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Sample records for a-dependent cftr chloride

  1. Sweat chloride as a biomarker of CFTR activity: proof of concept and ivacaftor clinical trial data.

    PubMed

    Accurso, Frank J; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J; Dong, Qunming; Ordonez, Claudia L; Rowe, Steven M; Clancy, John Paul; Konstan, Michael W; Hoch, Heather E; Heltshe, Sonya L; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Campbell, Preston W; Ashlock, Melissa A

    2014-03-01

    We examined data from a Phase 2 trial {NCT00457821} of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with aG551D mutation to evaluate standardized approaches to sweat chloride measurement and to explore the use of sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (NPD) to estimate CFTR activity. Sweat chloride and NPD were secondary endpoints in this placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Standardization of sweat collection, processing,and analysis was employed for the first time. Sweat chloride and chloride ion transport (NPD) were integrated into a model of CFTR activity. Within-patient sweat chloride determinations showed sufficient precision to detect differences between dose-groups and assess ivacaftor treatment effects. Analysis of changes in sweat chloride and NPD demonstrated that patients treated with ivacaftor achieved CFTR activity equivalent to approximately 35%–40% of normal. Sweat chloride is useful in multicenter trials as a biomarker of CFTR activity and to test the effect of CFTR potentiators.

  2. Stimulation effect of wide type CFTR chloride channel by the naturally occurring flavonoid tangeretin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Wang, Xue; Sui, Yujie; Zhang, Yaofang; Yang, Shuang; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2014-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed in the apical membrane of serous epithelial cells. Both deficiency and overactivation of CFTR may cause fluid and salt secretion related diseases. In the present study, we identified tangeretin from Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride as a CFTR activator using high-throughput screening based on FRT cell-based fluorescence assay. The activation effect of tangeretin on CFTR chloride channel and the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated. Fluorescence quenching tests showed that tangeretin dose- and time-dependently activated CFTR chloride channel, the activity had rapid and reversible characteristics and the activation effect could be completely reversed by the CFTR specific blocker CFTRinh-172. Primary mechanism studies indicated that the activation effect of tangeretin on CFTR chloride channel was FSK dependent as well as had additional effect with FSK and IBMX suggesting that tangeretin activates CFTR by direct interacting with the protein. Ex-vivo tests revealed that tangeretin could accelerate the speed of the submucosal gland fluid secretion. Short-circuit current measurement demonstrated that tangeretin activated rat colonic mucosa chloride current. Thus, CFTR Cl(-) channel is a molecular target of natural compound tangeretin. Tangeretin may have potential use for the treatment of CFTR-related diseases like cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis and habitual constipation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sweat Chloride as A Biomarker of CFTR Activity: Proof of Concept and Ivacaftor Clinical Trial Data

    PubMed Central

    Accurso, Frank J.; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J.; Dong, Qunming; Ordonez, Claudia L.; Rowe, Steven M.; Clancy, John Paul; Konstan, Michael W.; Hoch, Heather E.; Heltshe, Sonya L.; Ramsey, Bonnie W.; Campbell, Preston W.; Ashlock, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined data from a Phase 2 trial {NCT00457821 } of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with a G551D mutation to evaluate standardized approaches to sweat chloride measurement and to explore the use of sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (NPD) to estimate CFTR activity. Methods Sweat chloride and NPD were secondary endpoints in this placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Standardization of sweat collection, processing, and analysis was employed for the first time.. Sweat chloride and chloride ion transport (NPD) were integrated into a model of CFTR activity. Results Within-patient sweat chloride determinations showed sufficient precision to detect differences between dose-groups and assess ivacaftor treatment effects. Analysis of changes in sweat chloride and NPD demonstrated that patients treated with ivacaftor achieved CFTR activity equivalent to approximately 35%–40% of normal. Conclusions Sweat chloride is useful in multicenter trials as a biomarker of CFTR activity and to test the effect of CFTR potentiators. PMID:24660233

  4. The hypertonic environment differentially regulates wild-type CFTR and TNR-CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Cheng, Jie; Krasnov, Kristina; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Cutting, Garry R; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Morales, Marcelo M; Guggino, William B

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that the hypertonic environment of the renal medulla regulates the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) and its natural splice variant, TNR-CFTR. To accomplish this, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) stable cell lines expressing TNR-CFTR or CFTR were used. The cells were treated with hypertonic medium made with either NaCl or urea or sucrose (480 mOsm/kg or 560 mOsm/kg) to mimic the tonicity of the renal medulla environment. Western blot data showed that CFTR and TNR-CFTR total cell protein is increased by hypertonic medium, but using the surface biotinylation technique, only CFTR was found to be increased in cell plasma membrane. Confocal microscopy showed TNR-CFTR localization primarily at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. In conclusion, CFTR and TNR-CFTR have different patterns of distribution in MDCK cells and they are modulated by a hypertonic environment, suggesting their physiological importance in renal medulla. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. CFTR-dependent chloride efflux in cystic fibrosis mononuclear cells is increased by ivacaftor therapy.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Lorenzo; D'Oria, Susanna; Favia, Maria; Castellani, Stefano; Santostasi, Teresa; Polizzi, Angela M; Mariggiò, Maria A; Gallo, Crescenzio; Casavola, Valeria; Montemurro, Pasqualina; Leonetti, Giuseppina; Manca, Antonio; Conese, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) potentiator ivacaftor (Kalydeco®) improves clinical outcome in G551D cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we have investigated whether ivacaftor has a clinical impact on non-G551D gating mutations and function of circulating leukocytes as well. Seven patients were treated with ivacaftor and evaluated at baseline, and at 1-3 and 6 months. Besides clinical and systemic inflammatory parameters, circulating mononuclear cells (MNC) were evaluated for CFTR-dependent chloride efflux by spectrofluorimetry, neutrophils for oxidative burst by cytofluorimetry and HVCN1 mRNA expression by real time PCR. Ivacaftor determined a significant decrease in sweat chloride concentrations at all time points during treatment. Body mass index (BMI), FEV 1 , and FVC showed an increasing trend. While C-reactive protein decreased significantly at 2 months, the opposite behavior was noticed for circulating monocytes. CFTR activity in MNC was found to increase significantly at 3 and 6 months. Neutrophil oxidative burst peaked at 2 months and then decreased to baseline. HVCN1 mRNA expression was significantly higher than baseline at 1-3 months and decreased after 6 months of treatment. The chloride efflux in MNC correlated positively with both FEV 1 and FVC. On the other hand, sweat chloride correlated positively with CRP and WBC, and negatively with both respiratory function tests. A cluster analysis confirmed that sweat chloride, FEV 1 , FVC, BMI, and MNC chloride efflux behaved as a single entity over time. In patients with non-G551D mutations, ivacaftor improved both chloride transport in sweat ducts and chloride efflux in MNC, that is, functions directly imputed to CFTR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Lubiprostone activates non-CFTR-dependent respiratory epithelial chloride secretion in cystic fibrosis mice

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Kelvin D.; McKenzie, Karen R.; Henderson, Mark J.; Hawkins, Charles E.; Vij, Neeraj; Zeitlin, Pamela L.

    2008-01-01

    Periciliary fluid balance is maintained by the coordination of sodium and chloride channels in the apical membranes of the airways. In the absence of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), chloride secretion is diminished and sodium reabsorption exaggerated. ClC-2, a pH- and voltage-dependent chloride channel, is present on the apical membranes of airway epithelial cells. We hypothesized that ClC-2 agonists would provide a parallel pathway for chloride secretion. Using nasal potential difference (NPD) measurements, we quantified lubiprostone-mediated Cl− transport in sedated cystic fibrosis null (gut-corrected), C57Bl/6, and A/J mice during nasal perfusion of lubiprostone (a putative ClC-2 agonist). Baseline, amiloride-inhibited, chloride-free gluconate-substituted Ringer with amiloride and low-chloride Ringer plus lubiprostone (at increasing concentrations of lubiprostone) were perfused, and the NPD was continuously recorded. A clear dose-response relationship was detected in all murine strains. The magnitude of the NPD response to 20 μM lubiprostone was −5.8 ± 2.1 mV (CF, n = 12), −8.1 ± 2.6 mV (C57Bl/6 wild-type, n = 12), and −5.3 ± 1.2 mV (AJ wild-type, n = 8). A cohort of ClC-2 knockout mice did not respond to 20 μM lubiprostone (n = 6, P = 0.27). In C57Bl/6 mice, inhibition of CFTR with topical application of CFTR inhibitor-172 did not abolish the lubiprostone response, thus confirming the response seen is independent of CFTR regulation. RT-PCR confirmed expression of ClC-2 mRNA in murine lung homogenate. The direct application of lubiprostone in the CF murine nasal airway restores nearly normal levels of chloride secretion in nasal epithelia. PMID:18805957

  7. Lubiprostone activates non-CFTR-dependent respiratory epithelial chloride secretion in cystic fibrosis mice.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Kelvin D; McKenzie, Karen R; Henderson, Mark J; Hawkins, Charles E; Vij, Neeraj; Zeitlin, Pamela L

    2008-11-01

    Periciliary fluid balance is maintained by the coordination of sodium and chloride channels in the apical membranes of the airways. In the absence of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), chloride secretion is diminished and sodium reabsorption exaggerated. ClC-2, a pH- and voltage-dependent chloride channel, is present on the apical membranes of airway epithelial cells. We hypothesized that ClC-2 agonists would provide a parallel pathway for chloride secretion. Using nasal potential difference (NPD) measurements, we quantified lubiprostone-mediated Cl(-) transport in sedated cystic fibrosis null (gut-corrected), C57Bl/6, and A/J mice during nasal perfusion of lubiprostone (a putative ClC-2 agonist). Baseline, amiloride-inhibited, chloride-free gluconate-substituted Ringer with amiloride and low-chloride Ringer plus lubiprostone (at increasing concentrations of lubiprostone) were perfused, and the NPD was continuously recorded. A clear dose-response relationship was detected in all murine strains. The magnitude of the NPD response to 20 muM lubiprostone was -5.8 +/- 2.1 mV (CF, n = 12), -8.1 +/- 2.6 mV (C57Bl/6 wild-type, n = 12), and -5.3 +/- 1.2 mV (AJ wild-type, n = 8). A cohort of ClC-2 knockout mice did not respond to 20 muM lubiprostone (n = 6, P = 0.27). In C57Bl/6 mice, inhibition of CFTR with topical application of CFTR inhibitor-172 did not abolish the lubiprostone response, thus confirming the response seen is independent of CFTR regulation. RT-PCR confirmed expression of ClC-2 mRNA in murine lung homogenate. The direct application of lubiprostone in the CF murine nasal airway restores nearly normal levels of chloride secretion in nasal epithelia.

  8. Anchored PDE4 regulates chloride conductance in wild-type and ΔF508-CFTR human airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Elise; Zlock, Lorna; Lao, Anna; Mika, Delphine; Namkung, Wan; Xie, Moses; Scheitrum, Colleen; Gruenert, Dieter C.; Verkman, Alan S.; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Conti, Marco; Richter, Wito

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) that impair its expression and/or chloride channel function. Here, we provide evidence that type 4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE4s) are critical regulators of the cAMP/PKA-dependent activation of CFTR in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. In non-CF cells, PDE4 inhibition increased CFTR activity under basal conditions (ΔISC 7.1 μA/cm2) and after isoproterenol stimulation (increased ΔISC from 13.9 to 21.0 μA/cm2) and slowed the return of stimulated CFTR activity to basal levels by >3-fold. In cells homozygous for ΔF508-CFTR, the most common mutation found in CF, PDE4 inhibition alone produced minimal channel activation. However, PDE4 inhibition strongly amplified the effects of CFTR correctors, drugs that increase expression and membrane localization of CFTR, and/or CFTR potentiators, drugs that increase channel gating, to reach ∼25% of the chloride conductance observed in non-CF cells. Biochemical studies indicate that PDE4s are anchored to CFTR and mediate a local regulation of channel function. Taken together, our results implicate PDE4 as an important determinant of CFTR activity in airway epithelia, and support the use of PDE4 inhibitors to potentiate the therapeutic benefits of CFTR correctors and potentiators.—Blanchard, E., Zlock, L., Lao, A., Mika, D., Namkung, W., Xie, M., Scheitrum, C., Gruenert, D.C., Verkman, A.S., Finkbeiner, W.E., Conti, M., Richter, W. Anchored PDE4 regulates chloride conductance in wild type and ΔF508-CFTR human airway epithelia. PMID:24200884

  9. Association of sweat chloride concentration at time of diagnosis and CFTR genotype with mortality and cystic fibrosis phenotype.

    PubMed

    McKone, Edward F; Velentgas, Priscilla; Swenson, Anna J; Goss, Christopher H

    2015-09-01

    The extent to which sweat chloride concentration predicts survival and clinical phenotype independently of CFTR genotype in cystic fibrosis is not well understood. We analyzed the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry data using Cox regression to examine the relationship between sweat chloride concentration (<60, 60-<80, ≥80mmol/L), CFTR genotype (high and lower risk for lung function decline), and survival and mixed linear regression to examine the relationship between sweat chloride, CFTR genotype, and measures of lung function and growth. When included in the same model, CFTR genotype, but not sweat chloride, was independently associated with survival and with lung function, height, and BMI. Among patients with unclassified CFTR genotype, sweat chloride was an independent predictor of survival (<60 HR 0.53 [0.37, 0.77], 60-<80 0.51 [0.42, 0.63]). Sweat chloride concentration may be a useful predictor of mortality and clinical phenotype when CFTR genotype functional class is unclassified. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mercury toxicity in the shark (Squalus acanthias) rectal gland: apical CFTR chloride channels are inhibited by mercuric chloride.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Martha A; Decker, Sarah E; Aller, Stephen G; Weber, Gerhard; Forrest, John N

    2006-03-01

    In the shark rectal gland, basolateral membrane proteins have been suggested as targets for mercury. To examine the membrane polarity of mercury toxicity, we performed experiments in three preparations: isolated perfused rectal glands, primary monolayer cultures of rectal gland epithelial cells, and Xenopus oocytes expressing the shark cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. In perfused rectal glands we observed: (1) a dose-dependent inhibition by mercury of forskolin/3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-stimulated chloride secretion; (2) inhibition was maximal when mercury was added before stimulation with forskolin/IBMX; (3) dithiothrietol (DTT) and glutathione (GSH) completely prevented inhibition of chloride secretion. Short-circuit current (Isc) measurements in monolayers of rectal gland epithelial cells were performed to examine the membrane polarity of this effect. Mercuric chloride inhibited Isc more potently when applied to the solution bathing the apical vs. the basolateral membrane (23 +/- 5% and 68 +/- 5% inhibition at 1 and 10 microM HgCl2 in the apical solution vs. 2 +/- 0.9% and 14 +/- 5% in the basolateral solution). This inhibition was prevented by pre-treatment with apical DTT or GSH; however, only the permeant reducing agent DTT reversed mercury inhibition when added after exposure. When the shark rectal gland CFTR channel was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and chloride conductance was measured by two-electrode voltage clamping, we found that 1 microM HgCl2 inhibited forskolin/IBMX conductance by 69.2 +/- 2.0%. We conclude that in the shark rectal gland, mercury inhibits chloride secretion by interacting with the apical membrane and that CFTR is the likely site of this action. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Chloride transporting capability of Calu-3 epithelia following persistent knockdown of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR

    PubMed Central

    MacVinish, L J; Cope, G; Ropenga, A; Cuthbert, A W

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Calu-3 cells are derived from serous cells of human lung submucosal glands, a prime target for therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF). Calu-3 cells can be cultured to form epithelia capable of transepithelial transport of chloride. A CF Calu-3 cell is not available. Experimental approach: A retroviral vector was used to cause persistent down regulation of CFTR using siRNA methodology, in Calu-3 cells. A Calu-3 cell line with CFTR content less than 5% of the original line has been established. Epithelia grown using the modified cells have been used in comparative studies of transporting capability. Key results: All aspects of cAMP activated chloride secretion were attenuated in the epithelia with reduced CFTR content. However transporting capability was reduced less than the CFTR content. From studies with the CFTR channel inhibitor, GlyH-101, it was concluded that wild type Calu-3 cells have a reserve of CFTR channels not located in the membrane, but available for replacement, while in the modified Calu-3 cell line there was little or no reserve. Lubiprostone, a putative ClC-2 activator, increased transepithelial chloride secretion in both modified and wild type Calu-3 epithelia. Modified Calu-3 epithelia with the residual CFTR currents blocked with GlyH-101 responded equally well to lubiprostone as those without the blocking agent. Conclusions and implications: It appears that lubiprostone is capable of stimulating a non-CFTR dependent transepithelial chloride secretion in Calu-3 monolayers, with obvious implications for CF therapy. Cell lines, however, do not always reflect the behaviour of the native tissue with integrity. PMID:17339840

  12. In vitro pharmacologic restoration of CFTR-mediated chloride transport with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells containing delta F508-CFTR.

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, R C; Egan, M E; Zeitlin, P L

    1997-01-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutation, delta F508-CFTR, is a partially functional chloride channel that is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded. We hypothesize that a known transcriptional regulator, sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA), will enable a greater fraction of delta F508-CFTR to escape degradation and appear at the cell surface. Primary cultures of nasal polyp epithelia from CF patients (delta F508 homozygous or heterozygous), or the CF bronchial epithelial cell line IB3-1 (delta F508/W1282X) were exposed to 4PBA for up to 7 d in culture. 4PBA treatment at concentrations of 0.1 and 2 mM resulted in the restoration of forskolin-activated chloride secretion. Protein kinase A-activated, linear, 10 pS chloride channels appeared at the plasma membrane of IB3-1 cells at the tested concentration of 2.5 mM. Treatment of IB3-1 cells with 0.1-1 mM 4PBA and primary nasal epithelia with 5 mM 4PBA also resulted in the appearance of higher molecular mass forms of CFTR consistent with addition and modification of oligosaccharides in the Golgi apparatus, as detected by immunoblotting of whole cell lysates with anti-CFTR antisera. Immunocytochemistry in CF epithelial cells treated with 4PBA was consistent with increasing amounts of delta F508-CFTR. These data indicate that 4PBA is a promising pharmacologic agent for inducing correction of the CF phenotype in CF patients carrying the delta F508 mutation. PMID:9366560

  13. In vitro pharmacologic restoration of CFTR-mediated chloride transport with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells containing delta F508-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, R C; Egan, M E; Zeitlin, P L

    1997-11-15

    The most common cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutation, delta F508-CFTR, is a partially functional chloride channel that is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded. We hypothesize that a known transcriptional regulator, sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA), will enable a greater fraction of delta F508-CFTR to escape degradation and appear at the cell surface. Primary cultures of nasal polyp epithelia from CF patients (delta F508 homozygous or heterozygous), or the CF bronchial epithelial cell line IB3-1 (delta F508/W1282X) were exposed to 4PBA for up to 7 d in culture. 4PBA treatment at concentrations of 0.1 and 2 mM resulted in the restoration of forskolin-activated chloride secretion. Protein kinase A-activated, linear, 10 pS chloride channels appeared at the plasma membrane of IB3-1 cells at the tested concentration of 2.5 mM. Treatment of IB3-1 cells with 0.1-1 mM 4PBA and primary nasal epithelia with 5 mM 4PBA also resulted in the appearance of higher molecular mass forms of CFTR consistent with addition and modification of oligosaccharides in the Golgi apparatus, as detected by immunoblotting of whole cell lysates with anti-CFTR antisera. Immunocytochemistry in CF epithelial cells treated with 4PBA was consistent with increasing amounts of delta F508-CFTR. These data indicate that 4PBA is a promising pharmacologic agent for inducing correction of the CF phenotype in CF patients carrying the delta F508 mutation.

  14. Sweat chloride and immunoreactive trypsinogen in infants carrying two CFTR mutations and not affected by cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Carlo; Tridello, Gloria; Tamanini, Anna; Assael, Baroukh M

    2017-07-01

    Newborns with raised immunotrypsinogen levels who have non-pathological sweat chloride values and carry two cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator ( CFTR ) mutations of which at least one is not acknowledged to be cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing are at risk of developing clinical manifestations consistent with CFTR-related disorders or even CF. It is not known whether newborns with similar genotypes and normal immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) may share the same risk. This study found that newborns with these characteristics and normal IRT have lower sweat chloride values than those with raised IRT (p=0.007). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. CFTR modulates RPS27 gene expression using chloride anion as signaling effector.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Ángel G; Mori, Consuelo; Clauzure, Mariángeles; Massip-Copiz, Macarena; Santa-Coloma, Tomás A

    2017-11-01

    In Cystic Fibrosis (CF), the impairment of the CFTR channel activity leads to a variety of alterations, including differential gene expression. However, the CFTR signaling mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, culturing IB3-1 CF cells under different intracellular Cl - concentrations ([Cl - ] i ), we observed several Cl - -dependent genes and further characterized one of them as RPS27. Thus, we hypothesized that Cl - might act as a signaling effector for CFTR signaling. Here, to test this idea, we study RPS27 expression in T84 cells modulating the CFTR activity by using CFTR inhibitors. First, we observed that incubation of T84 cells with increasing concentrations of the CFTR inhibitors CFTR(inh)-172 or GlyH-101 determined a progressive increase in the relative [Cl - ] i (using the Cl - fluorescent probe SPQ). The [Cl - ] i rise was concomitant with a dose-dependent down-regulation of RPS27. These results imply that CFTR inhibition produce Cl - accumulation and that RPS27 expression can be modulated by CFTR inhibition. Therefore, Cl - behaves as a signaling effector for CFTR in the modulation of RPS27 expression. In addition, the IL-1β receptor antagonist IL1RN or the JNK inhibitor SP600125, both restored the down-regulation of RPS27 induced by CFTRinh-172, implying a role of autocrine IL-1β and JNK signaling downstream of Cl - in RPS27 modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Disruption of CFTR chloride channel alters mechanical properties and cAMP-dependent Cl− transport of mouse aortic smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Renaud; Norez, Caroline; Becq, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Chloride (Cl−) channels expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are important to control membrane potential equilibrium, intracellular pH, cell volume maintenance, contraction, relaxation and proliferation. The present study was designed to compare the expression, regulation and function of CFTR Cl− channels in aortic VSMC from Cftr+/+ and Cftr−/− mice. Using an iodide efflux assay we demonstrated stimulation of CFTR by VIP, isoproterenol, cAMP agonists and other pharmacological activators in cultured VSMC from Cftr+/+. On the contrary, in cultured VSMC from Cftr−/− mice these agonists have no effect, showing that CFTR is the dominant Cl− channel involved in the response to cAMP mediators. Angiotensin II and the calcium ionophore A23187 stimulated Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels in VSMCs from both genotypes. CFTR was activated in myocytes maintained in medium containing either high potassium or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and was inhibited by CFTRinh-172, glibenclamide and diphenylamine-2,2′-dicarboxylic acid (DPC). We also examined the mechanical properties of aortas. Arteries with or without endothelium from Cftr−/− mice became significantly more constricted (∼2-fold) than that of Cftr+/+ mice in response to vasoactive agents. Moreover, in precontracted arteries of Cftr+/+ mice, VIP and CFTR activators induced vasorelaxation that was altered in Cftr−/− mice. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism for regulation of the vascular tone by cAMP-dependent CFTR chloride channels in VSMC. To our knowledge this study is the first to report the phenotypic consequences of the loss of a Cl− channel on vascular reactivity. PMID:16081479

  17. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Nancy M.; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R.; Stefanski, Casey D.; Strubberg, Ashlee M.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl− and HCO3− efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3−)-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3−-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl−/HCO3− exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl− concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl− concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl− and HCO3− efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl− and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. PMID:26542396

  18. Intra-individual biological variation in sweat chloride concentrations in CF, CFTR dysfunction, and healthy pediatric subjects.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Natalia; Raia, Valeria; Rocco, Ilaria; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Tosco, Antonella; Salvadori, Laura; Sepe, Angela Ornella; Buzzetti, Roberto; Minicuci, Nadia; Castaldo, Giuseppe

    2018-04-02

    The sweat test is one of the main diagnostic tools used in newborn screening programs and as a confirmatory test, in case of suspect of Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Since sweat chloride (Cl) concentration is also considered an appropriate parameter to explore the efficacy of CFTR modulators in clinical trials, it is crucial to evaluate the biological variability of this test in healthy and pathological conditions. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the intra-individual biological variability of sweat Cl, both in healthy individuals and CF patients and to assess its correlation with diet, season, and menstrual cycle. Thirty-five out of 36 selected subjects (6-18 years) were enrolled by 2 CF care centers and assigned to 3 cohorts: CF, CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) and healthy volunteers. Each participant was subjected to eight sweat tests in different conditions and time of the year. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects models for repeated measures, taking also into account intra-individual correlations. We observed a high intra-individual variability of sweat Cl, with the lowest mean CV% values among CF patients (20.21 in CF, 29.74 in CFTR-RD, and 31.15 in healthy subjects). Gender and diet had no influence on sweat Cl variability, nor had pubertal age and menstrual phase. Results of this pilot study confirmed that sweat Cl variability is high in CF patients, although non-CF individuals displayed even higher mean CV% values. Season significantly influenced sweat test values only in CF patients, likely due to changes in their hydration status. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Gap Junctions Are Involved in the Rescue of CFTR-Dependent Chloride Efflux by Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Coculture with Cystic Fibrosis CFBE41o- Cells.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Annalucia; Zefferino, Roberto; Beccia, Elisa; Casavola, Valeria; Castellani, Stefano; Di Gioia, Sante; Giannone, Valentina; Seia, Manuela; Angiolillo, Antonella; Colombo, Carla; Favia, Maria; Conese, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    We previously found that human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) in coculture with CF immortalised airway epithelial cells (CFBE41o- line, CFBE) on Transwell® filters acquired an epithelial phenotype and led to the expression of a mature and functional CFTR protein. In order to explore the role of gap junction- (GJ-) mediated intercellular communication (GJIC) in this rescue, cocultures (hAMSC : CFBE, 1 : 5 ratio) were studied for the formation of GJIC, before and after silencing connexin 43 (Cx43), a major component of GJs. Functional GJs in cocultures were inhibited when the expression of the Cx43 protein was downregulated. Transfection of cocultures with siRNA against Cx43 resulted in the absence of specific CFTR signal on the apical membrane and reduction in the mature form of CFTR (band C), and in parallel, the CFTR-dependent chloride channel activity was significantly decreased. Cx43 downregulation determined also a decrease in transepithelial resistance and an increase in paracellular permeability as compared with control cocultures, implying that GJIC may regulate CFTR expression and function that in turn modulate airway epithelium tightness. These results indicate that GJIC is involved in the correction of CFTR chloride channel activity upon the acquisition of an epithelial phenotype by hAMSCs in coculture with CF cells.

  20. Activation of VPAC1 receptors by VIP and PACAP-27 in human bronchial epithelial cells induces CFTR-dependent chloride secretion

    PubMed Central

    Dérand, Renaud; Montoni, Alicia; Bulteau-Pignoux, Laurence; Janet, Thierry; Moreau, Bertrand; Muller, Jean-Marc; Becq, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    In the human airway epithelium, VIP/PACAP receptors are distributed in nerve fibers and in epithelial cells but their role in transepithelial ion transport have not been reported. Here, we show that human bronchial epithelial Calu-3 cells expressed the VPAC1 receptor subtype which shares similar high affinity for VIP and PACAP-27. The stoichiometric binding parameters characterizing the 125I-VIP and 125I-PACAP-27 binding to these receptors were determined. We found that VIP (EC50≈7.6 nM) and PACAP-27 (EC50≈10 nM) stimulated glibenclamide-sensitive and DIDS-insensitive iodide efflux in Calu-3 cells. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H-89 and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, chelerythrine chloride prevented activation by both peptides demonstrating that PKA and PKC are part of the signaling pathway. This profile corresponds to the pharmacological signature of CFTR. In the cystic fibrosis airway epithelial IB3-1 cell lacking functional CFTR but expressing VPAC1 receptors, neither VIP, PACAP-27 nor forskolin stimulated chloride transport. Ussing chamber experiments demonstrated stimulation of CFTR-dependent short-circuit currents by VIP or PACAP-27 applied to the basolateral but not to the apical side of Calu-3 cells monolayers. This study shows the stimulation in human bronchial epithelial cells of CFTR-dependent chloride secretion following activation by VIP and PACAP-27 of basolateral VPAC1 receptors. PMID:14744818

  1. Influence of salinity on the localization of Na+/K +-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and CFTR anion channel in chloride cells of the Hawaiian goby (Stenogobius hawaiiensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Sundell, K.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; Brown, C.L.; Hiroi, J.

    2003-01-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are the three major transport proteins thought to be involved in chloride secretion in teleost fish. If this is the case, the levels of these transporters should be high in chloride cells of seawater-acclimated fish. We therefore examined the influence of salinity on immunolocalization of Na +/K+-ATPase, NKCC and CFTR in the gills of the Hawaiian goby (Stenogobius hawaiiensis). Fish were acclimated to freshwater and 20??? and 30??? seawater for 10 days. Na+/K +-ATPase and NKCC were localized specifically to chloride cells and stained throughout most of the cell except for the nucleus and the most apical region, indicating a basolateral/tubular distribution. All Na+/K +-ATPase-positive chloride cells were also positive for NKCC in all salinities. Salinity caused a slight increase in chloride cell number and size and a slight decrease in staining intensity for Na+/K +-ATPase and NKCC, but the basic pattern of localization was not altered. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity was also not affected by salinity. CFTR was localized to the apical surface of chloride cells, and only cells staining positive for Na+/K+-ATPase were CFTR-positive. CFTR-positive cells greatly increased in number (5-fold), area stained (53%) and intensity (29%) after seawater acclimation. In freshwater, CFTR immunoreactivity was light and occurred over a broad apical surface on chloride cells, whereas in seawater there was intense immunoreactivity around the apical pit (which was often punctate in appearance) and a light subapical staining. The results indicate that Na+/K +-ATPase, NKCC and CFTR are all present in chloride cells and support current models that all three are responsible for chloride secretion by chloride cells of teleost fish.

  2. CFTR and lung homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Matalon, Sadis

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a cAMP-activated chloride and bicarbonate channel that is critical for lung homeostasis. Decreases in CFTR expression have dire consequences in cystic fibrosis (CF) and have been suggested to be a component of the lung pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Decreases or loss of channel function often lead to mucus stasis, chronic bacterial infections, and the accompanying chronic inflammatory responses that promote progressive lung destruction, and, eventually in CF, lung failure. Here we discuss CFTR's functional role airway surface liquid hydration and pH, in regulation of other channels such as the epithelial sodium channel, and in regulating inflammatory responses in the lung. PMID:25381027

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Reduces VX-809 Stimulated F508del-CFTR Chloride Secretion by Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Bruce A.; Coutermarsh, Bonita; Barnaby, Roxanna; Hogan, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that chronically infects the lungs of 85% of adult patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Previously, we demonstrated that P. aeruginosa reduced wt-CFTR Cl secretion by airway epithelial cells. Recently, a new investigational drug VX-809 has been shown to increase F508del-CFTR Cl secretion in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, and, in combination with VX-770, to increase FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) by an average of 3-5% in CF patients homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation. We propose that P. aeruginosa infection of CF lungs reduces VX-809 + VX-770- stimulated F508del-CFTR Cl secretion, and thereby reduces the clinical efficacy of VX-809 + VX-770. Methods and Results F508del-CFBE cells and primary cultures of CF-HBE cells (F508del/F508del) were exposed to VX-809 alone or a combination of VX-809 + VX-770 for 48 hours and the effect of P. aeruginosa on F508del-CFTR Cl secretion was measured in Ussing chambers. The effect of VX-809 on F508del-CFTR abundance was measured by cell surface biotinylation and western blot analysis. PAO1, PA14, PAK and 6 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa (3 mucoid and 3 non-mucoid) significantly reduced drug stimulated F508del-CFTR Cl secretion, and plasma membrane F508del-CFTR. Conclusion The observation that P. aeruginosa reduces VX-809 and VX-809 + VX-770 stimulated F508del CFTR Cl secretion may explain, in part, why VX-809 + VX-770 has modest efficacy in clinical trials. PMID:26018799

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Reduces VX-809 Stimulated F508del-CFTR Chloride Secretion by Airway Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Bruce A; Coutermarsh, Bonita; Barnaby, Roxanna; Hogan, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that chronically infects the lungs of 85% of adult patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Previously, we demonstrated that P. aeruginosa reduced wt-CFTR Cl secretion by airway epithelial cells. Recently, a new investigational drug VX-809 has been shown to increase F508del-CFTR Cl secretion in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, and, in combination with VX-770, to increase FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) by an average of 3-5% in CF patients homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation. We propose that P. aeruginosa infection of CF lungs reduces VX-809 + VX-770- stimulated F508del-CFTR Cl secretion, and thereby reduces the clinical efficacy of VX-809 + VX-770. F508del-CFBE cells and primary cultures of CF-HBE cells (F508del/F508del) were exposed to VX-809 alone or a combination of VX-809 + VX-770 for 48 hours and the effect of P. aeruginosa on F508del-CFTR Cl secretion was measured in Ussing chambers. The effect of VX-809 on F508del-CFTR abundance was measured by cell surface biotinylation and western blot analysis. PAO1, PA14, PAK and 6 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa (3 mucoid and 3 non-mucoid) significantly reduced drug stimulated F508del-CFTR Cl secretion, and plasma membrane F508del-CFTR. The observation that P. aeruginosa reduces VX-809 and VX-809 + VX-770 stimulated F508del CFTR Cl secretion may explain, in part, why VX-809 + VX-770 has modest efficacy in clinical trials.

  5. A novel extract SB-300 from the stem bark latex of Croton lechleri inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; Machen, Terry E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Carlson, Thomas J S; King, Steven R; Chow, John W S; Illek, Beate

    2004-08-01

    An oligomeric proanthocyanidin (SP-303) extracted from the bark latex of the tree Croton lechleri (family Euphorbiaceae) is a potent inhibitor of cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation and chloride secretion. The manufacturing process for SP-303 was optimized and simplified to produce an increased yield of the herbal extract. The novel extract (named SB-300) contained on average 70.6+/-7.2% SP-303 by weight (mean +/- S.D.; n=56 lots). Here, we describe the effectiveness of SB-300 on cAMP-regulated chloride secretion, which is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) in human colonic T84 cells. Exposure of the apical surface to SB-300 blocked forskolin-stimulated Cl- secretion by 92.2+/-3.0% with a half-maximal inhibition constant (KB) of 4.8+/-0.8 microM. For SP-303, stimulated Cl- currents were decreased by 98.0+/-7.2 % and KB averaged 4.1+/-1.3 microM. There was no significant difference between the blocking kinetics of SP-303 and SB-300. Forskolin-stimulated whole cell Cl- currents were effectively blocked by extracellular addition of SB-300 (63+/-8.5%; n=3) and to a similar extent by SP-303 (83 +/- 0.6%; n=2; at 50 microM each). Both extracts inhibited a time- and voltage-independent Cl- conductance, which indicated the involvement of CFTR Cl- channels. We conclude that both SP-303 (used in Provir) and SB-300 (used in NSF Normal Stool Formula) are novel natural products that target the CFTR Cl- channel. SB-300 is a low cost herbal extract and may present a complementary and alternative medicine approach for the treatment of fluid loss in watery diarrhea.

  6. CFTR RECRUITMENT TO PHAGOSOMES IN NEUTROPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yun; Song, Kejing; Painter, Richard G.; Aiken, Martha; Reiser, Jakob; Stanton, Bruce A.; Nauseef, William M.; Wang, Guoshun

    2013-01-01

    Optimal microbicidal activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) relies on generation of toxic agents such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in phagosomes. HOCl formation requires H2O2 produced by the NADPH oxidase, myeloperoxidase derived from azurophilic granules, and chloride ion. Chloride transport from cytoplasm into phagosomes requires chloride channels which include cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated chloride channel. However, the phagosomal targeting of CFTR in PMN has not been defined. Using human peripheral blood PMN, we determined that ~95–99% of LAMP-1 positive mature phagosomes were CFTR-positive, as judged by immunostaining and flow cytometric analysis. To establish a model cell system to evaluate CFTR phagosomal recruitment, we stably expressed EGFP alone, EGFP-wt-CFTR and EGFP-ΔF508-CFTR fusion proteins in promyelocytic PLB-985 cells, respectively. After differentiation into neutrophil-like cells, CFTR presentation to phagosomes was examined. EGFP-wt-CFTR was observed to associate with phagosomes and co-localize with LAMP-1. Flow cytometric analysis of the isolated phagosomes indicated that such a phagosomal targeting was determined by the CFTR portion of the fusion protein. In contrast, significantly less EGFP-ΔF508-CFTR was found in phagosomes, indicating a defective targeting of the molecule to the organelle. Importantly, CFTR corrector compound VRT-325 facilitated the recruitment of ΔF508-CFTR to phagosomes. These data demonstrate the possibility of pharmacologic correction of impaired recruitment of mutant CFTR, thereby providing a potential means to augment chloride supply to the phagosomes of PMN in patients with cystic fibrosis to enhance their microbicidal function. PMID:23486169

  7. Rab27a negatively regulates CFTR chloride channel function in colonic epithelia: Involvement of the effector proteins in the regulatory mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Sunil K.; Kaur, Simarna

    Cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by the disruption of biosynthesis or function of CFTR. CFTR regulatory mechanisms include channel transport to plasma membrane and protein-protein interactions. Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in vesicle transport, docking, and fusion. The colorectal epithelial HT-29 cells natively express CFTR and respond to cAMP with an increase in CFTR-mediated currents. DPC-inhibited currents could be completely eliminated with CFTR-specific SiRNA. Over-expression of Rab27a inhibited, while isoform specific SiRNA and Rab27a antibody stimulated CFTR-mediated currents in HT-29 cells. CFTR activity is inhibited both by Rab27a (Q78L) (constitutive active GTP-bound form of Rab27a) andmore » Rab27a (T23N) (constitutive negative form that mimics the GDP-bound form). Rab27a mediated effects could be reversed by Rab27a-binding proteins, the synaptotagmin-like protein (SLP-5) and Munc13-4 accessory protein (a putative priming factor for exocytosis). The SLP reversal of Rab27a effect was restricted to C2A/C2B domains while the SHD motif imparted little more inhibition. The CFTR-mediated currents remain unaffected by Rab3 though SLP-5 appears to weakly bind it. The immunoprecipitation experiments suggest protein-protein interactions between Rab27a and CFTR. Rab27a appears to impair CFTR appearance at the cell surface by trapping CFTR in the intracellular compartments. Munc13-4 and SLP-5, on the other hand, limit Rab27a availability to CFTR, thus minimizing its effect on channel function. These observations decisively prove that Rab27a is involved in CFTR channel regulation through protein-protein interactions involving Munc13-4 and SLP-5 effector proteins, and thus could be a potential target for cystic fibrosis therapy.« less

  8. CFTR Cl- channel and CFTR-associated ATP channel: distinct pores regulated by common gates.

    PubMed Central

    Sugita, M; Yue, Y; Foskett, J K

    1998-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel that is regulated by phosphorylation of the R domain and ATP hydrolysis at two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). It is controversial whether CFTR conducts ATP or whether CFTR might be closely associated with a separate ATP conductance. To characterize ATP channels associated with CFTR, we analyzed Cl- and ATP single channel-currents in excised inside-out membrane patches from MDCK epithelial cells transiently expressing CFTR. With 100 mM ATP in the pipette and 140 mM Cl- in the bath, ATP channels were associated with CFTR Cl- channels in two-thirds of patches that included CFTR. CFTR Cl- channels and CFTR-associated ATP channels had slope conductances of 7.4 pS and 5.2 pS, respectively, and had distinct reversal potentials and sensitivities to channel blockers. CFTR-associated ATP channels exhibited slow gating kinetics that depended on the presence of protein kinase A and cytoplasmic ATP, similar to CFTR Cl- channels. Gating kinetics of the ATP channels as well as the CFTR Cl- channels were similarly affected by non-hydrolyzable ATP analogues and mutations in the CFTR R domain and NBDs. Our results indicate that phosphorylation- and nucleotide-hydrolysis-dependent gating of CFTR is directly involved in gating of an associated ATP channel. However, the permeation pathways for Cl- and ATP are distinct and the ATP conduction pathway is not obligatorily associated with the expression of CFTR. PMID:9463368

  9. Functional and molecular identification of a TASK-1 potassium channel regulating chloride secretion through CFTR channels in the shark rectal gland: implications for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Telles, Connor J; Decker, Sarah E; Motley, William W; Peters, Alexander W; Mehr, Ali Poyan; Frizzell, Raymond A; Forrest, John N

    2016-12-01

    In the shark rectal gland (SRG), apical chloride secretion through CFTR channels is electrically coupled to a basolateral K + conductance whose type and molecular identity are unknown. We performed studies in the perfused SRG with 17 K + channel inhibitors to begin this search. Maximal chloride secretion was markedly inhibited by low-perfusate pH, bupivicaine, anandamide, zinc, quinidine, and quinine, consistent with the properties of an acid-sensitive, four-transmembrane, two-pore-domain K + channel (4TM-K2P). Using PCR with degenerate primers to this family, we identified a TASK-1 fragment in shark rectal gland, brain, gill, and kidney. Using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR and genomic walking, we cloned the full-length shark gene (1,282 bp), whose open reading frame encodes a protein of 375 amino acids that was 80% identical to the human TASK-1 protein. We expressed shark and human TASK-1 cRNA in Xenopus oocytes and characterized these channels using two-electrode voltage clamping. Both channels had identical current-voltage relationships (outward rectifying) and a reversal potential of -90 mV. Both were inhibited by quinine, bupivicaine, and acidic pH. The pKa for current inhibition was 7.75 for shark TASK-1 vs. 7.37 for human TASK-1, values similar to the arterial pH for each species. We identified this protein in SRG by Western blot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy and detected the protein in SRG and human airway cells. Shark TASK-1 is the major K + channel coupled to chloride secretion in the SRG, is the oldest 4TM 2P family member identified, and is the first TASK-1 channel identified to play a role in setting the driving force for chloride secretion in epithelia. The detection of this potassium channel in mammalian lung tissue has implications for human biology and disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Functional and molecular identification of a TASK-1 potassium channel regulating chloride secretion through CFTR channels in the shark rectal gland: implications for cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Telles, Connor J.; Decker, Sarah E.; Motley, William W.; Peters, Alexander W.; Mehr, Ali Poyan; Frizzell, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    In the shark rectal gland (SRG), apical chloride secretion through CFTR channels is electrically coupled to a basolateral K+ conductance whose type and molecular identity are unknown. We performed studies in the perfused SRG with 17 K+ channel inhibitors to begin this search. Maximal chloride secretion was markedly inhibited by low-perfusate pH, bupivicaine, anandamide, zinc, quinidine, and quinine, consistent with the properties of an acid-sensitive, four-transmembrane, two-pore-domain K+ channel (4TM-K2P). Using PCR with degenerate primers to this family, we identified a TASK-1 fragment in shark rectal gland, brain, gill, and kidney. Using 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR and genomic walking, we cloned the full-length shark gene (1,282 bp), whose open reading frame encodes a protein of 375 amino acids that was 80% identical to the human TASK-1 protein. We expressed shark and human TASK-1 cRNA in Xenopus oocytes and characterized these channels using two-electrode voltage clamping. Both channels had identical current-voltage relationships (outward rectifying) and a reversal potential of −90 mV. Both were inhibited by quinine, bupivicaine, and acidic pH. The pKa for current inhibition was 7.75 for shark TASK-1 vs. 7.37 for human TASK-1, values similar to the arterial pH for each species. We identified this protein in SRG by Western blot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy and detected the protein in SRG and human airway cells. Shark TASK-1 is the major K+ channel coupled to chloride secretion in the SRG, is the oldest 4TM 2P family member identified, and is the first TASK-1 channel identified to play a role in setting the driving force for chloride secretion in epithelia. The detection of this potassium channel in mammalian lung tissue has implications for human biology and disease. PMID:27653983

  11. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in the kindred of an infant with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome: importance of follow-up that includes monitoring sweat chloride concentrations over time.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sophia N; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Chin, Terry W; Do, Paul C M; Singh, Kathryn E; Randhawa, Inderpal

    2014-03-01

    Newly implemented newborn screening (NBS) programs in California have resulted in a large subset of patients in whom at least two cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations are identified, but subsequent sweat chloride analysis reveals normal or indeterminate values. These patients are diagnosed with CFTR-Related Metabolic Syndrome (CRMS). However, the natural progression and management of these patients are not clearly understood and frequently after the age of 1-year these patients are lost to follow-up with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Centers. We present the first case of an infant who was referred to Miller Children's Hospital for a NBS positive for CF and subsequent discovery of identical mutations in six of his seven older brothers. Several siblings had positive sweat chloride results on repeat testing after the age of 3 years. We suggest the need for continued follow-up of CRMS in a CF center with diagnostic evaluation including repeat sweat chloride testing, beyond the currently recommended period. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Specific stabilization of CFTR by phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Ellen; Khazanov, Netaly; Kappes, John C; Dai, Qun; Senderowitz, Hanoch; Urbatsch, Ina L

    2017-02-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR, ABCC7) is a plasma membrane chloride ion channel in the ABC transporter superfamily. CFTR is a key target for cystic fibrosis drug development, and its structural elucidation would advance those efforts. However, the limited in vivo and in vitro stability of the protein, particularly its nucleotide binding domains, has made structural studies challenging. Here we demonstrate that phosphatidylserine uniquely stimulates and thermally stabilizes the ATP hydrolysis function of purified human CFTR. Among several lipids tested, the greatest stabilization was observed with brain phosphatidylserine, which shifted the Tm for ATPase activity from 22.7±0.8°C to 35.0±0.2°C in wild-type CFTR, and from 26.6±0.7°C to 42.1±0.2°C in a more stable mutant CFTR having deleted regulatory insertion and S492P/A534P/I539T mutations. When ATPase activity was measured at 37°C in the presence of brain phosphatidylserine, Vmax for wild-type CFTR was 240±60nmol/min/mg, a rate higher than previously reported and consistent with rates for other purified ABC transporters. The significant thermal stabilization of CFTR by phosphatidylserine may be advantageous in future structural and biophysical studies of CFTR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The effect of NO-donors on chloride efflux, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and mRNA expression of CFTR and ENaC in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Oliynyk, Igor; Hussain, Rashida; Amin, Ahmad; Johannesson, Marie; Roomans, Godfried M

    2013-06-01

    Since previous studies showed that the endogenous bronchodilator, S-nitrosglutathione (GSNO), caused a marked increase in CFTR-mediated chloride (Cl(-)) efflux and improved the trafficking of CFTR to the plasma membrane, and that also the nitric oxide (NO)-donor GEA3162 had a similar, but smaller, effect on Cl(-) efflux, it was investigated whether the NO-donor properties of GSNO were relevant for its effect on Cl(-) efflux from airway epithelial cells. Hence, the effect of a number of other NO-donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP), diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct (DETA-NO), and diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct (DEA-NONOate) on Cl(-) efflux from CFBE (∆F508/∆F508-CFTR) airway epithelial cells was tested. Cl(-) efflux was determined using the fluorescent N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinoliniu bromide (MQAE)-technique. Possible changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were tested by the fluorescent fluo-4 method in a confocal microscope system. Like previously with GSNO, after 4 h incubation with the NO-donor, an increased Cl(-) efflux was found (in the order SNAP>DETA-NO>SNP). The effect of DEA-NONOate on Cl(-) efflux was not significant, and the compound may have (unspecific) deleterious effects on the cells. Again, as with GSNO, after a short (5 min) incubation, SNP had no significant effect on Cl(-) efflux. None of the NO-donors that had a significant effect on Cl(-) efflux caused significant changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. After 4 h preincubation, SNP caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of CFTR. SNAP and DEA-NONOate decreased the mRNA expression of all ENaC subunits significantly. DETA-NO caused a significant decrease only in α-ENaC expression. After a short preincubation, none of the NO-donors had a significant effect, neither on the expression of CFTR, nor on that of the ENaC subunits in the presence and absence of L-cysteine. It can be concluded that

  14. Characterization of nasal potential difference in cftr knockout and F508del-CFTR mice.

    PubMed

    Saussereau, Emilie Lyne; Roussel, Delphine; Diallo, Siradiou; Debarbieux, Laurent; Edelman, Aleksander; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Treatments designed to correct cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) defects must first be evaluated in preclinical experiments in the mouse model of cystic fibrosis (CF). Mice nasal mucosa mimics the bioelectric defect seen in humans. The use of nasal potential difference (V(TE)) to assess ionic transport is a powerful test evaluating the restoration of CFTR function. Nasal V(TE) in CF mice must be well characterized for correct interpretation. We performed V(TE) measurements in large-scale studies of two mouse models of CF--B6;129 cftr knockout and FVB F508del-CFTR--and their respective wild-type (WT) littermates. We assessed the repeatability of the test for cftr knockout mice and defined cutoff points distinguishing between WT and F508del-CFTR mice. We determined the typical V(TE) values for CF and WT mice and demonstrated the existence of residual CFTR activity in F508del-CFTR mice. We characterized intra-animal variability in B6;129 mice and defined the cutoff points for F508del-CFTR chloride secretion rescue. Hyperpolarization of more than -2.15 mV after perfusion with a low-concentration Cl(-) solution was considered to indicate a normal response. These data will make it possible to interpret changes in nasal V(TE) in mouse models of CF, in future preclinical studies.

  15. Role of CFTR mutation analysis in the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, Michelle; Pastore, Matthew; McCoy, Karen Sharrock; Thompson, Rohan; Hayes, Don; Sheikh, Shahid Ijaz

    2017-04-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation identification is being used with increased frequency to aid in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) in those suspected with CF. Aim of this study was to identify diagnostic outcomes when CFTR mutational analysis was used in CF diagnosis. CFTR mutational analysis results were also compared with sweat chloride results. This study was done on all patients at our institution who had CFTR mutation analysis over a sevenyear period since August 2006. A total of 315 patients underwent CFTR mutational analysis. Fifty-one (16.2%) patients had two mutations identified. Among them 32 had positive sweat chloride levels (≥60 mmol/L), while seven had borderline sweat chloride levels (40-59 mmol/L). An additional 70 patients (22.3%) had only one mutation identified. Among them eight had positive sweat chloride levels, and 17 had borderline sweat chloride levels. Fifty-five patients (17.5%) without CFTR mutations had either borderline (n=45) or positive (n=10) sweat chloride results. Three patients with a CF phenotype had negative CFTR analysis but elevated sweat chloride levels. In eighty-three patients (26.4%) CFTR mutational analysis was done without corresponding sweat chloride testing. Although CFTR mutation analysis has improved the diagnostic capability for CF, its use either as the first step or the only test to diagnose CFTR dysfunction should be discouraged and CF diagnostic guidelines need to be followed.

  16. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR) is associated with abnormal enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Arquitt, C K; Boyd, C; Wright, J T

    2002-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), a chloride ion transport disorder, is caused by mutations of the cftr gene and is the most common autosomal-recessive heritable disease in Caucasians. CFTR knockout mice have enamel with crystallite defects, retained protein, and hypomineralization, suggesting a role for CFTR in enamel formation and mineralization. This investigation examined CFTR expression and elemental composition in developing murine incisor teeth. RT-PCR showed cftr mRNA expression in the normal mouse apical incisor tissue but not in the CFTR knockout tissue. Elemental analysis by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed relatively decreased chloride in secretory-stage CF enamel. Iron and potassium were significantly increased, and calcium was significantly decreased (p value = 0.05) in the CF mature enamel. Abnormal enamel mineralization, ion concentrations, and molecular evidence of cftr mRNA expression by odontogenic cells strongly suggest that CFTR plays an important role in enamel formation.

  17. Correction of the F508del-CFTR protein processing defect in vitro by the investigational drug VX-809

    PubMed Central

    Van Goor, Fredrick; Hadida, Sabine; Grootenhuis, Peter D. J.; Burton, Bill; Stack, Jeffrey H.; Straley, Kimberly S.; Decker, Caroline J.; Miller, Mark; McCartney, Jason; Olson, Eric R.; Wine, Jeffrey J.; Frizzell, Ray A.; Ashlock, Melissa; Negulescu, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that impair the function of CFTR, an epithelial chloride channel required for proper function of the lung, pancreas, and other organs. Most patients with CF carry the F508del CFTR mutation, which causes defective CFTR protein folding and processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in minimal amounts of CFTR at the cell surface. One strategy to treat these patients is to correct the processing of F508del-CFTR with small molecules. Here we describe the in vitro pharmacology of VX-809, a CFTR corrector that was advanced into clinical development for the treatment of CF. In cultured human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from patients with CF homozygous for F508del, VX-809 improved F508del-CFTR processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and enhanced chloride secretion to approximately 14% of non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells (EC50, 81 ± 19 nM), a level associated with mild CF in patients with less disruptive CFTR mutations. F508del-CFTR corrected by VX-809 exhibited biochemical and functional characteristics similar to normal CFTR, including biochemical susceptibility to proteolysis, residence time in the plasma membrane, and single-channel open probability. VX-809 was more efficacious and selective for CFTR than previously reported CFTR correctors. VX-809 represents a class of CFTR corrector that specifically addresses the underlying processing defect in F508del-CFTR. PMID:21976485

  18. Cftr controls lumen expansion and function of Kupffer’s vesicle in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Navis, Adam; Marjoram, Lindsay; Bagnat, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Regulated fluid secretion is crucial for the function of most organs. In vertebrates, the chloride channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a master regulator of fluid secretion. Although the biophysical properties of CFTR have been well characterized in vitro, little is known about its in vivo role during development. Here, we investigated the function of Cftr during zebrafish development by generating several cftr mutant alleles using TAL effector nucleases. We found that loss of cftr function leads to organ laterality defects. In zebrafish, left-right (LR) asymmetry requires cilia-driven fluid flow within the lumen of Kupffer’s vesicle (KV). Using live imaging we found that KV morphogenesis is disrupted in cftr mutants. Loss of Cftr-mediated fluid secretion impairs KV lumen expansion leading to defects in organ laterality. Using bacterial artificial chromosome recombineering, we generated transgenic fish expressing functional Cftr fusion proteins with fluorescent tags under the control of the cftr promoter. The transgenes completely rescued the cftr mutant phenotype. Live imaging of these transgenic lines showed that Cftr is localized to the apical membrane of the epithelial cells in KV during lumen formation. Pharmacological stimulation of Cftr-dependent fluid secretion led to an expansion of the KV lumen. Conversely, inhibition of ion gradient formation impaired KV lumen inflation. Interestingly, cilia formation and motility in KV were not affected, suggesting that fluid secretion and flow are independently controlled in KV. These findings uncover a new role for cftr in KV morphogenesis and function during zebrafish development. PMID:23487313

  19. Synergy of cAMP and calcium signaling pathways in CFTR regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bozoky, Zoltan; Ahmadi, Saumel; Milman, Tal; Kim, Tae Hun; Du, Kai; Di Paola, Michelle; Pasyk, Stan; Pekhletski, Roman; Keller, Jacob P.; Bear, Christine E.; Forman-Kay, Julie D.

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel, leading to defective apical chloride transport. Patients also experience overactivation of inflammatory processes, including increased calcium signaling. Many investigations have described indirect effects of calcium signaling on CFTR or other calcium-activated chloride channels; here, we investigate the direct response of CFTR to calmodulin-mediated calcium signaling. We characterize an interaction between the regulatory region of CFTR and calmodulin, the major calcium signaling molecule, and report protein kinase A (PKA)-independent CFTR activation by calmodulin. We describe the competition between calmodulin binding and PKA phosphorylation and the differential effects of this competition for wild-type CFTR and the major F508del mutant, hinting at potential therapeutic strategies. Evidence of CFTR binding to isolated calmodulin domains/lobes suggests a mechanism for the role of CFTR as a molecular hub. Together, these data provide insights into how loss of active CFTR at the membrane can have additional consequences besides impaired chloride transport. PMID:28242698

  20. CFTR: A new horizon in the pathomechanism and treatment of pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hegyi, Péter; Wilschanski, Michael; Muallem, Shmuel; Lukacs, Gergely; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Uc, Aliye; Gray, Michael A.; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Maléth, József

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel that conducts chloride and bicarbonate ions across epithelial cell membranes. Mutations in the CFTR gene diminish the ion channel function and lead to impaired epithelial fluid transport in multiple organs such as the lung and the pancreas resulting in cystic fibrosis. Heterozygous carriers of CFTR mutations do not develop cystic fibrosis but exhibit increased risk for pancreatitis and associated pancreatic damage characterized by elevated mucus levels, fibrosis and cyst formation. Importantly, recent studies demonstrated that pancreatitis causing insults, such as alcohol, smoking or bile acids strongly inhibit CFTR function. Furthermore, human studies showed reduced levels of CFTR expression and function in all forms of pancreatitis. These findings indicate that impairment of CFTR is critical in the development of pancreatitis; therefore, correcting CFTR function could be the first specific therapy in pancreatitis. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the field and discuss new possibilities for the treatment of pancreatitis. PMID:26856995

  1. A PDZ-interacting domain in CFTR is an apical membrane polarization signal

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Bryan D.; Denton, Jerod; Karlson, Katherine H.; Reynolds, Donna; Wang, Shusheng; Mickle, John E.; Milewski, Michal; Cutting, Garry R.; Guggino, William B.; Li, Min; Stanton, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    Polarization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated chloride channel, to the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells is critical for vectorial transport of chloride in a variety of epithelia, including the airway, pancreas, intestine, and kidney. However, the motifs that localize CFTR to the apical membrane are unknown. We report that the last 3 amino acids in the COOH-terminus of CFTR (T-R-L) comprise a PDZ-interacting domain that is required for the polarization of CFTR to the apical plasma membrane in human airway and kidney epithelial cells. In addition, the CFTR mutant, S1455X, which lacks the 26 COOH-terminal amino acids, including the PDZ-interacting domain, is mispolarized to the lateral membrane. We also demonstrate that CFTR binds to ezrin-radixin-moesin–binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), an apical membrane PDZ domain–containing protein. We propose that COOH-terminal deletions of CFTR, which represent about 10% of CFTR mutations, result in defective vectorial chloride transport, partly by altering the polarized distribution of CFTR in epithelial cells. Moreover, our data demonstrate that PDZ-interacting domains and PDZ domain–containing proteins play a key role in the apical polarization of ion channels in epithelial cells. J. Clin. Invest. 104:1353–1361 (1999). PMID:10562297

  2. Murine and human CFTR exhibit different sensitivities to CFTR potentiators

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guiying

    2015-01-01

    Development of therapeutic molecules with clinical efficacy as modulators of defective CFTR includes efforts to identify potentiators that can overcome or repair the gating defect in mutant CFTR channels. This has taken a great leap forward with the identification of the potentiator VX-770, now available to patients as “Kalydeco.” Other small molecules with different chemical structure also are capable of potentiating the activity of either wild-type or mutant CFTR, suggesting that there are features of the protein that may be targeted to achieve stimulation of channel activity by structurally diverse compounds. However, neither the mechanisms by which these compounds potentiate mutant CFTR nor the site(s) where these compounds bind have been identified. This knowledge gap partly reflects the lack of appropriate experimental models to provide clues toward the identification of binding sites. Here, we have compared the channel behavior and response to novel and known potentiators of human CFTR (hCFTR) and murine (mCFTR) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Both hCFTR and mCFTR were blocked by GlyH-101 from the extracellular side, but mCFTR activity was increased with GlyH-101 applied directly to the cytoplasmic side. Similarly, glibenclamide only exhibited a blocking effect on hCFTR but both blocked and potentiated mCFTR in excised membrane patches and in intact oocytes. The clinically used CFTR potentiator VX-770 transiently increased hCFTR by ∼13% but potentiated mCFTR significantly more strongly. Our results suggest that mCFTR pharmacological sensitivities differ from hCFTR, which will provide a useful tool for identifying the binding sites and mechanism for these potentiators. PMID:26209275

  3. Regulatory crosstalk by protein kinases on CFTR trafficking and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinha, Carlos Miguel; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e. channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  4. Recent Progress in CFTR Interactome Mapping and Its Importance for Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sang Hyun; Legere, Elizabeth-Ann; Snider, Jamie; Stagljar, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel found in secretory epithelia with a plethora of known interacting proteins. Mutations in the CFTR gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease that leads to progressive respiratory illness and other complications of phenotypic variance resulting from perturbations of this protein interaction network. Studying the collection of CFTR interacting proteins and the differences between the interactomes of mutant and wild type CFTR provides insight into the molecular machinery of the disease and highlights possible therapeutic targets. This mini review focuses on functional genomics and proteomics approaches used for systematic, high-throughput identification of CFTR-interacting proteins to provide comprehensive insight into CFTR regulation and function.

  5. In vivo and in vitro ivacaftor response in cystic fibrosis patients with residual CFTR function: N-of-1 studies.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Meghan E; Illek, Beate; Ly, Ngoc P; Zlock, Lorna; Olshansky, Sabrina; Moreno, Courtney; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Nielson, Dennis W

    2017-04-01

    Ivacaftor, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator, decreases sweat chloride concentration, and improves pulmonary function in 6% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with specific CFTR mutations. Ivacaftor increases chloride transport in many other CFTR mutations in non-human cells, if CFTR is in the epithelium. Some CF patients have CFTR in the epithelium with residual CFTR function. The effect of ivacaftor in these patients is unknown. This was a series of randomized, crossover N-of-1 trials of ivacaftor and placebo in CF patients ≥8 years old with potential residual CFTR function (intermediate sweat chloride concentration, pancreatic sufficient, or mild bronchiectasis on chest CT). Human nasal epithelium (HNE) was obtained via nasal brushing and cultured. Sweat chloride concentration change was the in vivo outcome. Chloride current change in HNE cultures with ivacaftor was the in vitro outcome. Three subjects had decreased sweat chloride concentration (-14.8 to -40.8 mmol/L, P < 0.01). Two subjects had unchanged sweat chloride concentration. Two subjects had increased sweat chloride concentration (+23.8 and +27.3 mmol/L, P < 0.001); both were heterozygous for A455E and pancreatic sufficient. Only subjects with decreased sweat chloride concentration had increased chloride current in HNE cultures. Some CF patients with residual CFTR function have decreased sweat chloride concentration with ivacaftor. Increased chloride current in HNE cultures among subjects with decreased sweat chloride concentrations may predict clinical response to ivacaftor. Ivacaftor can increase sweat chloride concentration in certain mutations with unclear clinical effect. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:472-479. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nasal Potential Difference in Cystic Fibrosis considering Severe CFTR Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ronny Tah Yen; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Bertuzzo, Carmen Silvia; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Severino, Silvana Dalge; Sakano, Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    The gold standard for diagnosing cystic fibrosis (CF) is a sweat chloride value above 60 mEq/L. However, this historical and important tool has limitations; other techniques should be studied, including the nasal potential difference (NPD) test. CFTR gene sequencing can identify CFTR mutations, but this method is time-consuming and too expensive to be used in all CF centers. The present study compared CF patients with two classes I-III CFTR mutations (10 patients) (G1), CF patients with classes IV-VI CFTR mutations (five patients) (G2), and 21 healthy subjects (G3). The CF patients and healthy subjects also underwent the NPD test. A statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, χ 2, and Fisher's exact tests, α = 0.05. No differences were observed between the CF patients and healthy controls for the PDMax, Δamiloride, and Δchloride + free + amiloride markers from the NPD test. For the finger value, a difference between G2 and G3 was described. The Wilschanski index values were different between G1 and G3. In conclusion, our data showed that NPD is useful for CF diagnosis when classes I-III CFTR mutations are screened. However, if classes IV-VI are considered, the NPD test showed an overlap in values with healthy subjects. PMID:25667564

  7. Nasal potential difference in cystic fibrosis considering severe CFTR mutations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ronny Tah Yen; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Bertuzzo, Carmen Silvia; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Severino, Silvana Dalge; Sakano, Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    The gold standard for diagnosing cystic fibrosis (CF) is a sweat chloride value above 60 mEq/L. However, this historical and important tool has limitations; other techniques should be studied, including the nasal potential difference (NPD) test. CFTR gene sequencing can identify CFTR mutations, but this method is time-consuming and too expensive to be used in all CF centers. The present study compared CF patients with two classes I-III CFTR mutations (10 patients) (G1), CF patients with classes IV-VI CFTR mutations (five patients) (G2), and 21 healthy subjects (G3). The CF patients and healthy subjects also underwent the NPD test. A statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, χ(2), and Fisher's exact tests, α = 0.05. No differences were observed between the CF patients and healthy controls for the PDMax, Δamiloride, and Δchloride + free + amiloride markers from the NPD test. For the finger value, a difference between G2 and G3 was described. The Wilschanski index values were different between G1 and G3. In conclusion, our data showed that NPD is useful for CF diagnosis when classes I-III CFTR mutations are screened. However, if classes IV-VI are considered, the NPD test showed an overlap in values with healthy subjects.

  8. From the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane: mechanisms of CFTR folding and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Farinha, Carlos M; Canato, Sara

    2017-01-01

    CFTR biogenesis starts with its co-translational insertion into the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum and folding of the cytosolic domains, towards the acquisition of a fully folded compact native structure. Efficiency of this process is assessed by the ER quality control system that allows the exit of folded proteins but targets unfolded/misfolded CFTR to degradation. If allowed to leave the ER, CFTR is modified at the Golgi and reaches the post-Golgi compartments to be delivered to the plasma membrane where it functions as a cAMP- and phosphorylation-regulated chloride/bicarbonate channel. CFTR residence at the membrane is a balance of membrane delivery, endocytosis, and recycling. Several adaptors, motor, and scaffold proteins contribute to the regulation of CFTR stability and are involved in continuously assessing its structure through peripheral quality control systems. Regulation of CFTR biogenesis and traffic (and its dysregulation by mutations, such as the most common F508del) determine its overall activity and thus contribute to the fine modulation of chloride secretion and hydration of epithelial surfaces. This review covers old and recent knowledge on CFTR folding and trafficking from its synthesis to the regulation of its stability at the plasma membrane and highlights how several of these steps can be modulated to promote the rescue of mutant CFTR.

  9. Determination of CFTR densities in erythrocyte plasma membranes using recognition imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Andreas; Nikova, Dessy; Lange, Tobias; Häberle, Johannes; Falk, Sabine; Dübbers, Angelika; Bruns, Reimer; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Oberleithner, Hans; Schillers, Hermann

    2008-09-01

    CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is a cAMP-regulated chloride (Cl-) channel that plays an important role in salt and fluid movement across epithelia. Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common genetic disease among Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding CFTR. The most predominant mutation, F508del, disturbs CFTR protein trafficking, resulting in a reduced number of CFTR in the plasma membrane. Recent studies indicate that CFTR is not only found in epithelia but also in human erythrocytes. Although considerable attempts have been made to quantify CFTR in cells, conclusions on numbers of CFTR molecules localized in the plasma membrane have been drawn indirectly. AFM has the power to provide the needed information, since both sub-molecular spatial resolution and direct protein recognition via antibody-antigen interaction can be observed. We performed a quantification study of the CFTR copies in erythrocyte membranes at the single molecule level, and compared the difference between healthy donors and CF patients. We detected that the number of CFTR molecules is reduced by 70% in erythrocytes of cystic fibrosis patients.

  10. Disease phenotype of a ferret CFTR-knockout model of cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Fisher, John T.; Yan, Ziying; Liu, Xiaoming; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Joo, Nam Soo; Zhang, Yulong; Zhou, Weihong; Yi, Yaling; Kinyon, Joann M.; Lei-Butters, Diana C.; Griffin, Michelle A.; Naumann, Paul; Luo, Meihui; Ascher, Jill; Wang, Kai; Frana, Timothy; Wine, Jeffrey J.; Meyerholz, David K.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive disease that affects multiple organs. It is caused by mutations in CFTR. Animal modeling of this disease has been challenging, with species- and strain-specific differences in organ biology and CFTR function influencing the emergence of disease pathology. Here, we report the phenotype of a CFTR-knockout ferret model of CF. Neonatal CFTR-knockout ferrets demonstrated many of the characteristics of human CF disease, including defective airway chloride transport and submucosal gland fluid secretion; variably penetrant meconium ileus (MI); pancreatic, liver, and vas deferens disease; and a predisposition to lung infection in the early postnatal period. Severe malabsorption by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was the primary cause of death in CFTR-knockout kits that escaped MI. Elevated liver function tests in CFTR-knockout kits were corrected by oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid, and the addition of an oral proton-pump inhibitor improved weight gain and survival. To overcome the limitations imposed by the severe intestinal phenotype, we cloned 4 gut-corrected transgenic CFTR-knockout kits that expressed ferret CFTR specifically in the intestine. One clone passed feces normally and demonstrated no detectable ferret CFTR expression in the lung or liver. The animals described in this study are likely to be useful tools for dissecting CF disease pathogenesis and developing treatments. PMID:20739752

  11. Disease phenotype of a ferret CFTR-knockout model of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Fisher, John T; Yan, Ziying; Liu, Xiaoming; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Joo, Nam Soo; Zhang, Yulong; Zhou, Weihong; Yi, Yaling; Kinyon, Joann M; Lei-Butters, Diana C; Griffin, Michelle A; Naumann, Paul; Luo, Meihui; Ascher, Jill; Wang, Kai; Frana, Timothy; Wine, Jeffrey J; Meyerholz, David K; Engelhardt, John F

    2010-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive disease that affects multiple organs. It is caused by mutations in CFTR. Animal modeling of this disease has been challenging, with species- and strain-specific differences in organ biology and CFTR function influencing the emergence of disease pathology. Here, we report the phenotype of a CFTR-knockout ferret model of CF. Neonatal CFTR-knockout ferrets demonstrated many of the characteristics of human CF disease, including defective airway chloride transport and submucosal gland fluid secretion; variably penetrant meconium ileus (MI); pancreatic, liver, and vas deferens disease; and a predisposition to lung infection in the early postnatal period. Severe malabsorption by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was the primary cause of death in CFTR-knockout kits that escaped MI. Elevated liver function tests in CFTR-knockout kits were corrected by oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid, and the addition of an oral proton-pump inhibitor improved weight gain and survival. To overcome the limitations imposed by the severe intestinal phenotype, we cloned 4 gut-corrected transgenic CFTR-knockout kits that expressed ferret CFTR specifically in the intestine. One clone passed feces normally and demonstrated no detectable ferret CFTR expression in the lung or liver. The animals described in this study are likely to be useful tools for dissecting CF disease pathogenesis and developing treatments.

  12. Bioelectric Characterization of Epithelia from Neonatal CFTR Knockout Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, John T.; Tyler, Scott R.; Zhang, Yulong; Lee, Ben J.; Liu, Xiaoming; Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Liang, Bo; Luo, Meihui; Xie, Weiliang; Yi, Yaling; Zhou, Weihong; Song, Yi; Keiser, Nicholas; Wang, Kai; de Jonge, Hugo R.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening, recessive, multiorgan genetic disorder caused by the loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel function found in many types of epithelia. Animal models that recapitulate the human disease phenotype are critical to understanding pathophysiology in CF and developing therapies. CFTR knockout ferrets manifest many of the phenotypes observed in the human disease, including lung infections, pancreatic disease and diabetes, liver disease, malnutrition, and meconium ileus. In the present study, we have characterized abnormalities in the bioelectric properties of the trachea, stomach, intestine, and gallbladder of newborn CF ferrets. Short-circuit current (ISC) analysis of CF and wild-type (WT) tracheas revealed the following similarities and differences: (1) amiloride-sensitive sodium currents were similar between genotypes; (2) responses to 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbene disulphonic acid were 3.3-fold greater in CF animals, suggesting elevated baseline chloride transport through non-CFTR channels in a subset of CF animals; and (3) a lack of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)/forskolin–stimulated and N-(2-Naphthalenyl)-((3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene)glycine hydrazide (GlyH-101)–inhibited currents in CF animals due to the lack of CFTR. CFTR mRNA was present throughout all levels of the WT ferret and IBMX/forskolin–inducible ISC was only observed in WT animals. However, despite the lack of CFTR function in the knockout ferret, the luminal pH of the CF ferret gallbladder, stomach, and intestines was not significantly changed relative to WT. The WT stomach and gallbladder exhibited significantly enhanced IBMX/forskolin ISC responses and inhibition by GlyH-101 relative to CF samples. These findings demonstrate that multiple organs affected by disease in the CF ferret have bioelectric abnormalities consistent with the lack of cAMP-mediated chloride transport. PMID:23782101

  13. Bioelectric characterization of epithelia from neonatal CFTR knockout ferrets.

    PubMed

    Fisher, John T; Tyler, Scott R; Zhang, Yulong; Lee, Ben J; Liu, Xiaoming; Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Liang, Bo; Luo, Meihui; Xie, Weiliang; Yi, Yaling; Zhou, Weihong; Song, Yi; Keiser, Nicholas; Wang, Kai; de Jonge, Hugo R; Engelhardt, John F

    2013-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening, recessive, multiorgan genetic disorder caused by the loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel function found in many types of epithelia. Animal models that recapitulate the human disease phenotype are critical to understanding pathophysiology in CF and developing therapies. CFTR knockout ferrets manifest many of the phenotypes observed in the human disease, including lung infections, pancreatic disease and diabetes, liver disease, malnutrition, and meconium ileus. In the present study, we have characterized abnormalities in the bioelectric properties of the trachea, stomach, intestine, and gallbladder of newborn CF ferrets. Short-circuit current (ISC) analysis of CF and wild-type (WT) tracheas revealed the following similarities and differences: (1) amiloride-sensitive sodium currents were similar between genotypes; (2) responses to 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulphonic acid were 3.3-fold greater in CF animals, suggesting elevated baseline chloride transport through non-CFTR channels in a subset of CF animals; and (3) a lack of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)/forskolin-stimulated and N-(2-Naphthalenyl)-((3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene)glycine hydrazide (GlyH-101)-inhibited currents in CF animals due to the lack of CFTR. CFTR mRNA was present throughout all levels of the WT ferret and IBMX/forskolin-inducible ISC was only observed in WT animals. However, despite the lack of CFTR function in the knockout ferret, the luminal pH of the CF ferret gallbladder, stomach, and intestines was not significantly changed relative to WT. The WT stomach and gallbladder exhibited significantly enhanced IBMX/forskolin ISC responses and inhibition by GlyH-101 relative to CF samples. These findings demonstrate that multiple organs affected by disease in the CF ferret have bioelectric abnormalities consistent with the lack of cAMP-mediated chloride transport.

  14. Applying Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Genetics and CFTR2 Data to Facilitate Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Sosnay, Patrick R; Salinas, Danieli B; White, Terry B; Ren, Clement L; Farrell, Philip M; Raraigh, Karen S; Girodon, Emmanuelle; Castellani, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    As a Mendelian disease, genetics plays an integral role in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). The identification of 2 disease-causing mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in an individual with a phenotype provides evidence that the disease is CF. However, not all variations in CFTR always result in CF. Therefore, for CFTR genotype to provide the same level of evidence of CFTR dysfunction as shown by direct tests such as sweat chloride or nasal potential difference, the mutations identified must be known to always result in CF. The use of CFTR genetics in CF diagnosis, therefore, relies heavily on mutation interpretation. Progress that has been made on mutation interpretation and annotation was reviewed at the recent CF Foundation Diagnosis Consensus Conference. A modified Delphi method was used to identify consensus statements on the use of genetic analysis in CF diagnosis. The largest recent advance in CF genetics has come through the Clinical and Functional Translation of CFTR (CFTR2) project. This undertaking seeks to characterize CFTR mutations from patients with CF around the world. The project also established guidelines for the clinical, functional, and population/penetrance criteria that can be used to interpret mutations not yet included in CFTR2's review. The use of CFTR genetics to aid in diagnosis of CF requires that the mutations identified have a known disease liability. The demonstration of 2 in trans mutations known to always result in CF is satisfactory evidence of CFTR dysfunction. However, if the identified mutations are known to be associated with variable outcomes, or have unknown consequence, that genotype may not result in a CF phenotype. In these cases, other tests of CFTR function may help. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane recruiter the alter ego of CFTR as a multi-kinase anchor.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Anil

    2007-11-01

    This review focuses on a newly discovered interaction between protein kinases involved in cellular energetics, a process that may be disturbed in cystic fibrosis for unknown reasons. I propose a new model where kinase-mediated cellular transmission of energy provides mechanistic insight to a latent role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). I suggest that CFTR acts as a multi-kinase recruiter to the apical epithelial membrane. My group finds that, in the cytosol, two protein kinases involved in cell energy homeostasis, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), bind one another. Preliminary data suggest that both can also bind CFTR (function unclear). The disrupted role of this CFTR-kinase complex as 'membrane transmitter to the cell' is proposed as an alternative paradigm to the conventional ion transport mediated and CFTR/chloride-centric view of cystic fibrosis pathogenesis. Chloride remains important, but instead, chloride-induced control of the phosphohistidine content of one kinase component (NDPK, via a multi-kinase complex that also includes a third kinase, CK2; formerly casein kinase 2). I suggest that this complex provides the necessary near-equilibrium conditions needed for efficient transmission of phosphate energy to proteins controlling cellular energetics. Crucially, a new role for CFTR as a kinase controller is proposed with ionic concentration acting as a signal. The model posits a regulatory control relay for energy sensing involving a cascade of protein kinases bound to CFTR.

  16. Rescue of murine F508del CFTR activity in native intestine by low temperature and proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Martina; Bot, Alice; Jorna, Huub; Scholte, Bob J; de Jonge, Hugo R

    2012-01-01

    Most patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) carry at least one allele with the F508del mutation, resulting in a CFTR chloride channel protein with a processing, gating and stability defect, but with substantial residual activity when correctly sorted to the apical membranes of epithelial cells. New therapies are therefore aimed at improving the folding and trafficking of F508del CFTR, (CFTR correctors) or at enhancing the open probability of the CFTR chloride channel (CFTR potentiators). Preventing premature breakdown of F508del CFTR is an alternative or additional strategy, which is investigated in this study. We established an ex vivo assay for murine F508del CFTR rescue in native intestinal epithelium that can be used as a pre-clinical test for candidate therapeutics. Overnight incubation of muscle stripped ileum in modified William's E medium at low temperature (26°C), and 4 h or 6 h incubation at 37°C with different proteasome inhibitors (PI: ALLN, MG-132, epoxomicin, PS341/bortezomib) resulted in fifty to hundred percent respectively of the wild type CFTR mediated chloride secretion (forskolin induced short-circuit current). The functional rescue was accompanied by enhanced expression of the murine F508del CFTR protein at the apical surface of intestinal crypts and a gain in the amount of complex-glycosylated CFTR (band C) up to 20% of WT levels. Sustained rescue in the presence of brefeldin A shows the involvement of a post-Golgi compartment in murine F508del CFTR degradation, as was shown earlier for its human counterpart. Our data show that proteasome inhibitors are promising candidate compounds for improving rescue of human F508del CFTR function, in combination with available correctors and potentiators.

  17. Optimizing nasal potential difference analysis for CFTR modulator development: assessment of ivacaftor in CF subjects with the G551D-CFTR mutation.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Steven M; Liu, Bo; Hill, Aubrey; Hathorne, Heather; Cohen, Morty; Beamer, John R; Accurso, Frank J; Dong, Qunming; Ordoñez, Claudia L; Stone, Anne J; Olson, Eric R; Clancy, John P

    2013-01-01

    Nasal potential difference (NPD) is used as a biomarker of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity. We evaluated methods to detect changes in chloride and sodium transport by NPD based on a secondary analysis of a Phase II CFTR-modulator study. Thirty-nine subjects with CF who also had the G551D-CFTR mutation were randomized to receive ivacaftor (Kalydeco™; also known as VX-770) in four doses or placebo twice daily for at least 14 days. All data were analyzed by a single investigator who was blinded to treatment assignment. We compared three analysis methods to determine the best approach to quantify changes in chloride and sodium transport: (1) the average of both nostrils; (2) the most-polarized nostril at each visit; and (3) the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward. Parameters of ion transport included the PD change with zero chloride plus isoproterenol (CFTR activity), the basal PD, Ringer's PD, and change in PD with amiloride (measurements of ENaC activity), and the delta NPD (measuring CFTR and ENaC activity). The average and most-polarized nostril at each visit were most sensitive to changes in chloride and sodium transport, whereas the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward was less discriminatory. Based on our findings, NPD studies should assess both nostrils rather than a single nostril. We also found that changes in CFTR activity were more readily detected than changes in ENaC activity, and that rigorous standardization was associated with relatively good within-subject reproducibility in placebo-treated subjects (± 2.8 mV). Therefore, we have confirmed an assay of reasonable reproducibility for detecting chloride-transport improvements in response to CFTR modulation.

  18. Lubiprostone activates CFTR, but not ClC-2, via the prostaglandin receptor (EP(4)).

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Yohei; Moran, Aurelia R; MacDonald, Kelvin D

    2012-09-28

    The goal of this study was to determine the mechanism of lubiprostone activation of epithelial chloride transport. Lubiprostone is a bicyclic fatty acid approved for the treatment of constipation [1]. There is uncertainty, however, as to how lubiprostone increases epithelial chloride transport. Direct stimulation of ClC-2 and CFTR chloride channels as well as stimulation of these channels via the EP(4) receptor has been described [2-5]. To better define this mechanism, two-electrode voltage clamp was used to assay Xenopus oocytes expressing ClC-2, with or without co-expression of the EP(4) receptor or β adrenergic receptor (βAR), for changes in conductance elicited by lubiprostone. Oocytes co-expressing CFTR and either βAR or the EP(4) receptor were also studied. In oocytes co-expressing ClC-2 and βAR conductance was stimulated by hyperpolarization and acidic pH (pH = 6), but there was no response to the β adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. Oocytes expressing ClC-2 only or co-expressing ClC-2 and EP(4) did not respond to the presence of 0.1, 1, or 10 μM lubiprostone in the superperfusate. Oocytes co-expressing CFTR and βAR did not respond to hyperpolarization, acidic pH, or 1 μM lubiprostone. However, conductance was elevated by isoproterenol and inhibited by CFTR(inh)172. Co-expression of CFTR and EP(4) resulted in lubiprostone-stimulated conductance, which was also sensitive to CFTR(inh)172. The EC(50) for lubiprostone mediated CFTR activation was ~10 nM. These results demonstrate no direct action of lubiprostone on either ClC-2 or CFTR channels expressed in oocytes. However, the results confirm that CFTR can be activated by lubiprostone via the EP(4) receptor in oocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vx-770 potentiates CFTR function by promoting decoupling between the gating cycle and ATP hydrolysis cycle.

    PubMed

    Jih, Kang-Yang; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2013-03-12

    Vx-770 (Ivacaftor), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug for clinical application to patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), shifts the paradigm from conventional symptomatic treatments to therapeutics directly tackling the root of the disease: functional defects of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel caused by pathogenic mutations. The underlying mechanism for the action of Vx-770 remains elusive partly because this compound not only increases the activity of wild-type (WT) channels whose gating is primarily controlled by ATP binding/hydrolysis, but also improves the function of G551D-CFTR, a disease-associated mutation that abolishes CFTR's responsiveness to ATP. Here we provide a unified theory to account for this dual effect of Vx-770. We found that Vx-770 enhances spontaneous, ATP-independent activity of WT-CFTR to a similar magnitude as its effects on G551D channels, a result essentially explaining Vx-770's effect on G551D-CFTR. Furthermore, Vx-770 increases the open time of WT-CFTR in an [ATP]-dependent manner. This distinct kinetic effect is accountable with a newly proposed CFTR gating model depicting an [ATP]-dependent "reentry" mechanism that allows CFTR shuffling among different open states by undergoing multiple rounds of ATP hydrolysis. We further examined the effect of Vx-770 on R352C-CFTR, a unique mutant that allows direct observation of hydrolysis-triggered gating events. Our data corroborate that Vx-770 increases the open time of WT-CFTR by stabilizing a posthydrolytic open state and thereby fosters decoupling between the gating cycle and ATP hydrolysis cycle. The current study also suggests that this unique mechanism of drug action can be further exploited to develop strategies that enhance the function of CFTR.

  20. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and its stability.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xin; Clews, Jack; Kargas, Vasileios; Wang, Xiaomeng; Ford, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is responsible for the disease cystic fibrosis (CF). It is a membrane protein belonging to the ABC transporter family functioning as a chloride/anion channel in epithelial cells around the body. There are over 1500 mutations that have been characterised as CF-causing; the most common of these, accounting for ~70 % of CF cases, is the deletion of a phenylalanine at position 508. This leads to instability of the nascent protein and the modified structure is recognised and then degraded by the ER quality control mechanism. However, even pharmacologically 'rescued' F508del CFTR displays instability at the cell's surface, losing its channel function rapidly and it is rapidly removed from the plasma membrane for lysosomal degradation. This review will, therefore, explore the link between stability and structure/function relationships of membrane proteins and CFTR in particular and how approaches to study CFTR structure depend on its stability. We will also review the application of a fluorescence labelling method for the assessment of the thermostability and the tertiary structure of CFTR.

  1. Restoration of CFTR function in patients with cystic fibrosis carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, Daniela De; Villella, Valeria R; Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Sepe, Angela; Gregorio, Fabiola De; Salvadori, Laura; Grassia, Rosa; Leone, Carlo A; Rosa, Giuseppe De; Maiuri, Maria C; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Guido, Stefano; Bossi, Anna; Zolin, Anna; Venerando, Andrea; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Mehta, Anil; Bona, Gianni; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi; Raia, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of BECN1/Beclin 1-dependent autophagy and depletion of SQSTM1/p62 by genetic manipulation or autophagy-stimulatory proteostasis regulators, such as cystamine, have positive effects on mouse models of human cystic fibrosis (CF). These measures rescue the functional expression of the most frequent pathogenic CFTR mutant, F508del, at the respiratory epithelial surface and reduce lung inflammation in CftrF508del homozygous mice. Cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine, is an FDA-approved drug. Here, we report that oral treatment with cysteamine greatly reduces the mortality rate and improves the phenotype of newborn mice bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation. Cysteamine was also able to increase the plasma membrane expression of the F508del-CFTR protein in nasal epithelial cells from F508del homozygous CF patients, and these effects persisted for 24 h after cysteamine withdrawal. Importantly, this cysteamine effect after washout was further sustained by the sequential administration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, both in vivo, in mice, and in vitro, in primary epithelial cells from CF patients. In a pilot clinical trial involving 10 F508del-CFTR homozygous CF patients, the combination of cysteamine and EGCG restored BECN1, reduced SQSTM1 levels and improved CFTR function from nasal epithelial cells in vivo, correlating with a decrease of chloride concentrations in sweat, as well as with a reduction of the abundance of TNF/TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor) and CXCL8 (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 8) transcripts in nasal brushing and TNF and CXCL8 protein levels in the sputum. Altogether, these results suggest that optimal schedules of cysteamine plus EGCG might be used for the treatment of CF caused by the F508del-CFTR mutation. PMID:25350163

  2. Restoration of CFTR function in patients with cystic fibrosis carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Daniela; Villella, Valeria R; Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Sepe, Angela; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Salvadori, Laura; Grassia, Rosa; Leone, Carlo A; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Maiuri, Maria C; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Guido, Stefano; Bossi, Anna; Zolin, Anna; Venerando, Andrea; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Mehta, Anil; Bona, Gianni; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi; Raia, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of BECN1/Beclin 1-dependent autophagy and depletion of SQSTM1/p62 by genetic manipulation or autophagy-stimulatory proteostasis regulators, such as cystamine, have positive effects on mouse models of human cystic fibrosis (CF). These measures rescue the functional expression of the most frequent pathogenic CFTR mutant, F508del, at the respiratory epithelial surface and reduce lung inflammation in Cftr(F508del) homozygous mice. Cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine, is an FDA-approved drug. Here, we report that oral treatment with cysteamine greatly reduces the mortality rate and improves the phenotype of newborn mice bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation. Cysteamine was also able to increase the plasma membrane expression of the F508del-CFTR protein in nasal epithelial cells from F508del homozygous CF patients, and these effects persisted for 24 h after cysteamine withdrawal. Importantly, this cysteamine effect after washout was further sustained by the sequential administration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, both in vivo, in mice, and in vitro, in primary epithelial cells from CF patients. In a pilot clinical trial involving 10 F508del-CFTR homozygous CF patients, the combination of cysteamine and EGCG restored BECN1, reduced SQSTM1 levels and improved CFTR function from nasal epithelial cells in vivo, correlating with a decrease of chloride concentrations in sweat, as well as with a reduction of the abundance of TNF/TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor) and CXCL8 (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 8) transcripts in nasal brushing and TNF and CXCL8 protein levels in the sputum. Altogether, these results suggest that optimal schedules of cysteamine plus EGCG might be used for the treatment of CF caused by the F508del-CFTR mutation.

  3. Impact of the F508del mutation on ovine CFTR, a Cl− channel with enhanced conductance and ATP-dependent gating

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhiwei; Palmai-Pallag, Timea; Khuituan, Pissared; Mutolo, Michael J; Boinot, Clément; Liu, Beihui; Scott-Ward, Toby S; Callebaut, Isabelle; Harris, Ann; Sheppard, David N

    2015-01-01

    Cross-species comparative studies are a powerful approach to understanding the epithelial Cl− channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is defective in the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, we investigate the single-channel behaviour of ovine CFTR and the impact of the most common CF mutation, F508del-CFTR, using excised inside-out membrane patches from transiently transfected CHO cells. Like human CFTR, ovine CFTR formed a weakly inwardly rectifying Cl− channel regulated by PKA-dependent phosphorylation, inhibited by the open-channel blocker glibenclamide. However, for three reasons, ovine CFTR was noticeably more active than human CFTR. First, single-channel conductance was increased. Second, open probability was augmented because the frequency and duration of channel openings were increased. Third, with enhanced affinity and efficacy, ATP more strongly stimulated ovine CFTR channel gating. Consistent with these data, the CFTR modulator phloxine B failed to potentiate ovine CFTR Cl− currents. Similar to its impact on human CFTR, the F508del mutation caused a temperature-sensitive folding defect, which disrupted ovine CFTR protein processing and reduced membrane stability. However, the F508del mutation had reduced impact on ovine CFTR channel gating in contrast to its marked effects on human CFTR. We conclude that ovine CFTR forms a regulated Cl− channel with enhanced conductance and ATP-dependent channel gating. This phylogenetic analysis of CFTR structure and function demonstrates that subtle changes in structure have pronounced effects on channel function and the consequences of the CF mutation F508del. Key points Malfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a gated pathway for chloride movement, causes the common life-shortening genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Towards the development of a sheep model of CF, we have investigated the function of sheep CFTR. We found that

  4. Results of a phase IIa study of VX-809, an investigational CFTR corrector compound, in subjects with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation.

    PubMed

    Clancy, J P; Rowe, Steven M; Accurso, Frank J; Aitken, Moira L; Amin, Raouf S; Ashlock, Melissa A; Ballmann, Manfred; Boyle, Michael P; Bronsveld, Inez; Campbell, Preston W; De Boeck, Kris; Donaldson, Scott H; Dorkin, Henry L; Dunitz, Jordan M; Durie, Peter R; Jain, Manu; Leonard, Anissa; McCoy, Karen S; Moss, Richard B; Pilewski, Joseph M; Rosenbluth, Daniel B; Rubenstein, Ronald C; Schechter, Michael S; Botfield, Martyn; Ordoñez, Claudia L; Spencer-Green, George T; Vernillet, Laurent; Wisseh, Steve; Yen, Karl; Konstan, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    VX-809, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator, has been shown to increase the cell surface density of functional F508del-CFTR in vitro. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the safety, tolerability and pharmacodynamics of VX-809 in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (n=89) who were homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation. Subjects were randomised to one of four VX-809 28 day dose groups (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg) or matching placebo. The type and incidence of adverse events were similar among VX-809- and placebo-treated subjects. Respiratory events were the most commonly reported and led to discontinuation by one subject in each active treatment arm. Pharmacokinetic data supported a once-daily oral dosing regimen. Pharmacodynamic data suggested that VX-809 improved CFTR function in at least one organ (sweat gland). VX-809 reduced elevated sweat chloride values in a dose-dependent manner (p=0.0013) that was statistically significant in the 100 and 200 mg dose groups. There was no statistically significant improvement in CFTR function in the nasal epithelium as measured by nasal potential difference, nor were there statistically significant changes in lung function or patient-reported outcomes. No maturation of immature F508del-CFTR was detected in the subgroup that provided rectal biopsy specimens. In this study, VX-809 had a similar adverse event profile to placebo for 28 days in F508del-CFTR homozygous patients, and demonstrated biological activity with positive impact on CFTR function in the sweat gland. Additional data are needed to determine how improvements detected in CFTR function secondary to VX-809 in the sweat gland relate to those measurable in the respiratory tract and to long-term measures of clinical benefit. NCT00865904.

  5. Dual activation of CFTR and CLCN2 by lubiprostone in murine nasal epithelia.

    PubMed

    Schiffhauer, Eric S; Vij, Neeraj; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Kang, Po Wei; Walker, Doug; Lee, Seakwoo; Zeitlin, Pamela L

    2013-03-01

    Multiple sodium and chloride channels on the apical surface of nasal epithelial cells contribute to periciliary fluid homeostasis, a function that is disrupted in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Among these channels is the chloride channel CLCN2, which has been studied as a potential alternative chloride efflux pathway in the absence of CFTR. The object of the present study was to use the nasal potential difference test (NPD) to quantify CLCN2 function in an epithelial-directed TetOn CLCN2 transgenic mouse model (TGN-K18rtTA-hCLCN2) by using the putative CLCN2 pharmacological agonist lubiprostone and peptide inhibitor GaTx2. Lubiprostone significantly increased chloride transport in the CLCN2-overexpressing mice following activation of the transgene by doxycycline. This response to lubiprostone was significantly inhibited by GaTx2 after CLCN2 activation in TGN-CLCN2 mice. Cftr(-/-) and Clc2(-/-) mice showed hyperpolarization indicative of chloride efflux in response to lubiprostone, which was fully inhibited by GaTx2 and CFTR inhibitor 172 + GlyH-101, respectively. Our study reveals lubiprostone as a pharmacological activator of both CFTR and CLCN2. Overexpression and activation of CLCN2 leads to improved mouse NPD readings, suggesting it is available as an alternative pathway for epithelial chloride secretion in murine airways. The utilization of CLCN2 as an alternative chloride efflux channel could provide clinical benefit to patients with CF, especially if the pharmacological activator is administered as an aerosol.

  6. Manipulating proteostasis to repair the F508del-CFTR defect in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Villella, Valeria R; Raia, Valeria; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal monogenic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that entails the (diagnostic) increase in sweat electrolyte concentrations, progressive lung disease with chronic inflammation and recurrent bacterial infections, pancreatic insufficiency, and male infertility. Therapies aimed at restoring the CFTR defect have emerged. Thus, a small molecule which facilitates chloride channel opening, the potentiator Ivacaftor, has been approved for the treatment of CF patients bearing a particular class of rare CFTR mutations. However, small molecules that directly target the most common misfolded CFTR mutant, F508del, and improve its intracellular trafficking in vitro, have been less effective than expected when tested in CF patients, even in combination with Ivacaftor. Thus, new strategies are required to circumvent the F508del-CFTR defect. Airway and intestinal epithelial cells from CF patients bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation exhibit an impressive derangement of cellular proteostasis, with oxidative stress, overactivation of the tissue transglutaminase (TG2), and disabled autophagy. Proteostasis regulators such as cysteamine can rescue and stabilize a functional F508del-CFTR protein through suppressing TG2 activation and restoring autophagy in vivo in F508del-CFTR homozygous mice, in vitro in CF patient-derived cell lines, ex vivo in freshly collected primary patient's nasal cells, as well as in a pilot clinical trial involving homozygous F508del-CFTR patients. Here, we discuss how the therapeutic normalization of defective proteostasis can be harnessed for the treatment of CF patients with the F508del-CFTR mutation.

  7. Vx-770 potentiates CFTR function by promoting decoupling between the gating cycle and ATP hydrolysis cycle

    PubMed Central

    Jih, Kang-Yang; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Vx-770 (Ivacaftor), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug for clinical application to patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), shifts the paradigm from conventional symptomatic treatments to therapeutics directly tackling the root of the disease: functional defects of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel caused by pathogenic mutations. The underlying mechanism for the action of Vx-770 remains elusive partly because this compound not only increases the activity of wild-type (WT) channels whose gating is primarily controlled by ATP binding/hydrolysis, but also improves the function of G551D-CFTR, a disease-associated mutation that abolishes CFTR’s responsiveness to ATP. Here we provide a unified theory to account for this dual effect of Vx-770. We found that Vx-770 enhances spontaneous, ATP-independent activity of WT-CFTR to a similar magnitude as its effects on G551D channels, a result essentially explaining Vx-770’s effect on G551D-CFTR. Furthermore, Vx-770 increases the open time of WT-CFTR in an [ATP]-dependent manner. This distinct kinetic effect is accountable with a newly proposed CFTR gating model depicting an [ATP]-dependent “reentry” mechanism that allows CFTR shuffling among different open states by undergoing multiple rounds of ATP hydrolysis. We further examined the effect of Vx-770 on R352C-CFTR, a unique mutant that allows direct observation of hydrolysis-triggered gating events. Our data corroborate that Vx-770 increases the open time of WT-CFTR by stabilizing a posthydrolytic open state and thereby fosters decoupling between the gating cycle and ATP hydrolysis cycle. The current study also suggests that this unique mechanism of drug action can be further exploited to develop strategies that enhance the function of CFTR. PMID:23440202

  8. Additive effect of multiple pharmacological chaperones on maturation of CFTR processing mutants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Loo, Tip W.; Bartlett, M. Claire; Clarke, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The most common cause of CF (cystic fibrosis) is the deletion of Phe508 (ΔF508) in the CFTR [CF TM (transmembrane) conductance regulator] chloride channel. One major problem with ΔF508 CFTR is that the protein is defective in folding so that little mature protein is delivered to the cell surface. Expression of ΔF508 CFTR in the presence of small molecules known as correctors or pharmacological chaperones can increase the level of mature protein. Unfortunately, the efficiency of corrector-induced maturation of ΔF508 CFTR is probably too low to have therapeutic value and approaches are needed to increase maturation efficiency. We postulated that expression of ΔF508 CFTR in the presence of multiple correctors that bound to different sites may have an additive effect on maturation. In support of this mechanism, we found that expression of P-glycoprotein (CFTR's sister protein) processing mutants in the presence of two compounds that bind to different sites (rhodamine B and Hoechst 33342) had an additive effect on maturation. Therefore we tested whether expression of ΔF508 CFTR in the presence of combinations of three different classes of corrector molecules would increase its maturation efficiency. It was found that the combination of the quinazoline VRT-325 together with the thiazole corr-2b or bisaminomethylbithiazole corr-4a doubled the steady-state maturation efficiency of ΔF508 CFTR (approx. 40% of total CFTR was mature protein) compared with expression in the presence of a single compound. The additive effect of the correctors on ΔF508 CFTR maturation suggests that they directly interact at different sites of the protein. PMID:17535157

  9. An unexpected effect of TNF-α on F508del-CFTR maturation and function

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Sara; Urbach, Valérie; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Hinzpeter, Alexandre; Edelman, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multifactorial disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene ( CFTR), which encodes a cAMP-dependent Cl - channel. The most frequent mutation, F508del, leads to the synthesis of a prematurely degraded, otherwise partially functional protein. CFTR is expressed in many epithelia, with major consequences in the airways of patients with CF, characterized by both fluid transport abnormalities and persistent inflammatory responses. The relationship between the acute phase of inflammation and the expression of wild type (WT) CFTR or F508del-CFTR is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate this effect. The results show that 10 min exposure to TNF-alpha (0.5-50ng/ml) of F508del-CFTR-transfected HeLa cells and human bronchial cells expressing F508del-CFTR in primary culture (HBE) leads to the maturation of F508del-CFTR and induces CFTR chloride currents. The enhanced CFTR expression and function upon TNFα is sustained, in HBE cells, for at least 24 h. The underlying mechanism of action involves a protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway, and occurs through insertion of vesicles containing F508del-CFTR to the plasma membrane, with TNFα behaving as a corrector molecule. In conclusion, a novel and unexpected action of TNFα has been discovered and points to the importance of systematic studies on the roles of inflammatory mediators in the maturation of abnormally folded proteins in general and in the context of CF in particular. PMID:26594334

  10. Transmembrane helical interactions in the CFTR channel pore.

    PubMed

    Das, Jhuma; Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Cui, Liying; He, Lihua; Riordan, John R; Dokholyan, Nikolay V

    2017-06-01

    Mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene affect CFTR protein biogenesis or its function as a chloride channel, resulting in dysregulation of epithelial fluid transport in the lung, pancreas and other organs in cystic fibrosis (CF). Development of pharmaceutical strategies to treat CF requires understanding of the mechanisms underlying channel function. However, incomplete 3D structural information on the unique ABC ion channel, CFTR, hinders elucidation of its functional mechanism and correction of cystic fibrosis causing mutants. Several CFTR homology models have been developed using bacterial ABC transporters as templates but these have low sequence similarity to CFTR and are not ion channels. Here, we refine an earlier model in an outward (OWF) and develop an inward (IWF) facing model employing an integrated experimental-molecular dynamics simulation (200 ns) approach. Our IWF structure agrees well with a recently solved cryo-EM structure of a CFTR IWF state. We utilize cysteine cross-linking to verify positions and orientations of residues within trans-membrane helices (TMHs) of the OWF conformation and to reconstruct a physiologically relevant pore structure. Comparison of pore profiles of the two conformations reveal a radius sufficient to permit passage of hydrated Cl- ions in the OWF but not the IWF model. To identify structural determinants that distinguish the two conformations and possible rearrangements of TMHs within them responsible for channel gating, we perform cross-linking by bifunctional reagents of multiple predicted pairs of cysteines in TMH 6 and 12 and 6 and 9. To determine whether the effects of cross-linking on gating observed are the result of switching of the channel from open to close state, we also treat the same residue pairs with monofunctional reagents in separate experiments. Both types of reagents prevent ion currents indicating that pore blockage is primarily responsible.

  11. Correctors and Potentiators Rescue Function of the Truncated W1282X-Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) Translation Product.

    PubMed

    Haggie, Peter M; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Tan, Joseph-Anthony; Xu, Haijin; Avramescu, Radu G; Perdomo, Doranda; Zlock, Lorna; Nielson, Dennis W; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Lukacs, Gergely L; Verkman, Alan S

    2017-01-20

    W1282X is the fifth most common cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutation that causes cystic fibrosis. Here, we investigated the utility of a small molecule corrector/potentiator strategy, as used for ΔF508-CFTR, to produce functional rescue of the truncated translation product of the W1282X mutation, CFTR 1281 , without the need for read-through. In transfected cell systems, certain potentiators and correctors, including VX-809 and VX-770, increased CFTR 1281 activity. To identify novel correctors and potentiators with potentially greater efficacy on CFTR 1281 , functional screens were done of ∼30,000 synthetic small molecules and drugs/nutraceuticals in CFTR 1281 -transfected cells. Corrector scaffolds of 1-arylpyrazole-4-arylsulfonyl-piperazine and spiro-piperidine-quinazolinone classes were identified with up to ∼5-fold greater efficacy than VX-809, some of which were selective for CFTR 1281 , whereas others also corrected ΔF508-CFTR. Several novel potentiator scaffolds were identified with efficacy comparable with VX-770; remarkably, a phenylsulfonamide-pyrrolopyridine acted synergistically with VX-770 to increase CFTR 1281 function ∼8-fold over that of VX-770 alone, normalizing CFTR 1281 channel activity to that of wild type CFTR. Corrector and potentiator combinations were tested in primary cultures and conditionally reprogrammed cells generated from nasal brushings from one W1282X homozygous subject. Although robust chloride conductance was seen with correctors and potentiators in homozygous ΔF508 cells, increased chloride conductance was not found in W1282X cells despite the presence of adequate transcript levels. Notwithstanding the negative data in W1282X cells from one human subject, we speculate that corrector and potentiator combinations may have therapeutic efficacy in cystic fibrosis caused by the W1282X mutation, although additional studies are needed on human cells from W1282X subjects. © 2017 by The American Society for

  12. Evidence against Resveratrol as a viable therapy for the rescue of defective ΔF508 CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Jai, Ying; Shah, Kalpit; Bridges, Robert J.; Bradbury, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Resveratrol, a natural phenolic compound, has been reported to rescue mutant ΔF508 CFTR in expression systems and primary epithelial cells. Although this implies a therapeutic benefit to patients with CF, investigations were performed using resveratrol concentrations greatly in excess of those achievable in plasma. We evaluated the efficacy of resveratrol as a CFTR corrector in relevant primary airway cells, using physiologically achievable resveratrol concentrations. METHODS Cells expressing wt or ΔF508 CFTR were exposed to chronic or acute resveratrol. CFTR mRNA and protein expression were monitored. The effects of resveratrol on primary ΔF508 human airway cells were evaluated by equivalent current analysis using modified Ussing chambers. RESULTS Consistent with previously published data in heterologous expression systems, high doses of resveratrol increased CFTR expression; however physiologically relevant concentrations were without effect. In contrast to heterologous expression systems, resveratrol was unable to increase mutant CFTR channel activity in primary airway cells. Elevated amiloride-sensitive currents, indicative of sodium transport and characteristically elevated in CF airway cells, were also unaffected by resveratrol CONCLUSIONS High concentrations of resveratrol can increase CFTR mRNA and protein in some cell types. In addition, acute resveratrol exposure can stimulate CFTR mediated chloride secretion, probably by increasing cellular cAMP levels. Resveratrol at physiologically achievable levels yielded no benefit in primary ΔF508 airway cells, either in terms of amiloride-sensitive currents of CFTR currents. PMID:26342647

  13. Quantitation of normal CFTR mRNA in CF patients with splice-site mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z.; Olsen, J.C.; Silverman, L.M.

    Previously we identified two mutations in introns of the CFTR gene associated with partially active splice sites and unusual clinical phenotypes. One mutation in intron 19 (3849+10 kb C to T) is common in CF patients with normal sweat chloride values; an 84 bp sequence from intron 19, which contains a stop codon, is inserted between exon 19 and exon 20 in most nasal CFTR transcripts. The other mutation in intron 14B (2789+5 G to A) is associated with elevated sweat chloride levels, but mild pulmonary disease; exon 14B (38 bp) is spliced out of most nasal CFTR transcipts. Themore » remaining CFTR cDNA sequences, other than the 84 bp insertion of exon 14B deletion, are identical to the published sequence. To correlate genotype and phenotype, we used quantitative RT-PCR to determine the levels of normally-spliced CFTR mRNA in nasal epithelia from these patients. CFTR cDNA was amplified (25 cycles) by using primers specific for normally-spliced species, {gamma}-actin cDNA was amplified as a standard.« less

  14. CFTR, bicarbonate, and the pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Borowitz, Drucy

    2015-10-01

    The gene that encodes for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR) was identified in 1989, yet major pathophysiologic questions remain unanswered. There is emerging evidence that CFTR is a bicarbonate channel, a driver of chloride-bicarbonate exchange and through its action on local pH, a regulator of other ion channels and of proteins that function optimally in a neutral environment. In both the respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) tracts, bicarbonate drives ionic content and fluid on epithelial surfaces, allows mucins to unfold and become slippery, and contributes to innate immunity. In the GI tract bicarbonate neutralizes gastric acid to support digestion and absorption. When CFTR is dysfunctional, lack of bicarbonate secretion disrupts these normal processes and thus leads directly to the clinical symptoms and signs of CF. This article synthesizes evidence from cell, animal, and human investigations that support these concepts. Bicarbonate secretion does not seem to be the same in all tissues and varies with physiologic demand. Thus, tissue type and whether conditions are baseline or stimulated needs to be taken into account when evaluating the evidence concerning the role of bicarbonate in the pathophysiology of CF as a regulator of local pH. Basic and applied research that focuses on the role of CFTR-mediated bicarbonate secretion helps explain many of the diverse clinical manifestations that are CF. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Structural stability of purified human CFTR is systematically improved by mutations in nucleotide binding domain 1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengrong; Hildebrandt, Ellen; Jiang, Fan; Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Khazanov, Netaly; Zhou, Qingxian; An, Jianli; Mezzell, Andrew T; Xavier, Bala M; Ding, Haitao; Riordan, John R; Senderowitz, Hanoch; Kappes, John C; Brouillette, Christie G; Urbatsch, Ina L

    2018-05-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is an ABC transporter containing two transmembrane domains forming a chloride ion channel, and two nucleotide binding domains (NBD1 and NBD2). CFTR has presented a formidable challenge to obtain monodisperse, biophysically stable protein. Here we report a comprehensive study comparing effects of single and multiple NBD1 mutations on stability of both the NBD1 domain alone and on purified full length human CFTR. Single mutations S492P, A534P, I539T acted additively, and when combined with M470V, S495P, and R555K cumulatively yielded an NBD1 with highly improved structural stability. Strategic combinations of these mutations strongly stabilized the domain to attain a calorimetric T m  > 70 °C. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations on the most stable 6SS-NBD1 variant implicated fluctuations, electrostatic interactions and side chain packing as potential contributors to improved stability. Progressive stabilization of NBD1 directly correlated with enhanced structural stability of full-length CFTR protein. Thermal unfolding of the stabilized CFTR mutants, monitored by changes in intrinsic fluorescence, demonstrated that Tm could be shifted as high as 67.4 °C in 6SS-CFTR, more than 20 °C higher than wild-type. H1402S, an NBD2 mutation, conferred CFTR with additional thermal stability, possibly by stabilizing an NBD-dimerized conformation. CFTR variants with NBD1-stabilizing mutations were expressed at the cell surface in mammalian cells, exhibited ATPase and channel activity, and retained these functions to higher temperatures. The capability to produce enzymatically active CFTR with improved structural stability amenable to biophysical and structural studies will advance mechanistic investigations and future cystic fibrosis drug development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70,000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Lubiprostone Activates CFTR, but not ClC-2, via the Prostaglandin Receptor (EP4)

    PubMed Central

    Norimatsu, Yohei; Moran, Aurelia R.; MacDonald, Kelvin D.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the mechanism of lubiprostone activation of epithelial chloride transport. Lubiprostone is a bicyclic fatty acid approved for the treatment of constipation [1]. There is uncertainty, however, as to how lubiprostone increases epithelial chloride transport. Direct stimulation of ClC-2 and CFTR chloride channels as well as stimulation of these channels via the EP4 receptor has been described [2; 3; 4; 5]. To better define this mechanism, two-electrode voltage clamp was used to assay Xenopus oocytes expressing ClC-2, with or without co-expression of the EP4 receptor or β adrenergic receptor (βAR), for changes in conductance elicited by lubiprostone. Oocytes co-expressing CFTR and either βAR or the EP4 receptor were also studied. In oocytes co-expressing ClC-2 and βAR conductance was stimulated by hyperpolarization and acidic pH (pH=6), but there was no response to the β adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. Oocytes expressing ClC-2 only or co-expressing ClC-2 and EP4 did not respond to the presence of 0.1, 1, or 10 µM lubiprostone in the superperfusate. Oocytes co-expressing CFTR and βAR did not respond to hyperpolarization, acidic pH, or 1µM lubiprostone. However, conductance was elevated by isoproterenol and inhibited by CFTRinh172. Co-expression of CFTR and EP4 resulted in lubiprostone-stimulated conductance, which was also sensitive to CFTRinh172. The EC50 for lubiprostone mediated CFTR activation was ~ 10 nM. These results demonstrate no direct action of lubiprostone on either ClC-2 or CFTR channels expressed in oocytes. However, the results confirm that CFTR can be activated by lubiprostone via the EP4 receptor in oocytes. PMID:22960173

  18. Phenylquinoxalinone CFTR activator as potential prosecretory therapy for constipation

    PubMed Central

    CIL, ONUR; PHUAN, PUAY-WAH; SON, JUNG-HO; ZHU, JIE S.; KU, COLTON K.; TABIB, NILOUFAR AKHAVAN; TEUTHORN, ANDREW P.; FERRERA, LORETTA; ZACHOS, NICHOLAS C.; LIN, RUXIAN; GALIETTA, LUIS J. V.; DONOWITZ, MARK; KURTH, MARK J.; VERKMAN, ALAN S.

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is a common condition for which current treatments can have limited efficacy. By high-throughput screening, we recently identified a phenylquinoxalinone activator of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel that stimulated intestinal fluid secretion and normalized stool output in a mouse model of opioid-induced constipation. Here, we report phenylquinoxalinone structure-activity analysis, mechanism of action, animal efficacy data in acute and chronic models of constipation, and functional data in ex vivo primary cultured human enterocytes. Structure-activity analysis was done on 175 phenylquinoxalinone analogs, including 15 synthesized compounds. The most potent compound, CFTRact-J027, activated CFTR with EC50 ~ 200 nM, with patch-clamp analysis showing a linear CFTR current-voltage relationship with direct CFTR activation. CFTRact-J027 corrected reduced stool output and hydration in a mouse model of acute constipation produced by scopolamine and in a chronically constipated mouse strain (C3H/HeJ). Direct comparison with the approved prosecretory drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide showed substantially greater intestinal fluid secretion with CFTRact-J027, as well as greater efficacy in a constipation model. As evidence to support efficacy in human constipation, CFTRact-J027 increased transepithelial fluid transport in enteroids generated from normal human small intestine. Also, CFTRact-J027 was rapidly metabolized in vitro in human hepatic microsomes, suggesting minimal systemic exposure upon oral administration. These data establish structure-activity and mechanistic data for phenylquinoxalinone CFTR activators, and support their potential efficacy in human constipation. PMID:27815136

  19. Cystic Fibrosis Gene Encodes a cAMP-Dependent Chloride Channel in Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Padraig; Warth, John D.; Levesque, Paul C.; Collier, Mei Lin; Geary, Yvonne; Horowitz, Burton; Hume, Joseph R.

    1996-06-01

    cAMP-dependent chloride channels in heart contribute to autonomic regulation of action potential duration and membrane potential and have been inferred to be due to cardiac expression of the epithelial cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. In this report, a cDNA from rabbit ventricle was isolated and sequenced, which encodes an exon 5 splice variant (exon 5-) of CFTR, with >90% identity to human CFTR cDNA present in epithelial cells. Expression of this cDNA in Xenopus oocytes gave rise to robust cAMP-activated chloride currents that were absent in control water-injected oocytes. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed against CFTR significnatly reduced the density of cAMP-dependent chloride currents in acutely cultured myocytes, thereby establishing a direct functional link between cardiac expression of CFTR protein and an endogenous chloride channel in native cardiac myocytes.

  20. Mechanisms of CFTR functional variants that impair regulated bicarbonate permeation and increase risk for pancreatitis but not for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    LaRusch, Jessica; Jung, Jinsei; General, Ignacio J; Lewis, Michele D; Park, Hyun Woo; Brand, Randall E; Gelrud, Andres; Anderson, Michelle A; Banks, Peter A; Conwell, Darwin; Lawrence, Christopher; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Baillie, John; Alkaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory; Gardner, Timothy B; Amann, Stephen T; Slivka, Adam; Sandhu, Bimaljit; Aloe, Amy; Kienholz, Michelle L; Yadav, Dhiraj; Barmada, M Michael; Bahar, Ivet; Lee, Min Goo; Whitcomb, David C

    2014-07-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD) affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens) but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a) screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b) conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c) computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d) tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N) not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002). Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005) and male infertility (OR 395, p<0.0001). WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in CFTR

  1. Mechanisms of CFTR Functional Variants That Impair Regulated Bicarbonate Permeation and Increase Risk for Pancreatitis but Not for Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michele D.; Park, Hyun Woo; Brand, Randall E.; Gelrud, Andres; Anderson, Michelle A.; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin; Lawrence, Christopher; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Baillie, John; Alkaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory; Gardner, Timothy B.; Amann, Stephen T.; Slivka, Adam; Sandhu, Bimaljit; Aloe, Amy; Kienholz, Michelle L.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Barmada, M. Michael; Bahar, Ivet; Lee, Min Goo; Whitcomb, David C.

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD) affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens) but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a) screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b) conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c) computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d) tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N) not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002). Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005) and male infertility (OR 395, p<<0.0001). WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in CFTR

  2. Correctors and Potentiators Rescue Function of the Truncated W1282X-Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) Translation Product*♦

    PubMed Central

    Haggie, Peter M.; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Tan, Joseph-Anthony; Xu, Haijin; Avramescu, Radu G.; Perdomo, Doranda; Zlock, Lorna; Nielson, Dennis W.; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Lukacs, Gergely L.; Verkman, Alan S.

    2017-01-01

    W1282X is the fifth most common cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutation that causes cystic fibrosis. Here, we investigated the utility of a small molecule corrector/potentiator strategy, as used for ΔF508-CFTR, to produce functional rescue of the truncated translation product of the W1282X mutation, CFTR1281, without the need for read-through. In transfected cell systems, certain potentiators and correctors, including VX-809 and VX-770, increased CFTR1281 activity. To identify novel correctors and potentiators with potentially greater efficacy on CFTR1281, functional screens were done of ∼30,000 synthetic small molecules and drugs/nutraceuticals in CFTR1281-transfected cells. Corrector scaffolds of 1-arylpyrazole-4-arylsulfonyl-piperazine and spiro-piperidine-quinazolinone classes were identified with up to ∼5-fold greater efficacy than VX-809, some of which were selective for CFTR1281, whereas others also corrected ΔF508-CFTR. Several novel potentiator scaffolds were identified with efficacy comparable with VX-770; remarkably, a phenylsulfonamide-pyrrolopyridine acted synergistically with VX-770 to increase CFTR1281 function ∼8-fold over that of VX-770 alone, normalizing CFTR1281 channel activity to that of wild type CFTR. Corrector and potentiator combinations were tested in primary cultures and conditionally reprogrammed cells generated from nasal brushings from one W1282X homozygous subject. Although robust chloride conductance was seen with correctors and potentiators in homozygous ΔF508 cells, increased chloride conductance was not found in W1282X cells despite the presence of adequate transcript levels. Notwithstanding the negative data in W1282X cells from one human subject, we speculate that corrector and potentiator combinations may have therapeutic efficacy in cystic fibrosis caused by the W1282X mutation, although additional studies are needed on human cells from W1282X subjects. PMID:27895116

  3. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Collaco, Joseph M; Blackman, Scott M; Raraigh, Karen S; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M; Pace, Rhonda G; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R; Strug, Lisa J; Knowles, Michael R; Cutting, Garry R

    2016-12-01

    Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H 2  = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0-0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker for assessing response to therapies directed at mutant CFTR.

  4. Acute administration of ivacaftor to people with cystic fibrosis and a G551D-CFTR mutation reveals smooth muscle abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Ryan J.; Hisert, Katherine B.; Dodd, Jonathan D.; Grogan, Brenda; Launspach, Janice L.; Barnes, Janel K.; Gallagher, Charles G.; Sieren, Jered P.; Gross, Thomas J.; Fischer, Anthony J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Welsh, Michael J.; McKone, Edward F.; Stoltz, David A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Airflow obstruction is common in cystic fibrosis (CF), yet the underlying pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. People with CF often exhibit airway hyperresponsiveness, CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is present in airway smooth muscle (ASM), and ASM from newborn CF pigs has increased contractile tone, suggesting that loss of CFTR causes a primary defect in ASM function. We hypothesized that restoring CFTR activity would decrease smooth muscle tone in people with CF. METHODS. To increase or potentiate CFTR function, we administered ivacaftor to 12 adults with CF with the G551D-CFTR mutation; ivacaftor stimulates G551D-CFTR function. We studied people before and immediately after initiation of ivacaftor (48 hours) to minimize secondary consequences of CFTR restoration. We tested smooth muscle function by investigating spirometry, airway distensibility, and vascular tone. RESULTS. Ivacaftor rapidly restored CFTR function, indicated by reduced sweat chloride concentration. Airflow obstruction and air trapping also improved. Airway distensibility increased in airways less than 4.5 mm but not in larger-sized airways. To assess smooth muscle function in a tissue outside the lung, we measured vascular pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index, which both decreased following CFTR potentiation. Finally, change in distensibility of <4.5-mm airways correlated with changes in PWV. CONCLUSIONS. Acute CFTR potentiation provided a unique opportunity to investigate CFTR-dependent mechanisms of CF pathogenesis. The rapid effects of ivacaftor on airway distensibility and vascular tone suggest that CFTR dysfunction may directly cause increased smooth muscle tone in people with CF and that ivacaftor may relax smooth muscle. FUNDING. This work was funded in part from an unrestricted grant from the Vertex Investigator-Initiated Studies Program. PMID:27158673

  5. A novel treatment of cystic fibrosis acting on-target: cysteamine plus epigallocatechin gallate for the autophagy-dependent rescue of class II-mutated CFTR.

    PubMed

    Tosco, A; De Gregorio, F; Esposito, S; De Stefano, D; Sana, I; Ferrari, E; Sepe, A; Salvadori, L; Buonpensiero, P; Di Pasqua, A; Grassia, R; Leone, C A; Guido, S; De Rosa, G; Lusa, S; Bona, G; Stoll, G; Maiuri, M C; Mehta, A; Kroemer, G; Maiuri, L; Raia, V

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that the combination of two safe proteostasis regulators, cysteamine and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), can be used to improve deficient expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in patients homozygous for the CFTR Phe508del mutation. Here we provide the proof-of-concept that this combination treatment restored CFTR function and reduced lung inflammation (P<0.001) in Phe508del/Phe508del or Phe508del/null-Cftr (but not in Cftr-null mice), provided that such mice were autophagy-competent. Primary nasal cells from patients bearing different class II CFTR mutations, either in homozygous or compound heterozygous form, responded to the treatment in vitro. We assessed individual responses to cysteamine plus EGCG in a single-centre, open-label phase-2 trial. The combination treatment decreased sweat chloride from baseline, increased both CFTR protein and function in nasal cells, restored autophagy in such cells, decreased CXCL8 and TNF-α in the sputum, and tended to improve respiratory function. These positive effects were particularly strong in patients carrying Phe508del CFTR mutations in homozygosity or heterozygosity. However, a fraction of patients bearing other CFTR mutations failed to respond to therapy. Importantly, the same patients whose primary nasal brushed cells did not respond to cysteamine plus EGCG in vitro also exhibited deficient therapeutic responses in vivo. Altogether, these results suggest that the combination treatment of cysteamine plus EGCG acts 'on-target' because it can only rescue CFTR function when autophagy is functional (in mice) and improves CFTR function when a rescuable protein is expressed (in mice and men). These results should spur the further clinical development of the combination treatment.

  6. A novel treatment of cystic fibrosis acting on-target: cysteamine plus epigallocatechin gallate for the autophagy-dependent rescue of class II-mutated CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Tosco, A; De Gregorio, F; Esposito, S; De Stefano, D; Sana, I; Ferrari, E; Sepe, A; Salvadori, L; Buonpensiero, P; Di Pasqua, A; Grassia, R; Leone, C A; Guido, S; De Rosa, G; Lusa, S; Bona, G; Stoll, G; Maiuri, M C; Mehta, A; Kroemer, G; Maiuri, L; Raia, V

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that the combination of two safe proteostasis regulators, cysteamine and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), can be used to improve deficient expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in patients homozygous for the CFTR Phe508del mutation. Here we provide the proof-of-concept that this combination treatment restored CFTR function and reduced lung inflammation (P<0.001) in Phe508del/Phe508del or Phe508del/null-Cftr (but not in Cftr-null mice), provided that such mice were autophagy-competent. Primary nasal cells from patients bearing different class II CFTR mutations, either in homozygous or compound heterozygous form, responded to the treatment in vitro. We assessed individual responses to cysteamine plus EGCG in a single-centre, open-label phase-2 trial. The combination treatment decreased sweat chloride from baseline, increased both CFTR protein and function in nasal cells, restored autophagy in such cells, decreased CXCL8 and TNF-α in the sputum, and tended to improve respiratory function. These positive effects were particularly strong in patients carrying Phe508del CFTR mutations in homozygosity or heterozygosity. However, a fraction of patients bearing other CFTR mutations failed to respond to therapy. Importantly, the same patients whose primary nasal brushed cells did not respond to cysteamine plus EGCG in vitro also exhibited deficient therapeutic responses in vivo. Altogether, these results suggest that the combination treatment of cysteamine plus EGCG acts ‘on-target' because it can only rescue CFTR function when autophagy is functional (in mice) and improves CFTR function when a rescuable protein is expressed (in mice and men). These results should spur the further clinical development of the combination treatment. PMID:27035618

  7. The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor regulates human fetal lung development via CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Sarah C.; Wilkinson, William J.; Tseng, Hsiu-Er; Finney, Brenda; Monk, Bethan; Dibble, Holly; Quilliam, Samantha; Warburton, David; Galietta, Luis J.; Kemp, Paul J.; Riccardi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Optimal fetal lung growth requires anion-driven fluid secretion into the lumen of the developing organ. The fetus is hypercalcemic compared to the mother and here we show that in the developing human lung this hypercalcaemia acts on the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor, CaSR, to promote fluid-driven lung expansion through activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR. Several chloride channels including TMEM16, bestrophin, CFTR, CLCN2 and CLCA1, are also expressed in the developing human fetal lung at gestational stages when CaSR expression is maximal. Measurements of Cl−-driven fluid secretion in organ explant cultures show that pharmacological CaSR activation by calcimimetics stimulates lung fluid secretion through CFTR, an effect which in humans, but not mice, was also mimicked by fetal hypercalcemic conditions, demonstrating that the physiological relevance of such a mechanism appears to be species-specific. Calcimimetics promote CFTR opening by activating adenylate cyclase and we show that Ca2+-stimulated type I adenylate cyclase is expressed in the developing human lung. Together, these observations suggest that physiological fetal hypercalcemia, acting on the CaSR, promotes human fetal lung development via cAMP-dependent opening of CFTR. Disturbances in this process would be expected to permanently impact lung structure and might predispose to certain postnatal respiratory diseases. PMID:26911344

  8. Functional genomic responses to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and CFTR(delta508) in the lung.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Liu, Cong; Clark, Jean C; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2006-04-21

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), a common lethal pulmonary disorder in Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) that disturbs fluid homeostasis and host defense in target organs. The effects of CFTR and delta508-CFTR were assessed in transgenic mice that 1) lack CFTR expression (Cftr-/-); 2) express the human delta508 CFTR (CFTR(delta508)); 3) overexpress the normal human CFTR (CFTR(tg)) in respiratory epithelial cells. Genes were selected from Affymetrix Murine Gene-Chips analysis and subjected to functional classification, k-means clustering, promoter cis-elements/modules searching, literature mining, and pathway exploring. Genomic responses to Cftr-/- were not corrected by expression of CFTR(delta508). Genes regulating host defense, inflammation, fluid and electrolyte transport were similarly altered in Cftr-/- and CFTR(delta508) mice. CFTR(delta508) induced a primary disturbance in expression of genes regulating redox and antioxidant systems. Genomic responses to CFTR(tg) were modest and were not associated with lung pathology. CFTR(tg) and CFTR(delta508) induced genes encoding heat shock proteins and other chaperones but did not activate the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. RNAs encoding proteins that directly interact with CFTR were identified in each of the CFTR mouse models, supporting the hypothesis that CFTR functions within a multiprotein complex whose members interact at the level of protein-protein interactions and gene expression. Promoters of genes influenced by CFTR shared common regulatory elements, suggesting that their co-expression may be mediated by shared regulatory mechanisms. Genes and pathways involved in the response to CFTR may be of interest as modifiers of CF.

  9. Altering intracellular pH reveals the kinetic basis of intraburst gating in the CFTR Cl− channel

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weiyi; Sheppard, David N.

    2017-01-01

    Key points The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is defective in the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF), forms a gated pathway for chloride movement regulated by intracellular ATP.To understand better CFTR function, we investigated the regulation of channel openings by intracellular pH.We found that short‐lived channel closures during channel openings represent subtle changes in the structure of CFTR that are regulated by intracellular pH, in part, at ATP‐binding site 1 formed by the nucleotide‐binding domains.Our results provide a framework for future studies to understand better the regulation of channel openings, the dysfunction of CFTR in CF and the action of drugs that repair CFTR gating defects. Abstract Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP‐gated Cl− channel defective in the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). The gating behaviour of CFTR is characterized by bursts of channel openings interrupted by brief, flickery closures, separated by long closures between bursts. Entry to and exit from an open burst is controlled by the interaction of ATP with two ATP‐binding sites, sites 1 and 2, in CFTR. To understand better the kinetic basis of CFTR intraburst gating, we investigated the single‐channel activity of human CFTR at different intracellular pH (pHi) values. When compared with the control (pHi 7.3), acidifying pHi to 6.3 or alkalinizing pHi to 8.3 and 8.8 caused small reductions in the open‐time constant (τo) of wild‐type CFTR. By contrast, the fast closed‐time constant (τcf), which describes the short‐lived closures that interrupt open bursts, was greatly increased at pHi 5.8 and 6.3. To analyse intraburst kinetics, we used linear three‐state gating schemes. All data were satisfactorily modelled by the C1 ↔ O ↔ C2 kinetic scheme. Changing the intracellular ATP concentration was without effect on τo, τcf and their responses to pHi changes. However, mutations

  10. Pharmacological analysis of epithelial chloride secretion mechanisms in adult murine airways.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Ambra; Ferrera, Loretta; Philp, Amber R; Caci, Emanuela; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Galietta, Luis J V; Flores, Carlos A

    2016-06-15

    Defective epithelial chloride secretion occurs in humans with cystic fibrosis (CF), a genetic defect due to loss of function of CFTR, a cAMP-activated chloride channel. In the airways, absence of an active CFTR causes a severe lung disease. In mice, genetic ablation of CFTR function does not result in similar lung pathology. This may be due to the expression of an alternative chloride channel which is activated by calcium. The most probable protein performing this function is TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). Our aim was to assess the relative contribution of CFTR and TMEM16A to chloride secretion in adult mouse trachea. For this purpose we tested pharmacological inhibitors of chloride channels in normal and CF mice. The amplitude of the cAMP-activated current was similar in both types of animals and was not affected by a selective CFTR inhibitor. In contrast, a CaCC inhibitor (CaCCinh-A01) strongly blocked the cAMP-activated current as well as the calcium-activated chloride secretion triggered by apical UTP. Although control experiments revealed that CaCCinh-A01 also shows inhibitory activity on CFTR, our results indicate that transepithelial chloride secretion in adult mouse trachea is independent of CFTR and that another channel, possibly TMEM16A, performs both cAMP- and calcium-activated chloride transport. The prevalent function of a non-CFTR channel may explain the absence of a defect in chloride transport in CF mice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Epiregulin (EREG) is upregulated through an IL-1β autocrine loop in Caco-2 epithelial cells with reduced CFTR function.

    PubMed

    Massip-Copiz, Macarena; Clauzure, Mariángeles; Valdivieso, Ángel G; Santa-Coloma, Tomás A

    2018-03-01

    CFTR is a cAMP-regulated chloride channel, whose mutations produce cystic fibrosis. The impairment of CFTR activity increases the intracellular Cl - concentration, which in turn produces an increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion. The secreted IL-1β then induces an autocrine positive feedback loop, further stimulating IL-1β priming and secretion. Since IL-1β can transactivate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we study here the levels of expression for different EGFR ligands in Caco-2/pRS26 cells (expressing shRNA against CFTR resulting in a reduced CFTR expression and activity). The epiregulin (EREG), amphiregulin (AREG), and heparin binding EGF like growth factor (HBEGF) mRNAs, were found overexpressed in Caco-2/pRS26 cells. The EREG mRNA had the highest differential expression and was further characterized. In agreement with its mRNA levels, Western blots (WB) showed increased EREG levels in CFTR-impaired cells. In addition, EREG mRNA and protein levels were stimulated by incubation with exogenous IL-1β and inhibited by the Interleukin 1 receptor type I (IL1R1) antagonist IL1RN, suggesting that the overexpression of EREG is a consequence of the autocrine IL-1β loop previously described for these cells. In addition, the JNK inhibitor SP600125, and the EGFR inhibitors AG1478 and PD168393, also had an inhibitory effect on EREG expression, suggesting that EGFR, activated in Caco-2/pRS26 cells, is involved in the observed EREG upregulation. In conclusion, in Caco-2 CFTR-shRNA cells, the EGFR ligand EREG is overexpressed due to an active IL-1β autocrine loop that indirectly activates EGFR, constituting new signaling effectors for the CFTR signaling pathway, downstream of CFTR, Cl - , and IL-1β. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pharmacological correction of a defect in PPAR-gamma signaling ameliorates disease severity in Cftr-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Gregory S; Dumlao, Darren S; Ng, Damian T; Barrett, Kim E; Dennis, Edward A; Dong, Hui; Glass, Christopher K

    2010-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (encoded by Cftr) that impair its role as an apical chloride channel that supports bicarbonate transport. Individuals with cystic fibrosis show retained, thickened mucus that plugs airways and obstructs luminal organs as well as numerous other abnormalities that include inflammation of affected organs, alterations in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. Here we show that colonic epithelial cells and whole lung tissue from Cftr-deficient mice show a defect in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma, encoded by Pparg) function that contributes to a pathological program of gene expression. Lipidomic analysis of colonic epithelial cells suggests that this defect results in part from reduced amounts of the endogenous PPAR-gamma ligand 15-keto-prostaglandin E(2) (15-keto-PGE(2)). Treatment of Cftr-deficient mice with the synthetic PPAR-gamma ligand rosiglitazone partially normalizes the altered gene expression pattern associated with Cftr deficiency and reduces disease severity. Rosiglitazone has no effect on chloride secretion in the colon, but it increases expression of the genes encoding carbonic anhydrases 4 and 2 (Car4 and Car2), increases bicarbonate secretion and reduces mucus retention. These studies reveal a reversible defect in PPAR-gamma signaling in Cftr-deficient cells that can be pharmacologically corrected to ameliorate the severity of the cystic fibrosis phenotype in mice.

  13. Dual activation of CFTR and CLCN2 by lubiprostone in murine nasal epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Schiffhauer, Eric S.; Vij, Neeraj; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Kang, Po Wei; Walker, Doug; Lee, Seakwoo

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sodium and chloride channels on the apical surface of nasal epithelial cells contribute to periciliary fluid homeostasis, a function that is disrupted in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Among these channels is the chloride channel CLCN2, which has been studied as a potential alternative chloride efflux pathway in the absence of CFTR. The object of the present study was to use the nasal potential difference test (NPD) to quantify CLCN2 function in an epithelial-directed TetOn CLCN2 transgenic mouse model (TGN-K18rtTA-hCLCN2) by using the putative CLCN2 pharmacological agonist lubiprostone and peptide inhibitor GaTx2. Lubiprostone significantly increased chloride transport in the CLCN2-overexpressing mice following activation of the transgene by doxycycline. This response to lubiprostone was significantly inhibited by GaTx2 after CLCN2 activation in TGN-CLCN2 mice. Cftr−/− and Clc2−/− mice showed hyperpolarization indicative of chloride efflux in response to lubiprostone, which was fully inhibited by GaTx2 and CFTR inhibitor 172 + GlyH-101, respectively. Our study reveals lubiprostone as a pharmacological activator of both CFTR and CLCN2. Overexpression and activation of CLCN2 leads to improved mouse NPD readings, suggesting it is available as an alternative pathway for epithelial chloride secretion in murine airways. The utilization of CLCN2 as an alternative chloride efflux channel could provide clinical benefit to patients with CF, especially if the pharmacological activator is administered as an aerosol. PMID:23316067

  14. Gastrointestinal pathology in juvenile and adult CFTR-knockout ferrets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xingshen; Olivier, Alicia K; Yi, Yaling; Pope, Christopher E; Hayden, Hillary S; Liang, Bo; Sui, Hongshu; Zhou, Weihong; Hager, Kyle R; Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Xiaoming; Yan, Ziying; Fisher, John T; Keiser, Nicholas W; Song, Yi; Tyler, Scott R; Goeken, J Adam; Kinyon, Joann M; Radey, Matthew C; Fligg, Danielle; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Weiliang; Lynch, Thomas J; Kaminsky, Paul M; Brittnacher, Mitchell J; Miller, Samuel I; Parekh, Kalpaj; Meyerholz, David K; Hoffman, Lucas R; Frana, Timothy; Stewart, Zoe A; Engelhardt, John F

    2014-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multiorgan disease caused by loss of a functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel in many epithelia of the body. Here we report the pathology observed in the gastrointestinal organs of juvenile to adult CFTR-knockout ferrets. CF gastrointestinal manifestations included gastric ulceration, intestinal bacterial overgrowth with villous atrophy, and rectal prolapse. Metagenomic phylogenetic analysis of fecal microbiota by deep sequencing revealed considerable genotype-independent microbial diversity between animals, with the majority of taxa overlapping between CF and non-CF pairs. CF hepatic manifestations were variable, but included steatosis, necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and biliary fibrosis. Gallbladder cystic mucosal hyperplasia was commonly found in 67% of CF animals. The majority of CF animals (85%) had pancreatic abnormalities, including extensive fibrosis, loss of exocrine pancreas, and islet disorganization. Interestingly, 2 of 13 CF animals retained predominantly normal pancreatic histology (84% to 94%) at time of death. Fecal elastase-1 levels from these CF animals were similar to non-CF controls, whereas all other CF animals evaluated were pancreatic insufficient (<2 μg elastase-1 per gram of feces). These findings suggest that genetic factors likely influence the extent of exocrine pancreas disease in CF ferrets and have implications for the etiology of pancreatic sufficiency in CF patients. In summary, these studies demonstrate that the CF ferret model develops gastrointestinal pathology similar to CF patients. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gastrointestinal Pathology in Juvenile and Adult CFTR-Knockout Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingshen; Olivier, Alicia K.; Yi, Yaling; Pope, Christopher E.; Hayden, Hillary S.; Liang, Bo; Sui, Hongshu; Zhou, Weihong; Hager, Kyle R.; Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Xiaoming; Yan, Ziying; Fisher, John T.; Keiser, Nicholas W.; Song, Yi; Tyler, Scott R.; Goeken, J. Adam; Kinyon, Joann M.; Radey, Matthew C.; Fligg, Danielle; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Weiliang; Lynch, Thomas J.; Kaminsky, Paul M.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Miller, Samuel I.; Parekh, Kalpaj; Meyerholz, David K.; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Frana, Timothy; Stewart, Zoe A.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multiorgan disease caused by loss of a functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel in many epithelia of the body. Here we report the pathology observed in the gastrointestinal organs of juvenile to adult CFTR-knockout ferrets. CF gastrointestinal manifestations included gastric ulceration, intestinal bacterial overgrowth with villous atrophy, and rectal prolapse. Metagenomic phylogenetic analysis of fecal microbiota by deep sequencing revealed considerable genotype-independent microbial diversity between animals, with the majority of taxa overlapping between CF and non-CF pairs. CF hepatic manifestations were variable, but included steatosis, necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and biliary fibrosis. Gallbladder cystic mucosal hyperplasia was commonly found in 67% of CF animals. The majority of CF animals (85%) had pancreatic abnormalities, including extensive fibrosis, loss of exocrine pancreas, and islet disorganization. Interestingly, 2 of 13 CF animals retained predominantly normal pancreatic histology (84% to 94%) at time of death. Fecal elastase-1 levels from these CF animals were similar to non-CF controls, whereas all other CF animals evaluated were pancreatic insufficient (<2 μg elastase-1 per gram of feces). These findings suggest that genetic factors likely influence the extent of exocrine pancreas disease in CF ferrets and have implications for the etiology of pancreatic sufficiency in CF patients. In summary, these studies demonstrate that the CF ferret model develops gastrointestinal pathology similar to CF patients. PMID:24637292

  16. CFTR genotype and clinical outcomes of adult patients carried as cystic fibrosis disease.

    PubMed

    Bonadia, Luciana Cardoso; de Lima Marson, Fernando Augusto; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida; Pereira, Monica Corso; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Bertuzzo, Carmen Silvia

    2014-05-01

    There are nearly 2000 cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutations that cause cystic fibrosis (CF). These mutations are classified into six classes; on the one hand, the first three classes cause severe disease involvement in early childhood, on the other hand, the Class IV, V and VI mutations cause minor severe disease in the same age. Nowadays, with therapeutic advances in CF management and competence of pediatricians, physicians of adults have to deal with two groups of CF patients: (i) adults diagnosed in childhood with severe mutations and (ii) adults who initiated symptoms in adulthood and with Class IV, V and VI mutations. The aim of this study was to analyze adults from a clinical center, treated as CF disease, screening the CFTR genotype and evaluating the clinical characteristics. Thirty patients followed as CF disease at the University Hospital were enrolled. After a complete molecular CFTR negative screening and sweat test levels between 40 and 59mEq/L, five patients were characterized as non-CF disease and were excluded. Molecular screening was performed by CFTR gene sequencing/MLPA or by specific mutation screening. Clinical data was obtained from medical records. The patients were divided into three groups: (1) patients with Class I, II and III mutations in two CFTR alleles; (2) genotype with at least one allele of Class IV, V or VI CFTR mutations and, (3) non-identified CFTR mutation+one patient with one allele with CFTR mutation screened (Class I). There was an association of CFTR class mutation and sodium/chloride concentration in the sweat test (sodium: p=0.040; chloride: p=0.016), onset of digestive symptoms (p=0.012), lung function parameter (SpO2 - p=0.016), Bhalla score (p=0.021), age at diagnosis (p=0.008) and CF-related diabetes (p=0.029). There was an association between Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic colonization (as clinical marker for the lung disease status) and lung impairment (FEV1% - p=0.027; Bhalla score - p=0.021), CF

  17. Acquired defects in CFTR-dependent β-adrenergic sweat secretion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with acquired systemic cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction. Recently, sweat evaporimetry has been shown to efficiently measure β-adrenergic sweat rate and specifically quantify CFTR function in the secretory coil of the sweat gland. Objectives To evaluate the presence and severity of systemic CFTR dysfunction in smoking-related lung disease using sweat evaporimetry to determine CFTR-dependent sweat rate. Methods We recruited a cohort of patients consisting of healthy never smokers (N = 18), healthy smokers (12), COPD smokers (25), and COPD former smokers (12) and measured β-adrenergic sweat secretion rate with evaporative water loss, sweat chloride, and clinical data (spirometry and symptom questionnaires). Measurements and main results β-adrenergic sweat rate was reduced in COPD smokers (41.9 ± 3.4, P < 0.05, ± SEM) and COPD former smokers (39.0 ± 5.4, P < 0.05) compared to healthy controls (53.6 ± 3.4). Similarly, sweat chloride was significantly greater in COPD smokers (32.8 ± 3.3, P < 0.01) and COPD former smokers (37.8 ± 6.0, P < 0.01) vs. healthy controls (19.1 ± 2.5). Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between β-adrenergic sweat rate and female gender (β = 0.26), age (−0.28), FEV1% (0.35), dyspnea (−0.3), and history of smoking (−0.27; each P < 0.05). Stepwise multivariate regression included gender (0.39) and COPD (−0.43) in the final model (R2 = 0.266, P < 0.0001). Conclusions β-adrenergic sweat rate was significantly reduced in COPD patients, regardless of smoking status, reflecting acquired CFTR dysfunction and abnormal gland secretion in the skin that can persist despite smoking cessation. β-adrenergic sweat rate and sweat chloride are associated with COPD severity and clinical symptoms, supporting the hypothesis that CFTR decrements

  18. Combined Bicarbonate Conductance-Impairing Variants in CFTR and SPINK1 Are Associated with Chronic Pancreatitis in Patients without Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Alexander; LaRusch, Jessica; Sun, Xiumei; Aloe, Amy; Lamb, Janette; Hawes, Robert; Cotton, Peter; Brand, Randall E.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Money, Mary E.; Banks, Peter A.; Lewis, Michele D.; Baillie, John; Sherman, Stuart; DiSario, James; Burton, Frank R.; Gardner, Timothy B.; Amann, Stephen T.; Gelrud, Andres; George, Ryan; Kassabian, Sirvart; Martinson, Jeremy; Slivka, Adam; Yadav, Dhiraj; Oruc, Nevin; Barmada, M. Michael; Frizzell, Raymond; Whitcomb, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP) is a complex inflammatory disorder associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors. In individuals without cystic fibrosis (CF), variants of CFTR that inhibit bicarbonate conductance but maintain chloride conductance might selectively impair secretion of pancreatic juice, leading to trypsin activation and pancreatitis. We investigated whether sequence variants in the gene encoding the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, SPINK1, further increase the risk of pancreatitis in these patients. Methods We screened patients with ICP (sporadic or familial) and controls for variants in SPINK1 associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP) risk (in exon 3) and in all 27 exons of CFTR. The final study group included 53 patients with sporadic ICP, 27 probands with familial ICP, and 150 unrelated controls, plus 503 controls for limited genotyping. CFTR wild-type (wt) and p.R75Q were cloned and expressed in HEK293 cells and relative conductances of HCO3− and Cl− were measured. Results SPINK1 variants were identified in 36% of subjects and 3% controls (odds ratio [OR]=16.5). One variant of CFTR that has not been associated with CF, p.R75Q, was found in 16% of subjects and 5.4% controls (OR=3.4). Co-inheritance of CFTR p.R75Q and SPINK1 variants occurred in 8.75% of patients and 0.15% controls (OR=62.5). Patch-clamp recordings of cells that expressed CFTR p.R75Q demonstrated normal chloride currents but significantly reduced bicarbonate currents (P=0.0001). Conclusions The CFTR variant p.R75Q causes a selective defect in bicarbonate conductance and increases risk for pancreatitis. Co-inheritance of CF-associated, and some not associated, CFTR variants with SPINK1 variants significantly increase risk of ICP. PMID:20977904

  19. Pore dilatation increases the bicarbonate permeability of CFTR, ANO1 and glycine receptor anion channels

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Ikhyun; Cheng, Mary Hongying; Sim, Eunji; Jung, Jinsei; Suh, Bong Lim; Kim, Yonjung; Son, Hankil; Park, Kyungsoo; Kim, Chul Hoon; Yoon, Joo‐Heon; Whitcomb, David C.; Bahar, Ivet

    2016-01-01

    Key points Cellular stimuli can modulate the ion selectivity of some anion channels, such as CFTR, ANO1 and the glycine receptor (GlyR), by changing pore size.Ion selectivity of CFTR, ANO1 and GlyR is critically affected by the electric permittivity and diameter of the channel pore.Pore size change affects the energy barriers of ion dehydration as well as that of size‐exclusion of anion permeation.Pore dilatation increases the bicarbonate permeability (P HC O3/ Cl ) of CFTR, ANO1 and GlyR.Dynamic change in P HC O3/ Cl may mediate many physiological and pathological processes. Abstract Chloride (Cl−) and bicarbonate (HCO3 −) are two major anions and their permeation through anion channels plays essential roles in our body. However, the mechanism of ion selection by the anion channels is largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that pore dilatation increases the bicarbonate permeability (P HC O3/ Cl ) of anion channels by reducing energy barriers of size‐exclusion and ion dehydration of HCO3 − permeation. Molecular, physiological and computational analyses of major anion channels, such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), anoctamin‐1(ANO1/TMEM16A) and the glycine receptor (GlyR), revealed that the ion selectivity of anion channels is basically determined by the electric permittivity and diameter of the pore. Importantly, cellular stimuli dynamically modulate the anion selectivity of CFTR and ANO1 by changing the pore size. In addition, pore dilatation by a mutation in the pore‐lining region alters the anion selectivity of GlyR. Changes in pore size affected not only the energy barriers of size exclusion but that of ion dehydration by altering the electric permittivity of water‐filled cavity in the pore. The dynamic increase in P HC O3/ Cl by pore dilatation may have many physiological and pathophysiological implications ranging from epithelial HCO3 − secretion to neuronal excitation. PMID:26663196

  20. Correlation of sweat chloride and percent predicted FEV1 in cystic fibrosis patients treated with ivacaftor.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Meredith C; Beusmans, Jack; Panorchan, Paul; Van Goor, Fredrick

    2017-01-01

    Ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator that enhances chloride transport by acting directly on CFTR to increase its channel gating activity, has been evaluated in patients with different CFTR mutations. Several previous analyses have reported no statistical correlation between change from baseline in ppFEV 1 and reduction in sweat chloride levels for individuals treated with ivacaftor. The objective of the post hoc analysis described here was to expand upon previous analyses and evaluate the correlation between sweat chloride levels and absolute ppFEV 1 changes across multiple cohorts of patients with different CF-causing mutations who were treated with ivacaftor. The goal of the analysis was to help define the potential value of sweat chloride as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for use in CFTR modulator trials. For any given study, reductions in sweat chloride levels and improvements in absolute ppFEV 1 were not correlated for individual patients. However, when the data from all studies were combined, a statistically significant correlation between sweat chloride levels and ppFEV 1 changes was observed (p<0.0001). Thus, sweat chloride level changes in response to potentiation of the CFTR protein by ivacaftor appear to be a predictive pharmacodynamic biomarker of lung function changes on a population basis but are unsuitable for the prediction of treatment benefits for individuals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Scott M.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Strug, Lisa J.; Knowles, Michael R.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. Objectives: To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. Methods: A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Measurements and Main Results: Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H2 = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0–0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Conclusions: Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker

  2. Distribution of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Mutations in a Cohort of Patients Residing in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Siryani, Issa; Jama, Mohamed; Rumman, Nisreen; Marzouqa, Hiyam; Kannan, Moein; Lyon, Elaine; Hindiyeh, Musa

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited life-threatening disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs and the digestive system. In Palestine, mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator gene (CFTR) that contributes to the clinical presentation of CF are ill defined. A cohort of thirty three clinically diagnosed CF patients from twenty one different Palestinian families residing in the central and southern part of Palestine were incorporated in this study. Sweat chloride testing was performed using the Sweat Chek Conductivity Analyzer (ELITECH Group, France) to confirm the clinical diagnosis of CF. In addition, nucleic acid from the patients' blood samples was extracted and the CFTR mutation profiles were assessed by direct sequencing of the CFTR 27 exons and the intron-exon boundaries. For patient's DNA samples where no homozygous or two heterozygous CFTR mutations were identified by exon sequencing, DNA samples were tested for deletions or duplications using SALSA MLPA probemix P091-D1 CFTR assay. Sweat chloride testing confirmed the clinical diagnosis of CF in those patients. All patients had NaCl conductivity >60 mmol/l. In addition, nine different CFTR mutations were identified in all 21 different families evaluated. These mutations were c.1393-1G>A, F508del, W1282X, G85E, c.313delA, N1303K, deletion exons 17a-17b-18, deletion exons 17a-17b and Q1100P. c.1393-1G>A was shown to be the most frequent occurring mutation among tested families. We have profiled the underling mutations in the CFTR gene of a cohort of 21 different families affected by CF. Unlike other studies from the Arab countries where F508del was reported to be the most common mutation, in southern/central Palestine, the c.1393-1G>A appeared to be the most common. Further studies are needed per sample size and geographic distribution to account for other possible CFTR genetic alterations and their frequencies. Genotype/phenotype assessments are also

  3. A small-molecule modulator interacts directly with deltaPhe508-CFTR to modify its ATPase activity and conformational stability.

    PubMed

    Wellhauser, Leigh; Kim Chiaw, Patrick; Pasyk, Stan; Li, Canhui; Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Bear, Christine E

    2009-06-01

    The deletion of Phe-508 (DeltaPhe508) constitutes the most prevalent of a number of mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) that cause cystic fibrosis (CF). This mutation leads to CFTR misfolding and retention in the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as impaired channel activity. The biosynthetic defect can be partially overcome by small-molecule "correctors"; once at the cell surface, small-molecule "potentiators" enhance the channel activity of DeltaPhe508-CFTR. Certain compounds, such as VRT-532, exhibit both corrector and potentiator functions. In the current studies, we confirmed that the inherent chloride channel activity of DeltaPhe508-CFTR (after biosynthetic rescue) is potentiated in studies of intact cells and membrane vesicles. It is noteworthy that we showed that the ATPase activity of the purified and reconstituted mutant protein is directly modulated by binding of VRT-532 [4-methyl-2-(5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol] ATP turnover by reconstituted DeltaPhe508-CFTR is decreased by VRT-532 treatment, an effect that may account for the increase in channel open time induced by this compound. To determine whether the modification of DeltaPhe508-CFTR function caused by direct VRT-532 binding is associated with structural changes, we evaluated the effect of VRT-532 binding on the protease susceptibility of the major mutant. We found that binding of VRT-532 to DeltaPhe508-CFTR led to a minor but significant decrease in the trypsin susceptibility of the full-length mutant protein and a fragment encompassing the second half of the protein. These findings suggest that direct binding of this small molecule induces and/or stabilizes a structure that promotes the channel open state and may underlie its efficacy as a corrector of DeltaPhe508-CFTR.

  4. S737F is a new CFTR mutation typical of patients originally from the Tuscany region in Italy.

    PubMed

    Terlizzi, Vito; Di Lullo, Antonella Miriam; Comegna, Marika; Centrone, Claudia; Pelo, Elisabetta; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Raia, Valeria; Braggion, Cesare

    2018-01-03

    An increasing number of patients have been described as having a number of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) variants for which it lacks a clear genotype-phenotype correlation. We assesses the clinical features of patients bearing the S737F (p.Ser737Phe) CFTR missense variant and evaluated the residual function of CFTR protein on nasal epithelial cells (NEC). A retrospective database was performed from individuals homozygous or compound heterozygous for the S737F variant followed in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Centre of Florence. We performed a nasal brushing in cooperating patients and compared the results with those of patients followed in the pediatric CF Centre of Naples. 9/295 (3%) subjects carrying at least S737F CFTR variant on one allele were identified. Patients were diagnosed in 7/9 cases by newborn screening and in two cases for dehydration with hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis; at diagnosis sweat chloride levels (SCL) were in the pathological range in only one case. After a mean follow up of 8,6 years (range 0,5-15,8), SCL were in the pathological range in 8/9 cases (mean age at CF diagnosis: 1,5 years), all patients were pancreatic sufficiency and respiratory function was normal. The gating activity on NEC was 15.6% and 12.7% in two patients compound heterozygous for W1282X and DelE22_24, while it was ranged between 6,2% and 9,8% in CF patients. S737F is a CFTR mutation associated to hypochloremic alkalosis in childhood, mild CF phenotype in teenage years and a residual function of CFTR protein.

  5. Probing Conformational Rescue Induced by a Chemical Corrector of F508del-Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Mutant*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wilson; Chiaw, Patrick Kim; Bear, Christine E.

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that cause loss of function of the CFTR channel on the apical surface of epithelial cells. The major CF-causing mutation, F508del-CFTR, is misfolded, retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, and degraded. Small molecule corrector compounds have been identified using high throughput screens, which partially rescue the trafficking defect of F508del-CFTR, allowing a fraction of the mutant protein to escape endoplasmic reticulum retention and traffic to the plasma membrane, where it exhibits partial function as a cAMP-regulated chloride channel. A subset of such corrector compounds binds directly to the mutant protein, prompting the hypothesis that they rescue the biosynthetic defect by inducing improved protein conformation. We tested this hypothesis directly by evaluating the consequences of a corrector compound on the conformation of each nucleotide binding domain (NBD) in the context of the full-length mutant protein in limited proteolytic digest studies. Interestingly, we found that VRT-325 was capable of partially restoring compactness in NBD1. However, VRT-325 had no detectable effect on the conformation of the second half of the molecule. In comparison, ablation of the di-arginine sequence, R553XR555 (F508del-KXK-CFTR), modified protease susceptibility of NBD1, NBD2, and the full-length protein. Singly, each intervention led to a partial correction of the processing defect. Together, these interventions restored processing of F508del-CFTR to near wild type. Importantly, however, a defect in NBD1 conformation persisted, as did a defect in channel activation after the combined interventions. Importantly, this defect in channel activation can be fully corrected by the addition of the potentiator, VX-770. PMID:21602569

  6. The ABC protein turned chloride channel whose failure causes cystic fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadsby, David C.; Vergani, Paola; Csanády, László

    2006-03-01

    CFTR chloride channels are encoded by the gene mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis. These channels belong to the superfamily of ABC transporter ATPases. ATP-driven conformational changes, which in other ABC proteins fuel uphill substrate transport across cellular membranes, in CFTR open and close a gate to allow transmembrane flow of anions down their electrochemical gradient. New structural and biochemical information from prokaryotic ABC proteins and functional information from CFTR channels has led to a unifying mechanism explaining those ATP-driven conformational changes.

  7. How to measure CFTR-dependent bicarbonate transport: from single channels to the intact epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hug, Martin J; Clarke, Lane L; Gray, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Bicarbonate serves many functions in our body. It is the predominant buffer maintaining a physiological pH in the blood and within our cells. It is also essential for proper digestion of nutrients and solubilization of complex protein mixtures, such as digestive enzymes and mucins, in epithelial secretions. Transepithelial HCO3- transport also drives net fluid secretion in many epithelial tissues including those in the gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts as well as the airways. Indeed, defective bicarbonate secretion is a hallmark of the pathophysiology in the pancreas of most patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Some, but not all, disease-causing mutations in the CF gene lead to impaired bicarbonate transport when expressed in heterologous systems. Recently developed pharmacological modulators of mutant CFTR have demonstrated an ability to activate chloride transport but little is known about whether they also increase the secretion of bicarbonate. It is therefore essential to assay bicarbonate transport when studying the effect of small molecules on CFTR function. However, due to the chaotropic nature of the ion, the measurement of the absolute bicarbonate concentration and its permeability through CFTR is far from trivial. In this chapter we will review some of the techniques available to measure bicarbonate transport through single ion channels, individual cells, and intact epithelial layers.

  8. CFTR-France, a national relational patient database for sharing genetic and phenotypic data associated with rare CFTR variants.

    PubMed

    Claustres, Mireille; Thèze, Corinne; des Georges, Marie; Baux, David; Girodon, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Thierry; Audrezet, Marie-Pierre; Dugueperoux, Ingrid; Férec, Claude; Lalau, Guy; Pagin, Adrien; Kitzis, Alain; Thoreau, Vincent; Gaston, Véronique; Bieth, Eric; Malinge, Marie-Claire; Reboul, Marie-Pierre; Fergelot, Patricia; Lemonnier, Lydie; Mekki, Chadia; Fanen, Pascale; Bergougnoux, Anne; Sasorith, Souphatta; Raynal, Caroline; Bareil, Corinne

    2017-10-01

    Most of the 2,000 variants identified in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator) gene are rare or private. Their interpretation is hampered by the lack of available data and resources, making patient care and genetic counseling challenging. We developed a patient-based database dedicated to the annotations of rare CFTR variants in the context of their cis- and trans-allelic combinations. Based on almost 30 years of experience of CFTR testing, CFTR-France (https://cftr.iurc.montp.inserm.fr/cftr) currently compiles 16,819 variant records from 4,615 individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) or CFTR-RD (related disorders), fetuses with ultrasound bowel anomalies, newborns awaiting clinical diagnosis, and asymptomatic compound heterozygotes. For each of the 736 different variants reported in the database, patient characteristics and genetic information (other variations in cis or in trans) have been thoroughly checked by a dedicated curator. Combining updated clinical, epidemiological, in silico, or in vitro functional data helps to the interpretation of unclassified and the reassessment of misclassified variants. This comprehensive CFTR database is now an invaluable tool for diagnostic laboratories gathering information on rare variants, especially in the context of genetic counseling, prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. CFTR-France is thus highly complementary to the international database CFTR2 focused so far on the most common CF-causing alleles. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 5'-adenosine monophosphate mediated cooling treatment enhances ΔF508-Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) stability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueqiang; O'Brien, William G; Zhao, Zhaoyang; Lee, Cheng Chi

    2015-09-04

    Gene mutations that produce misprocessed proteins are linked to many human disorders. Interestingly, some misprocessed proteins retained their biological function when stabilized by low temperature treatment of cultured cells in vitro. Here we investigate whether low temperature treatment in vivo can rescue misfolded proteins by applying 5'-AMP mediated whole body cooling to a Cystic Fibrosis (CF) mouse model carrying a mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) with a deletion of the phenylalanine residue in position 508 (ΔF508-CFTR). Low temperature treatment of cultured cells was previously shown to be able to alleviate the processing defect of ΔF508-CFTR, enhancing its plasma membrane localization and its function in mediating chloride ion transport. Here, we report that whole body cooling enhanced the retention of ΔF508-CFTR in intestinal epithelial cells. Functional analysis based on β-adrenergic dependent salivary secretion and post-natal mortality rate revealed a moderate but significant improvement in treated compared with untreated CF mice. Our findings demonstrate that temperature sensitive processing of mutant proteins can be responsive to low temperature treatment in vivo.

  10. Revisiting sweat chloride test results based on recent guidelines for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pagaduan, Jayson V; Ali, Mahesheema; Dowlin, Michael; Suo, Liye; Ward, Tabitha; Ruiz, Fadel; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2018-03-01

    Recent sweat chloride guidelines published by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation changed the intermediate sweat chloride concentration range from 40-59 mmol/L to 30-59 mmol/L for age > 6 months. We wanted to know how this new guideline would impact detection of cystic fibrosis among patients who previously had sweat tests done at Texas Children's Hospital. We revisited sweat chloride test results (n = 3012) in the last 5 years at Texas Children's Hospital based on the new guidelines on diagnosis of cystic fibrosis from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. We identified 125 patients that would be reclassified in the intermediate sweat chloride value with the new guidelines that were classified as "unlikely to have CF" in the previous guidelines. 8 (32%) patients with CFTR gene testing were positive for CFTR gene mutation(s). 4 (50%) of these patients were identified to have 2 CFTR mutations. One had variant combination that was reported to cause CF but all were diagnosed with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome. Our findings concur with the new CF diagnosis guidelines that changing the intermediate cut-off to 30-59 mmol/L sweat chloride concentration in combination with CFTR genetic analysis enhances the probability of identifying individuals that have risk of developing CF or have CF and enables for earlier therapeutic intervention.

  11. Microparticle-mediated transfer of the viral receptors CAR and CD46, and the CFTR channel in a CHO cell model confers new functions to target cells.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Gaëlle; Vituret, Cyrielle; Di Pietro, Attilio; Chanson, Marc; Boulanger, Pierre; Hong, Saw-See

    2012-01-01

    Cell microparticles (MPs) released in the extracellular milieu can embark plasma membrane and intracellular components which are specific of their cellular origin, and transfer them to target cells. The MP-mediated, cell-to-cell transfer of three human membrane glycoproteins of different degrees of complexity was investigated in the present study, using a CHO cell model system. We first tested the delivery of CAR and CD46, two monospanins which act as adenovirus receptors, to target CHO cells. CHO cells lack CAR and CD46, high affinity receptors for human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV5), and serotype 35 (HAdV35), respectively. We found that MPs derived from CHO cells (MP-donor cells) constitutively expressing CAR (MP-CAR) or CD46 (MP-CD46) were able to transfer CAR and CD46 to target CHO cells, and conferred selective permissiveness to HAdV5 and HAdV35. In addition, target CHO cells incubated with MP-CD46 acquired the CD46-associated function in complement regulation. We also explored the MP-mediated delivery of a dodecaspanin membrane glycoprotein, the CFTR to target CHO cells. CFTR functions as a chloride channel in human cells and is implicated in the genetic disease cystic fibrosis. Target CHO cells incubated with MPs produced by CHO cells constitutively expressing GFP-tagged CFTR (MP-GFP-CFTR) were found to gain a new cellular function, the chloride channel activity associated to CFTR. Time-course analysis of the appearance of GFP-CFTR in target cells suggested that MPs could achieve the delivery of CFTR to target cells via two mechanisms: the transfer of mature, membrane-inserted CFTR glycoprotein, and the transfer of CFTR-encoding mRNA. These results confirmed that cell-derived MPs represent a new class of promising therapeutic vehicles for the delivery of bioactive macromolecules, proteins or mRNAs, the latter exerting the desired therapeutic effect in target cells via de novo synthesis of their encoded proteins.

  12. In Vivo Readout of CFTR Function: Ratiometric Measurement of CFTR-Dependent Secretion by Individual, Identifiable Human Sweat Glands

    PubMed Central

    Wine, Jeffrey J.; Char, Jessica E.; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E.; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Tran, Kim V.; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H.

    2013-01-01

    To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (∼50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ∼0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with ‘CFTR-related’ conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics. PMID:24204751

  13. Changes of CFTR functional measurements and clinical improvements in cystic fibrosis patients with non p.Gly551Asp gating mutations treated with ivacaftor.

    PubMed

    Mesbahi, Myriam; Shteinberg, Michal; Wilschanski, Michael; Hatton, Aurelie; Nguyen-Khoa, Thao; Friedman, Hannah; Cohen, Michael; Escabasse, Virginie; Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Lucidi, Vicenzina; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Bassinet, Laurence; Livnat, Galit

    2017-01-01

    Ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, has been found to improve CFTR function and clinical outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) gating mutations. We investigated the effects of ivacaftor on CFTR functional measurement in CF patients carrying gating mutations other than p.Gly551Asp. Two siblings aged 13 and 12 carrying the p.Ser549Asn mutation, two sisters (45 and 43years old) compound heterozygotes for p.Asp1152His and p.Gly1244Glu, a 37year old man homozygous for the p.Gly1244Glu mutation, and a 7year old girl with p.Arg352Gln and p.Gly1244Glu mutations commenced treatment with ivacaftor. NPD was performed in all the patients and approached normal for four patients who had also clinical improvement (p.Ser549Asn compound heterozygotes, and p.Asp1152His/p.Gly1244Glu siblings). Beta-adrenergic sweat chloride secretion performed in thep.Asp1152His/p.Gly1244Glu patients improved significantly. The p.Gly1244Glu mutation homozygous patient, who had undergone an ileal resection with ileostomy and enterocutaneous fistula, did not respond clinically to ivacaftor and did not modify his sweat test. These results highlight the importance of different CFTR activity measurements to explore CFTR modulator efficacy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Tezacaftor/Ivacaftor in Subjects with Cystic Fibrosis and F508del/F508del-CFTR or F508del/G551D-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Scott H; Pilewski, Joseph M; Griese, Matthias; Cooke, Jon; Viswanathan, Lakshmi; Tullis, Elizabeth; Davies, Jane C; Lekstrom-Himes, Julie A; Wang, Linda T

    2018-01-15

    Tezacaftor (formerly VX-661) is an investigational small molecule that improves processing and trafficking of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in vitro, and improves CFTR function alone and in combination with ivacaftor. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of tezacaftor monotherapy and of tezacaftor/ivacaftor combination therapy in subjects with cystic fibrosis homozygous for F508del or compound heterozygous for F508del and G551D. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter, phase 2 study (NCT01531673). Subjects homozygous for F508del received tezacaftor (10 to 150 mg) every day alone or in combination with ivacaftor (150 mg every 12 h) in a dose escalation phase, as well as in a dosage regimen testing phase. Subjects compound heterozygous for F508del and G551D, taking physician-prescribed ivacaftor, received tezacaftor (100 mg every day). Primary endpoints were safety through Day 56 and change in sweat chloride from baseline through Day 28. Secondary endpoints included change in percent predicted FEV 1 (ppFEV 1 ) from baseline through Day 28 and pharmacokinetics. The incidence of adverse events was similar across treatment arms. Tezacaftor (100 mg every day)/ivacaftor (150 mg every 12 h) resulted in a 6.04 mmol/L decrease in sweat chloride and 3.75 percentage point increase in ppFEV 1 in subjects homozygous for F508del, and a 7.02 mmol/L decrease in sweat chloride and 4.60 percentage point increase in ppFEV 1 in subjects compound heterozygous for F508del and G551D from baseline through Day 28 (P < 0.05 for all). These results support continued clinical development of tezacaftor (100 mg every day) in combination with ivacaftor (150 mg every 12 h) in subjects with cystic fibrosis. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01531673).

  15. Pharmacokinetics and safety of cavosonstat (N91115) in healthy and cystic fibrosis adults homozygous for F508DEL-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Scott H; Solomon, George M; Zeitlin, Pamela L; Flume, Patrick A; Casey, Alicia; McCoy, Karen; Zemanick, Edith T; Mandagere, Arun; Troha, Janice M; Shoemaker, Steven A; Chmiel, James F; Taylor-Cousar, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    Cavosonstat (N91115), an orally bioavailable inhibitor of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase, promotes cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) maturation and plasma membrane stability, with a mechanism of action complementary to CFTR correctors and potentiators. A Phase I program evaluated pharmacokinetics, drug-drug interactions and safety of cavosonstat in healthy and cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects homozygous for F508del-CFTR. Exploratory outcomes included changes in sweat chloride in CF subjects. Cavosonstat was rapidly absorbed and demonstrated linear and predictable pharmacokinetics. Exposure was unaffected by a high-fat meal or rifampin-mediated effects on drug metabolism and transport. Cavosonstat was well tolerated, with no dose-limiting toxicities or significant safety findings. At the highest dose, significant reductions from baseline in sweat chloride were observed (-4.1mmol/L; P=0.032) at day 28. The favorable safety and clinical profile warrant further study of cavosonstat in CF. ClinicalTrials.gov Numbers: NCT02275936, NCT02013388, NCT02500667. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) allelic variants relate to shifts in faecal microbiota of cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Schippa, Serena; Iebba, Valerio; Santangelo, Floriana; Gagliardi, Antonella; De Biase, Riccardo Valerio; Stamato, Antonella; Bertasi, Serenella; Lucarelli, Marco; Conte, Maria Pia; Quattrucci, Serena

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene variants on the composition of faecal microbiota, in patients affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF). CFTR mutations (F508del is the most common) lead to a decreased secretion of chloride/water, and to mucus sticky secretions, in pancreas, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Intestinal manifestations are underestimated in CF, leading to ileum meconium at birth, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth in adult age. Thirty-six CF patients, fasting and under no-antibiotic treatment, were CFTR genotyped on both alleles. Faecal samples were subjected to molecular microbial profiling through Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis and species-specific PCR. Ecological parameters and multivariate algorithms were employed to find out if CFTR variants could be related to the microbiota structure. Patients were classified by two different criteria: 1) presence/absence of F508del mutation; 2) disease severity in heterozygous and homozygous F508del patients. We found that homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients exhibited an enhanced dysbiotic faecal microbiota composition, even within the CF cohort itself, with higher biodiversity and evenness. We also found, by species-specific PCR, that potentially harmful species (Escherichia coli and Eubacterium biforme) were abundant in homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients, while beneficial species (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium spp., and Eubacterium limosum) were reduced. This is the first report that establishes a link among CFTR variants and shifts in faecal microbiota, opening the way to studies that perceive CF as a 'systemic disease', linking the lung and the gut in a joined axis.

  17. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Allelic Variants Relate to Shifts in Faecal Microbiota of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, Floriana; Gagliardi, Antonella; De Biase, Riccardo Valerio; Stamato, Antonella; Bertasi, Serenella; Lucarelli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In this study we investigated the effects of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene variants on the composition of faecal microbiota, in patients affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF). CFTR mutations (F508del is the most common) lead to a decreased secretion of chloride/water, and to mucus sticky secretions, in pancreas, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Intestinal manifestations are underestimated in CF, leading to ileum meconium at birth, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth in adult age. Methods Thirty-six CF patients, fasting and under no-antibiotic treatment, were CFTR genotyped on both alleles. Faecal samples were subjected to molecular microbial profiling through Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis and species-specific PCR. Ecological parameters and multivariate algorithms were employed to find out if CFTR variants could be related to the microbiota structure. Results Patients were classified by two different criteria: 1) presence/absence of F508del mutation; 2) disease severity in heterozygous and homozygous F508del patients. We found that homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients exhibited an enhanced dysbiotic faecal microbiota composition, even within the CF cohort itself, with higher biodiversity and evenness. We also found, by species-specific PCR, that potentially harmful species (Escherichia coli and Eubacterium biforme) were abundant in homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients, while beneficial species (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium spp., and Eubacterium limosum) were reduced. Conclusions This is the first report that establishes a link among CFTR variants and shifts in faecal microbiota, opening the way to studies that perceive CF as a ‘systemic disease’, linking the lung and the gut in a joined axis. PMID:23613805

  18. Organelle Redox of CF and CFTR-Corrected Airway Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Christian; Illek, Beate; Suh, Jung H.; Remington, S. James; Fischer, Horst; Machen, Terry E.

    2014-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis reduced CFTR function may alter redox properties of airway epithelial cells. Redox-sensitive GFP (roGFP1) and imaging microscopy were used to measure redox potentials of cytosol, ER, mitochondria and cell surface of cystic fibrosis nasal epithelial cells and CFTR-corrected cells. We also measured glutathione and cysteine thiol redox states in cell lysates and apical fluids to provide coverage over a range of redox potentials and environments that might be affected by CFTR. As measured with roGFP1, redox potentials at the cell surface (~ -207 ±8 mV) and in the ER (~ -217 ±1 mV) and rates of regulation of the apical fluid and ER lumen following DTT treatment were similar for CF and CFTR-corrected cells. CF and CFTR-corrected cells had similar redox potentials in mitochondria (-344 ±9 mV) and cytosol (-322 ±7 mV). Oxidation of carboxy-dichlorodihydrofluoresceindiacetate and of apical Amplex Red occurred at equal rates in CF and CFTR-corrected cells. Glutathione and cysteine redox couples in cell lysates and apical fluid were equal in CF and CFTR-corrected cells. These quantitative estimates of organelle redox potentials combined with apical and cell measurements using small molecule couples confirmed there were no differences in redox properties of CF and CFTR-corrected cells. PMID:17603939

  19. A pilot clinical trial of oral sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (Buphenyl) in deltaF508-homozygous cystic fibrosis patients: partial restoration of nasal epithelial CFTR function.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, R C; Zeitlin, P L

    1998-02-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (Buphenyl, 4PBA) is a new FDA approved drug for management of urea cycle disorders. We have previously presented data suggesting that 4PBA, at clinically achievable concentrations, induces CFTR channel function on the plasma membrane of deltaF508-expressing cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelial cells in vitro (Rubenstein, R. C., and P. L. Zeitlin, 1997. J. Clin. Invest. 100:2457-2463). We hypothesized that 4PBA would induce epithelial CFTR function in vivo in individuals homozygous for deltaF508-CFTR. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 18 deltaF508-homozygous patients with CF was performed with the maximum approved adult dose of 4PBA, 19 grams p.o. divided t.i.d., given for 1 wk. Nasal potential difference (NPD) response patterns and sweat chloride concentrations were determined before and after study drug treatment, and 4PBA and metabolites were assayed in plasma and urine at the end of study drug treatment. Subjects in the 4PBA group demonstrated small, but statistically significant improvements of the NPD response to perfusion of an isoproterenol/amiloride/chloride-free solution; this measure reflects epithelial CFTR function and is highly discriminatory between patients with and without CF. Subjects who had received 4PBA did not demonstrate significantly reduced sweat chloride concentrations or alterations in the amiloride-sensitive NPD. Side effects due to drug therapy were minimal and comparable in the two groups. These data are consistent with 4PBA therapy inducing CFTR function in the nasal epithelia of deltaF508-homozygous CF patients.

  20. CFTR allelic heterogeneity in Mexican patients with cystic fibrosis: implications for molecular screening.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Yokoyama, Emiy; Lezana, José Luis; Carnevale, Alessandra; Macías, Miguel; Vigueras, Rosa M; López, Marisol; Orozco, Lorena

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis, the most common autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by defects in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) that encodes a chloride channel. To date, over 1,800 mutations have been described related to the causative gene of CF, showing a variable frequency among populations. In a previous extensive analysis of the CFTR locus in 97 Mexican patients, 34 different mutations (75% of CF alleles) were found using several strategies for mutation screening; however, 63% had at least an uncharacterized allele. Despite the combined technologies used, there are still a great number of unknown mutations in the Mexican population. Screening of the CFTR gene to provide additional evidence of the mutational wide spectrum responsible for CF in Mexican patients. In this study, the number of unrelated CF patients was increased to 230, 133 new cases and the 97 previously reported to include 63% with at least an uncharacterized allele. Additional tools were used to improve the detection rate of CF mutations, such as a commercial kit for 36 mutations plus a single chain conformational polymorphism method and DNA sequencing. By using a combination of these strategies we characterized 77.7% of all the CF alleles, resulting in a total of 46 different mutations detected, including the identification of 12 additional mutations (p.R334W, p.A455E, c.3120+1G > A, c.3272-26A > G, c.711+1G > T, p.Q552X, p.W1282X, c.IVS8-5T, p.R1162X and p.R347P, p.D1152H and p.T1036N). Although these 12 mutations have been reported in other populations, they have not yet been reported in Mexican patients. This report shows that Mexico has one of the widest spectra of CFTR mutations worldwide. The knowledge of the ethnic and geographic distribution of CFTR mutations in this population will allow the development of more effective methods for diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Effect of VX-770 in Persons with Cystic Fibrosis and the G551D-CFTR Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Accurso, Frank J.; Rowe, Steven M.; Clancy, J.P.; Boyle, Michael P.; Dunitz, Jordan M.; Durie, Peter R.; Sagel, Scott D.; Hornick, Douglas B.; Konstan, Michael W.; Donaldson, Scott H.; Moss, Richard B.; Pilewski, Joseph M.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Uluer, Ahmet Z.; Aitken, Moira L.; Freedman, Steven D.; Rose, Lynn M.; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Dong, Qunming; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J.; Olson, Eric R.; Ordoñez, Claudia L.; Campbell, Preston W.; Ashlock, Melissa A.; Ramsey, Bonnie W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND A new approach in the treatment of cystic fibrosis involves improving the function of mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). VX-770, a CFTR potentiator, has been shown to increase the activity of wild-type and defective cell-surface CFTR in vitro. METHODS We randomly assigned 39 adults with cystic fibrosis and at least one G551D-CFTR allele to receive oral VX-770 every 12 hours at a dose of 25, 75, or 150 mg or placebo for 14 days (in part 1 of the study) or VX-770 every 12 hours at a dose of 150 or 250 mg or placebo for 28 days (in part 2 of the study). RESULTS At day 28, in the group of subjects who received 150 mg of VX-770, the median change in the nasal potential difference (in response to the administration of a chloride-free isoproterenol solution) from baseline was −3.5 mV (range, −8.3 to 0.5; P = 0.02 for the within-subject comparison, P = 0.13 vs. placebo), and the median change in the level of sweat chloride was −59.5 mmol per liter (range, −66.0 to −19.0; P = 0.008 within-subject, P = 0.02 vs. placebo). The median change from baseline in the percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 8.7% (range, 2.3 to 31.3; P = 0.008 for the within-subject comparison, P = 0.56 vs. placebo). None of the subjects withdrew from the study. Six severe adverse events occurred in two subjects (diffuse macular rash in one subject and five incidents of elevated blood and urine glucose levels in one subject with diabetes). All severe adverse events resolved without the discontinuation of VX-770. CONCLUSIONS This study to evaluate the safety and adverse-event profile of VX-770 showed that VX-770 was associated with within-subject improvements in CFTR and lung function. These findings provide support for further studies of pharmacologic potentiation of CFTR as a means to treat cystic fibrosis. PMID:21083385

  2. Regulation of activation and processing of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) by a complex electrostatic interaction between the regulatory domain and cytoplasmic loop 3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyu; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2012-11-23

    NEG2 regulates CFTR gating but the mechanism is unknown. A putative NEG2-CL3 electrostatic attraction, possibly weakened by Arg-764/Arg-766 of the R domain, prohibited CFTR activation. A charge exchange between NEG2 and CL3 caused misprocessing. Electrostatic regulation of CFTR activation and processing may be asymmetric at the CL3-R interface. The CL3-R interface is optimally designed for multiple regulations of CFTR functions. NEG2, a short C-terminal segment (817-838) of the unique regulatory (R) domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel, has been reported to regulate CFTR gating in response to cAMP-dependent R domain phosphorylation. The underlying mechanism, however, is unclear. Here, Lys-946 of cytoplasmic loop 3 (CL3) is proposed as counter-ion of Asp-835, Asp-836, or Glu-838 of NEG2 to prevent the channel activation by PKA. Arg-764 or Arg-766 of the Ser-768 phosphorylation site of the R domain is proposed to promote the channel activation possibly by weakening the putative CL3-NEG2 electrostatic attraction. First, not only D835A, D836A, and E838A but also K946A reduced the PKA-dependent CFTR activation. Second, both K946D and D835R/D836R/E838R mutants were activated by ATP and curcumin to a different extent. Third, R764A and R766A mutants enhanced the PKA-dependent activation. However, it is very exciting that D835R/D836R/E838R and K946D/H950D and H950R exhibited normal channel processing and activity whereas D835R/D836R/E838R/K946D/H950D was fractionally misprocessed and silent in response to forskolin. Further, D836R and E838R played a critical role in the asymmetric electrostatic regulation of CFTR processing, and Ser-768 phosphorylation may not be involved. Thus, a complex interfacial interaction among CL3, NEG2, and the Ser-768 phosphorylation site may be responsible for the asymmetric electrostatic regulation of CFTR activation and processing.

  3. A CFTR potentiator in patients with cystic fibrosis and the G551D mutation.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Bonnie W; Davies, Jane; McElvaney, N Gerard; Tullis, Elizabeth; Bell, Scott C; Dřevínek, Pavel; Griese, Matthias; McKone, Edward F; Wainwright, Claire E; Konstan, Michael W; Moss, Richard; Ratjen, Felix; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Rowe, Steven M; Dong, Qunming; Rodriguez, Sally; Yen, Karl; Ordoñez, Claudia; Elborn, J Stuart

    2011-11-03

    Increasing the activity of defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a potential treatment for cystic fibrosis. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate ivacaftor (VX-770), a CFTR potentiator, in subjects 12 years of age or older with cystic fibrosis and at least one G551D-CFTR mutation. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 150 mg of ivacaftor every 12 hours (84 subjects, of whom 83 received at least one dose) or placebo (83, of whom 78 received at least one dose) for 48 weeks. The primary end point was the estimated mean change from baseline through week 24 in the percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)). The change from baseline through week 24 in the percent of predicted FEV(1) was greater by 10.6 percentage points in the ivacaftor group than in the placebo group (P<0.001). Effects on pulmonary function were noted by 2 weeks, and a significant treatment effect was maintained through week 48. Subjects receiving ivacaftor were 55% less likely to have a pulmonary exacerbation than were patients receiving placebo, through week 48 (P<0.001). In addition, through week 48, subjects in the ivacaftor group scored 8.6 points higher than did subjects in the placebo group on the respiratory-symptoms domain of the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-revised instrument (a 100-point scale, with higher numbers indicating a lower effect of symptoms on the patient's quality of life) (P<0.001). By 48 weeks, patients treated with ivacaftor had gained, on average, 2.7 kg more weight than had patients receiving placebo (P<0.001). The change from baseline through week 48 in the concentration of sweat chloride, a measure of CFTR activity, with ivacaftor as compared with placebo was -48.1 mmol per liter (P<0.001). The incidence of adverse events was similar with ivacaftor and placebo, with a lower proportion of serious adverse events with ivacaftor than with placebo (24% vs. 42

  4. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs

    PubMed Central

    Stoltz, David A.; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E.; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Karp, Philip H.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Rector, Michael V.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Alaiwa, Mahmoud H. Abou; Hoegger, Mark J.; Ludwig, Paula S.; Taft, Peter J.; Wallen, Tanner J.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D.; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L.; Adam, Ryan J.; Hornick, Emma E.; Nelson, George A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Chang, Eugene H.; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B.; Prather, Randall S.; Meyerholz, David K.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid–binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR–/–;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies. PMID:23676501

  5. CFTR dysfunction in cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Fernandez, Elena; de Santi, Chiara; De Rose, Virginia; Greene, Catherine M

    2018-05-11

    Obstructive lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are causes of high morbidity and mortality worldwide. CF is a multiorgan genetic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and is characterized by progressive chronic obstructive lung disease. Most cases of COPD are a result of noxious particles, mainly cigarette smoke but also other environmental pollutants. Areas covered: Although the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of CF and COPD differ, they do share key phenotypic features and because of these similarities there is great interest in exploring common mechanisms and/or factors affected by CFTR mutations and environmental insults involved in COPD. Various molecular, cellular and clinical studies have confirmed that CFTR protein dysfunction is common in both the CF and COPD airways. This review provides an update of our understanding of the role of dysfunctional CFTR in both respiratory diseases. Expert Commentary: Drugs developed for people with CF to improve mutant CFTR function and enhance CFTR ion channel activity might also be beneficial in patients with COPD. A move toward personalized therapy using, for example, microRNA modulators in conjunction with CFTR potentiators or correctors, could enhance treatment of both diseases.

  6. Chloride channels in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain, ie, stroke. Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Cl−) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke. At least three Cl− channel genes are expressed in VSMCs: 1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1), which may encode the calcium-activated Cl− channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Cl− channel and Cl−/H+ antiporter, which is closely related to the volume-regulated Cl− channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes the PKA- and PKC-activated Cl− channels. Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs. Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension. In addition, Cl− current mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death. This review focuses on the functional roles of Cl− channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Cl− channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23103617

  7. CFTR Modulators for the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Rebecca S; Fellner, Chris

    2014-07-01

    Defects in a single gene lead to the defective proteins that cause cystic fibrosis, making the disease an ideal candidate for mutation-targeted therapy. Although ivacaftor is currently the only FDA-approved CFTR modifier, others are in development.

  8. Corrector VX-809 stabilizes the first transmembrane domain of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Bartlett, M Claire; Clarke, David M

    2013-09-01

    Processing mutations that inhibit folding and trafficking of CFTR are the main cause of cystic fibrosis (CF). A potential CF therapy would be to repair CFTR processing mutants. It has been demonstrated that processing mutants of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), CFTR's sister protein, can be efficiently repaired by a drug-rescue mechanism. Many arginine suppressors that mimic drug-rescue have been identified in the P-gp transmembrane (TM) domains (TMDs) that rescue by forming hydrogen bonds with residues in adjacent helices to promote packing of the TM segments. To test if CFTR mutants could be repaired by a drug-rescue mechanism, we used truncation mutants to test if corrector VX-809 interacted with the TMDs. VX-809 was selected for study because it is specific for CFTR, it is the most effective corrector identified to date, but it has limited clinical benefit. Identification of the VX-809 target domain will help to develop correctors with improved clinical benefits. It was found that VX-809 rescued truncation mutants lacking the NBD2 and R domains. When the remaining domains (TMD1, NBD1, TMD2) were expressed as separate polypeptides, VX-809 only increased the stability of TMD1. We then performed arginine mutagenesis on TM6 in TMD1. Although the results showed that TM6 had distinct lipid and aqueous faces, CFTR was different from P-gp as no arginine promoted maturation of CFTR processing mutants. The results suggest that TMD1 contains a VX-809 binding site, but its mechanism differed from P-gp drug-rescue. We also report that V510D acts as a universal suppressor to rescue CFTR processing mutants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nasal potential difference: Best or average result for CFTR function as diagnostic criteria for cystic fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Keenan, Katherine; Avolio, Julie; Rueckes-Nilges, Claudia; Tullis, Elizabeth; Gonska, Tanja; Naehrlich, Lutz

    2015-05-01

    The current practice of averaging the nasal potential difference (NPD) results of right and left nostril measurements reduce inter-individual variability but may underestimate individual CFTR function. Best NPD response to Cl(-)-free and isoproterenol perfusion (=largest ΔPD(0Cl/Iso)) from the right and left nostril was compared to the average result in 13 cystic fibrosis (CF), 78 query-CF patients and 22 healthy controls from 2 cohorts. Despite moderate to good correlation (p<0.001) between right and left measured ΔPD(0Cl/Iso), we observed large differences in some individuals. A comparison of average versus best ΔPD(0Cl/Iso) showed only moderate agreement (Giessen κ=0.538; Toronto κ=0.607). Averaging ΔPD(0Cl/Iso) showed a lower composite chloride response compared to best ΔPD(0Cl/Iso) and altered diagnostic NPD interpretation in 30 of 113 (27%) subjects. The current practice of averaging the NPD results of right and left nostril measurements leads to an underestimation of the individual CFTR function and should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cftr gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells mediated by Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR).

    PubMed

    Sangiuolo, Federica; Scaldaferri, Maria Lucia; Filareto, Antonio; Spitalieri, Paola; Guerra, Lorenzo; Favia, Maria; Caroppo, Rosa; Mango, Ruggiero; Bruscia, Emanuela; Gruenert, Dieter C; Casavola, Valeria; De Felici, Massimo; Novelli, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Different gene targeting approaches have been developed to modify endogenous genomic DNA in both human and mouse cells. Briefly, the process involves the targeting of a specific mutation in situ leading to the gene correction and the restoration of a normal gene function. Most of these protocols with therapeutic potential are oligonucleotide based, and rely on endogenous enzymatic pathways. One gene targeting approach, "Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR)", has been found to be effective in modifying genomic DNA. This approach uses small DNA fragments (SDF) to target specific genomic loci and induce sequence and subsequent phenotypic alterations. This study shows that SFHR can stably introduce a 3-bp deletion (deltaF508, the most frequent cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation) into the Cftr (CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) locus in the mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell genome. After transfection of deltaF508-SDF into murine ES cells, SFHR-mediated modification was evaluated at the molecular levels on DNA and mRNA obtained from transfected ES cells. About 12% of transcript corresponding to deleted allele was detected, while 60% of the electroporated cells completely lost any measurable CFTR-dependent chloride efflux. The data indicate that the SFHR technique can be used to effectively target and modify genomic sequences in ES cells. Once the SFHR-modified ES cells differentiate into different cell lineages they can be useful for elucidating tissue-specific gene function and for the development of transplantation-based cellular and therapeutic protocols.

  11. Role of CFTR in oxidative stress and suicidal death of renal cells during cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rubera, I; Duranton, C; Melis, N; Cougnon, M; Mograbi, B; Tauc, M

    2013-01-01

    The clinical use of the antineoplastic drug cisplatin is limited by its deleterious nephrotoxic side effect. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is associated with an increase in oxidative stress, leading ultimately to renal cell death and irreversible kidney dysfunction. Oxidative stress could be modified by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR), a Cl− channel not only involved in chloride secretion but as well in glutathione (GSH) transport. Thus, we tested whether the inhibition of CFTR could protect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Using a renal proximal cell line, we show that the specific inhibitor of CFTR, CFTRinh-172, prevents cisplatin-induced cell death and apoptosis by modulating the intracellular reactive oxygen species balance and the intracellular GSH concentration. This CFTRinh-172-mediated protective effect occurs without affecting cellular cisplatin uptake or the formation of platinum-DNA adducts. The protective effect of CFTRinh-172 in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was also investigated in a rat model. Five days after receiving a single cisplatin injection (5 mg/kg), rats exhibited renal failure, as evidenced by the alteration of biochemical and functional parameters. Pretreatment of rats with CFTRinh-172 (1 mg/kg) prior to cisplatin injection significantly prevented these deleterious cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic effects. Finally, we demonstrate that CFTRinh-172 does not impair cisplatin-induced cell death in the cisplatin-sensitive A549 cancer cell line. In conclusion, the use of a specific inhibitor of CFTR may represent a novel therapeutic approach in the prevention of nephrotoxic side effects during cisplatin treatment without affecting its antitumor efficacy. PMID:24091660

  12. Cysteamine re-establishes the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by macrophages bearing the cystic fibrosis-relevant F508del-CFTR mutation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Eleonora; Monzani, Romina; Villella, Valeria R; Esposito, Speranza; Saluzzo, Francesca; Rossin, Federica; D'Eletto, Manuela; Tosco, Antonella; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Izzo, Valentina; Maiuri, Maria C; Kroemer, Guido; Raia, Valeria; Maiuri, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal monogenic disease in Caucasians, is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and colonization, mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, resulting in unresolved airway inflammation. CF is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, which functions as a chloride channel in epithelial cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Impaired bacterial handling by macrophages is a feature of CF airways, although it is still debated how defective CFTR impairs bacterial killing. Recent evidence indicates that a defective autophagy in CF macrophages leads to alterations of bacterial clearance upon infection. Here we use bone marrow-derived macrophages from transgenic mice to provide the genetic proof that defective CFTR compromises both uptake and clearance of internalized Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We demonstrate that the proteostasis regulator cysteamine, which rescues the function of the most common F508del-CFTR mutant and hence reduces lung inflammation in CF patients, can also repair the defects of CF macrophages, thus restoring both bacterial internalization and clearance through a process that involves upregulation of the pro-autophagic protein Beclin 1 and re-establishment of the autophagic pathway. Altogether these results indicate that cysteamine restores the function of several distinct cell types, including that of macrophages, which might contribute to its beneficial effects on CF. PMID:28079883

  13. Cysteamine re-establishes the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by macrophages bearing the cystic fibrosis-relevant F508del-CFTR mutation.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Eleonora; Monzani, Romina; Villella, Valeria R; Esposito, Speranza; Saluzzo, Francesca; Rossin, Federica; D'Eletto, Manuela; Tosco, Antonella; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Izzo, Valentina; Maiuri, Maria C; Kroemer, Guido; Raia, Valeria; Maiuri, Luigi

    2017-01-12

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal monogenic disease in Caucasians, is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and colonization, mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, resulting in unresolved airway inflammation. CF is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, which functions as a chloride channel in epithelial cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Impaired bacterial handling by macrophages is a feature of CF airways, although it is still debated how defective CFTR impairs bacterial killing. Recent evidence indicates that a defective autophagy in CF macrophages leads to alterations of bacterial clearance upon infection. Here we use bone marrow-derived macrophages from transgenic mice to provide the genetic proof that defective CFTR compromises both uptake and clearance of internalized Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We demonstrate that the proteostasis regulator cysteamine, which rescues the function of the most common F508del-CFTR mutant and hence reduces lung inflammation in CF patients, can also repair the defects of CF macrophages, thus restoring both bacterial internalization and clearance through a process that involves upregulation of the pro-autophagic protein Beclin 1 and re-establishment of the autophagic pathway. Altogether these results indicate that cysteamine restores the function of several distinct cell types, including that of macrophages, which might contribute to its beneficial effects on CF.

  14. Activation of AMPK Inhibits Cholera Toxin Stimulated Chloride Secretion in Human and Murine Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Nadia; Collins, Danielle; Collaco, Anne; Baird, Alan W.; Winter, Desmond C.; Ameen, Nadia; Geibel, John P.; Kopic, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Increased intestinal chloride secretion through chloride channels, such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), is one of the major molecular mechanisms underlying enterotoxigenic diarrhea. It has been demonstrated in the past that the intracellular energy sensing kinase, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), can inhibit CFTR opening. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMPK can abrogate the increased chloride flux through CFTR occurring during cholera toxin (CTX) mediated diarrhea. Chloride efflux was measured in isolated rat colonic crypts using real-time fluorescence imaging. AICAR and metformin were used to activate AMPK in the presence of the secretagogues CTX or forskolin (FSK). In order to substantiate our findings on the whole tissue level, short-circuit current (SCC) was monitored in human and murine colonic mucosa using Ussing chambers. Furthermore, fluid accumulation was measured in excised intestinal loops. CTX and forskolin (FSK) significantly increased chloride efflux in isolated colonic crypts. The increase in chloride efflux could be offset by using the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin. In human and mouse mucosal sheets, CTX and FSK increased SCC. AICAR and metformin inhibited the secretagogue induced rise in SCC, thereby confirming the findings made in isolated crypts. Moreover, AICAR decreased CTX stimulated fluid accumulation in excised intestinal segments. The present study suggests that pharmacological activation of AMPK effectively reduces CTX mediated increases in intestinal chloride secretion, which is a key factor for intestinal water accumulation. AMPK activators may therefore represent a supplemental treatment strategy for acute diarrheal illness. PMID:23935921

  15. CFTR is required for maximal transepithelial liquid transport in pig alveolar epithelia.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaopeng; Comellas, Alejandro P; Karp, Philip H; Ernst, Sarah E; Moninger, Thomas O; Gansemer, Nicholas D; Taft, Peter J; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Rector, Michael V; Rossen, Nathan; Stoltz, David A; McCray, Paul B; Welsh, Michael J; Zabner, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    A balance between alveolar liquid absorption and secretion is critical for maintaining optimal alveolar subphase liquid height and facilitating gas exchange in the alveolar space. However, the role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR) in this homeostatic process has remained elusive. Using a newly developed porcine model of cystic fibrosis, in which CFTR is absent, we investigated ion transport properties and alveolar liquid transport in isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells (T2AECs) cultured at the air-liquid interface. CFTR was distributed exclusively to the apical surface of cultured T2AECs. Alveolar epithelia from CFTR(-/-) pigs failed to increase liquid absorption in response to agents that increase cAMP, whereas cAMP-stimulated liquid absorption in CFTR(+/-) epithelia was similar to that in CFTR(+/+) epithelia. Expression of recombinant CFTR restored stimulated liquid absorption in CFTR(-/-) T2AECs but had no effect on CFTR(+/+) epithelia. In ex vivo studies of nonperfused lungs, stimulated liquid absorption was defective in CFTR(-/-) alveolar epithelia but similar between CFTR(+/+) and CFTR(+/-) epithelia. When epithelia were studied at the air-liquid interface, elevating cAMP levels increased subphase liquid height in CFTR(+/+) but not in CFTR(-/-) T2AECs. Our findings demonstrate that CFTR is required for maximal liquid absorption under cAMP stimulation, but it is not the rate-limiting factor. Furthermore, our data define a role for CFTR in liquid secretion by T2AECs. These insights may help to develop new treatment strategies for pulmonary edema and respiratory distress syndrome, diseases in which lung liquid transport is disrupted.

  16. An immortal cell line to study the role of endogenous CFTR in electrolyte absorption.

    PubMed

    Bell, C L; Quinton, P M

    1995-01-01

    The intact human reabsorptive sweat duct (RD) has been a reliable model for investigations of the functional role of "endogenous" CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) in normal and abnormal electrolyte absorptive function. But to overcome the limitations imposed by the use of fresh, intact tissue, we transformed cultured RD cells using the chimeric virus Ad5/SV40 1613 ori-. The resultant cell line, RD2(NL), has remained differentiated forming a polarized epithelium that expressed two fundamental components of absorption, a cAMP activated Cl- conductance (GCl) and an amiloride-sensitive Na+ conductance (GNa). In the unstimulated state, there was a low level of transport activity; however, addition of forskolin (10(-5) M) significantly increased the Cl- diffusion potential (Vt) generated by a luminally directed Cl- gradient from -15.3 +/- 0.7 mV to -23.9 +/- 1.1 mV, n = 39; and decreased the transepithelial resistance (Rt) from 814.8 +/- 56.3 omega.cm2 to 750.5 +/- 47.5 omega.cm2, n = 39, (n = number of cultures). cAMP activation, anion selectivity (Cl- > I- > gluconate), and a dependence upon metabolic energy (metabolic poisoning inhibited GCl), all indicate that the GCl expressed in RD2(NL) is in fact CFTR-GCl. The presence of an apical amiloride-sensitive GNa was shown by the amiloride (10(-5) M) inhibition of GNa as indicated by a reduction of Vt and equivalent short circuit current by 78.0 +/- 3.1% and 77.9 +/- 2.6%, respectively, and an increase in Rt by 7.2 +/- 0.8%, n = 36. In conclusion, the RD2(NL) cell line presents the first model system in which CFTR-GCl is expressed in a purely absorptive tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. It is...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. It is...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. It is...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. It is...

  1. CFTR Modulators: Shedding Light on Precision Medicine for Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-threatening monogenic disease afflicting Caucasian people. It affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal, glandular and reproductive systems. The major cause of morbidity and mortality in CF is the respiratory disorder caused by a vicious cycle of obstruction of the airways, inflammation and infection that leads to epithelial damage, tissue remodeling and end-stage lung disease. Over the past decades, life expectancy of CF patients has increased due to early diagnosis and improved treatments; however, these patients still present limited quality of life. Many attempts have been made to rescue CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) expression, function and stability, thereby overcoming the molecular basis of CF. Gene and protein variances caused by CFTR mutants lead to different CF phenotypes, which then require different treatments to quell the patients’ debilitating symptoms. In order to seek better approaches to treat CF patients and maximize therapeutic effects, CFTR mutants have been stratified into six groups (although several of these mutations present pleiotropic defects). The research with CFTR modulators (read-through agents, correctors, potentiators, stabilizers and amplifiers) has achieved remarkable progress, and these drugs are translating into pharmaceuticals and personalized treatments for CF patients. This review summarizes the main molecular and clinical features of CF, emphasizes the latest clinical trials using CFTR modulators, sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying these new and emerging treatments, and discusses the major breakthroughs and challenges to treating all CF patients. PMID:27656143

  2. Fatty Acid Cysteamine Conjugates as Novel and Potent Autophagy Activators That Enhance the Correction of Misfolded F508del-Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR).

    PubMed

    Vu, Chi B; Bridges, Robert J; Pena-Rasgado, Cecilia; Lacerda, Antonio E; Bordwell, Curtis; Sewell, Abby; Nichols, Andrew J; Chandran, Sachin; Lonkar, Pallavi; Picarella, Dominic; Ting, Amal; Wensley, Allison; Yeager, Maisy; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-12

    A depressed autophagy has previously been reported in cystic fibrosis patients with the common F508del-CFTR mutation. This report describes the synthesis and preliminary biological characterization of a novel series of autophagy activators involving fatty acid cysteamine conjugates. These molecular entities were synthesized by first covalently linking cysteamine to docosahexaenoic acid. The resulting conjugate 1 synergistically activated autophagy in primary homozygous F508del-CFTR human bronchial epithelial (hBE) cells at submicromolar concentrations. When conjugate 1 was used in combination with the corrector lumacaftor and the potentiator ivacaftor, it showed an additive effect, as measured by the increase in the chloride current in a functional assay. In order to obtain a more stable form for oral dosing, the sulfhydryl group in conjugate 1 was converted into a functionalized disulfide moiety. The resulting conjugate 5 is orally bioavailable in the mouse, rat, and dog and allows a sustained delivery of the biologically active conjugate 1.

  3. Assessing the residual CFTR gene expression in human nasal epithelium cells bearing CFTR splicing mutations causing cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Masvidal, Laia; Igreja, Susana; Ramos, Maria D; Alvarez, Antoni; de Gracia, Javier; Ramalho, Anabela; Amaral, Margarida D; Larriba, Sara; Casals, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the present study was to quantify correctly spliced CFTR transcripts in human nasal epithelial cells from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients carrying the splicing mutations c.580-1G>T (712-1G>T) and c.2657+5G>A (2789+5G>A) and to assess the applicability of this model in CFTR therapeutic approaches. We performed the relative quantification of CFTR mRNA by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of these splicing mutations in four groups (wild type, CF-F508del controls, CF patients and CF carriers) of individuals. In addition, in vitro assays using minigene constructs were performed to evaluate the effect of a new CF complex allele c.[2657+5G>A; 2562T>G]. Ex vivo qPCR data show that the primary consequence of both mutations at the RNA level is the skipping of their neighboring exon (6 and 16, respectively). The CFTR minigenes results mimicked the ex vivo data, as exon 16 skipping is the main aberrant transcript, and the correctly spliced transcript level was observed in a similar proportion when the c.2657+5G>A mutation is present. In summary, we provide evidence that ex vivo quantitative transcripts analysis using RT/qPCR is a robust technology that could be useful for measuring the efficacy of therapeutic approaches that attempt to achieve an increase in CFTR gene expression. PMID:24129438

  4. Next generation diagnostics of cystic fibrosis and CFTR-related disorders by targeted multiplex high-coverage resequencing of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Trujillano, D; Ramos, M D; González, J; Tornador, C; Sotillo, F; Escaramis, G; Ossowski, S; Armengol, L; Casals, T; Estivill, X

    2013-07-01

    Here we have developed a novel and much more efficient strategy for the complete molecular characterisation of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene, based on multiplexed targeted resequencing. We have tested this approach in a cohort of 92 samples with previously characterised CFTR mutations and polymorphisms. After enrichment of the pooled barcoded DNA libraries with a custom NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Choice array (Roche) and sequencing with a HiSeq2000 (Illumina) sequencer, we applied several bioinformatics tools to call mutations and polymorphisms in CFTR. The combination of several bioinformatics tools allowed us to detect all known pathogenic variants (point mutations, short insertions/deletions, and large genomic rearrangements) and polymorphisms (including the poly-T and poly-thymidine-guanine polymorphic tracts) in the 92 samples. In addition, we report the precise characterisation of the breakpoints of seven genomic rearrangements in CFTR, including those of a novel deletion of exon 22 and a complex 85 kb inversion which includes two large deletions affecting exons 4-8 and 12-21, respectively. This work is a proof-of-principle that targeted resequencing is an accurate and cost-effective approach for the genetic testing of CF and CFTR-related disorders (ie, male infertility) amenable to the routine clinical practice, and ready to substitute classical molecular methods in medical genetics.

  5. CFTR, Mucins, and Mucus Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kreda, Silvia M.; Davis, C. William; Rose, Mary Callaghan

    2012-01-01

    Mucus pathology in cystic fibrosis (CF) has been known for as long as the disease has been recognized and is sometimes called mucoviscidosis. The disease is marked by mucus hyperproduction and plugging in many organs, which are usually most fatal in the airways of CF patients, once the problem of meconium ileus at birth is resolved. After the CF gene, CFTR, was cloned and its protein product identified as a cAMP-regulated Cl− channel, causal mechanisms underlying the strong mucus phenotype of the disease became obscure. Here we focus on mucin genes and polymeric mucin glycoproteins, examining their regulation and potential relationships to a dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Detailed examination of CFTR expression in organs and different cell types indicates that changes in CFTR expression do not always correlate with the severity of CF disease or mucus accumulation. Thus, the mucus hyperproduction that typifies CF does not appear to be a direct cause of a defective CFTR but, rather, to be a downstream consequence. In organs like the lung, up-regulation of mucin gene expression by inflammation results from chronic infection; however, in other instances and organs, the inflammation may have a non-infectious origin. The mucus plugging phenotype of the β-subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel (βENaC)-overexpressing mouse is proving to be an archetypal example of this kind of inflammation, with a dehydrated airway surface/concentrated mucus gel apparently providing the inflammatory stimulus. Data indicate that the luminal HCO3 − deficiency recently described for CF epithelia may also provide such a stimulus, perhaps by causing a mal-maturation of mucins as they are released onto luminal surfaces. In any event, the path between CFTR dysfunction and mucus hyperproduction has proven tortuous, and its unraveling continues to offer its own twists and turns, along with fascinating glimpses into biology. PMID:22951447

  6. EG-VEGF, BV8, and their receptor expression in human bronchi and their modification in cystic fibrosis: Impact of CFTR mutation (delF508).

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Sylvain; Traboulsi, Wael; Thevenon, Laura; Kouadri, Amal; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Camara, Boubou; Alfaidy, Nadia; Benharouga, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Enhanced lung angiogenesis has been reported in cystic fibrosis (CF). Recently, two highly homologous ligands, endocrine gland vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) and mammalian Bv8, have been described as new angiogenic factors. Both ligands bind and activate two closely related G protein-coupled receptors, the prokineticin receptor (PROKR) 1 and 2. Yet, the expression, regulation, and potential role of EG-VEGF, BV8, and their receptors in normal and CF lung are still unknown. The expression of the receptors and their ligands was examined using molecular, biochemical, and immunocytochemistry analyses in lungs obtained from CF patients vs. control and in normal and CF bronchial epithelial cells. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity was evaluated in relation to both ligands, and concentrations of EG-VEGF were measured by ELISA. At the mRNA level, EG-VEGF, BV8, and PROKR2 gene expression was, respectively, approximately five, four, and two times higher in CF lungs compared with the controls. At the cellular level, both the ligands and their receptors showed elevated expressions in the CF condition. Similar results were observed at the protein level. The EG-VEGF secretion was apical and was approximately two times higher in CF compared with the normal epithelial cells. This secretion was increased following the inhibition of CFTR chloride channel activity. More importantly, EG-VEGF and BV8 increased the intracellular concentration of Ca(2+) and cAMP and stimulated CFTR-chloride channel activity. Altogether, these data suggest local roles for epithelial BV8 and EG-VEGF in the CF airway peribronchial vascular remodeling and highlighted the role of CFTR activity in both ligand biosynthesis and secretion. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. ∆F508 CFTR interactome remodelling promotes rescue of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pankow, Sandra; Bamberger, Casimir; Calzolari, Diego; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Balch, William E; Yates, John R

    2015-12-24

    Deletion of phenylalanine 508 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (∆F508 CFTR) is the major cause of cystic fibrosis, one of the most common inherited childhood diseases. The mutated CFTR anion channel is not fully glycosylated and shows minimal activity in bronchial epithelial cells of patients with cystic fibrosis. Low temperature or inhibition of histone deacetylases can partly rescue ∆F508 CFTR cellular processing defects and function. A favourable change of ∆F508 CFTR protein-protein interactions was proposed as a mechanism of rescue; however, CFTR interactome dynamics during temperature shift and inhibition of histone deacetylases are unknown. Here we report the first comprehensive analysis of the CFTR and ∆F508 CFTR interactome and its dynamics during temperature shift and inhibition of histone deacetylases. By using a novel deep proteomic analysis method, we identify 638 individual high-confidence CFTR interactors and discover a ∆F508 deletion-specific interactome, which is extensively remodelled upon rescue. Detailed analysis of the interactome remodelling identifies key novel interactors, whose loss promote ∆F508 CFTR channel function in primary cystic fibrosis epithelia or which are critical for CFTR biogenesis. Our results demonstrate that global remodelling of ∆F508 CFTR interactions is crucial for rescue, and provide comprehensive insight into the molecular disease mechanisms of cystic fibrosis caused by deletion of F508.

  8. Mechanosensitive activation of CFTR by increased cell volume and hydrostatic pressure but not shear stress.

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, Constanze; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a Cl(-) channel that is essential for electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. Preliminary evidence indicates that CFTR is a mechanosensitive channel. In lung epithelia, CFTR is exposed to different mechanical forces such as shear stress (Ss) and membrane distention. The present study questioned whether Ss and/or stretch influence CFTR activity (wild type, ∆F508, G551D). Human CFTR (hCFTR) was heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the response to the mechanical stimulus and forskolin/IBMX (FI) was measured by two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments. Ss had no influence on hCFTR activity. Injection of an intracellular analogous solution to increase cell volume alone did not affect hCFTR activity. However, hCFTR activity was augmented by injection after pre-stimulation with FI. The response to injection was similar in channels carrying the common mutations ∆F508 and G551D compared to wild type hCFTR. Stretch-induced CFTR activation was further assessed in Ussing chamber measurements using Xenopus lung preparations. Under control conditions increased hydrostatic pressure (HP) decreased the measured ion current including activation of a Cl(-) secretion that was unmasked by the CFTR inhibitor GlyH-101. These data demonstrate activation of CFTR in vitro and in a native pulmonary epithelium in response to mechanical stress. Mechanosensitive regulation of CFTR is highly relevant for pulmonary physiology that relies on ion transport processes facilitated by pulmonary epithelial cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulatory domain phosphorylation to distinguish the mechanistic basis underlying acute CFTR modulators

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Louise C.; Ehrhardt, Annette; Mitchell, Lisa High; Fan, LiJuan; Ren, Aixia; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.; Li, Yao; Clancy, J. P.; Bolger, Graeme B.; Sorscher, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Modulator compounds intended to overcome disease-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) show significant promise in clinical testing for cystic fibrosis. However, the mechanism(s) of action underlying these compounds are not fully understood. Activation of CFTR ion transport requires PKA-regulated phosphorylation of the regulatory domain (R-D) and dimerization of the nucleotide binding domains. Using a newly developed assay, we evaluated nine compounds including both CFTR potentatiators and activators discovered via various high-throughput screening strategies to acutely augment CFTR activity. We found considerable differences in the effects on R-D phosphorylation. Some (including UCCF-152) stimulated robust phosphorylation, and others had little effect (e.g., VRT-532 and VX-770). We then compared CFTR activation by UCCF-152 and VRT-532 in Ussing chamber studies using two epithelial models, CFBE41o− and Fischer rat thyroid cells, expressing various CFTR forms. UCCF-152 activated wild-type-, G551D-, and rescued F508del-CFTR currents but did not potentiate cAMP-mediated CFTR activation. In contrast, VRT-532 moderately activated CFTR short-circuit current and strongly potentiated forskolin-mediated current. Combined with the result that UCCF-152, but not VRT-532 or VX-770, acts by increasing CFTR R-D phosphorylation, these findings indicate that potentiation of endogenous cAMP-mediated activation of mutant CFTR is not due to a pathway involving augmented R-D phosphorylation. This study presents an assay useful to distinguish preclinical compounds by a crucial mechanism underlying CFTR activation, delineates two types of compound able to acutely augment CFTR activity (e.g., activators and potentiators), and demonstrates that a number of different mechanisms can be successfully employed to activate mutant CFTR. PMID:21724857

  10. Thermodynamic study of the native and phosphorylated regulatory domain of the CFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Marasini, Carlotta, E-mail: marasini@ge.ibf.cnr.it; Galeno, Lauretta; Moran, Oscar

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFTR mutations produce cystic fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloride transport depends on the regulatory domain phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regulatory domain is intrinsically disordered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary structure and protein stability change upon phosphorylation. -- Abstract: The regulatory domain (RD) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the defective protein in cystic fibrosis, is the region of the channel that regulates the CFTR activity with multiple phosphorylation sites. This domain is an intrinsically disordered protein, characterized by lack of stable or unique tertiary structure. The disordered character of a protein is directly correlated with its function. The flexibility of RD may bemore » important for its regulatory role: the continuous conformational change may be necessary for the progressive phosphorylation, and thus activation, of the channel. However, the lack of a defined and stable structure results in a considerable limitation when trying to in build a unique molecular model for the RD. Moreover, several evidences indicate significant structural differences between the native, non-phosphorylated state, and the multiple phosphorylated state of the protein. The aim of our work is to provide data to describe the conformations and the thermodynamic properties in these two functional states of RD. We have done the circular dichroism (CD) spectra in samples with a different degree of phosphorylation, from the non-phosphorylated state to a bona fide completely phosphorylated state. Analysis of CD spectra showed that the random coil and {beta}-sheets secondary structure decreased with the polypeptide phosphorylation, at expenses of an increase of {alpha}-helix. This observation lead to interpret phosphorylation as a mechanism favoring a more structured state. We also studied the thermal denaturation curves of the protein in the

  11. Novel short chain fatty acids restore chloride secretion in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Toan D.; Kim, Ug-Sung; Perrine, Susan P.

    2006-03-31

    Phenylalanine deletion at position 508 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ({delta}F508-CFTR), the most common mutation in cystic fibrosis (CF), causes a misfolded protein exhibiting partial chloride conductance and impaired trafficking to the plasma membrane. 4-Phenylbutyrate corrects defective {delta}F508-CFTR trafficking in vitro, but is not clinically efficacious. From a panel of short chain fatty acid derivatives, we showed that 2,2-dimethyl-butyrate (ST20) and {alpha}-methylhydrocinnamic acid (ST7), exhibiting high oral bioavailability and sustained plasma levels, correct the {delta}F508-CFTR defect. Pre-incubation ({>=}6 h) of CF IB3-1 airway cells with {>=}1 mM ST7 or ST20 restored the ability of 100 {mu}M forskolin tomore » stimulate an {sup 125}I{sup -} efflux. This efflux was fully inhibited by NPPB, DPC, or glibenclamide, suggesting mediation through CFTR. Partial inhibition by DIDS suggests possible contribution from an additional Cl{sup -} channel regulated by CFTR. Thus, ST7 and ST20 offer treatment potential for CF caused by the {delta}F508 mutation.« less

  12. Structural effects of extracellular loop mutations in CFTR helical hairpins.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Heng; Stone, Tracy A; Chin, Stephanie; Glibowicka, Mira; Bear, Christine E; Deber, Charles M

    2018-05-01

    Missense mutations constitute 40% of 2000 cystic fibrosis-phenotypic mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) database, yet the precise mechanism as to how a point mutation can render the entire 1480-residue CFTR protein dysfunctional is not well-understood. Here we investigate the structural effects of two CF-phenotypic mutations - glutamic acid to glycine at position 217 (E217G) and glutamine to arginine at position 220 (Q220R) - in the extracellular (ECL2) loop region of human CFTR using helical hairpin constructs derived from transmembrane (TM) helices 3 and 4 of the first membrane domain. We systematically replaced the wild type (WT) residues E217 and Q220 with the subset of missense mutations that could arise through a single nucleotide change in their respective codons. Circular dichroism spectra of E217G revealed that a significant increase in helicity vs. WT arises in the membrane-mimetic environment of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelles, while this mutant showed a similar gel shift to WT on SDS-PAGE gels. In contrast, the CF-mutant Q220R showed similar helicity but an increased gel shift vs. WT. These structural variations are compared with the maturation levels of the corresponding mutant full-length CFTRs, which we found are reduced to approx. 50% for E217G and 30% for Q220R vs. WT. The overall results with CFTR hairpins illustrate the range of impacts that single mutations can evoke in intramolecular protein-protein and/or protein-lipid interactions - and the levels to which corresponding mutations in full-length CFTR may be flagged by quality control mechanisms during biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CFTR expression and organ damage in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tizzano, E.; Chitayat, D.; Buchwald, M.

    1994-09-01

    To assist our understanding of the origin of organ damage caused by cystic fibrosis (CF) disease, we have analyzed the pattern of expression of the CF gene (CFTR). mRNA in situ hybridization analysis was carried out in human fetal, newborn, infant and adult tissues and the abundance of the mRNA was correlated with the known pathology at the various stages of human development. Analysis of the pattern of expression indicates a constitutive level of mRNA in gastrointestinal tissues starting during early development and maintained throughout life. Prenatal respiratory tissues show qualitative and quantitative major differences in comparison to postnatal lungmore » samples. Male reproductive tissues show high levels of expression in the head of the epididymis compared with the rest of the male ducts. Female reproductive tissues show a variable pattern of expression at different stages during fetal development and during puberty probably due to changes in hormonal levels. Gastrointestinal and male reproductive tissues have a consistent pathology at birth, whereas no lung abnormalities have been described in newborns affected by CF. Our results show that there is no exact correlations between organ damage present at birth and the degree of CFTR expression. To explain these observations, we hypothesize that the pathogenesis of organ damage in CF depend on at least three factors: the rate of CFTR-mediated fluid secretion, differences in genotype and environmental factors, such as the amount of macromolecules in the lumen of the ducts. This last element predicts that damage will occur in tissues with high protein loads and low flow rates (e.g. pancreas, epididymis), where the absence of CFTR function leads to obstruction and pathology. Organs that express CFTR but with no significant damage (e.g. prenatal lung, female reproductive tissues), will have a low protein load and a high flow rates.« less

  14. Vinyl Chloride

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about vinyl chloride, which can raise the risk of a rare form of liver cancer, as well as brain and lung cancers, and leukemia and lymphoma. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make PVC, a substance used in products such as pipes.

  15. The psychoactive substance of cannabis Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) negatively regulates CFTR in airway cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sheng-Wei; Wellmerling, Jack; Zhang, Xiaoli; Rayner, Rachael E; Osman, Wissam; Mertz, Sara; Amer, Amal O; Peeples, Mark E; Boyaka, Prosper N; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle

    2018-06-18

    Marijuana consumption is on the rise in the US but the health benefits of cannabis smoking are controversial and the impact of cannabis components on lung homeostasis is not well-understood. Lung function requires a fine regulation of the ion channel CFTR, which is responsible for fluid homeostasis and mucocilliary clearance. The goal of this study was to assess the effect that exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive substance present in marijuana, has on CFTR expression and function. Cultures of human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE14o- and primary human airway epithelial cells were exposed to THC. The expression of CFTR protein was determined by immunoblotting and CFTR function was measured using Ussing chambers. We also used specific pharmacological inhibitors of EGFR and ERK to determine the role of this pathway in THC-induced regulation of CFTR. THC decreased CFTR protein expression in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. This decrease was associated with reduced CFTR-mediated short-circuit currents. THC also induced activation of the ERK MAPK pathway via activation of EGFR. Inhibition of EGFR or MEK/ERK prevented THC-induced down regulation of CFTR protein expression. THC negatively regulates CFTR and this is mediated through the EGFR/ERK axis. This study provides the first evidence that THC present in marijuana reduces the expression and function of CFTR in airway epithelial cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A novel fluorescent sensor for measurement of CFTR function by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Vijftigschild, Lodewijk A W; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2013-06-01

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause cystic fibrosis. CFTR-dependent iodide transport measured by fluorescent quenching of ectopically expressed halide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) is widely being used to study CFTR function by microscopy or plate readers. Since YFP fluorescence in these systems is dependent on YFP expression levels and iodide concentration, differences in sensor expression level between experimental units are normalized at the start of each experiment. To allow accurate measurement of CFTR function by flow cytometry, we reasoned that co-expression of an iodide insensitive fluorescent protein would allow for normalization of sensor expression levels and more accurate quantification of CFTR function. Our data indicated that dsRed and mKate fluorescence are iodide insensitive, and we determined an optimal format for co-expression of these fluorescent proteins with halide-sensitive YFP. We showed using microscopy that ratiometric measurement (YFP/mKate) corrects for differences in sensor expression levels. Ratiometric measurements were essential to accurately measure CFTR function by flow cytometry that we here describe for the first time. Mixing of wild type or mutant CFTR expressing cells indicated that addition of approximately 10% of wild type CFTR expressing cells could be distinguished by ratiometric YFP quenching. Flow cytometric ratiometric YFP quenching also allowed us to study CFTR mutants associated with differential residual function upon ectopic expression. Compared with conventional plate-bound CFTR function assays, the flow cytometric approach described here can be used to study CFTR function in suspension cells. It may be further adapted to study CFTR function in heterologous cell populations using cell surface markers and selection of cells that display high CFTR function by cell sorting. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  17. Optimization of hCFTR Lung Expression in Mice Using DNA Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Padegimas, Linas; Kowalczyk, Tomasz H; Adams, Sam; Gedeon, Chris R; Oette, Sharon M; Dines, Karla; Hyatt, Susannah L; Sesenoglu-Laird, Ozge; Tyr, Olena; Moen, Robert C; Cooper, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Efficient and prolonged human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (hCFTR) expression is a major goal for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung therapy. A hCFTR expression plasmid was optimized as a payload for compacted DNA nanoparticles formulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-substituted 30-mer lysine peptides. A codon-optimized and CpG-reduced hCFTR synthetic gene (CO-CFTR) was placed in a polyubiquitin C expression plasmid. Compared to hCFTR complementary DNA (cDNA), CO-CFTR produced a ninefold increased level of hCFTR protein in transfected HEK293 cells and, when compacted as DNA nanoparticles, produced a similar improvement in lung mRNA expression in Balb/c and fatty acid binding protein promoter (FABP) CF mice, although expression duration was transient. Various vector modifications were tested to extend duration of CO-CFTR expression. A novel prolonged expression (PE) element derived from the bovine growth hormone (BGH) gene 3′ flanking sequence produced prolonged expression of CO-CFTR mRNA at biologically relevant levels. A time course study in the mouse lung revealed that CO-CFTR mRNA did not change significantly, with CO-CFTR/mCFTR geometric mean ratios of 94% on day 2, 71% on day 14, 53% on day 30, and 14% on day 59. Prolonged CO-CFTR expression is dependent on the orientation of the PE element and its transcription, is not specific to the UbC promoter, and is less dependent on other vector backbone elements. PMID:21952168

  18. NHERF1 and CFTR restore tight junction organisation and function in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells: role of ezrin and the RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Stefano; Guerra, Lorenzo; Favia, Maria; Di Gioia, Sante; Casavola, Valeria; Conese, Massimo

    2012-11-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) restrict the transit of ions and molecules through the paracellular route and act as a barrier to regulate access of inflammatory cells into the airway lumen. The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by abnormal ion and fluid transport across the epithelium and polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte-dominated inflammatory response. Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) is a protein involved in PKA-dependent activation of CFTR by interacting with CFTR via its PDZ domains and with ezrin via its C-terminal domain. We have previously found that the NHERF1-overexpression dependent rescue CFTR-dependent chloride secretion is due to the re-organisation of the actin cytoskeleton network induced by the formation of the multiprotein complex NHERF1-RhoA-ezrin-actin. In this context, we here studied whether NHERF1 and CFTR are involved in the organisation and function of TJs. F508del CFBE41o⁻ monolayers presented nuclear localisation of zonula occludens (ZO-1) and occludin as well as disorganisation of claudin 1 and junction-associated adhesion molecule 1 as compared with wild-type 16HBE14o⁻ monolayers, paralleled by increased permeability to dextrans and PMN transmigration. Overexpression of either NHERF1 or CFTR in CFBE41o⁻ cells rescued TJ proteins to their proper intercellular location and decreased permeability and PMN transmigration, while this effect was not achieved by overexpressing either NHERF1 deprived of ezrin-binding domain. Further, expression of a phospho-dead ezrin mutant, T567A, increased permeability in both 16HBE14o⁻ cells and in a CFBE clone stably overexpressing NHERF1 (CFBE/sNHERF1), whereas a constitutively active form of ezrin, T567D, achieved the opposite effect in CFBE41o⁻ cells. A dominant-negative form of RhoA (RhoA-N19) also disrupted ZO-1 localisation at the intercellular contacts dislodging it to the nucleus and increased permeability in CFBE/sNHERF1. The inhibitor Y27632 of

  19. Carbachol-induced MUC17 endocytosis is concomitant with NHE3 internalization and CFTR membrane recruitment in enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Pelaseyed, Thaher; Gustafsson, Jenny K; Gustafsson, Ida J; Ermund, Anna; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2013-08-15

    We have reported that transmembrane mucin MUC17 binds PDZ protein PDZK1, which retains MUC17 apically in enterocytes. MUC17 and transmembrane mucins MUC3 and MUC12 are suggested to build the enterocyte apical glycocalyx. Carbachol (CCh) stimulation of the small intestine results in gel-forming mucin secretion from goblet cells, something that requires adjacent enterocytes to secrete chloride and bicarbonate for proper mucin formation. Surface labeling and confocal imaging demonstrated that apically expressed MUC17 in Caco-2 cells and Muc3(17) in murine enterocytes were endocytosed upon stimulation with CCh. Relocation of MUC17 in response to CCh was specific as MUC3 and MUC12 did not relocate following CCh stimulation. MUC17 colocalized with PDZK1 under basal conditions, while MUC17 relocated to the terminal web and into early endosomes after CCh stimulation. CCh stimulation concomitantly internalized the Na(+/)H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) and recruited cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to the apical membranes, a process that was important for CFTR-mediated bicarbonate secretion necessary for proper gel-forming mucin unfolding. The reason for the specific internalization of MUC17 is not understood, but it could limit the diffusion barrier for ion secretion caused by the apical enterocyte glycocalyx or alternatively act to sample luminal bacteria. Our results reveal well-orchestrated mucus secretion and trafficking of ion channels and the MUC17 mucin.

  20. Two Salt Bridges Differentially Contribute to the Maintenance of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Channel Function*

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guiying; Freeman, Cody S.; Knotts, Taylor; Prince, Chengyu Z.; Kuang, Christopher; McCarty, Nael A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified two salt bridges in human CFTR chloride ion channels, Arg352-Asp993 and Arg347-Asp924, that are required for normal channel function. In the present study, we determined how the two salt bridges cooperate to maintain the open pore architecture of CFTR. Our data suggest that Arg347 not only interacts with Asp924 but also interacts with Asp993. The tripartite interaction Arg347-Asp924-Asp993 mainly contributes to maintaining a stable s2 open subconductance state. The Arg352-Asp993 salt bridge, in contrast, is involved in stabilizing both the s2 and full (f) open conductance states, with the main contribution being to the f state. The s1 subconductance state does not require either salt bridge. In confirmation of the role of Arg352 and Asp993, channels bearing cysteines at these sites could be latched into a full open state using the bifunctional cross-linker 1,2-ethanediyl bismethanethiosulfonate, but only when applied in the open state. Channels remained latched open even after washout of ATP. The results suggest that these interacting residues contribute differently to stabilizing the open pore in different phases of the gating cycle. PMID:23709221

  1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator VX-770 (ivacaftor) opens the defective channel gate of mutant CFTR in a phosphorylation-dependent but ATP-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Eckford, Paul D W; Li, Canhui; Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Bear, Christine E

    2012-10-26

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) acts as a channel on the apical membrane of epithelia. Disease-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis gene can lead to CFTR protein misfolding as in the case of the F508del mutation and/or channel dysfunction. Recently, a small molecule, VX-770 (ivacaftor), has shown efficacy in restoring lung function in patients bearing the G551D mutation, and this has been linked to repair of its channel gating defect. However, these studies did not reveal the mechanism of action of VX-770 in detail. Normally, CFTR channel activity is regulated by phosphorylation, ATP binding, and hydrolysis. Hence, it has been hypothesized that VX-770 modifies one or more of these metabolic events. In this study, we examined VX-770 activity using a reconstitution system for purified CFTR protein, a system that enables control of known regulatory factors. We studied the consequences of VX-770 interaction with CFTR incorporated in planar lipid bilayers and in proteoliposomes, using a novel flux-based assay. We found that purified and phosphorylated CFTR was potentiated in the presence of Mg-ATP, suggesting that VX-770 bound directly to the CFTR protein, rather than associated kinases or phosphatases. Interestingly, we also found that VX-770 enhanced the channel activity of purified and mutant CFTR in the nominal absence of Mg-ATP. These findings suggest that VX-770 can cause CFTR channel opening through a nonconventional ATP-independent mechanism. This work sets the stage for future studies of the structural properties that mediate CFTR gating using VX-770 as a probe.

  2. Assessment of Correlation between Sweat Chloride Levels and Clinical Features of Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Raina, Manzoor A; Khan, Mosin S; Malik, Showkat A; Raina, Ab Hameed; Makhdoomi, Mudassir J; Bhat, Javed I; Mudassar, Syed

    2016-12-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder and the incidence of this disease is undermined in Northern India. The distinguishable salty character of the sweat belonging to individuals suffering from CF makes sweat chloride estimation essential for diagnosis of CF disease. The aim of this prospective study was to elucidate the relationship of sweat chloride levels with clinical features and pattern of CF. A total of 182 patients, with clinical features of CF were included in this study for quantitative measurement of sweat chloride. Sweat stimulation and collection involved pilocarpine iontophoresis based on the Gibson and Cooks methodology. The quantitative estimation of chloride was done by Schales and Schales method with some modifications. Cystic Fibrosis Trans Membrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutation status was recorded in case of patients with borderline sweat chloride levels to correlate the results and for follow-up. Out of 182 patients having clinical features consistent with CF, borderline and elevated sweat chloride levels were present in 9 (5%) and 41 (22.5%) subjects respectively. Elevated sweat chloride levels were significantly associated with wheeze, Failure To Thrive (FTT), history of CF in Siblings, product of Consanguineous Marriage (CM), digital clubbing and steatorrhoea on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis only wheeze, FTT and steatorrhoea were found to be significantly associated with elevated sweat chloride levels (p<0.05). Among the nine borderline cases six cases were positive for at least two CFTR mutations and rest of the three cases were not having any mutation in CFTR gene. The diagnosis is often delayed and the disease is advanced in most patients at the time of diagnosis. Sweat testing is a gold standard for diagnosis of CF patients as genetic mutation profile being heterozygous and unlikely to become diagnostic test.

  3. Chloride transport in functionally active phagosomes isolated from Human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Martha L; Painter, Richard G; Zhou, Yun; Wang, Guoshun

    2012-12-15

    Chloride anion is critical for hypochlorous acid (HOCl) production and microbial killing in neutrophil phagosomes. However, the molecular mechanism by which this anion is transported to the organelle is poorly understood. In this report, membrane-enclosed and functionally active phagosomes were isolated from human neutrophils by using opsonized paramagnetic latex microspheres and a rapid magnetic separation method. The phagosomes recovered were highly enriched for specific protein markers associated with this organelle such as lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin, and NADPH oxidase. When FITC-dextran was included in the phagocytosis medium, the majority of the isolated phagosomes retained the fluorescent label after isolation, indicative of intact membrane structure. Flow cytometric measurement of acridine orange, a fluorescent pH indicator, in the purified phagosomes demonstrated that the organelle in its isolated state was capable of transporting protons to the phagosomal lumen via the vacuolar-type ATPase proton pump (V-ATPase). When NADPH was supplied, the isolated phagosomes constitutively oxidized dihydrorhodamine 123, indicating their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. The preparations also showed a robust production of HOCl within the phagosomal lumen when assayed with the HOCl-specific fluorescent probe R19-S by flow cytometry. MPO-mediated iodination of the proteins covalently conjugated to the phagocytosed beads was quantitatively measured. Phagosomal uptake of iodide and protein iodination were significantly blocked by chloride channel inhibitors, including CFTRinh-172 and NPPB. Further experiments determined that the V-ATPase-driving proton flux into the isolated phagosomes required chloride cotransport, and the cAMP-activated CFTR chloride channel was a major contributor to the chloride transport. Taken together, the data suggest that the phagosomal preparation described herein retains ion transport properties

  4. Chloride transport in functionally active phagosomes isolated from Human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Martha L.; Painter, Richard G.; Zhou, Yun; Wang, Guoshun

    2012-01-01

    Chloride anion is critical for hypochlorous acid (HOCl) production and microbial killing in neutrophil phagosomes. However, the molecular mechanism by which this anion is transported to the organelle is poorly understood. In this report, membrane-enclosed and functionally active phagosomes were isolated from human neutrophils by using opsonized paramagnetic latex microspheres and a rapid magnetic separation method. The phagosomes recovered were highly enriched for specific protein markers associated with this organelle such as lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin, and NADPH oxidase. When FITC–dextran was included in the phagocytosis medium, the majority of the isolated phagosomes retained the fluorescent label after isolation, indicative of intact membrane structure. Flow cytometric measurement of acridine orange, a fluorescent pH indicator, in the purified phagosomes demonstrated that the organelle in its isolated state was capable of transporting protons to the phagosomal lumen via the vacuolar-type ATPase proton pump (V-ATPase). When NADPH was supplied, the isolated phagosomes constitutively oxidized dihydrorhodamine 123, indicating their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. The preparations also showed a robust production of HOCl within the phagosomal lumen when assayed with the HOCl-specific fluorescent probe R19-S by flow cytometry. MPO-mediated iodination of the proteins covalently conjugated to the phagocytosed beads was quantitatively measured. Phagosomal uptake of iodide and protein iodination were significantly blocked by chloride channel inhibitors, including CFTRinh-172 and NPPB. Further experiments determined that the V-ATPase-driving proton flux into the isolated phagosomes required chloride cotransport, and the cAMP-activated CFTR chloride channel was a major contributor to the chloride transport. Taken together, the data suggest that the phagosomal preparation described herein retains ion transport

  5. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5900 Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR...

  6. Induction of HSP70 promotes DeltaF508 CFTR trafficking.

    PubMed

    Choo-Kang, L R; Zeitlin, P L

    2001-07-01

    The DeltaF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a temperature-sensitive trafficking mutant that is detected as an immature 160-kDa form (band B) in gel electrophoresis. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that HSP70, a member of the 70-kDa heat shock protein family, promotes DeltaF508 CFTR processing to the mature 180-kDa form (band C). Both pharmacological and genetic techniques were used to induce HSP70. IB3-1 cells were treated with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) to promote maturation of DeltaF508 CFTR to band C. A dose-dependent increase in band C and total cellular HSP70 was observed. Under these conditions, HSP70-CFTR complexes were increased and 70-kDa heat shock cognate protein-CFTR complexes were decreased. Increased DeltaF508 CFTR maturation was also seen after transfection with an HSP70 expression plasmid and exposure to glutamine, an inducer of HSP70. With immunofluorescence techniques, the increased appearance of CFTR band C correlated with CFTR distribution beyond the perinuclear regions. These data suggest that induction of HSP70 promotes DeltaF508 CFTR maturation and trafficking.

  7. Detection of CFTR function and modulation in primary human nasal cell spheroids.

    PubMed

    Brewington, John J; Filbrandt, Erin T; LaRosa, F J; Ostmann, Alicia J; Strecker, Lauren M; Szczesniak, Rhonda D; Clancy, John P

    2018-01-01

    Expansion of CFTR modulators to patients with rare/undescribed mutations will be facilitated by patient-derived models quantifying CFTR function and restoration. We aimed to generate a personalized model system of CFTR function and modulation using non-surgically obtained nasal epithelial cells (NECs). NECs obtained by curettage from healthy volunteers and CF patients were expanded and grown in 3-dimensional culture as spheroids, characterized, and stimulated with cAMP-inducing agents to activate CFTR. Spheroid swelling was quantified as a proxy for CFTR function. NEC spheroids recapitulated characteristics of pseudostratified respiratory epithelia. When stimulated with forskolin/IBMX, spheroids swelled in the presence of functional CFTR, and shrank in its absence. Spheroid swelling quantified mutant CFTR restoration in F508del homozygous cells using clinically available CFTR modulators. NEC spheroids hold promise for understanding rare CFTR mutations and personalized modulator testing to drive evaluation for CF patients with common, rare or undescribed mutations. Portions of this data have previously been presented in abstract form at the 2016 meetings of the American Thoracic Society and the 2016 North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CFTR gene mutations in isolated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pignatti, P.F.; Bombien, C.; Marigo, C.

    1994-09-01

    In order to identify a possible hereditary predisposition to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we have looked for the presence of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene DNA sequence modifications in 28 unrelated patients with no signs of cystic fibrosis. The known mutations in Italian CF patients, as well as the most frequent worldwide CF mutations, were investigated. In addition, a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of about half of the coding sequence of the gene in 56 chromosomes from the patients and in 102 chromosomes from control individuals affected by other pulmonary diseases and from normalmore » controls was performed. Nine different CFTR gene mutations and polymorphisms were found in seven patients, a highly significant increase over controls. Two of the patients were compound heterozygotes. Two frequent CF mutations were detected: deletion F508 and R117H; two rare CF mutations: R1066C and 3667ins4; and five CF sequence variants: R75Q (which was also described as a disease-causing mutation in male sterility cases due to the absence of the vasa deferentia), G576A, 2736 A{r_arrow}G, L997F, and 3271+18C{r_arrow}T. Seven (78%) of the mutations are localized in transmembrane domains. Six (86%) of the patients with defined mutations and polymorphisms had bronchiectasis. These results indicate that CFTR gene mutations and sequence alterations may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of some cases of COPD.« less

  9. CFTR mediates noradrenaline-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2011-09-24

    In our earlier study, noradrenaline (NA) stimulated ATP release from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons as mediated via β(3) adrenoceptors linked to G(s) protein involving protein kinase A (PKA) activation, to cause allodynia. The present study was conducted to understand how ATP is released from DRG neurons. In an outside-out patch-clamp configuration from acutely dissociated rat DRG neurons, single-channel currents, sensitive to the P2X receptor inhibitor PPADS, were evoked by approaching the patch-electrode tip close to a neuron, indicating that ATP is released from DRG neurons, to activate P2X receptor. NA increased the frequency of the single-channel events, but such NA effect was not found for DRG neurons transfected with the siRNA to silence the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. In the immunocytochemical study using acutely dissociated rat DRG cells, CFTR was expressed in neurons alone, but not satellite cells, fibroblasts, or Schwann cells. It is concluded from these results that CFTR mediates NA-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons as an ATP channel.

  10. cGMP inhibition of type 3 phosphodiesterase is the major mechanism by which C-type natriuretic peptide activates CFTR in the shark rectal gland

    PubMed Central

    De Jonge, Hugo R.; Tilly, Ben C.; Hogema, Boris M.; Pfau, Daniel J.; Kelley, Catherine A.; Kelley, Megan H.; Melita, August M.; Morris, Montana T.; Viola, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro perfused rectal gland of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and filter-grown monolayers of primary cultures of shark rectal gland (SRG) epithelial cells were used to analyze the signal transduction pathway by which C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) stimulates chloride secretion. CNP binds to natriuretic receptors in the basolateral membrane, elevates cellular cGMP, and opens cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels in the apical membrane. CNP-provoked chloride secretion was completely inhibitable by the nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine and the PKA inhibitor H89 but insensitive to H8, an inhibitor of type I and II isoforms of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKI and cGKII). CNP-induced secretion could not be mimicked by nonhydrolyzable cGMP analogs added alone or in combination with the protein kinase C activator phorbolester, arguing against a role for cGK or for cGMP-induced PKC signaling. We failed to detect a dogfish ortholog of cGKII by molecular cloning and affinity chromatography. However, inhibitors of the cGMP-inhibitable isoform of phosphodiesterase (PDE3) including milrinone, amrinone, and cilostamide but not inhibitors of other PDE isoenzymes mimicked the effect of CNP on chloride secretion in perfused glands and monolayers. CNP raised cGMP and cAMP levels in the SRG epithelial cells. This rise in cAMP as well as the CNP and amrinone-provoked chloride secretion, but not the rise in cGMP, was almost completely blocked by the Gαi-coupled adenylyl cyclase inhibitor somatostatin, arguing against a role for cGMP cross-activation of PKA in CNP action. These data provide molecular, functional, and pharmacological evidence for a CNP/cGMP/PDE3/cAMP/PKA signaling cascade coupled to CFTR in the SRG. PMID:24259420

  11. Investigating CFTR and KCa3.1 Protein/Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Nguyen Thu Ngan; Luo, Yishan; Wiseman, Paul W.; Hanrahan, John W.; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Sauvé, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    In epithelia, Cl- channels play a prominent role in fluid and electrolyte transport. Of particular importance is the cAMP-dependent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) with mutations of the CFTR encoding gene causing cystic fibrosis. The bulk transepithelial transport of Cl- ions and electrolytes needs however to be coupled to an increase in K+ conductance in order to recycle K+ and maintain an electrical driving force for anion exit across the apical membrane. In several epithelia, this K+ efflux is ensured by K+ channels, including KCa3.1, which is expressed at both the apical and basolateral membranes. We show here for the first time that CFTR and KCa3.1 can physically interact. We first performed a two-hybrid screen to identify which KCa3.1 cytosolic domains might mediate an interaction with CFTR. Our results showed that both the N-terminal fragment M1-M40 of KCa3.1 and part of the KCa3.1 calmodulin binding domain (residues L345-A400) interact with the NBD2 segment (G1237-Y1420) and C- region of CFTR (residues T1387-L1480), respectively. An association of CFTR and F508del-CFTR with KCa3.1 was further confirmed in co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrating the formation of immunoprecipitable CFTR/KCa3.1 complexes in CFBE cells. Co-expression of KCa3.1 and CFTR in HEK cells did not impact CFTR expression at the cell surface, and KCa3.1 trafficking appeared independent of CFTR stimulation. Finally, evidence is presented through cross-correlation spectroscopy measurements that KCa3.1 and CFTR colocalize at the plasma membrane and that KCa3.1 channels tend to aggregate consequent to an enhanced interaction with CFTR channels at the plasma membrane following an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Altogether, these results suggest 1) that the physical interaction KCa3.1/CFTR can occur early during the biogenesis of both proteins and 2) that KCa3.1 and CFTR form a dynamic complex, the formation of which depends on

  12. Robust Stimulation of W1282X-CFTR Channel Activity by a Combination of Allosteric Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Hong, Jeong S.; Rab, Andras; Sorscher, Eric J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    W1282X is a common nonsense mutation among cystic fibrosis patients that results in the production of a truncated Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) channel. Here we show that the channel activity of the W1282X-CFTR polypeptide is exceptionally low in excised membrane patches at normally saturating doses of ATP and PKA (single channel open probability (PO) < 0.01). However, W1282X-CFTR channels were stimulated by two CFTR modulators, the FDA-approved VX-770 and the dietary compound curcumin. Each of these compounds is an allosteric modulator of CFTR gating that promotes channel activity in the absence of the native ligand, ATP. Although W1282X-CFTR channels were stimulated by VX-770 in the absence of ATP their activities remained dependent on PKA phosphorylation. Thus, activated W1282X-CFTR channels should remain under physiologic control by cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways in vivo. VX-770 and curcumin exerted additive effects on W1282X-CFTR channel gating (opening/closing) in excised patches such that the Po of the truncated channel approached unity (> 0.9) when treated with both modulators. VX-770 and curcumin also additively stimulated W1282X-CFTR mediated currents in polarized FRT epithelial monolayers. In this setting, however, the stimulated W1282X-CFTR currents were smaller than those mediated by wild type CFTR (3–5%) due presumably to lower expression levels or cell surface targeting of the truncated protein. Combining allosteric modulators of different mechanistic classes is worth considering as a treatment option for W1282X CF patients perhaps when coupled with maneuvers to increase expression of the truncated protein. PMID:27007499

  13. The CFTR trafficking mutation F508del inhibits the constitutive activity of SLC26A9.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Carol A; Mitra, Shalini; Mishra, Sanjay K; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yu; Pilewski, Joseph M; Madden, Dean R; Frizzell, Raymond A

    2017-06-01

    Several members of the SLC26A family of anion transporters associate with CFTR, forming complexes in which CFTR and SLC26A functions are reciprocally regulated. These associations are thought to be facilitated by PDZ scaffolding interactions. CFTR has been shown to be positively regulated by NHERF-1, and negatively regulated by CAL in airway epithelia. However, it is unclear which PDZ-domain protein(s) interact with SLC26A9, a SLC26A family member found in airway epithelia. We have previously shown that primary, human bronchial epithelia (HBE) from non-CF donors exhibit constitutive anion secretion attributable to SLC26A9. However, constitutive anion secretion is absent in HBE from CF donors. We examined whether changes in SLC26A9 constitutive activity could be attributed to a loss of CFTR trafficking, and what role PDZ interactions played. HEK293 coexpressing SLC26A9 with the trafficking mutant F508del CFTR exhibited a significant reduction in constitutive current compared with cells coexpressing SLC26A9 and wt CFTR. We found that SLC26A9 exhibits complex glycosylation when coexpressed with F508del CFTR, but its expression at the plasma membrane is decreased. SLC26A9 interacted with both NHERF-1 and CAL, and its interaction with both significantly increased with coexpression of wt CFTR. However, coexpression with F508del CFTR only increased SLC26A9's interaction with CAL. Mutation of SLC26A9's PDZ motif decreased this association with CAL, and restored its constitutive activity. Correcting aberrant F508del CFTR trafficking in CF HBE with corrector VX-809 also restored SLC26A9 activity. We conclude that when SLC26A9 is coexpressed with F508del CFTR, its trafficking defect leads to a PDZ motif-sensitive intracellular retention of SLC26A9. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Dynamic [Cl-]i measurement with chloride sensing quantum dots nanosensor in epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuchi; Mao, Hua; Wong, Lid B.

    2010-02-01

    We have synthesized a chloride sensing quantum dots (QD) nanosensor, Cl-QD, for the dynamic measurements of chloride ion concentration in the millimolar range, a sensitivity that is applicable to most physiological intracellular chloride ion concentration ([Cl-]i) measurements in epithelial cells. The Cl-QD is synthesized by conjugating an anion receptor, 1-(2-mercapto-ethyl)-3-phenyl-thiourea (MEPTU) to a water soluble CdSe/ZnS QD at an emission wavelength of 620 nm. Upon binding of chloride ions to the Cl-QD, a photo-induced electron transfer mechanism caused the fluorescence of the QD to quench. This resulted in an inversely proportional relationship between the chloride ion concentration and the fluorescence intensity of the Cl-QD. We have utilized this Cl-QD to measure [Cl-]i in T84 and CF-PAC cultured cells, with either the C1C-2 or CFTR chloride channels being manipulated by pharmacological chloride channel activators and inhibitors. Activations of C1C-2 and CFTR chloride channels in T84 by the respective lubiprostone and genistein caused predictive increases in the fluorescence of the Cl-QD, i.e., a decrease of [Cl-]i. Conversely, glibenclamide, a chloride channel inhibitor, applied to the CF-PAC cells caused a predictable decrease in the fluorescence of Cl-QD due to the increase of [Cl-]i. These are the first data in using QD-based chloride ion sensors for dynamic measurements of intracellular chloride ion concentrations in epithelial cells.

  15. Rescuing mutant CFTR: a multi-task approach to a better outcome in treating cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Margarida D; Farinha, Carlos M

    2013-01-01

    Correcting multiple defects of mutant CFTR with small molecule compounds has been the goal of an increasing number of recent Cystic Fibrosis (CF) drug discovery programmes. However, the mechanism of action (MoA) by which these molecules restore mutant CFTR is still poorly understood, in particular of CFTR correctors, i.e., compounds rescuing to the cells surface the most prevalent mutant in CF patients--F508del-CFTR. However, there is increasing evidence that to fully restore the multiple defects associated with F508del-CFTR, different small molecules with distinct corrective properties may be required. Towards this goal, a better insight into MoA of correctors is needed and several constraints should be addressed. The methodological approaches to achieve this include: 1) testing the combined effect of compounds with that of other (non-pharmacological) rescuing strategies (e.g., revertants or low temperature); 2) assessing effects in multiple cellular models (non-epithelial vs epithelial, non-human vs human, immortalized vs primary cultures, polarized vs non polarized, cells vs tissues); 3) assessing compound effects on isolated CFTR domains (e.g., compound binding by surface plasmon resonance, assessing effects on domain folding and aggregation); and finally 4) assessing compounds specificity in rescuing different CFTR mutants and other mutant proteins. These topics are reviewed and discussed here so as to provide a state-of-the art review on how to combine multiple ways of rescuing mutant CFTR to the ultimate benefit of CF patients.

  16. Electrophysiological Evidence for the Presence of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in Mouse Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Dulce, Figueiras Fierro; José, Acevedo Juan; Pablo, Martínez; Escoffier, Jessica; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.; Enrique, Balderas; Gerardo, Orta; Pablo, Visconti; Alberto, Darszon

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian sperm must undergo a maturational process, named capacitation, in the female reproductive tract to fertilize the egg. Sperm capacitation is regulated by a cAMP/PKA pathway and involves increases in intracellular Ca2+, pH, Cl−, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and in mouse and some other mammals a membrane potential hyperpolarization. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl− channel modulated by cAMP/PKA and ATP, was detected in mammalian sperm and proposed to modulate capacitation. Our whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from testicular mouse sperm now reveal a Cl− selective component to membrane current that is ATP-dependent, stimulated by cAMP, cGMP and genistein (a CFTR agonist, at low concentrations), and inhibited by DPC and CFTRinh-172, two well-known CFTR antagonists. Furthermore, the Cl− current component activated by cAMP and inhibited by CFTRinh-172 is absent in recordings on testicular sperm from mice possessing the CFTR ΔF508 loss-of-function mutation, indicating that CFTR is responsible for this component. A Cl− selective like current component displaying CFTR characteristics was also found in wild type epididymal sperm bearing the cytoplasmatic droplet. Capacitated sperm treated with CFTRinh-172 undergo a shape change, suggesting that CFTR is involved in cell volume regulation. These findings indicate that functional CFTR channels are present in mouse sperm and their biophysical properties are consistent with their proposed participation in capacitation. PMID:22833409

  17. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  18. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl chloride ; CASRN 74 - 87 - 3 ( 07 / 17 / 2001 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  19. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635R - 00 / 004 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF VINYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 75 - 01 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) May 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance w

  1. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  2. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  3. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  4. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  5. Methylene Chloride.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan A

    2018-02-01

    Methylene chloride is an industrial solvent used in commercial paint strippers and degreasing agents. This chemical is widely used in consumer products, yet without appropriate protections, exposure may lead to death. Already banned in some countries, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed limiting its use in the United States.

  6. Suppression of Adenosine-Activated Chloride Transport by Ethanol in Airway Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Sammeta V.; Wang, Guoshun

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with increased lung infections. Molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms is not complete. Airway epithelial ion transport regulates the homeostasis of airway surface liquid, essential for airway mucosal immunity and lung host defense. Here, air-liquid interface cultures of Calu-3 epithelial cells were basolaterally exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol (0, 25, 50 and 100 mM) for 24 hours and adenosine-stimulated ion transport was measured by Ussing chamber. The ethanol exposure reduced the epithelial short-circuit currents (ISC) in a dose-dependent manner. The ion currents activated by adenosine were chloride conductance mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated chloride channel. Alloxazine, a specific inhibitor for A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR), largely abolished the adenosine-stimulated chloride transport, suggesting that A2BAR is a major receptor responsible for regulating the chloride transport of the cells. Ethanol significantly reduced intracellular cAMP production upon adenosine stimulation. Moreover, ethanol-suppression of the chloride secretion was able to be restored by cAMP analogs or by inhibitors to block cAMP degradation. These results imply that ethanol exposure dysregulates CFTR-mediated chloride transport in airways by suppression of adenosine-A2BAR-cAMP signaling pathway, which might contribute to alcohol-associated lung infections. PMID:22442662

  7. Correlation of the level of full-length CFTR transcript with pulmonary phenotype in patients carrying R117H and 1342-1,-2delAG mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Hamosh, A.; Cutting, G.R.; Oates, R.

    The R117H mutation occurs on two chromosome backgrounds, one associated with a 7 thymidine tract (7T-R11H) in the splice-acceptor site of intron 8, the other with a 5 thymidine tract (5T-R117H). We examined exon 9 splicing efficiency in 5 patients of genotype R117H/{delta}F508 and one carrying 1342-1,-2delAG{delta}F508, an obligate exon 9 slice site mutation. Four patients carried R117H on a 7T background -- three adult men with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens and one adolescent female with pancreatitis and borderline sweat chloride concentration. The patient with R117H on a 5T background had pancreatic sufficient CF (PS-CF). The 1342-1,-2delAGmore » patient has classic pancreatic insufficient CF (PI-CF). cDNA was synthesized from total RNA extracted from nasal epithlial cells and analyzed for CFTR splicing by 35 cycle PCR using primers in exon 7 and 11. The quantity of full length transcript derived from the R117H or {delta}F508 alleles was assessed by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization. While 91.4% of transcript from the 5T-R117H allele was full-length, only 42.2% of CFTR transcript from the 5T-R117H allele was full length. Since CBAVD patients have no lung disease and PS-CF patients do, this indicates that the threshold of developing CF lung disease is crossed when the amount of CFTR transcript bearing R117H is reduced by half. Interestingly, 17.1% of transcript derived from the 1342-1,-2delAG allele (or 8.6% of total CFTR transcript) was normal and full length. This suggests that up to 9% of full length wild-type CFTR transcript may be inadequate to escape the lung disease of CF and that a 9 thymidine tract followed by AAC (the result of the AG deletion) can be used as a splice donor with 2-9% efficiency.« less

  8. Simple image-based no-wash method for quantitative detection of surface expressed CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Mads Breum; Hu, Jennifer; Frizzell, Raymond A.; Watkins, Simon C.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal genetic disease among Caucasians. It is caused by mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, which encodes an apical membrane anion channel that is required for regulating the volume and composition of epithelial secretions. The most common CFTR mutation, present on at least one allele in >90% of CF patients, deletes phenylalanine at position 508 (F508del), which causes the protein to misfold. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control elicits the degradation of mutant CFTR, compromising its trafficking to the epithelial cell apical membrane. The absence of functional CFTR leads to depletion of airway surface liquid, impaired clearance of mucus and bacteria from the lung, and predisposes to recurrent infections. Ultimately, respiratory failure results from inflammation and bronchiectasis. Although high throughput screening has identified small molecules that can restore the anion transport function of F508del CFTR, they correct less than 15% of WT CFTR activity, yielding insufficient clinical benefit. To date, most primary CF drug discovery assays have employed measurements of CFTR’s anion transport function, a method that depends on the recruitment of a functional CFTR to the cell surface, involves multiple wash steps, and relies on a signal that saturates rapidly. Screening efforts have also included assays for detection of extracellularly HA-tagged or HRP-tagged CFTR, which require multiple washing steps. We have recently developed tools and cell lines that report the correction of mutant CFTR trafficking by currently available small molecules, and have extended this assay to the 96-well format. This new and simple no-wash assay of F508del CFTR at the cell surface may permit the discovery of more efficacious drugs, and hopefully thereby prevent the catastrophic effects of this disease. In addition, the modular design of this platform should make it useful for other diseases where loss

  9. CFTR-regulated MAPK/NF-κB signaling in pulmonary inflammation in thermal inhalation injury.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhi Wei; Chen, Jing; Ruan, Ye Chun; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Yu; Chen, YaJie; Tsang, Lai Ling; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Peng, Yi Zhi

    2015-10-30

    The mechanism underlying pulmonary inflammation in thermal inhalation injury remains elusive. Cystic fibrosis, also hallmarked with pulmonary inflammation, is caused by mutations in CFTR, the expression of which is temperature-sensitive. We investigated whether CFTR is involved in heat-induced pulmonary inflammation. We applied heat-treatment in 16HBE14o- cells with CFTR knockdown or overexpression and heat-inhalation in rats in vivo. Heat-treatment caused significant reduction in CFTR and, reciprocally, increase in COX-2 at early stages both in vitro and in vivo. Activation of ERK/JNK, NF-κB and COX-2/PGE2 were detected in heat-treated cells, which were mimicked by knockdown, and reversed by overexpression of CFTR or VX-809, a reported CFTR mutation corrector. JNK/ERK inhibition reversed heat-/CFTR-knockdown-induced NF-κB activation, whereas NF-κB inhibitor showed no effect on JNK/ERK. IL-8 was augmented by heat-treatment or CFTR-knockdown, which was abolished by inhibition of NF-κB, JNK/ERK or COX-2. Moreover, in vitro or in vivo treatment with curcumin, a natural phenolic compound, significantly enhanced CFTR expression and reversed the heat-induced increases in COX-2/PGE2/IL-8, neutrophil infiltration and tissue damage in the airway. These results have revealed a CFTR-regulated MAPK/NF-κB pathway leading to COX-2/PGE2/IL-8 activation in thermal inhalation injury, and demonstrated therapeutic potential of curcumin for alleviating heat-induced pulmonary inflammation.

  10. Potentiator Ivacaftor Abrogates Pharmacological Correction of ΔF508 CFTR in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cholon, Deborah M.; Quinney, Nancy L.; Fulcher, M. Leslie; Esther, Charles R.; Das, Jhuma; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Randell, Scott H.; Boucher, Richard C.; Gentzsch, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Newly developed “correctors” such as lumacaftor (VX-809) that improve CFTR maturation and trafficking and “potentiators” such as ivacaftor (VX-770) that enhance channel activity may provide important advances in CF therapy. Although VX-770 has demonstrated substantial clinical efficacy in the small subset of patients with a mutation (G551D) that affects only channel activity, a single compound is not sufficient to treat patients with the more common CFTR mutation, ΔF508. Thus, patients with ΔF508 will likely require treatment with both correctors and potentiators to achieve clinical benefit. However, whereas the effectiveness of acute treatment with this drug combination has been demonstrated in vitro, the impact of chronic therapy has not been established. In studies of human primary airway epithelial cells, we found that both acute and chronic treatment with VX-770 improved CFTR function in cells with the G551D mutation, consistent with clinical studies. In contrast, chronic VX-770 administration caused a dose-dependent reversal of VX-809-mediated CFTR correction in ΔF508 homozygous cultures. This result reflected the destabilization of corrected ΔF508 CFTR by VX-770, dramatically increasing its turnover rate. Chronic VX-770 treatment also reduced mature wild-type CFTR levels and function. These findings demonstrate that chronic treatment with CFTR potentiators and correctors may have unexpected effects that cannot be predicted from short-term studies. Combining of these drugs to maximize rescue of ΔF508 CFTR may require changes in dosing and/or development of new potentiator compounds that do not interfere with CFTR stability. PMID:25101886

  11. Cystic fibrosis gene modifier SLC26A9 modulates airway response to CFTR-directed therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Strug, Lisa J; Gonska, Tanja; He, Gengming; Keenan, Katherine; Ip, Wan; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Lin, Fan; Panjwani, Naim; Gong, Jiafen; Li, Weili; Soave, David; Xiao, Bowei; Tullis, Elizabeth; Rabin, Harvey; Parkins, Michael D; Price, April; Zuberbuhler, Peter C; Corvol, Harriet; Ratjen, Felix; Sun, Lei; Bear, Christine E; Rommens, Johanna M

    2016-10-15

    Cystic fibrosis is realizing the promise of personalized medicine. Recent advances in drug development that target the causal CFTR directly result in lung function improvement, but variability in response is demanding better prediction of outcomes to improve management decisions. The genetic modifier SLC26A9 contributes to disease severity in the CF pancreas and intestine at birth and here we assess its relationship with disease severity and therapeutic response in the airways. SLC26A9 association with lung disease was assessed in individuals from the Canadian and French CF Gene Modifier consortia with CFTR-gating mutations and in those homozygous for the common Phe508del mutation. Variability in response to a CFTR-directed therapy attributed to SLC26A9 genotype was assessed in Canadian patients with gating mutations. A primary airway model system determined if SLC26A9 shows modification of Phe508del CFTR function upon treatment with a CFTR corrector. In those with gating mutations that retain cell surface-localized CFTR we show that SLC26A9 modifies lung function while this is not the case in individuals homozygous for Phe508del where cell surface expression is lacking. Treatment response to ivacaftor, which aims to improve CFTR-channel opening probability in patients with gating mutations, shows substantial variability in response, 28% of which can be explained by rs7512462 in SLC26A9 (P = 0.0006). When homozygous Phe508del primary bronchial cells are treated to restore surface CFTR, SLC26A9 likewise modifies treatment response (P = 0.02). Our findings indicate that SLC26A9 airway modification requires CFTR at the cell surface, and that a common variant in SLC26A9 may predict response to CFTR-directed therapeutics.

  12. Increased folding and channel activity of a rare cystic fibrosis mutant with CFTR modulators

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Diane E.; Houck, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. The gene product is a PKA-regulated anion channel that is important for fluid and electrolyte transport in the epithelia of lung, gut, and ducts of the pancreas and sweat glands. The most common CFTR mutation, ΔF508, causes a severe, but correctable, folding defect and gating abnormality, resulting in negligible CFTR function and disease. There are also a large number of rare CF-related mutations where disease is caused by CFTR misfolding. Yet the extent to which defective biogenesis of these CFTR mutants can be corrected is not clear. CFTRV232D is one such mutant that exhibits defective folding and trafficking. CFTRΔF508 misfolding is difficult to correct, but defective biogenesis of CFTRV232D is corrected to near wild-type levels by small-molecule folding correctors in development as CF therapeutics. To determine if CFTRV232D protein is competent as a Cl− channel, we utilized single-channel recordings from transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells. After PKA stimulation, CFTRV232D channels were detected in patches with a unitary Cl− conductance indistinguishable from that of CFTR. Yet the frequency of detecting CFTRV232D channels was reduced to ∼20% of patches compared with 60% for CFTR. The folding corrector Corr-4a increased the CFTRV232D channel detection rate and activity to levels similar to CFTR. CFTRV232D-corrected channels were inhibited with CFTRinh-172 and stimulated fourfold by the CFTR channel potentiator VRT-532. These data suggest that CF patients with rare mutations that cause CFTR misfolding, such as CFTRV232D, may benefit from treatment with folding correctors and channel potentiators in development to restore CFTRΔF508 function. PMID:21642448

  13. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) expression in the developing human brain: comparative immunohistochemical study between patients with normal and mutated CFTR.

    PubMed

    Marcorelles, Pascale; Friocourt, Gaëlle; Uguen, Arnaud; Ledé, Françoise; Férec, Claude; Laquerrière, Annie

    2014-11-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein has recently been shown to be expressed in the human adult central nervous system (CNS). As CFTR expression has also been documented during embryonic development in several organs, such as the respiratory tract, the intestine and the male reproductive system, suggesting a possible role during development we decided to investigate the expression of CFTR in the human developing CNS. In addition, as some, although rare, neurological symptoms have been reported in patients with CF, we compared the expression of normal and mutated CFTR at several fetal stages. Immunohistochemistry was performed on brain and spinal cord samples of foetuses between 13 and 40 weeks of gestation and compared with five patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) of similar ages. We showed in this study that CFTR is only expressed in neurons and has an early and widespread distribution during development. Although we did not observe any cerebral abnormality in patients with CF, we observed a slight delay in the maturation of several brain structures. We also observed different expression and localization of CFTR depending on the brain structure or the cell maturation stage. Our findings, along with a literature review on the neurological phenotypes of patients with CF, suggest that this gene may play previously unsuspected roles in neuronal maturation or function. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Locating the Anion-selectivity Filter of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Chloride Channel

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Min; Akabas, Myles H.

    1997-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator forms an anion-selective channel; the site and mechanism of charge selectivity is unknown. We previously reported that cysteines substituted, one at a time, for Ile331, Leu333, Arg334, Lys335, Phe337, Ser341, Ile344, Arg347, Thr351, Arg352, and Gln353, in and flanking the sixth membrane-spanning segment (M6), reacted with charged, sulfhydryl-specific, methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents. We inferred that these residues are on the water-accessible surface of the protein and may line the ion channel. We have now measured the voltage-dependence of the reaction rates of the MTS reagents with the accessible, engineered cysteines. By comparing the reaction rates of negatively and positively charged MTS reagents with these cysteines, we measured the extent of anion selectivity from the extracellular end of the channel to eight of the accessible residues. We show that the major site determining anion vs. cation selectivity is near the cytoplasmic end of the channel; it favors anions by ∼25-fold and may involve the residues Arg347 and Arg352. From the voltage dependence of the reaction rates, we calculated the electrical distance to the accessible residues. For the residues from Leu333 to Ser341 the electrical distance is not significantly different than zero; it is significantly different than zero for the residues Thr351 to Gln353. The maximum electrical distance measured was 0.6 suggesting that the channel extends more cytoplasmically and may include residues flanking the cytoplasmic end of the M6 segment. Furthermore, the electrical distance calculations indicate that R352C is closer to the extracellular end of the channel than either of the adjacent residues. We speculate that the cytoplasmic end of the M6 segment may loop back into the channel narrowing the lumen and thereby forming both the major resistance to current flow and the anion-selectivity filter. PMID:9089437

  15. THE SHARK RECTAL GLAND MODEL: A CHAMPION OF RECEPTOR MEDIATED CHLORIDE SECRETION THROUGH CFTR

    PubMed Central

    FORREST, JOHN N.

    2016-01-01

    The dogfish shark salt gland was predicted by Smith and discovered by Burger at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine. It is an epithelial organ in the intestine composed of tubules that serve a single function: the secretion of hypertonic NaCl. Many G protein receptors are present on the basolateral surface of these tubules, including stimulatory receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide, adenosine A2, growth hormone releasing hormone, and inhibitory receptors for somatostatin and adenosine A1. An entirely different class of stimulatory receptors is present as C-type natriuretic peptide receptors. Each stimulatory receptor evokes powerful NaCl secretion. G protein receptors bind to Gαs to activate the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase to form cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A that phosphorylates the regulatory domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, opening the channel. The C-type natriuretic peptide receptor stimulates by activating guanylate cyclase and endogenous cyclic guanosine monophosphate which inhibits type 3 phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that breaks down cAMP, thereby elevating cAMP and activating the protein kinase A pathway. PMID:28066051

  16. Targeting the Intracellular Environment in Cystic Fibrosis: Restoring Autophagy as a Novel Strategy to Circumvent the CFTR Defect

    PubMed Central

    Villella, Valeria Rachela; Esposito, Speranza; Bruscia, Emanuela M.; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Raia, Valeria; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients harboring the most common deletion mutation of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), F508del, are poor responders to potentiators of CFTR channel activity which can be used to treat a small subset of CF patients who genetically carry plasma membrane (PM)-resident CFTR mutants. The misfolded F508del-CFTR protein is unstable in the PM even if rescued by pharmacological agents that prevent its intracellular retention and degradation. CF is a conformational disease in which defective CFTR induces an impressive derangement of general proteostasis resulting from disabled autophagy. In this review, we discuss how rescuing Beclin 1 (BECN1), a major player of autophagosome formation, either by means of direct gene transfer or indirectly by administration of proteostasis regulators, could stabilize F508del-CFTR at the PM. We focus on the relationship between the improvement of peripheral proteostasis and CFTR PM stability in F508del-CFTR homozygous bronchial epithelia or mouse lungs. Moreover, this article reviews recent pre-clinical evidence indicating that targeting the intracellular environment surrounding the misfolded mutant CFTR instead of protein itself could constitute an attractive therapeutic option to sensitize patients carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation to the beneficial action of CFTR potentiators on lung inflammation. PMID:23346057

  17. Generation of ΔF508-CFTR T84 cell lines by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing.

    PubMed

    Chung, Woo Young; Song, Myungjae; Park, Jinhong; Namkung, Wan; Lee, Jinu; Kim, Hyongbum; Lee, Min Goo; Kim, Joo Young

    2016-12-01

    To provide a simple method to make a stable ΔF508-CFTR-expressing T84 cell line that can be used as an efficient screening model system for ΔF508-CFTR rescue. CFTR knockout cell lines were generated by Cas9 with a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting exon 1 of the CFTR genome, which produced indels that abolished CFTR protein expressions. Next, stable ΔF508-CFTR expression was achieved by genome integration of ΔF508-CFTR via the lentivirus infection system. Finally, we showed functional rescue of ΔF508-CFTR not only by growing the cells at a low temperature, but also incubating with VX-809, a ΔF508-CFTR corrector, in the established T84 cells expressing ΔF508-CFTR. This cell system provides an appropriate screening platform for rescue of ΔF508-CFTR, especially related to protein folding, escaped from endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation, and membrane transport.

  18. Synergy-based small-molecule screen using a human lung epithelial cell line yields ΔF508-CFTR correctors that augment VX-809 maximal efficacy.

    PubMed

    Phuan, Puay-Wah; Veit, Guido; Tan, Joseph; Roldan, Ariel; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Lukacs, Gergely L; Verkman, A S

    2014-07-01

    The most prevalent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation causing cystic fibrosis, ΔF508, impairs folding of nucleotide binding domain (NBD) 1 and stability of the interface between NBD1 and the membrane-spanning domains. The interfacial stability defect can be partially corrected by the investigational drug VX-809 (3-[6-[[[1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropyl]carbonyl]amino]-3-methyl-2-pyridinyl]-benzoic acid) or the R1070W mutation. Second-generation ΔF508-CFTR correctors are needed to improve on the modest efficacy of existing cystic fibrosis correctors. We postulated that a second corrector targeting a distinct folding/interfacial defect might act in synergy with VX-809 or the R1070W suppressor mutation. A biochemical screen for ΔF508-CFTR cell surface expression was developed in a human lung epithelium-derived cell line (CFBE41o(-)) by expressing chimeric CFTRs with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the fourth exofacial loop in either the presence or absence of R1070W. Using a luminescence readout of HRP activity, screening of approximately 110,000 small molecules produced nine novel corrector scaffolds that increased cell surface ∆F508-CFTR expression by up to 200% in the presence versus absence of maximal VX-809. Further screening of 1006 analogs of compounds identified from the primary screen produced 15 correctors with an EC50 < 5 µM. Eight chemical scaffolds showed synergy with VX-809 in restoring chloride permeability in ∆F508-expressing A549 cells. An aminothiazole increased chloride conductance in human bronchial epithelial cells from a ΔF508 homozygous subject beyond that of maximal VX-809. Mechanistic studies suggested that NBD2 is required for the aminothiazole rescue. Our results provide proof of concept for synergy screening to identify second-generation correctors, which, when used in combination, may overcome the "therapeutic ceiling" of first-generation correctors. Copyright © 2014 by The

  19. Forskolin-induced apical membrane insertion of virally expressed, epitope-tagged CFTR in polarized MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Howard, M; Jiang, X; Stolz, D B; Hill, W G; Johnson, J A; Watkins, S C; Frizzell, R A; Bruton, C M; Robbins, P D; Weisz, O A

    2000-08-01

    Channel gating of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is activated in response to cAMP stimulation. In addition, CFTR activation may also involve rapid insertion of a subapical pool of CFTR into the plasma membrane (PM). However, this issue has been controversial, in part because of the difficulty in distinguishing cell surface vs. intracellular CFTR. Recently, a fully functional, epitope-tagged form of CFTR (M2-901/CFTR) that can be detected immunologically in nonpermeabilized cells was characterized (Howard M, Duvall MD, Devor DC, Dong J-Y, Henze K, and Frizzell RA. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 269: C1565-C1576, 1995; and Schultz BD, Takahashi A, Liu C, Frizzell RA, and Howard M. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 273: C2080-C2089, 1997). We have developed replication-defective recombinant adenoviruses that express M2-901/CFTR and used them to probe cell surface CFTR in forskolin (FSK)-stimulated polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Virally expressed M2-901/CFTR was functional and was readily detected on the apical surface of FSK-stimulated polarized MDCK cells. Interestingly, at low multiplicity of infection, we observed FSK-stimulated insertion of M2901/CFTR into the apical PM, whereas at higher M2-901/CFTR expression levels, no increase in surface expression was detected using indirect immunofluorescence. Immunoelectron microscopy of unstimulated and FSK-stimulated cells confirmed the M2-901/CFTR redistribution to the PM upon FSK stimulation and demonstrates that the apically inserted M2-901/CFTR originates from a population of subapical vesicles. Our observations may reconcile previous conflicting reports regarding the effect of cAMP stimulation on CFTR trafficking.

  20. The HDAC inhibitor SAHA does not rescue CFTR membrane expression in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bergougnoux, Anne; Petit, Aurélie; Knabe, Lucie; Bribes, Estelle; Chiron, Raphaël; De Sario, Albertina; Claustres, Mireille; Molinari, Nicolas; Vachier, Isabelle; Taulan-Cadars, Magali; Bourdin, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    The development of suitable Cystic Fibrosis (CF) models for preclinical bench tests of therapeutic candidates is challenging. Indeed, the validation of molecules to rescue the p.Phe508del-CFTR channel (encoded by the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator gene carrying the p.Phe508del mutation) requires taking into account their overall effects on the epithelium. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), was previously shown to be a CFTR corrector via proteostasis modulation in CFTR-deficient immortalized cells. Here, we tested SAHA effects on goblet cell metaplasia using an ex vivo model based on the air-liquid interface (ALI) culture of differentiated airway epithelial cells obtained by nasal scraping from CF patients and healthy controls. Ex vivo epithelium grew successfully in ALI cultures with significant rise in the expression of CFTR and of markers of airway epithelial differentiation compared to monolayer cell culture. SAHA decreased CFTR transcript and protein levels in CF and non-CF epithelia. Whereas SAHA induced lysine hyperacetylation, it did not change histone modifications at the CFTR promoter. SAHA reduced MUC5AC and MUC5B expression and inhibited goblet epithelial cell differentiation. Similar effects were obtained in CF and non-CF epithelia. All the effects were fully reversible within five days from SAHA withdrawal. We conclude that, ex vivo, SAHA modulate the structure of airway epithelia without specific effect on CFTR gene and protein suggesting that HDACi cannot be useful for CF treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Creation and characterization of an airway epithelial cell line for stable expression of CFTR variants

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, Laura B.; Vecchio-Pagan, Briana; Sharma, Neeraj; Han, Sangwoo T.; Franca, Arianna; Wohler, Elizabeth S.; Batista, Denise A.S.; Goff, Loyal A.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Analysis of the functional consequences and treatment response of rare CFTR variants is challenging due to the limited availability of primary airways cells. Methods A Flp recombination target (FRT) site for stable expression of CFTR was incorporated into an immortalized CF bronchial epithelial cell line (CFBE41o−). CFTR cDNA was integrated into the FRT site. Expression was evaluated by western blotting and confocal microscopy and function measured by short circuit current. RNA sequencing was used to compare the transcriptional profile of the resulting CF8Flp cell line to primary cells and tissues. Results Functional CFTR was expressed from integrated cDNA at the FRT site of the CF8Flp cell line at levels comparable to that seen in native airway cells. CF8Flp cells expressing WT-CFTR have a stable transcriptome comparable to that of primary cultured airway epithelial cells, including genes that play key roles in CFTR pathways. Conclusion CF8Flp cells provide a viable substitute for primary CF airway cells for the analysis of CFTR variants in a native context. PMID:26694805

  2. Decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma in cftr-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Ollero, Mario; Junaidi, Omer; Zaman, Munir M; Tzameli, Iphigenia; Ferrando, Adolfo A; Andersson, Charlotte; Blanco, Paola G; Bialecki, Eldad; Freedman, Steven D

    2004-08-01

    Some of the pathological manifestations of cystic fibrosis are in accordance with an impaired expression and/or activity of PPARgamma. We hypothesized that PPARgamma expression is altered in tissues lacking the normal cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR). PPARgamma mRNA levels were measured in colonic mucosa, ileal mucosa, adipose tissue, lung, and liver from wild-type and cftr-/- mice by quantitative RT-PCR. PPARgamma expression was decreased twofold in CFTR-regulated tissues (colon, ileum, and lung) from cftr-/- mice compared to wild-type littermates. In contrast, no differences were found in fat and liver. Immunohistochemical analysis of PPARgamma in ileum and colon revealed a predominantly nuclear localization in wild-type mucosal epithelial cells while tissues from cftr-/- mice showed a more diffuse, lower intensity labeling. A significant decrease in PPARgamma expression was confirmed in nuclear extracts of colon mucosa by Western blot analysis. In addition, binding of the PPARgamma/RXR heterodimer to an oligonucletotide containing a peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE) was also decreased in colonic mucosa extracts from cftr-/- mice. Treatment of cftr-/- mice with the PPARgamma ligand rosiglitazone restored both the nuclear localization and binding to DNA, but did not increase RNA levels. We conclude that PPARgamma expression in cftr-/- mice is downregulated at the RNA and protein levels and its function diminished. These changes may be related to the loss of function of CFTR and may be relevant to the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities associated with cystic fibrosis in humans. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Cholesterol modulates CFTR confinement in the plasma membrane of primary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Abu-Arish, Asmahan; Pandzic, Elvis; Goepp, Julie; Matthes, Elizabeth; Hanrahan, John W; Wiseman, Paul W

    2015-07-07

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a plasma-membrane anion channel that, when mutated, causes the disease cystic fibrosis. Although CFTR has been detected in a detergent-resistant membrane fraction prepared from airway epithelial cells, suggesting that it may partition into cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains (lipid rafts), its compartmentalization has not been demonstrated in intact cells and the influence of microdomains on CFTR lateral mobility is unknown. We used live-cell imaging, spatial image correlation spectroscopy, and k-space image correlation spectroscopy to examine the aggregation state of CFTR and its dynamics both within and outside microdomains in the plasma membrane of primary human bronchial epithelial cells. These studies were also performed during treatments that augment or deplete membrane cholesterol. We found two populations of CFTR molecules that were distinguishable based on their dynamics at the cell surface. One population showed confinement and had slow dynamics that were highly cholesterol dependent. The other, more abundant population was less confined and diffused more rapidly. Treatments that deplete the membrane of cholesterol caused the confined fraction and average number of CFTR molecules per cluster to decrease. Elevating cholesterol had the opposite effect, increasing channel aggregation and the fraction of channels displaying confinement, consistent with CFTR recruitment into cholesterol-rich microdomains with dimensions below the optical resolution limit. Viral infection caused the nanoscale microdomains to fuse into large platforms and reduced CFTR mobility. To our knowledge, these results provide the first biophysical evidence for multiple CFTR populations and have implications for regulation of their surface expression and channel function. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cholesterol Modulates CFTR Confinement in the Plasma Membrane of Primary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Arish, Asmahan; Pandzic, Elvis; Goepp, Julie; Matthes, Elizabeth; Hanrahan, John W.; Wiseman, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a plasma-membrane anion channel that, when mutated, causes the disease cystic fibrosis. Although CFTR has been detected in a detergent-resistant membrane fraction prepared from airway epithelial cells, suggesting that it may partition into cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains (lipid rafts), its compartmentalization has not been demonstrated in intact cells and the influence of microdomains on CFTR lateral mobility is unknown. We used live-cell imaging, spatial image correlation spectroscopy, and k-space image correlation spectroscopy to examine the aggregation state of CFTR and its dynamics both within and outside microdomains in the plasma membrane of primary human bronchial epithelial cells. These studies were also performed during treatments that augment or deplete membrane cholesterol. We found two populations of CFTR molecules that were distinguishable based on their dynamics at the cell surface. One population showed confinement and had slow dynamics that were highly cholesterol dependent. The other, more abundant population was less confined and diffused more rapidly. Treatments that deplete the membrane of cholesterol caused the confined fraction and average number of CFTR molecules per cluster to decrease. Elevating cholesterol had the opposite effect, increasing channel aggregation and the fraction of channels displaying confinement, consistent with CFTR recruitment into cholesterol-rich microdomains with dimensions below the optical resolution limit. Viral infection caused the nanoscale microdomains to fuse into large platforms and reduced CFTR mobility. To our knowledge, these results provide the first biophysical evidence for multiple CFTR populations and have implications for regulation of their surface expression and channel function. PMID:26153705

  5. RNA Interference Screen to Identify Kinases That Suppress Rescue of ΔF508-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Trzcińska-Daneluti, Agata M; Chen, Anthony; Nguyen, Leo; Murchie, Ryan; Jiang, Chong; Moffat, Jason; Pelletier, Lawrence; Rotin, Daniela

    2015-06-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). ΔF508-CFTR, the most common disease-causing CF mutant, exhibits folding and trafficking defects and is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is targeted for proteasomal degradation. To identify signaling pathways involved in ΔF508-CFTR rescue, we screened a library of endoribonuclease-prepared short interfering RNAs (esiRNAs) that target ∼750 different kinases and associated signaling proteins. We identified 20 novel suppressors of ΔF508-CFTR maturation, including the FGFR1. These were subsequently validated by measuring channel activity by the YFP halide-sensitive assay following shRNA-mediated knockdown, immunoblotting for the mature (band C) ΔF508-CFTR and measuring the amount of surface ΔF508-CFTR by ELISA. The role of FGFR signaling on ΔF508-CFTR trafficking was further elucidated by knocking down FGFRs and their downstream signaling proteins: Erk1/2, Akt, PLCγ-1, and FRS2. Interestingly, inhibition of FGFR1 with SU5402 administered to intestinal organoids (mini-guts) generated from the ileum of ΔF508-CFTR homozygous mice resulted in a robust ΔF508-CFTR rescue. Moreover, combination of SU5402 and VX-809 treatments in cells led to an additive enhancement of ΔF508-CFTR rescue, suggesting these compounds operate by different mechanisms. Chaperone array analysis on human bronchial epithelial cells harvested from ΔF508/ΔF508-CFTR transplant patients treated with SU5402 identified altered expression of several chaperones, an effect validated by their overexpression or knockdown experiments. We propose that FGFR signaling regulates specific chaperones that control ΔF508-CFTR maturation, and suggest that FGFRs may serve as important targets for therapeutic intervention for the treatment of CF. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. NM23 proteins: innocent bystanders or local energy boosters for CFTR?

    PubMed

    Muimo, Richmond; Alothaid, Hani Mm; Mehta, Anil

    2018-03-01

    NM23 proteins NDPK-A and -B bind to the cystic fibrosis (CF) protein CFTR in different ways from kinases such as PKA, CK2 and AMPK or linkers to cell calcium such as calmodulin and annexins. NDPK-A (not -B) interacts with CFTR through reciprocal AMPK binding/control, whereas NDPK-B (not -A) binds directly to CFTR. NDPK-B can activate G proteins without ligand-receptor coupling, so perhaps NDPK-B's binding influences energy supply local to a nucleotide-binding site (NBD1) needed for CFTR to function. Curiously, CFTR (ABC-C7) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family that does not obey 'clan rules'; CFTR channels anions and is not a pump, regulates disparate processes, is itself regulated by multiple means and is so pleiotropic that it acts as a hub that orchestrates calcium signaling through its consorts such as calmodulin/annexins. Furthermore, its multiple partners make CFTR dance to different tunes in different cellular and subcellular locations as it recycles from the plasma membrane to endosomes. CFTR function in airway apical membranes is inhibited by smoking which has been dubbed 'acquired CF'. CFTR alone among family members possesses a trap for other proteins that it unfurls as a 'fish-net' and which bears consensus phosphorylation sites for many protein kinases, with PKA being the most canonical. Recently, the site of CFTR's commonest mutation has been proposed as a knock-in mutant that alters allosteric control of kinase CK2 by log orders of activity towards calmodulin and other substrates after CFTR fragmentation. This link from CK2 to calmodulin that binds the R region invokes molecular paths that control lumen formation, which is incomplete in the tracheas of some CF-affected babies. Thus, we are poised to understand the many roles of NDPK-A and -B in CFTR function and, especially lumen formation, which is defective in the gut and lungs of many CF babies.

  7. CFTR Genotype and Maximal Exercise Capacity in Cystic Fibrosis: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Thomas; Hebestreit, Helge; Gallati, Sabina; Schneiderman, Jane E; Braun, Julia; Stevens, Daniel; Hulzebos, Erik Hj; Takken, Tim; Boas, Steven R; Urquhart, Don S; Lands, Larry C; Tejero, Sergio; Sovtic, Aleksandar; Dwyer, Tiffany; Petrovic, Milos; Harris, Ryan A; Karila, Chantal; Savi, Daniela; Usemann, Jakob; Mei-Zahav, Meir; Hatziagorou, Elpis; Ratjen, Felix; Kriemler, Susi

    2018-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells. Variations of CFTR dysfunction among patients with cystic fibrosis may be an important determinant of maximal exercise capacity in cystic fibrosis. Previous studies on the relationship between CFTR genotype and maximal exercise capacity are scarce and contradictory. This study was designed to explore factors influencing maximal exercise capacity, expressed as peak oxygen uptake (V.O2peak), with a specific focus on CFTR genotype in children and adults with cystic fibrosis. In an international, multicenter, cross-sectional study, we collected data on CFTR genotype and cardiopulmonary exercise tests in patients with cystic fibrosis who were ages 8 years and older. CFTR mutations were classified into functional classes I–V. The final analysis included 726 patients (45% females; age range, 8–61 yr; forced expiratory volume in 1 s, 16 to 123% predicted) from 17 cystic fibrosis centers in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia, all of whom had both valid maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests and complete CFTR genotype data. Overall, patients exhibited exercise intolerance (V.O2peak, 77.3 ± 19.1% predicted), but values were comparable among different CFTR classes. We did not detect an association between CFTR genotype functional classes I–III and either V.O2peak (percent predicted) (adjusted β = −0.95; 95% CI, −4.18 to 2.29; P = 0.57) or maximum work rate (Wattmax) (adjusted β = −1.38; 95% CI, −5.04 to 2.27; P = 0.46) compared with classes IV–V. Those with at least one copy of a F508del-CFTR mutation and one copy of a class V mutation had a significantly lower V.O2peak (β = −8.24%; 95% CI, −14.53 to −2.99; P = 0.003) and lower Wattmax (adjusted β = −7.59%; 95% CI, −14.21 to −0.95; P = 0.025) than those with two copies of a class II mutation. On the basis of linear regression analysis adjusted for

  8. Role of chloride transport proteins in the vasorelaxant action of nitroprusside in isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Valero, Marta; Pereboom, Désirée; Garay, Ricardo P; Alda, José Octavio

    2006-12-28

    Chloride ions play a key role in smooth muscle contraction, but little is known concerning their role in smooth muscle relaxation. Here we investigated the effect of chloride transport inhibitors on the vasorelaxant responses to nitroprusside in isolated and endothelium-denuded rat aorta, precontracted with phenylephrine 1 muM. Incubation of aortic rings in NO(3)(-) media strongly potentiated the vasorelaxant responses to nitroprusside. Bumetanide, DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid) and acetazolamide strongly potentiated the vasorelaxant responses to nitroprusside (by 70-100%). EC(50) were 2.3+/-0.5 microM for bumetanide, 26+/-15 microM for DIDS and 510+/-118 microM for acetazolamide (n=6 for condition). Niflumic acid, a selective inhibitor of ClCa (calcium-activated chloride channels), potentiated nitroprusside relaxation to a similar extent as chloride transport inhibitors, in a non-additive manner. Zinc and nickel ions, both modestly potentiated nitroprusside vasorelaxation (by 20-30%). Cobaltum had negligible effect on nitroprusside vasorelaxation. CPA (p-chlorophenoxy-acetic acid), an inhibitor of volume-sensitive chloride channels (ClC), slightly potentiated nitroprusside vasorelaxation (by 15%), and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel inhibitors CFTR(inh)172 (5-[(4-Carboxyphenyl)methylene]-2-thioxo-3-[(3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl-4-thiazolidinone), DPC (diphenylamine-2,2'-dicarboxylic acid) and glibenclamide were without significant effect. In conclusion, inhibition of chloride transport proteins strongly potentiates the vasorelaxant responses to nitroprusside in isolated rat aorta. This effect seems mediated by chloride depletion and inhibition of a chloride channel activated by both, calcium and cyclic GMP (cGMP).

  9. Dialkylimidazolium Chlorides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Force Systems Command U. S. Air Force Academy, Colorado 80840 I7 *i iL•- r.•r -i- ABSTRACT A- A - i The synthesis of a homologous series of 1 -methyl...Chemical Co. and was vacuum distilled from BaO before use. The 1 - chloropropane and 1 -chlorobutane were obtained from the Aldrich Chemical Co. and were used...23.52% Cl, 1.84% 0. l-Methvl-3-propylimidazolium chloride. 1 -Methylimidazole (10.1 g, 0.123 mol) and l- chloropropane (12.7 g, 0.161 mol) were mixed in

  10. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Abdurrahman Erdem; Karataş-Torun, Nimet; Maslak, İbrahim Cemal; Bingöl, Ayşen; Alper, Özgül M

    2017-01-01

    Başaran AE, Karataş-Torun N, Maslak İC, Bingöl A, Alper ÖM. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 68-70. A 5-month-old patient presented with complaints of fever and cough. He was hospitalized with the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia and pseudo-Bartter's syndrome. Patient was further investigated for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. The chloride (Cl) level in sweat was determined within the normal range (25.1 mmol/L, 20.3 mmol/L). CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator gene; NM_000492.2) genotyping results were positive for p.E92K; p.F1052V mutations. The patient was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. In our patient, with features of CF and normal sweat test, mutation analysis was helpful for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

  11. A survey of detergents for the purification of stable, active human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR).

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Ellen; Zhang, Qinghai; Cant, Natasha; Ding, Haitao; Dai, Qun; Peng, Lingling; Fu, Yu; DeLucas, Lawrence J; Ford, Robert; Kappes, John C; Urbatsch, Ina L

    2014-11-01

    Structural knowledge of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) requires developing methods to purify and stabilize this aggregation-prone membrane protein above 1mg/ml. Starting with green fluorescent protein- and epitope-tagged human CFTR produced in mammalian cells known to properly fold and process CFTR, we devised a rapid tandem affinity purification scheme to minimize CFTR exposure to detergent in order to preserve its ATPase function. We compared a panel of detergents, including widely used detergents (maltosides, neopentyl glycols (MNG), C12E8, lysolipids, Chaps) and innovative detergents (branched alkylmaltosides, facial amphiphiles) for CFTR purification, function, monodispersity and stability. ATPase activity after reconstitution into proteoliposomes was 2-3 times higher when CFTR was purified using facial amphiphiles. ATPase activity was also demonstrated in purified CFTR samples without detergent removal using a novel lipid supplementation assay. By electron microscopy, negatively stained CFTR samples were monodisperse at low concentration, and size exclusion chromatography showed a predominance of monomer even after CFTR concentration above 1mg/ml. Rates of CFTR aggregation quantified in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that detergents which best preserved reconstituted ATPase activity also supported the greatest stability, with CFTR monomer half-lives of 6-9days in MNG or Chaps, and 12-17days in facial amphiphile. Cryoelectron microscopy of concentrated CFTR in MNG or facial amphiphile confirmed mostly monomeric protein, producing low resolution reconstructions in conformity with similar proteins. These protocols can be used to generate samples of pure, functional, stable CFTR at concentrations amenable to biophysical characterization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Survey of Detergents for the Purification of Stable, Active Human Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Ellen; Zhang, Qinghai; Cant, Natasha; Ding, Haitao; Dai, Qun; Peng, Lingling; Fu, Yu; DeLucas, Lawrence J.; Ford, Robert; Kappes, John C.; Urbatsch, Ina L.

    2014-01-01

    Structural knowledge of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) requires developing methods to purify and stabilize this aggregation-prone membrane protein above 1 mg/ml. Starting with green fluorescent protein- and epitope-tagged human CFTR produced in mammalian cells known to properly fold and process CFTR, we devised a rapid tandem affinity purification scheme to minimize CFTR exposure to detergent in order to preserve its ATPase function. We compared a panel of detergents, including widely used detergents (maltosides, neopentyl gycols (MNG), C12E8, lysolipids, Chaps) and innovative detergents (branched alkylmaltosides, facial amphiphiles) for CFTR purification, function, monodispersity and stability. ATPase activity after reconstitution into proteoliposomes was 2–3 times higher when CFTR was purified using facial amphiphiles. ATPase activity was also demonstrated in purified CFTR samples without detergent removal using a novel lipid supplementation assay. By electron microscopy, negatively stained CFTR samples were monodisperse at low concentration, and size exclusion chromatography showed a predominance of monomer even after CFTR concentration above 1 mg/ml. Rates of CFTR aggregation quantified in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that detergents which best preserved reconstituted ATPase activity also supported the greatest stability, with CFTR monomer half-lives of 6–9 days in MNG or Chaps, and 12–17 days in facial amphiphile. Cryoelectron microscopy of concentrated CFTR in MNG or facial amphiphile confirmed mostly monomeric protein, producing low resolution reconstructions in conformity with similar proteins. These protocols can be used to generate samples of pure, functional, stable CFTR at concentrations amenable to biophysical characterization. PMID:25065669

  13. CFTR fails to inhibit the epithelial sodium channel ENaC expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, G; Barbry, P; Chabot, H; Brochiero, E; Hartung, K; Grygorczyk, R

    2005-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plays a crucial role in regulating fluid secretion by the airways, intestines, sweat glands and other epithelial tissues. It is well established that the CFTR is a cAMP-activated, nucleotide-dependent anion channel, but additional functions are often attributed to it, including regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). The absence of CFTR-dependent ENaC inhibition and the resulting sodium hyperabsorption were postulated to be a major electrolyte transport abnormality in cystic fibrosis (CF)-affected epithelia. Several ex vivo studies, including those that used the Xenopus oocyte expression system, have reported ENaC inhibition by activated CFTR, but contradictory results have also been obtained. Because CFTR–ENaC interactions have important implications in the pathogenesis of CF, the present investigation was undertaken by our three independent laboratories to resolve whether CFTR regulates ENaC in oocytes and to clarify potential sources of previously reported dissimilar observations. Using different experimental protocols and a wide range of channel expression levels, we found no evidence that activated CFTR regulates ENaC when oocyte membrane potential was carefully clamped. We determined that an apparent CFTR-dependent ENaC inhibition could be observed when resistance in series with the oocyte membrane was not low enough or the feedback voltage gain was not high enough. We suggest that the inhibitory effect of CFTR on ENaC reported in some earlier oocyte studies could be attributed to problems arising from high levels of channel expression and suboptimal recording conditions, that is, large series resistance and/or insufficient feedback voltage gain. PMID:15746174

  14. Channel Gating Regulation by the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) First Cytosolic Loop.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Annette; Chung, W Joon; Pyle, Louise C; Wang, Wei; Nowotarski, Krzysztof; Mulvihill, Cory M; Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Hong, Jeong; Velu, Sadanandan E; Lewis, Hal A; Atwell, Shane; Aller, Steve; Bear, Christine E; Lukacs, Gergely L; Kirk, Kevin L; Sorscher, Eric J

    2016-01-22

    In this study, we present data indicating a robust and specific domain interaction between the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) first cytosolic loop (CL1) and nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1) that allows ion transport to proceed in a regulated fashion. We used co-precipitation and ELISA to establish the molecular contact and showed that binding kinetics were not altered by the common clinical mutation F508del. Both intrinsic ATPase activity and CFTR channel gating were inhibited severely by CL1 peptide, suggesting that NBD1/CL1 binding is a crucial requirement for ATP hydrolysis and channel function. In addition to cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prevalent diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acquired rhinosinusitis, pancreatitis, and lethal secretory diarrhea (e.g. cholera). On the basis of clinical relevance of the CFTR as a therapeutic target, a cell-free drug screen was established to identify modulators of NBD1/CL1 channel activity independent of F508del CFTR and pharmacologic rescue. Our findings support a targetable mechanism of CFTR regulation in which conformational changes in the NBDs cause reorientation of transmembrane domains via interactions with CL1 and result in channel gating. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate downregulates Hsc70: implications for intracellular trafficking of DeltaF508-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, R C; Zeitlin, P L

    2000-02-01

    The most common mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), DeltaF508, is a trafficking mutant that has prolonged associations with molecular chaperones and is rapidly degraded, at least in part by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) improves DeltaF508-CFTR trafficking and function in vitro in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells and in vivo. To further understand the mechanism of action of 4PBA, we tested the hypothesis that 4PBA modulates the targeting of DeltaF508-CFTR for ubiquitination and degradation by reducing the expression of Hsc70 in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells. IB3-1 cells (genotype DeltaF508/W1282X) that were treated with 0.05-5 mM 4PBA for 2 days in culture demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in Hsc70 protein immunoreactivity and mRNA levels. Immunoprecipitation with Hsc70-specific antiserum demonstrated that Hsc70 and CFTR associated under control conditions and that treatment with 4PBA reduced these complexes. Levels of immunoreactive Hsp40, Hdj2, Hsp70, Hsp90, and calnexin were unaffected by 4PBA treatment. These data suggest that 4PBA may improve DeltaF508-CFTR trafficking by allowing a greater proportion of mutant CFTR to escape association with Hsc70.

  16. Rescue of CF airway epithelial cell function in vitro by a CFTR potentiator, VX-770

    PubMed Central

    Van Goor, Fredrick; Hadida, Sabine; Grootenhuis, Peter D. J.; Burton, Bill; Cao, Dong; Neuberger, Tim; Turnbull, Amanda; Singh, Ashvani; Joubran, John; Hazlewood, Anna; Zhou, Jinglan; McCartney, Jason; Arumugam, Vijayalaksmi; Decker, Caroline; Yang, Jennifer; Young, Chris; Olson, Eric R.; Wine, Jeffery J.; Frizzell, Raymond A.; Ashlock, Melissa; Negulescu, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a fatal genetic disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a protein kinase A (PKA)-activated epithelial anion channel involved in salt and fluid transport in multiple organs, including the lung. Most CF mutations either reduce the number of CFTR channels at the cell surface (e.g., synthesis or processing mutations) or impair channel function (e.g., gating or conductance mutations) or both. There are currently no approved therapies that target CFTR. Here we describe the in vitro pharmacology of VX-770, an orally bioavailable CFTR potentiator in clinical development for the treatment of CF. In recombinant cells VX-770 increased CFTR channel open probability (Po) in both the F508del processing mutation and the G551D gating mutation. VX-770 also increased Cl− secretion in cultured human CF bronchial epithelia (HBE) carrying the G551D gating mutation on one allele and the F508del processing mutation on the other allele by ≈10-fold, to ≈50% of that observed in HBE isolated from individuals without CF. Furthermore, VX-770 reduced excessive Na+ and fluid absorption to prevent dehydration of the apical surface and increased cilia beating in these epithelial cultures. These results support the hypothesis that pharmacological agents that restore or increase CFTR function can rescue epithelial cell function in human CF airway. PMID:19846789

  17. Comparison of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Ciliary Beat Frequency Activation by the CFTR Modulators Genistein, VRT-532, and UCCF-152 in Primary Sinonasal Epithelial Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Bryant T.; Zhang, Shaoyan; Skinner, Daniel; Hicks, Stephen B.; Sorscher, Eric J.; Rowe, Steven M.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Pharmacologic activation of mucociliary clearance (MCC) represents an emerging therapeutic strategy for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, even in the absence of congenital mutations of the CFTR gene. Drug discovery efforts have identified small molecules that activate the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), including potentiators under development for treatment of cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the properties of CFTR modulators and their effects on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in human sinonasal epithelium (HSNE). DESIGN Primary HSNE cultures (wild type and F508del/F508del) were used to compare stimulation of CFTR-mediated Cl− conductance and CBF by the CFTR modulators genistein, VRT-532, and UCCF-152. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Increase in CFTR-dependent anion transport and CBF. RESULTS HSNE cultures were analyzed using pharmacologic manipulation of ion transport (change in short-circuit current [ΔISC]) and high-speed digital imaging (CBF). Activation of CFTR-dependent anion transport was significantly different among agonists (P < .001), with genistein exerting the greatest effect (mean [SD] ΔISC, genistein, 23.1 [1.8] µA/cm2 > VRT-532, 8.1 [1.0] µA/cm2 > UCCF-152, 3.4 [1.4] µA/cm2 > control, 0.7 [0.2] µA/cm2; Tukey-Kramer P < .05) in the absence of forskolin. Genistein and UCCF-152 augmented CBF (under submerged conditions) significantly better (Tukey-Kramer P < .05) than cells treated with VRT-532 or dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control (mean [SD] fold change over baseline, genistein, 1.63 [0.06]; UCCF-152, 1.56 [0.06]; VRT-532, 1.38 [0.08]; control, 1.27 [0.02]). Activation of CBF was blunted in F508del/F508del HSNE cultures. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The degree of CBF stimulation was not dependent on the magnitude of Cl− secretion, suggesting that different mechanisms of action may underlie MCC activation by these small molecule potentiators. Agents that activate both CFTR-dependent ISC and CBF are

  18. Comparison of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and ciliary beat frequency activation by the CFTR Modulators Genistein, VRT-532, and UCCF-152 in primary sinonasal epithelial cultures.

    PubMed

    Conger, Bryant T; Zhang, Shaoyan; Skinner, Daniel; Hicks, Stephen B; Sorscher, Eric J; Rowe, Steven M; Woodworth, Bradford A

    2013-08-01

    Pharmacologic activation of mucociliary clearance (MCC) represents an emerging therapeutic strategy for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, even in the absence of congenital mutations of the CFTR gene. Drug discovery efforts have identified small molecules that activate the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), including potentiators under development for treatment of cystic fibrosis. To evaluate the properties of CFTR modulators and their effects on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in human sinonasal epithelium (HSNE). Primary HSNE cultures (wild type and F508del/F508del) were used to compare stimulation of CFTR-mediated Cl- conductance and CBF by the CFTR modulators genistein, VRT-532, and UCCF-152. Increase in CFTR-dependent anion transport and CBF. HSNE cultures were analyzed using pharmacologic manipulation of ion transport (change in short-circuit current [∆ISC]) and high-speed digital imaging (CBF). Activation of CFTR-dependent anion transport was significantly different among agonists (P < .001), with genistein exerting the greatest effect (mean [SD] ∆ISC, genistein, 23.1 [1.8] μA/cm2² > VRT-532, 8.1 [1.0] μA/cm² > UCCF-152, 3.4 [1.4] μA/cm² > control, 0.7 [0.2] μA/cm²; Tukey-Kramer P < .05) in the absence of forskolin. Genistein and UCCF-152 augmented CBF (under submerged conditions) significantly better (Tukey-Kramer P < .05) than cells treated with VRT-532 or dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control (mean [SD] fold change over baseline, genistein, 1.63 [0.06]; UCCF-152, 1.56 [0.06]; VRT-532, 1.38 [0.08]; control, 1.27 [0.02]). Activation of CBF was blunted in F508del/F508del HSNE cultures. The degree of CBF stimulation was not dependent on the magnitude of Cl- secretion, suggesting that different mechanisms of action may underlie MCC activation by these small molecule potentiators. Agents that activate both CFTR-dependent ISC and CBF are particularly attractive as therapeutics because they may address 2

  19. Microfluidics platform for single-shot dose-response analysis of chloride channel-modulating compounds.

    PubMed

    Jin, Byung-Ju; Ko, Eun-A; Namkung, Wan; Verkman, A S

    2013-10-07

    We previously developed cell-based kinetics assays of chloride channel modulators utilizing genetically encoded yellow fluorescent proteins. Fluorescence platereader-based high-throughput screens yielded small-molecule activators and inhibitors of the cAMP-activated chloride channel CFTR and calcium-activated chloride channels, including TMEM16A. Here, we report a microfluidics platform for single-shot determination of concentration-activity relations in which a 1.5 × 1.5 mm square area of adherent cultured cells is exposed for 5-10 min to a pseudo-logarithmic gradient of test compound generated by iterative, two-component channel mixing. Cell fluorescence is imaged following perfusion with an iodide-containing solution to give iodide influx rate at each location in the image field, thus quantifying modulator effects over a wide range of concentrations in a single measurement. IC50 determined for CFTR and TMEM16A activators and inhibitors by single-shot microfluidics were in agreement with conventional plate reader measurements. The microfluidics approach developed here may accelerate the discovery and characterization of chloride channel-targeted drugs.

  20. Chloride and sodium ion concentrations in saliva and sweat as a method to diagnose cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Aline Cristina; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima; Mendonça, Regina Maria Holanda; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando; Levy, Carlos Emílio

    2018-05-19

    Cystic fibrosis diagnosis is dependent on the chloride ion concentration in the sweat test (≥60mEq/mL - recognized as the gold standard indicator for cystic fibrosis diagnosis). Moreover, the salivary glands express the CFTR protein in the same manner as sweat glands. Given this context, the objective was to verify the correlation of saliva chloride concentration and sweat chloride concentration, and between saliva sodium concentration and sweat sodium concentration, in patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy control subjects, as a tool for cystic fibrosis diagnosis. There were 160 subjects enrolled: 57/160 (35.70%) patients with cystic fibrosis and two known CFTR mutations and 103/160 (64.40%) healthy controls subjects. Saliva ion concentration was analyzed by ABL 835 Radiometer ® equipment and, sweat chloride concentration and sweat sodium concentration, respectively, by manual titration using the mercurimetric procedure of Schales & Schales and flame photometry. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi-squared test, the Mann-Whitney test, and Spearman's correlation. Alpha=0.05. Patients with cystic fibrosis showed higher values of sweat chloride concentration, sweat sodium concentration, saliva chloride concentration, and saliva sodium concentration than healthy controls subjects (p-value<0.001). The correlation between saliva chloride concentration and sweat chloride concentration showed a positive Spearman's Rho (correlation coefficient)=0.475 (95% CI=0.346 to 0.587). Also, the correlation between saliva sodium concentration and sweat sodium concentration showed a positive Spearman's Rho=0.306 (95% CI=0.158 to 0.440). Saliva chloride concentration and saliva sodium concentration are candidates to be used in cystic fibrosis diagnosis, mainly in cases where it is difficult to achieve the correct sweat amount, and/or CFTR mutation screening is difficult, and/or reference methods for sweat test are unavailable to implement or are not easily accessible by

  1. Instability of the insertional mutation in CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu cystic fibrosis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Charizopoulou, Nikoletta; Jansen, Silke; Dorsch, Martina; Stanke, Frauke; Dorin, Julia R; Hedrich, Hans-Jürgen; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    Background A major boost to the cystic fibrosis disease research was given by the generation of various mouse models using gene targeting in embryonal stem cells. Moreover, the introduction of the same mutation on different inbred strains generating congenic strains facilitated the search for modifier genes. From the original CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu CF mouse model we have generated using strict brother × sister mating two inbred CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu mouse lines (CF/1 and CF/3). Thereafter, the insertional mutation was introgressed from CF/3 into three inbred backgrounds (C57BL/6, BALB/c, DBA/2J) generating congenic animals. In every backcross cycle germline transmission of the insertional mutation was monitored by direct probing the insertion via Southern RFLP. In order to bypass this time consuming procedure we devised an alternative PCR based protocol whereby mouse strains are differentiated at the Cftr locus by Cftr intragenic microsatellite genotypes that are tightly linked to the disrupted locus. Results Using this method we were able to identify animals carrying the insertional mutation based upon the differential haplotypic backgrounds of the three inbred strains and the mutant CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu at the Cftr locus. Moreover, this method facilitated the identification of the precise vector excision from the disrupted Cftr locus in two out of 57 typed animals. This reversion to wild type status took place without any loss of sequence revealing the instability of insertional mutations during the production of congenic animals. Conclusions We present intragenic microsatellite markers as a tool for fast and efficient identification of the introgressed locus of interest in the recipient strain during congenic animal breeding. Moreover, the same genotyping method allowed the identification of a vector excision event, posing questions on the stability of insertional mutations in mice. PMID:15102331

  2. AMP-activated protein kinase and adenosine are both metabolic modulators that regulate chloride secretion in the shark rectal gland ( Squalus acanthias).

    PubMed

    Neuman, Rugina I; van Kalmthout, Juliette A M; Pfau, Daniel J; Menendez, Dhariyat M; Young, Lawrence H; Forrest, John N

    2018-04-01

    The production of endogenous adenosine during secretagogue stimulation of CFTR leads to feedback inhibition limiting further chloride secretion in the rectal gland of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). In the present study, we examined the role of AMP-kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor also modulating chloride secretion through CFTR. We found that glands perfused with forskolin and isobutylmethylxanthine (F + I), potent stimulators of chloride secretion in this ancient model, caused significant phosphorylation of the catalytic subunit Thr 172 of AMPK. These findings indicate that AMPK is activated during energy-requiring stimulated chloride secretion. In molecular studies, we confirmed that the activating Thr 172 site is indeed present in the α-catalytic subunit of AMPK in this ancient gland, which reveals striking homology to AMPKα subunits sequenced in other vertebrates. When perfused rectal glands stimulated with F + I were subjected to severe hypoxic stress or perfused with pharmacologic inhibitors of metabolism (FCCP or oligomycin), phosphorylation of AMPK Thr 172 was further increased and chloride secretion was dramatically diminished. The pharmacologic activation of AMPK with AICAR-inhibited chloride secretion, as measured by short-circuit current, when applied to the apical side of shark rectal gland monolayers in primary culture. These results indicate that that activated AMPK, similar to adenosine, transmits an inhibitory signal from metabolism, that limits chloride secretion in the shark rectal gland.

  3. A Little CFTR Goes a Long Way: CFTR-Dependent Sweat Secretion from G551D and R117H-5T Cystic Fibrosis Subjects Taking Ivacaftor

    PubMed Central

    Char, Jessica E.; Wolfe, Marlene H.; Cho, Hyung-ju; Park, Il-Ho; Jeong, Jin Hyeok; Frisbee, Eric; Dunn, Colleen; Davies, Zoe; Milla, Carlos; Moss, Richard B.; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    To determine if oral dosing with the CFTR-potentiator ivacaftor (VX-770, Kalydeco) improves CFTR-dependent sweating in CF subjects carrying G551D or R117H-5T mutations, we optically measured sweat secretion from 32–143 individually identified glands in each of 8 CF subjects; 6 F508del/G551D, one G551D/R117H-5T, and one I507del/R117H-5T. Two subjects were tested only (−) ivacaftor, 3 only (+) ivacaftor and 3 (+/−) ivacaftor (1–5 tests per condition). The total number of gland measurements was 852 (−) ivacaftor and 906 (+) ivacaftor. A healthy control was tested 4 times (51 glands). For each gland we measured both CFTR-independent (M-sweat) and CFTR-dependent (C-sweat); C-sweat was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevated [cAMP]i while blocking muscarinic receptors. Absent ivacaftor, almost all CF glands produced M-sweat on all tests, but only 1/593 glands produced C-sweat (10 tests, 5 subjects). By contrast, 6/6 subjects (113/342 glands) produced C-sweat in the (+) ivacaftor condition, but with large inter-subject differences; 3–74% of glands responded with C/M sweat ratios 0.04%–2.57% of the average WT ratio of 0.265. Sweat volume losses cause proportionally larger underestimates of CFTR function at lower sweat rates. The losses were reduced by measuring C/M ratios in 12 glands from each subject that had the highest M-sweat rates. Remaining losses were estimated from single channel data and used to correct the C/M ratios, giving estimates of CFTR function (+) ivacaftor  = 1.6%–7.7% of the WT average. These estimates are in accord with single channel data and transcript analysis, and suggest that significant clinical benefit can be produced by low levels of CFTR function. PMID:24520399

  4. A European regulatory perspective on cystic fibrosis: current treatments, trends in drug development and translational challenges for CFTR modulators.

    PubMed

    Ponzano, Stefano; Nigrelli, Giulia; Fregonese, Laura; Eichler, Irmgard; Bertozzi, Fabio; Bandiera, Tiziano; Galietta, Luis J V; Papaluca, Marisa

    2018-06-30

    In this article we analyse the current authorised treatments and trends in early drug development for cystic fibrosis (CF) in the European Union for the time period 2000-2016. The analysis indicates a significant improvement in the innovation and development of new potential medicines for CF, shifting from products that act on the symptoms of the disease towards new therapies targeting the cause of CF. However, within these new innovative medicines, results for CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators indicate that one major challenge for turning a CF concept product into an actual medicine for the benefit of patients resides in the fact that, although pre-clinical models have shown good predictability for certain mutations, a good correlation to clinical end-points or biomarkers ( e.g. forced expiratory volume in 1 s and sweat chloride) for all mutations has not yet been achieved. In this respect, the use of alternative end-points and innovative nonclinical models could be helpful for the understanding of those translational discrepancies. Collaborative endeavours to promote further research and development in these areas as well as early dialogue with the regulatory bodies available at the European competent authorities are recommended. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  5. Genotype-phenotype correlation and functional studies in patients with cystic fibrosis bearing CFTR complex alleles.

    PubMed

    Terlizzi, Vito; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Salvatore, Donatello; Lucarelli, Marco; Raia, Valeria; Angioni, Adriano; Carnovale, Vincenzo; Cirilli, Natalia; Casciaro, Rosaria; Colombo, Carla; Di Lullo, Antonella Miriam; Elce, Ausilia; Iacotucci, Paola; Comegna, Marika; Scorza, Manuela; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Perfetti, Anna; Cimino, Roberta; Quattrucci, Serena; Seia, Manuela; Sofia, Valentina Maria; Zarrilli, Federica; Amato, Felice

    2017-04-01

    The effect of complex alleles in cystic fibrosis (CF) is poorly defined for the lack of functional studies. To describe the genotype-phenotype correlation and the results of either in vitro and ex vivo studies performed on nasal epithelial cells (NEC) in a cohort of patients with CF carrying cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR ) complex alleles. We studied 70 homozygous, compound heterozygous or heterozygous for CFTR mutations: p.[Arg74Trp;Val201Met;Asp1270Asn], n=8; p.[Ile148Thr;Ile1023_Val1024del], n=5; p.[Arg117Leu;Leu997Phe], n=6; c.[1210-34TG[12];1210-12T[5];2930C>T], n=3; p.[Arg74Trp;Asp1270Asn], n=4; p.Asp1270Asn, n=2; p.Ile148Thr, n=6; p.Leu997Phe, n=36. In 39 patients, we analysed the CFTR gating activity on NEC in comparison with patients with CF (n=8) and carriers (n=4). Finally, we analysed in vitro the p.[Arg74Trp;Val201Met;Asp1270Asn] complex allele. The p.[Ile148Thr;Ile1023_Val1024del] caused severe CF in five compound heterozygous with a class I-II mutation. Their CFTR activity on NEC was comparable with patients with two class I-II mutations (mean 7.3% vs 6.9%). The p.[Arg74Trp;Asp1270Asn] and the p.Asp1270Asn have scarce functional effects, while p.[Arg74Trp;Val201Met;Asp1270Asn] caused mild CF in four of five subjects carrying a class I-II mutation in trans , or CFTR-related disorders (CFTR-RD) in three having in trans a class IV-V mutation. The p.[Arg74Trp;Val201Met;Asp1270Asn] causes significantly (p<0.001) higher CFTR activity compared with compound heterozygous for class I-II mutations. Furthermore, five of six compounds heterozygous with the p.[Arg117Leu;Leu997Phe] had mild CF, whereas the p.Leu997Phe, in trans with a class I-II CFTR mutation, caused CFTR-RD or a healthy status (CFTR activity: 21.3-36.9%). Finally, compounds heterozygous for the c.[1210-34TG[12];1210-12T[5];2930C>T] and a class I-II mutation had mild CF or CFTR-RD (gating activity: 18.5-19.0%). The effect of complex alleles partially depends on the

  6. Eicosanoid Release Is Increased by Membrane Destabilization and CFTR Inhibition in Calu-3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Borot, Florence; Fritsch, Janine; Colas, Julien; Moriceau, Sandra; Baudouin-Legros, Maryvonne; Brouillard, Franck; Ayala-Sanmartin, Jesus; Touqui, Lhousseine; Chanson, Marc; Edelman, Aleksander; Ollero, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The antiinflammatory protein annexin-1 (ANXA1) and the adaptor S100A10 (p11), inhibit cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) by direct interaction. Since the latter is responsible for the cleavage of arachidonic acid at membrane phospholipids, all three proteins modulate eicosanoid production. We have previously shown the association of ANXA1 expression with that of CFTR, the multifactorial protein mutated in cystic fibrosis. This could in part account for the abnormal inflammatory status characteristic of this disease. We postulated that CFTR participates in the regulation of eicosanoid release by direct interaction with a complex containing ANXA1, p11 and cPLA2α. We first analyzed by plasmon surface resonance the in vitro binding of CFTR to the three proteins. A significant interaction between p11 and the NBD1 domain of CFTR was found. We observed in Calu-3 cells a rapid and partial redistribution of all four proteins in detergent resistant membranes (DRM) induced by TNF-α. This was concomitant with increased IL-8 synthesis and cPLA2α activation, ultimately resulting in eicosanoid (PGE2 and LTB4) overproduction. DRM destabilizing agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin induced further cPLA2α activation and eicosanoid release, but inhibited IL-8 synthesis. We tested in parallel the effect of short exposure of cells to CFTR inhibitors Inh172 and Gly-101. Both inhibitors induced a rapid increase in eicosanoid production. Longer exposure to Inh172 did not increase further eicosanoid release, but inhibited TNF-α-induced relocalization to DRM. These results show that (i) CFTR may form a complex with cPLA2α and ANXA1 via interaction with p11, (ii) CFTR inhibition and DRM disruption induce eicosanoid synthesis, and (iii) suggest that the putative cPLA2/ANXA1/p11/CFTR complex may participate in the modulation of the TNF-α-induced production of eicosanoids, pointing to the importance of membrane composition and CFTR function in the regulation of inflammation mediator synthesis

  7. Loss of carbonic anhydrase XII function in individuals with elevated sweat chloride concentration and pulmonary airway disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Melissa; Vecchio-Pagán, Briana; Sharma, Neeraj; Waheed, Abdul; Li, Xiaopeng; Raraigh, Karen S; Robbins, Sarah; Han, Sangwoo T; Franca, Arianna L; Pellicore, Matthew J; Evans, Taylor A; Arcara, Kristin M; Nguyen, Hien; Luan, Shan; Belchis, Deborah; Hertecant, Jozef; Zabner, Joseph; Sly, William S; Cutting, Garry R

    2016-05-15

    Elevated sweat chloride levels, failure to thrive (FTT), and lung disease are characteristic features of cystic fibrosis (CF, OMIM #219700). Here we describe variants in CA12 encoding carbonic anhydrase XII in two pedigrees exhibiting CF-like phenotypes. Exome sequencing of a white American adult diagnosed with CF due to elevated sweat chloride, recurrent hyponatremia, infantile FTT and lung disease identified deleterious variants in each CA12 gene: c.908-1 G>A in a splice acceptor and a novel frameshift insertion c.859_860insACCT. In an unrelated consanguineous Omani family, two children with elevated sweat chloride, infantile FTT, and recurrent hyponatremia were homozygous for a novel missense variant (p.His121Gln). Deleterious CFTR variants were absent in both pedigrees. CA XII protein was localized apically in human bronchiolar epithelia and basolaterally in the reabsorptive duct of human sweat glands. Respiratory epithelial cell RNA from the adult proband revealed only aberrant CA12 transcripts and in vitro analysis showed greatly reduced CA XII protein. Studies of ion transport across respiratory epithelial cells in vivo and in culture revealed intact CFTR-mediated chloride transport in the adult proband. CA XII protein bearing either p.His121Gln or a previously identified p.Glu143Lys missense variant localized to the basolateral membranes of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, but enzyme activity was severely diminished when assayed at physiologic concentrations of extracellular chloride. Our findings indicate that loss of CA XII function should be considered in individuals without CFTR mutations who exhibit CF-like features in the sweat gland and lung. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Altered intestinal bile salt biotransformation in a cystic fibrosis (Cftr-/-) mouse model with hepato-biliary pathology.

    PubMed

    Bodewes, Frank A J A; van der Wulp, Mariëtte Y M; Beharry, Satti; Doktorova, Marcela; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; James Phillips, M; Durie, Peter R; Verkade, Henkjan J

    2015-07-01

    Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) mice develop progressive hepato-biliary pathology. We hypothesize that this liver pathology is related to alterations in biliary bile hydrophobicity and bile salt metabolism in Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) mice. We determined bile production, biliary and fecal bile salt- and lipid compositions and fecal bacterial composition of C57BL/6J Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) and control mice. We found no differences between the total biliary bile salt or lipid concentrations of Cftr(-/-) and controls. Compared to controls, Cftr(-/-) mice had a ~30% higher bile production and a low bile hydrophobicity, related to a ~7 fold higher concentration of the choleretic and hydrophilic bile salt ursocholate. These findings coexisted with a significantly smaller quantity of fecal Bacteroides bacteria. Liver pathology in Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) is not related to increased bile hydrophobicity. Cftr(-/-) mice do however display a biliary phenotype characterized by increased bile production and decreased biliary hydrophobicity. Our findings suggest Cftr dependent, alterations in intestinal bacterial biotransformation of bile salts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Potentiator VX-770 (Ivacaftor) Opens the Defective Channel Gate of Mutant CFTR in a Phosphorylation-dependent but ATP-independent Manner* ♦

    PubMed Central

    Eckford, Paul D. W.; Li, Canhui; Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Bear, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) acts as a channel on the apical membrane of epithelia. Disease-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis gene can lead to CFTR protein misfolding as in the case of the F508del mutation and/or channel dysfunction. Recently, a small molecule, VX-770 (ivacaftor), has shown efficacy in restoring lung function in patients bearing the G551D mutation, and this has been linked to repair of its channel gating defect. However, these studies did not reveal the mechanism of action of VX-770 in detail. Normally, CFTR channel activity is regulated by phosphorylation, ATP binding, and hydrolysis. Hence, it has been hypothesized that VX-770 modifies one or more of these metabolic events. In this study, we examined VX-770 activity using a reconstitution system for purified CFTR protein, a system that enables control of known regulatory factors. We studied the consequences of VX-770 interaction with CFTR incorporated in planar lipid bilayers and in proteoliposomes, using a novel flux-based assay. We found that purified and phosphorylated CFTR was potentiated in the presence of Mg-ATP, suggesting that VX-770 bound directly to the CFTR protein, rather than associated kinases or phosphatases. Interestingly, we also found that VX-770 enhanced the channel activity of purified and mutant CFTR in the nominal absence of Mg-ATP. These findings suggest that VX-770 can cause CFTR channel opening through a nonconventional ATP-independent mechanism. This work sets the stage for future studies of the structural properties that mediate CFTR gating using VX-770 as a probe. PMID:22942289

  10. Best practice guidelines for molecular genetic diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and CFTR-related disorders--updated European recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dequeker, Els; Stuhrmann, Manfred; Morris, Michael A; Casals, Teresa; Castellani, Carlo; Claustres, Mireille; Cuppens, Harry; des Georges, Marie; Ferec, Claude; Macek, Milan; Pignatti, Pier-Franco; Scheffer, Hans; Schwartz, Marianne; Witt, Michal; Schwarz, Martin; Girodon, Emmanuelle

    2009-01-01

    The increasing number of laboratories offering molecular genetic analysis of the CFTR gene and the growing use of commercial kits strengthen the need for an update of previous best practice guidelines (published in 2000). The importance of organizing regional or national laboratory networks, to provide both primary and comprehensive CFTR mutation screening, is stressed. Current guidelines focus on strategies for dealing with increasingly complex situations of CFTR testing. Diagnostic flow charts now include testing in CFTR-related disorders and in fetal bowel anomalies. Emphasis is also placed on the need to consider ethnic or geographic origins of patients and individuals, on basic principles of risk calculation and on the importance of providing accurate laboratory reports. Finally, classification of CFTR mutations is reviewed, with regard to their relevance to pathogenicity and to genetic counselling.

  11. Purification of CFTR for mass spectrometry analysis: identification of palmitoylation and other post-translational modifications

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Michelle; DeLucas, Lawrence J.; Wilson, Landon; Ray, Marjorie; Rowe, Steven M.; Wu, Xiaoyun; Dai, Qun; Hong, Jeong S.; Sorscher, Eric J.; Kappes, John C.; Barnes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) play a crucial role during biogenesis of many transmembrane proteins. Previously, it had not been possible to evaluate PTMs in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the epithelial ion channel responsible for cystic fibrosis, because of difficulty obtaining sufficient amounts of purified protein. We recently used an inducible overexpression strategy to generate recombinant CFTR protein at levels suitable for purification and detailed analysis. Using liquid chromatography (LC) tandem and multiple reaction ion monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry, we identified specific sites of PTMs, including palmitoylation, phosphorylation, methylation and possible ubiquitination. Many of these covalent CFTR modifications have not been described previously, but are likely to influence key and clinically important molecular processes including protein maturation, gating and the mechanisms underlying certain mutations associated with disease. PMID:22119790

  12. Efficient generation of functional CFTR-expressing airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Amy P; Chin, Stephanie; Xia, Sunny; Garner, Jodi; Bear, Christine E; Rossant, Janet

    2015-03-01

    Airway epithelial cells are of great interest for research on lung development, regeneration and disease modeling. This protocol describes how to generate cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR)-expressing airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). The stepwise approach from PSC culture to differentiation into progenitors and then mature epithelia with apical CFTR activity is outlined. Human PSCs that were inefficient at endoderm differentiation using our previous lung differentiation protocol were able to generate substantial lung progenitor cell populations. Augmented CFTR activity can be observed in all cultures as early as at 35 d of differentiation, and full maturation of the cells in air-liquid interface cultures occurs in <5 weeks. This protocol can be used for drug discovery, tissue regeneration or disease modeling.

  13. Combining theoretical and experimental data to decipher CFTR 3D structures and functions.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Brice; Elbahnsi, Ahmad; Lehn, Pierre; Décout, Jean-Luc; Pietrucci, Fabio; Mornon, Jean-Paul; Callebaut, Isabelle

    2018-05-19

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has recently provided invaluable experimental data about the full-length cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) 3D structure. However, this experimental information deals with inactive states of the channel, either in an apo, quiescent conformation, in which nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) are widely separated or in an ATP-bound, yet closed conformation. Here, we show that 3D structure models of the open and closed forms of the channel, now further supported by metadynamics simulations and by comparison with the cryo-EM data, could be used to gain some insights into critical features of the conformational transition toward active CFTR forms. These critical elements lie within membrane-spanning domains but also within NBD1 and the N-terminal extension, in which conformational plasticity is predicted to occur to help the interaction with filamin, one of the CFTR cellular partners.

  14. A sequence upstream of canonical PDZ-binding motif within CFTR COOH-terminus enhances NHERF1 interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neeraj; LaRusch, Jessica; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Gottschalk, Laura B.; Lopez, Andrea P.; Pellicore, Matthew J.; Evans, Taylor; Davis, Emily; Atalar, Melis; Na, Chan-Hyun; Rosson, Gedge D.; Belchis, Deborah; Milewski, Michal; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    The development of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) targeted therapy for cystic fibrosis has generated interest in maximizing membrane residence of mutant forms of CFTR by manipulating interactions with scaffold proteins, such as sodium/hydrogen exchange regulatory factor-1 (NHERF1). In this study, we explored whether COOH-terminal sequences in CFTR beyond the PDZ-binding motif influence its interaction with NHERF1. NHERF1 displayed minimal self-association in blot overlays (NHERF1, Kd = 1,382 ± 61.1 nM) at concentrations well above physiological levels, estimated at 240 nM from RNA-sequencing and 260 nM by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in sweat gland, a key site of CFTR function in vivo. However, NHERF1 oligomerized at considerably lower concentrations (10 nM) in the presence of the last 111 amino acids of CFTR (20 nM) in blot overlays and cross-linking assays and in coimmunoprecipitations using differently tagged versions of NHERF1. Deletion and alanine mutagenesis revealed that a six-amino acid sequence 1417EENKVR1422 and the terminal 1478TRL1480 (PDZ-binding motif) in the COOH-terminus were essential for the enhanced oligomerization of NHERF1. Full-length CFTR stably expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells fostered NHERF1 oligomerization that was substantially reduced (∼5-fold) on alanine substitution of EEN, KVR, or EENKVR residues or deletion of the TRL motif. Confocal fluorescent microscopy revealed that the EENKVR and TRL sequences contribute to preferential localization of CFTR to the apical membrane. Together, these results indicate that COOH-terminal sequences mediate enhanced NHERF1 interaction and facilitate the localization of CFTR, a property that could be manipulated to stabilize mutant forms of CFTR at the apical surface to maximize the effect of CFTR-targeted therapeutics. PMID:27793802

  15. A sequence upstream of canonical PDZ-binding motif within CFTR COOH-terminus enhances NHERF1 interaction.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeraj; LaRusch, Jessica; Sosnay, Patrick R; Gottschalk, Laura B; Lopez, Andrea P; Pellicore, Matthew J; Evans, Taylor; Davis, Emily; Atalar, Melis; Na, Chan-Hyun; Rosson, Gedge D; Belchis, Deborah; Milewski, Michal; Pandey, Akhilesh; Cutting, Garry R

    2016-12-01

    The development of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) targeted therapy for cystic fibrosis has generated interest in maximizing membrane residence of mutant forms of CFTR by manipulating interactions with scaffold proteins, such as sodium/hydrogen exchange regulatory factor-1 (NHERF1). In this study, we explored whether COOH-terminal sequences in CFTR beyond the PDZ-binding motif influence its interaction with NHERF1. NHERF1 displayed minimal self-association in blot overlays (NHERF1, K d = 1,382 ± 61.1 nM) at concentrations well above physiological levels, estimated at 240 nM from RNA-sequencing and 260 nM by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in sweat gland, a key site of CFTR function in vivo. However, NHERF1 oligomerized at considerably lower concentrations (10 nM) in the presence of the last 111 amino acids of CFTR (20 nM) in blot overlays and cross-linking assays and in coimmunoprecipitations using differently tagged versions of NHERF1. Deletion and alanine mutagenesis revealed that a six-amino acid sequence 1417 EENKVR 1422 and the terminal 1478 TRL 1480 (PDZ-binding motif) in the COOH-terminus were essential for the enhanced oligomerization of NHERF1. Full-length CFTR stably expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells fostered NHERF1 oligomerization that was substantially reduced (∼5-fold) on alanine substitution of EEN, KVR, or EENKVR residues or deletion of the TRL motif. Confocal fluorescent microscopy revealed that the EENKVR and TRL sequences contribute to preferential localization of CFTR to the apical membrane. Together, these results indicate that COOH-terminal sequences mediate enhanced NHERF1 interaction and facilitate the localization of CFTR, a property that could be manipulated to stabilize mutant forms of CFTR at the apical surface to maximize the effect of CFTR-targeted therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Amniotic fluid digestive enzyme analysis is useful for identifying CFTR gene mutations of unclear significance.

    PubMed

    Oca, Florine; Dreux, Sophie; Gérard, Bénédicte; Simon-Bouy, Brigitte; de Becdelièvre, Alix; Ferec, Claude; Girodon, Emmanuelle; Muller, Françoise

    2009-12-01

    The large number of CFTR [cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ATP-binding cassette sub-family C, member 7)] mutations and the existence of variants of unclear significance complicate the prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to determine whether the pattern of amniotic fluid digestive enzymes (AF-DEs) could be correlated with the severity of CFTR mutations. The AF-DE pattern (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, aminopeptidase M, and the intestinal isoform of alkaline phosphatase) was retrospectively analyzed in 43 AF samples. All fetuses presented 2 CFTR mutations, which were classified according to the severity of the disease: CF/CF (n = 38); CF/CFTR-related disorders (n = 1); and CF/unknown variant (n = 4). The relationships between clinical CF status, CFTR mutations, and AF-DE pattern were studied. Of 38 severely affected CF fetuses, an "obstructive" AF-DE pattern was observed in 15 of 15 samples collected before 22 weeks, irrespective of the CFTR mutation (diagnostic sensitivity, 100%; diagnostic specificity, 99.8%). In the 23 fetuses evaluated after 22 weeks, the AF-DE pattern was abnormal in 7 cases and noncontributive in 16 (diagnostic sensitivity, 30.4%; diagnostic specificity, 99.8%). Of the 5 questionable cases (F508del/N1224K, F508del/L73F, 3849+10kbC>T/G1127E, F508del/S1235R, F508del/G622D), all were CF symptom free at 2-4 years of follow-up. The AF-DE pattern (<22 weeks) was typical in 3 cases but abnormal in the last 2 cases. AF-DE analysis is of value for prenatal CF diagnosis in classic forms of CF and could be helpful in nonclassic CF.

  17. Some gating potentiators, including VX-770, diminish ΔF508-CFTR functional expression

    PubMed Central

    Veit, Guido; Avramescu, Radu G.; Perdomo, Doranda; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Bagdany, Miklos; Apaja, Pirjo M.; Borot, Florence; Szollosi, Daniel; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Hegedus, Tamas; Verkman, Alan S.; Lukacs, Gergely L.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) that result in reduced anion conductance at the apical membrane of secretory epithelia. Treatment of CF patients carrying the G551D gating mutation with the potentiator VX-770 (ivacaftor) largely restores channel activity and has shown substantial clinical benefit. However, most CF patients carry the ΔF508 mutation, which impairs CFTR folding, processing, function, and stability. Studies in homozygous ΔF508 CF patients indicated little clinical benefit of monotherapy with the investigational corrector VX-809 (lumacaftor) or VX-770, whereas combination clinical trials show limited but significant improvements in lung function. We show that VX-770, as well as most other potentiators, reduces the correction efficacy of VX-809 and another investigational corrector, VX-661. To mimic the administration of VX-770 alone or in combination with VX-809, we examined its long-term effect in immortalized and primary human respiratory epithelia. VX-770 diminished the folding efficiency and the metabolic stability of ΔF508-CFTR at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and post-ER compartments, respectively, causing reduced cell surface ΔF508-CFTR density and function. VX-770–induced destabilization of ΔF508-CFTR was influenced by second-site suppressor mutations of the folding defect and was prevented by stabilization of the nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1)–NBD2 interface. The reduced correction efficiency of ΔF508-CFTR, as well as of two other processing mutations in the presence of VX-770, suggests the need for further optimization of potentiators to maximize the clinical benefit of corrector-potentiator combination therapy in CF. PMID:25101887

  18. Some gating potentiators, including VX-770, diminish ΔF508-CFTR functional expression.

    PubMed

    Veit, Guido; Avramescu, Radu G; Perdomo, Doranda; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Bagdany, Miklos; Apaja, Pirjo M; Borot, Florence; Szollosi, Daniel; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Hegedus, Tamas; Verkman, Alan S; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2014-07-23

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) that result in reduced anion conductance at the apical membrane of secretory epithelia. Treatment of CF patients carrying the G551D gating mutation with the potentiator VX-770 (ivacaftor) largely restores channel activity and has shown substantial clinical benefit. However, most CF patients carry the ΔF508 mutation, which impairs CFTR folding, processing, function, and stability. Studies in homozygous ΔF508 CF patients indicated little clinical benefit of monotherapy with the investigational corrector VX-809 (lumacaftor) or VX-770, whereas combination clinical trials show limited but significant improvements in lung function. We show that VX-770, as well as most other potentiators, reduces the correction efficacy of VX-809 and another investigational corrector, VX-661. To mimic the administration of VX-770 alone or in combination with VX-809, we examined its long-term effect in immortalized and primary human respiratory epithelia. VX-770 diminished the folding efficiency and the metabolic stability of ΔF508-CFTR at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and post-ER compartments, respectively, causing reduced cell surface ΔF508-CFTR density and function. VX-770-induced destabilization of ΔF508-CFTR was influenced by second-site suppressor mutations of the folding defect and was prevented by stabilization of the nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1)-NBD2 interface. The reduced correction efficiency of ΔF508-CFTR, as well as of two other processing mutations in the presence of VX-770, suggests the need for further optimization of potentiators to maximize the clinical benefit of corrector-potentiator combination therapy in CF. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Role of Mutant CFTR in Hypersusceptibility of Cystic Fibrosis Patients to Lung Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pier, Gerald B.; Grout, Martha; Zaidi, Tanweer S.; Olsen, John C.; Johnson, Larry G.; Yankaskas, James R.; Goldberg, Joanna B.

    1996-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are hypersusceptible to chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections. Cultured human airway epithelial cells expressing the ΔF508 allele of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were defective in uptake of P. aeruginosa compared with cells expressing the wild-type allele. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-core oligosaccharide was identified as the bacterial ligand for epithelial cell ingestion; exogenous oligosaccharide inhibited bacterial ingestion in a neonatal mouse model, resulting in increased amounts of bacteria in the lungs. CFTR may contribute to a host-defense mechanism that is important for clearance of P. aeruginosa from the respiratory tract.

  20. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  1. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  2. Chloride test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Serum chloride test ... A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma) Diarrhea Metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis (compensated) Renal ...

  3. Binding of serum response factor to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator CArG-like elements, as a new potential CFTR transcriptional regulation pathway

    PubMed Central

    René, Céline; Taulan, Magali; Iral, Florence; Doudement, Julien; L'Honoré, Aurore; Gerbon, Catherine; Demaille, Jacques; Claustres, Mireille; Romey, Marie-Catherine

    2005-01-01

    CFTR expression is tightly controlled by a complex network of ubiquitous and tissue-specific cis-elements and trans-factors. To better understand mechanisms that regulate transcription of CFTR, we examined transcription factors that specifically bind a CFTR CArG-like motif we have previously shown to modulate CFTR expression. Gel mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated the CFTR CArG-like motif binds serum response factor both in vitro and in vivo. Transient co-transfections with various SRF expression vector, including dominant-negative forms and small interfering RNA, demonstrated that SRF significantly increases CFTR transcriptional activity in bronchial epithelial cells. Mutagenesis studies suggested that in addition to SRF other co-factors, such as Yin Yang 1 (YY1) previously shown to bind the CFTR promoter, are potentially involved in the CFTR regulation. Here, we show that functional interplay between SRF and YY1 might provide interesting perspectives to further characterize the underlying molecular mechanism of the basal CFTR transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the identification of multiple CArG binding sites in highly conserved CFTR untranslated regions, which form specific SRF complexes, provides direct evidence for a considerable role of SRF in the CFTR transcriptional regulation into specialized epithelial lung cells. PMID:16170155

  4. A Genotypic-Oriented View of CFTR Genetics Highlights Specific Mutational Patterns Underlying Clinical Macrocategories of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lucarelli, Marco; Bruno, Sabina Maria; Pierandrei, Silvia; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Stamato, Antonella; Narzi, Fabiana; Amato, Annalisa; Cimino, Giuseppe; Bertasi, Serenella; Quattrucci, Serena; Strom, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The genotype–phenotype relationship in this disease is still unclear, and diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic challenges persist. We enrolled 610 patients with different forms of CF and studied them from a clinical, biochemical, microbiological and genetic point of view. Overall, there were 125 different mutated alleles (11 with novel mutations and 10 with complex mutations) and 225 genotypes. A strong correlation between mutational patterns at the genotypic level and phenotypic macrocategories emerged. This specificity appears to largely depend on rare and individual mutations, as well as on the varying prevalence of common alleles in different clinical macrocategories. However, 19 genotypes appeared to underlie different clinical forms of the disease. The dissection of the pathway from the CFTR mutated genotype to the clinical phenotype allowed to identify at least two components of the variability usually found in the genotype–phenotype relationship. One component seems to depend on the genetic variation of CFTR, the other component on the cumulative effect of variations in other genes and cellular pathways independent from CFTR. The experimental dissection of the overall biological CFTR pathway appears to be a powerful approach for a better comprehension of the genotype–phenotype relationship. However, a change from an allele-oriented to a genotypic-oriented view of CFTR genetics is mandatory, as well as a better assessment of sources of variability within the CFTR pathway. PMID:25910067

  5. Chlorogenic Acid Activates CFTR-Mediated Cl- Secretion in Mice and Humans: Therapeutic Implications for Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Illing, Elisa; Cho, Do-Yeon; Zhang, Shaoyan; Skinner, Daniel F.; Dunlap, Quinn A.; Sorscher, Eric J.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Salubrious effects of the green coffee bean are purportedly secondary to high concentrations of chlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid has a molecular structure similar to bioflavonoids that activate transepithelial Cl- transport in sinonasal epithelia. In contrast to flavonoids, the drug is freely soluble in water. The objective of this study is to evaluate the Cl- secretory capability of chlorogenic acid and its potential as a therapeutic activator of mucus clearance in sinus disease. Study Design Basic research Setting Laboratory Subjects and Methods Chlorogenic acid was tested on primary murine nasal septal epithelial(MNSE)[CFTR+/+ and transgenic CFTR-/-] and human sinonasal epithelial(HSNE)[CFTR+/+ and F508del/F508del] cultures under pharmacologic conditions in Ussing chambers to evaluate effects on transepithelial Cl- transport. Cellular cAMP, phosphorylation of the CFTR regulatory domain(R-D), and CFTR mRNA transcription were also measured. Results Chlorogenic acid stimulated transepithelial Cl- secretion [(change in short-circuit current(ΔISC=μA/cm2)] in MNSE(13.1+/-0.9 vs. 0.1+/-0.1, p<0.05) and HSNE(34.3+/-0.9 vs. 0.0+/-0.1, p<0.05). The drug had a long duration until peak effect at 15-30 minutes after application. Significant inhibition with INH-172, as well as absent stimulation in cultures lacking functional CFTR, suggests effects are dependent on CFTR-mediated pathways. However, the absence of elevated cellular cAMP and phosphorylation the CFTR R-D indicates chlorogenic acid does not work through a PKA-dependent mechanism. Conclusion Chlorogenic acid is a water soluble agent that promotes CFTR-mediated Cl- transport in mouse and human sinonasal epithelium. Translating activators of mucociliary transport to clinical use provides a new therapeutic approach to sinus disease. Further in vivo evaluation is planned. PMID:26019132

  6. Chlorogenic Acid Activates CFTR-Mediated Cl- Secretion in Mice and Humans: Therapeutic Implications for Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Illing, Elisa A; Cho, Do-Yeon; Zhang, Shaoyan; Skinner, Daniel F; Dunlap, Quinn A; Sorscher, Eric J; Woodworth, Bradford A

    2015-08-01

    Salubrious effects of the green coffee bean are purportedly secondary to high concentrations of chlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid has a molecular structure similar to bioflavonoids that activate transepithelial Cl(-) transport in sinonasal epithelia. In contrast to flavonoids, the drug is freely soluble in water. The objective of this study is to evaluate the Cl(-) secretory capability of chlorogenic acid and its potential as a therapeutic activator of mucus clearance in sinus disease. Basic research. Laboratory. Chlorogenic acid was tested on primary murine nasal septal epithelial (MNSE) (CFTR(+/+) and transgenic CFTR(-/-)) and human sinonasal epithelial (HSNE) (CFTR(+/+) and F508del/F508del) cultures under pharmacologic conditions in Ussing chambers to evaluate effects on transepithelial Cl(-) transport. Cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), phosphorylation of the CFTR regulatory domain (R-D), and CFTR mRNA transcription were also measured. Chlorogenic acid stimulated transepithelial Cl(-) secretion (change in short-circuit current [ΔISC = µA/cm(2)]) in MNSE (13.1 ± 0.9 vs 0.1 ± 0.1; P < .05) and HSNE (34.3 ± 0.9 vs 0.0 ± 0.1; P < .05). The drug had a long duration until peak effect at 15 to 30 minutes after application. Significant inhibition with INH-172 as well as absent stimulation in cultures lacking functional CFTR suggest effects are dependent on CFTR-mediated pathways. However, the absence of elevated cellular cAMP and phosphorylation the CFTR R-D indicates chlorogenic acid does not work through a PKA-dependent mechanism. Chlorogenic acid is a water-soluble agent that promotes CFTR-mediated Cl(-) transport in mouse and human sinonasal epithelium. Translating activators of mucociliary transport to clinical use provides a new therapeutic approach to sinus disease. Further in vivo evaluation is planned. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  7. Small molecule correctors of F508del-CFTR discovered by structure-based virtual screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalid, Ori; Mense, Martin; Fischman, Sharon; Shitrit, Alina; Bihler, Hermann; Ben-Zeev, Efrat; Schutz, Nili; Pedemonte, Nicoletta; Thomas, Philip J.; Bridges, Robert J.; Wetmore, Diana R.; Marantz, Yael; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2010-12-01

    Folding correctors of F508del-CFTR were discovered by in silico structure-based screening utilizing homology models of CFTR. The intracellular segment of CFTR was modeled and three cavities were identified at inter-domain interfaces: (1) Interface between the two Nucleotide Binding Domains (NBDs); (2) Interface between NBD1 and Intracellular Loop (ICL) 4, in the region of the F508 deletion; (3) multi-domain interface between NBD1:2:ICL1:2:4. We hypothesized that compounds binding at these interfaces may improve the stability of the protein, potentially affecting the folding yield or surface stability. In silico structure-based screening was performed at the putative binding-sites and a total of 496 candidate compounds from all three sites were tested in functional assays. A total of 15 compounds, representing diverse chemotypes, were identified as F508del folding correctors. This corresponds to a 3% hit rate, tenfold higher than hit rates obtained in corresponding high-throughput screening campaigns. The same binding sites also yielded potentiators and, most notably, compounds with a dual corrector-potentiator activity (dual-acting). Compounds harboring both activity types may prove to be better leads for the development of CF therapeutics than either pure correctors or pure potentiators. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of structure-based discovery of CFTR modulators.

  8. Mechanism-based corrector combination restores ΔF508-CFTR folding and function

    PubMed Central

    Okiyoneda, Tsukasa; Veit, Guido; Dekkers, Johanna F.; Bagdany, Miklos; Soya, Naoto; Xu, Haijin; Roldan, Ariel; Verkman, Alan S.; Kurth, Mark; Simon, Agnes; Hegedus, Tamas; Beekman, Jeffrey M.; Lukacs, Gergely L.

    2013-01-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation, ΔF508 in the nucleotide binding domain-1 (NBD1), impairs CFTR coupled-domain folding, plasma membrane (PM) expression, function and stability. VX-809, a promising investigational corrector of ΔF508-CFTR misprocessing, has limited clinical benefit and incompletely understood mechanism, hampering drug development. Based on the effect of second site suppressor mutations, robust ΔF508-CFTR correction likely requires stabilization of NBD1 and the membrane spanning domains (MSDs)-NBD1 interface, both established primary conformational defects. Here, we elucidated the molecular targets of available correctors; class-I stabilizes the NBD1-MSD1/2 interface, class-II targets NBD2, and only chemical chaperones, surrogates of class-III correctors, stabilize the human ΔF508-NBD1. While VX-809 can correct missense mutations primarily destabilizing the NBD1-MSD1/2 interface, functional PM expression of ΔF508-CFTR also requires compounds that counteract the NBD1 and NBD2 stability defects in CF bronchial epithelial cells and intestinal organoids. Thus, structure-guided corrector combination represents an effective approach for CF therapy. PMID:23666117

  9. Adeno-associated virus–targeted disruption of the CFTR gene in cloned ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingshen; Yan, Ziying; Yi, Yaling; Li, Ziyi; Lei, Diana; Rogers, Christopher S.; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Yulong; Welsh, Michael J.; Leno, Gregory H.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Somatic cell gene targeting combined with nuclear transfer cloning presents tremendous potential for the creation of new, large-animal models of human diseases. Mouse disease models often fail to reproduce human phenotypes, underscoring the need for the generation and study of alternative disease models. Mice deficient for CFTR have been poor models for cystic fibrosis (CF), lacking many aspects of human CF lung disease. In this study, we describe the production of a CFTR gene–deficient model in the domestic ferret using recombinant adeno-associated virus–mediated gene targeting in fibroblasts, followed by nuclear transfer cloning. As part of this approach, we developed a somatic cell rejuvenation protocol using serial nuclear transfer to produce live CFTR-deficient clones from senescent gene-targeted fibroblasts. We transferred 472 reconstructed embryos into 11 recipient jills and obtained 8 healthy male ferret clones heterozygous for a disruption in exon 10 of the CFTR gene. To our knowledge, this study represents the first description of genetically engineered ferrets and describes an approach that may be of substantial utility in modeling not only CF, but also other genetic diseases. PMID:18324338

  10. Allosteric modulation balances thermodynamic stability and restores function of ΔF508 CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrov, Andrei A.; Kota, Pradeep; Cui, Liying; Jensen, Tim; Alekseev, Alexey E.; Reyes, Santiago; He, Lihua; Gentzsch, Martina; Aleksandrov, Luba A.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Riordan, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Most cystic fibrosis is caused by a deletion of a single residue (F508) in CFTR that disrupts the folding and biosynthetic maturation of the ion channel protein. Progress towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and overcoming the defect remain incomplete. Here we show that the thermal instability of human ΔF508 CFTR channel activity evident in both cell-attached membrane patches and planar phospholipid bilayers is not observed in corresponding mutant CFTRs of several non-mammalian species. These more stable orthologs are distinguished from their mammalian counterparts by the substitution of proline residues at several key dynamic locations in the first nucleotide domain (NBD1), including the structurally diverse region (SDR), the gamma phosphate switch loop and the Regulatory Insertion (RI). Molecular Dynamic analyses revealed that addition of the prolines could reduce flexibility at these locations and increase the temperatures of unfolding transitions of ΔF508 NBD1 to that of the wild-type. Introduction of these prolines experimentally into full-length human ΔF508 CFTR together with the already recognized I539T suppressor mutation, also in the SDR, restored channel function and thermodynamic stability as well as its trafficking to and lifetime at the cell surface. Thus, while cellular manipulations that circumvent its culling by quality control systems leave ΔF508 CFTR dysfunctional at physiological temperature, restoration of the delicate balance between the dynamic protein’s inherent stability and channel activity returns a near-normal state. PMID:22406676

  11. A New Targeted CFTR Mutation Panel Based on Next-Generation Sequencing Technology.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Marco; Porcaro, Luigi; Biffignandi, Alice; Costantino, Lucy; Giannone, Valentina; Alberti, Luisella; Bruno, Sabina Maria; Corbetta, Carlo; Torresani, Erminio; Colombo, Carla; Seia, Manuela

    2017-09-01

    Searching for mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) is a key step in the diagnosis of and neonatal and carrier screening for cystic fibrosis (CF), and it has implications for prognosis and personalized therapy. The large number of mutations and genetic and phenotypic variability make this search a complex task. Herein, we developed, validated, and tested a laboratory assay for an extended search for mutations in CFTR using a next-generation sequencing-based method, with a panel of 188 CFTR mutations customized for the Italian population. Overall, 1426 dried blood spots from neonatal screening, 402 genomic DNA samples from various origins, and 1138 genomic DNA samples from patients with CF were analyzed. The assay showed excellent analytical and diagnostic operative characteristics. We identified and experimentally validated 159 (of 188) CFTR mutations. The assay achieved detection rates of 95.0% and 95.6% in two large-scale case series of CF patients from central and northern Italy, respectively. These detection rates are among the highest reported so far with a genetic test for CF based on a mutation panel. This assay appears to be well suited for diagnostics, neonatal and carrier screening, and assisted reproduction, and it represents a considerable advantage in CF genetic counseling. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Spectrum of CFTR Variants in Nonwhite Cystic Fibrosis Patients: Implications for Molecular Diagnostic Testing.

    PubMed

    Schrijver, Iris; Pique, Lynn; Graham, Steve; Pearl, Michelle; Cherry, Athena; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Despite the implementation of cystic fibrosis (CF) newborn screening programs across the United States, the identification of CFTR gene variants in nonwhite populations compared with whites remains suboptimal. Our objective was to establish the spectrum of CFTR variants and their frequencies in CF patients in the United States with African, Native American, Asian, East Indian, or Middle Eastern backgrounds. By using direct DNA sequencing, we identified two CFTR variants in 89 of 140 affected nonwhite individuals with uncharacterized genotypes. Seven variants were novel. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification detected 14 rearrangements in the remaining 51 patients, 6 of which were novel. Deletions and duplications accounted for 17% of unidentified alleles. A cross-sectional analysis of genotyping data from the CF Foundation Patient Registry was performed, comparing 3496 nonwhite patients with 22,206 white CF patients. Patients of Hispanic, black, or Asian ancestry were less likely to have two identified CFTR variants (P < 0.0001 for Hispanics and blacks, P = 0.003 for Asians), and more likely to carry no mutations on the commonly used 23 mutation carrier screening panel (P < 0.0001). We analyzed the mutations recorded for each ancestry and summarized the most frequent ones. This research could facilitate equity in mutation detection between white and nonwhite or mixed-ethnicity CF patients, enabling an earlier diagnosis improving their quality of life. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A chemical corrector modifies the channel function of F508del-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Kim Chiaw, Patrick; Wellhauser, Leigh; Huan, Ling Jun; Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Bear, Christine E

    2010-09-01

    The deletion of Phe-508 (F508del) constitutes the most prevalent cystic fibrosis-causing mutation. This mutation leads to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) misfolding and retention in the endoplasmic reticulum and altered channel activity in mammalian cells. This folding defect can however be partially overcome by growing cells expressing this mutant protein at low (27 degrees C) temperature. Chemical "correctors" have been identified that are also effective in rescuing the biosynthetic defect in F508del-CFTR, thereby permitting its functional expression at the cell surface. The mechanism of action of chemical correctors remains unclear, but it has been suggested that certain correctors [including 4-cyclohexyloxy-2-(1-[4-(4-methoxy-benzenesulfonyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-ethyl)-quinazoline (VRT-325)] may act to promote trafficking by interacting directly with the mutant protein. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of VRT-325 addition on the channel activity of F508del-CFTR after its surface expression had been "rescued" by low temperature. It is noteworthy that short-term pretreatment with VRT-325 [but not with an inactive analog, 4-hydroxy-2-(1-[4-(4-methoxy-benzenesulfonyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-ethyl)-quinazoline (VRT-186)], caused a modest but significant inhibition of cAMP-mediated halide flux. Furthermore, VRT-325 decreased the apparent ATP affinity of purified and reconstituted F508del-CFTR in our ATPase activity assay, an effect that may account for the decrease in channel activity by temperature-rescued F508del-CFTR. These findings suggest that biosynthetic rescue mediated by VRT-325 may be conferred (at least in part) by direct modification of the structure of the mutant protein, leading to a decrease in its ATP-dependent conformational dynamics. Therefore, the challenge for therapy discovery will be the design of small molecules that bind to promote biosynthetic maturation of the major mutant without compromising its activity in

  14. Quorum Sensing Down-Regulation Counteracts the Negative Impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on CFTR Channel Expression, Function and Rescue in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maillé, Émilie; Ruffin, Manon; Adam, Damien; Messaoud, Hatem; Lafayette, Shantelle L.; McKay, Geoffrey; Nguyen, Dao; Brochiero, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    The function of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels is crucial in human airways. However unfortunately, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection has been shown to impair CFTR proteins in non-CF airway epithelial cells (AEC) and to alter the efficiency of new treatments with CFTR modulators designed to correct the basic CFTR default in AEC from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients carrying the F508del mutation. Our aim was first to compare the effect of laboratory strains, clinical isolates, engineered and natural mutants to determine the role of the LasR quorum sensing system in CFTR impairment, and second, to test the efficiency of a quorum sensing inhibitor to counteract the deleterious impact of P. aeruginosa both on wt-CFTR and on the rescue of F508del-CFTR by correctors. We first report that exoproducts from either the laboratory PAO1 strain or a clinical ≪Early≫ isolate (from an early stage of infection) altered CFTR expression, localization and function in AEC expressing wt-CFTR. Genetic inactivation of the quorum-sensing LasR in PAO1 (PAO1ΔlasR) or in a natural clinical mutant (≪Late≫ CF-adapted clinical isolate) abolished wt-CFTR impairment. PAO1 exoproducts also dampened F508del-CFTR rescue by VRT-325 or Vx-809 correctors in CF cells, whereas PAO1ΔlasR had no impact. Importantly, treatment of P. aeruginosa cultures with a quorum sensing inhibitor (HDMF) prevented the negative effect of P. aeruginosa exoproducts on wt-CFTR and preserved CFTR rescue by correctors in CF AEC. These findings indicate that LasR-interfering strategies could be of benefits to counteract the deleterious effect of P. aeruginosa in infected patients. PMID:29177135

  15. A role for CFTR in the elevation of glutathione levels in the lung by oral glutathione administration

    PubMed Central

    Kariya, Chirag; Leitner, Heather; Min, Elysia; van Heeckeren, Christiaan; van Heeckeren, Anna; Day, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is the only known apical glutathione (GSH) transporter in the lung. The purpose of these studies was to determine whether oral GSH or glutathione disulfide (GSSG) treatment could increase lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) GSH levels and whether CFTR plays a role in this process. The pharmacokinetic profile of an oral bolus dose of GSH (300 mg/kg) was determined in mice. Plasma, ELF, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, and lung tissue were analyzed for GSH content. There was a rapid elevation in the GSH levels that peaked at 30 min in the plasma and 60 min in the lung, ELF, and BAL cells after oral GSH dosing. Oral GSH treatment produced a selective increase in the reduced and active form of GSH in all lung compartments examined. Oral GSSG treatment (300 mg/kg) resulted in a smaller increase of GSH levels. To evaluate the role of CFTR in this process, Cftr knockout (KO) mice and gut-corrected Cftr KO-transgenic (Tg) mice were given an oral bolus dose of GSH (300 mg/kg) and compared with wild-type mice for changes in GSH levels in plasma, lung, ELF, and BAL cells. There was a twofold increase in plasma, a twofold increase in lung, a fivefold increase in ELF, and a threefold increase in BAL cell GSH levels at 60 min in wild-type mice; however, GSH levels only increased by 40% in the plasma, 60% in the lung, 50% in the ELF, and twofold in the BAL cells within the gut-corrected Cftr KO-Tg mice. No change in GSH levels was observed in the uncorrected Cftr KO mice. These studies suggest that CFTR plays an important role in GSH uptake from the diet and transport processes in the lung. PMID:17369290

  16. Analysis of cystic fibrosis gener product (CFTR) function in patients with pancreas divisum and recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gelrud, Andres; Sheth, Sunil; Banerjee, Subhas; Weed, Deborah; Shea, Julie; Chuttani, Ram; Howell, Douglas A; Telford, Jennifer J; Carr-Locke, David L; Regan, Meredith M; Ellis, Lynda; Durie, Peter R; Freedman, Steven D

    2004-08-01

    The mechanism by which pancreas divisum may lead to recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis in a subset of individuals is unknown. Abnormalities of the cystic fibrosis gene product (CFTR) have been implicated in the genesis of idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to determine if CFTR function is abnormal in patients with pancreas divisum and recurrent acute pancreatitis (PD/RAP). A total of 69 healthy control subjects, 12 patients with PD/RAP, 16 obligate heterozygotes with a single CFTR mutation, and 95 patients with cystic fibrosis were enrolled. CFTR function was analyzed by nasal transepithelial potential difference testing in vivo. The outcomes of the PD/RAP patients following endoscopic and surgical treatments were concomitantly analyzed. Direct measurement of CFTR function in nasal epithelium in response to isoproterenol demonstrated that the values for PD/RAP were intermediate between those observed for healthy controls and cystic fibrosis patients. The median value was 13 mV for PD/RAP subjects, which was statistically different from healthy controls (22 mV, p= 0.001) and cystic fibrosis pancreatic sufficient (-1 mV, p < 0.0001) and pancreatic insufficient (-3 mV, p < 0.0001) patients. These results suggest a link between CFTR dysfunction and recurrent acute pancreatitis in patients with pancreas divisum and may explain why a subset of patients with pancreas divisum develops recurrent acute pancreatitis. Copyright 2004 American College of Gastroenterology

  17. Absence of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (Cftr) from myeloid-derived cells slows resolution of inflammation and infection.

    PubMed

    Bonfield, T L; Hodges, C A; Cotton, C U; Drumm, M L

    2012-11-01

    The absence or reduction of CFTR function causes CF and results in a pulmonary milieu characterized by bacterial colonization and unresolved inflammation. The ineffectiveness at controlling infection by species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggests defects in innate immunity. Macrophages, neutrophils, and DCs have all been shown to express CFTR mRNA but at low levels, raising the question of whether CFTR has a functional role in these cells. Bone marrow transplants between CF and non-CF mice suggest that these cells are inherently different; we confirm this observation using conditional inactivation of Cftr in myeloid-derived cells. Mice lacking Cftr in myeloid cells overtly appear indistinguishable from non-CF mice until challenged with bacteria instilled into the lungs and airways, at which point, they display survival and inflammatory profiles intermediate in severity as compared with CF mice. These studies demonstrate that Cftr is involved directly in myeloid cell function and imply that these cells contribute to the pathophysiological phenotype of the CF lung.

  18. Lumacaftor-Ivacaftor in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Homozygous for Phe508del CFTR.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Claire E; Elborn, J Stuart; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Marigowda, Gautham; Huang, Xiaohong; Cipolli, Marco; Colombo, Carla; Davies, Jane C; De Boeck, Kris; Flume, Patrick A; Konstan, Michael W; McColley, Susanna A; McCoy, Karen; McKone, Edward F; Munck, Anne; Ratjen, Felix; Rowe, Steven M; Waltz, David; Boyle, Michael P

    2015-07-16

    Cystic fibrosis is a life-limiting disease that is caused by defective or deficient cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein activity. Phe508del is the most common CFTR mutation. We conducted two phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies that were designed to assess the effects of lumacaftor (VX-809), a CFTR corrector, in combination with ivacaftor (VX-770), a CFTR potentiator, in patients 12 years of age or older who had cystic fibrosis and were homozygous for the Phe508del CFTR mutation. In both studies, patients were randomly assigned to receive either lumacaftor (600 mg once daily or 400 mg every 12 hours) in combination with ivacaftor (250 mg every 12 hours) or matched placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was the absolute change from baseline in the percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at week 24. A total of 1108 patients underwent randomization and received study drug. The mean baseline FEV1 was 61% of the predicted value. In both studies, there were significant improvements in the primary end point in both lumacaftor-ivacaftor dose groups; the difference between active treatment and placebo with respect to the mean absolute improvement in the percentage of predicted FEV1 ranged from 2.6 to 4.0 percentage points (P<0.001), which corresponded to a mean relative treatment difference of 4.3 to 6.7% (P<0.001). Pooled analyses showed that the rate of pulmonary exacerbations was 30 to 39% lower in the lumacaftor-ivacaftor groups than in the placebo group; the rate of events leading to hospitalization or the use of intravenous antibiotics was lower in the lumacaftor-ivacaftor groups as well. The incidence of adverse events was generally similar in the lumacaftor-ivacaftor and placebo groups. The rate of discontinuation due to an adverse event was 4.2% among patients who received lumacaftor-ivacaftor versus 1.6% among those who received placebo. These data show that lumacaftor in

  19. CFTR Mutations Spectrum and the Efficiency of Molecular Diagnostics in Polish Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Rutkiewicz, Ewa; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Klimek, Barbara; Voelkel, Katarzyna; Witt, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR). In light of the strong allelic heterogeneity and regional specificity of the mutation spectrum, the strategy of molecular diagnostics and counseling in CF requires genetic tests to reflect the frequency profile characteristic for a given population. The goal of the study was to provide an updated comprehensive estimation of the distribution of CFTR mutations in Polish CF patients and to assess the effectiveness of INNOLiPA_CFTR tests in Polish population. The analyzed cohort consisted of 738 patients with the clinically confirmed CF diagnosis, prescreened for molecular defects using INNOLiPA_CFTR panels from Innogenetics. A combined efficiency of INNOLiPA CFTR_19 and CFTR_17_TnUpdate tests was 75.5%; both mutations were detected in 68.2%, and one mutation in 14.8% of the affected individuals. The group composed of all the patients with only one or with no mutation detected (109 and 126 individuals, respectively) was analyzed further using a mutation screening approach, i.e. SSCP/HD (single strand conformational polymorphism/heteroduplex) analysis of PCR products followed by sequencing of the coding sequence. As a result, 53 more mutations were found in 97 patients. The overall efficiency of the CF allele detection was 82.5% (7.0% increase compared to INNOLiPA tests alone). The distribution of the most frequent mutations in Poland was assessed. Most of the mutations repetitively found in Polish patients had been previously described in other European populations. The most frequent mutated allele, F508del, represented 54.5% of Polish CF chromosomes. Another eight mutations had frequencies over 1%, 24 had frequencies between 1 and 0.1%; c.2052-2053insA and c.3468+2_3468+3insT were the most frequent non-INNOLiPA mutations. Mutation distribution described herein is also relevant to the Polish diaspora. Our study also demonstrates that the reported efficiency of

  20. CFTR mutations spectrum and the efficiency of molecular diagnostics in Polish cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Rutkiewicz, Ewa; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Klimek, Barbara; Voelkel, Katarzyna; Witt, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR). In light of the strong allelic heterogeneity and regional specificity of the mutation spectrum, the strategy of molecular diagnostics and counseling in CF requires genetic tests to reflect the frequency profile characteristic for a given population. The goal of the study was to provide an updated comprehensive estimation of the distribution of CFTR mutations in Polish CF patients and to assess the effectiveness of INNOLiPA_CFTR tests in Polish population. The analyzed cohort consisted of 738 patients with the clinically confirmed CF diagnosis, prescreened for molecular defects using INNOLiPA_CFTR panels from Innogenetics. A combined efficiency of INNOLiPA CFTR_19 and CFTR_17_TnUpdate tests was 75.5%; both mutations were detected in 68.2%, and one mutation in 14.8% of the affected individuals. The group composed of all the patients with only one or with no mutation detected (109 and 126 individuals, respectively) was analyzed further using a mutation screening approach, i.e. SSCP/HD (single strand conformational polymorphism/heteroduplex) analysis of PCR products followed by sequencing of the coding sequence. As a result, 53 more mutations were found in 97 patients. The overall efficiency of the CF allele detection was 82.5% (7.0% increase compared to INNOLiPA tests alone). The distribution of the most frequent mutations in Poland was assessed. Most of the mutations repetitively found in Polish patients had been previously described in other European populations. The most frequent mutated allele, F508del, represented 54.5% of Polish CF chromosomes. Another eight mutations had frequencies over 1%, 24 had frequencies between 1 and 0.1%; c.2052-2053insA and c.3468+2_3468+3insT were the most frequent non-INNOLiPA mutations. Mutation distribution described herein is also relevant to the Polish diaspora. Our study also demonstrates that the reported efficiency of

  1. Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor in Patients Aged 6-11 Years with Cystic Fibrosis and Homozygous for F508del-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Milla, Carlos E; Ratjen, Felix; Marigowda, Gautham; Liu, Fang; Waltz, David; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    Combination lumacaftor/ivacaftor has been shown to improve lung function and other endpoints in patients aged 12 years and older with cystic fibrosis and homozygous for F508del-CFTR, but it has not been assessed in younger patients. In this open-label phase III trial, we evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination therapy in patients aged 6-11 years with cystic fibrosis who were homozygous for F508del-CFTR. Patients (N = 58) received 200 mg lumacaftor/250 mg ivacaftor orally every 12 hours for 24 weeks in addition to their existing cystic fibrosis medications. Lumacaftor/ivacaftor was well tolerated; the safety profile was generally similar to that observed in larger lumacaftor/ivacaftor trials with older patients. Four patients discontinued (two because of drug-related adverse events: elevated liver transaminases, n = 1; rash, n = 1). No safety concerns were associated with spirometry. No significant changes in percent predicted FEV 1 were observed (change from baseline at Week 24, +2.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.2 to 5.2; P = 0.0671). At Week 24, significant improvements from baseline were observed in sweat chloride (-24.8 mmol/L; 95% CI, -29.1 to -20.5; P < 0.0001), body mass index z score (+0.15; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.22; P < 0.0001), Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised respiratory domain score (+5.4; 95% CI, 1.4 to 9.4; P = 0.0085), and lung clearance index based on lung volume turnover required to reach 2.5% of starting N 2 concentration (-0.88; 95% CI, -1.40 to -0.37; P = 0.0018). Lumacaftor/ivacaftor was well tolerated in this young population; no new safety concerns were identified. Improvements in lung clearance index, sweat chloride, nutritional status, and health-related quality of life were observed after 24 weeks of treatment. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01897233).

  2. Activation of 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent Kinase 1 (PDK1) and Serum- and Glucocorticoid-induced Protein Kinase 1 (SGK1) by Short-chain Sphingolipid C4-ceramide Rescues the Trafficking Defect of ΔF508-Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (ΔF508-CFTR)*

    PubMed Central

    Caohuy, Hung; Yang, Qingfeng; Eudy, Yvonne; Ha, Thien-An; Xu, Andrew E.; Glover, Matthew; Frizzell, Raymond A.; Jozwik, Catherine; Pollard, Harvey B.

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is due to a folding defect in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The most common mutation, ΔF508, prevents CFTR from trafficking to the apical plasma membrane. Here we show that activation of the PDK1/SGK1 signaling pathway with C4-ceramide (C4-CER), a non-toxic small molecule, functionally corrects the trafficking defect in both cultured CF cells and primary epithelial cell explants from CF patients. The mechanism of C4-CER action involves a series of mutual autophosphorylation and phosphorylation events between PDK1 and SGK1. Detailed mechanistic studies indicate that C4-CER initially induces autophosphorylation of SGK1 at Ser422. SGK1[Ser(P)422] and C4-CER coincidently bind PDK1 and permit PDK1 to autophosphorylate at Ser241. Then PDK1[Ser(P)241] phosphorylates SGK1[Ser(P)422] at Thr256 to generate fully activated SGK1[Ser422, Thr(P)256]. SGK1[Ser(P)422,Thr(P)256] phosphorylates and inactivates the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2. ΔF508-CFTR is thus free to traffic to the plasma membrane. Importantly, C4-CER-mediated activation of both PDK1 and SGK1 is independent of the PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. Physiologically, C4-CER significantly increases maturation and stability of ΔF508-CFTR (t½ ∼10 h), enhances cAMP-activated chloride secretion, and suppresses hypersecretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8). We suggest that candidate drugs for CF directed against the PDK1/SGK1 signaling pathway, such as C4-CER, provide a novel therapeutic strategy for a life-limiting disorder that affects one child, on average, each day. PMID:25384981

  3. Bicarbonate-dependent chloride transport drives fluid secretion by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jiajie; Liao, Jie; Huang, Junwei; Robert, Renaud; Palmer, Melissa L; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; O'Grady, Scott M; Hanrahan, John W

    2012-01-01

    Anion and fluid secretion are both defective in cystic fibrosis (CF); however, the transport mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Cl− and HCO3− secretion was measured using genetically matched CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient and CFTR-expressing cell lines derived from the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3. Forskolin stimulated the short-circuit current (Isc) across voltage-clamped monolayers, and also increased the equivalent short-circuit current (Ieq) calculated under open-circuit conditions. Isc was equivalent to the HCO3− net flux measured using the pH-stat technique, whereas Ieq was the sum of the Cl− and HCO3− net fluxes. Ieq and HCO3− fluxes were increased by bafilomycin and ZnCl2, suggesting that some secreted HCO3− is neutralized by parallel electrogenic H+ secretion. Ieq and fluid secretion were dependent on the presence of both Na+ and HCO3−. The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide abolished forskolin stimulation of Ieq and HCO3− secretion, suggesting that HCO3− transport under these conditions requires catalysed synthesis of carbonic acid. Cl− was the predominant anion in secretions under all conditions studied and thus drives most of the fluid transport. Nevertheless, 50–70% of Cl− and fluid transport was bumetanide-insensitive, suggesting basolateral Cl− loading by a sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1)-independent mechanism. Imposing a transepithelial HCO3− gradient across basolaterally permeabilized Calu-3 cells sustained a forskolin-stimulated current, which was sensitive to CFTR inhibitors and drastically reduced in CFTR-deficient cells. Net HCO3− secretion was increased by bilateral Cl− removal and therefore did not require apical Cl−/HCO3− exchange. The results suggest a model in which most HCO3− is recycled basolaterally by exchange with Cl−, and the resulting HCO3−-dependent Cl− transport provides an osmotic driving force for

  4. Oestrogen upregulates the expression levels and functional activities of duodenal mucosal CFTR and SLC26A6.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hai; Wen, Guorong; Deng, Shili; Wan, Shuo; Xu, Jingyu; Liu, Xuemei; Xie, Rui; Dong, Hui; Tuo, Biguang

    2016-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Duodenal ulcer is a common disease. A sex-based difference in the incidence of duodenal ulcer has long been observed clinically, but the cause is unclear. What is the main finding and its importance? Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion is the most important protective factor in duodenal mucosa against acid-induced damage. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the solute-linked carrier 26 gene family A6 (SLC26A6) are two key bicarbonate transport proteins that mediate duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. We demonstrate that endogenous oestrogen upregulates the expression levels and functional activities of duodenal mucosal CFTR and SLC26A6, which contributes to the sex difference in the prevalence of duodenal ulcer. The incidence of duodenal ulcer is markedly lower in women than men, but the cause of the sex difference is not clear. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the solute-linked carrier 26 gene family A6 (SLC26A6) are two key bicarbonate transport proteins that mediate duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion, which is an important protective factor against acid-induced duodenal injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oestrogen on the expressions and functional activities of CFTR and SLC26A6 in duodenal mucosa. We found that the expression levels of duodenal CFTR and SLC26A6 were markedly higher in young (20- to 30-year-old) women than in young men and old (60- to 70-year-old) women and men. The expression levels of CFTR and SLC26A6 in young women were markedly higher in preovulatory phases than in premenstrual phases, which was consistent with the changes of serum estradiol concentrations. Further results showed that duodenal CFTR and SLC26A6 expression levels in female mice were markedly decreased after ovariectomy, and supplementation with estradiol reversed the changes in CFTR and SLC26A6. 17β-Estradiol increased CFTR and SLC

  5. Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Impairs Bacterial Phagocytosis in Macrophages by Modulating CFTR Dependent Lipid-Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Inzer; Ji, Changhoon; Vij, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction First/Second-hand cigarette-smoke (FHS/SHS) exposure weakens immune defenses inducing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Hence, we evaluated if SHS induced changes in membrane/lipid-raft (m-/r)-CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) expression/activity is a potential mechanism for impaired bacterial phagocytosis in COPD. Methods RAW264.7 murine macrophages were exposed to freshly prepared CS-extract (CSE) containing culture media and/or Pseudomonas-aeruginosa-PA01-GFP for phagocytosis (fluorescence-microscopy), bacterial survival (colony-forming-units-CFU), and immunoblotting assays. The CFTR-expression/activity and lipid-rafts were modulated by transient-transfection or inhibitors/inducers. Next, mice were exposed to acute/sub-chronic-SHS or room-air (5-days/3-weeks) and infected with PA01-GFP, followed by quantification of bacterial survival by CFU-assay. Results We investigated the effect of CSE treatment on RAW264.7 cells infected by PA01-GFP and observed that CSE treatment significantly (p<0.01) inhibits PA01-GFP phagocytosis as compared to the controls. We also verified this in murine model, exposed to acute/sub-chronic-SHS and found significant (p<0.05, p<0.02) increase in bacterial survival in the SHS-exposed lungs as compared to the room-air controls. Next, we examined the effect of impaired CFTR ion-channel-activity on PA01-GFP infection of RAW264.7 cells using CFTR172-inhibitor and found no significant change in phagocytosis. We also similarly evaluated the effect of a CFTR corrector-potentiator compound, VRT-532, and observed no significant rescue of CSE impaired PA01-GFP phagocytosis although it significantly (p<0.05) decreases CSE induced bacterial survival. Moreover, induction of CFTR expression in macrophages significantly (p<0.03) improves CSE impaired PA01-GFP phagocytosis as compared to the control. Next, we verified the link between m-/r-CFTR

  6. Insulin Secretion Improves in Cystic Fibrosis Following Ivacaftor Correction of CFTR: A Small Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bellin, Melena D.; Laguna, Theresa; Leschyshyn, Janice; Regelmann, Warren; Dunitz, Jordan; Billings, JoAnne; Moran, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is involved in human insulin secretion by assessing the metabolic impact of the new CFTR corrector, ivacaftor. Methods This open-label pilot study was conducted in CF patients with the G551D mutation given new prescriptions for ivacaftor. At baseline and 4 weeks after daily ivacaftor therapy, intravenous (IVGTT) and oral glucose (OGTT) tolerance tests were performed. Results Five patients age 6–52 were studied. After 1 month on ivacaftor, the insulin response to oral glucose improved by 66–178% in all subjects except one with long-standing diabetes. OGTT glucose levels were not lower in the two individuals with diabetes or the two with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), but the glucose tolerance category in the subject with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) improved to NGT after treatment. In response to intravenous glucose, the only patient whose acute insulin secretion did not improve had newly diagnosed, untreated CFRD. The others improved by 51–346%. Acute insulin secretion was partially restored in two subjects with no measurable acute insulin response at baseline, including the one with IGT and the one with long-standing diabetes. Conclusions This small pilot study suggests there is a direct role of CFTR in human insulin secretion. Larger, long-term longitudinal studies are necessary to determine whether early initiation of CFTR correction, particularly in young children with CF who have not yet lost considerable beta-cell mass, will delay or prevent development of diabetes in this high risk population. PMID:23952705

  7. F508del-CFTR rescue: a matter of cell stress response.

    PubMed

    Nieddu, Erika; Pollarolo, Benedetta; Merello, Luisa; Schenone, Silvia; Mazzei, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common inherited fatal disease affecting 70,000 people worldwide, with a median predicted age of survival of approximately 38 years. The deletion of Phenylalanine in position 508 of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (F508del-CFTR) is the most common mutation in CF patients: the deleted protein, not properly folded, is degraded. To date no commercial drugs are available. Low temperature, some osmolytes and conditions able to induce heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression and heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) inhibition result in F508del-CFTR rescue, hence restoring its physiological function: this review sheds light on the correlation between these several evidences. Interestingly, all these approaches have a role in the cell stress response (CSR), a set of cell reactions to stress. In addition, unpredictably, F508del-CFTR rescue has to be considered in the frame of CSR: entities that induce - or are induced during - the CSR are, in general, also able to correct trafficking defect of CFTR. Specifically, the low temperature induces, by definition, a CSR; osmolytes, such as glycerol and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), are products of the CSR; pharmacological correctors, such as Matrine and 4-phenylbutirric acid (4PBA), down-regulate the constitutive Hsc70 in favor of an up-regulation of the inducible chaperone Hsp70, another component of the CSR. The identification of a common mechanism of action for different types of correctors could drive the discovery of new active molecules in CF, overcoming methods clinically inapplicable, such as the low temperature.

  8. Carbachol-induced colonic mucus formation requires transport via NKCC1, K+ channels and CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Lindén, Sara K.; Alwan, Ala H.; Scholte, Bob J.; Hansson, Gunnar C.; Sjövall, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The colonic mucosa protects itself from the luminal content by secreting mucus that keeps the bacteria at a distance from the epithelium. For this barrier to be effective, the mucus has to be constantly replenished which involves exocytosis and expansion of the secreted mucins. Mechanisms involved in regulation of mucus exocytosis and expansion are poorly understood, and the aim of this study was to investigate whether epithelial anion secretion regulates mucus formation in the colon. The muscarinic agonist carbachol was used to induce parallel secretion of anions and mucus, and by using established inhibitors of ion transport, we studied how inhibition of epithelial transport affected mucus formation in mouse colon. Anion secretion and mucin exocytosis were measured by changes in membrane current and epithelial capacitance, respectively. Mucus thickness measurements were used to determine the carbachol effect on mucus growth. The results showed that the carbachol-induced increase in membrane current was dependent on NKCC1 co-transport, basolateral K+ channels and Cftr activity. In contrast, the carbachol-induced increase in capacitance was partially dependent on NKCC1 and K+ channel activity, but did not require Cftr activity. Carbachol also induced an increase in mucus thickness that was inhibited by the NKCC1 blocker bumetanide. However, mice that lacked a functional Cftr channel did not respond to carbachol with an increase in mucus thickness, suggesting that carbachol-induced mucin expansion requires Cftr channel activity. In conclusion, these findings suggest that colonic epithelial transport regulates mucus formation by affecting both exocytosis and expansion of the mucin molecules. PMID:25139191

  9. A new compound heterozygous CFTR mutation in a Chinese family with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yingjun; Huang, Xueqiong; Liang, Yujian; Xu, Lingling; Pei, Yuxin; Cheng, Yucai; Zhang, Lidan; Tang, Wen

    2017-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease among Caucasians but is rarer in the Chinese population, because mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. To elucidate the causative role of a novel compound heterozygous mutation of CF. In this study, clinical samples were obtained from two siblings with recurrent airway infections, clubbed fingers, salt-sweat and failure to gain weight in a non-consanguineous Chinese family. Next-generation sequencing was performed on the 27 coding exons of CFTR in both children, with confirmation by Sanger sequencing. Next-generation sequencing showed the same compound heterozygous CFTR mutation (c.865A>T p.Arg289X and c.3651_3652insAAAT p.Tyr1219X) in both children. As this mutation is consistent with the clinical manifestations of CF and no other mutations were detected after scanning the gene sequence, we suggest that the CF phenotype is caused by compound heterozygosity for c.865A>T and c.3651_3652insAAAT. As c865A>T is not currently listed in the "Cystic Fibrosis Mutation Database", this information about CF in a Chinese population is of interest. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. CFTR-dependent defect in alternatively-activated macrophages in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tarique, Abdullah A; Sly, Peter D; Holt, Patrick G; Bosco, Anthony; Ware, Robert S; Logan, Jayden; Bell, Scott C; Wainwright, Claire E; Fantino, Emmanuelle

    2017-07-01

    The role of the macrophages in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease has been poorly studied. We hypothesized that alternatively activated M2 macrophages are abnormal in CF lung disease. Blood samples were collected from adults (n=13) children (n=27) with CF on admission for acute pulmonary exacerbation and when clinically stable. Monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and polarized into classical (M1) and alternatively-activated (M2) phenotypes, function determined ex-vivo and compared with healthy controls. In the absence of functional cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR), either naturally in patients with CF or induced with CFTR inhibitors, monocyte-derived macrophages do not respond to IL-13/IL-4, fail to polarize into M2s associated with a post-transcriptional failure to produce and express IL-13Rα1 on the macrophage surface Polarization to the M1 phenotype was unaffected. CFTR-dependent imbalance of macrophage phenotypes and functions could contribute to the exaggerated inflammatory response seen in CF lung disease. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stimulation of Intestinal Cl- Secretion Through CFTR by Caffeine Intake in Salt-Sensitive Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao; Lu, Zongshi; Yang, Tao; Gao, Peng; Chen, Sijiao; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2018-03-16

    High salt consumption is a major risk factor for hypertension, and sodium homeostasis is regulated by both intestinal sodium absorption and urinary sodium excretion. Chronic caffeine intake has been reported to attenuate salt-sensitive hypertension by promoting urinary sodium excretion; however, its exact role in intestinal sodium absorption remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether and how chronic caffeine consumption antagonizes salt-sensitive hypertension by inhibiting intestinal sodium absorption. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed 8% NaCl chow and 0.1% caffeine in their drinking water for 15 days. The blood pressure and fecal sodium content were measured. The effect of caffeine on the movement of Cl- in enterocyte cells was determined with the Ussing chamber assay. Rats that were treated with caffeine displayed significantly lower mean blood pressure and higher fecal sodium content than the controls. Consistent with these findings, caffeine intake decreased fluid absorption by the intestine in the fluid perfusion experiment. Further, the results from the Ussing chamber assay indicated that caffeine promoted Cl- secretion through enterocyte apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and thus inhibited sodium absorption. Moreover, depletion of cAMP or inhibition of CFTR completely abolished the effect of caffeine on Cl- secretion. The results indicate that chronic caffeine consumption reduces sodium absorption by promoting CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion in the intestine, which contributes to the anti-hypertensive effect of caffeine in salt-sensitive rats. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Bowel ultrasound imaging in patients with cystic fibrosis: Relationship with clinical symptoms and CFTR genotype.

    PubMed

    Fraquelli, Mirella; Baccarin, Alessandra; Corti, Fabiola; Conti, Clara Benedetta; Russo, Maria Chiara; Della Valle, Serena; Pozzi, Roberta; Cressoni, Massimo; Conte, Dario; Colombo, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is used to assess bowel abnormalities in gastrointestinal diseases. We aimed to assess the rate of predefined bowel ultrasound signs and their relationship with gastrointestinal symptoms and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genotype in cystic fibrosis patients in regular follow-up. Prospective study of 70 consecutive patients with cystic fibrosis and 45 controls who underwent abdominal ultrasound; pertinent findings were related to gastrointestinal symptoms and, in cystic fibrosis patients, to pancreatic status, malabsorption degree, lipase intake, CFTR genotype (classified as severe or mild against functional class of CFTR mutations). 96% patients showed at least one abnormal bowel ultrasound sign. Most frequent signs were lymph node enlargement (64%), bowel loop dilatation (55%), thick corpuscular intraluminal content (49%), bowel wall hypervascularization (26%), thickened bowel wall (22%) and intussusception (17%). Patients with recurrent abdominal pain showed more bowel wall hypervascularization than patients without recurrent pain (47% vs. 19%, respectively; p = 0.02) and intussusception (58% vs. 17%, respectively; p < 0.01). Genotype was not associated to specific bowel ultrasound signs. Patients with bowel loop intussusception showed greater lipase intake than those without intussusception (8.118 ± 2.083 vs. 5.994 ± 4.187, respectively; p < 0.01). Cystic fibrosis patients present a higher rate of bowel ultrasound abnormalities than controls. Bowel ultrasound abnormalities are associated with abdominal symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Molecular basis of cystic fibrosis in Lithuania: incomplete CFTR mutation detection by PCR-based screening protocols.

    PubMed

    Giannattasio, S; Bobba, A; Jurgelevicius, V; Vacca, R A; Lattanzio, P; Merafina, R S; Utkus, A; Kucinskas, V; Marra, E

    2006-01-01

    Mutational analysis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene was performed in 98 unrelated CF chromosomes from 49 Lithuanian CF patients through a combined approach in which the p.F508del mutation was first screened by allele-specific PCR while CFTR mutations in nonp.F508del chromosomes have been screened for by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. A CFTR mutation was characterized in 62.2% of CF chromosomes, two of which (2.0%) have been previously shown to carry a large gene deletion CFTRdele2,3(21 kb). The most frequent Lithuanian CF mutation is p.F508del (52.0%). Seven CFTR mutations, p.N1303K (2.0%), p.R75Q (1.0%), p.G314R (1.0%), p.R553X (4.2%), p.W1282X (1.0%), and g.3944delGT (1.0%), accounted for 10.1% of Lithuanian CF chromosomes. It was not possible to characterize 35.8% of the CF Lithuanian chromosomes. Analysis of intron 8 (TG)mTn and M470V polymorphic loci did not permit the characterization of the CFTR dysfunction underlying the CF phenotype in the patients for which no CFTR mutation was identified. Thus, screening of the eight CFTR mutations identified in this study and of the large deletion CFTRdele2,3(21 kb) allows the implementation of an early molecular or confirmatory CF diagnosis for 65% of Lithuanian CF chromosomes.

  15. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  16. Cigarette smoke exposure reveals a novel role for the MEK/ERK1/2 MAPK pathway in regulation of CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohua; Balsiger, Robert; Tyrrell, Jean; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Tarran, Robert; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Background CFTR plays a key role in maintenance of lung fluid homeostasis. Cigarette smoke decreases CFTR expression in the lung but neither the mechanisms leading to CFTR loss, nor potential ways to prevent its loss have been identified to date. Methods The molecular mechanisms leading to down-regulation of CFTR by cigarette smoke were determined using pharmacologic inhibitors and silencing RNAs. Results Using human bronchial epithelial cells, here we show that cigarette smoke induces degradation of CFTR that is attenuated by the lysosomal inhibitors, but not proteasome inhibitors. Cigarette smoke can activate multiple signaling pathways in airway epithelial cells, including the MEK/Erk1/2 MAPK pathway regulating cell survival. Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of the MEK/Erk1/2 MAPK pathway prevented the loss of plasma membrane CFTR upon cigarette smoke exposure. Similarly, decreased expression of Erk1/2 using silencing RNAs prevented the suppression of CFTR protein by cigarette smoke. Conversely, specific inhibitors of the JNK or p38 MAPK pathways had no effect on CFTR decrease after cigarette smoke exposure. In addition, inhibition of the MEK/Erk1/2 MAPK pathway prevented the reduction of the airway surface liquid observed upon cigarette smoke exposure of primary human airway epithelial cells. Finally, addition of the antioxidant NAC inhibited activation of Erk1/2 by cigarette smoke and precluded the cigarette smoke-induced decrease of CFTR. Conclusions These results show that the MEK/Erk1/2 MAPK pathway regulates plasma membrane CFTR in human airway cells. General Significance The MEK/Erk1/2 MAPK pathway should be considered as a target for strategies to maintain/restore CFTR expression in the lung of smokers. PMID:25697727

  17. Sensitivity of chloride efflux vs. transepithelial measurements in mixed CF and normal airway epithelial cell populations.

    PubMed

    Illek, Beate; Lei, Dachuan; Fischer, Horst; Gruenert, Dieter C

    2010-01-01

    While the Cl(-) efflux assays are relatively straightforward, their ability to assess the efficacy of phenotypic correction in cystic fibrosis (CF) tissue or cells may be limited. Accurate assessment of therapeutic efficacy, i.e., correlating wild type CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) levels with phenotypic correction in tissue or individual cells, requires a sensitive assay. Radioactive chloride ((36)Cl) efflux was compared to Ussing chamber analysis for measuring cAMP-dependent Cl(-) transport in mixtures of human normal (16HBE14o-) and cystic fibrosis (CF) (CFTE29o- or CFBE41o-, respectively) airway epithelial cells. Cell mixtures with decreasing amounts of 16HBE14o- cells were evaluated. Efflux and Ussing chamber studies on mixed populations of normal and CF airway epithelial cells showed that, as the number of CF cells within the population was progressively increased, the cAMP-dependent Cl(-) decreased. The (36)Cl efflux assay was effective for measuring Cl(-) transport when ≥ 25% of the cells were normal. If < 25% of the cells were phenotypically wild-type (wt), the (36)Cl efflux assay was no longer reliable. Polarized CFBE41o- cells, also homozygous for the ΔF508 mutation, were used in the Ussing chamber studies. Ussing analysis detected cAMP-dependent Cl(-) currents in mixtures with ≥1% wild-type cells indicating that Ussing analysis is more sensitive than (36)Cl efflux analysis for detection of functional CFTR. Assessment of CFTR function by Ussing analysis is more sensitive than (36)Cl efflux analysis. Ussing analysis indicates that cell mixtures containing 10% 16HBE14o- cells showed 40-50% of normal cAMP-dependent Cl(-) transport that drops off exponentially between 10-1% wild-type cells. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. N-glycans are direct determinants of CFTR folding and stability in secretory and endocytic membrane traffic.

    PubMed

    Glozman, Rina; Okiyoneda, Tsukasa; Mulvihill, Cory M; Rini, James M; Barriere, Herve; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2009-03-23

    N-glycosylation, a common cotranslational modification, is thought to be critical for plasma membrane expression of glycoproteins by enhancing protein folding, trafficking, and stability through targeting them to the ER folding cycles via lectin-like chaperones. In this study, we show that N-glycans, specifically core glycans, enhance the productive folding and conformational stability of a polytopic membrane protein, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), independently of lectin-like chaperones. Defective N-glycosylation reduces cell surface expression by impairing both early secretory and endocytic traffic of CFTR. Conformational destabilization of the glycan-deficient CFTR induces ubiquitination, leading to rapid elimination from the cell surface. Ubiquitinated CFTR is directed to lysosomal degradation instead of endocytic recycling in early endosomes mediated by ubiquitin-binding endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) adaptors Hrs (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate) and TSG101. These results suggest that cotranslational N-glycosylation can exert a chaperone-independent profolding change in the energetic of CFTR in vivo as well as outline a paradigm for the peripheral trafficking defect of membrane proteins with impaired glycosylation.

  19. MARCH2 regulates autophagy by promoting CFTR ubiquitination and degradation and PIK3CA-AKT-MTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dan; Qu, Liujing; Li, Ge; Hongdu, Beiqi; Xu, Chentong; Lin, Xin; Lou, Yaxin; He, Qihua; Ma, Dalong; Chen, Yingyu

    2016-09-01

    MARCH2 (membrane-associated RING-CH protein 2), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is mainly associated with the vesicle trafficking. In the present study, for the first time, we demonstrated that MARCH2 negatively regulates autophagy. Our data indicated that overexpression of MARCH2 impaired autophagy, as evidenced by attenuated levels of LC3B-II and impaired degradation of endogenous and exogenous autophagic substrates. By contrast, loss of MARCH2 expression had the opposite effects. In vivo experiments demonstrate that MARCH2 knockout mediated autophagy results in an inhibition of tumorigenicity. Further investigation revealed that the induction of autophagy by MARCH2 deficiency was mediated through the PIK3CA-AKT-MTOR signaling pathway. Additionally, we found that MARCH2 interacts with CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of CFTR, and inhibits CFTR-mediated autophagy in tumor cells. The functional PDZ domain of MARCH2 is required for the association with CFTR. Thus, our study identified a novel negative regulator of autophagy and suggested that the physical and functional connection between the MARCH2 and CFTR in different conditions will be elucidated in the further experiments.

  20. Whole-gene CFTR sequencing combined with digital RT-PCR improves genetic diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Straniero, Letizia; Soldà, Giulia; Costantino, Lucy; Seia, Manuela; Melotti, Paola; Colombo, Carla; Asselta, Rosanna; Duga, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    Despite extensive screening, 1-5% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients lack a definite molecular diagnosis. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is making affordable genetic testing based on the identification of variants in extended genomic regions. In this frame, we analyzed 23 CF patients and one carrier by whole-gene CFTR resequencing: 4 were previously characterized and served as controls; 17 were cases lacking a complete diagnosis after a full conventional CFTR screening; 3 were consecutive subjects referring to our centers, not previously submitted to any screening. We also included in the custom NGS design the coding portions of the SCNN1A, SCNN1B and SCNN1G genes, encoding the subunits of the sodium channel ENaC, which were found to be mutated in CF-like patients. Besides 2 novel SCNN1B missense mutations, we identified 22 previously-known CFTR mutations, including 2 large deletions (whose breakpoints were precisely mapped), and novel deep-intronic variants, whose role on splicing was excluded by ex-vivo analyses. Finally, for 2 patients, compound heterozygotes for a CFTR mutation and the intron-9c.1210-34TG [11-12] T 5 allele-known to be associated with decreased CFTR mRNA levels-the molecular diagnosis was implemented by measuring the residual level of wild-type transcript by digital reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction performed on RNA extracted from nasal brushing.

  1. Short communication: novel truncating mutations in the CFTR gene causing a severe form of cystic fibrosis in Italian patients.

    PubMed

    Lenarduzzi, S; Morgutti, M; Crovella, S; Coiana, A; Rosatelli, M C

    2014-11-14

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. More than 1800 different mutations have been described to date. Here, we report 3 novel mutations in CFTR in 3 Italian CF patients. To detect and identify 36 frequent mutations in Caucasians, we used the INNO-LiPA CFTR19 and INNO-LiPA CFTR17+Tn Update kits (Innogenetics; Ghent, Belgium). Our first analysis did not reveal both of the responsible mutations; thus, direct sequencing of the CFTR gene coding region was performed. The 3 patients were compound heterozygous. In one allele, the F508del (c.1521_1523delCTT, p.PHE508del) mutation in exon 11 was observed in each case. For the second allele, in patient No.1, direct sequencing revealed an 11-base pair deletion (GAGGCGATACT) in exon 14 (c.2236_2246del; pGlu746Alafs*29). In patient No. 2, direct sequencing revealed a nonsense mutation at nucleotide 3892 (c.3892G>T) in exon 24. In patient No. 3, direct sequencing revealed a deletion of cytosine in exon 27 (c.4296delC; p.Asn1432Lysfs*16). These 3 novel mutations indicate the production of a truncated protein, which consequently results in a non-functional polypeptide.

  2. cAMP-dependent chloride secretion mediates tubule enlargement and cyst formation by cultured mammalian collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Roberto; Ghzili, Hafida; Carrozzino, Fabio; Rossier, Bernard C; Féraille, Eric

    2009-02-01

    Polycystic kidney diseases result from disruption of the genetically defined program that controls the size and geometry of renal tubules. Cysts which frequently arise from the collecting duct (CD) result from cell proliferation and fluid secretion. From mCCD(cl1) cells, a differentiated mouse CD cell line, we isolated a clonal subpopulation (mCCD-N21) that retains morphogenetic capacity. When grown in three-dimensional gels, mCCD-N21 cells formed highly organized tubular structures consisting of a palisade of polarized epithelial cells surrounding a cylindrical lumen. Subsequent addition of cAMP-elevating agents (forskolin or cholera toxin) or of membrane-permeable cAMP analogs (CPT-cAMP) resulted in rapid and progressive dilatation of existing tubules, leading to the formation of cystlike structures. When grown on filters, mCCD-N21 cells exhibited a high transepithelial resistance as well as aldosterone- and/or vasopressin-induced amiloride-sensitive and -insensitive current. The latter was in part inhibited by Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (bumetanide) and chloride channel (NPPB) inhibitors. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed the expression of NKCC1, the ubiquitous Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) in mCCD-N21 cells. Tubule enlargement and cyst formation were prevented by inhibitors of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (bumetanide or ethacrynic acid) or CFTR (NPPB or CFTR inhibitor-172). These results further support the notion that cAMP signaling plays a key role in renal cyst formation, at least in part by promoting chloride-driven fluid secretion. This new in vitro model of tubule-to-cyst conversion affords a unique opportunity for investigating the molecular mechanisms that govern the architecture of epithelial tubes, as well as for dissecting the pathophysiological processes underlying cystic kidney diseases.

  3. Attenuation of Phosphorylation-dependent Activation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) by Disease-causing Mutations at the Transmission Interface*

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Stephanie; Yang, Donghe; Miles, Andrew J.; Eckford, Paul D. W.; Molinski, Steven; Wallace, B. A.; Bear, Christine E.

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a multidomain membrane protein that functions as a phosphorylation-regulated anion channel. The interface between its two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains and coupling helices conferred by intracellular loops extending from the channel pore domains has been referred to as a transmission interface and is thought to be critical for the regulated channel activity of CFTR. Phosphorylation of the regulatory domain of CFTR by protein kinase A (PKA) is required for its channel activity. However, it was unclear if phosphorylation modifies the transmission interface. Here, we studied purified full-length CFTR protein using spectroscopic techniques to determine the consequences of PKA-mediated phosphorylation. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that purified full-length wild-type CFTR is folded and structurally responsive to phosphorylation. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence studies of CFTR showed that phosphorylation reduced iodide-mediated quenching, consistent with an effect of phosphorylation in burying tryptophans at the transmission interface. Importantly, the rate of phosphorylation-dependent channel activation was compromised by the introduction of disease-causing mutations in either of the two coupling helices predicted to interact with nucleotide binding domain 1 at the interface. Together, these results suggest that phosphorylation modifies the interface between the catalytic and pore domains of CFTR and that this modification facilitates CFTR channel activation. PMID:28003367

  4. SYVN1, NEDD8, and FBXO2 Proteins Regulate ΔF508 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Ubiquitin-mediated Proteasomal Degradation.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Shyam; Osterhaus, Samantha R; Parekh, Kalpaj R; Jacobi, Ashley M; Behlke, Mark A; McCray, Paul B

    2016-12-02

    We previously reported that delivery of a microRNA-138 mimic or siRNA against SIN3A to cultured cystic fibrosis (ΔF508/ΔF508) airway epithelia partially restored ΔF508-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated cAMP-stimulated Cl - conductance. We hypothesized that dissecting this microRNA-138/SIN3A-regulated gene network would identify individual proteins contributing to the rescue of ΔF508-CFTR function. Among the genes in the network, we rigorously validated candidates using functional CFTR maturation and electrolyte transport assays in polarized airway epithelia. We found that depletion of the ubiquitin ligase SYVN1, the ubiquitin/proteasome system regulator NEDD8, or the F-box protein FBXO2 partially restored ΔF508-CFTR-mediated Cl - transport in primary cultures of human cystic fibrosis airway epithelia. Moreover, knockdown of SYVN1, NEDD8, or FBXO2 in combination with corrector compound 18 further potentiated rescue of ΔF508-CFTR-mediated Cl - conductance. This study provides new knowledge of the CFTR biosynthetic pathway. It suggests that SYVN1 and FBXO2 represent two distinct multiprotein complexes that may degrade ΔF508-CFTR in airway epithelia and identifies a new role for NEDD8 in regulating ΔF508-CFTR ubiquitination. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Isoflavone genistein inhibits estrogen-induced chloride and bicarbonate secretory mechanisms in the uterus in rats.

    PubMed

    Chinigarzadeh, Asma; Karim, Kamarulzaman; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2017-04-01

    We hypothesized that genistein could affect the chloride (Cl - ) and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) secretory mechanisms in uterus. Ovariectomized female rats were given estradiol or estradiol plus progesterone with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day genistein. Following completion of the treatment, uterine fluid Cl - and HCO 3 - concentrations were determined by in vivo uterine perfusion. Uteri were subjected for molecular biological analysis (Western blot, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry) to detect levels of expression of Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), Cl - /HCO 3 - exchanger (SLC26a6), Na + /HCO 3 - cotransporter (SLC4a4), and estrogen receptor (ER)-α and β. Coadministration of genistein resulted in decrease in Cl - and HCO 3 - concentrations and expression of CFTR, SLC26a6, SLC4a4, and ER-α and ER-β in the uteri of estradiol-treated rats. In estradiol plus progesterone-treated rats, a significant increase in the above parameters were observed following high-dose genistein treatment except for the SLC24a4 level. In conclusion, genistein-induced changes in the uterus could affect the reproductive processes that might result in infertility. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Increased plasma membrane cholesterol in cystic fibrosis cells correlates with CFTR genotype and depends on de novo cholesterol synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous observations demonstrate that Cftr-null cells and tissues exhibit alterations in cholesterol processing including perinuclear cholesterol accumulation, increased de novo synthesis, and an increase in plasma membrane cholesterol accessibility compared to wild type controls. The hypothesis of this study is that membrane cholesterol accessibility correlates with CFTR genotype and is in part influenced by de novo cholesterol synthesis. Methods Electrochemical detection of cholesterol at the plasma membrane is achieved with capillary microelectrodes with a modified platinum coil that accepts covalent attachment of cholesterol oxidase. Modified electrodes absent cholesterol oxidase serves as a baseline control. Cholesterol synthesis is determined by deuterium incorporation into lipids over time. Incorporation into cholesterol specifically is determined by mass spectrometry analysis. All mice used in the study are on a C57Bl/6 background and are between 6 and 8 weeks of age. Results Membrane cholesterol measurements are elevated in both R117H and ΔF508 mouse nasal epithelium compared to age-matched sibling wt controls demonstrating a genotype correlation to membrane cholesterol detection. Expression of wt CFTR in CF epithelial cells reverts membrane cholesterol to WT levels further demonstrating the impact of CFTR on these processes. In wt epithelial cell, the addition of the CFTR inhibitors, Gly H101 or CFTRinh-172, for 24 h surprisingly results in an initial drop in membrane cholesterol measurement followed by a rebound at 72 h suggesting a feedback mechanism may be driving the increase in membrane cholesterol. De novo cholesterol synthesis contributes to membrane cholesterol accessibility. Conclusions The data in this study suggest that CFTR influences cholesterol trafficking to the plasma membrane, which when depleted, leads to an increase in de novo cholesterol synthesis to restore membrane content. PMID:20487541

  7. Sodium chloride and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y W

    1997-09-01

    The hypothesis that sodium chloride deficiency, and not its overuse, is prime cause of hypertension and arteriosclerosis is presented. In the author's home town--a farflung part of northern China--hypertension is a rare disease and arteriosclerosis is a virtually unknown condition. The average intake of sodium chloride for these people is > 30 g/day compared with the typical sodium chloride intake of 10-12 g per day in the USA. When the 10-12 g salt ingested is mixed with the average daily water intake (2100 ml), 0.47% to 0.57% saline mixture is produced, which is hypotonic to extracellular fluid in salt content. Thus sodium conservation becomes necessary. All the hormones and ions involved in sodium conservation are inducers of hypertension; these include aldosterone, angiotensin 11, glucocorticoids, catecholamine, and vasopression. Plus, potassium waste, induced under the influence of aldosterone excess, participates in the development of hypertension.

  8. Association between F508 deletion in CFTR and chronic pancreatitis risk.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong; Xu, Yanzhen; Li, Jiatong; Fu, Shien; Xiao, Feifan; Song, Xiaowei; Xie, Zhibin; Jiang, Min; He, Yan; Liu, Chengwu; Wen, Qiongxian; Yang, Xiaoli

    2017-09-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been reported to influence individual susceptibility to chronic pancreatitis (CP), but the results of previous studies are controversial. We performed a study to demonstrate the relationship between CFTR and CP. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Embase for studies of patients with CP. Seven studies from 1995 to 2016 were identified, and included 64,832 patients. Pooled prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. F508 deletion in CFTR was significantly positively associated with CP risk in the overall analysis (odds ratio [OR]=3.20, 95% CI: 2.30-4.44, I 2 =31.7%). In subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity, F508 deletion was significantly associated with CP risk in Indian populations, using a fixed effects model (ORs=5.45, 95% CI: 2.52-11.79, I 2 =0.0%), and in non-Indian populations, using a random effects model (ORs=3.59, 95% CI: 1.73-7.48, I 2 =60.9%). At the same time, we found that Indians with F508 deletion had much higher CP prevalence than non-Indians. Interestingly, F508 deletion was also associated with CP and idiopathic CP risk in subgroup analysis stratified by aeitiology, using the fixed effects model. Based on current evidence, F508 deletion is a risk factor for CP, and Indians with F508 deletion have much higher CP morbidity. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene mutations in North Egyptian population: implications for the genetic diagnosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Seedy, A; Pasquet, M C; Shafiek, H; Morsi, T; Kitzis, A; Ladevèze, V

    2016-11-30

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) occurrence in Arab populations is not common and still remains underidentified. Furthermore, the lack of disease awareness and diagnosis facilities have mislead the identification of cystic fibrosis for decades. The knowledge about cystic fibrosis (CF) in Egypt is very limited, and a few reports have drawn attention to the existence of CF or CFTR-related disorders (CFTR-RDs) in the Egyptian population. Therefore a comprehensive genetic analysis of the CFTR gene was realized in patients of North Egypt. DNA samples of 56 Egyptian patients were screened for the CFTR gene mutations. The 27 exons and their flanking regions of the CFTR gene were amplified by PCR, using the published primer pairs, and were studied by automated direct DNA sequencing to detect disease-causing mutations. Moreover, large duplication/deletion was analysed by MLPA technique. CFTR screening revealed the identification of thirteen mutations including four novel ones: c.92G>A (p.Arg31His), c.2782G>C (p.Ala928Pro), c.3718-24G>A, c.4207A>G (p.Arg1403Gly) and nine previously reported mutations: c.454A>T (p.Met152Leu), c.902A>G (p.Tyr301Cys), c.1418delG, c.2620-15C>G, c.2997_3000delAATT, c.3154T>G (p.Phe1052Val), c.3872A>G (p.Gln1291Arg), c.3877G>A (p.Val1293Ile), c.4242+10T>C. Furthermore, eight polymorphisms were found: c.743+40A>G, c.869+11C>T, c.1408A>G, c.1584G>A, c.2562T>G, c.3870A>G, c.4272C>T, c.4389G>A. These mutations and polymorphisms were not previously described in the Egyptian population except for the c.1408A>G polymorphism. Here we demonstrate the importance of the newly discovered mutations in Egyptian patients and the presence of CF, whereas the p.Phe508del mutation is not detected. The identification of CFTR mutations will become increasingly important in undocumented populations. The current findings will help us expand the mutational spectrum of CF and establish the first panel of the CFTR gene

  10. Comparison of Nasal Potential Difference and Intestinal Current Measurements as Surrogate Markers for CFTR Function.

    PubMed

    Wilschanski, Michael; Yaakov, Yasmin; Omari, Ibrahim; Zaman, Munir; Martin, Camilia R; Cohen-Cymberknoh, Malena; Shoseyov, David; Kerem, Eitan; Dasilva, Deborah; Sheth, Sunil; Uluer, Ahmet; OʼSullivan, Brian P; Freedman, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Nasal potential difference (NPD) measurement is part of the diagnostic criteria for cystic fibrosis (CF) and now used routinely as an endpoint in clinical trials of correcting the basic defect in CF. Intestinal current measurement (ICM), measured ex vivo on a rectal biopsy, has been used to study cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function but has not been compared to NPD in the same subject in adults and children. The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential usefulness of ICM as a marker of CFTR function for treatment studies compared NPD in patients with CF and in healthy control subjects. ICM and NPD were performed on healthy controls and patients with CF. The healthy adults were individuals undergoing routine screening colonoscopy at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. The healthy children were undergoing colonoscopy for suspicion of inflammation in Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center. The CF adults were recruited from Boston Children's Hospital CF Center and CF Center Worcester Mass, the children with CF from Hadassah CF Center. ICM measurements in healthy control subjects (n = 16) demonstrated a mean (±SE) carbachol response of 16.0 (2.2) μA/cm, histamine response of 13.2 (2.1) μA/cm and a forskolin response of 6.3 (2.0) μA/cm. Basal NPD of -15.9 (1.9) and response to Cl free + isoproterenol of -13.8 (2.0). These responses were inverted in CF subjects (n = 12) for ICM parameters with carbachol response of -3.0 (0.5) μA/cm, histamine -1.0 (0.8) μA/cm and a forskolin response of 0.5 (0.3) and also for NPD parameters; basal NPD of -42.2 (4.3) and response to Cl free + isoproterenol of 4.3 (0.7). Pearson correlation test showed the comparability of ICM and NPD in assessing CFTR function. ICM is equivalent to NPD in the ability to distinguish patients with CF from controls and could be used as surrogate markers of CFTR activity in treatment protocols.

  11. DETANO and Nitrated Lipids Increase Chloride Secretion across Lung Airway Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lan; Bosworth, Charles A.; Pico, Tristant; Collawn, James F.; Varga, Karoly; Gao, Zhiqian; Clancy, John Paul; Fortenberry, James A.; Lancaster, Jack R.; Matalon, Sadis

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the cellular mechanisms by which nitric oxide (NO) increases chloride (Cl−) secretion across lung epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Addition of (Z)-1-[2-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl) amino] diazen-1-ium-1, 2-diolate (DETANONOate [DETANO];1–1,000 μM) into apical compartments of Ussing chambers containing Calu-3 cells increased short-circuit currents (Isc) from 5.2 ± 0.8 to 15.0 ± 2.1 μA/cm2 (X ± 1 SE; n = 7; P < 0.001). NO generated from two nitrated lipids (nitrolinoleic and nitrooleic acids; 1–10 μM) also increased Isc by about 100%. Similar effects were noted across basolaterally, but not apically, permeabilized Calu-3 cells. None of these NO donors increased Isc in Calu-3 cells pretreated with 10 μM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase). Scavenging of NO either prevented or reversed the increase of Isc. These data indicate that NO stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase was sufficient and necessary for the increase of Isc via stimulation of the apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR). Both Calu-3 and alveolar type II (ATII) cells contained CFTR, as demonstrated by in vitro phosphorylation of immunoprecipitated CFTR by protein kinase (PK) A. PKGII (but not PKGI) phosphorylated CFTR immuniprecipitated from Calu-3 cells. Corresponding values in ATII cells were below the threshold of detection. Furthermore, DETANO, 8-Br-cGMP, or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cGMP (up to 2 mM each) did not increase Cl− secretion across amiloride-treated ATII cells in vitro. Measurements of nasal potential differences in anesthetized mice showed that perfusion of the nares with DETANO activated glybenclamide-sensitive Cl− secretion. These findings suggest that small concentrations of NO donors may prove beneficial in stimulating Cl− secretion across airway cells without promoting alveolar edema. PMID:18314534

  12. DETANO and nitrated lipids increase chloride secretion across lung airway cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan; Bosworth, Charles A; Pico, Tristant; Collawn, James F; Varga, Karoly; Gao, Zhiqian; Clancy, John Paul; Fortenberry, James A; Lancaster, Jack R; Matalon, Sadis

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the cellular mechanisms by which nitric oxide (NO) increases chloride (Cl-) secretion across lung epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Addition of (Z)-1-[2-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl) amino] diazen-1-ium-1, 2-diolate (DETANONOate [DETANO];1-1,000 microM) into apical compartments of Ussing chambers containing Calu-3 cells increased short-circuit currents (I(sc)) from 5.2 +/- 0.8 to 15.0 +/- 2.1 microA/cm(2) (X +/- 1 SE; n = 7; P < 0.001). NO generated from two nitrated lipids (nitrolinoleic and nitrooleic acids; 1-10 microM) also increased I(sc) by about 100%. Similar effects were noted across basolaterally, but not apically, permeabilized Calu-3 cells. None of these NO donors increased I(sc) in Calu-3 cells pretreated with 10 microM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase). Scavenging of NO either prevented or reversed the increase of I(sc). These data indicate that NO stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase was sufficient and necessary for the increase of I(sc) via stimulation of the apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR). Both Calu-3 and alveolar type II (ATII) cells contained CFTR, as demonstrated by in vitro phosphorylation of immunoprecipitated CFTR by protein kinase (PK) A. PKGII (but not PKGI) phosphorylated CFTR immuniprecipitated from Calu-3 cells. Corresponding values in ATII cells were below the threshold of detection. Furthermore, DETANO, 8-Br-cGMP, or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cGMP (up to 2 mM each) did not increase Cl- secretion across amiloride-treated ATII cells in vitro. Measurements of nasal potential differences in anesthetized mice showed that perfusion of the nares with DETANO activated glybenclamide-sensitive Cl- secretion. These findings suggest that small concentrations of NO donors may prove beneficial in stimulating Cl- secretion across airway cells without promoting alveolar edema.

  13. Is sweat chloride predictive of severity of cystic fibrosis lung disease assessed by chest computed tomography?

    PubMed

    Caudri, Daan; Zitter, David; Bronsveld, Inez; Tiddens, Harm

    2017-09-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by a marked heterogeneity. Sweat chloride-level is a functional marker of the CF Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) protein and could be an important predictor of later disease severity. In this retrospective analysis children from the Rotterdam CF clinic with available sweat chloride level at diagnosis and at least one routine spirometry-controlled volumetric chest CT scan in follow-up were included. CT scans were scored using the CF-CT scoring system (% of maximum). Associations between sweat chloride-levels and CF-CT scores were calculated using linear regression models, adjusting for age at sweat test and age at follow-up. Because structural lung damage develops over the course of many years, effect modification by the age at follow-up CT-scan was tested for by age-stratification. In 59 children (30 male) sweat chloride was measured at diagnosis (median age 0.5 years, range 0-13) and later chest CT performed (median age 14 years, range 6-18). Sweat chloride was associated with significantly higher CT-CT total score, bronchiectasis score, and mucus plugging score. Stratification for age at follow-up in tertiles showed this association remained only in the oldest age group (range 15-18 years). In that subgroup associations were found with all but one of the CF-CT subscores, as well as with all tested lung functions parameters. Sweat chloride-level is a significant predictor of CF lung disease severity as determined by chest CT and lung function. This association could only be demonstrated in children with follow-up to age 15 years and above. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Resveratrol Ameliorates Abnormalities of Fluid and Electrolyte Secretion in a Hypoxia-Induced Model of Acquired CFTR Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Hypothesis Ineffective mucociliary clearance (MCC) is a common pathophysiologic process that underlies airway inflammation and infection. A dominant fluid and electrolyte secretory pathway in the nasal airways is governed by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Decreased transepithelial Cl− transport secondary to an acquired CFTR deficiency may exacerbate respiratory epithelial dysfunction by diminishing MCC and increasing mucus viscosity. The objectives of the present study are to 1) develop a model of acquired CFTR deficiency in sinonasal epithelium using hypoxia, 2) investigate whether the polyphenol resveratrol promotes CFTR-mediated anion transport, 3) explore resveratrol mechanism of action and determine therapeutic suitability for overcoming acquired CFTR defects, and 4) test the drug in the hypoxic model of acquired CFTR deficiency in preparation for a clinical trial in human sinus disease. We hypothesize that hypoxia will induce depletion of airway surface liquid (ASL) secondary to acquired CFTR deficiency and that resveratrol will restore transepithelial Cl− secretion and recover ASL hydration. Study Design Basic science Methods Murine nasal septal (MNSE) and human sinonasal epithelial (HSNE) cultures were incubated under hypoxic conditions (1% O2,5% CO2) and transepithelial ion transport (change in short-circuit current=ΔISC) evaluated in Ussing chambers. Resveratrol was tested using primary cells and HEK293 cells expressing human CFTR by Ussing chamber and patch clamp techniques under both phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating conditions. CFTR activation was evaluated in human explants and by murine in vivo (nasal potential difference) assessment. Cellular cAMP (ELISA) and subsequent CFTR regulatory domain (R-D) phosphorylation (gel-shift assay) were also evaluated. Effects of hypoxia and resveratrol on ASL were tested using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and micro-optical coherence tomography (

  15. Atmospheric Methyl Chloride

    DOE Data Explorer

    Khalil, M. A. K. [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Rasmussen, R. A. [Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR (USA)

    1999-01-01

    This data set provides monthly average concentrations of atmospheric methyl chloride taken from seven locations distributed among the polar, middle, and tropical latitudes of both hemispheres. The seven primary sites include Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Cape Kumukahi and Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Cape Matatula, Samoa; Cape Grim, Tasmania; and the South Pole and Palmer Station, Antarctica. Concentration measurements from these seven sites cover a period of 16 years, extending from 1981-1997. Monthly data taken between 1987-1989 from 20 short-term sites and vertical distribution measured at various latitudes are also provided. Air samples were collected from various sites in stainless steel flasks and methyl chloride concentrations were measured using an Electron Capture Gas Chromatograph. Concentrations are reported as mixing ratios in dry air. The concentrations are determined by using a set of calibration standards that are referenced against a primary standard which is also used to establish the absolute concentration. The primary standards were prepared by the investigators in the absence of an available standard from a centralized location. The data are useful in global methyl chloride budget analyses and for determining the atmospheric distribution and trends of methyl chloride and estimating the total emissions at various latitudes.

  16. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...

  17. Is congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens a primary form of cystic fibrosis? Analyses of the CFTR gene in 67 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mercier, B.; Verlingue, C.; Audrezet, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) is an important cause of sterility in men. Although the genetic basis of this condition is still unclear, it has been shown recently that some of these patients carry mutations in their cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genes. To extend this observation, we have analyzed the entire coding sequence of the CFTR gene in a cohort of 67 men with CBAVD, who are otherwise healthy. We have identified four novel missense mutations (A800G, G149R, R258G, and E193K). We have shown that 42% of subjects were carriers of one CFTR allele andmore » that 24% are compound heterozygous for CFTR alleles. Thus, we have been unable to identify 76% of these patients as carrying two CFTR mutations. Furthermore, we have described the segregation of CFTR haplotypes in the family of one CBAVD male; in this family are two male siblings, with identical CFTR loci but displaying different phenotypes, one of them being fertile and the other sterile. The data presented in this family, indicating a discordance between the CBAVD phenotype and a marked carrier ({delta}F508) chromosome, support the involvement of another gene(s), in the etiology of CBAVD. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  18. Substance P stimulates human airway submucosal gland secretion mainly via a CFTR-dependent process

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Young; Khansaheb, Monal; Joo, Nam Soo; Krouse, Mauri E.; Robbins, Robert C.; Weill, David; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic bacterial airway infections are the major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). Normal airway defenses include reflex stimulation of submucosal gland mucus secretion by sensory neurons that release substance P (SubP). CFTR is an anion channel involved in fluid secretion and mutated in CF; the role of CFTR in secretions stimulated by SubP is unknown. We used optical methods to measure SubP-mediated secretion from human submucosal glands in lung transplant tissue. Glands from control but not CF subjects responded to mucosal chili oil. Similarly, serosal SubP stimulated secretion in more than 60% of control glands but only 4% of CF glands. Secretion triggered by SubP was synergistic with vasoactive intestinal peptide and/or forskolin but not with carbachol; synergy was absent in CF glands. Pig glands demonstrated a nearly 10-fold greater response to SubP. In 10 of 11 control glands isolated by fine dissection, SubP caused cell volume loss, lumen expansion, and mucus flow, but in 3 of 4 CF glands, it induced lumen narrowing. Thus, in CF, the reduced ability of mucosal irritants to stimulate airway gland secretion via SubP may be another factor that predisposes the airways to infections. PMID:19381016

  19. Cysteine residues in the nucleotide binding domains regulate the conductance state of CFTR channels.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Melissa A; Kopito, Ron R

    2002-01-01

    Gating of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels requires intermolecular or interdomain interactions, but the exact nature and physiological significance of those interactions remains uncertain. Subconductance states of the channel may result from alterations in interactions among domains, and studying mutant channels enriched for a single conductance type may elucidate those interactions. Analysis of CFTR channels in inside-out patches revealed that mutation of cysteine residues in NBD1 and NBD2 affects the frequency of channel opening to the full-size versus a 3-pS subconductance. Mutating cysteines in NBD1 resulted in channels that open almost exclusively to the 3-pS subconductance, while mutations of cysteines in NBD2 decreased the frequency of subconductance openings. Wild-type channels open to both size conductances and make fast transitions between them within a single open burst. Full-size and subconductance openings of both mutant and wild-type channels are similarly activated by ATP and phosphorylation. However, the different size conductances open very differently in the presence of a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog, with subconductance openings significantly shortened by ATPgammaS, while full-size channels are locked open. In wild-type channels, reducing conditions increase the frequency and decrease the open time of subconductance channels, while oxidizing conditions decrease the frequency of subconductance openings. In contrast, in the cysteine mutants studied, altering redox potential has little effect on gating of the subconductance. PMID:11867445

  20. Ethnic heterogeneity and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutation frequencies in Chicago-area CF families

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, C.; Lester, L.A.; Mott, C.

    1992-12-01

    The identification of a common mutation, [Delta]F508, in the CFTR gene allowed, for the first time, the detection of cystic fibrosis (CF) carriers in the general population. Further genetic studies revealed >100 additional disease-causing mutations in this gene, few of which occur on >1% of CF chromosomes in any ethnic group. Prior to establishing counseling guidelines and carrier risk assessments, the authors sought to establish the frequencies of the CFTR mutations that are present in CF families living in the Chicago are, a region notable for its ethnic heterogeneity. Their sample included 283 unrelated CF carriers, with the following ethnicmore » composition: 78% non-Ashkenazi Caucasians, 5% Ashkenazi, 9% African-American, 3% Mexican, 0.3% Native American, and 5% mixed ancestry. When a panel of 10 mutations ([Delta]F508, [Delta]I507, G542X, G551D, R553X, S549N, R1162X, W1282X, N1303K, and 1717-1G[r arrow]A) was used, detection rates ranged from 75% in non-Ashkenazi Caucasians to 40% in African-Americans. These data suggest that the goal of screening for 90%-95% of CF mutations may be unrealistic in this and other, similar US populations. 22 refs., 1 tab.« less

  1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.W.; Hamosh, A.; Macek, M. Jr.

    The etiology of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is not well understood. A clinical phenotype resembling the pulmonary disease seen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients can occur in some individuals with ABPA. Reports of familial occurrence of ABPA and increased incidence in CF patients suggest a possible genetic basis for the disease. To test this possibility, the entire coding region of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene was analyzed in 11 individuals who met strict criteria for the diagnosis of ABPA and had normal sweat electrolytes ({le}40 mmol/liter). One patient carried two CF mutations ({Delta}F508/R347H), and five were found tomore » carry one CF mutation (four {Delta}F508; one R117H). The frequency of the {Delta}F508 mutation in patients with ABPA was significantly higher than in 53 Caucasian patients with chronic bronchitis (P < .0003) and the general population (P < .003). These results suggest that CFTR plays an etiologic role in a subset of ABPA patients. 54 refs., 2 tabs.« less

  2. Combined effects of VX-770 and VX-809 on several functional abnormalities of F508del-CFTR channels.

    PubMed

    Kopeikin, Z; Yuksek, Z; Yang, H-Y; Bompadre, S G

    2014-09-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis-associated mutation, the deletion of phenylalanine 508 (F508del), results in channels with poor membrane expression and impaired function. VX-770, a clinically approved drug for treatment of CF patients carrying the G551D mutation, and VX-809, a corrector shown in vitro to increase membrane expression of mutant channels, are currently undergoing clinical trials, but functional data at the molecular level is still lacking. The effect of VX-770 and VX-809 on the multiple functional defects of F508del-CFTR was assessed via excised inside-out patch-clamp experiments. VX-770 completely restores the low opening-rate of F508del-CFTR, with smaller open-time increase, in temperature-corrected and VX-809-treated channels. The shorter locked-open time of hydrolysis-deficient F508del-CFTR is also prolonged by VX-770. VX-809 does not improve channel function by itself as previously reported. The results from these studies can be interpreted as an equilibrium shift toward the open-channel conformation of F508del-CFTR channels. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gq activity- and β-arrestin-1 scaffolding-mediated ADGRG2/CFTR coupling are required for male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui; Li, Rui-Rui; Liang, Zong-Lai; Gao, Yuan; Yang, Zhao; He, Dong-Fang; Lin, Amy; Mo, Hui; Lu, Yu-Jing; Li, Meng-Jing; Kong, Wei; Chung, Ka Young; Yi, Fan; Li, Jian-Yuan; Qin, Ying-Ying; Li, Jingxin; Thomsen, Alex R B; Kahsai, Alem W; Chen, Zi-Jiang; Xu, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Mingyao

    2018-01-01

    Luminal fluid reabsorption plays a fundamental role in male fertility. We demonstrated that the ubiquitous GPCR signaling proteins Gq and β-arrestin-1 are essential for fluid reabsorption because they mediate coupling between an orphan receptor ADGRG2 (GPR64) and the ion channel CFTR. A reduction in protein level or deficiency of ADGRG2, Gq or β-arrestin-1 in a mouse model led to an imbalance in pH homeostasis in the efferent ductules due to decreased constitutive CFTR currents. Efferent ductule dysfunction was rescued by the specific activation of another GPCR, AGTR2. Further mechanistic analysis revealed that β-arrestin-1 acts as a scaffold for ADGRG2/CFTR complex formation in apical membranes, whereas specific residues of ADGRG2 confer coupling specificity for different G protein subtypes, this specificity is critical for male fertility. Therefore, manipulation of the signaling components of the ADGRG2-Gq/β-arrestin-1/CFTR complex by small molecules may be an effective therapeutic strategy for male infertility. PMID:29393851

  4. Development of allele-specific multiplex PCR to determine the length of poly-T in intron 8 of CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Prada, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation analysis has been implemented for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) carrier screening, and molecular diagnosis of CF and congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD). Although poly-T allele analysis in intron 8 of CFTR is required when a patient is positive for R117H, it is not recommended for routine carrier screening. Therefore, commercial kits for CFTR mutation analysis were designed either to mask the poly-T allele results, unless a patient is R117H positive, or to have the poly-T analysis as a standalone reflex test using the same commercial platform. There are other standalone assays developed to detect poly-T alleles, such as heteroduplex analysis, High Resolution Melting (HRM) curve analysis, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) and Sanger sequencing. In this report, we developed a simple and easy-to-implement multiplex AS-PCR assay using unlabeled standard length primers, which can be used as a reflex or standalone test for CFTR poly-T track analysis. Out of 115 human gDNA samples tested, results from our new AS-PCR matched to the previous known poly-T results or results from Sanger sequencing. PMID:25071991

  5. Molecular analysis of defects in the CFTR gene and AZF locus of the Y chromosome in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sobczyńska-Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Bak, Daniel; Wolski, Jan Karol; Bablok, Leszek; Nawara, Magdalena; Mazurczak, Tadeusz; Bal, Jerzy

    2006-02-01

    To investigate the frequency and potential impact of mutations and polymorphisms in the CFTR gene and deletions in AZF locus of the Y chromosome in patients with azoospermia (AZOO), cryptozoospermia (CRYPTO) or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) who were to be included in an assisted reproductive technologies (ART) program. A total of 188 infertile men were enrolled in the study: 100 patients with AZOO, 38 with CRYPTO and 50 with OAT. The CFTR gene mutations or IVS8-5T variant in at least 1 allele was identified with similar frequencies among the AZOO (33%) and CRYPTO (21%) patients; 55% of the AZOO patients with normal spermatogenesis (NS) had mutations in 1 or 2 alleles. The novel R810G mutation in exon 13 was identified in 1 NS patient. The OAT or AZOO patients with Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCO) had mutations in the CFTR gene with similar frequencies to that in the general Polish population. The deletions in the AZF locus were detected in 20% of SCO patients, 11.5% of AZOO patients with maturation arrest and in 5% of CRYPTO patients. The other groups (NS, OAT) did not carry deletions in the region studied. Molecular diagnosis of the CFTR gene, Y chromosome deletion analysis and genetic counseling are necessary diagnostic elements for patients with male infertility, especially if the are included in an ART program.

  6. Prevalence of meconium ileus marks the severity of mutations of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Annie; Keenan, Katherine; Ooi, Chee Y; Dorfman, Ruslan; Sontag, Marci K; Naehrlich, Lutz; Castellani, Carlo; Strug, Lisa J; Rommens, Johanna M; Gonska, Tanja

    2016-04-01

    Meconium ileus (MI) is a perinatal complication in cystic fibrosis (CF), which is only minimally influenced by environmental factors. We derived and examined MI prevalence (MIP) scores to assess CFTR phenotype-phenotype correlation for severe mutations. MIP scores were established using a Canadian CF population (n = 2,492) as estimates of the proportion of patients with MI among all patients carrying the same CFTR mutation, focusing on patients with p.F508del as the second allele. Comparisons were made to the registries from the US CF Foundation (n = 43,432), Italy (Veneto/Trentino/Alto Adige regions) (n = 1,788), and Germany (n = 3,596). The prevalence of MI varied among the different registries (13-21%). MI was predominantly prevalent in patients with pancreatic insufficiency carrying "severe" CFTR mutations. In this severe spectrum MIP scores further distinguished between mutation types, for example, G542X (0.31) with a high, F508del (0.22) with a moderate, and G551D (0.08) with a low MIP score. Higher MIP scores were associated with more severe clinical phenotypes, such as a lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P = 0.01) and body mass index z score (P = 0.04). MIP scores can be used to rank CFTR mutations according to their clinical severity and provide a means to expand delineation of CF phenotypes.Genet Med 18 4, 333-340.

  7. A Quick Reference on Chloride.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Andrea A; de Morais, Helio Autran

    2017-03-01

    Chloride is an essential element, playing important roles in digestion, muscular activity, regulation of body fluids, and acid-base balance. As the most abundant anion in extracellular fluid, chloride plays a major role in maintaining electroneutrality. Chloride is intrinsically linked to sodium in maintaining osmolality and fluid balance and has an inverse relationship with bicarbonate in maintaining acid-base balance. It is likely because of these close ties that chloride does not get the individual attention it deserves; we can use these facts to simplify and interpret changes in serum chloride concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidence and Carrier Frequency of CFTR Gene Mutations in Pregnancies With Echogenic Bowel in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle E; Allen, Victoria M; Brock, Jo-Ann K

    2018-03-01

    Fetal echogenic bowel (echogenic bowel) is associated with cystic fibrosis (CF), with a reported incidence ranging from 1% to 13%. Prenatal testing for CF in the setting of echogenic bowel can be done by screening parental or fetal samples for pathogenic CFTR variants. If only one pathogenic variant is identified, sequencing of the CFTR gene can be undertaken, to identify a second pathogenic variant not covered in the standard screening panel. Full gene sequencing, however, also introduces the potential to identify variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) that can create counselling challenges and cause parental anxiety. To provide accurate counselling for families in the study population, the incidence of CF associated with echogenic bowel and the carrier frequency of CFTR variants were investigated. All pregnancies for which CF testing was undertaken for the indication of echogenic bowel (from Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island) were identified (January 2007-July 2017). The CFTR screening and sequencing results were reviewed, and fetal outcomes related to CF were assessed. A total of 463 pregnancies with echogenic bowel were tested. Four were confirmed to be affected with CF, giving an incidence of 0.9% in this cohort. The carrier frequency of CF among all parents in the cohort was 5.0% (1 in 20); however, when excluding parents of affected fetuses, the carrier frequency for the population was estimated at 4.1% (1 in 25). CFTR gene sequencing identified an additional VUS in two samples. The incidence of CF in pregnancies with echogenic bowel in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island is 0.9%, with an estimated population carrier frequency of 4.1%. These results provide the basis for improved counselling to assess the risk of CF in the pregnancy, after parental carrier screening, using Bayesian probability. Counselling regarding VUSs should be undertaken before gene sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by

  9. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  10. The importance of functional tests to assess the effect of a new CFTR variant when genotype-phenotype correlation is not possible.

    PubMed

    Hinzpeter, Alexandre; Reboul, Marie-Pierre; Callebaut, Isabelle; Zordan, Cécile; Costes, Bruno; Guichoux, Julie; Iron, Albert; Lacombe, Didier; Martin, Natacha; Arveiler, Benoit; Fanen, Pascale; Fergelot, Patricia; Girodon, Emmanuelle

    2017-05-01

    In vitro functional tests aimed to investigate CFTR dysfunction appear critical to help elucidate the functional impact of new variants of uncertain clinical significance and solve inconclusive cases, especially in early deceased newborns.

  11. Airway epithelial cell exposure to distinct e-cigarette liquid flavorings reveals toxicity thresholds and activation of CFTR by the chocolate flavoring 2,5-dimethypyrazine.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Cara L; Boitano, Scott

    2016-05-17

    that the increases in ion conductance evoked by 2,5-dimethylpyrazine were largely attributed to a protein kinase A-dependent (PKA) activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) ion channel. Data from our high-capacity screening assays demonstrates that individual e-cigarette liquid flavoring chemicals vary in their cytotoxicity profiles and that some constituents evoke a cellular physiological response on their own independent of cell death. The activation of CFTR by 2,5-dimethylpyrazine may have detrimental consequences for airway surface liquid homeostasis in individuals that use e-cigarettes habitually.

  12. Increased efficacy of VX-809 in different cellular systems results from an early stabilization effect of F508del-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Farinha, Carlos M; Sousa, Marisa; Canato, Sara; Schmidt, André; Uliyakina, Inna; Amaral, Margarida D

    2015-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common recessive autosomal disease among Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The most common mutation, F508del, leads to CFTR impaired plasma membrane trafficking. Therapies modulating CFTR basic defect are emerging, such as VX-809, a corrector of F508del-CFTR traffic which just succeeded in a Phase III clinical trial. We recently showed that VX-809 is additive to two other correctors (VRT-325 and compound 4a). Here, we aimed to determine whether the differential rescuing by these compounds results from cell-specific factors or rather from distinct effects at the early biogenesis and/or processing. The rescuing efficiencies of the above three correctors were first compared in different cellular models (primary respiratory cells, cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial and baby hamster kidney [BHK] cell lines) by functional approaches: micro-Ussing chamber and iodide efflux. Next, biochemical methods (metabolic labeling, pulse-chase and immunoprecipitation) were used to determine their impact on CFTR biogenesis / processing. Functional analyses revealed that VX-809 has the greatest rescuing efficacy and that the relative efficiencies of the three compounds are essentially maintained in all three cellular models tested. Nevertheless, biochemical data show that VX-809 significantly stabilizes F508del-CFTR immature form, an effect that is not observed for C3 nor C4. VX-809 and C3 also significantly increase accumulation of immature CFTR. Our data suggest that VX-809 increases the stability of F508del-CFTR immature form at an early phase of its biogenesis, thus explaining its increased efficacy when inducing its rescue.

  13. Increased efficacy of VX-809 in different cellular systems results from an early stabilization effect of F508del-CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, Carlos M; Sousa, Marisa; Canato, Sara; Schmidt, André; Uliyakina, Inna; Amaral, Margarida D

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common recessive autosomal disease among Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The most common mutation, F508del, leads to CFTR impaired plasma membrane trafficking. Therapies modulating CFTR basic defect are emerging, such as VX-809, a corrector of F508del-CFTR traffic which just succeeded in a Phase III clinical trial. We recently showed that VX-809 is additive to two other correctors (VRT-325 and compound 4a). Here, we aimed to determine whether the differential rescuing by these compounds results from cell-specific factors or rather from distinct effects at the early biogenesis and/or processing. The rescuing efficiencies of the above three correctors were first compared in different cellular models (primary respiratory cells, cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial and baby hamster kidney [BHK] cell lines) by functional approaches: micro-Ussing chamber and iodide efflux. Next, biochemical methods (metabolic labeling, pulse-chase and immunoprecipitation) were used to determine their impact on CFTR biogenesis / processing. Functional analyses revealed that VX-809 has the greatest rescuing efficacy and that the relative efficiencies of the three compounds are essentially maintained in all three cellular models tested. Nevertheless, biochemical data show that VX-809 significantly stabilizes F508del-CFTR immature form, an effect that is not observed for C3 nor C4. VX-809 and C3 also significantly increase accumulation of immature CFTR. Our data suggest that VX-809 increases the stability of F508del-CFTR immature form at an early phase of its biogenesis, thus explaining its increased efficacy when inducing its rescue. PMID:26171232

  14. Restoration of R117H CFTR folding and function in human airway cells through combination treatment with VX-809 and VX-770

    PubMed Central

    Gentzsch, Martina; Ren, Hong Y.; Houck, Scott A.; Quinney, Nancy L.; Cholon, Deborah M.; Sopha, Pattarawut; Chaudhry, Imron G.; Das, Jhuma; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Randell, Scott H.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal recessive genetic disease caused primarily by the F508del mutation in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The potentiator VX-770 was the first CFTR modulator approved by the FDA for treatment of CF patients with the gating mutation G551D. Orkambi is a drug containing VX-770 and corrector VX809 and is approved for treatment of CF patients homozygous for F508del, which has folding and gating defects. At least 30% of CF patients are heterozygous for the F508del mutation with the other allele encoding for one of many different rare CFTR mutations. Treatment of heterozygous F508del patients with VX-809 and VX-770 has had limited success, so it is important to identify heterozygous patients that respond to CFTR modulator therapy. R117H is a more prevalent rare mutation found in over 2,000 CF patients. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of VX-809/VX-770 therapy on restoring CFTR function in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells from R117H/F508del CF patients. We found that VX-809 stimulated more CFTR activity in R117H/F508del HBEs than in F508del/F508del HBEs. R117H expressed exclusively in immortalized HBEs exhibited a folding defect, was retained in the ER, and degraded prematurely. VX-809 corrected the R117H folding defect and restored channel function. Because R117 is involved in ion conductance, VX-770 acted additively with VX-809 to restore CFTR function in chronically treated R117H/F508del cells. Although treatment of R117H patients with VX-770 has been approved, our studies indicate that Orkambi may be more beneficial for rescue of CFTR function in these patients. PMID:27402691

  15. Restoration of R117H CFTR folding and function in human airway cells through combination treatment with VX-809 and VX-770.

    PubMed

    Gentzsch, Martina; Ren, Hong Y; Houck, Scott A; Quinney, Nancy L; Cholon, Deborah M; Sopha, Pattarawut; Chaudhry, Imron G; Das, Jhuma; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Randell, Scott H; Cyr, Douglas M

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal recessive genetic disease caused primarily by the F508del mutation in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The potentiator VX-770 was the first CFTR modulator approved by the FDA for treatment of CF patients with the gating mutation G551D. Orkambi is a drug containing VX-770 and corrector VX809 and is approved for treatment of CF patients homozygous for F508del, which has folding and gating defects. At least 30% of CF patients are heterozygous for the F508del mutation with the other allele encoding for one of many different rare CFTR mutations. Treatment of heterozygous F508del patients with VX-809 and VX-770 has had limited success, so it is important to identify heterozygous patients that respond to CFTR modulator therapy. R117H is a more prevalent rare mutation found in over 2,000 CF patients. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of VX-809/VX-770 therapy on restoring CFTR function in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells from R117H/F508del CF patients. We found that VX-809 stimulated more CFTR activity in R117H/F508del HBEs than in F508del/F508del HBEs. R117H expressed exclusively in immortalized HBEs exhibited a folding defect, was retained in the ER, and degraded prematurely. VX-809 corrected the R117H folding defect and restored channel function. Because R117 is involved in ion conductance, VX-770 acted additively with VX-809 to restore CFTR function in chronically treated R117H/F508del cells. Although treatment of R117H patients with VX-770 has been approved, our studies indicate that Orkambi may be more beneficial for rescue of CFTR function in these patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Four novel cystic fibrosis mutations in splice junction sequences affecting the CFTR nucleotide binding folds

    SciTech Connect

    Doerk, T.; Wulbrand, U.; Tuemmler, B.

    1993-03-01

    Single cases of the four novel splice site mutations 1525[minus]1 G [r arrow] A (intron 9), 3601[minus]2 A [r arrow] G (intron 18), 3850[minus]3 T [r arrow] G (intron 19), and 4374+1 G [r arrow] T (intron 23) were detected in the CFTR gene of cystic fibrosis patients of Indo-Iranian, Turkish, Polish, and Germany descent. The nucleotide substitutions at the +1, [minus]1, and [minus]2 positions all destroy splice sites and lead to severe disease alleles associated with features typical of gastrointestinal and pulmonary cystic fibrosis disease. The 3850[minus]3 T-to-G change was discovered in a very mildly affected 33-year-old [Delta]F508 compoundmore » heterozygote, suggesting that the T-to-G transversion at the less conserved [minus]3 position of the acceptor splice site may retain some wildtype function. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.« less

  17. Trypsin Reduces Pancreatic Ductal Bicarbonate Secretion by Inhibiting CFTR Cl- channel and Luminal Anion Exchangers

    PubMed Central

    Pallagi, Petra; Venglovecz, Viktória; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Borka, Katalin; Korompay, Anna; Ózsvári, Béla; Judák, Linda; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Geisz, Andrea; Schnúr, Andrea; Maléth, József; Takács, Tamás; Gray, Mike A.; Argent, Barry E.; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Wittmann, Tibor; Hegyi, Péter

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims The effects of trypsin on pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDEC) vary among species and depend on localization of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). Bicarbonate secretion is similar in human and guinea pig PDEC; we compared its localization in these cell types and isolated guinea pig ducts to study the effects of trypsin and a PAR-2 agonist on this process. Methods PAR-2 localization was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in guinea pig and human pancreatic tissue samples (from 15 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 15 without pancreatic disease). Functions of guinea pig PDEC were studied by microperfusion of isolated ducts, measurements of intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i, and patch clamp analysis. The effect of pH on trypsinogen autoactivation was assessed using recombinant human cationic trypsinogen. Results PAR-2 localized to the apical membrane of human and guinea pig PDEC. Trypsin increased [Ca2+]i and pHi, and inhibited secretion of bicarbonate by the luminal anion exchanger and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel. Autoactivation of human cationic trypsinogen accelerated when the pH was reduced from 8.5 to 6.0. PAR-2 expression was strongly down-regulated, at transcriptional and protein levels, in the ducts of patients with chronic pancreatitis, consistent with increased activity of intraductal trypsin. Importantly, in PAR-2 knockout mice, the effects of trypsin were PAR-2 dependent. Conclusions Trypsin reduces pancreatic ductal bicarbonate secretion via PAR-2–dependent inhibition of the apical anion exchanger and the CFTR Cl- channel. This could contribute to the development of chronic pancreatitis, decreasing luminal pH and promoting premature activation of trypsinogen in the pancreatic ducts. PMID:21893120

  18. Mild CFTR mutations and genetic predisposition to lactase persistence in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mądry, Edyta; Fidler, Ewa; Sobczyńska-Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Krzyżanowska, Patrycja; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Minarowski, Łukasz; Oralewska, Beata; Mojs, Ewa; Sapiejka, Ewa; Marciniak, Ryszard; Sands, Dorota; Korzon-Burakowska, Anna; Kwiecień, Jarosław; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the reported incidence of hypolactasia in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the possible impact of milk products on nutritional status we aimed to assess the genetic predisposition to adult-type hypolactasia (ATH) and its incidence in CF. Single nucleotide polymorphism upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) was assessed in 289 CF patients. In subject with −13910C/C genotype (C/C) predisposing to ATH, hydrogen-methane breath test (BT) with lactose loading was conducted and clinical symptoms typical for lactose malabsorption were assessed. The percentage of CF patients with C/C was similar to that observed in healthy subjects (HS) (31.5 vs 32.5% ). Eleven out of 52 (24.5%) CF C/C patients had abnormal BT results. The recalculated frequency of lactose malabsorption was similar for the entire CF and HS populations (6.9 vs 7.2%). Similarly as in the control group, few CF patients have identified and linked to lactose consumption clinical symptoms. The frequency of LCT polymorphic variants in CF patients having and not having severe mutations of CFTR gene showed significant differences. The C allele was more frequent in homozygotes of the severe mutations than in patients carrying at least one mild/unknown mutation (P<0.0028) and in patients with at least one mild mutation (P<0.0377). In conclusion, CF patients carrying mild CFTR mutations seem to have lower genetic predisposition to ATH. Lactose malabsorption due to ATH in CF is not more frequent than in the general population. Symptomatic assessment of lactose malabsorption in CF is not reliable. PMID:21407263

  19. Long-term Culture and Cloning of Primary Human Bronchial Basal Cells that Maintain Multipotent Differentiation Capacity and CFTR Channel Function.

    PubMed

    Peters-Hall, Jennifer Ruth; Coquelin, Melissa L; Torres, Michael J; LaRanger, Ryan; Alabi, Busola Ruth; Sho, Sei; Calva-Moreno, Jose Francisco; Thomas, Philip J; Shay, Jerry William

    2018-05-03

    While primary cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF human bronchial epithelial basal cells (HBECs) accurately represent in vivo phenotypes, one barrier to their wider use has been a limited ability to clone and expand cells in sufficient numbers to produce rare genotypes using genome editing tools. Recently, conditional reprogramming of cells (CRC) with a ROCK inhibitor and culture on an irradiated fibroblast feeder layer resulted in extension of the lifespan of HBECs, but differentiation capacity and CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function decreased as a function of passage. This report details modifications to the standard HBEC CRC protocol (Mod CRC), including the use of bronchial epithelial growth medium instead of F-medium and 2% oxygen instead of 21% oxygen, that extend HBEC lifespan while preserving multipotent differentiation capacity and CFTR function. Critically, Mod CRC conditions support clonal growth of primary HBECs from a single cell and the resulting clonal HBEC population maintains multipotent differentiation capacity, including CFTR function, permitting gene editing of these cells. As a proof of concept, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and cloning was used to introduce insertions/deletions in CFTR exon 11. Mod CRC conditions overcome many barriers to the expanded use of HBECs for basic research and drug screens. Importantly, Mod CRC conditions support the creation of isogenic cell lines in which CFTR is mutant or wild-type in the same genetic background with no history of CF to enable determination of the primary defects of mutant CFTR.

  20. mRNA-based detection of rare CFTR mutations improves genetic diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in populations with high genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Felício, V; Ramalho, A S; Igreja, S; Amaral, M D

    2017-03-01

    Even with advent of next generation sequencing complete sequencing of large disease-associated genes and intronic regions is economically not feasible. This is the case of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF). Yet, to confirm a CF diagnosis, proof of CFTR dysfunction needs to be obtained, namely by the identification of two disease-causing mutations. Moreover, with the advent of mutation-based therapies, genotyping is an essential tool for CF disease management. There is, however, still an unmet need to genotype CF patients by fast, comprehensive and cost-effective approaches, especially in populations with high genetic heterogeneity (and low p.F508del incidence), where CF is now emerging with new diagnosis dilemmas (Brazil, Asia, etc). Herein, we report an innovative mRNA-based approach to identify CFTR mutations in the complete coding and intronic regions. We applied this protocol to genotype individuals with a suspicion of CF and only one or no CFTR mutations identified by routine methods. It successfully detected multiple intronic mutations unlikely to be detected by CFTR exon sequencing. We conclude that this is a rapid, robust and inexpensive method to detect any CFTR coding/intronic mutation (including rare ones) that can be easily used either as primary approach or after routine DNA analysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Expression and function of CLC and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channels in renal epithelial tubule cells: pathophysiological implications.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Cl(-) channels play important roles in the regulation of a variety of functions, including electrical excitability, cell volume regulation, transepithelial transport and acidification of cellular organelles. They are expressed in plasma membranes or reside in intracellular organelles. A large number of Cl(-) channels with different functions have been identified. Some of them are highly expressed in the kidney. They include members of the CLC Cl(-) channel family: ClC-K1 (or ClC-Ka), ClC-K2 (or ClC-Kb) and ClC-5. The identification of mutations responsible for human inherited diseases (Bartter syndrome for ClC-Kb and Dent's disease for ClC-5) and studies on knockout mice models have evidenced the physiological importance of these CLC Cl(-) channels, permitting better understanding on their functions in renal tubule epithelial cells. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel, also expressed in renal tubule epithelial cells, is involved in the transepithelial transport of Cl(-) in the distal nephron. This short review focuses on intrarenal distribution, subcellular localization and function of the ClK(-1), ClC-K2 and ClC-5 Cl(-) channels in renal tubule epithelial cells, and the role of the CFTR Cl(-) channel in chloride fluxes elicited by vasopressin in the distal nephron.

  2. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  3. ERp29 Regulates ΔF508 and Wild-type Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Trafficking to the Plasma Membrane in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and Non-CF Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Suaud, Laurence; Miller, Katelyn; Alvey, Lora; Yan, Wusheng; Robay, Amal; Kebler, Catherine; Kreindler, James L.; Guttentag, Susan; Hubbard, Michael J.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) improves the intracellular trafficking of ΔF508-CFTR in cystic fibrosis (CF) epithelial cells. The underlying mechanism is uncertain, but 4PBA modulates the expression of some cytosolic molecular chaperones. To identify other 4PBA-regulated proteins that might regulate ΔF508-CFTR trafficking, we performed a differential display RT-PCR screen on IB3-1 CF bronchiolar epithelial cells exposed to 4PBA. One transcript up-regulated by 4PBA encoded ERp29, a luminal resident of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) thought to be a novel molecular chaperone. We tested the hypothesis that ERp29 is a 4PBA-regulated ER chaperone that influences ΔF508-CFTR trafficking. ERp29 mRNA and protein expression was significantly increased (∼1.5-fold) in 4PBA-treated IB3-1 cells. In Xenopus oocytes, ERp29 overexpression increased the functional expression of both wild-type and ΔF508-CFTR over 3-fold and increased wild-type cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plasma membrane expression. In CFBE41o− WT-CFTR cells, expression of and short circuit currents mediated by CFTR decreased upon depletion of ERp29 as did maturation of newly synthesized CFTR. In IB3-1 cells, ΔF508-CFTR co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous ERp29, and overexpression of ERp29 led to increased ΔF508-CFTR expression at the plasma membrane. These data suggest that ERp29 is a 4PBA-regulated ER chaperone that regulates WT-CFTR biogenesis and can promote ΔF508-CFTR trafficking in CF epithelial cells. PMID:21525008

  4. ERp29 regulates DeltaF508 and wild-type cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) trafficking to the plasma membrane in cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Suaud, Laurence; Miller, Katelyn; Alvey, Lora; Yan, Wusheng; Robay, Amal; Kebler, Catherine; Kreindler, James L; Guttentag, Susan; Hubbard, Michael J; Rubenstein, Ronald C

    2011-06-17

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) improves the intracellular trafficking of ΔF508-CFTR in cystic fibrosis (CF) epithelial cells. The underlying mechanism is uncertain, but 4PBA modulates the expression of some cytosolic molecular chaperones. To identify other 4PBA-regulated proteins that might regulate ΔF508-CFTR trafficking, we performed a differential display RT-PCR screen on IB3-1 CF bronchiolar epithelial cells exposed to 4PBA. One transcript up-regulated by 4PBA encoded ERp29, a luminal resident of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) thought to be a novel molecular chaperone. We tested the hypothesis that ERp29 is a 4PBA-regulated ER chaperone that influences ΔF508-CFTR trafficking. ERp29 mRNA and protein expression was significantly increased (∼1.5-fold) in 4PBA-treated IB3-1 cells. In Xenopus oocytes, ERp29 overexpression increased the functional expression of both wild-type and ΔF508-CFTR over 3-fold and increased wild-type cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plasma membrane expression. In CFBE41o- WT-CFTR cells, expression of and short circuit currents mediated by CFTR decreased upon depletion of ERp29 as did maturation of newly synthesized CFTR. In IB3-1 cells, ΔF508-CFTR co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous ERp29, and overexpression of ERp29 led to increased ΔF508-CFTR expression at the plasma membrane. These data suggest that ERp29 is a 4PBA-regulated ER chaperone that regulates WT-CFTR biogenesis and can promote ΔF508-CFTR trafficking in CF epithelial cells.

  5. Carbachol-induced colonic mucus formation requires transport via NKCC1, K⁺ channels and CFTR.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Jenny K; Lindén, Sara K; Alwan, Ala H; Scholte, Bob J; Hansson, Gunnar C; Sjövall, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    The colonic mucosa protects itself from the luminal content by secreting mucus that keeps the bacteria at a distance from the epithelium. For this barrier to be effective, the mucus has to be constantly replenished which involves exocytosis and expansion of the secreted mucins. Mechanisms involved in regulation of mucus exocytosis and expansion are poorly understood, and the aim of this study was to investigate whether epithelial anion secretion regulates mucus formation in the colon. The muscarinic agonist carbachol was used to induce parallel secretion of anions and mucus, and by using established inhibitors of ion transport, we studied how inhibition of epithelial transport affected mucus formation in mouse colon. Anion secretion and mucin exocytosis were measured by changes in membrane current and epithelial capacitance, respectively. Mucus thickness measurements were used to determine the carbachol effect on mucus growth. The results showed that the carbachol-induced increase in membrane current was dependent on NKCC1 co-transport, basolateral K(+) channels and Cftr activity. In contrast, the carbachol-induced increase in capacitance was partially dependent on NKCC1 and K(+) channel activity, but did not require Cftr activity. Carbachol also induced an increase in mucus thickness that was inhibited by the NKCC1 blocker bumetanide. However, mice that lacked a functional Cftr channel did not respond to carbachol with an increase in mucus thickness, suggesting that carbachol-induced mucin expansion requires Cftr channel activity. In conclusion, these findings suggest that colonic epithelial transport regulates mucus formation by affecting both exocytosis and expansion of the mucin molecules.

  6. CFTR/ENaC dependent regulation of membrane potential during human sperm capacitation is initiated by bicarbonate uptake through NBC.

    PubMed

    Puga Molina, Lis C; Pinto, Nicolas A; Torres, Nicolás I; Gonzalez-Cota, Ana L; Luque, Guillermina M; Balestrini, Paula A; Romarowski, Ana; Krapf, Dario; Santi, Celia M; Trevino, Claudia L; Darszon, Alberto; Buffone, Mariano G

    2018-05-09

    To fertilize an egg, sperm must reside in the female reproductive tract to undergo several maturational changes that are collectively referred to as capacitation. From a molecular point of view, the HCO3--dependent activation of the atypical soluble adenylyl cyclase (ADCY10) is one of the first events that occurs during capacitation and leads to the subsequent cAMP-dependent activation of protein kinase A (PKA). Capacitation is also accompanied by hyperpolarization of the sperm plasma membrane. We previously reported that PKA activation is necessary for CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Channel) activity and for the modulation of membrane potential (Em). However, the main HCO3- transporters involved in the initial transport and the PKA-dependent Em changes are not well known nor characterized. Here, we analyzed how the activity of CFTR regulates Em during capacitation and examined its relationship with an electrogenic Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC) and epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs). We observed that inhibition of both CFTR and NBC decreased HCO3- influx, resulting in lower PKA activity, and that events downstream the cAMP-activation of PKA are essential for the regulation of Em. Addition of a permeable cAMP analog partially rescued the inhibitory effects caused by these inhibitors. HCO3-  also produced a rapid membrane hyperpolarization mediated by ENaC channels, which contribute to the regulation of Em during capacitation. Altogether, we demonstrate for the first time, that NBC cotransporters and ENaC channels are essential in the CFTR-dependent activation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and Em regulation during human sperm capacitation. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. [Progress on suxamethonium chloride analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming-Zhe; Cheng, Xiang-Wei; Chu, Jian-Xin

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: Suxamethonium chloride is a depolarizing muscle relaxant used in general anesthesia. In overdose, it causes adverse reactions such as bradycardia, arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, and death. The article reviews the progress on testing methods of suxamethonium chloride such as infrared spectroscopy, chemical color reaction, chemical titration, enzyme electrode, chromatography and mass spectrometry.

  8. Analysis of the CFTR gene in Venezuelan cystic fibrosis patients, identification of six novel cystic fibrosis-causing genetic variants.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Karen; de Mendonca, Elizabeth; Matute, Xiorama; Chaustre, Ismenia; Villalón, Marlene; Takiff, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The mutations in the CFTR gene found in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have geographic differences, but there are scant data on their prevalence in Venezuelan patients. This study determined the frequency of common CFTR gene mutations in a group of Venezuelan patients with CF. The 27 exons of the CFTR gene from 110 Venezuelan patients in the National CF Program were amplified and sequenced. A total of 36 different mutations were identified, seven with frequencies greater than 1%: p.Phe508del (27.27%), p.Gly542* (3.18%), c.2988+1G>A (3.18%), p.Arg334Trp (1.36%), p.Arg1162* (1.36%), c.1-8G>C (1.36%), and p.[Gly628Arg;Ser1235Arg](1.36). In 40% of patients, all with a clinical diagnosis of CF, no mutations were found. This report represents the largest cohort of Venezuelan patients with CF ever examined, and includes a wider mutation panel than has been previously studied in this population. Mutations common in Southern European populations predominate, and several new mutations were discovered, but no mutations were found in 40% of the cohort.

  9. Analysis of the CFTR gene in Venezuelan cystic fibrosis patients, identification of six novel cystic fibrosis-causing genetic variants

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Karen; de Mendonca, Elizabeth; Matute, Xiorama; Chaustre, Ismenia; Villalón, Marlene; Takiff, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The mutations in the CFTR gene found in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have geographic differences, but there are scant data on their prevalence in Venezuelan patients. This study determined the frequency of common CFTR gene mutations in a group of Venezuelan patients with CF. The 27 exons of the CFTR gene from 110 Venezuelan patients in the National CF Program were amplified and sequenced. A total of 36 different mutations were identified, seven with frequencies greater than 1%: p.Phe508del (27.27%), p.Gly542* (3.18%), c.2988+1G>A (3.18%), p.Arg334Trp (1.36%), p.Arg1162* (1.36%), c.1-8G>C (1.36%), and p.[Gly628Arg;Ser1235Arg](1.36). In 40% of patients, all with a clinical diagnosis of CF, no mutations were found. This report represents the largest cohort of Venezuelan patients with CF ever examined, and includes a wider mutation panel than has been previously studied in this population. Mutations common in Southern European populations predominate, and several new mutations were discovered, but no mutations were found in 40% of the cohort. PMID:27022295

  10. CFTR and/or pancreatitis susceptibility genes mutations as risk factors of pancreatitis in cystic fibrosis patients?

    PubMed

    Gaitch, Natacha; Hubert, Dominique; Gameiro, Christine; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Houriez, Florence; Martinez, Brigitte; Honoré, Isabelle; Chapron, Jeanne; Kanaan, Reem; Dusser, Daniel; Girodon, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Currently, factors that promote the occurrence of pancreatitis episodes in patients affected with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic sufficiency (PS) are largely unknown. Six genes involved in pancreatitis or in ion transport into the pancreatic duct were investigated by next generation sequencing in 59 adult CF-PS patients with two identified CF mutations. Data on predisposing environmental factors were also recorded. 19 experienced at least one episode of acute pancreatitis (AP) (AP+) and 40 patients did not (AP-). No influence of environmental factor was evidenced. No specific CFTR genotype was found predictive of pancreatitis. Patients sharing the same CFTR genotype may or may not experience AP episodes. Frequent and rare missense variants were found in 78.9% patients in group AP+ and 67.5% in group AP- but a few of them were pathogenic. AP or recurrent AP (RAP) is a frequent complication in our series of adult CF-PS patients. The majority of mild CFTR mutations found in group AP+ were located in the first transmembrane region. No clear other genetic factor could be found predictive of AP/RAP. Further experiments in large homogenous cohorts of CF-PS patients, including whole genome sequencing, may identify genetic predisposing factors to pancreatitis. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutation and new polymorphisms insight in introns 11 to 14a of CFTR gene of northern Iranian cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili Dooki, Mohammad Reza; Tabaripour, Reza; Rahimi, Razieh; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh

    2015-06-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease in Caucasians, caused by mutation in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The type and distribution of mutations vary widely between different countries and ethnic groups. We therefore aimed to perform a comprehensive analysis of the CFTR gene in northern Iranian CF patients. Forty northern Iranian CF patients were analyzed for mutations in introns 11 to 14a of their CFTR genes, using sequencing and reverse dot blot methods. Five normal subjects were also analyzed as normal control. One mutation and seven polymorphisms were identified. Of the eighty alleles studied, c.2043delG in exon 13 represented 12.5% of mutant alleles and was associated with two distinct haplotypes. rs1042077T>G, rs4148712delAT, rs4148711T>A and rs3808183 T>C with frequencies varying between 29.2% and 6.9% for the least common allele, as well as three new polymorphisms c.1680-224C>A (11.1%), c.2491-275T>G (14.1%) and c.2491-274C>G (35.9%) were detected. These findings suggest a founder effect for c.2043delG in the Middle East and will assist in genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and future screening of CF in Iran. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

  13. The Sweat Metabolome of Screen-Positive Cystic Fibrosis Infants: Revealing Mechanisms beyond Impaired Chloride Transport

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for confirmatory diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) in support of universal newborn screening programs. However, it provides ambiguous results for intermediate sweat chloride cases while not reflecting disease progression when classifying the complex CF disease spectrum given the pleiotropic effects of gene modifiers and environment. Herein we report the first characterization of the sweat metabolome from screen-positive CF infants and identify metabolites associated with disease status that complement sweat chloride testing. Pilocarpine-stimulated sweat specimens were collected independently from two CF clinics, including 50 unaffected infants (e.g., carriers) and 18 confirmed CF cases. Nontargeted metabolite profiling was performed using multisegment injection–capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry as a high throughput platform for analysis of polar/ionic metabolites in volume-restricted sweat samples. Amino acids, organic acids, amino acid derivatives, dipeptides, purine derivatives, and unknown exogenous compounds were identified in sweat when using high resolution tandem mass spectrometry, including metabolites associated with affected yet asymptomatic CF infants, such as asparagine and glutamine. Unexpectedly, a metabolite of pilocarpine, used to stimulate sweat secretion, pilocarpic acid, and a plasticizer metabolite from environmental exposure, mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalic acid, were secreted in the sweat of CF infants at significantly lower concentrations relative to unaffected CF screen-positive controls. These results indicated a deficiency in human paraoxonase, an enzyme unrelated to mutations to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and impaired chloride transport, which is a nonspecific arylesterase/lactonase known to mediate inflammation, bacterial biofilm formation, and recurrent lung infections in affected CF children later in life. This work sheds new light into the

  14. The Sweat Metabolome of Screen-Positive Cystic Fibrosis Infants: Revealing Mechanisms beyond Impaired Chloride Transport.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Adriana N; Mathiaparanam, Stellena; Brick, Lauren; Keenan, Katherine; Gonska, Tanja; Pedder, Linda; Hill, Stephen; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2017-08-23

    The sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for confirmatory diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) in support of universal newborn screening programs. However, it provides ambiguous results for intermediate sweat chloride cases while not reflecting disease progression when classifying the complex CF disease spectrum given the pleiotropic effects of gene modifiers and environment. Herein we report the first characterization of the sweat metabolome from screen-positive CF infants and identify metabolites associated with disease status that complement sweat chloride testing. Pilocarpine-stimulated sweat specimens were collected independently from two CF clinics, including 50 unaffected infants (e.g., carriers) and 18 confirmed CF cases. Nontargeted metabolite profiling was performed using multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry as a high throughput platform for analysis of polar/ionic metabolites in volume-restricted sweat samples. Amino acids, organic acids, amino acid derivatives, dipeptides, purine derivatives, and unknown exogenous compounds were identified in sweat when using high resolution tandem mass spectrometry, including metabolites associated with affected yet asymptomatic CF infants, such as asparagine and glutamine. Unexpectedly, a metabolite of pilocarpine, used to stimulate sweat secretion, pilocarpic acid, and a plasticizer metabolite from environmental exposure, mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalic acid, were secreted in the sweat of CF infants at significantly lower concentrations relative to unaffected CF screen-positive controls. These results indicated a deficiency in human paraoxonase, an enzyme unrelated to mutations to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and impaired chloride transport, which is a nonspecific arylesterase/lactonase known to mediate inflammation, bacterial biofilm formation, and recurrent lung infections in affected CF children later in life. This work sheds new light into the

  15. Chloride: the queen of electrolytes?

    PubMed

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O B

    2012-04-01

    Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general do not allocate chapters exclusively on hypochloremia or hyperchloremia and information on chloride other than channelopathies is scattered in the literature. To systematically review the function of chloride in man, data for this review include searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and references from relevant articles including the search terms "chloride," "HCl," "chloride channel" "acid-base," "acidosis," "alkalosis," "anion gap" "strong anion gap" "Stewart," "base excess" and "lactate." In addition, internal medicine, critical care, nephrology and gastroenterology textbooks were evaluated on topics pertaining the assessment and management of acid-base disorders, including reference lists from journals or textbooks. Chloride is, after sodium, the most abundant electrolyte in serum, with a key role in the regulation of body fluids, electrolyte balance, the preservation of electrical neutrality, acid-base status and it is an essential component for the assessment of many pathological conditions. When assessing serum electrolytes, abnormal chloride levels alone usually signify a more serious underlying metabolic disorder, such as metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. Chloride is an important component of diagnostic tests in a wide array of clinical situations. In these cases, chloride can be tested in sweat, serum, urine and feces. Abnormalities in chloride channel expression and function in many organs can cause a range of disorders. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ATP and AMP Mutually Influence Their Interaction with the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) at Separate Binding Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Randak, Christoph O.; Dong, Qian; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Elcock, Adrian H.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. In the presence of ATP and physiologically relevant concentrations of AMP, CFTR exhibits adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). Previous studies suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for this activity. Two other ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome protein, also have adenylate kinase activity. All three ABC adenylate kinases bind and hydrolyze ATP in the absence of other nucleotides. However, little is known about how an ABC adenylate kinase interacts with ATP and AMP when both are present. Based on data from non-ABC adenylate kinases, we hypothesized that ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with CFTR at separate binding sites. We further hypothesized that only one of the two CFTR ATP-binding sites is involved in the adenylate kinase reaction. We found that 8-azidoadenosine 5′-triphosphate (8-N3-ATP) and 8-azidoadenosine 5′-monophosphate (8-N3-AMP) photolabeled separate sites in CFTR. Labeling of the AMP-binding site with 8-N3-AMP required the presence of ATP. Conversely, AMP enhanced photolabeling with 8-N3-ATP at ATP-binding site 2. The adenylate kinase active center probe P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′) pentaphosphate interacted simultaneously with an AMP-binding site and ATP-binding site 2. These results show that ATP and AMP interact with separate binding sites but mutually influence their interaction with the ABC adenylate kinase CFTR. They further indicate that the active center of the adenylate kinase comprises ATP-binding site 2. PMID:23921386

  17. Identification of an iron permease, cFTR1, in cyanobacteria involved in the iron reduction/re-oxidation uptake pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Qiu, Guo-Wei; Lou, Wen-Jing; Li, Zheng-Ke; Jiang, Hai-Bo; Price, Neil M; Qiu, Bao-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacteria are globally important primary producers and abundant in many iron-limited aquatic environments. The ways in which they take up iron are largely unknown, but reduction of Fe 3+ is an important step in the process. Here we report a special iron permease in Synechocystis, cFTR1, that is required for Fe 3+ uptake following Fe 2+ re-oxidation. The expression of cFTR1 is induced by iron starvation, and a mutant lacking the gene is abnormally sensitive to iron starvation. The cFTR1 protein localizes to the plasma membrane and contains the iron-binding motif "REXXE". Point-directed mutagenesis of the REXXE motif results in a sensitivity to Fe-deficiency. Measurements of iron ( 55 Fe) uptake rate show that cFTR1 takes up Fe 3+ rather than Fe 2+ . The function of cFTR1 in Synechocystis could be genetically complemented by the iron permease, Ftr1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that is known to transport Fe 3+ produced by the oxidation of Fe 2+ via a multicopper oxidase. Unlike yeast Ftr1p, cyanobacterial cFTR1 probably obtains Fe 3+ primarily from the oxidation of Fe 2+ by oxygen. Growth assays show that the cFTR1 is required during oxygenic, photoautotrophic growth but not when oxygen production is inhibited during photoheterotrophic growth. In cyanobacteria, iron reduction/re-oxidation uptake pathway may represent their adaptation to oxygenated environments. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Conserved Allosteric Hot Spots in the Transmembrane Domains of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Channels and Multidrug Resistance Protein (MRP) Pumps*

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C.; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5′-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. PMID:24876383

  19. Conserved allosteric hot spots in the transmembrane domains of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) pumps.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L; Kirk, Kevin L

    2014-07-18

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Washing bridges to reduce chloride : interim report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-12-01

    Chloride ions are known to promote the corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete. This project was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of washing, to reduce chloride content and chloride ion uptake. The project consists of a laboratory and a field...

  1. Washing bridges to reduce chloride : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-07-01

    Chloride ions are known to promote the corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete. This project was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of washing, to reduce existing chloride content and chloride ion uptake. The project consisted of a laboratory c...

  2. Variability of sweat chloride concentration in subjects with cystic fibrosis and G551D mutations.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, F; Le Camus, C; Davies, J C; Bilton, D; Milenković, D; De Boeck, K

    2017-01-01

    Sweat chloride concentration, a biomarker of CFTR function, is an appropriate outcome parameter in clinical trials aimed at correcting the basic CF defect. Although there is consensus on a cut-off value to diagnose CF, we have only limited information on the within subject variability of sweat chloride over time. Such information would be useful for sample size calculations in clinical trials. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed repeated sweat chloride values obtained in patients with G551D mutation(s) assigned to placebo in an ivacaftor interventional trial. In subjects with G551D at least 12years of age, a pilocarpine sweat test using Macroduct collector was taken on both arms at 8 time points over 48weeks. We explored 1062 pilocarpine sweat test values obtained in 78 placebo patients of the VX08-770-102 trial. Mean overall sweat chloride value (all patients, all tests, n=1062) was 100.8mmol/L (SD 12.7mmol/L). Using a multilevel mixed model, the between-subject standard deviation (SD) for sweat chloride was 8.9mmol/L (95% CI 7.4-10.6) and within-subject SD was 8.1mmol/L (95% CI 7.5-8.7). Limits of repeatability for repeat measurements were -19.7 to +21.6mmol/L using values from one arm, and -13.3 to 11.8mmol/L using mean of values obtained at 4 test occasions. Sample size calculations showed that the minimal treatment effect on sweat chloride concentration that can be demonstrated for a group of 5 patients is around 15mmol/L, using a cross-over design and combinations of 4 tests for each phase of the trial. Although the sweat test is considered a robust measure, sweat chloride measurements in patients with CF and a G551D mutation had an inherent biological variability that is higher than commonly considered. Further analyses of placebo group data are crucial to learn more about the natural variability of this outcome parameter. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Low free drug concentration prevents inhibition of F508del CFTR functional expression by the potentiator VX-770 (ivacaftor).

    PubMed

    Matthes, Elizabeth; Goepp, Julie; Carlile, Graeme W; Luo, Yishan; Dejgaard, Kurt; Billet, Arnaud; Robert, Renaud; Thomas, David Y; Hanrahan, John W

    2016-02-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation F508del inhibits the gating and surface expression of CFTR, a plasma membrane anion channel. Optimal pharmacotherapies will probably require both a 'potentiator' to increase channel open probability and a 'corrector' that improves folding and trafficking of the mutant protein and its stability at the cell surface. Interaction between CF drugs has been reported but remains poorly understood. CF bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to the corrector VX-809 (lumacaftor) and potentiator VX-770 (ivacaftor) individually or in combination. Functional expression of CFTR was assayed as the forskolin-stimulated short-circuit current (Isc ) across airway epithelial monolayers expressing F508del CFTR. The potentiated Isc response during forskolin stimulation was increased sixfold after pretreatment with VX-809 alone and reached ~11% that measured across non-CF monolayers. VX-770 (100 nM) and genistein (50 μM) caused similar levels of potentiation, which were not additive and were abolished by the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh -172. The unbound fraction of VX-770 in plasma was 0.13 ± 0.04%, which together with previous measurements in patients given 250 mg p.o. twice daily, suggests a peak free plasma concentration of 1.5-8.5 nM. Chronic exposure to high VX-770 concentrations (>1 μM) inhibited functional correction by VX-809 but not in the presence of physiological protein levels (20-40 mg·mL(-1) ). Chronic exposure to a low concentration of VX-770 (100 nM) together with VX-809 (1 μM) also did not reduce the forskolin-stimulated Isc , relative to cells chronically exposed to VX-809 alone, provided it was assayed acutely using the same, clinically relevant concentration of potentiator. Chronic exposure to clinically relevant concentrations of VX-770 did not reduce F508del CFTR function. Therapeutic benefit of VX-770 + VX-809 (Orkambi) is probably limited by the efficacy of VX-809 rather than by inhibition by VX-770. © 2015

  4. Chloride channel inhibition by a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule prevents rotaviral secretory diarrhoea in neonatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun-A; Jin, Byung-Ju; Namkung, Wan; Ma, Tonghui; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Verkman, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe secretory diarrhoea in infants and young children globally. The rotaviral enterotoxin, NSP4, has been proposed to stimulate calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) on the apical plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. We previously identified red wine and small molecule CaCC inhibitors. Objective To investigate the efficacy of a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule, CaCCinh-A01, in inhibiting intestinal CaCCs and rotaviral diarrhoea. Design Inhibition of CaCC-dependent current was measured in T84 cells and mouse ileum. The effectiveness of an orally administered wine extract and CaCCinh-A01 in inhibiting diarrhoea in vivo was determined in a neonatal mouse model of rotaviral infection. Results Screening of ~150 red wines revealed a Cabernet Sauvignon that inhibited CaCC current in T84 cells with IC50 at a ~1:200 dilution, and higher concentrations producing 100% inhibition. A >1 kdalton wine extract prepared by dialysis, which retained full inhibition activity, blocked CaCC current in T84 cells and mouse intestine. In rotavirus-inoculated mice, oral administration of the wine extract prevented diarrhoea by inhibition of intestinal fluid secretion without affecting rotaviral infection. The wine extract did not inhibit the cystic fibrosis chloride channel (CFTR) in cell cultures, nor did it prevent watery stools in neonatal mice administered cholera toxin, which activates CFTR-dependent fluid secretion. CaCCinh-A01 also inhibited rotaviral diarrhoea. Conclusions Our results support a pathogenic role for enterocyte CaCCs in rotaviral diarrhoea and demonstrate the antidiarrhoeal action of CaCC inhibition by an alcohol-free, red wine extract and by a synthetic small molecule. PMID:24052273

  5. Chloride channel inhibition by a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule prevents rotaviral secretory diarrhoea in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun-A; Jin, Byung-Ju; Namkung, Wan; Ma, Tonghui; Thiagarajah, Jay R; Verkman, A S

    2014-07-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe secretory diarrhoea in infants and young children globally. The rotaviral enterotoxin, NSP4, has been proposed to stimulate calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) on the apical plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. We previously identified red wine and small molecule CaCC inhibitors. To investigate the efficacy of a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule, CaCCinh-A01, in inhibiting intestinal CaCCs and rotaviral diarrhoea. Inhibition of CaCC-dependent current was measured in T84 cells and mouse ileum. The effectiveness of an orally administered wine extract and CaCCinh-A01 in inhibiting diarrhoea in vivo was determined in a neonatal mouse model of rotaviral infection. Screening of ∼150 red wines revealed a Cabernet Sauvignon that inhibited CaCC current in T84 cells with IC50 at a ∼1:200 dilution, and higher concentrations producing 100% inhibition. A >1 kdalton wine extract prepared by dialysis, which retained full inhibition activity, blocked CaCC current in T84 cells and mouse intestine. In rotavirus-inoculated mice, oral administration of the wine extract prevented diarrhoea by inhibition of intestinal fluid secretion without affecting rotaviral infection. The wine extract did not inhibit the cystic fibrosis chloride channel (CFTR) in cell cultures, nor did it prevent watery stools in neonatal mice administered cholera toxin, which activates CFTR-dependent fluid secretion. CaCCinh-A01 also inhibited rotaviral diarrhoea. Our results support a pathogenic role for enterocyte CaCCs in rotaviral diarrhoea and demonstrate the antidiarrhoeal action of CaCC inhibition by an alcohol-free, red wine extract and by a synthetic small molecule. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Efficacy and safety of lumacaftor and ivacaftor in patients aged 6-11 years with cystic fibrosis homozygous for F508del-CFTR: a randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Ratjen, Felix; Hug, Christopher; Marigowda, Gautham; Tian, Simon; Huang, Xiaohong; Stanojevic, Sanja; Milla, Carlos E; Robinson, Paul D; Waltz, David; Davies, Jane C

    2017-07-01

    Lumacaftor and ivacaftor combination treatment showed efficacy in patients aged 12 years or older with cystic fibrosis homozygous for F508del-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in placebo-controlled studies and patients aged 6-11 years with cystic fibrosis homozygous for F508del-CFTR in an open-label study. We report efficacy and safety of lumacaftor and ivacaftor in patients with cystic fibrosis aged 6-11 years homozygous for F508del-CFTR. In this phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study, patients were enrolled at 54 hospitals and medical centres in nine countries (the USA, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden, and the UK). Eligible patients weighed at least 15 kg, with a confirmed diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) of 70 or more, and lung clearance index 2·5 (LCI 2·5 ) of 7·5 or more at screening (values less than these thresholds were permitted at day 1). All patients were tested for CFTR genotype at screening; eligible patients had to have the F508del-CFTR mutation on both alleles. Exclusion criteria included any comorbidity or laboratory abnormality that might confound the study results or pose additional risk to the patient. Patients were stratified by weight (<25 kg vs ≥25 kg) and ppFEV 1 severity (<90 vs ≥90) determined at the screening visit, and randomly assigned 1:1 to treatment using an interactive web response system to receive 200 mg lumacaftor and 250 mg ivacaftor every 12 hours or placebo for 24 weeks. Patients, all site personnel including the investigator and the site monitor, and the study team were blinded, with the exception of site personnel needing this information in the event of medical emergency or pregnancy and patient safety and regulatory affairs personnel to meet serious adverse event reporting requirements. The primary endpoint was the mean absolute change in LCI 2·5 from all on-treatment study

  7. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    EEEElhIhEEEEEE 1111 1 - MI(CRO( fy Hl ff1Sf UIIIUN Ift I IA I~t Research and Development Technical Report DELET - TR - 78 - 0563 - F Cq LITHIUM -THIONYL CHLORIDE...2b(1110) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Lithium -Thionyl Chloride Battery -10/1/78 - 11/30/80 6. PNING ORG. REPORT NUMBER Z %A a.~as B.,OWRACT OR...block number) Inorganic Electrolyte battery, Thionyl Chloride, lithium , high rate D cell, high rate flat cylindrical cell, laser designator battery. C//i

  8. Clinical expression of patients with the D1152H CFTR mutation.

    PubMed

    Terlizzi, Vito; Carnovale, Vincenzo; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Castellani, Carlo; Cirilli, Natalia; Colombo, Carla; Corti, Fabiola; Cresta, Federico; D'Adda, Alice; Lucarelli, Marco; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Macchiaroli, Annamaria; Madarena, Elisa; Padoan, Rita; Quattrucci, Serena; Salvatore, Donatello; Zarrilli, Federica; Raia, Valeria

    2015-07-01

    Discordant results were reported on the clinical expression of subjects bearing the D1152H CFTR mutation, and also for the small number of cases reported so far. A retrospective review of clinical, genetic and biochemical data was performed from individuals homozygous or compound heterozygous for the D1152H mutation followed in 12 Italian cystic fibrosis (CF) centers. 89 subjects carrying at least D1152H on one allele were identified. 7 homozygous patients had very mild clinical expression. Over half of the 74 subjects compound heterozygous for D1152H and a I-II-III class mutation had borderline or pathological sweat test and respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms; one third had pulmonary bacteria colonization and 10/74 cases had complications (i.e. diabetes, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and hemoptysis). However, their clinical expression was less severe as compared to a group of CF patients homozygous for the F508del mutation. Finally, 8 subjects compound heterozygous for D1152H and a IV-V class mutation showed very mild disease. The natural history of subjects bearing the D1152H mutation is widely heterogeneous and is influenced by the mutation in trans. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cystic fibrosis newborn screening programs: implications of the CFTR variant spectrum in nonwhite patients.

    PubMed

    Pique, Lynn; Graham, Steve; Pearl, Michelle; Kharrazi, Martin; Schrijver, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis newborn screening (CFNBS) has been offered across the United States since 2010. However, as compared with white patients with CF, CFTR variant identification in nonwhite populations remains inequitable. Utilizing the recent characterization of the nonwhite CF variant spectrum, we examined the effectiveness of current CFNBS molecular panels in identifying affected nonwhite newborns. Based on a cross-sectional evaluation of genotyping data from the CF Foundation Patient Registry that compared 3,496 nonwhite with 22,206 white CF patients, the current CFNBS algorithms used in the 50 states and the District of Columbia were analyzed. We assessed the percentage of CF patients of Hispanic, African, Asian, and Native American heritage who would not be identified by the molecular panels most commonly used. Compared with whites, variant detection was significantly lower in Hispanic, black, and Asian newborns (P ≤ 0.0001 each), as well as in Native American newborns (P values ranged from 0.001 to 0.0003), for the most common CFNBS panels. This study provides a perspective on the applicability of current panels to a diverse population and enables CFNBS programs to consider more inclusive test approaches to facilitate diagnosis, timely clinical intervention, and enhanced prognosis for CF patients of nonwhite and mixed ethnicities.Genet Med 19 1, 36-44.

  10. Expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator corrects defective chloride channel regulation in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Devra P.; Anderson, Matthew P.; Gregory, Richard J.; Cheng, Seng H.; Paul, Sucharita; Jefferson, Douglas M.; McCann, John D.; Klinger, Katherine W.; Smith, Alan E.; Welsh, Michael J.

    1990-09-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was expressed in cultured cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells and Cl- channel activation assessed in single cells using a fluorescence microscopic assay and the patch-clamp technique. Expression of CFTR, but not of a mutant form of CFTR (ΔF508), corrected the Cl- channel defect. Correction of the phenotypic defect demonstrates a causal relationship between mutations in the CFTR gene and defective Cl- transport which is the hallmark of the disease.

  11. Lung pathology in response to repeated exposure to Staphylococcus aureus in congenic residual function cystic fibrosis mice does not increase in response to decreased CFTR levels or increased bacterial load.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Donald J; Webb, Sheila; Teague, Peter; Govan, John R W; Dorin, Julia R

    2004-01-01

    To establish the role of defects in murine Cftr in the susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus lung disease using mouse models of cystic fibrosis (CF), congenic or inbred strains. We describe the histopathological analyses of CF mice repeatedly exposed by aerosolisation to a CF isolate of S. aureus, using residual function Cftr mice and compound heterozygotes generated by intercrossing these with Cftr 'null' mice, all congenic on the C57Bl6/N background. We demonstrate that mice congenic on the C57Bl/6 background develop significantly more severe lung pathology than non-CF littermates in response to repeated exposure to the most frequent early CF lung pathogen S. aureus. Furthermore, reducing the level of Cftr by half in compound heterozygote mice does not impact upon disease severity, even in response to an increased bacterial dose. These results are consistent with an airway clearance defect, or abnormal inflammatory response secondary to Cftr mutation. These studies confirm the primary role for Cftr mutation in the development of this lung phenotype. In addition, these results demonstrate that a further 50% decrease in residual wild-type Cftr mRNA levels in this model does not impact the severity of the histopathological response to S. aureus, suggesting a critical threshold level for functional CFTR. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  13. Synergistic Potentiation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Gating by Two Chemically Distinct Potentiators, Ivacaftor (VX-770) and 5-Nitro-2-(3-Phenylpropylamino) Benzoate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Ying; Sohma, Yoshiro; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene encoding a phosphorylation-activated but ATP-gated chloride channel. Previous studies suggested that VX-770 [ivacaftor, N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide], a CFTR potentiator now used in clinics, increases the open probability of CFTR by shifting the gating conformational changes to favor the open channel configuration. Recently the chloride channel blocker and CFTR potentiator 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoate (NPPB) has been reported to enhance CFTR activity by a mechanism that exploits the ATP hydrolysis-driven, nonequilibrium gating mechanism unique to CFTR. Surprisingly however, NPPB increased the activity of nonhydrolytic G551D-CFTR, the third most common disease-associated mutation. Here, we further investigated the mechanism of NPPB's effects on CFTR gating by assessing its interaction with well-studied VX-770. Interestingly, once G551D-CFTR was maximally potentiated by VX-770, NPPB further increased its activity. However, quantitative analysis of this drug-drug interaction suggests that this pharmacologic synergism is not due to independent actions of NPPB and VX-770 on CFTR gating; instead, our data support a dependent mechanism involving two distinct binding sites. This latter idea is further supported by the observation that the locked-open time of a hydrolysis-deficient mutant K1250A was shortened by NPPB but prolonged by VX-770. In addition, the effectiveness of NPPB, but not of VX-770, was greatly diminished in a mutant whose second nucleotide-binding domain was completely removed. Interpreting these results under the framework of current understanding of CFTR gating not only reveals insights into the mechanism of action for different CFTR potentiators but also brings us one step forward to a more complete schematic for CFTR gating. Copyright © 2016 by The American

  14. Synergistic Potentiation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Gating by Two Chemically Distinct Potentiators, Ivacaftor (VX-770) and 5-Nitro-2-(3-Phenylpropylamino) Benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen-Ying; Sohma, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene encoding a phosphorylation-activated but ATP-gated chloride channel. Previous studies suggested that VX-770 [ivacaftor, N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide], a CFTR potentiator now used in clinics, increases the open probability of CFTR by shifting the gating conformational changes to favor the open channel configuration. Recently the chloride channel blocker and CFTR potentiator 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoate (NPPB) has been reported to enhance CFTR activity by a mechanism that exploits the ATP hydrolysis-driven, nonequilibrium gating mechanism unique to CFTR. Surprisingly however, NPPB increased the activity of nonhydrolytic G551D-CFTR, the third most common disease-associated mutation. Here, we further investigated the mechanism of NPPB’s effects on CFTR gating by assessing its interaction with well-studied VX-770. Interestingly, once G551D-CFTR was maximally potentiated by VX-770, NPPB further increased its activity. However, quantitative analysis of this drug–drug interaction suggests that this pharmacologic synergism is not due to independent actions of NPPB and VX-770 on CFTR gating; instead, our data support a dependent mechanism involving two distinct binding sites. This latter idea is further supported by the observation that the locked-open time of a hydrolysis-deficient mutant K1250A was shortened by NPPB but prolonged by VX-770. In addition, the effectiveness of NPPB, but not of VX-770, was greatly diminished in a mutant whose second nucleotide-binding domain was completely removed. Interpreting these results under the framework of current understanding of CFTR gating not only reveals insights into the mechanism of action for different CFTR potentiators but also brings us one step forward to a more complete schematic for CFTR gating. PMID:27413118

  15. Prostaglandin E2 induces chloride secretion through crosstalk between cAMP and calcium signaling in mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Thomas, Sheela V.; Kathpalia, Paru P.; Chen, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Under conditions of high dietary salt intake, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production is increased in the collecting duct and promotes urinary sodium chloride (NaCl) excretion; however, the molecular mechanisms by which PGE2 increases NaCl excretion in this context have not been clearly defined. We used the mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD)-K2 cell line to characterize mechanisms underlying PGE2-regulated NaCl transport. When epithelial Na+ channels were inhibited, PGE2 exclusively stimulated basolateral EP4 receptors to increase short-circuit current (IscPGE2). We found that IscPGE2 was sensitive to inhibition by H-89 and CFTR-172, indicating that EP4 receptors signal through protein kinase A to induce Cl− secretion via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Unexpectedly, we also found that IscPGE2 was sensitive to inhibition by BAPTA-AM (Ca2+ chelator), 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) (inositol triphosphate receptor blocker), and flufenamic acid (FFA) [Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CACC) inhibitor], suggesting that EP4 receptors also signal through Ca2+ to induce Cl− secretion via CACC. Additionally, we observed that PGE2 stimulated an increase in Isc through crosstalk between cAMP and Ca2+ signaling; BAPTA-AM or 2-APB inhibited a component of IscPGE2 that was sensitive to CFTR-172 inhibition; H-89 inhibited a component of IscPGE2 that was sensitive to FFA inhibition. Together, our findings indicate that PGE2 activates basolateral EP4 receptors and signals through both cAMP and Ca2+ to stimulate Cl− secretion in IMCD-K2 cells. We propose that these signaling pathways, and the crosstalk between them, may provide a concerted mechanism for enhancing urinary NaCl excretion under conditions of high dietary NaCl intake. PMID:24284792

  16. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  17. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food... Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the... label of the hops extract identifies the presence of the methylene chloride and provides for the use of...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g) of...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  2. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c) The...

  3. Increased NF-κB Activity and Decreased Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Mediate Reduced Osteoblast Differentiation and Function in ΔF508 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Mice.

    PubMed

    Le Henaff, Carole; Mansouri, Rafik; Modrowski, Dominique; Zarka, Mylène; Geoffroy, Valérie; Marty, Caroline; Tarantino, Nadine; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Marie, Pierre J

    2015-07-17

    The prevalent human ΔF508 mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is associated with reduced bone formation and bone loss in mice. The molecular mechanisms by which the ΔF508-CFTR mutation causes alterations in bone formation are poorly known. In this study, we analyzed the osteoblast phenotype in ΔF508-CFTR mice and characterized the signaling mechanisms underlying this phenotype. Ex vivo studies showed that the ΔF508-CFTR mutation negatively impacted the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into osteoblasts and the activity of osteoblasts, demonstrating that the ΔF508-CFTR mutation alters both osteoblast differentiation and function. Treatment with a CFTR corrector rescued the abnormal collagen gene expression in ΔF508-CFTR osteoblasts. Mechanistic analysis revealed that NF-κB signaling and transcriptional activity were increased in mutant osteoblasts. Functional studies showed that the activation of NF-κB transcriptional activity in mutant osteoblasts resulted in increased β-catenin phosphorylation, reduced osteoblast β-catenin expression, and altered expression of Wnt/β-catenin target genes. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activity or activation of canonical Wnt signaling rescued Wnt target gene expression and corrected osteoblast differentiation and function in bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts from ΔF508-CFTR mice. Overall, the results show that the ΔF508-CFTR mutation impairs osteoblast differentiation and function as a result of overactive NF-κB and reduced Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Moreover, the data indicate that pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB or activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling can rescue the abnormal osteoblast differentiation and function induced by the prevalent ΔF508-CFTR mutation, suggesting novel therapeutic strategies to correct the osteoblast dysfunctions in cystic fibrosis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Increased NF-κB Activity and Decreased Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Mediate Reduced Osteoblast Differentiation and Function in ΔF508 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Le Henaff, Carole; Mansouri, Rafik; Modrowski, Dominique; Zarka, Mylène; Geoffroy, Valérie; Marty, Caroline; Tarantino, Nadine; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Marie, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalent human ΔF508 mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is associated with reduced bone formation and bone loss in mice. The molecular mechanisms by which the ΔF508-CFTR mutation causes alterations in bone formation are poorly known. In this study, we analyzed the osteoblast phenotype in ΔF508-CFTR mice and characterized the signaling mechanisms underlying this phenotype. Ex vivo studies showed that the ΔF508-CFTR mutation negatively impacted the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into osteoblasts and the activity of osteoblasts, demonstrating that the ΔF508-CFTR mutation alters both osteoblast differentiation and function. Treatment with a CFTR corrector rescued the abnormal collagen gene expression in ΔF508-CFTR osteoblasts. Mechanistic analysis revealed that NF-κB signaling and transcriptional activity were increased in mutant osteoblasts. Functional studies showed that the activation of NF-κB transcriptional activity in mutant osteoblasts resulted in increased β-catenin phosphorylation, reduced osteoblast β-catenin expression, and altered expression of Wnt/β-catenin target genes. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activity or activation of canonical Wnt signaling rescued Wnt target gene expression and corrected osteoblast differentiation and function in bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts from ΔF508-CFTR mice. Overall, the results show that the ΔF508-CFTR mutation impairs osteoblast differentiation and function as a result of overactive NF-κB and reduced Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Moreover, the data indicate that pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB or activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling can rescue the abnormal osteoblast differentiation and function induced by the prevalent ΔF508-CFTR mutation, suggesting novel therapeutic strategies to correct the osteoblast dysfunctions in cystic fibrosis. PMID:26060255

  5. Infertility due to congenital absence of vas deferens in mainly caused by variable exon 9 skipping of the CFTR gene in heterozygous males for cystic fibrosis mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Chillon, M.; Casals, T.; Nunes, V.

    1994-09-01

    About 65% or the individuals with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) have mutations in at least one of the CFTR alleles. We have studied the phenotypic effects of the CFTR gene intron 8 polyT tract 5T allele in 90 CBAVD subjects and in parents of CF patients. This group was compared with normal individuals, and with fathers and mothers of CF patients. Allele 5T was significantly associated with CBAVD (19.6%) when compared to the general population (5.2%) ({chi}{sup 2} = 33.3%; p<<0.0001). It was represented poorly in fathers of CF patients (1.3%). Mutations were identified in onemore » (60%) or both CFTR alleles (8.9%) of CBAVD patients. Heterozygosity for the 5T allele was strongly associated with heterozygosity for CF mutations ({chi}{sup 2} = 10.9; p<0.0004). The strong correlation between allele 5T and CBAVD, together with the low frequency of this allele in fathers of CF patients, demonstrates that variable {Delta}exon 9 produces infertility in males if associated with a CF mutation on the other chromosome. The 30% of CBAVD cases with only one CFTR mutation and without a 5T-allele may be due to other molecular mechanisms involving CFTR, distinct from {Delta}exon 9. Since there is a relatively high proportion of CBAVD without CF mutations (25%), other gene(s), distinct from CFTR, may have a role in the CBAVD phenotype.« less

  6. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and pipe...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride...

  8. Serum zinc concentration in cystic fibrosis patients with CFTR I1234V mutation associated with pancreatic sufficiency.

    PubMed

    AbdulWahab, Atqah; Abushahin, Ahmed; Allangawi, Mona; Chandra, Prem; Abdel Rahman, Mohamed Osman; Soliman, Ashraf

    2017-05-01

    To determine serum zinc (Zn) level among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with homozygous CFTR I1234V mutation associated with pancreatic sufficiency (PS). A cross-sectional study was conducted including both pediatric and adult CF patients. Data on age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, FEV1, and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection were collected. Serum Zn, albumin, and total proteins were measured and analyzed. Forty-five CF patients with homozygous CFTR I1234V mutation belonging to a large Arab kindred tribe and eight CF patients with other mutations associated with pancreatic insufficiency (PI). Patient's age ranged from 2 to 49 years with a mean age of 15.1 ± 9.1 years and mean plasma Zn of 0.78 ± 0.15 mcg/mL. Seven (13.2%) patients with CFTR I1234V and PS had low Zn levels (<0.6 mcg/mL). Mean age among Zn deficient group was significantly older. The mean FEV1 in the deficient group was found to be insignificant low. Persistent P. aeruginosa colonization was more prevalent in Zn deficient group. BMI Z-scosre of CF patients were positively correlated with Zn levels. Forty-five healthy subjects belonging to the same Arab tribe were selected in order to assess their Zn levels and their mean plasma Zn of 0.84 ± 0.11 mcg/mL (range 0.65-1.1 mcg/mL) with mean age 20.4 ± 10.1 years (range 6-40 years). These findings suggest that Zn deficiency can occur in CF patients with PS. The association of Zn levels and the frequency of P. aeruginosa isolated in CF patients need further investigation. © 2015 The Authors. The Clinical Respiratory Journal Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Corrector VX-809 promotes interactions between cytoplasmic loop one and the first nucleotide-binding domain of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2017-07-15

    A large number of correctors have been identified that can partially repair defects in folding, stability and trafficking of CFTR processing mutants that cause cystic fibrosis (CF). The best corrector, VX-809 (Lumacaftor), has shown some promise when used in combination with a potentiator (Ivacaftor). Understanding the mechanism of VX-809 is essential for development of better correctors. Here, we tested our prediction that VX-809 repairs folding and processing defects of CFTR by promoting interactions between the first cytoplasmic loop (CL1) of transmembrane domain 1 (TMD1) and the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1). To investigate whether VX-809 promoted CL1/NBD1 interactions, we performed cysteine mutagenesis and disulfide cross-linking analysis of Cys-less TMD1 (residues 1-436) and ΔTMD1 (residues 437-1480; NBD1-R-TMD2-NBD2) truncation mutants. It was found that VX-809, but not bithiazole correctors, promoted maturation (exited endoplasmic reticulum for addition of complex carbohydrate in the Golgi) of the ΔTMD1 truncation mutant only when it was co-expressed in the presence of TMD1. Expression in the presence of VX-809 also promoted cross-linking between R170C (in CL1 of TMD1 protein) and L475C (in NBD1 of the ΔTMD1 truncation protein). Expression of the ΔTMD1 truncation mutant in the presence of TMD1 and VX-809 also increased the half-life of the mature protein in cells. The results suggest that the mechanism by which VX-809 promotes maturation and stability of CFTR is by promoting CL1/NBD1 interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients With G551D-CFTR Treated With Ivacaftor

    PubMed Central

    Heltshe, Sonya L.; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Burns, Jane L.; Khan, Umer; Baines, Arthur; Ramsey, Bonnie W.; Rowe, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ivacaftor improves outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with the G551D mutation; however, effects on respiratory microbiology are largely unknown. This study examines changes in CF respiratory pathogens with ivacaftor and correlates them with baseline characteristics and clinical response. Methods. The G551D Observational Study enrolled a longitudinal observational cohort of US patients with CF aged 6 years and older with at least 1 copy of the G551D mutation. Results were linked with retrospective and prospective culture data in the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's National Patient Registry. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection category in the year before and year after ivacaftor was compared and correlated with clinical findings. Results. Among 151 participants prescribed ivacaftor, 29% (26/89) who were culture positive for P. aeruginosa the year prior to ivacaftor use were culture negative the year following treatment; 88% (52/59) of those P. aeruginosa free remained uninfected. The odds of P. aeruginosa positivity in the year after ivacaftor compared with the year prior were reduced by 35% (odds ratio [OR], 0.65; P < .001). Ivacaftor was also associated with reduced odds of mucoid P. aeruginosa (OR, 0.77; P = .013) and Aspergillus (OR, 0.47; P = .039), but not Staphylococcus aureus or other common CF pathogens. Patients with intermittent culture positivity and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were most likely to turn culture negative. Reduction in P. aeruginosa was not associated with change in FEV1, body mass index, or hospitalizations. Conclusions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture positivity was significantly reduced following ivacaftor treatment. Efficacious CFTR modulation may contribute to lower frequency of culture positivity for P. aeruginosa and other respiratory pathogens, particularly in patients with less established disease. PMID:25425629

  11. Neonatal screening of cystic fibrosis: diagnostic problems with CFTR mild mutations.

    PubMed

    Roussey, M; Le Bihannic, A; Scotet, V; Audrezet, M P; Blayau, M; Dagorne, M; David, V; Deneuville, E; Giniès, J L; Laurans, M; Moisan-Petit, V; Rault, G; Vigneron, P; Férec, C

    2007-08-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) of cystic fibrosis (CF) was implemented throughout the whole of France in 2002, but it had been established earlier in three western French regions. It can reveal atypical CF with one or two known CFTR mild mutations, with an uncertain evolution. The sweat test can be normal or borderline. In Brittany, from 1989 to 2004, 196 CF cases were diagnosed (1/2885 births). The incidence of atypical CF diagnosed by NBS is 9.7% (19 from 196). The outcome of 17 (2 lost of view) has been studied, with 9 other atypical CF cases diagnosed by NBS in two other regions. The follow-up period extends from 0.25 to 19.8 years (NBS implemented in Normandy in 1980) with mean age 4.6 years. The most frequent mild mutation is R117H ISV8-7T (50%). At the time of the last visit, nutritional status is normal. All these CF patients are pancreatic sufficient. Only one patient exhibits respiratory infections, whereas 7 others have them intermittently. Two of them had intermittent Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization at 2.8 and 6.5 years. Mean Shwachman score is 96.7, mean Brasfield score is 22.8. Eight children have had lung function tests (mean follow-up of 10 years): mean FVC was 99% of predicted, mean FEV1 101%, but one of them has FEV1 of 48%. Predicting the phenotype of these atypical CF patients remains difficult, thus complicating any genetic counselling. A regular clinical evaluation is necessary, if possible by a CF unit, because CF symptoms may appear later.

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients with G551D-CFTR treated with ivacaftor.

    PubMed

    Heltshe, Sonya L; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Burns, Jane L; Khan, Umer; Baines, Arthur; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Rowe, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    Ivacaftor improves outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with the G551D mutation; however, effects on respiratory microbiology are largely unknown. This study examines changes in CF respiratory pathogens with ivacaftor and correlates them with baseline characteristics and clinical response. The G551D Observational Study enrolled a longitudinal observational cohort of US patients with CF aged 6 years and older with at least 1 copy of the G551D mutation. Results were linked with retrospective and prospective culture data in the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's National Patient Registry. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection category in the year before and year after ivacaftor was compared and correlated with clinical findings. Among 151 participants prescribed ivacaftor, 29% (26/89) who were culture positive for P. aeruginosa the year prior to ivacaftor use were culture negative the year following treatment; 88% (52/59) of those P. aeruginosa free remained uninfected. The odds of P. aeruginosa positivity in the year after ivacaftor compared with the year prior were reduced by 35% (odds ratio [OR], 0.65; P < .001). Ivacaftor was also associated with reduced odds of mucoid P. aeruginosa (OR, 0.77; P = .013) and Aspergillus (OR, 0.47; P = .039), but not Staphylococcus aureus or other common CF pathogens. Patients with intermittent culture positivity and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were most likely to turn culture negative. Reduction in P. aeruginosa was not associated with change in FEV1, body mass index, or hospitalizations. Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture positivity was significantly reduced following ivacaftor treatment. Efficacious CFTR modulation may contribute to lower frequency of culture positivity for P. aeruginosa and other respiratory pathogens, particularly in patients with less established disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For

  13. Treatment burden in patients with at least one class IV or V CFTR mutation.

    PubMed

    Dewulf, Jonas; Vermeulen, François; Wanyama, Simeon; Thomas, Muriel; Proesmans, Marijke; Dupont, Lieven; De Boeck, Kris

    2015-12-01

    CFTR mutations are grouped according to disease-causing mechanism. Several studies demonstrated that patients having at least one mutation of class IV/V, present with a milder phenotype, but little is known about their relative treatment burden. We compared treatment burden between patients with two class I, II, or III mutations and patients with at least one mutation of class IV/V in the 2010 database of the Belgian CF Registry. We calculated a "Treatment Burden Index" (TBI) by assigning long term therapies to categories low, medium and high intensity, for differential weighing in the total score. There were 779 patients with two known class I/II/III mutations and 94 patients with at least one class IV/V mutation. Compared to class I/II/III, class IV/V patients had a lower median number of clinic visits (4 vs. 5; P < 0.001), a lower risk of hospitalization (24.7% vs. 50.8%; P < 0.001) and intravenous antibiotic treatment (23.5% vs. 46.0%; P < 0.001) and a lower median TBI (6 vs. 9; P < 0.001). These differences remained significant when only class IV/V patients with pancreatic insufficiency (n = 31) were considered. This study clearly demonstrates the significantly lower treatment burden in patients with CF and at least one class IV/V mutation compared to patients with two class I/II/III mutations and contributes to providing better individual counseling at time of diagnosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Genomic sequencing in cystic fibrosis newborn screening: what works best, two-tier predefined CFTR mutation panels or second-tier CFTR panel followed by third-tier sequencing?

    PubMed

    Currier, Robert J; Sciortino, Stan; Liu, Ruiling; Bishop, Tracey; Alikhani Koupaei, Rasoul; Feuchtbaum, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to model the performance of several known two-tier, predefined mutation panels and three-tier algorithms for cystic fibrosis (CF) screening utilizing the ethnically diverse California population.MethodsThe cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations identified among the 317 CF cases in California screened between 12 August 2008 and 18 December 2012 were used to compare the expected CF detection rates for several two- and three-tier screening approaches, including the current California approach, which consists of a population-specific 40-mutation panel followed by third-tier sequencing when indicated.ResultsThe data show that the strategy of using third-tier sequencing improves CF detection following an initial elevated immunoreactive trypsinogen and detection of only one mutation on a second-tier panel.ConclusionIn a diverse population, the use of a second-tier panel followed by third-tier CFTR gene sequencing provides a better detection rate for CF, compared with the use of a second-tier approach alone, and is an effective way to minimize the referrals of CF carriers for sweat testing. Restricting screening to a second-tier testing to predefined mutation panels, even broad ones, results in some missed CF cases and demonstrates the limited utility of this approach in states that have diverse multiethnic populations.

  15. Fragmentation of molecular tributyltin chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmekhin, S.; Caló, A.; Kisand, V.; Nõmmiste, E.; Kotilainen, H.; Aksela, H.; Aksela, S.

    2008-06-01

    Fragmentation of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) vapour has been studied experimentally by means of time-of-flight mass spectrometry at the photon energy range of 9-25 eV of synchrotron radiation, at 21.22 eV of HeI as well as with 500 eV electron beam excitation. Branching ratios of the tributyltin chloride fragments taken with HeI and synchrotron radiation have been presented first time. Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were carried out for TBTCl and the ionization energies obtained were used to predict the dissociation pathways creating the observed ions.

  16. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  17. Analysis of some polymorphic markers of the CFTR gene in cystic fibrosis patients and healthy donors from the Moscow region

    SciTech Connect

    Amosenko, F.A.; Sazonova, M.A.; Kapranov, N.I.

    1995-04-01

    Allelic frequencies of three polymorphic markers in the CFTR gene were estimated on chromosomes derived from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and healthy donors from Moscow and the Moscow region. These polymorphic markers are tetranucleotide tandem repeats GATT in intron 6B, M470V in exon 10, and T854T in exon 14 (fragment A). Frequencies at allele 1 of the M470V marker, along with allele 2 of GATT and T854T, are two times higher for CF patients without {Delta}F508 mutation than for healthy donors, and there is linkage disequilibrium of these alleles of the polymorphic markers analyzed with the CF gene. Allele 1more » of M470V and T854T markers, as well as allele 2 of the GATT marker (six repeats), are absolutely linked to mutation F508 of the CFTR gene. Using the polymorphic markers studied, family analysis of CF was carried out in two families. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.« less

  18. Meconium ileus caused by mutations in GUCY2C, encoding the CFTR-activating guanylate cyclase 2C.

    PubMed

    Romi, Hila; Cohen, Idan; Landau, Daniella; Alkrinawi, Suliman; Yerushalmi, Baruch; Hershkovitz, Reli; Newman-Heiman, Nitza; Cutting, Garry R; Ofir, Rivka; Sivan, Sara; Birk, Ohad S

    2012-05-04

    Meconium ileus, intestinal obstruction in the newborn, is caused in most cases by CFTR mutations modulated by yet-unidentified modifier genes. We now show that in two unrelated consanguineous Bedouin kindreds, an autosomal-recessive phenotype of meconium ileus that is not associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by different homozygous mutations in GUCY2C, leading to a dramatic reduction or fully abrogating the enzymatic activity of the encoded guanlyl cyclase 2C. GUCY2C is a transmembrane receptor whose extracellular domain is activated by either the endogenous ligands, guanylin and related peptide uroguanylin, or by an external ligand, Escherichia coli (E. coli) heat-stable enterotoxin STa. GUCY2C is expressed in the human intestine, and the encoded protein activates the CFTR protein through local generation of cGMP. Thus, GUCY2C is a likely candidate modifier of the meconium ileus phenotype in CF. Because GUCY2C heterozygous and homozygous mutant mice are resistant to E. coli STa enterotoxin-induced diarrhea, it is plausible that GUCY2C mutations in the desert-dwelling Bedouin kindred are of selective advantage. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Current strategies for the long-term assessment, monitoring, and management of cystic fibrosis patients treated with CFTR modulator therapy.

    PubMed

    Elborn, J Stuart; Davies, Jane; Mall, Marcus A; Flume, Patrick A; Plant, Barry

    2017-01-01

    The content for this activity is based on the satellite symposium, "Current Strategies for the Long-term Assessment, Monitoring, and Management for Cystic Fibrosis Patients Treated with CFTR Modulator Therapy" that was presented at the 39th European Cystic Fibrosis Society Conference on June 10, 2016 (Online access: http://courses.elseviercme.com/ecfs2016e/619e). The emergence of novel targeted agents, that directly correct CFTR loss function alleles, has created new treatment opportunities for patients with cystic fibrosis with advanced disease. Knowledge of the role of these agents in the clinical setting is quickly evolving and will require physicians to stay acquainted with the latest data as well as evidence-based treatment guidelines in order to achieve optimized cystic fibrosis patient care. Ideally, after diagnosis, a personalized approach would be adapted and tailored to the patient through genome-informed medicine. However, due to the relative recentness of genomic-based therapeutics, physicians may have a limited knowledge base regarding these new treatment options and how to best incorporate these agents into patient management plans. Although cystic fibrosis is still largely regarded as a pediatric disease, the median survival for patients is 35years of age. Consequently, pediatric-to-adult cystic fibrosis care programs would allow suitable preparation time for this transition and develop a standardized group of self-care and management skills. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of epithelial sodium channel variants in nonwhite cystic fibrosis patients with non-diagnostic CFTR genotypes.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Marie-Luise; Pique, Lynn M; Schrijver, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a role for the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in cystic fibrosis (CF). The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of genetic variants in the ENaC subunits (α, β, γ) in nonwhite CF patients in whom CFTR molecular testing has been non-diagnostic. Samples were obtained from patients who were nonwhite and whose molecular CFTR testing did not identify two mutations. Sequencing of the SCNN1A, B, and G genes was performed and variants assessed for pathogenicity and association with CF using databases, protein and splice site mutation analysis software, and literature review. We identified four nonsynonymous amino acid variants in SCNN1A, three in SCNN1B and one in SCNN1G. There was no convincing evidence of pathogenicity. Whereas all have been reported in the dbSNP database, only p.Ala334Thr, p.Val573Ile, and p.Thr663Ala in SCNN1A, p.Gly442Val in SCNN1B and p.Gly183Ser in SCNN1G were previously reported in ENaC genetic studies of CF or CF-like patients. Synonymous substitutions were also observed but novel synonymous variants were not detected. There is no conclusive association of ENaC genetic variants with CF in nonwhite CF patients. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction among variants in the SLC gene family (SLC6A14, SLC26A9, SLC11A1, and SLC9A3) and CFTR mutations with clinical markers of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Stephanie V N; Ribeiro, Jose D; Bertuzzo, Carmen S; Marson, Fernando A L

    2018-04-10

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is due to dysfunction of the CFTR channel and function of this channel is, in turn, affected by modifier genes that can impact the clinical phenotype. In this context, we analyzed the interaction among rs3788766*SLC6A14, rs7512462*SLC26A9, rs17235416*SLC11A1, and rs17563161*SLC9A3 variants, CFTR mutations and 40 CF severity markers by the Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) model. A total of 164 patients with CF were included in the study. The variants in the modifier genes were identified by real-time PCR and the genotype of the CFTR gene in the diagnostic routine. Analysis of interaction between variants, CFTR mutations groupings and demographic, clinical and laboratory data were performed by the MDR. There were interaction between the rs3788766, rs7512462, rs17235416, and rs17563161 variants, and CFTR mutations with pancreatic insufficiency (PI), onset of digestive symptoms, and presence of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Regarding PI, the interaction was observed for CFTR*rs17563161 (P-value = 0.015). Also, for onset of digestive symptoms the interaction was observed for CFTR*rs3788766*rs7512462*rs17235416*rs17563161 (P-value = 0.036). Considering the presence of mucoid P. aeruginosa, the interaction occurred for CFTR*rs3788766*rs7512462*rs17563161 (P-value = 0.035). Interaction between variants in the SLC family genes and the grouping for CFTR mutations were associated with PI, onset of digestive symptoms and mucoid P. aeruginosa, being important to determine one of the factors that may cause the diversity among the patients with CF. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Low abundance of sweat duct Cl− channel CFTR in both healthy and cystic fibrosis athletes with exceptionally salty sweat during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Karla K. V.; Pollack, Brian P.; Millard-Stafford, Mindy; McCarty, Nael A.

    2011-01-01

    To understand potential mechanisms explaining interindividual variability observed in human sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]), we investigated the relationship among [Na+] of thermoregulatory sweat, plasma membrane expression of Na+ and Cl− transport proteins in biopsied human eccrine sweat ducts, and basal levels of vasopressin (AVP) and aldosterone. Lower ductal luminal membrane expression of the Cl− channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was observed in immunofluorescent staining of sweat glands from healthy young adults identified as exceptionally “salty sweaters” (SS) (n = 6, P < 0.05) and from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) (n = 6, P < 0.005) compared with ducts from healthy young adults with “typical” sweat [Na+] (control, n = 6). Genetic testing of healthy subjects did not reveal any heterozygotes (“carriers”) for any of the 39 most common disease-causing CFTR mutations in the United States. SS had higher baseline plasma [AVP] compared with control (P = 0.029). Immunostaining to investigate a potential relationship between higher plasma [AVP] (and sweat [Na+]) and ductal membrane aquaporin-5 revealed for all groups a relatively sparse and location-dependent ductal expression of the water channel with localization primarily to the secretory coil. Availability of CFTR for NaCl transport across the ductal membrane appears related to the significant physiological variability observed in sweat salt concentration in apparently healthy humans. At present, a heritable link between healthy salty sweaters and the most prevalent disease-causing CFTR mutations cannot be established. PMID:21228336

  3. Lumacaftor/ivacaftor, a novel agent for the treatment of cystic fibrosis patients who are homozygous for the F580del CFTR mutation.

    PubMed

    Bulloch, Marilyn N; Hanna, Cameron; Giovane, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease affecting up to 90,000 people worldwide. Approximately 73% of patients are homozygous for the F508del cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator [CFTR] mutation. Traditionally treatment has only included supportive care. Therefore, there is a need for safe and effective novel therapies targeting the underlying molecular defects seen with CF. Areas covered: In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission approved LUM/IVA (Orkambi), a CFTR modulator that includes both a CFTR corrector and potentiator, for CF patients homozygous for the F508del CFTR mutation. This article reviews the pharmacologic features, clinical efficacy, and safety of LUM/IVA and summarize the available pre-clinical and clinical data of LUM/IVA use. Expert commentary: LUM/IVA showed modest, but significant improvements from baseline in percent predicted FEV 1 (ppFEV 1 ) as well as a reduction in pulmonary exacerbations by 35% It was shown to be safe for short- and long-term use. Currently, LUM/IVA is the only oral agent in its class available and represents a milestone the development of therapies for the management of CF. Nonetheless, pharmacoeconomic data are necessary to justify its high cost before is use becomes standard of care.

  4. General anesthetic octanol and related compounds activate wild-type and delF508 cystic fibrosis chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Marcet, Brice; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline; Delmas, Patrick; Verrier, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel is defective during cystic fibrosis (CF). Activators of the CFTR Cl− channel may be useful for therapy of CF. Here, we demonstrate that a range of general anesthetics like normal-alkanols (n-alkanols) and related compounds can stimulate the Cl− channel activity of wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant. The effects of n-alkanols like octanol on CFTR activity were measured by iodide (125I) efflux and patch-clamp techniques on three distinct cellular models: (1) CFTR-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells, (2) human airway Calu-3 epithelial cells and (3) human airway JME/CF15 epithelial cells which express the delF508-CFTR mutant. Our data show for the first time that n-alkanols activate both wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant. Octanol stimulated 125I efflux in a dose-dependent manner in CFTR-expressing cells (wild-type and delF508) but not in cell lines lacking CFTR. 125I efflux and Cl− currents induced by octanol were blocked by glibenclamide but insensitive to 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid, as expected for a CFTR Cl− current. CFTR activation by octanol was neither due to cell-to-cell uncoupling properties of octanol nor to an intracellular cAMP increase. CFTR activation by octanol requires phosphorylation by protein kinase-A (PKA) since it was prevented by H-89, a PKA inhibitor. n-Alkanols chain length was an important determinant for channel activation, with rank order of potencies: 1-heptanol<1-octanol<2-octanol<1-decanol. Our findings may be of valuable interest for developing novel therapeutic strategies for CF. PMID:14967738

  5. General anesthetic octanol and related compounds activate wild-type and delF508 cystic fibrosis chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Brice; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline; Delmas, Patrick; Verrier, Bernard

    2004-03-01

    1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel is defective during cystic fibrosis (CF). Activators of the CFTR Cl(-) channel may be useful for therapy of CF. Here, we demonstrate that a range of general anesthetics like normal-alkanols (n-alkanols) and related compounds can stimulate the Cl(-) channel activity of wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant. 2. The effects of n-alkanols like octanol on CFTR activity were measured by iodide ((125)I) efflux and patch-clamp techniques on three distinct cellular models: (1). CFTR-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells, (2). human airway Calu-3 epithelial cells and (3). human airway JME/CF15 epithelial cells which express the delF508-CFTR mutant. 3. Our data show for the first time that n-alkanols activate both wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant. Octanol stimulated (125)I efflux in a dose-dependent manner in CFTR-expressing cells (wild-type and delF508) but not in cell lines lacking CFTR. (125)I efflux and Cl(-) currents induced by octanol were blocked by glibenclamide but insensitive to 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, as expected for a CFTR Cl(-) current. 4. CFTR activation by octanol was neither due to cell-to-cell uncoupling properties of octanol nor to an intracellular cAMP increase. CFTR activation by octanol requires phosphorylation by protein kinase-A (PKA) since it was prevented by H-89, a PKA inhibitor. 5. n-Alkanols chain length was an important determinant for channel activation, with rank order of potencies: 1-heptanol<1-octanol<2-octanol<1-decanol. Our findings may be of valuable interest for developing novel therapeutic strategies for CF.

  6. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. Surface Chloride Levels in Colorado Structural Concrete

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-01-01

    This project focused on the chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in structural concrete. The primary goal of this project is to analyze the surface chloride concentration level of the concrete bridge decks throughout Colorado. The study in...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acids to form amines that are subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to form the quaternary ammonium... then reacted with 2-ethylhexanal, reduced, methylated, and subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to...

  4. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acids to form amines that are subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to form the quaternary ammonium... then reacted with 2-ethylhexanal, reduced, methylated, and subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  8. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, S.J.; Thomas, T.R.

    1975-11-14

    A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel, and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  9. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Steven J.; Thomas, Thomas R.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  10. Elevated Mirc1/Mir17-92 cluster expression negatively regulates autophagy and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) function in CF macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Mia F; Dakhlallah, Duaa A; Caution, Kyle; Gerber, Madelyn M; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Khalil, Hany; Kopp, Benjamin T; Ahmed, Amr E; Krause, Kathrin; Davis, Ian; Marsh, Clay; Lovett-Racke, Amy E; Schlesinger, Larry S; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Amer, Amal O

    2016-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a fatal, genetic disorder that critically affects the lungs and is directly caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, resulting in defective CFTR function. Macroautophagy/autophagy is a highly regulated biological process that provides energy during periods of stress and starvation. Autophagy clears pathogens and dysfunctional protein aggregates within macrophages. However, this process is impaired in CF patients and CF mice, as their macrophages exhibit limited autophagy activity. The study of microRNAs (Mirs), and other noncoding RNAs, continues to offer new therapeutic targets. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of Mirs in dysregulated autophagy-related genes in CF macrophages, and then target them to restore this host-defense function and improve CFTR channel function. We identified the Mirc1/Mir17-92 cluster as a potential negative regulator of autophagy as CF macrophages exhibit decreased autophagy protein expression and increased cluster expression when compared to wild-type (WT) counterparts. The absence or reduced expression of the cluster increases autophagy protein expression, suggesting the canonical inverse relationship between Mirc1/Mir17-92 and autophagy gene expression. An in silico study for targets of Mirs that comprise the cluster suggested that the majority of the Mirs target autophagy mRNAs. Those targets were validated by luciferase assays. Notably, the ability of macrophages expressing mutant F508del CFTR to transport halide through their membranes is compromised and can be restored by downregulation of these inherently elevated Mirs, via restoration of autophagy. In vivo, downregulation of Mir17 and Mir20a partially restored autophagy expression and hence improved the clearance of Burkholderia cenocepacia. Thus, these data advance our understanding of mechanisms underlying the pathobiology of CF and provide a new therapeutic platform for restoring CFTR function

  11. High-Content Surface and Total Expression siRNA Kinase Library Screen with VX-809 Treatment Reveals Kinase Targets that Enhance F508del-CFTR Rescue.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Lydia A; Fisher, Gregory W; Naganbabu, Matharishwan; Schmidt, Brigitte F; Mun, Frederick; Bruchez, Marcel P

    2018-03-05

    The most promising F508del-CFTR corrector, VX-809, has been unsuccessful as an effective, stand-alone treatment for CF patients, but the rescue effect in combination with other drugs may confer an acceptable level of therapeutic benefit. Targeting cellular factors that modify trafficking may act to enhance the cell surface density of F508-CFTR with VX-809 correction. Our goal is to identify druggable kinases that enhance F508del-CFTR rescue and stabilization at the cell surface beyond that achievable with the VX-809 corrector alone. To achieve this goal, we implemented a new high-throughput screening paradigm that quickly and quantitatively measures surface density and total protein in the same cells. This allowed for rapid screening for increased surface targeting and proteostatic regulation. The assay utilizes fluorogen-activating-protein (FAP) technology with cell excluded and cell permeant fluorogenic dyes in a quick, wash-free fluorescent plate reader format on live cells to first measure F508del-CFTR expressed on the surface and then the total amount of F508del-CFTR protein present. To screen for kinase targets, we used Dharmacon's ON-TARGET plus SMARTpool siRNA Kinase library (715 target kinases) with and without 10 μM VX-809 treatment in triplicate at 37 °C. We identified several targets that had a significant interaction with VX-809 treatment in enhancing surface density with siRNA knockdown. Select small-molecule inhibitors of the kinase targets demonstrated augmented surface expression with VX-809 treatment.

  12. Compounds that correct F508del-CFTR trafficking can also correct other protein trafficking diseases: an in vitro study using cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many genetic diseases are due to defects in protein trafficking where the mutant protein is recognized by the quality control systems, retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and degraded by the proteasome. In many cases, the mutant protein retains function if it can be trafficked to its proper cellular location. We have identified structurally diverse correctors that restore the trafficking and function of the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis, F508del-CFTR. Most of these correctors do not act directly as ligands of CFTR, but indirectly on other pathways to promote folding and correction. We hypothesize that these proteostasis regulators may also correct other protein trafficking diseases. Methods To test our hypothesis, we used stable cell lines or transient transfection to express 2 well-studied trafficking disease mutations in each of 3 different proteins: the arginine-vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2, also known as V2R), the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (KCNH2, also known as hERG), and finally the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (ABCC8, also known as SUR1). We treated cells expressing these mutant proteins with 9 structurally diverse F508del-CFTR correctors that function through different cellular mechanisms and assessed whether correction occurred via immunoblotting and functional assays. Results were deemed significantly different from controls by a one-way ANOVA (p < 0.05). Results Here we show that F508del-CFTR correctors RDR1, KM60 and KM57 also correct some mutant alleles of other protein trafficking diseases. We also show that one corrector, the cardiac glycoside ouabain, was found to alter the glycosylation of all mutant alleles tested. Conclusions Correctors of F508del-CFTR trafficking might have broader applications to other protein trafficking diseases. PMID:23316740

  13. Lubiprostone activates Cl- secretion via cAMP signaling and increases membrane CFTR in the human colon carcinoma cell line, T84.

    PubMed

    Ao, Mei; Venkatasubramanian, Jayashree; Boonkaewwan, Chaiwat; Ganesan, Nivetha; Syed, Asma; Benya, Richard V; Rao, Mrinalini C

    2011-02-01

    Lubiprostone, used clinically (b.i.d.) to treat constipation, has been reported to increase transepithelial Cl(-) transport in T84 cells by activating ClC-2 channels. To identify the underlying signaling pathway, we explored the effects of short-term and overnight lubiprostone treatment on second messenger signaling and Cl(-) transport. Cl(-) transport was assessed either as I(sc) across T84 monolayers grown on Transwells and mounted in Ussing chambers or by the iodide efflux assay. [cAMP](i) was measured by enzyme immunoassay, and [Ca(2+)](i) by Fluo-3 fluorescence. Quantitation of apical cell surface CFTR protein levels was assessed by Western blotting and biotinylation with the EZ-Link Sulfo-NHS-LC-LC-Biotin. ClC-2 mRNA level was studied by RT-PCR. Lubiprostone and the cAMP stimulator, forskolin, caused comparable and maximal increases of I(sc) in T84 cells. The I(sc) effects of lubiprostone and forskolin were each suppressed if the tissue had previously been treated with the other agent. These responses were unaltered even if the monolayers were treated with lubiprostone overnight. Lubiprostone-induced increases in iodide efflux were ~80% of those obtained with forskolin. Lubiprostone increased [cAMP](i). H89, bumetanide, or CFTR(inh)-172 greatly attenuated lubiprostone-stimulated Cl(-) secretion, whereas the ClC-2 inhibitor CdCl(2) did not. Compared to controls, FSK-treatment increased membrane-associated CFTR by 1.9 fold, and lubiprostone caused a 2.6-fold increase in apical membrane CFTR as seen by immunoblotting following cell surface biotinylation. Lubiprostone activates Cl(-) secretion in T84 cells via cAMP, protein kinase A, and by increasing apical membrane CFTR protein.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially obtained as a byproduct in...

  17. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  18. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  3. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  4. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions...

  12. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from...

  13. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS...

  4. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  8. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34 Section 151.50-34 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall...

  9. Structure and Dynamics of NBD1 from CFTR Characterized Using Crystallography and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, H.A.; Wang, C.; Zhao, X.

    2012-04-30

    The {Delta}F508 mutation in nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the predominant cause of cystic fibrosis. Previous biophysical studies on human F508 and {Delta}F508 domains showed only local structural changes restricted to residues 509-511 and only minor differences in folding rate and stability. These results were remarkable because {Delta}F508 was widely assumed to perturb domain folding based on the fact that it prevents trafficking of CFTR out of the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the previously reported crystal structures did not come from matched F508 and {Delta}F508 constructs, and the {Delta}F508 structure contained additional mutationsmore » that were required to obtain sufficient protein solubility. In this article, we present additional biophysical studies of NBD1 designed to address these ambiguities. Mass spectral measurements of backbone amide {sup 1}H/{sup 2}H exchange rates in matched F508 and {Delta}F508 constructs reveal that {Delta}F508 increases backbone dynamics at residues 509-511 and the adjacent protein segments but not elsewhere in NBD1. These measurements also confirm a high level of flexibility in the protein segments exhibiting variable conformations in the crystal structures. We additionally present crystal structures of a broader set of human NBD1 constructs, including one harboring the native F508 residue and others harboring the {Delta}F508 mutation in the presence of fewer and different solubilizing mutations. The only consistent conformational difference is observed at residues 509-511. The side chain of residue V510 in this loop is mostly buried in all non-{Delta}F508 structures but completely solvent exposed in all {Delta}F508 structures. These results reinforce the importance of the perturbation {Delta}F508 causes in the surface topography of NBD1 in a region likely to mediate contact with the transmembrane domains of CFTR. However, they also suggest that

  10. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation