tests required by NASA-STD-6001, "Flammability, Odor, Offgassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures for Materials in Environments that Support Combustion". At the end of Phase I, CPC materials were down-selected for inclusion in the next test phases. This final report includes all data and analysis of results obtained by following the experimental test plan that was developed as part of the project. Highlights of the results are summarized by test criteria type.

  1. Nitrodifluoraminoterphenyl compounds and processes

    DOEpatents

    Lerom, M.W.; Peters, H.M.

    1975-07-08

    This patent relates to the nitrodifluoraminoterphenyl compounds: 3,3''-bis (difluoramino)-2,2'' 4,4', 4'',6,6',6''-octanitro-m-terphenyl (DDONT) and 3,3''-bis(difluoramino)-2,2',2''4,4',4'',6,6',6''-nonanitro-m-terphenyl (DDNONA). Procedures are described wherein diamino precursors of the indicated compounds are prepared and the final compounds are obtained by a fluorination operation. The compounds are highly energetic and suitable for use as explosives and particularly in exploding bridge wire (EBW) detonators. (auth)

  2. Mesothelial inclusion cyst: a rare occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Soon, David SC; Shilton, Hamish; Andrabi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Mesothelial inclusion cyst is a rare benign tumour that has only 130 cases reported in the literature. Accurate diagnosis and optimal management of this condition remains uncertain. We report a 51-year-old African gentleman, whom presents with abdominal pain and constipation. A computed tomography scan was performed and revealed a large cystic lesion in the right paracolic gutter. The differential diagnosis included appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, cystic tuberculosis and duplication cyst. A laparotomy was performed due to his symptoms and size of the cyst. Macroscopically, the tumour had a size of 25 × 10 × 10 cm and revealed a necrotic lymph node. It was resected en bloc with the appendix and an ileocolic anastomosis performed. Histology revealed a diagnosis of mesothelial inclusion cyst and acute appendicitis. The patient recovered well and had no recurrence at 2-year follow-up. PMID:27994008

  3. Bacterial Inclusion Bodies: Discovering Their Better Half.

    PubMed

    Rinas, Ursula; Garcia-Fruitós, Elena; Corchero, José Luis; Vázquez, Esther; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Villaverde, Antonio

    2017-02-26

    Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) are functional, non-toxic amyloids occurring in recombinant bacteria showing analogies with secretory granules of the mammalian endocrine system. The scientific interest in these mesoscale protein aggregates has been historically masked by their status as a hurdle in recombinant protein production. However, progressive understanding of how the cell handles the quality of recombinant polypeptides and the main features of their intriguing molecular organization has stimulated the interest in inclusion bodies and spurred their use in diverse technological fields. The engineering and tailoring of IBs as functional protein particles for materials science and biomedicine is a good example of how formerly undesired bacterial byproducts can be rediscovered as promising functional materials for a broad spectrum of applications.

  4. In defence of inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Herre, Edward Allen; Wcislo, William T

    2011-03-24

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Arguably the defining characteristic of the scientific process is its capacity for self-criticism and correction. Nowak et al. challenge proposed connections between relatedness and the evolution of eusociality, suggest instead that defensible nests and "spring-loaded" traits are key, and present alternative modelling approaches. They then dismiss the utility of Hamilton's insight that relatedness has a profound evolutionary effect, formalized in his widely accepted inclusive fitness theory as Hamilton's rule ("Rise and fall of inclusive fitness theory"). However, we believe that Nowak et al. fail to make their case for logical, theoretical and empirical reasons.

  5. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.

  6. Inclusive science education: learning from Wizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2016-06-01

    This case study reports on a student with special education needs in an inclusive seventh grade life science classroom using a framework of disability studies in education. Classroom data collected over 13 weeks consisted of qualitative (student and classroom observations, interviews, student work samples and video-taped classroom teaching and learning record using CETP-COP) methods. Three key findings emerged in the analysis and synthesis of the data: (1) The learning experiences in science for Wizard are marked by a dichotomy straddled between autonomy ["Sometimes I do" (get it)] and dependence ["Sometimes I don't (get it)], (2) the process of learning is fragmented for Wizard because it is underscored by an emerging disciplinary literacy, (3) the nature of the inclusion is fragile and functional. Implications for classroom practices that support students with learning disabilities include focusing on student strengths, intentional use of disciplinary literacy strategies, and opportunities for eliciting student voice in decision making.

  7. Inclusion chemistry in periodic mesoporous hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, K.; Bein, T.

    1998-10-01

    This review provides an overview of different aspects of inclusion chemistry in ordered mesoporous host materials such as MCM-41 or MCM-48 (Mobil codes). A rich field of inclusion chemistry has been explored in this context, including sorption, ion exchange, inhibition followed by reduction, grafting of reactive metal alkoxides, halides, etc., grafting of silane coupling agents (sometimes followed by subsequent reactions), grafting of reactive metal complexes, and polymerization in the channels. Finally, co-condensation of reactive species during the mesopore synthesis is a method to incorporate functionality into the walls of the channel system. Important applications of these modified and functionalized systems are heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis involving bulky grated catalysts and/or the conversion of large substrates. Other potential applications include ion exchange and separations, removal of heavy metals, chromatography, stabilization of quantum wires, stabilization of dyes, and polymer composites.

  8. Bursting the bubble of melt inclusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    Most silicate melt inclusions (MI) contain bubbles, whose significance has been alternately calculated, pondered, and ignored, but rarely if ever directly explored. Moore et al. (2015) analyze the bubbles, as well as their host glasses, and conclude that they often hold the preponderance of CO2 in the MI. Their findings entreat future researchers to account for the presence of bubbles in MI when calculating volatile budgets, saturation pressures, and eruptive flux.

  9. Nonmetallic Inclusions in HSLA Steel Weldments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    lowering the DBTT . Nickel prevents the hot shortness phenomenon often observed in copper-bearing steels . Nickel is also an austenite stabilizer. By lowering... STEEL WELDMENTS by Brent A. Douglas December, 1989 Thesis Advisor Alan G. Fox Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 90 ,-. S...ACCESSION NO. II. TITLE (Incude Security Claw fication) Nonmetallic Inclusions In HSLA Steel Weldments IZ. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Douglas, Brent A. 138

  10. Inclusive jet production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2006-08-01

    Preliminary results on inclusive jet production in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV based on 1 fb{sup -1} of CDF Run II data are presented. Measurements are preformed using different jet algorithms in a wide range of jet transverse momentum and jet rapidity. The measured cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations

  11. [Unusual location of peritoneal inclusion cysts].

    PubMed

    Fronticelli Baldelli, C M; Seghesio, R M; Giaccone, M; Scuderi, S; Senetta, R

    2009-10-01

    The peritoneal inclusion cyst is a rare, probably congenital, pathology of the mesothelium that develops on coelomatic residues. A case is reported of an unusual location of peritoneal cyst, in which the increase in volume, associated with the patient's concern and the presumed anatomic site of the lesion led to its removal by the laparoscopic route. The type of location and the relative inaccuracy of preoperative imaging are discussed.

  12. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  13. [Inclusion - pediatric and adolescent psychiatry aspects].

    PubMed

    Warnke, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities became legally binding in Germany in March 2009. “Inclusion” is the major concept–all people with any kind of handicap must have the same rights to full and effective participation and inclusion in society. Preceding inclusion come adjustments in society with regard to ethical, legislative, administrative, conceptual, structural, economical, and thus also to healthcare-political frameworks, in order to make disabilities are as far as possible no longer a handicap in an individual’s everyday life. This review first outlines the present social status influencing the development of children, a child’s welfare, and especially the healthcare of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders and conditions indicating barriers to inclusion. It focuses on those articles of the UN convention which are relevant with regard to ethical attitude, epidemiology, healthcare framework, diagnostics, therapy, teaching, and research with respect to child and adolescent psychiatry. The analysis points to a significant backlog demand in child psychiatric healthcare, teaching, and research.

  14. Corticobasal syndrome with novel argyrophilic glial inclusions.

    PubMed

    Rippon, Gregory A; Staugaitis, S M; Chin, Steven S M; Goldman, James E; Marder, K

    2005-05-01

    A 42-year-old, left-handed woman first noted impaired dexterity of the dominant hand, soon followed by dysarthria and cognitive decline. Over a 4-year period, she developed severe left-sided apraxia with eventual neglect of the left arm and progressive extrapyramidal signs. Cognitive testing showed progressive executive, visuospatial, fluency, and naming impairment with relative preservation of memory. Single-photon emission computed tomography demonstrated asymmetric right posterior frontal and superior parietal hypoperfusion. The clinical impression was corticobasal degeneration. At autopsy, severe atrophy was seen in the perirolandic and frontal regions. There was marked neuronal loss and gliosis in the posterior frontal and precentral regions and less severe pathology in prefrontal, temporal, and parietal areas. Mild to moderate gliosis and neuronal loss were also seen in the putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic, and dentate nuclei. Gallyas silver stain revealed numerous inclusions adjacent to oligodendrocyte nuclei in white and gray matter of affected cortical and subcortical regions. The gracile inclusions were wavy, slender, and stained positively with antibodies to ubiquitin and alphaB-crystallin but not to microtubule-associated proteins (tau, MAP1B, MAP2), tubulin, neurofilaments, glial fibrillary acidic protein, or alpha-synuclein. The argyrophilic inclusions identified in this case are distinct from those previously described in neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Suddenly included: cultural differences in experiencing re-inclusion.

    PubMed

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Graupmann, Verena; Du, Hongfei; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-03-01

    In the current research, we examined whether re-inclusion (i.e. the change from a previous state of exclusion to a new state of inclusion) was perceived differently by people with individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds. Individualists (German and Austrian participants) but not collectivists (Chinese participants) experienced re-inclusion differently than continued inclusion: While collectivistic participants did not differentiate between both kinds of inclusion, individualistic participants showed reduced fulfilment of their psychological needs under re-inclusion compared to continued inclusion. The results moreover revealed that only participants from individualistic cultures expressed more feelings of exclusion when re-included than when continually included. These exclusionary feelings partially mediated the relationship between the different states of inclusion and basic need fulfilment.

  16. The semi-inclusive jet function in SCET and small radius resummation for inclusive jet production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Ringer, Felix; Vitev, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a new kind of jet function: the semi-inclusive jet function J i ( z, ω J , μ), which describes how a parton i is transformed into a jet with a jet radius R and energy fraction z = ω J /ω, with ω J and ω being the large light-cone momentum component of the jet and the corresponding parton i that initiates the jet, respectively. Within the framework of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) we calculate both J q ( z, ω J , μ) and J g ( z, ω J , μ) to the next-to-leading order (NLO) for cone and anti-kT algorithms. We demonstrate that the renormalization group (RG) equations for J i ( z, ω J , μ) follow exactly the usual DGLAP evolution, which can be used to perform the ln R resummation for inclusive jet cross sections with a small jet radius R. We clarify the difference between our RG equations for J i ( z, ω J , μ) and those for the so-called unmeasured jet functions J i ( ω J , μ), widely used in SCET for exclusive jet production. Finally, we present applications of the new semi-inclusive jet functions to inclusive jet production in e + e - and pp collisions. We demonstrate that single inclusive jet production in these collisions shares the same short-distance hard functions as single inclusive hadron production, with only the fragmentation functions D i h ( z, μ) replaced by J i ( z, ω J , μ). This can facilitate more efficient higher-order analytical computations of jet cross sections. We further match our ln R resummation at both LL R and NLL R to fixed NLO results and present the phenomenological implications for single inclusive jet production at the LHC.

  17. Solvent-guest control of two extremely similar tetrahydrofuran inclusion structures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiabin; Bhadbhade, Mohan M; Bishop, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Racemic 2,4,6,8-tetracarbomethoxybicyclo[3.3.0]octa-2,6-diene-3,7-diol, C16H18O10 (1), was known previously to yield two solvent-free polymorphs and also a clathrate inclusion crystal form. Crystallization of (1) yields two inclusion compounds containing tetrahydrofuran (THF): (1)4·THF is obtained from a mixture of THF and methanol, whereas (1)2·THF is obtained from pure THF. The X-ray crystal structures reveal that the two compounds are extremely similar and that their host arrangements are essentially identical. They differ, however, in the proportion, orientation and host-guest interaction of the included THF molecules. The disordered guest molecules in (1)4·THF are oriented along the guest channel direction, whereas in (1)2·THF they lie across the channel. This unusual solvent-guest control of inclusion structures has implications relating to the formation of polymorphic structures and other competing crystal forms.

  18. The zebrafish goosepimples/myosin Vb mutant exhibits cellular attributes of human microvillus inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Sidhaye, Jaydeep; Pinto, Clyde Savio; Dharap, Shweta; Jacob, Tressa; Bhargava, Shobha; Sonawane, Mahendra

    2016-11-01

    Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a life-threatening enteropathy characterised by malabsorption and incapacitating fluid loss due to chronic diarrhoea. Histological analysis has revealed that enterocytes in MVID patients exhibit reduction of microvilli, presence of microvillus inclusion bodies and intestinal villus atrophy, whereas genetic linkage analysis has identified mutations in myosin Vb gene as the main cause of MVID. In order to understand the cellular basis of MVID and the associated formation of inclusion bodies, an animal model that develops ex utero and is tractable genetically as well as by microscopy would be highly useful. Here we report that the intestine of the zebrafish goosepimples (gsp)/myosin Vb (myoVb) mutant shows severe reduction in intestinal folds - structures similar to mammalian villi. The loss of folds is further correlated with changes in the shape of enterocytes. In striking similarity with MVID patients, zebrafish gsp/myoVb mutant larvae exhibit microvillus atrophy, microvillus inclusions and accumulation of secretory material in enterocytes. We propose that the zebrafish gsp/myoVb mutant is a valuable model to study the pathophysiology of MVID. Furthermore, owing to the advantages of zebrafish in screening libraries of small molecules, the gsp mutant will be an ideal tool to identify compounds having therapeutic value against MVID.

  19. Communicative Approach to Inclusive Education in Pre-School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraukle, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the basic principles of inclusive education motivates the inclusion of children with special needs in general education schools. The paper presents the process of implementing inclusive education in Latvia and the teachers' and parents' understanding of the role of communication in including children with special needs,…

  20. Mixed Feelings: Towards a Continuum of Inclusive Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Alison; Avramidis, Elias

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents approaches to inclusion taken by primary teachers and discusses the institutional contexts in which these are located. Focusing on the development of enabling practices for the inclusion of children accredited with "special educational needs" (SEN), a continuum of approaches is identified, ranging from inclusive to…

  1. Inclusive Education: Practical Implementation of the Least Restrictive Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power-deFur, Lissa A.; Orelove, Fred P.

    The 19 chapters of this book address theoretical and practical aspects of the development and implementation of inclusive education programs. Chapter titles and authors are: (1) "Inclusive Education: The Past, Preset, and Future" (Lissa A. Power-deFur and Fred P. Orelove); (2) "Inclusion and School Restructuring: Meeting the Needs of All Children"…

  2. Development of the Inclusion Attitude Scale for High School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Catherine; Rogers, Margaret R.

    2009-01-01

    This study involved the development of a new scale to measure high school teacher attitudes toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular education classrooms. A second aim was to examine the relationship of teachers' professional development regarding inclusion, their years of experience with inclusion, access to instructional…

  3. A Perspective of Inclusion: Challenges for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunsteiner, Maria-Luise; Mariano-Lapidus, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The term, "inclusion," particularly in the educational setting, is still based on a deficit view. Perceptions of "dis"-ability create barriers to true inclusion and are often reinforced through higher education training programs. To promote inclusive values, acceptance of individual and cultural differences must be included in…

  4. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

  5. Embracing Diversity: Toolkit for Creating Inclusive Learning-Friendly Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ray; Miske, Shirley; Attig, George

    2004-01-01

    An inclusive, learning-friendly environment (ILFE) welcomes, nurtures, and educates all children regardless of their gender, physical, intellectual, socio-economic, emotional, linguistic and other characteristics. "Inclusive" in the school setting generally refers to the inclusion or children with disabilities into regular classrooms designed for…

  6. Inclusive Education, Exclusion and Difficult Difference: A Call for Humanity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Chrissie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's review of three books: (1) "The irregular school: exclusion, schooling and inclusive education," by Roger Slee; (2) "Confronting obstacles to inclusion: international responses to developing inclusive education," edited by Richard Rose; and (3) ""Hanging in with the kids" in tough times: engagement in contexts of…

  7. Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

  8. Academic Performance of Students without Disabilities in the Inclusive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruth, Jason D.; Woods, Melanie N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of inclusion on secondary students by focusing on the performance of students without disabilities in the inclusive environment compared to their performance in a segregated environment. Many studies exist demonstrating the positive impact of the inclusive environment on the performance of students with disabilities.…

  9. Inclusive Education in Higher Education: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriña, Anabel

    2017-01-01

    Implementing the principles of inclusive education within higher education can be challenging. Inclusive education was originally developed for younger students, prior to its application within higher education. However, as more students with disabilities successfully complete their early schooling, the need to move towards inclusive practices…

  10. 40 CFR 35.533 - Programs eligible for inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Programs eligible for inclusion. 35.533... § 35.533 Programs eligible for inclusion. (a) Eligible programs. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the environmental programs eligible for inclusion in a Performance Partnership Grant...

  11. 40 CFR 35.133 - Programs eligible for inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Programs eligible for inclusion. 35.133... Programs eligible for inclusion. (a) Eligible programs. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the environmental programs eligible, in accordance with appropriation acts, for inclusion in...

  12. Pre-Service Educators' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mdikana, Andile; Ntshangase, Sibusiso; Mayekiso, Tokozile

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of learners with special educational needs in general education is becoming more prevalent. As a result various special education researchers have begun to examine the success of inclusion, as well as the attitudes and beliefs of general educators towards the inclusion of learners with disabilities in the general education classroom.…

  13. Statistical Trends and Developments within Inclusive Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakiroglu, Orhan; Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    The education of students with special needs in an inclusive environment is becoming more widespread throughout the world. Similarly, in Turkey, the inclusion of students with disabilities has also improved. However, current statistical trends and developments within inclusive education are not well known. The purpose of this study is to provide a…

  14. Examining Teachers' Concerns and Attitudes to Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined teachers' concerns and attitude toward inclusive education of students with disabilities in Ghana. A 20 item Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Africa Scale (ATIAS) was completed by 100 teachers from five "Inclusive Project" schools and five Non-Project coeducational basic schools in three different…

  15. Inclusion and Guilt: The Emotional Fallout for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmillan, Robert; Meyer, Matthew J.

    2006-01-01

    The principle of inclusion of children with exceptionalities is accepted by teachers, but the practice of inclusion is problematic, particularly at the secondary level. In a study of inclusion and the impact of budgetary constraints in Nova Scotia, teachers reported that they had difficulty meeting the needs of all students within their classroom…

  16. The Czech Way of Inclusion through an Experiential Education Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudlacek, Martin; Bocarro, Jason; Jirasek, Ivo; Hanus, Radek

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the development of inclusive experiential education courses in the Czech Republic. The inclusion of people with disabilities (PWD) in recreation, sport, and education has become more prevalent in Czech society. This article describes the conceptual meaning of the term inclusion from both a historical and…

  17. Barriers that Prevent the Achievement of Inclusive Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Huidobro, Juan Eduardo; Corvalan, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Inclusive education inherently involves the inclusion of all citizens in a democratic society. Based on this view, questions emerge with respect to equality and integration in educational systems. Although inclusion should be viewed as a requirement in a democratic society, along with the integration in schools of students from different social…

  18. Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions of Self as Inclusive Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangen, Donna; Beutel, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Teacher education institutions play a key role in preparing pre-service teachers to graduate as competent and confident inclusive educators. Seeking to understand pre-service teachers' current perceptions of diversity and inclusion, and how they perceived themselves as future inclusive educators, this qualitative study employed inductive analysis…

  19. Modelling Inclusive Special Needs Education: Insights from Dutch Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Bij, T.; Geijsel, F. P.; Garst, G. J. A.; Ten Dam, G. T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive special needs education is prominent on the international education agenda. Research on the characteristics of inclusive education for students with special needs and schools providing this is scarce, however. Our aim in the present study was therefore to further theory-building with regard to inclusive special needs education. On the…

  20. Inclusive Education National Research Advocacy Agenda: A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morningstar, Mary E.; Allcock, Heather C.; White, Julia M.; Taub, Deborah; Kurth, Jennifer A.; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean; Ryndak, Diane L.; Sauer, Janet; Jorgensen, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    The TASH Inclusive Education National Committee responded to Horner and Dunlap's call to ensure that future research integrates inclusive values with strong science by developing an inclusive education national research advocacy agenda. Qualitative methods were implemented to answer three questions: (a) "What is the state of inclusive…

  1. Trekking Back to Mainstream for Inclusive Education, Is It There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalenga, Rosemary Chimbala; Fourie, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the ecosystemic management strategies for inclusive schools due to challenges faced by the schools in the mainstream school where learners from the specialised institutions are referred back to mainstream for inclusive education. Ecosystemic perspective on inclusive education, ecological theories and systems theories underpin…

  2. Teachers' Perceptions, Teaching Practices, and Learning Opportunities for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Bomna; Boswell, Boni

    2013-01-01

    Lack of expertise of general physical educators relative to teaching students with disabilities in inclusive general physical education (GPE) has been identified as a major challenge affecting the implementation of inclusion in the United States (Block & Obrusnikova, 2007). Several studies indicated that insufficient inclusion training (Hodge,…

  3. Educational Inclusion in England: Origins, Perspectives and Current Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauchlan, Fraser; Greig, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine different aspects of the inclusion debate, including how it has been shaped by the political context in England over the past 30 years. We then give consideration to the key argument that has dominated the inclusion agenda over the last decade: should effective inclusion be considered only as placement in mainstream school…

  4. Challenges of the Secondary School Context for Inclusive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Michelle; Gray, Jan; Campbell-Evans, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    Senate and State Government reviews into inclusion in Australian schools during the last two decades have revealed that the inclusion of students with disabilities in schools has proved challenging. A qualitative study involving interviews with 50 leaders in inclusive education suggest that currently the secondary school context is a barrier to…

  5. 26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion ratio. 26.2642-1 Section 26.2642-1... GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the inclusion ratio is determined...

  6. 26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Inclusion ratio. 26.2642-1 Section 26.2642-1... GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the inclusion ratio is determined...

  7. 26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inclusion ratio. 26.2642-1 Section 26.2642-1... GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the inclusion ratio is determined...

  8. 26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inclusion ratio. 26.2642-1 Section 26.2642-1... GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the inclusion ratio is determined...

  9. Entrepreneurs of Meaning: Parents and the Process of Inclusive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Kathleen A.; Fisher, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    A study analyzed the process of inclusive education experienced by 20 parents of children with severe disabilities. Results found that the process of inclusion extended beyond the parents' initial placement decision to their ongoing involvement at the school site. At the schools, parents actively participated in the work of inclusion. (Author/CR)

  10. Leadership for All Students: Planning for More Inclusive School Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William R.; Simon, Marsha D.

    2014-01-01

    Educational policies and leadership practice has evolved to support efforts for inclusive education for students with disabilities. This article focuses on how leaders support and develop inclusive practices for students with disability through engaging institutional norms and inertia; developing inclusive practice as a planned organization-wide…

  11. Inclusion in Viet Nam: More than a Decade of Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Richard A.; Tac, Le Van; Muc, Pham Minh; Ryan, Susan; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Minh; Weill, Cindy; Thousand, Jacqueline S.

    2003-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of special education policies and services and the introduction of inclusive education as a service delivery model in Viet Nam. The impact of a series of inclusion projects and resultant goals of the Ministry of Education and Training to expand inclusive education are described. (Contains 8 references.) (Author/CR)

  12. Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

  13. Building Inclusion from the Ground up: A Review of Whole School Re-Culturing Programmes for Sustaining Inclusive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests that whole school re-culturing programmes can potentially assist in the creation of more inclusive value orientated schools. The relationship between school culture and successful inclusion has been demonstrated in the literature. Furthermore, the structure of whole school programmes in inculcating inclusive values and…

  14. A Study of the Optical Properties of Ice Crystals with Black Carbon Inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Arienti, Marco; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Kopacz, Adrian M; Geier, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    The report focu ses on the modification of the optical properties of ice crystals due to atmospheric black car bon (BC) contamination : the objective is to advance the predictive capabilities of climate models through an improved understanding of the radiative properties of compound particles . The shape of the ice crystal (as commonly found in cirrus clouds and cont rails) , the volume fraction of the BC inclusion , and its location inside the crystal are the three factors examined in this study. In the multiscale description of this problem, where a small absorbing inclusion modifies the optical properties of a much la rger non - absorbing particle, state - of - the - art discretization techniques are combined to provide the best compromise of flexibility and accuracy over a broad range of sizes .

  15. Cumberland Falls chondritic inclusions. III - Consortium study of relationship to inclusions in Allan Hills 78113 aubrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, Michael E.; Verkouteren, R. Michael; Sears, Derek W. G.; Hasan, Fouad A.; Prinz, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The contents of Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn in large chondritic clasts from the Cumbersand Falls aubrite were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and the results, together with the results of a mineralogical investigation, were compared with respective data obtained for three primitive inclusions from the ALH A78113 aubrite. The results indicated that the clasts from both aubrite sources constitute a single chondritic suite. The analyses data, together with the results of thermoluminescence data for Cumberland Falls chondritic inclusions and achondritic host, indicate that inclusions in Cumberland Falls and in ALH A78113 aubrite represent a primitive chondrite sample suite whose properties were established during primary nebular accretion and condensation over a broad redox range.

  16. Dilated cardiomyopathy and inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Ballo, Piercarlo; Chiodi, Leandro; Cameli, Matteo; Malandrini, Alessandro; Federico, Antonio; Mondillo, Sergio; Zuppiroli, Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common inflammatory myopathy after 50 years of age. In contrast to polymyositis and dermatomyositis, in which cardiac involvement is relatively common, current evidences indicate that IBM is not associated with cardiac disease. We report the case of a patient with biopsy-proven IBM who developed heart failure and major ventricular arrhythmias secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy few months after the clinical onset of IBM, and in whom no pathophysiologic causes explaining cardiac enlargement and dysfunction were found by laboratory and instrumental investigations. The hypothesis of a pathophysiologic association between the two conditions is discussed.

  17. Stability Properties of Inclusive Connectivity for Graphs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    of G . Graphs illustrating the two possible relationships between the three inclusive connectivity parameters for edges are shown in Figures 2.12 and...For simplicity in this section, we will call this graph G the "internal G graph " due to its location in the figures, and the "K4 with one edge doubly...to one copy of the subdivided K4 producing the graph in Figure 5.25. 117 1(4 with one edge Internal G graph K4 with one edge Figure 5.24 The

  18. MINERνA charged current inclusive analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Caicedo, D. A. M.

    2015-05-15

    MINERνA is a few-GeV neutrino scattering experiment that has been taking data in the NuMI beam line at Fermilab since November 2009. The experiment will provide important inputs, both in support of neutrino oscillation searches and as a pure weak probe of the nuclear medium. For this, MINERvA employs a fine-grained detector, with an eight ton active target region composed of plastic scintillator and a suite of nuclear targets composed of helium, carbon, iron, lead and water placed upstream of the active region. We will describe the current status of the charged current inclusive analysis in plastic scintillator.

  19. Inclusion Optimization for Next Generation Steel Products

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sridar Seetharaman: Dr. Alan Cramb

    2006-04-06

    The project objective is to determine the conditions under which the inclusions in liquid steel can act as heterogeneous nucleants for solidification. The experimental approach consisted of measuring the undercooling of a pure iron droplet in contact with different oxides to determine which oxides promote iron solidification by providing a suitable surface for nucleation and which oxides and under which conditions the metal can be deeply undercooled. The conclusions suggest that deep undercoolings are possible at low oxygen content provided the oxygen potential is such that substrate decomposition does not occur. If the oxygen content increases the undercooling decreases.

  20. MINERνA charged current inclusive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo, D. A. M.

    2015-05-01

    MINERνA is a few-GeV neutrino scattering experiment that has been taking data in the NuMI beam line at Fermilab since November 2009. The experiment will provide important inputs, both in support of neutrino oscillation searches and as a pure weak probe of the nuclear medium. For this, MINERvA employs a fine-grained detector, with an eight ton active target region composed of plastic scintillator and a suite of nuclear targets composed of helium, carbon, iron, lead and water placed upstream of the active region. We will describe the current status of the charged current inclusive analysis in plastic scintillator.

  1. Interstellar grains: Effect of inclusions on extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katyal, N.; Gupta, R.; Vaidya, D. B.

    2011-10-01

    A composite dust grain model which simultaneously explains the observed interstellar extinction, polarization, IR emission and the abundance constraints, is required. We present a composite grain model, which is made up of a host silicate oblate spheroid and graphite inclusions. The interstellar extinction curve is evaluated in the spectral region 3.4-0.1 μm using the extinction efficiencies of composite spheroidal grains for three axial ratios. Extinction curves are computed using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). The model curves are subsequently compared with the average observed interstellar extinction curve and with an extinction curve derived from the IUE catalogue data.

  2. Budding and vesiculation induced by conical membrane inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auth, Thorsten; Gompper, Gerhard

    2009-09-01

    Conical inclusions in a lipid bilayer generate an overall spontaneous curvature of the membrane that depends on concentration and geometry of the inclusions. Examples are integral and attached membrane proteins, viruses, and lipid domains. We propose an analytical model to study budding and vesiculation of the lipid bilayer membrane, which is based on the membrane bending energy and the translational entropy of the inclusions. If the inclusions are placed on a membrane with similar curvature radius, their repulsive membrane-mediated interaction is screened. Therefore, for high inclusion density the inclusions aggregate, induce bud formation, and finally vesiculation. Already with the bending energy alone our model allows the prediction of bud radii. However, in case the inclusions induce a single large vesicle to split into two smaller vesicles, bending energy alone predicts that the smaller vesicles have different sizes whereas the translational entropy favors the formation of equal-sized vesicles. Our results agree well with those of recent computer simulations.

  3. An overview on current fluid-inclusion research and applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chi, G.; Chou, I.-Ming; Lu, H.-Z.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of some of the more important developments in fluid-inclusion research and applications in recent years, including fluid-inclusion petrography, PVTX studies, and analytical techniques. In fluid-inclusion petrography, the introduction of the concept of 'fluid-inclusion assemblage' has been a major advance. In PVTX studies, the use of synthetic fluid inclusions and hydrothermal diamond-anvil cells has greatly contributed to the characterization of the phase behaviour of geologically relevant fluid systems. Various analytical methods are being developed and refined rapidly, with the Laser-Raman and LA-ICP-MS techniques being particularly useful for volatile and solute analyses, respectively. Ore deposit research has been and will continue to be the main field of application of fluid inclusions. However, fluid inclusions have been increasingly applied to other fields of earth science, especially in petroleum geology and the study of magmatic and earth interior processes.

  4. Child wellness and social inclusion: values for action.

    PubMed

    Prilleltensky, Isaac

    2010-09-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) with children and youth is at the intersection of child wellness and social inclusion. Exclusion and marginalization detract from personal and collective health. Inclusion, on the contrary, contributes to wellness. Hence, we should study inclusion and exclusion in the overall context of child wellness. This special issue offers a wealth of methodologies and lessons for fostering inclusion of young people through PAR. In an effort to synthesize my concerns with child wellness, inclusion, and the scholarly work of this special issue, this paper will (a) articulate the values underpinning the philosophy of social inclusion and child wellness, (b) suggest roles and responsibilities for putting these values into action, and (c) integrate the contributions of this special issue into the emerging framework for social inclusion and child wellness.

  5. Sources of insoluble inclusions in stratospheric sulfate particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, E. Keith

    2012-05-01

    Properties of aerosol collected in the stratosphere from altitudes of 20-45 km are reviewed. Removal of the soluble material from predominantly sulfate particles collected at 20 km revealed the presence of insoluble individual particles, or small groups of them, typically 40-50 nm in diameter. The size distribution of components of chain aggregates found above 35 km was almost identical, suggesting that rupture of the chains by condensing sulfuric acid, as they fell into the sulfate layer from above, was the source of the inclusions. Particles collected above 35 km on thin films of metal all showed the presence of a partially volatile liquid. On a copper surface, the liquid was stabilized, and of greater extent than the solid component. Three observations suggest that the upper stratospheric particles and their associated liquid were partly or wholly organic and derived from cometary dust too small to be heated on entering the atmosphere. These are: (1) the presence of a liquid that reacts with copper and the similarity to the behavior of particles collected on copper during a manned space flight, (2) their morphological similarity to published photographs of particles collected in the mesosphere from rockets, (3) the consistency with recent spacecraft observations of the size distribution of components sub-10 μm aggregates in cometary dust and the presence within them of carbon compounds.

  6. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: Introduction Sources Health Effects Levels ...

  7. Heart testing compound

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Goodman, Mark M.

    1985-01-01

    The compound 15-(p-[.sup.125 I]-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  8. [Laboratory of Biopolymer Compounds].

    PubMed

    Ostapchuk, A M

    2008-01-01

    General information is presented concerning the Laboratory of Biological Polymeric Compounds at the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; equipment, analytical and biophysical methods applied in the laboratory are listed.

  9. Heart testing compound

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

    1983-06-29

    The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  10. Chemistry of peroxide compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volnov, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

  11. Compound composite odontoma

    PubMed Central

    Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N

    2016-01-01

    The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas. PMID:27194882

  12. Compound composite odontoma.

    PubMed

    Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N

    2016-01-01

    The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas.

  13. Acidophilic halophilic microorganisms in fluid inclusions in halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Conner, Amber J; Benison, Kathleen C

    2013-09-01

    Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as 1-3 μm, bright cocci that fluoresce green with UV-vis illumination. Dimpled, 5-7 μm yellow spherules that fluoresce blue with UV-vis illumination are interpreted as Dunaliella algae. Yellow-orange beta-carotene crystals, globules, and coatings are characterized by orange-red fluorescence and three distinct Raman peaks. Because acid saline lakes are good Mars analogues, the documentation of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organic compounds preserved in the halite here has implications for the search for life on Mars. Missions to Mars should incorporate such in situ optical and chemical examination of martian evaporites for possible microorganisms and/or organic compounds in fluid inclusions.

  14. Distinguishing primary and secondary inclusion assemblages in Jack Hills zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnke, Patrick; Hopkins-Wielicki, Michelle D.; Harrison, T. Mark

    2015-10-01

    Detrital igneous zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia, range in age from ~ 3.0 to nearly 4.4 Ga and contain an inclusion assemblage dominated by quartz and muscovite, cited as evidence of their derivation from peraluminous granitoids. However, some phosphate inclusions in these zircons are known to be secondary from their post-depositional U-Pb ages and manifest mineralization along cracks. We undertook a survey of mineral inclusions in 4.3-3.0 Ga Jack Hills zircons with particular emphasis on their relationship to possible alteration features (e.g., cracks, disturbed internal zonation, and visual turbidity). Mineral inclusions revealed at polished surfaces show variations in modal mineralogy, mostly corresponding to their relationship with cracks. Muscovite is common both on and away from cracks, although the chemistry of muscovite inclusions shows little relationship with other potential alteration features. Inclusions filling cracks (secondary) and inclusions isolated from cracks differ in their modal mineralogy, although both suites are rich in muscovite and quartz. The higher incidence of crack-intersecting inclusions among younger zircons may reflect effects of the (generally larger) inclusion size among younger zircons. Mismatches between the isolated and crack-intersecting populations indicate selective loss of certain phases (e.g., feldspar, apatite) and over-representation of quartz and muscovite along cracks likely due to the effects of larger inclusion size and varying degrees of overpressure following zircon cooling and decompression. Inclusions not associated with cracks in magmatically zoned versus regions with disturbed zoning have similar phase proportions. This indicates only minor inclusion replacement away from cracks (i.e., the isolated assemblage is likely primary). This holds true also for inclusions within visually turbid versus clear volumes of zircon. Phase proportions within the inclusion assemblages differ with age indicating a

  15. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  16. Host-guest inclusion system of artesunate with β-cyclodextrin and its derivatives: Characterization and antitumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hudie; Yang, Bo; Wang, Fen; Zhao, Yulin

    2015-04-01

    Inclusion complexes between artesunate (ATS) and three cyclodextrins, namely β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD), were prepared by a suspension method. The complexes in both liquid and solid were characterized by phase-solubility diagram, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermoanalysis. The results suggested that artesunate was partly encapsulated within the cyclodextrin cavity to form a 1:1 stoichiometry host-guest compound. Especially in the SBE-β-CD complex, displayed the greatest stability constant. Significant enhancement of water solubility and thermal stability of ATS in present of β-CDs was shown. The calculated IC50 values indicated that the antitumor activities of inclusion complexes were better than that of ATS. Satisfactory aqueous solubility, along with high thermal stability of inclusion complexes will be potentially useful for their application on the formulation design of natural medicine.

  17. Interrogating inclusive development in India's transition process.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Anjan; Dhar, Anup

    2012-12-01

    This paper makes two related contributions. First, the dual economic structure underlying development is shown as producing a distinct conception of other comprising of a devalued third world which is foregrounded and world of the third which is excluded. This dyad of inclusion-exclusion of other is produced in relation to the centers of capitalism and modernism. The category of third world helps to displace the language-experience-logic-ethos of the other a la world of the third such that development works over and transforms world of the third, but via the trope of a devalued third world. We then use this framework to explore the relation of global capitalism with world of the third in the Indian context, a relation that is shown to be two fold. There is on one hand an attempt to dismantle world of the third as part of the development trope of overcoming the third world. On the other, through inclusive development, an attempt is made to directly intervene in the economy of world of the third so as to address the problems of income inequality and social exclusion, again under the trope of uplifting the devalued third world.

  18. Inclusion body myositis: old and new concepts.

    PubMed

    Amato, A A; Barohn, R J

    2009-11-01

    Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy occurring in patients over the age of 50 years and probably accounts for about 30% of all inflammatory myopathies. Muscle biopsy characteristically reveals endomysial inflammation, small groups of atrophic fibres, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions and muscle fibres with one or more rimmed vacuoles. However, any given biopsy may lack these histopathological abnormalities; the clinical examination is often the key to diagnosis. Early and often asymmetrical weakness and atrophy of the quadriceps and flexor forearm muscles (ie, wrist and finger flexors) are the clinical hallmarks of IBM. The pathogenesis of IBM is unknown. It may be autoimmune inflammatory myopathy or a primary degenerative myopathy with a secondary inflammatory. A prevailing theory is that there is an overproduction of beta-amyloid precursor protein in muscle fibres that is somehow cleaved into abnormal beta-amyloid, and the accumulation of the latter is somehow toxic to muscle fibres. However, there are many problems with this theory and more work needs to be done. Unfortunately, IBM is generally refractory to therapy. Further research into the pathogenesis, along with both preliminary small pilot trials and larger double blind, placebo controlled efficacy trials, are needed to make progress in our understanding and therapeutic approach for this disorder.

  19. Biodegradation of nitroaromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Spain, J C

    1995-01-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are released into the biosphere almost exclusively from anthropogenic sources. Some compounds are produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels; others are used as synthetic intermediates, dyes, pesticides, and explosives. Recent research revealed a number of microbial systems capable of transforming or biodegrading nitroaromatic compounds. Anaerobic bacteria can reduce the nitro group via nitroso and hydroxylamino intermediates to the corresponding amines. Isolates of Desulfovibrio spp. can use nitroaromatic compounds as their source of nitrogen. They can also reduce 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene to 2,4,6-triaminotoluene. Several strains of Clostridium can catalyze a similar reduction and also seem to be able to degrade the molecule to small aliphatic acids. Anaerobic systems have been demonstrated to destroy munitions and pesticides in soil. Fungi can extensively degrade or mineralize a variety of nitroaromatic compounds. For example, Phanerochaete chrysosporium mineralizes 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and shows promise as the basis for bioremediation strategies. The anaerobic bacteria and the fungi mentioned above mostly transform nitroaromatic compounds via fortuitous reactions. In contrast, a number of nitroaromatic compounds can serve as growth substrates for aerobic bacteria. Removal or productive metabolism of nitro groups can be accomplished by four different strategies. (a) Some bacteria can reduce the aromatic ring of dinitro and trinitro compounds by the addition of a hydride ion to form a hydride-Meisenheimer complex, which subsequently rearomatizes with the elimination of nitrite. (b) Monooxygenase enzymes can add a single oxygen atom and eliminate the nitro group from nitrophenols. (c) Dioxygenase enzymes can insert two hydroxyl groups into the aromatic ring and precipitate the spontaneous elimination of the nitro group from a variety of nitroaromatic compounds. (d) Reduction of the nitro group to the corresponding

  20. Selection, Inclusion, Evaluation and Defense of Transgender-Inclusive Fiction for Young Adults: A Resource Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockefeller, Elsworth I.

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly visible youth transgender population is emerging and the number of transgender-inclusive fiction texts for young adults is growing. Adults serving teens in schools, libraries, and community agencies must begin actively pursuing, utilizing, and incorporating these texts into resource collections. This article provides an overview of…

  1. Behavioral and Academic Differences between an Inclusive and Non-Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Sherry Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Although educators continue to provide all students access to their grade-level curriculum, students with disabilities are not performing academically in accordance with state standards. The purpose of this sequential transformative mixed methods study was to investigate academic and/or behavioral differences between an inclusion classroom and a…

  2. An Inclusive Classroom? A Case Study of Inclusiveness, Teacher Strategies, and Children's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilholm, Claes; Alm, Barbro

    2010-01-01

    A case study of what appears to be an inclusive classroom in Sweden is reported. The group of children in the class studied was very heterogeneous: five of the 15 children had a disability diagnosis at the time of the study. One aim of the study was to develop a methodology which can be used in order to investigate in what sense classrooms are…

  3. Developing Capabilities for Social Inclusion: Engaging Diversity through Inclusive School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Linda J.; Harwood, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The effort to make schools more inclusive, together with the pressure to retain students until the end of secondary school, has greatly increased both the number and educational requirements of students enrolling in their local school. Of critical concern, despite years of research and improvements in policy, pedagogy and educational knowledge, is…

  4. Taking Action toward Inclusion: Organizational Change and the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Museum Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined organizational change in science museums toward practices that are inclusive of people with disabilities. Guided by two overarching frameworks, organizational learning and the social model of disability, this study sought to answer the following: What are the contexts and processes that facilitate, sustain, or impede a science…

  5. Thinking Change Inclusively: Views of Educational Administrators on Inclusive Education as a Reform Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakiz, Halis

    2016-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to delve into the debate about educational change and evaluate this concept around the paradigms introduced by inclusive education. The paper embarks on views of 27 educational administrators working in different educational institutions in Turkey. Participants are asked to provide their views on educational change and the…

  6. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education: Using Inclusive Pedagogy to Enhance Teaching and Learning for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Linklater, Holly

    2010-01-01

    As the concept of "inclusive education" has gained currency, students who would previously have been referred to specialist forms of provision, having been judged "less able", are now believed to belong in mainstream classrooms. However, it is often argued that teachers lack the necessary knowledge and skills to work with such students in…

  7. Inclusion as an Instructional Approach: Fostering Inclusive Writing Communities in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Preschool students with disabilities engage in social interaction with peers less often than children developing typically in inclusive classrooms. This research explores how divergent theories of literacy learning, those inherent in the structure of special education and those promoted by scholars interested in emergent literacy learning, impact…

  8. Exploring the Views and Beliefs of Parents of Typically Developing Children about Inclusion and Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Karadimou, Stella; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Background: The inclusion of pupils with special educational needs and disabilities (SENDs) in regular classrooms has been identified as a high priority in many policy documents published by both European and international organisations. Its implementation, however, is influenced by a number of factors, some of which are directly related to the…

  9. Promoting Inclusion? "Inclusive" and Effective Head Teachers' Descriptions of Their Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindqvist, Gunilla; Nilholm, Claes

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the reported interview study from Sweden is to contribute to our understanding of how head teachers can promote inclusive practices. Five head teachers were selected from a larger sample of head teachers working in compulsory schools (6-16) according to specific criteria in order to obtain head teachers who work effectively and…

  10. Moving toward Inclusion: Inclusion Coaches' Reflections and Discussions in Supporting Educators in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodarczyk, Kathy Ann; Somma, Monique; Bennett, Sheila; Gallagher, Tiffany L.

    2015-01-01

    When school systems and administrations provide educators with opportunities to engage in transformative learning through reflective practice and provide opportunities to challenge their beliefs, educator pedagogy for inclusive education can be enhanced (Evans, 1997; Pyha¨lto¨ et al., 2012; Richardson, 1998). Our research examined the experiences…

  11. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  12. Preventing Inclusion? Inclusive Early Childhood Education and the Option to Exclude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cologon, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    While there is increasing international commitment to inclusive education, as outlined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), many children remain excluded at school. One marginalised and frequently excluded group of people are people who experience disability. In the recently released first report on…

  13. Psychology's Role in Inclusive Education: Observations from New Brunswicks's Recent Review of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert B.; French, Laurence A.

    2007-01-01

    Psychologists are amongst the professionals who assess children to identify and prescribe for those with learning differences. They currently carry out these assessments in the context of the practice of inclusive education that involves providing for all children's educational needs in regular classroom settings. Recently, some psychologists have…

  14. G2019S-LRRK2 Expression Augments α-Synuclein Sequestration into Inclusions in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmotilib, Hisham; Liu, Zhiyong; Stoyka, Lindsay; Daher, João Paulo Lima; Milnerwood, Austen J.; Unni, Vivek K.; Hirst, Warren D.; Yue, Zhenyu; Zhao, Hien T.; Fraser, Kyle; Kennedy, Richard E.; West, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    neuroprotection. Here, we show that expression of G2019S-LRRK2 increases α-synuclein mobility and enhances aggregation of α-synuclein in primary cultured neurons and in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, a susceptible brain region in PD. Potent LRRK2 kinase inhibitors, which are being developed for clinical use, block the increased α-synuclein aggregation in G2019S-LRRK2-expressing neurons. These results demonstrate that α-synuclein inclusion formation in neurons can be blocked and that novel therapeutic compounds targeting this process by inhibiting LRRK2 kinase activity may slow progression of PD-associated pathology. PMID:27413152

  15. Sulfur compounds in coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

  16. Compound management beyond efficiency.

    PubMed

    Burr, Ian; Winchester, Toby; Keighley, Wilma; Sewing, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Codeveloping alongside chemistry and in vitro screening, compound management was one of the first areas in research recognizing the need for efficient processes and workflows. Material management groups have centralized, automated, miniaturized and, importantly, found out what not to do with compounds. While driving down cost and improving quality in storage and processing, researchers still face the challenge of interfacing optimally with changing business processes, in screening groups, and with external vendors and focusing on biologicals in many companies. Here we review our strategy to provide a seamless link between compound acquisition and screening operations and the impact of material management on quality of the downstream processes. Although this is driven in part by new technologies and improved quality control within material management, redefining team structures and roles also drives job satisfaction and motivation in our teams with a subsequent positive impact on cycle times and customer feedback.

  17. Metalloid compounds as drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    The six elements commonly known as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. Metalloid containing compounds have been used as antiprotozoal drugs. Boron-based drugs, the benzoxaboroles have been exploited as potential treatments for neglected tropical diseases. Arsenic has been used as a medicinal agent and arsphenamine was the main drug used to treat syphilis. Arsenic trioxide has been approved for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pentavalent antimonials have been the recommended drug for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Tellurium (IV) compounds may have important roles in thiol redox biological activity in the human body, and ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O, O’-)tellurate (AS101) may be a promising agent for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Organosilicon compounds have been shown to be effective in vitro multidrug-resistance reverting agents. PMID:24019824

  18. Organic compounds in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Hayatsu, R.; Studier, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of whether organic compounds originated in meteorites as a primary condensate from a solar gas or whether they were introduced as a secondary product into the meteorite during its residence in a parent body is examined by initially attempting to reconstruct the physical conditions during condensation (temperature, pressure, time) from clues in the inorganic matrix of the meteorite. The condensation behavior of carbon under these conditions is then analyzed on the basis of thermodynamic calculations, and compounds synthesized in model experiments on the condensation of carbon are compared with those actually found in meteorites. Organic compounds in meteorites seem to have formed by catalytic reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and ammonia in the solar nebula at 360 to 400 K temperature and about 3 to 7.6 microtorr pressure. The onset of these reactions was triggered by the formation of suitable catalysts (magnetite, hydrated silicates) at these temperatures.

  19. Lending a Helping Hand at Work: A Multilevel Investigation of Prosocial Motivation, Inclusive Climate and Inclusive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Philippe T J H; Hülsheger, Ute R; van Ruitenbeek, Gemma M C; Zijlstra, Fred R H

    2016-11-11

    Purpose People with disabilities often encounter difficulties at the workplace such as exclusion or unfair treatment. Researchers have therefore pointed to the need to focus on behavior that fosters inclusion as well as variables that are antecedents of such 'inclusive behavior'. Therefore the purpose of this study was to research the relationship between prosocial motivation, team inclusive climate and employee inclusive behavior. Method A survey was conducted among a sample of 282 paired employees and colleagues, which were nested in 84 teams. Employees self-rated prosocial motivation and team inclusive climate, their inclusive behavior was assessed by colleagues. Hypotheses were tested using multilevel random coefficient modeling. Results Employees who are prosocially motivated will display more inclusive behavior towards people with disabilities, and this relationship is moderated by team inclusive climate in such a way that the relationship is stronger when the inclusive climate is high. Conclusion This study shows that inclusive organizations, which value a diverse workforce, need to be aware of not only individual employee characteristics, but also team level climate to ensure the smooth integrations of people with disabilities into regular work teams.

  20. Fatigue Life Improving of Drill Rod by Inclusion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yinghao

    2016-08-01

    Large and hard inclusions often deteriorate the service performance and reduce the fatigue lifetime of drill rods. In this paper, the main reasons of the rupture of drill rods were analyzed by the examination of their fracture and it is found that the large inclusions were the main reason of breakage of rod drill. The inclusions were high of Ca content or Al2O3 rich. Smaller and better deformability inclusions were obtained by the optimization of refining slag, calcium treatment process and the flow control devices of tundish. Results of industrial experiment after optimization show that total oxygen content of drill rods decreased by more than 50%, macro-inclusions weight fraction decreased from about 4 mg/10 kg to about 0.3 mg/10 kg and the micro-inclusions average size decreased from 6 to 3.6 μm. The average using times of drill rods after optimization were increased by about 60%.

  1. Raman Spectroscopy of Mineral Inclusions in Diamonds from Yakutia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugap'eva, Sargylana; Goryainov, Sergey; Afanasiev, Valentine

    2016-10-01

    New data on the study of residual pressure in mineral inclusions in diamonds from kimberlite pipes and placers of Yakutia obtained using Raman Spectroscopy are presented. Calculated values of residual pressure in olivine and coesite inclusions in kimberlite diamonds according to works of Israeli et al [1] and Sobolev et al [2] indicate that the host crystal crystallized at the depth not less than 165 km, at pressure of 4.8-5.0 GPa and temperature T=1200 °C. Comparative analysis of Raman spectra of olivine inclusions in diamonds from placers of Ebelyakh river on inclusions, contained in diamond and then brought to the surface, showed that olivine inclusions are less stressed. The structural orientation of olivine inclusions in diamonds from placers of Ebelyakh river possibly plays a role in these differences of Raman spectra.

  2. Advancing diversity through inclusive excellence in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R; MacWilliams, Brent R; Schmidt, Bonnie J

    2015-01-01

    Nurse leaders call for a more diverse nursing workforce, but too few address the concept of inclusion as a recruitment and retention strategy or as part of improving the academic learning milieu. This article addresses organizational considerations of diversity and inclusion as part of the agenda established by the Association of American Colleges and Universities for inclusive excellence, building on the idea that academic environments only become excellent when an inclusive climate is reached. Six organizational strategies to inclusion are presented from the authors' experiences, some structural and others behavioral: admissions processes, invisibility, absence of community, promotion and tenure, exclusion, and tokenism. A call for structural and behavioral adaptions within nursing education to advance an inclusive excellence agenda is presented.

  3. Inclusive Inelastic Electron Scattering from Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Fomin, Nadia

    2007-10-26

    Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei at large x and Q{sup 2} is the result of a reaction mechanism that includes both quasi-elastic scattering from nucleons and deep inelastic scattering from the quark consitituents of the nucleons. Data in this regime can be used to study a wide variety of topics, including the extraction of nuclear momentum distributions, the infiuence of final state interactions and the approach to y-scaling, the strength of nucleon-nucleon correlations, and the approach to x-scaling, to name a few. Selected results from the recent experiment E02-019 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will be shown and their relevance discussed.

  4. Inclusive Educative Technologies, for people with disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echenique, AM; Graffigna, JP; Pérez, E.; López, N.; Piccinini, D.; Fernández, H.; Garcés, A.

    2016-04-01

    The conventional educational environment imposes barriers to education for people with disabilities, limiting their rights, which is a non-discriminative education. In turn, hampers their access to other rights and creates huge obstacles to realize their potential and participate effectively in their communities. In this sense Assistive Technology provides alternative solutions, in order to compensate for a lost or diminished ability. Thus the necessary assistance is provided to perform tasks, including those related to education, improving the inclusion. In this paper some researches had been made in the Gabinete de TecnologiaMedica, in the Facultad de Ingenieria of the Universidad Nacional de San Juan in order to solve this problem. The researchers are classified by type of disability; sensory (visual and auditory) or motor. They have been designed, developed and experienced through various prototypes that have given satisfactory results. It had been published in national and international congresses of high relevance.

  5. Ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions.

    PubMed

    Sunshine, J M; Connolly, H C; McCoy, T J; Bus, S J; La Croix, L M

    2008-04-25

    Calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) occur in all classes of chondritic meteorites and contain refractory minerals predicted to be the first condensates from the solar nebula. Near-infrared spectra of CAIs have strong 2-micrometer absorptions, attributed to iron oxide-bearing aluminous spinel. Similar absorptions are present in the telescopic spectra of several asteroids; modeling indicates that these contain approximately 30 +/- 10% CAIs (two to three times that of any meteorite). Survival of these undifferentiated, large (50- to 100-kilometer diameter) CAI-rich bodies suggests that they may have formed before the injection of radiogenic 26Al into the solar system. They have also experienced only modest post-accretionary alteration. Thus, these asteroids have higher concentrations of CAI material, appear less altered, and are more ancient than any known sample in our meteorite collection, making them prime candidates for sample return.

  6. Microscopic analysis of a native Bacillus thuringiensis strain from Malaysia that produces exosporium-enclosed parasporal inclusion.

    PubMed

    Chai, Pui Fun; Rathinam, Xavier; Solayappan, Maheswaran; Ahmad Ghazali, Amir Hamzah; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2014-10-01

    The current study focused on the microscopic studies of a native Bacillus thuringiensis strain isolated from Malaysia, Bt-S84-13a, that produced an unusual crystal type. Primary detection of parasporal inclusions using a phase contrast microscope presented one to two small crystal proteins in the sporulating cells of Bt-S84-13a. Compound light microscopic examination of autolysed Bt-S84-13a cells stained with 0.133% Coomassie Brilliant Blue showed two types of crystal morphology: small crystals independent of spores and spore-associated crystals. Surface structure analysis with a scanning electron microscope revealed spherical-like, coarse and wrinkled-looking crystal in Bt-S84-13a. A close-up observation of the crystal morphology using a transmission electron microscope also demonstrated two parasporal inclusions in Bt-S84-13a. One inclusion was deposited against the forespore and was in a shape of incomplete rectangular. Another smaller inclusion was developed within the exosporium and was rectangular in shape. However, the latter inclusion was found lack in another bacterial cell which was still in the early stages of sporulation. This unique crystal morphology may imply some biological potential in Bt-S84-13a.

  7. Effects of Zr, Ti, and Al Additions on Nonmetallic Inclusions and Impact Toughness of Cast Low-Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizyukov, Pavel V.; Giese, Scott R.

    2017-03-01

    A microalloying of the low-carbon and low-alloy cast steel was conducted with Zr, Ti, and Al that were added to the steel in four combinations. After heat treatment, the samples were tested for impact toughness at room temperature using the Charpy method. The highest values of impact toughness were obtained in the group treated with Zr, while Zr-Ti and Zr-Ti-Al groups showed moderate toughness values; the lowest values were observed in the Zr-Al group. Difference among the treatment groups was observed in the fracture mechanisms, morphology, and area distribution of the inclusions. High toughness values achieved in the trials treated with zirconium corresponded with smooth ductile fracture. The metal treated with a combination of zirconium and titanium had a relatively small area occupied by inclusions, but its toughness was also moderate. Lowest impact toughness values corresponded with the larger area occupied by the inclusions in the trials treated with aluminum. Also, a connection between the solubility product [Al][N] and impact toughness was established. The study also provides a qualitative description and quantitative analysis of the nonmetallic inclusions formation as a result of microalloying treatment. The precipitation sequence of the inclusions was described based on the thermochemical calculations for the nonmetallic compounds discovered in the experimental steel. A description of the size distribution, morphology, and composition was conducted for the oxides, nitrides, sulfides, and multiphase particles.

  8. Inclusion complex of ITH12674 with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin: Preparation, physical characterization and pharmacological effect.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Patrycja; Wojnicz, Aneta; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Abril, Sheila; Buendia, Izaskun; León, Rafael

    2017-02-10

    ITH12674 is a multitarget drug, designed to exert a dual "drug-prodrug" mechanism of action, able to induce the phase II antioxidant and anti-inflammatory response for the treatment of brain ischemia. However, its physicochemical properties limit its potential preclinical development due to its low water solubility and instability towards heat and pH variations. In order to improve its properties, we prepared the inclusion complex of ITH12674 with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) by the freeze-drying method. The formation of the inclusion complex was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy, PXRD, DSC, (1)H NMR and SEM techniques. Experimental results showed that the inclusion complex enhanced its water solubility and stability against heat, acidic and basic conditions. Furthermore, the inclusion complex, prepared in water solution, exerted the same potency to induce the phase II antioxidant response as the pure ITH12674. Thus the formation of the inclusion complex with HP-β-CD is a very effective method to stabilize and solubilize the active compound for its future preclinical development.

  9. Fluoroalkylation of organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylov, D. Yu; Budnikova, Yu H.

    2013-09-01

    Data on fluoroalkylation and perfluoroalkylation methods in organic synthesis are analyzed, summarized and described systematically. The most practically important properties of compounds with fluoroalkyl substituents are illustrated. The key trends and the potential of this field of organic chemistry are considered. Electrochemical syntheses of perfluoroalkyl derivatives that are inaccessible or experimentally difficult to prepare by regular chemical techniques are presented. Particular attention is paid to processes involving organometallic compounds as well as to prospects for the development of this field of research. The bibliography includes 226 references.

  10. Microoptical compound lens

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Gill, David D.

    2007-10-23

    An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.

  11. Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  12. Characterization of Cyclohexanone Inclusions in Class 1 RDX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Characterization of Cyclohexanone Inclusions in Class 1 RDX by Rose A. Pesce-Rodriguez and Stephanie M. Piraino ARL-TR-6962 June 2014...TR-6962 June 2014 Characterization of Cyclohexanone Inclusions in Class 1 RDX Rose A. Pesce-Rodriguez and Stephanie M. Piraino Weapons...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 12/2012 to 6/2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Characterization of Cyclohexanone Inclusions in Class 1 RDX 5a. CONTRACT

  13. Native titanium inclusions in the coesite eclogites from Dabieshan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Li, Jiliang; Wu, Jun

    2000-04-01

    Microbeam analysis of eclogites from the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt in Dabieshan, China has revealed native titanium inclusions in garnets of coesite eclogite. The inclusions are about 10 μm in size, have a submetallic luster from the thin oxidation film on the surface, and are brown under reflected light. This is the first report of native titanium inclusions in ultrahigh-pressure eclogite.

  14. Iron- and 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline-containing periplasmic inclusion bodies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A chemical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royt, P.W.; Honeychuck, R.V.; Pant, R.R.; Rogers, M.L.; Asher, L.V.; Lloyd, J.R.; Carlos, W.E.; Belkin, H.E.; Patwardhan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Dark aggregated particles were seen on pellets of iron-rich, mid-logarithmic phase Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Transmission electron microscopy of these cells showed inclusion bodies in periplasmic vacuoles. Aggregated particles isolated from the spent medium of these cells contained iron as indicated by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy that revealed Fe3+. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis of whole cells revealed the presence of iron-containing particles beneath the surface of the cell, indicating that the isolated aggregates were the intracellular inclusion bodies. Collectively, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the isolated inclusion bodies revealed the presence of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-heptylquinoline which is the Pseudomonas quinolone signaling compound (PQS) and an iron chelator; 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (pseudan VII), which is an iron chelator, antibacterial compound and precursor of PQS; 4-hydroxy-2-nonylquinoline (pseudan IX) which is an iron chelator and antibacterial compound; 4-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline (pseudan I), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonylquinoline N-oxide. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inclusion body myositis with granuloma formation in muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenji; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Ishida, Chiho; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Ono, Kenjiro; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-09-01

    Inclusion body myositis is a form of inflammatory myopathy. We identified 4 cases of inclusion body myositis showing granuloma formation in muscle tissue and aimed to assess the features of this atypical form of inclusion body myositis. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients who satisfied European Neuromuscular Centre IBM Research Diagnostic Criteria 2011. Then, we assessed clinical profiles and pathological findings in patients with inclusion body myositis with granuloma and compared these findings with those of typical inclusion body myositis without granuloma. We identified 15 patients with inclusion body myositis. Four patients showed granuloma formation in muscle tissue in addition to typical pathological features of inclusion body myositis. Granulomas comprised a mixture of inflammatory cells, such as macrophages, epithelioid histiocytic cells, and lymphocytes. One patient was found to have mediastinal granulomatous lymphadenopathy; however, the evidence in other patients was insufficient for a diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis. There were no significant differences between groups with and without granuloma regarding clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, response to immunomodulating therapies, or myopathological profiles. We established a new form of inclusion body myositis showing granuloma formation in muscle tissue. Inclusion body myositis and granuloma formation could have identical pathomechanisms concerning dysregulation of autophagy.

  16. Academic progress of students across inclusive and traditional settings.

    PubMed

    Cole, Cassandra M; Waldron, Nancy; Majd, Massoumeh

    2004-04-01

    Effects of inclusive school settings for students in six Indiana school corporations were investigated. Results reveal that students without disabilities educated in inclusive settings made significantly greater academic progress in mathematics and reading. For students with disabilities, there were no significant differences in reading and math achievement across the comparison groups. However, a review of group means and the percentage of students making comparable or greater than average academic progress when compared to students without disabilities indicates a pattern in favor of inclusive settings. The academic progress of students with specific disability labels, namely, learning disabilities and mild mental handicaps, also supported inclusive education.

  17. Petrographic studies of refractory inclusions from the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, G. J.; Grossman, L.; Hashimoto, A.; Bar-Matthews, M.; Tanaka, T.

    1984-01-01

    Textural and mineral-chemical data on freeze-thaw disaggregated refractory inclusions from the Murchison meteorite are reported. The data were obtained with neutron activation analysis, SEM, and spectroscopy, the study revealed corundum-bearing inclusions, spinel-hibonite aggregates and spherules, and spinel-pyroxene and elivine-pyroxene inclusions. One of the three spinel-, pyroxene-, forsterite-rich inclusions had an amoeba-shaped spinel-pyroxene core, implying vapor-to-solid condensation and therefore crystallization from a melt. It is concluded that the meteorite formation encompassed diverse nebular materials, and that further studies of the meteorite will enhance the data base on the planetary nebular processes.

  18. Inclusion for People with Developmental Disabilities: Measuring an Elusive Construct.

    PubMed

    Neely-Barnes, Susan Louise; Elswick, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    The philosophy of inclusion for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has evolved over the last 50 years. Over time, inclusion research has shifted from a focus on deinstitutionalization to understanding the extent to which individuals with IDD are meaningfully involved in the community and social relationships. Yet, there has been no agreed on way to measure inclusion. Many different measurement and data collection techniques have been used in the literature. This study proposes a brief measure of inclusion that can be used with family members and on survey instruments.

  19. Investigation of the inclusions of puerarin and daidzin with beta-cyclodextrin by molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyang; Feng, Wei; Li, Cong; Tan, Tianwei

    2010-04-15

    Puerarin and daidzin, two major isoflavonoids of Radix puerariae , are widely adopted in traditional Chinese medicine. Foundational aspects related to separating the two compounds are essential to develop a more economical purification process. Inclusion models of the two compounds with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Computational results reveal that both puerarin and daidzin can induce a conformational change of beta-CD, which is compressed in one direction and stretched in the other. The effect of solvent and media on the conformational change of beta-CD and the movement of guest molecules inside the cavity has been investigated. Furthermore, hydrogen bonding interactions have been analyzed, and the results have been utilized for the explanation of separating puerarin from daidzin.

  20. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  1. PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

  2. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  3. Selenium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenium and Compounds ; CASRN 7782 - 49 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  4. Boron and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / 04 / 052 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BORON AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 42 - 8 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2004 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed

  5. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 05 / 002 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ZINC AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 66 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) July 2005 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington D.C . DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordanc

  6. 8-fluoropurine compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Namavari, Mohammad; Phelps, Michael E.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient, regiocontrolled approach to the synthesis of 8-fluoropurines by direct fluorination of purines with dilute elemental fluorine, or acetyl hypofluorite, is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a purine compound is dissolved in a polar solvent and reacted with a dilute mixture of F.sub.2 in He or other inert gas.

  7. Barium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 05 / 001 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 39 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) March 1998 Minor revisions January 1999 Reference dose revised June 2005 U.S . Environmental Protec

  8. Beryllium and compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 98 / 008 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 41 - 7 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) April 1998 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in acco

  9. Urinary Compounds in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorn, A.; Berney, T.; Bretherton, K.; Mills, M.; Savery, D.; Shattock, P.

    2004-01-01

    Although earlier claims to identify specific compounds in the urine of people with autism had been discredited, it was subsequently suggested that there might be biochemical characteristics that were specific to early childhood, particularly in those who also did not have a severe degree of intellectual disability This study was to establish…

  10. Lead and compounds (inorganic)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Lead and compounds ( inorganic ) ; CASRN 7439 - 92 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  11. Fun with Ionic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…

  12. Reduction of thermal conductivity of bulk nanostructured bismuth telluride composites embedded with silicon nano-inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyala, Nikhil; Tahmasbi Rad, Armin; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Tayebi, Lobat; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2014-01-01

    Bulk nanostructured bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) composite with silicon nano-crystallite inclusions was synthesized via sintering approach. The effect of the composite structure formed by the addition of miniscule quantity (5 at. %) of silicon on the thermoelectric properties of bulk nanostructured Bi2Te3 is shown via a 50% drop in thermal conductivity accompanied with a simultaneous enhancement in the Seebeck coefficient. We demonstrate that the addition of silicon nano-inclusions to the nanostructured compound combined with a systematic thermal treatment beneficially reduces the thermal conductivity to less than 1.0 W/mK over the entire temperature range of 300 K to 525 K. It is shown that the combinatorial techniques of nanostructuring, nano-inclusions, and annealing are effective in reducing thermal conductivity by a significant magnitude. This low thermal conductivity is comparable to that of Bi2Te3 based superlattices and significantly lower than that of bulk Bi2Te3. The technique is extendable to (Bi,Se)2(Sb,Te)3 based thermoelectric alloys for enhancing the figure-of-merit.

  13. Characterization of aqueous and solid inclusion complexes of diuron and isoproturon with beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, N; Marquis, S; Vanhove, G; Bria, M; Kister, J; Vrielynck, L

    2004-06-01

    The interaction of diuron and isoproturon herbicides with beta-cyclodextrin is conducive to the formation of inclusion compounds in aqueous solution as well as in the solid state. The physico-chemical study of these complexes was carried out by various analytical techniques such as ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman, X-ray diffraction, and 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopies. The existence of inclusion complexes in water solution between the beta-cyclodextrin and each of the herbicides was revealed by electronic absorption and 1H-NMR spectroscopies. A 1:1 stoichiometry was determined for both complexes in aqueous medium from UV absorption spectra by using the Benesi-Hildebrand method; the relative stability constants at room temperature were calculated at 2700 +/- 300 L mol(-1) and 750 +/- 50 L mol(-1) for isoproturon and diuron, respectively. In the solid state, inclusion processes with beta-cyclodextrin were characterized by means of infrared and Raman techniques and confirmed by X-ray diffraction spectra.

  14. Chemical zonation in olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcombe, M. E.; Fabbrizio, A.; Zhang, Youxue; Ma, C.; Le Voyer, M.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Saal, A. E.; Stolper, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Significant zonation in major, minor, trace, and volatile elements has been documented in naturally glassy olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Siqueiros Fracture Zone and the Galapagos Islands. Components with a higher concentration in the host olivine than in the melt (e.g., MgO, FeO, Cr2O3, and MnO) are depleted at the edges of the zoned melt inclusions relative to their centers, whereas except for CaO, H2O, and F, components with a lower concentration in the host olivine than in the melt (e.g., Al2O3, SiO2, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, S, and Cl) are enriched near the melt inclusion edges. This zonation is due to formation of an olivine-depleted boundary layer in the adjacent melt in response to cooling and crystallization of olivine on the walls of the melt inclusions, concurrent with diffusive propagation of the boundary layer toward the inclusion center. Concentration profiles of some components in the melt inclusions exhibit multicomponent diffusion effects such as uphill diffusion (CaO, FeO) or slowing of the diffusion of typically rapidly diffusing components (Na2O, K2O) by coupling to slow diffusing components such as SiO2 and Al2O3. Concentrations of H2O and F decrease toward the edges of some of the Siqueiros melt inclusions, suggesting either that these components have been lost from the inclusions into the host olivine late in their cooling histories and/or that these components are exhibiting multicomponent diffusion effects. A model has been developed of the time-dependent evolution of MgO concentration profiles in melt inclusions due to simultaneous depletion of MgO at the inclusion walls due to olivine growth and diffusion of MgO in the melt inclusions in response to this depletion. Observed concentration profiles were fit to this model to constrain their thermal histories. Cooling rates determined by a single-stage linear cooling model are 150-13,000 °C h-1 from the liquidus down to ~1,000 °C, consistent with previously determined cooling rates for

  15. Sr isotope variations in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from continetal basalts: evaluating primary vs secondary signatures of melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, F. C.; Wolff, J. A.; Reid, M. R.

    2003-04-01

    Melt inclusions have become the focus of intense study in constraining the sources involved in magma production in MORB and OIB. Such inclusions retain a wide variety of major and trace element signatures that have been typically attributed to various mantle sources without significant inputs from secondary magmatic processes such as crustal contamination. Sr isotopes of melt inclusions from continental basalts affected by crustal contamination suggest that highly variable major and trace element signatures in melt inclusions result from crustal contamination, not heterogeneous mantle sources. This may result from the inherent ability of melt inclusions to capture melt from regions in which rapid cooling and rapid olivine growth can occur. More specifically, rapid olivine growth, and subsequent melt capture, may be more likely to occur along wallrock/magma interfaces where a wide variety of crustally modified liquids may be present. Accordingly, melt inclusions captured in olivine phenocrysts from crustally contaminated basalts which retain elevated MgO contents (6 to 8 weight percent) reflect the widest range of Sr isotope signatures found in all phenocrysts and groundmass samples. In effect, the largest overall range of Sr isotopes is observed in olivine-hosted melt inclusions suggesting that melt inclusions are more likely to record the effects of secondary processes, rather than primary magmatic signatures. As such, caution should be exercised when using melt inclusions to identify mantle signatures, and Sr isotopes offer an excellent opportunity in which to evaluate the modifying effects of open-system processes affecting basalts.

  16. Fluid Inclusions in Extraterrestrial Samples Fact or Fiction?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodnar, R. J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Gibson, E. K.

    2000-01-01

    Over the years there have been numerous reports of liquid inclusions in meteorites. Roedder reviews the reported occurrences of liquid inclusions in meteorites and states that "silicate-melt inclusions are expectable and apparently ubiquitous, but the presence of actual liquid inclusions (i.e., with moving bubbles at room temperature) would seem almost impossible." The reason for this conclusion is that meteorites (presumably) form in space at high temperatures and very low pressures where liquid water (or carbon dioxide) is not stable. Perhaps the most infamous report of fluid inclusions in meteorites was that of Warner et al. In that study, the authors reported the presence of two-phase, liquid-vapor inclusions in a diogenite from Antarctica. This report of fluid inclusions generated considerable interest in the meteorite community, and caused many to question existing models for the origin of the diogenites. This interest was short-lived however, as later investigations of the same samples showed that the inclusions were most likely artifacts. Rudnick et al. showed that many of the inclusions in meteorites prepared at the Johnson Space Center contained a fluid that fluoresced strongly under the laser beam on the Raman microprobe. They interpreted this to indicate that the inclusions contained Almag oil used in the preparation of thin sections. Presumably, the Almag oil entered empty vesicles along fractures that were opened intermittently during cutting. Here, the occurrence of unambiguous fluid inclusions that could not have been introduced during sample preparation are described in samples from two different extraterrestrial environments. One environment is represented by the SNC (martian) meteorites ALH 84001 and Nakhla. The second environment is represented by the Monahans 1998 meteorite that fell recently in the USA.

  17. Fluid inclusion analyses of detrital quartz grains - new Provenance Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.D.

    1985-02-01

    Preliminary analyses by microthermometry of fluid inclusions in detrital quartz of the Upper Cambrian Lamotte Sandstone revealed the occurrence of 2 distinct groups of aqueous fluid inclusions. Specific salinity signatures and homogenization temperatures may be used to distinguish specific granite types of the source rock terrain. The inclusions chosen for analysis occur in isolated clusters or are randomly distributed within a grain, commonly in association with mineral inclusions of zircon, sphene, rutile, and/or tourmaline. Secondary inclusions are present in the Lamotte but are not included in this study. The first group of inclusions is characterized by low salinities (< 1.0-8.0 wt.% eq. NaCl), the second by high salinities (12.1-29.6 wt. % eq. NaCl). Final melting temperatures as low as -30.6/sup 0/C indicate the presence of divalent ions in these inclusions. Both groups yield homogenization temperatures of between 150/sup 0/C and 220/sup 0/C. The low-salinity inclusions occur predominantly in subrounded to well-rounded sand less than 1.0 mm in size that is derived from a distal source. The brine inclusions occur exclusively in subangular to angular gravel 2.0-3.0 mm in size, implying a more proximal source area. A comparison of these inclusions with inclusions found in the granites of the apparent source terrain indicates that a medium-silica amphiboleorthoclase granite (Slabtown type) or a low-silica amphibole-plagioclase granite (Sivermines type) or both are the primary source rocks for this quartz. These granite types have limited areal distribution in the present day St. Francois mountains and the identification of these granite types as the source rock for the locally derived quartz has broad implications for reconstructing Cambrian depositional environments and paleostructure of the ancient St. Francois mountains.

  18. Ceramic Inclusions In Powder Metallurgy Disk Alloys: Characterization and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Pete; Kantzos, Pete; Telesman, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Powder metallurgy alloys are increasingly used in gas turbine engines, especially as the material chosen for turbine disks. Although powder metallurgy materials have many advantages over conventionally cast and wrought alloys (higher strength, higher temperature capability, etc.), they suffer from the rare occurrence of ceramic defects (inclusions) that arise from the powder atomization process. These inclusions can have potentially large detrimental effect on the durability of individual components. An inclusion in a high stress location can act as a site for premature crack initiation and thereby considerably reduce the fatigue life. Because these inclusions are exceedingly rare, they usually don't reveal themselves in the process of characterizing the material for a particular application (the cumulative volume of the test bars in a fatigue life characterization is typically on the order of a single actual component). Ceramic inclusions have, however, been found to be the root cause of a number of catastrophic engine failures. To investigate the effect of these inclusions in detail, we have undertaken a study where a known population of ceramic particles, whose composition and morphology are designed to mimic the 'natural' inclusions, are added to the precursor powder. Surface connected inclusions have been found to have a particularly large detrimental effect on fatigue life, therefore the volume of ceramic 'seeds' added is calculated to ensure that a minimum number will occur on the surface of the fatigue test bars. Because the ceramic inclusions are irregularly shaped and have a tendency to break up in the process of extrusion and forging, a method of calculating the probability of occurrence and expected intercepted surface and embedded cross-sectional areas were needed. We have developed a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the distributions of these parameters and have verified the simulated results with observations of ceramic inclusions found in macro

  19. Inclusion of Scatter in HADES: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M B

    2010-12-20

    Covert nuclear attack is one of the foremost threats facing the United States and is a primary focus of the War on Terror. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is chartered to develop, and improve domestic systems to detect and interdict smuggling for the illicit use of a nuclear explosive device, fissile material or radiologica1 material. The CAARS (Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System) program is a major part of the DHS effort to enhance US security by harnessing cutting-edge technologies to detect radiological and nuclear threats at points of entry to the United States. DNDO has selected vendors to develop complete radiographic systems. It is crucial that the initial design and testing concepts for the systems be validated and compared prior to the substantial efforts to build and deploy prototypes and subsequent large-scale production. An important aspect of these systems is the scatter which interferes with imaging. Monte Carlo codes, such as MCNP (X-5 Monte Carlo Team, 2005 Revision) allow scatter to be calculatied, but these calculations are very time consuming. It would be useful to have a fast scatter estimation algorithm in a fast ray tracing code. We have been extending the HADES ray-tracing radiographic simulation code to model vendor systems in a flexible and quick fashion and to use this tool to study a variety of questions involving system performance and the comparative value of surrogates. To enable this work, HADES has been linked to the BRL-CAD library (BRL-CAD Open Source Project, 2010), in order to enable the inclusion of complex CAD geometries in simulations, scanner geometries have been implemented in HADES, and the novel detector responses have been included in HADES. A major extension of HADES which has been required by this effort is the inclusion of scatter in these radiographic simulations. Ray tracing codes generally do not easily allow the inclusion of scatter, because

  20. Inclusion complexation of pinostrobin with various cyclodextrin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kicuntod, Jintawee; Khuntawee, Wasinee; Wolschann, Peter; Pongsawasdi, Piamsook; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Kungwan, Nawee; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada

    2016-01-01

    Pinostrobin (PNS) is one of the important flavonoids and can be abundantly found in the rhizomes of fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotrunda) and galangal (Alpinia galangal and Alpinia officinarum), the herbal basis of Southeast Asian cooking. Similar to other flavonoids, PNS exhibits anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, this compound has an extremely low water solubility that limits its use in pharmaceutical applications. Beta-cyclodextrin (βCD) and its derivatives, 2,6-dimethyl-βCD (2,6-DMβCD) and the three hydroxypropyl-βCDs (2-HPβCD, 6-HPβCD and 2,6-DHPβCD), have unique properties that enhance the stability and solubility of such low-soluble guest molecules. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulations were applied to investigate the dynamics and stability of PNS inclusion complexes with βCD and its derivatives (2,6-DMβCD, 2,6-DHPβCD, 2-HPβCD and 6-HPβCD). PNS was able to form complexes with βCD and all four of its derivatives by either the chromone (C-PNS) or phenyl (P-PNS) ring dipping toward the cavity. According to the molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area binding free energy values, the stability of the different PNS/βCD complexes was ranked as 2,6-DHPβCD>2,6-DMβCD>2-HPβCD>6-HPβCD>βCD. These theoretical results were in good agreement with the stability constants that had been determined by the solubility method.