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Sample records for a-dependent cftr chloride

  1. Sweat chloride as a biomarker of CFTR activity: proof of concept and ivacaftor clinical trial data.

    PubMed

    Accurso, Frank J; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J; Dong, Qunming; Ordonez, Claudia L; Rowe, Steven M; Clancy, John Paul; Konstan, Michael W; Hoch, Heather E; Heltshe, Sonya L; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Campbell, Preston W; Ashlock, Melissa A

    2014-03-01

    We examined data from a Phase 2 trial {NCT00457821} of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with aG551D mutation to evaluate standardized approaches to sweat chloride measurement and to explore the use of sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (NPD) to estimate CFTR activity. Sweat chloride and NPD were secondary endpoints in this placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Standardization of sweat collection, processing,and analysis was employed for the first time. Sweat chloride and chloride ion transport (NPD) were integrated into a model of CFTR activity. Within-patient sweat chloride determinations showed sufficient precision to detect differences between dose-groups and assess ivacaftor treatment effects. Analysis of changes in sweat chloride and NPD demonstrated that patients treated with ivacaftor achieved CFTR activity equivalent to approximately 35%–40% of normal. Sweat chloride is useful in multicenter trials as a biomarker of CFTR activity and to test the effect of CFTR potentiators.

  2. Stimulation effect of wide type CFTR chloride channel by the naturally occurring flavonoid tangeretin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Wang, Xue; Sui, Yujie; Zhang, Yaofang; Yang, Shuang; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2014-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed in the apical membrane of serous epithelial cells. Both deficiency and overactivation of CFTR may cause fluid and salt secretion related diseases. In the present study, we identified tangeretin from Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride as a CFTR activator using high-throughput screening based on FRT cell-based fluorescence assay. The activation effect of tangeretin on CFTR chloride channel and the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated. Fluorescence quenching tests showed that tangeretin dose- and time-dependently activated CFTR chloride channel, the activity had rapid and reversible characteristics and the activation effect could be completely reversed by the CFTR specific blocker CFTRinh-172. Primary mechanism studies indicated that the activation effect of tangeretin on CFTR chloride channel was FSK dependent as well as had additional effect with FSK and IBMX suggesting that tangeretin activates CFTR by direct interacting with the protein. Ex-vivo tests revealed that tangeretin could accelerate the speed of the submucosal gland fluid secretion. Short-circuit current measurement demonstrated that tangeretin activated rat colonic mucosa chloride current. Thus, CFTR Cl(-) channel is a molecular target of natural compound tangeretin. Tangeretin may have potential use for the treatment of CFTR-related diseases like cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis and habitual constipation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Conformational changes opening and closing the CFTR chloride channel: insights from cysteine scanning mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    El Hiani, Yassine; Linsdell, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis, the most common lethal genetic disease affecting young people in North America, is caused by failure of the chloride ion channel known as CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator). CFTR belongs to the large family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters. In CFTR, ATP-driven events at the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) open and close a gate that controls chloride permeation. However, the conformational changes concomitant with opening and closing of the CFTR gate are unknown. Diverse techniques including substituted cysteine accessibility method, disulfide cross-linking, and patch-clamp recording have been used to explore CFTR channel structure. Here, we consider the architecture of both the open and the closed CFTR channel. We review how CFTR channel structure changes between the closed and the open channel conformations and portray the relative function of both cytoplasmic and vestigial gates during the gating cycle. Understanding how the CFTR channel gates chloride permeation is central for understanding how CFTR defects lead to CF. Such knowledge opens the door for novel ways to maximize CFTR channel activity in a CF setting.

  4. The Hypertonic Environment Differentially Regulates Wild-type CFTR and TNR-CFTR Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M.; Cheng, Jie; Krasnov, Kristina; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Cutting, Garry R.; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Morales, Marcelo M.; Guggino, William B.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that the hypertonic environment of the renal medulla regulates the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) and its natural splice variant, TNR-CFTR. To accomplish this, Madin- Darby canine kidney (MDCK) stable cell lines expressing TNR-CFTR or CFTR were used. The cells were treated with hypertonic medium made with either NaCl or urea or sucrose (480 mOsm/kg or 560 mOsm/kg) to mimic the tonicity of the renal medulla environment. Western blot data showed that CFTR and TNR-CFTR total cell protein is increased by hypertonic medium, but using the surface biotinylation technique, only CFTR was found to be increased in cell plasma membrane. Confocal microscopy showed TNR-CFTR localization primarily at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. In conclusion, CFTR and TNR-CFTR have different patterns of distribution in MDCK cells and they are modulated by a hypertonic environment, suggesting their physiological importance in renal medulla. PMID:21063095

  5. The hypertonic environment differentially regulates wild-type CFTR and TNR-CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Cheng, Jie; Krasnov, Kristina; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Cutting, Garry R; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Morales, Marcelo M; Guggino, William B

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that the hypertonic environment of the renal medulla regulates the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) and its natural splice variant, TNR-CFTR. To accomplish this, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) stable cell lines expressing TNR-CFTR or CFTR were used. The cells were treated with hypertonic medium made with either NaCl or urea or sucrose (480 mOsm/kg or 560 mOsm/kg) to mimic the tonicity of the renal medulla environment. Western blot data showed that CFTR and TNR-CFTR total cell protein is increased by hypertonic medium, but using the surface biotinylation technique, only CFTR was found to be increased in cell plasma membrane. Confocal microscopy showed TNR-CFTR localization primarily at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. In conclusion, CFTR and TNR-CFTR have different patterns of distribution in MDCK cells and they are modulated by a hypertonic environment, suggesting their physiological importance in renal medulla. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Assessment of CFTR chloride channel openers in intact normal and cystic fibrosis murine epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Alan W

    2001-01-01

    A method is described for the detection of CFTR chloride channel openers (ClCOs) and blockers. Murine colonic epithelia were used throughout, but the method is applicable to other epithelia and biopsy material. The principle was to render the epithelial basolateral membranes electrically transparent so that the apical membrane alone could be voltage clamped. This was achieved by potassium depolarization on the basolateral side. Imposition of an apical to basolateral chloride gradient allowed the effects of ClCOs on an outward chloride current and on apical membrane conductance to be measured. 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolone (EBIO), forskolin, chlorzoxazone, and genistein all showed ClCO activity. In cystic fibrosis (CF) epithelia, either from CF null or CFΔF508 mice, EBIO showed only a minor effect, indicating that CFTR was the target in wild type tissues. 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) was shown to block CFTR chloride channels. The blockade was pH and voltage-dependent and indicated that while the charged form was the active moiety, movement into the cell depended on the unionized drug. It is concluded NPPB blocks CFTR from the cytosolic side and that the agent preferentially blocks at potentials opposing the inflow of chloride ions. No significant blockade was seen with either N-phenylanthranilic acid (DPC) or with glibenclamide, under standard conditions. The method described can be used to examine compounds reported to increase the trafficking of ΔF508 CFTR to the membrane or those capable of opening ΔF508 CFTR chloride channels and to differentiate between them. Further, the method distinguishes between chloride channel openers and those acting indirectly to increase the flux through CFTR chloride channels by indirect means, for example, hyperpolarization. PMID:11159718

  7. Rattlesnake Phospholipase A2 Increases CFTR-Chloride Channel Current and Corrects ∆F508CFTR Dysfunction: Impact in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Faure, Grazyna; Bakouh, Naziha; Lourdel, Stéphane; Odolczyk, Norbert; Premchandar, Aiswarya; Servel, Nathalie; Hatton, Aurélie; Ostrowski, Maciej K; Xu, Haijin; Saul, Frederick A; Moquereau, Christelle; Bitam, Sara; Pranke, Iwona; Planelles, Gabrielle; Teulon, Jacques; Herrmann, Harald; Roldan, Ariel; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Dadlez, Michal; Lukacs, Gergely L; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Ollero, Mario; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Edelman, Aleksander

    2016-07-17

    Deletion of Phe508 in the nucleotide binding domain (∆F508-NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR; a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel) is the most frequent mutation associated with cystic fibrosis. This mutation affects the maturation and gating of CFTR protein. The search for new high-affinity ligands of CFTR acting as dual modulators (correctors/activators) presents a major challenge in the pharmacology of cystic fibrosis. Snake venoms are a rich source of natural multifunctional proteins, potential binders of ion channels. In this study, we identified the CB subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus as a new ligand and allosteric modulator of CFTR. We showed that CB interacts with NBD1 of both wild type and ∆F508CFTR and increases their chloride channel currents. The potentiating effect of CB on CFTR activity was demonstrated using electrophysiological techniques in Xenopus laevis oocytes, in CFTR-HeLa cells, and ex vivo in mouse colon tissue. The correcting effect of CB was shown by functional rescue of CFTR activity after 24-h ΔF508CFTR treatments with CB. Moreover, the presence of fully glycosylated CFTR was observed. Molecular docking allowed us to propose a model of the complex involving of the ABCβ and F1-like ATP-binding subdomains of ΔF508-NBD1. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange analysis confirmed stabilization in these regions, also showing allosteric stabilization in two other distal regions. Surface plasmon resonance competition studies showed that CB disrupts the ∆F508CFTR-cytokeratin 8 complex, allowing for the escape of ∆F508CFTR from degradation. Therefore CB, as a dual modulator of ΔF508CFTR, constitutes a template for the development of new anti-CF agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CFTR chloride channel as a molecular target of anthraquinone compounds in herbal laxatives

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong; Xu, Li-na; He, Cheng-yan; Liu, Xin; Fang, Rou-yu; Ma, Tong-hui

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To clarify whether CFTR is a molecular target of intestinal fluid secretion caused by the anthraquinone compounds from laxative herbal plants. Methods: A cell-based fluorescent assay to measure I− influx through CFTR chloride channel. A short-circuit current assay to measure transcellular Cl− current across single layer FRT cells and freshly isolated colon mucosa. A closed loop experiment to measure colon fluid secretion in vivo. Results: Anthraquinone compounds rhein, aloe-emodin and 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAN) stimulated I− influx through CFTR chloride channel in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of physiological concentration of cAMP. In the short-circuit current assay, the three compound enhanced Cl− currents in epithelia formed by CFTR-expressing FRT cells with EC50 values of 73±1.4, 56±1.7, and 50±0.5μmol/L, respectively, and Rhein also enhanced Cl− current in freshly isolated rat colonic mucosa with a similar potency. These effects were completely reversed by the CFTR selective blocker CFTRinh-172. In in vivo closed loop experiments, rhein 2 mmol/L stimulated colonic fluid accumulation that was largely blocked by CFTRinh-172. The anthraquinone compounds did not elevate cAMP level in cultured FRT cells and rat colonic mucosa, suggesting a direct effect on CFTR activity. Conclusion: Natural anthraquinone compounds in vegetable laxative drugs are CFTR potentiators that stimulated colonic chloride and fluid secretion. Thus CFTR chloride channel is a molecular target of vegetable laxative drugs. PMID:21602836

  9. CFTR genotypes in patients with normal or borderline sweat chloride levels.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Delphine; Couderc, Remy; Audrezet, Marie-Pierre; Ferec, Claude; Bienvenu, Thierry; Desgeorges, Marie; Claustres, Mireille; Mittre, Hervé; Blayau, Martine; Bozon, Dominique; Malinge, Marie-Claire; Monnier, Nicole; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Iron, Albert; Bieth, Eric; Dumur, Viviane; Clavel, Christine; Cazeneuve, Cécile; Girodon, Emmanuelle

    2003-10-01

    In recent years, some patients bearing "atypical" forms of cystic fibrosis (CF) with normal sweat chloride concentrations have been described. To identify the spectrum of mutant combinations causing such atypical CF, we collected the results of CFTR (ABCC7) mutation analysis from 15 laboratories. Thirty patients with one or more typical symptoms of the disease associated with normal or borderline sweat chloride levels and bearing two CFTR mutations were selected. Phenotypes and genotypes of these 30 patients are described. A total of 18 different CFTR mutations were observed in the 60 chromosomes analysed. F508del was present in 31.6 % of the mutated chromosomes and 3849+10kbC>T in 13.3 %. R117H, D1152H, L206W, 3272-26A>G, S1235R, G149R, R1070W, S945L, and the poly-T tract variation commonly called IVS8-5T were also observed. The relative frequency of CFTR mutations clearly differed from that observed in typical CF patients or in CBAVD patients with the same ethnic origin. A mild genotype with one or two mild or variable mutations was observed in all the patients. These findings improve our understanding of the distribution of CFTR alleles in CF with normal or borderline sweat chloride concentrations and will facilitate the development of more sensitive CFTR mutation screening. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Structural basis for specificity and potency of xanthine derivatives as activators of the CFTR chloride channel

    PubMed Central

    Chappe, V; Mettey, Y; Vierfond, J M; Hanrahan, J W; Gola, M; Verrier, B; Becq, F

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of their structure, we compared the ability of 35 xanthine derivatives to activate the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel stably expressed in chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using the cell-attached patch clamp and iodide efflux techniques. Activation of CFTR channels was obtained with 3-mono, 1,3-di or 1,3,7-tri-substituted alkyl xanthine derivatives (enprofylline, theophylline, aminophylline, IBMX, DPMX and pentoxifylline). By contrast, xanthine derivatives substituted at the C8- or N9-position failed to open CFTR channels. The CFTR chloride channel activity was blocked by glibenclamide (100 μM) but not by DIDS (100 μM). Activation of CFTR by xanthines was not mimicked by the calcium ionophore A23187, adenosine, UTP, ATP or the specific phosphodiesterase inhibitors rolipram, Ro 20-1724 and milrinone. In addition, we found no correlation between the effect of xanthines on CFTR and on the cellular cyclic AMP or ATP levels. We then synthesized a series of 3,7-dimethyl-1-alkyl xanthine derivatives; among them, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propyl xanthine and 3,7-dimethyl-1-isobutyl xanthine both activated CFTR channels without increasing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, while the structurally related 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2-propenyl) xanthine and 3,7-dimethyl-1-(oxiranyl methyl) xanthine were inactive. Our findings delineate a novel function for xanthine compounds and identify the molecular features that enable xanthine activation of CFTR. These results may be useful in the development of new molecules for studying the pharmacology of chloride channels. PMID:9517388

  11. CFTR-dependent chloride efflux in cystic fibrosis mononuclear cells is increased by ivacaftor therapy.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Lorenzo; D'Oria, Susanna; Favia, Maria; Castellani, Stefano; Santostasi, Teresa; Polizzi, Angela M; Mariggiò, Maria A; Gallo, Crescenzio; Casavola, Valeria; Montemurro, Pasqualina; Leonetti, Giuseppina; Manca, Antonio; Conese, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) potentiator ivacaftor (Kalydeco®) improves clinical outcome in G551D cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we have investigated whether ivacaftor has a clinical impact on non-G551D gating mutations and function of circulating leukocytes as well. Seven patients were treated with ivacaftor and evaluated at baseline, and at 1-3 and 6 months. Besides clinical and systemic inflammatory parameters, circulating mononuclear cells (MNC) were evaluated for CFTR-dependent chloride efflux by spectrofluorimetry, neutrophils for oxidative burst by cytofluorimetry and HVCN1 mRNA expression by real time PCR. Ivacaftor determined a significant decrease in sweat chloride concentrations at all time points during treatment. Body mass index (BMI), FEV 1 , and FVC showed an increasing trend. While C-reactive protein decreased significantly at 2 months, the opposite behavior was noticed for circulating monocytes. CFTR activity in MNC was found to increase significantly at 3 and 6 months. Neutrophil oxidative burst peaked at 2 months and then decreased to baseline. HVCN1 mRNA expression was significantly higher than baseline at 1-3 months and decreased after 6 months of treatment. The chloride efflux in MNC correlated positively with both FEV 1 and FVC. On the other hand, sweat chloride correlated positively with CRP and WBC, and negatively with both respiratory function tests. A cluster analysis confirmed that sweat chloride, FEV 1 , FVC, BMI, and MNC chloride efflux behaved as a single entity over time. In patients with non-G551D mutations, ivacaftor improved both chloride transport in sweat ducts and chloride efflux in MNC, that is, functions directly imputed to CFTR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Lubiprostone activates non-CFTR-dependent respiratory epithelial chloride secretion in cystic fibrosis mice

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Kelvin D.; McKenzie, Karen R.; Henderson, Mark J.; Hawkins, Charles E.; Vij, Neeraj; Zeitlin, Pamela L.

    2008-01-01

    Periciliary fluid balance is maintained by the coordination of sodium and chloride channels in the apical membranes of the airways. In the absence of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), chloride secretion is diminished and sodium reabsorption exaggerated. ClC-2, a pH- and voltage-dependent chloride channel, is present on the apical membranes of airway epithelial cells. We hypothesized that ClC-2 agonists would provide a parallel pathway for chloride secretion. Using nasal potential difference (NPD) measurements, we quantified lubiprostone-mediated Cl− transport in sedated cystic fibrosis null (gut-corrected), C57Bl/6, and A/J mice during nasal perfusion of lubiprostone (a putative ClC-2 agonist). Baseline, amiloride-inhibited, chloride-free gluconate-substituted Ringer with amiloride and low-chloride Ringer plus lubiprostone (at increasing concentrations of lubiprostone) were perfused, and the NPD was continuously recorded. A clear dose-response relationship was detected in all murine strains. The magnitude of the NPD response to 20 μM lubiprostone was −5.8 ± 2.1 mV (CF, n = 12), −8.1 ± 2.6 mV (C57Bl/6 wild-type, n = 12), and −5.3 ± 1.2 mV (AJ wild-type, n = 8). A cohort of ClC-2 knockout mice did not respond to 20 μM lubiprostone (n = 6, P = 0.27). In C57Bl/6 mice, inhibition of CFTR with topical application of CFTR inhibitor-172 did not abolish the lubiprostone response, thus confirming the response seen is independent of CFTR regulation. RT-PCR confirmed expression of ClC-2 mRNA in murine lung homogenate. The direct application of lubiprostone in the CF murine nasal airway restores nearly normal levels of chloride secretion in nasal epithelia. PMID:18805957

  13. Anchored PDE4 regulates chloride conductance in wild-type and ΔF508-CFTR human airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Elise; Zlock, Lorna; Lao, Anna; Mika, Delphine; Namkung, Wan; Xie, Moses; Scheitrum, Colleen; Gruenert, Dieter C.; Verkman, Alan S.; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Conti, Marco; Richter, Wito

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) that impair its expression and/or chloride channel function. Here, we provide evidence that type 4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE4s) are critical regulators of the cAMP/PKA-dependent activation of CFTR in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. In non-CF cells, PDE4 inhibition increased CFTR activity under basal conditions (ΔISC 7.1 μA/cm2) and after isoproterenol stimulation (increased ΔISC from 13.9 to 21.0 μA/cm2) and slowed the return of stimulated CFTR activity to basal levels by >3-fold. In cells homozygous for ΔF508-CFTR, the most common mutation found in CF, PDE4 inhibition alone produced minimal channel activation. However, PDE4 inhibition strongly amplified the effects of CFTR correctors, drugs that increase expression and membrane localization of CFTR, and/or CFTR potentiators, drugs that increase channel gating, to reach ∼25% of the chloride conductance observed in non-CF cells. Biochemical studies indicate that PDE4s are anchored to CFTR and mediate a local regulation of channel function. Taken together, our results implicate PDE4 as an important determinant of CFTR activity in airway epithelia, and support the use of PDE4 inhibitors to potentiate the therapeutic benefits of CFTR correctors and potentiators.—Blanchard, E., Zlock, L., Lao, A., Mika, D., Namkung, W., Xie, M., Scheitrum, C., Gruenert, D.C., Verkman, A.S., Finkbeiner, W.E., Conti, M., Richter, W. Anchored PDE4 regulates chloride conductance in wild type and ΔF508-CFTR human airway epithelia. PMID:24200884

  14. Development of Automated Patch Clamp Technique to Investigate CFTR Chloride Channel Function.

    PubMed

    Billet, Arnaud; Froux, Lionel; Hanrahan, John W; Becq, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The chloride (Cl - ) channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is defective in cystic fibrosis (CF), and mutation of its encoding gene leads to various defects such as retention of the misfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, reduced stability at the plasma membrane, abnormal channel gating with low open probability, and thermal instability, which leads to inactivation of the channel at physiological temperature. Pharmacotherapy is one major therapeutic approach in the CF field and needs sensible and fast tools to identify promising compounds. The high throughput screening assays available are often fast and sensible techniques but with lack of specificity. Few works used automated patch clamp (APC) for CFTR recording, and none have compared conventional and planar techniques and demonstrated their capabilities for different types of experiments. In this study, we evaluated the use of planar parallel APC technique for pharmacological search of CFTR-trafficking correctors and CFTR function modulators. Using optimized conditions, we recorded both wt- and corrected F508del-CFTR Cl - currents with automated whole-cell patch clamp and compared the data to results obtained with conventional manual whole-cell patch clamp. We found no significant difference in patch clamp parameters such as cell capacitance and series resistance between automated and manual patch clamp. Also, the results showed good similarities of CFTR currents recording between the two methods. We showed that similar stimulation protocols could be used in both manual and automatic techniques allowing precise control of temperature, classic I / V relationship, and monitoring of current stability in time. In conclusion, parallel patch-clamp recording allows rapid and efficient investigation of CFTR currents with a variety of tests available and could be considered as new tool for medium throughput screening in CF pharmacotherapy.

  15. Association of sweat chloride concentration at time of diagnosis and CFTR genotype with mortality and cystic fibrosis phenotype.

    PubMed

    McKone, Edward F; Velentgas, Priscilla; Swenson, Anna J; Goss, Christopher H

    2015-09-01

    The extent to which sweat chloride concentration predicts survival and clinical phenotype independently of CFTR genotype in cystic fibrosis is not well understood. We analyzed the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry data using Cox regression to examine the relationship between sweat chloride concentration (<60, 60-<80, ≥80mmol/L), CFTR genotype (high and lower risk for lung function decline), and survival and mixed linear regression to examine the relationship between sweat chloride, CFTR genotype, and measures of lung function and growth. When included in the same model, CFTR genotype, but not sweat chloride, was independently associated with survival and with lung function, height, and BMI. Among patients with unclassified CFTR genotype, sweat chloride was an independent predictor of survival (<60 HR 0.53 [0.37, 0.77], 60-<80 0.51 [0.42, 0.63]). Sweat chloride concentration may be a useful predictor of mortality and clinical phenotype when CFTR genotype functional class is unclassified. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Purinoceptor activation of chloride transport in cystic fibrosis and CFTR-transfected pancreatic cell lines.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, C M; O'Farrell, A M; Ryan, M P

    1998-08-01

    The regulation of chloride efflux from cystic fibrosis pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (CFPAC-1) and wild-type CFTR-transfected CFPAC-1 cells (TPAC) was compared. Forskolin (10 microM) stimulated chloride efflux from the corrected TPAC cells but not from CFPAC-1 cells. Chloride efflux from both cell types was activated by thapsigargin (0.5 microM). The nucleotides ATP and UTP and the non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue, adenosine 5'-O-(3-thio) triphosphate (ATPgammaS), stimulated chloride efflux from both cell types. None of the other P2 purinoceptor agonists investigated elicited a response. The order of potency was ATP > or = UTP > or = ATPgammaS. Adenosine (10-100 microM) activated choride efflux from the TPAC but not the CFPAC cell line with no increase in intracellular cyclic AMP. Small but statistically significant inhibitions of the adenosine-(50 microM)-stimulated increase in chloride efflux were elicited by the A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (CPX, 100 nM) and the A2 receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-propylargylxanthine (DMPX, 10 microM). The A2A receptor antagonist 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC, 100 nM) had no significant effect. These results provide evidence for the regulation of chloride efflux by P2Y2 purinoceptors in genetically-corrected and CF pancreatic cell lines. Studies with adenosine receptor antagonists indicate some possible involvement of A1 and A2 (but not A2A) receptors in the adenosine stimulation of chloride efflux, but the relatively small effects of the inhibitors coupled with lack of increase in cyclic AMP and a response only in the CFTR-transfected cells also suggests a possible direct effect of adenosine on CFTR.

  17. Purinoceptor activation of chloride transport in cystic fibrosis and CFTR-transfected pancreatic cell lines

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Catherine M; O'Farrell, Anne M; Ryan, Michael P

    1998-01-01

    The regulation of chloride efflux from cystic fibrosis pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (CFPAC-1) and wild-type CFTR-transfected CFPAC-1 cells (TPAC) was compared. Forskolin (10 μM) stimulated chloride efflux from the corrected TPAC cells but not from CFPAC-1 cells. Chloride efflux from both cell types was activated by thapsigargin (0.5 μM). The nucleotides ATP and UTP and the non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue, adenosine 5′-O-(3-thio) triphosphate (ATPγS), stimulated chloride efflux from both cell types. None of the other P2 purinoceptor agonists investigated elicited a response. The order of potency was ATP⩾UTP⩾ATPγS. Adenosine (10–100 μM) activated choride efflux from the TPAC but not the CFPAC cell line with no increase in intracellular cyclic AMP. Small but statistically significant inhibitions of the adenosine-(50 μM)-stimulated increase in chloride efflux were elicited by the A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (CPX, 100 nM) and the A2 receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-propylargylxanthine (DMPX, 10 μM). The A2A receptor antagonist 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC, 100 nM) had no significant effect. These results provide evidence for the regulation of chloride efflux by P2Y2 purinoceptors in genetically-corrected and CF pancreatic cell lines. Studies with adenosine receptor antagonists indicate some possible involvement of A1 and A2 (but not A2A) receptors in the adenosine stimulation of chloride efflux, but the relatively small effects of the inhibitors coupled with lack of increase in cyclic AMP and a response only in the CFTR-transfected cells also suggests a possible direct effect of adenosine on CFTR. PMID:9756374

  18. THE ROLE OF CHLORIDE ANION AND CFTR IN KILLING OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA BY NORMAL AND CF NEUTROPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Richard G.; Bonvillain, Ryan W.; Valentine, Vincent G; Lombard, Gisele A.; LaPlace, Stephanie G.; Nauseef, William M.; Wang, Guoshun

    2010-01-01

    Chloride anion is essential for myeloperoxidase to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in neutrophils (PMNs). To define whether chloride availability to PMNs affects their HOCl production and microbicidal capacity, we examined how extracellular chloride concentration affects killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA) by normal neutrophils. PMN-mediated bacterial killing was strongly dependent on extracellular chloride concentration. Neutrophils in a chloride-deficient medium killed PsA poorly. However, as the chloride level was raised, the killing efficiency increased in a dose-dependent fashion. By using specific inhibitors to selectively block NADPH-oxidase, MPO and CFTR functions, neutrophil-mediated killing of PsA could be attributed to three distinct mechanisms: 1) CFTR-dependent and oxidant-dependent, 2) chloride-dependent but not CFTR- and oxidant-dependent, and 3) independent of any of the tested factors. Therefore, chloride anion is involved in both oxidant- and non-oxidant-mediated bacterial killing. We previously reported that neutrophils from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are defective in chlorination of ingested bacteria, suggesting that the chloride channel defect might impair the MPO-H2O2-chloride microbicidal function. Here, we compared the competence of killing PsA by neutrophils from normal donors and CF patients. The data demonstrate that the killing rate by CF neutrophils was significantly lower than that by normal neutrophils. CF neutrophils in a chloride-deficient environment had only 1/3 of the bactericidal capacity of normal neutrophils in a physiological chloride environment. These results suggest that CFTR-dependent chloride anion transport contributes significantly to killing PsA by normal neutrophils and, when defective as in CF, may compromise the ability to clear PsA. PMID:18353929

  19. Sweat chloride and immunoreactive trypsinogen in infants carrying two CFTR mutations and not affected by cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Carlo; Tridello, Gloria; Tamanini, Anna; Assael, Baroukh M

    2017-07-01

    Newborns with raised immunotrypsinogen levels who have non-pathological sweat chloride values and carry two cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator ( CFTR ) mutations of which at least one is not acknowledged to be cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing are at risk of developing clinical manifestations consistent with CFTR-related disorders or even CF. It is not known whether newborns with similar genotypes and normal immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) may share the same risk. This study found that newborns with these characteristics and normal IRT have lower sweat chloride values than those with raised IRT (p=0.007). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium.

    PubMed

    Walker, Nancy M; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R; Stefanski, Casey D; Strubberg, Ashlee M; Clarke, Lane L

    2016-01-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3 (-))-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3 (-)-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl(-) concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl(-) and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Butyrate increases apical membrane CFTR but reduces chloride secretion in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Moyer, B D; Loffing-Cueni, D; Loffing, J; Reynolds, D; Stanton, B A

    1999-08-01

    Sodium butyrate and its derivatives are useful therapeutic agents for the treatment of genetic diseases including urea cycle disorders, sickle cell disease, thalassemias, and possibly cystic fibrosis (CF). Butyrate partially restores cAMP-activated Cl(-) secretion in CF epithelial cells by stimulating DeltaF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (DeltaF508-CFTR) gene expression and increasing the amount of DeltaF508-CFTR in the plasma membrane. Because the effect of butyrate on Cl(-) secretion by renal epithelial cells has not been reported, we examined the effects of chronic butyrate treatment (15-18 h) on the function, expression, and localization of CFTR fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP-CFTR) in stably transfected MDCK cells. We report that sodium butyrate reduced Cl(-) secretion across MDCK cells, yet increased apical membrane GFP-CFTR expression 25-fold and increased apical membrane Cl(-) currents 30-fold. Although butyrate also increased Na-K-ATPase protein expression twofold, the drug reduced the activity of the Na-K-ATPase by 55%. Our findings suggest that butyrate inhibits cAMP-stimulated Cl(-) secretion across MDCK cells in part by reducing the activity of the Na-K-ATPase.

  2. The ichthyotoxic alga Chattonella marina induces Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase, and CFTR proteins expression in fish gill chloride cells in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Janet Y.M.; Wong, Chris K.C.; Au, Doris W.T.

    2007-02-02

    Our previous studies demonstrated that the ichthyotoxic Chattonella marina stimulated proliferation of branchial chloride cell (CC) and induced osmotic distress akin to hyperactive elimination of ions in fish (Rhabdosargus sarba). To ascertain the in vivo effects of C. marina on key CC ion transporters, the localization and expression of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) proteins in response to C. marina exposure were investigated, using a quantitative immunocytochemical approach. The polarized distributions of NKA ({alpha} subunit) and CFTR proteins in branchial CCs of R. sarba remained unchanged under C. marina exposure. However, significant inductionsmore » of these two ion-transporters were detected in CCs of fish after 6 h exposure. By real-time PCR, no significant changes in gill NKA and CFTR mRNA expressions were detected, suggesting a post-transcriptional pathway is likely involved in regulating the ion transporters abundance. This study is the first to demonstrate the in vivo effects of harmful algal toxin on NKA and CFTR protein expressions in gill transepithelial cells. Taken together, an augmentation of branchial CCs together with hyper-stimulation of NKA and CFTR in CCs attribute to the rapid development of osmotic distress in C. marina susceptible fish.« less

  3. Influence of salinity on the localization of Na+/K +-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and CFTR anion channel in chloride cells of the Hawaiian goby (Stenogobius hawaiiensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Sundell, K.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; Brown, C.L.; Hiroi, J.

    2003-01-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are the three major transport proteins thought to be involved in chloride secretion in teleost fish. If this is the case, the levels of these transporters should be high in chloride cells of seawater-acclimated fish. We therefore examined the influence of salinity on immunolocalization of Na +/K+-ATPase, NKCC and CFTR in the gills of the Hawaiian goby (Stenogobius hawaiiensis). Fish were acclimated to freshwater and 20??? and 30??? seawater for 10 days. Na+/K +-ATPase and NKCC were localized specifically to chloride cells and stained throughout most of the cell except for the nucleus and the most apical region, indicating a basolateral/tubular distribution. All Na+/K +-ATPase-positive chloride cells were also positive for NKCC in all salinities. Salinity caused a slight increase in chloride cell number and size and a slight decrease in staining intensity for Na+/K +-ATPase and NKCC, but the basic pattern of localization was not altered. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity was also not affected by salinity. CFTR was localized to the apical surface of chloride cells, and only cells staining positive for Na+/K+-ATPase were CFTR-positive. CFTR-positive cells greatly increased in number (5-fold), area stained (53%) and intensity (29%) after seawater acclimation. In freshwater, CFTR immunoreactivity was light and occurred over a broad apical surface on chloride cells, whereas in seawater there was intense immunoreactivity around the apical pit (which was often punctate in appearance) and a light subapical staining. The results indicate that Na+/K +-ATPase, NKCC and CFTR are all present in chloride cells and support current models that all three are responsible for chloride secretion by chloride cells of teleost fish.

  4. Expression of SLC26A3, CFTR and NHE3 in the human male reproductive tract: role in male subfertility caused by congenital chloride diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Hihnala, S; Kujala, M; Toppari, J; Kere, J; Holmberg, C; Höglund, P

    2006-02-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhoea (CLD) is a rare inherited disease caused by mutations in the solute carrier family 26 member 3 (SLC26A3) gene. Disruption of intestinal Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange causes watery Cl(-) rich diarrhoea from birth, and recently male subfertility was observed as a novel manifestation. Expression of SLC26A3, together with interacting proteins cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3), was studied using immunohistochemistry in the testis (n = 2) and efferent ducts (ED) (n = 1) of patients with CLD (V317del genotype) and in the testis and epididymis (n = 11), seminal vesicle (n = 9) and prostate (n = 4) of the controls. SLC26A3 was immunolocalized in the head of the elongating spermatids (stages III-VI) and CFTR in the elongating spermatids (stages III and IV) and pachytene (stages III-V) and diplotene spermatocytes. In the non-ciliated cells of the ED, apical expression of all three proteins was observed, but only SLC26A3 and CFTR were detected on the luminal border of the apical mitochondria-rich cells (AMRC) of the ductus epididymis and in the epithelium of the seminal vesicle. Only CFTR was present in the epithelium of the prostatic duct. In the patient with CLD, the expression of both SLC26A3 and CFTR was absent in the ED, but testicular expression was identical to that of the controls. These results suggest a primary role for SLC26A3 in male reproduction. Tissue-specific co-expression with CFTR and NHE3 supports diverse functions of SLC26A3 and may have an impact on pathophysiology of male subfertility both in CLD and in cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as spermatoceles.

  5. A novel extract SB-300 from the stem bark latex of Croton lechleri inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; Machen, Terry E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Carlson, Thomas J S; King, Steven R; Chow, John W S; Illek, Beate

    2004-08-01

    An oligomeric proanthocyanidin (SP-303) extracted from the bark latex of the tree Croton lechleri (family Euphorbiaceae) is a potent inhibitor of cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation and chloride secretion. The manufacturing process for SP-303 was optimized and simplified to produce an increased yield of the herbal extract. The novel extract (named SB-300) contained on average 70.6+/-7.2% SP-303 by weight (mean +/- S.D.; n=56 lots). Here, we describe the effectiveness of SB-300 on cAMP-regulated chloride secretion, which is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) in human colonic T84 cells. Exposure of the apical surface to SB-300 blocked forskolin-stimulated Cl- secretion by 92.2+/-3.0% with a half-maximal inhibition constant (KB) of 4.8+/-0.8 microM. For SP-303, stimulated Cl- currents were decreased by 98.0+/-7.2 % and KB averaged 4.1+/-1.3 microM. There was no significant difference between the blocking kinetics of SP-303 and SB-300. Forskolin-stimulated whole cell Cl- currents were effectively blocked by extracellular addition of SB-300 (63+/-8.5%; n=3) and to a similar extent by SP-303 (83 +/- 0.6%; n=2; at 50 microM each). Both extracts inhibited a time- and voltage-independent Cl- conductance, which indicated the involvement of CFTR Cl- channels. We conclude that both SP-303 (used in Provir) and SB-300 (used in NSF Normal Stool Formula) are novel natural products that target the CFTR Cl- channel. SB-300 is a low cost herbal extract and may present a complementary and alternative medicine approach for the treatment of fluid loss in watery diarrhea.

  6. CFTR RECRUITMENT TO PHAGOSOMES IN NEUTROPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yun; Song, Kejing; Painter, Richard G.; Aiken, Martha; Reiser, Jakob; Stanton, Bruce A.; Nauseef, William M.; Wang, Guoshun

    2013-01-01

    Optimal microbicidal activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) relies on generation of toxic agents such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in phagosomes. HOCl formation requires H2O2 produced by the NADPH oxidase, myeloperoxidase derived from azurophilic granules, and chloride ion. Chloride transport from cytoplasm into phagosomes requires chloride channels which include cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated chloride channel. However, the phagosomal targeting of CFTR in PMN has not been defined. Using human peripheral blood PMN, we determined that ~95–99% of LAMP-1 positive mature phagosomes were CFTR-positive, as judged by immunostaining and flow cytometric analysis. To establish a model cell system to evaluate CFTR phagosomal recruitment, we stably expressed EGFP alone, EGFP-wt-CFTR and EGFP-ΔF508-CFTR fusion proteins in promyelocytic PLB-985 cells, respectively. After differentiation into neutrophil-like cells, CFTR presentation to phagosomes was examined. EGFP-wt-CFTR was observed to associate with phagosomes and co-localize with LAMP-1. Flow cytometric analysis of the isolated phagosomes indicated that such a phagosomal targeting was determined by the CFTR portion of the fusion protein. In contrast, significantly less EGFP-ΔF508-CFTR was found in phagosomes, indicating a defective targeting of the molecule to the organelle. Importantly, CFTR corrector compound VRT-325 facilitated the recruitment of ΔF508-CFTR to phagosomes. These data demonstrate the possibility of pharmacologic correction of impaired recruitment of mutant CFTR, thereby providing a potential means to augment chloride supply to the phagosomes of PMN in patients with cystic fibrosis to enhance their microbicidal function. PMID:23486169

  7. Rab27a negatively regulates CFTR chloride channel function in colonic epithelia: Involvement of the effector proteins in the regulatory mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Sunil K.; Kaur, Simarna

    2006-07-21

    Cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by the disruption of biosynthesis or function of CFTR. CFTR regulatory mechanisms include channel transport to plasma membrane and protein-protein interactions. Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in vesicle transport, docking, and fusion. The colorectal epithelial HT-29 cells natively express CFTR and respond to cAMP with an increase in CFTR-mediated currents. DPC-inhibited currents could be completely eliminated with CFTR-specific SiRNA. Over-expression of Rab27a inhibited, while isoform specific SiRNA and Rab27a antibody stimulated CFTR-mediated currents in HT-29 cells. CFTR activity is inhibited both by Rab27a (Q78L) (constitutive active GTP-bound form of Rab27a) andmore » Rab27a (T23N) (constitutive negative form that mimics the GDP-bound form). Rab27a mediated effects could be reversed by Rab27a-binding proteins, the synaptotagmin-like protein (SLP-5) and Munc13-4 accessory protein (a putative priming factor for exocytosis). The SLP reversal of Rab27a effect was restricted to C2A/C2B domains while the SHD motif imparted little more inhibition. The CFTR-mediated currents remain unaffected by Rab3 though SLP-5 appears to weakly bind it. The immunoprecipitation experiments suggest protein-protein interactions between Rab27a and CFTR. Rab27a appears to impair CFTR appearance at the cell surface by trapping CFTR in the intracellular compartments. Munc13-4 and SLP-5, on the other hand, limit Rab27a availability to CFTR, thus minimizing its effect on channel function. These observations decisively prove that Rab27a is involved in CFTR channel regulation through protein-protein interactions involving Munc13-4 and SLP-5 effector proteins, and thus could be a potential target for cystic fibrosis therapy.« less

  8. Functional and molecular identification of a TASK-1 potassium channel regulating chloride secretion through CFTR channels in the shark rectal gland: implications for cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Telles, Connor J.; Decker, Sarah E.; Motley, William W.; Peters, Alexander W.; Mehr, Ali Poyan; Frizzell, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    In the shark rectal gland (SRG), apical chloride secretion through CFTR channels is electrically coupled to a basolateral K+ conductance whose type and molecular identity are unknown. We performed studies in the perfused SRG with 17 K+ channel inhibitors to begin this search. Maximal chloride secretion was markedly inhibited by low-perfusate pH, bupivicaine, anandamide, zinc, quinidine, and quinine, consistent with the properties of an acid-sensitive, four-transmembrane, two-pore-domain K+ channel (4TM-K2P). Using PCR with degenerate primers to this family, we identified a TASK-1 fragment in shark rectal gland, brain, gill, and kidney. Using 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR and genomic walking, we cloned the full-length shark gene (1,282 bp), whose open reading frame encodes a protein of 375 amino acids that was 80% identical to the human TASK-1 protein. We expressed shark and human TASK-1 cRNA in Xenopus oocytes and characterized these channels using two-electrode voltage clamping. Both channels had identical current-voltage relationships (outward rectifying) and a reversal potential of −90 mV. Both were inhibited by quinine, bupivicaine, and acidic pH. The pKa for current inhibition was 7.75 for shark TASK-1 vs. 7.37 for human TASK-1, values similar to the arterial pH for each species. We identified this protein in SRG by Western blot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy and detected the protein in SRG and human airway cells. Shark TASK-1 is the major K+ channel coupled to chloride secretion in the SRG, is the oldest 4TM 2P family member identified, and is the first TASK-1 channel identified to play a role in setting the driving force for chloride secretion in epithelia. The detection of this potassium channel in mammalian lung tissue has implications for human biology and disease. PMID:27653983

  9. Functional and molecular identification of a TASK-1 potassium channel regulating chloride secretion through CFTR channels in the shark rectal gland: implications for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Telles, Connor J; Decker, Sarah E; Motley, William W; Peters, Alexander W; Mehr, Ali Poyan; Frizzell, Raymond A; Forrest, John N

    2016-12-01

    In the shark rectal gland (SRG), apical chloride secretion through CFTR channels is electrically coupled to a basolateral K + conductance whose type and molecular identity are unknown. We performed studies in the perfused SRG with 17 K + channel inhibitors to begin this search. Maximal chloride secretion was markedly inhibited by low-perfusate pH, bupivicaine, anandamide, zinc, quinidine, and quinine, consistent with the properties of an acid-sensitive, four-transmembrane, two-pore-domain K + channel (4TM-K2P). Using PCR with degenerate primers to this family, we identified a TASK-1 fragment in shark rectal gland, brain, gill, and kidney. Using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR and genomic walking, we cloned the full-length shark gene (1,282 bp), whose open reading frame encodes a protein of 375 amino acids that was 80% identical to the human TASK-1 protein. We expressed shark and human TASK-1 cRNA in Xenopus oocytes and characterized these channels using two-electrode voltage clamping. Both channels had identical current-voltage relationships (outward rectifying) and a reversal potential of -90 mV. Both were inhibited by quinine, bupivicaine, and acidic pH. The pKa for current inhibition was 7.75 for shark TASK-1 vs. 7.37 for human TASK-1, values similar to the arterial pH for each species. We identified this protein in SRG by Western blot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy and detected the protein in SRG and human airway cells. Shark TASK-1 is the major K + channel coupled to chloride secretion in the SRG, is the oldest 4TM 2P family member identified, and is the first TASK-1 channel identified to play a role in setting the driving force for chloride secretion in epithelia. The detection of this potassium channel in mammalian lung tissue has implications for human biology and disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Analysis of CFTR interactome in the macromolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunying; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel localized primarily at the apical surface of epithelial cells lining the airway, gut, exocrine glands, etc., where it is responsible for transepithelial salt and water transport. A growing number of proteins have been reported to interact directly or indirectly with CFTR chloride channel, suggesting that CFTR might regulate the activities of other ion channels, receptors, and transporters, in addition to its role as a chloride conductor. Most interactions occur primarily between the opposing terminal tails (N or C) of CFTR and its binding partners, either directly or mediated through various PDZ domain-containing proteins. This chapter describes methods we developed to cross-link CFTR into a macromolecular complex to identify and analyze the assembly and regulation of CFTR-containing complexes in the plasma membrane.

  11. Analysis of CFTR Interactome in the Macromolecular Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunying; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel localized primarily at the apical surface of epithelial cells lining the airway, gut, exocrine glands, etc., where it is responsible for transepithelial salt and water transport. A growing number of proteins have been reported to interact directly or indirectly with CFTR chloride channel, suggesting that CFTR might regulate the activities of other ion channels, receptors, and transporters, in addition to its role as a chloride conductor. Most interactions occur primarily between the opposing terminal tails (N or C) of CFTR and its binding partners, either directly or mediated through various PDZ domain-containing proteins. This chapter describes methods we developed to cross-link CFTR into a macromolecular complex to identify and analyze the assembly and regulation of CFTR-containing complexes in the plasma membrane. PMID:21594790

  12. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in the kindred of an infant with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome: importance of follow-up that includes monitoring sweat chloride concentrations over time.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sophia N; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Chin, Terry W; Do, Paul C M; Singh, Kathryn E; Randhawa, Inderpal

    2014-03-01

    Newly implemented newborn screening (NBS) programs in California have resulted in a large subset of patients in whom at least two cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations are identified, but subsequent sweat chloride analysis reveals normal or indeterminate values. These patients are diagnosed with CFTR-Related Metabolic Syndrome (CRMS). However, the natural progression and management of these patients are not clearly understood and frequently after the age of 1-year these patients are lost to follow-up with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Centers. We present the first case of an infant who was referred to Miller Children's Hospital for a NBS positive for CF and subsequent discovery of identical mutations in six of his seven older brothers. Several siblings had positive sweat chloride results on repeat testing after the age of 3 years. We suggest the need for continued follow-up of CRMS in a CF center with diagnostic evaluation including repeat sweat chloride testing, beyond the currently recommended period. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Clinical and Molecular Characterization of S1118F-CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Penmatsa, Himabindu; Frederick, Carla A.; Nekkalapu, Sunitha; Conoley, Veronica G.; Zhang, Weiqiang; Li, Chunying; Kappes, John; Stokes, Dennis C.; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Cystic Fibrosis is a lethal autosomal recessive disorder usually associated with lung disease, pancreatic insufficiency and high sweat chloride levels. Clinical case A patient admitted to Le Bonheur Children's Medical Center (LBCMC, Memphis, TN, USA) showed symptoms of meconium ileus which required exploratory laparotomy, bowel resection and ileostomy. Genotyping showed ΔF508/I1027T on one chromosome and S1118F on the other. Sweat testing on three different occasions gave negative and intermediate results (22.7, 24.6 mmol/L; 55.1, 58.6mmol/L and 55.1, 58 mmol/L) and pancreatic elastase testing showed normal levels. Objective To characterize S1118F-CFTR mutation at a molecular level to help understand the associated CF-phenotype. Methods Molecular characterization of S1118F-CFTR mutant was studied in HEK-293 cells at 37°C. Various biochemical methods such as Western blotting, real-time PCR, Pulse chase labeling and iodide efflux assay were employed. Results S1118F-CFTR makes less than 10–15% of mature CFTR (Band C) compared to WT-CFTR. The mRNA levels of S1118F-CFTR and WT-CFTR are comparable. S1118F-CFTR is functional but shows about 10–15% of WT-CFTR activity. S1118F-CFTR shows impaired maturation and CF-correctors can increase the amount of mature and functional CFTR by 3 to 4 fold. Conclusion S1118F-CFTR shows impaired maturation and an individual with S1118F-CFTR paired with ΔF508-CFTR exhibits atypical CF symptoms with intermediate sweat chloride level and meconium ileus despite documented pancreatic sufficiency. PMID:19774621

  14. Influence of salinity on the localization and expression of the CFTR chloride channel in the ionocytes of juvenile Dicentrarchus labrax exposed to seawater and freshwater.

    PubMed

    Bodinier, Charlotte; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine; Charmantier, Guy; Boulo, Viviane

    2009-07-01

    The European sea-bass, Dicentrarchus labrax is a euryhaline teleost whose high osmoregulatory abilities allow sea-lagoon migrations. In order to investigate the mechanism underlying the acclimation of juvenile fish to salinity, CFTR was studied in long-term (6 months) freshwater (FW)- and seawater (SW)-exposed fish, and in short-term (from day 0 to day 30) FW-exposed fish. Cellular and molecular approaches were combined to determine the functions of CFTR in the gills, posterior intestine and kidney. In the kidney, the expression of CFTR transcripts and protein is low. After a direct transfer from SW to FW, the CFTR mRNA is down-regulated in the gills within 1 day, followed by a protein decrease over 7 days. In the posterior intestine, first there is a protein decrease within one day and secondly at the mRNA level in 14 days. While in the gills the regulation is transcriptional, in the posterior intestine, there is first a post-transcriptional regulation followed by a transcriptional regulation after 14 days in FW. Over a long-term exposure, there is a transcriptional regulation in both organs. Coupled to other ion transports, CFTR contributes to ion regulation and thus to the adaptation of the European sea-bass to sea-lagoon transitions.

  15. Role of CFTR mutation analysis in the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, Michelle; Pastore, Matthew; McCoy, Karen Sharrock; Thompson, Rohan; Hayes, Don; Sheikh, Shahid Ijaz

    2017-04-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation identification is being used with increased frequency to aid in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) in those suspected with CF. Aim of this study was to identify diagnostic outcomes when CFTR mutational analysis was used in CF diagnosis. CFTR mutational analysis results were also compared with sweat chloride results. This study was done on all patients at our institution who had CFTR mutation analysis over a sevenyear period since August 2006. A total of 315 patients underwent CFTR mutational analysis. Fifty-one (16.2%) patients had two mutations identified. Among them 32 had positive sweat chloride levels (≥60 mmol/L), while seven had borderline sweat chloride levels (40-59 mmol/L). An additional 70 patients (22.3%) had only one mutation identified. Among them eight had positive sweat chloride levels, and 17 had borderline sweat chloride levels. Fifty-five patients (17.5%) without CFTR mutations had either borderline (n=45) or positive (n=10) sweat chloride results. Three patients with a CF phenotype had negative CFTR analysis but elevated sweat chloride levels. In eighty-three patients (26.4%) CFTR mutational analysis was done without corresponding sweat chloride testing. Although CFTR mutation analysis has improved the diagnostic capability for CF, its use either as the first step or the only test to diagnose CFTR dysfunction should be discouraged and CF diagnostic guidelines need to be followed.

  16. Correction of the F508del-CFTR protein processing defect in vitro by the investigational drug VX-809

    PubMed Central

    Van Goor, Fredrick; Hadida, Sabine; Grootenhuis, Peter D. J.; Burton, Bill; Stack, Jeffrey H.; Straley, Kimberly S.; Decker, Caroline J.; Miller, Mark; McCartney, Jason; Olson, Eric R.; Wine, Jeffrey J.; Frizzell, Ray A.; Ashlock, Melissa; Negulescu, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that impair the function of CFTR, an epithelial chloride channel required for proper function of the lung, pancreas, and other organs. Most patients with CF carry the F508del CFTR mutation, which causes defective CFTR protein folding and processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in minimal amounts of CFTR at the cell surface. One strategy to treat these patients is to correct the processing of F508del-CFTR with small molecules. Here we describe the in vitro pharmacology of VX-809, a CFTR corrector that was advanced into clinical development for the treatment of CF. In cultured human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from patients with CF homozygous for F508del, VX-809 improved F508del-CFTR processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and enhanced chloride secretion to approximately 14% of non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells (EC50, 81 ± 19 nM), a level associated with mild CF in patients with less disruptive CFTR mutations. F508del-CFTR corrected by VX-809 exhibited biochemical and functional characteristics similar to normal CFTR, including biochemical susceptibility to proteolysis, residence time in the plasma membrane, and single-channel open probability. VX-809 was more efficacious and selective for CFTR than previously reported CFTR correctors. VX-809 represents a class of CFTR corrector that specifically addresses the underlying processing defect in F508del-CFTR. PMID:21976485

  17. Function and regulation of TRPM7, as well as intracellular magnesium content, are altered in cells expressing ΔF508-CFTR and G551D-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Huguet, F; Calvez, M L; Benz, N; Le Hir, S; Mignen, O; Buscaglia, P; Horgen, F D; Férec, C; Kerbiriou, M; Trouvé, P

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common fatal hereditary disorders, is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The CFTR gene product is a multidomain adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) protein that functions as a chloride (Cl(-)) channel that is regulated by intracellular magnesium [Mg(2+)]i. The most common mutations in CFTR are a deletion of a phenylalanine residue at position 508 (ΔF508-CFTR, 70-80 % of CF phenotypes) and a Gly551Asp substitution (G551D-CFTR, 4-5 % of alleles), which lead to decreased or almost abolished Cl(-) channel function, respectively. Magnesium ions have to be finely regulated within cells for optimal expression and function of CFTR. Therefore, the melastatin-like transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7), which is responsible for Mg(2+) entry, was studies and [Mg(2+)]i measured in cells stably expressing wildtype CFTR, and two mutant proteins (ΔF508-CFTR and G551D-CFTR). This study shows for the first time that [Mg(2+)]i is decreased in cells expressing ΔF508-CFTR and G551D-CFTR mutated proteins. It was also observed that the expression of the TRPM7 protein is increased; however, membrane localization was altered for both ΔF508del-CFTR and G551D-CFTR. Furthermore, both the function and regulation of the TRPM7 channel regarding Mg(2+) is decreased in the cells expressing the mutated CFTR. Ca(2+) influx via TRPM7 were also modified in cells expressing a mutated CFTR. Therefore, there appears to be a direct involvement of TRPM7 in CF physiopathology. Finally, we propose that the TRPM7 activator Naltriben is a new potentiator for G551D-CFTR as the function of this mutant increases upon activation of TRPM7 by Naltriben.

  18. CFTR: A New Horizon in the Pathomechanism and Treatment of Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Péter; Wilschanski, Michael; Muallem, Shmuel; Lukacs, Gergely L; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Uc, Aliye; Gray, Michael A; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Maléth, József

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel that conducts chloride and bicarbonate ions across epithelial cell membranes. Mutations in the CFTR gene diminish the ion channel function and lead to impaired epithelial fluid transport in multiple organs such as the lung and the pancreas resulting in cystic fibrosis. Heterozygous carriers of CFTR mutations do not develop cystic fibrosis but exhibit increased risk for pancreatitis and associated pancreatic damage characterized by elevated mucus levels, fibrosis, and cyst formation. Importantly, recent studies demonstrated that pancreatitis causing insults, such as alcohol, smoking, or bile acids, strongly inhibit CFTR function. Furthermore, human studies showed reduced levels of CFTR expression and function in all forms of pancreatitis. These findings indicate that impairment of CFTR is critical in the development of pancreatitis; therefore, correcting CFTR function could be the first specific therapy in pancreatitis. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the field and discuss new possibilities for the treatment of pancreatitis.

  19. CFTR: A new horizon in the pathomechanism and treatment of pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hegyi, Péter; Wilschanski, Michael; Muallem, Shmuel; Lukacs, Gergely; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Uc, Aliye; Gray, Michael A.; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Maléth, József

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel that conducts chloride and bicarbonate ions across epithelial cell membranes. Mutations in the CFTR gene diminish the ion channel function and lead to impaired epithelial fluid transport in multiple organs such as the lung and the pancreas resulting in cystic fibrosis. Heterozygous carriers of CFTR mutations do not develop cystic fibrosis but exhibit increased risk for pancreatitis and associated pancreatic damage characterized by elevated mucus levels, fibrosis and cyst formation. Importantly, recent studies demonstrated that pancreatitis causing insults, such as alcohol, smoking or bile acids strongly inhibit CFTR function. Furthermore, human studies showed reduced levels of CFTR expression and function in all forms of pancreatitis. These findings indicate that impairment of CFTR is critical in the development of pancreatitis; therefore, correcting CFTR function could be the first specific therapy in pancreatitis. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the field and discuss new possibilities for the treatment of pancreatitis. PMID:26856995

  20. COMPOSITION OF MINERALIZING INCISOR ENAMEL IN CFTR-DEFICIENT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Bronckers, ALJJ; Lyaruu, DM; Guo, J; Bijvelds, MJC; Bervoets, TJM; Zandieh-Doulabi, B; Medina, JF; Li, Z; Zhang, Y; DenBesten, PK

    2014-01-01

    Formation of crystals in the enamel space releases protons that need to be buffered to sustain mineral accretion. We hypothesized that apical Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in maturation ameloblasts transduces chloride into forming enamel as critical step to secrete bicarbonates. We tested this by determining the calcium, chloride and fluoride levels of developing enamel of Cftr-null mice by quantitative electron probe microanalysis. Maturation stage Cftr–null enamel contained less chloride and calcium than wild-type enamel, was more acidic when stained with pH dyes ex vivo and formed no fluorescent modulation bands after in vivo injection of the mice with calcein. To further acidify the enamel we exposed Cftr-null mice to fluoride in drinking water to stimulate proton release during formation of hypermineralized lines. In enamel of Cftr-deficient mice fluoride further lowered enamel calcium without further reducing chloride levels. The data support the view that apical Cftr in maturation ameloblasts transduces chloride into developing enamel as part of the machinery to buffer protons released during mineral accretion. PMID:25557910

  1. How Phosphorylation and ATPase Activity Regulate Anion Flux though the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)*

    PubMed Central

    Zwick, Matthias; Esposito, Cinzia; Hellstern, Manuel; Seelig, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, ABCC7), mutations of which cause cystic fibrosis, belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family and works as a channel for small anions, such as chloride and bicarbonate. Anion channel activity is known to depend on phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and CFTR-ATPase activity. Whereas anion channel activity has been extensively investigated, phosphorylation and CFTR-ATPase activity are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the two processes can be measured in a label-free and non-invasive manner in real time in live cells, stably transfected with CFTR. This study reveals three key findings. (i) The major contribution (≥90%) to the total CFTR-related ATP hydrolysis rate is due to phosphorylation by PKA and the minor contribution (≤10%) to CFTR-ATPase activity. (ii) The mutant CFTR-E1371S that is still conductive, but defective in ATP hydrolysis, is not phosphorylated, suggesting that phosphorylation requires a functional nucleotide binding domain and occurs in the post-hydrolysis transition state. (iii) CFTR-ATPase activity is inversely related to CFTR anion flux. The present data are consistent with a model in which CFTR is in a closed conformation with two ATPs bound. The open conformation is induced by ATP hydrolysis and corresponds to the post-hydrolysis transition state that is stabilized by phosphorylation and binding of chloride channel potentiators. PMID:27226582

  2. CFTR is a tumor suppressor gene in murine and human intestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Than, BLN; Linnekamp, JF; Starr, TK; Largaespada, DA; Rod, A; Zhang, Y; Bruner, V; Abrahante, J; Schumann, A; Luczak, T; Niemczyk, A; O’Sullivan, MG; Medema, JP; Fijneman, RJA; Meijer, GA; Van den Broek, E; Hodges, CA; Scott, PM; Vermeulen, L; Cormier, RT

    2016-01-01

    CFTR, the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene, encodes for the CFTR protein that plays an essential role in anion regulation and tissue homeostasis of various epithelia. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract CFTR promotes chloride and bicarbonate secretion, playing an essential role in ion and acid–base homeostasis. Cftr has been identified as a candidate driver gene for colorectal cancer (CRC) in several Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based forward genetic screens in mice. Further, recent epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that CF patients are at high risk for developing tumors in the colon. To investigate the effects of CFTR dysregulation on GI cancer, we generated ApcMin mice that carried an intestinal-specific knockout of Cftr. Our results indicate that Cftr is a tumor suppressor gene in the intestinal tract as Cftr mutant mice developed significantly more tumors in the colon and the entire small intestine. In Apc+/+ mice aged to ~ 1 year, Cftr deficiency alone caused the development of intestinal tumors in >60% of mice. Colon organoid formation was significantly increased in organoids created from Cftr mutant mice compared with wild-type controls, suggesting a potential role of Cftr in regulating the intestinal stem cell compartment. Microarray data from the Cftr-deficient colon and the small intestine identified dysregulated genes that belong to groups of immune response, ion channel, intestinal stem cell and other growth signaling regulators. These associated clusters of genes were confirmed by pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). We also conducted RNA Seq analysis of tumors from Apc+/+ Cftr knockout mice and identified sets of genes dysregulated in tumors including altered Wnt β-catenin target genes. Finally we analyzed expression of CFTR in early stage human CRC patients stratified by risk of recurrence and found that loss of expression of CFTR was significantly associated with poor disease

  3. Phenylquinoxalinone CFTR activator as potential prosecretory therapy for constipation.

    PubMed

    Cil, Onur; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Son, Jung-Ho; Zhu, Jie S; Ku, Colton K; Tabib, Niloufar Akhavan; Teuthorn, Andrew P; Ferrera, Loretta; Zachos, Nicholas C; Lin, Ruxian; Galietta, Luis J V; Donowitz, Mark; Kurth, Mark J; Verkman, Alan S

    2017-04-01

    Constipation is a common condition for which current treatments can have limited efficacy. By high-throughput screening, we recently identified a phenylquinoxalinone activator of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel that stimulated intestinal fluid secretion and normalized stool output in a mouse model of opioid-induced constipation. Here, we report phenylquinoxalinone structure-activity analysis, mechanism of action, animal efficacy data in acute and chronic models of constipation, and functional data in ex vivo primary cultured human enterocytes. Structure-activity analysis was done on 175 phenylquinoxalinone analogs, including 15 synthesized compounds. The most potent compound, CFTR act -J027, activated CFTR with EC 50 ∼ 200 nM, with patch-clamp analysis showing a linear CFTR current-voltage relationship with direct CFTR activation. CFTR act -J027 corrected reduced stool output and hydration in a mouse model of acute constipation produced by scopolamine and in a chronically constipated mouse strain (C3H/HeJ). Direct comparison with the approved prosecretory drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide showed substantially greater intestinal fluid secretion with CFTR act -J027, as well as greater efficacy in a constipation model. As evidence to support efficacy in human constipation, CFTR act -J027 increased transepithelial fluid transport in enteroids generated from normal human small intestine. Also, CFTR act -J027 was rapidly metabolized in vitro in human hepatic microsomes, suggesting minimal systemic exposure upon oral administration. These data establish structure-activity and mechanistic data for phenylquinoxalinone CFTR activators, and support their potential efficacy in human constipation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A PDZ-interacting domain in CFTR is an apical membrane polarization signal

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Bryan D.; Denton, Jerod; Karlson, Katherine H.; Reynolds, Donna; Wang, Shusheng; Mickle, John E.; Milewski, Michal; Cutting, Garry R.; Guggino, William B.; Li, Min; Stanton, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    Polarization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated chloride channel, to the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells is critical for vectorial transport of chloride in a variety of epithelia, including the airway, pancreas, intestine, and kidney. However, the motifs that localize CFTR to the apical membrane are unknown. We report that the last 3 amino acids in the COOH-terminus of CFTR (T-R-L) comprise a PDZ-interacting domain that is required for the polarization of CFTR to the apical plasma membrane in human airway and kidney epithelial cells. In addition, the CFTR mutant, S1455X, which lacks the 26 COOH-terminal amino acids, including the PDZ-interacting domain, is mispolarized to the lateral membrane. We also demonstrate that CFTR binds to ezrin-radixin-moesin–binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), an apical membrane PDZ domain–containing protein. We propose that COOH-terminal deletions of CFTR, which represent about 10% of CFTR mutations, result in defective vectorial chloride transport, partly by altering the polarized distribution of CFTR in epithelial cells. Moreover, our data demonstrate that PDZ-interacting domains and PDZ domain–containing proteins play a key role in the apical polarization of ion channels in epithelial cells. J. Clin. Invest. 104:1353–1361 (1999). PMID:10562297

  5. Reduced PDZ Interactions of Rescued ΔF508CFTR Increases Its Cell Surface Mobility*

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Cathleen D.; Lukacs, Gergely L.; Verkman, Alan S.; Haggie, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508) in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plasma membrane chloride channel is the most common cause of cystic fibrosis (CF). Though several maneuvers can rescue endoplasmic reticulum-retained ΔF508CFTR and promote its trafficking to the plasma membrane, rescued ΔF508CFTR remains susceptible to quality control mechanisms that lead to accelerated endocytosis, ubiquitination, and lysosomal degradation. To investigate the role of scaffold protein interactions in rescued ΔF508CFTR surface instability, the plasma membrane mobility of ΔF508CFTR was measured in live cells by quantum dot single particle tracking. Following rescue by low temperature, chemical correctors, thapsigargin, or overexpression of GRASP55, ΔF508CFTR diffusion was more rapid than that of wild-type CFTR because of reduced interactions with PDZ domain-containing scaffold proteins. Knock-down of the plasma membrane quality control proteins CHIP and Hsc70 partially restored ΔF508CFTR-scaffold association. Quantitative comparisons of CFTR cell surface diffusion and endocytosis kinetics suggested an association between reduced scaffold binding and CFTR internalization. Our surface diffusion measurements in live cells indicate defective scaffold interactions of rescued ΔF508CFTR at the cell surface, which may contribute to its defective peripheral processing. PMID:23115232

  6. Apical CFTR Expression in Human Nasal Epithelium Correlates with Lung Disease in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    van Meegen, Marit Arianne; Terheggen-Lagro, Suzanne Willemina Julia; Koymans, Kirsten Judith; van der Ent, Cornelis Korstiaan; Beekman, Jeffrey Matthijn

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although most individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) develop progressive obstructive lung disease, disease severity is highly variable, even for individuals with similar CFTR mutations. Measurements of chloride transport as expression of CFTR function in nasal epithelial cells correlate with pulmonary function and suggest that F508del-CFTR is expressed at the apical membrane. However, an association between quantitative apical CFTR expression in nasal epithelium and CF disease severity is still missing. Methods and Materials Nasal epithelial cells from healthy individuals and individuals with CF between 12–18 years were obtained by nasal brushing. Apical CFTR expression was measured by confocal microscopy using CFTR mAb 596. Expression was compared between both groups and expression in CF nasal epithelial cells was associated with standardized pulmonary function (FEV1%). Results The proportion of cells expressing apical CFTR in columnar epithelium is lower in CF compared to non-CF. The apical CFTR expression level was significantly correlated with FEV1% in F508del homozygous subjects (r = 0.63, p = 0.012). Conclusion CFTR expression in nasal epithelial cells is lower in subjects with CF compared to healthy subjects. The proportion of cells expressing F508del-CFTR at the apical membrane is variable between subjects and is positively correlated with FEV1% in F508del-CFTR homozygous subjects. PMID:23483918

  7. Gating of CFTR by the STAS domain of SLC26 transporters

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Shigeru B. H.; Zeng, Weizhong; Dorwart, Michael R.; Luo, Xiang; Kim, Kil Hwan; Millen, Linda; Goto, Hidemi; Naruse, Satoru; Soyombo, Abigail; Thomas, Philip J.; Muallem, Shmuel

    2014-01-01

    Chloride absorption and bicarbonate secretion are vital functions of epithelia1–6, as highlighted by cystic fibrosis and diseases associated with mutations in members of the SLC26 chloride-bicarbonate exchangers. Many SLC26 transporters (SLC26T) are expressed in the luminal membrane together with CFTR7, which activates electrogenic chloride-bicarbonate exchange by SLC26T8. However, the ability of SLC26T to regulate CFTR and the molecular mechanism of their interaction are not known. We report here a reciprocal regulatory interaction between the SLC26T DRA, SLC26A6 and CFTR. DRA markedly activates CFTR by increasing its overall open probablity (NPo) sixfold. Activation of CFTR by DRA was facilitated by their PDZ ligands and binding of the SLC26T STAS domain to the CFTR R domain. Binding of the STAS and R domains is regulated by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the R domain. Notably, CFTR and SLC26T co-localize in the luminal membrane and recombinant STAS domain activates CFTR in native duct cells. These findings provide a new understanding of epithelial chloride and bicarbonate transport and may have important implications for both cystic fibrosis and diseases associated with SLC26T. PMID:15048129

  8. Regulatory crosstalk by protein kinases on CFTR trafficking and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinha, Carlos Miguel; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e. channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  9. A new era in the treatment of cystic fibrosis: correction of the underlying CFTR defect.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Michael P; De Boeck, Kris

    2013-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by dysfunction or deficiency of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, an epithelial chloride channel that has a key role in maintaining homoeostasis of the airway surface liquid layer in the lungs. More than 1900 CFTR mutations that might result in a disease phenotype have been identified; these can be grouped into classes on the basis of their effect on CFTR protein production, trafficking, function, and stability. In the past 2 years, landmark clinical trials have shown that correction of CFTR function leads to substantial clinical benefit for individuals with cystic fibrosis. These findings are ushering in a new era of cystic fibrosis treatments designed to correct the underlying CFTR defect caused by different mutation classes. With analysis of continuing trials and available patient registries, here we assess mutation types and the number and geographical distribution of patients who are likely to benefit from CFTR-correcting treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In Vivo and In Vitro Ivacaftor Response in Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Residual CFTR Function: N-of-1 Studies

    PubMed Central

    McGarry, Meghan E.; Illek, Beate; Ly, Ngoc P.; Zlock, Lorna; Olshansky, Sabrina; Moreno, Courtney; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Nielson, Dennis W.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Rationale: Ivacaftor, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator, decreases sweat chloride concentration, and improves pulmonary function in 6% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with specific CFTR mutations. Ivacaftor increases chloride transport in many other CFTR mutations in non-human cells, if CFTR is in the epithelium. Some CF patients have CFTR in the epithelium with residual CFTR function. The effect of ivacaftor in these patients is unknown. Methods: This was a series of randomized, crossover N-of-1 trials of ivacaftor and placebo in CF patients ≥8 years old with potential residual CFTR function (intermediate sweat chloride concentration, pancreatic sufficient, or mild bronchiectasis on chest CT). Human nasal epithelium (HNE) was obtained via nasal brushing and cultured. Sweat chloride concentration change was the in vivo outcome. Chloride current change in HNE cultures with ivacaftor was the in vitro outcome. Results: Three subjects had decreased sweat chloride concentration (−14.8 to −40.8 mmol/L, P<0.01). Two subjects had unchanged sweat chloride concentration. Two subjects had increased sweat chloride concentration (+23.8 and +27.3 mmol/L, P<0.001); both were heterozygous for A455E and pancreatic sufficient. Only subjects with decreased sweat chloride concentration had increased chloride current in HNE cultures. Conclusions: Some CF patients with residual CFTR function have decreased sweat chloride concentration with ivacaftor. Increased chloride current in HNE cultures among subjects with decreased sweat chloride concentrations may predict clinical response to ivacaftor. Ivacaftor can increase sweat chloride concentration in certain mutations with unclear clinical effect. PMID:28068001

  11. In vivo and in vitro ivacaftor response in cystic fibrosis patients with residual CFTR function: N-of-1 studies.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Meghan E; Illek, Beate; Ly, Ngoc P; Zlock, Lorna; Olshansky, Sabrina; Moreno, Courtney; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Nielson, Dennis W

    2017-04-01

    Ivacaftor, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator, decreases sweat chloride concentration, and improves pulmonary function in 6% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with specific CFTR mutations. Ivacaftor increases chloride transport in many other CFTR mutations in non-human cells, if CFTR is in the epithelium. Some CF patients have CFTR in the epithelium with residual CFTR function. The effect of ivacaftor in these patients is unknown. This was a series of randomized, crossover N-of-1 trials of ivacaftor and placebo in CF patients ≥8 years old with potential residual CFTR function (intermediate sweat chloride concentration, pancreatic sufficient, or mild bronchiectasis on chest CT). Human nasal epithelium (HNE) was obtained via nasal brushing and cultured. Sweat chloride concentration change was the in vivo outcome. Chloride current change in HNE cultures with ivacaftor was the in vitro outcome. Three subjects had decreased sweat chloride concentration (-14.8 to -40.8 mmol/L, P < 0.01). Two subjects had unchanged sweat chloride concentration. Two subjects had increased sweat chloride concentration (+23.8 and +27.3 mmol/L, P < 0.001); both were heterozygous for A455E and pancreatic sufficient. Only subjects with decreased sweat chloride concentration had increased chloride current in HNE cultures. Some CF patients with residual CFTR function have decreased sweat chloride concentration with ivacaftor. Increased chloride current in HNE cultures among subjects with decreased sweat chloride concentrations may predict clinical response to ivacaftor. Ivacaftor can increase sweat chloride concentration in certain mutations with unclear clinical effect. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:472-479. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. RNA INTERFERENCE AGAINST CFTR AFFECTS HL60-DERIVED NEUTROPHIL MICROBICIDAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Bonvillain, Ryan W.; Painter, Richard G.; Adams, Daniel E.; Viswanathan, Anand; Lanson, Nicholas A.; Wang, Guoshun

    2010-01-01

    Biosynthesis of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent anti-microbial oxidant, in phagosomes is one of the chief mechanisms employed by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) to combat infections. This reaction, catalyzed by myeloperoxidase, requires chloride anion (Cl−) as a substrate. Thus, Cl− availability is a rate-limiting factor that affects neutrophil microbicidal function. Our previous research demonstrated that defective CFTR, a cAMP-activated chloride channel, present in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients leads to deficient chloride transport to neutrophil phagosomes and impaired bacterial killing (Painter et al., 2008 & 2010). To confirm this finding, here we used RNA interference against this chloride channel to abate CFTR expression in the neutrophil-like cells derived from HL60 cells, a promyelocytic leukemia cell line, with DMSO. The resultant CFTR deficiency in the phagocytes compromised their bactericidal capability, thereby recapitulating the phenotype seen in CF patient cells. The results provide further evidence suggesting that CFTR plays an important role in phagocytic host defense. PMID:20870018

  13. Nasal Potential Difference in Cystic Fibrosis considering Severe CFTR Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ronny Tah Yen; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Bertuzzo, Carmen Silvia; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Severino, Silvana Dalge; Sakano, Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    The gold standard for diagnosing cystic fibrosis (CF) is a sweat chloride value above 60 mEq/L. However, this historical and important tool has limitations; other techniques should be studied, including the nasal potential difference (NPD) test. CFTR gene sequencing can identify CFTR mutations, but this method is time-consuming and too expensive to be used in all CF centers. The present study compared CF patients with two classes I-III CFTR mutations (10 patients) (G1), CF patients with classes IV-VI CFTR mutations (five patients) (G2), and 21 healthy subjects (G3). The CF patients and healthy subjects also underwent the NPD test. A statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, χ 2, and Fisher's exact tests, α = 0.05. No differences were observed between the CF patients and healthy controls for the PDMax, Δamiloride, and Δchloride + free + amiloride markers from the NPD test. For the finger value, a difference between G2 and G3 was described. The Wilschanski index values were different between G1 and G3. In conclusion, our data showed that NPD is useful for CF diagnosis when classes I-III CFTR mutations are screened. However, if classes IV-VI are considered, the NPD test showed an overlap in values with healthy subjects. PMID:25667564

  14. Electrophysiological evaluation of cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator (CFTR) expression in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Ettorre, Michele; Verzè, Genny; Caldrer, Sara; Johansson, Jan; Calcaterra, Elisa; Assael, Baroukh Maurice; Melotti, Paola; Sorio, Claudio; Buffelli, Mario

    2014-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations of CFTR gene, a protein kinase A-activated anion channel, and is associated to a persistent and excessive chronic lung inflammation, suggesting functional alterations of immune cells. Leukocytes express detectable levels of CFTR but the molecule has not been fully characterized in these cells. Freshly isolated monocytes from healthy individuals and CF patients were assessed by protein expression, single cell electrophysiological and membrane depolarization assays. We recorded chloride currents by patch clamp in healthy monocytes, after the administration of a CFTR stimulus. Currents were sensitive to a specific blocker of the CFTR channel, CFTRinh-172 and were absent in CF monocytes. Next, we evaluated the effects of ex vivo exposure of monocytes from cystic fibrosis patients carrying the F508del mutation to a chemical corrector, Vertex-325. We found an increase in CFTR expression by confocal microscopy and a recovery of CFTR function by both patch clamp and single cell fluorescence analysis. We confirm the expression of functional CFTR in human monocytes and demonstrate that blood monocytes can represent an adequate source of primary cells to assess new therapies and define diagnosis of CF. Tests to evaluate CFTR functional abnormalities in CF disease might greatly benefit from the availability of a convenient source of primary cells. This electrophysiological study promotes the use of monocytes as a minimally invasive tool to study and monitor CFTR function in individual patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CFTR-NHERF2-LPA2 Complex in the Airway and Gut Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiqiang; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yanhui; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.

    2017-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP- and cGMP-regulated chloride (Cl−) and bicarbonate (HCO3−) channel localized primarily at the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells lining the airway, gut and exocrine glands, where it is responsible for transepithelial salt and water transport. Several human diseases are associated with altered CFTR channel function. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by the absence or dysfunction of CFTR channel activity, resulting from mutations in the gene. Secretory diarrhea is caused by the hyperactivation of CFTR channel activity in the gastrointestinal tract. CFTR is a validated target for drug development to treat CF, and extensive research has been conducted to develop CFTR inhibitors for therapeutic interventions of secretory diarrhea. The intracellular processing, trafficking, apical membrane localization, and channel function of CFTR are regulated by dynamic protein–protein interactions in a complex network. In this paper, we review the current knowledge of a macromolecular complex of CFTR, Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 2 (NHERF2), and lysophosphatidic acids (LPA) receptor 2 (LPA2) at the apical plasma membrane of airway and gut epithelial cells, and discuss its relevance in human physiology and diseases. We also explore the possibilities of targeting this complex to fine tune CFTR channel activity, with a hope to open up new avenues to develop novel therapies for CF and secretory diarrhea. PMID:28869532

  16. Determination of CFTR densities in erythrocyte plasma membranes using recognition imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Andreas; Nikova, Dessy; Lange, Tobias; Häberle, Johannes; Falk, Sabine; Dübbers, Angelika; Bruns, Reimer; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Oberleithner, Hans; Schillers, Hermann

    2008-09-01

    CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is a cAMP-regulated chloride (Cl-) channel that plays an important role in salt and fluid movement across epithelia. Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common genetic disease among Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding CFTR. The most predominant mutation, F508del, disturbs CFTR protein trafficking, resulting in a reduced number of CFTR in the plasma membrane. Recent studies indicate that CFTR is not only found in epithelia but also in human erythrocytes. Although considerable attempts have been made to quantify CFTR in cells, conclusions on numbers of CFTR molecules localized in the plasma membrane have been drawn indirectly. AFM has the power to provide the needed information, since both sub-molecular spatial resolution and direct protein recognition via antibody-antigen interaction can be observed. We performed a quantification study of the CFTR copies in erythrocyte membranes at the single molecule level, and compared the difference between healthy donors and CF patients. We detected that the number of CFTR molecules is reduced by 70% in erythrocytes of cystic fibrosis patients.

  17. [The activation effect of nobiletin on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuang; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Yao-Fang; Wang, Xue; Yang, Hong

    2013-06-01

    Aim of the present study is to investigate activation effect of nobiletin on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel activity. CFTR-mediated iodide influx assay and patch-clamp tests were done on FRT cells stably co-transfected with human CFTR and EYFP/H148Q. Nobiletin potently activated CFTR chloride channel activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The CFTR blocker CFTR(inh)-172 could completely reverse the effect. Preliminary mechanism study indicated that nobiletin activated CFTR chloride channel through a direct binding way. In addition, ex vivo tests done on mice trachea showed that nobiletin time-dependently stimulated submucosal gland fluid secretion. Nobiletin may be a therapeutic lead compound in treating CFTR-related diseases including disseminated bronchiectasis.

  18. Proteomic Identification of Calumenin as a G551D - CFTR Associated Protein

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Ling; Kerbiriou, Mathieu; Taiya, Mehdi; Le Hir, Sophie; Mignen, Olivier; Benz, Nathalie; Trouvé, Pascal; Férec, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal autosomal recessive disease in the Caucasian population. It is due to mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. To date, over 1910 mutations have been identified in the CFTR gene. Among these mutations, the CF-causing missense mutation G551D-CFTR (approx. 5% of cases) encodes for a CFTR chloride channel with normal expression on the cell surface. Nevertheless, it is associated with severe disease due to its altered channel activation. The aim of the present study was to identify specific interacting proteins of G551D-CFTR. Co-immunoprecipitated proteins with G551D-CFTR were resolved by 2D-gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Mass Spectrometry revealed that calumenin was present in the protein complex linked to G551D-CFTR. Despite its basal expression was not modified in G551D-CFTR expressing cells when compared to Wt-CFTR expressing cells, it was more abundant in the G551D-CFTR complex detected by immunoprecipitation. The calumenin-CFTR interaction was also shown by Surface Plasmon Resonance and further confirmed by computational analysis of the predicted calumenin’s partners. Because in our cellular model calumenin was found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by immunofluorescence experiments, we suggest that calumenin is likely involved in the mutated CFTR’s maturation. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that calumenin binds to CFTR and that it is increased in the G551D-CFTR complex. We suggest that it may be involved in the physiopathology of G551D-CFTR and that G551D-CFTR may follow a specific maturation and trafficking pathway. We also hypothesize that UPR may be triggered independently of the retention of G551D-CFTR in the ER because Grp78/Bip expression is increased in the cells. Finally, we propose here that Calumenin is a new CFTR chaperone. PMID:22768251

  19. Bioelectric Characterization of Epithelia from Neonatal CFTR Knockout Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, John T.; Tyler, Scott R.; Zhang, Yulong; Lee, Ben J.; Liu, Xiaoming; Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Liang, Bo; Luo, Meihui; Xie, Weiliang; Yi, Yaling; Zhou, Weihong; Song, Yi; Keiser, Nicholas; Wang, Kai; de Jonge, Hugo R.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening, recessive, multiorgan genetic disorder caused by the loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel function found in many types of epithelia. Animal models that recapitulate the human disease phenotype are critical to understanding pathophysiology in CF and developing therapies. CFTR knockout ferrets manifest many of the phenotypes observed in the human disease, including lung infections, pancreatic disease and diabetes, liver disease, malnutrition, and meconium ileus. In the present study, we have characterized abnormalities in the bioelectric properties of the trachea, stomach, intestine, and gallbladder of newborn CF ferrets. Short-circuit current (ISC) analysis of CF and wild-type (WT) tracheas revealed the following similarities and differences: (1) amiloride-sensitive sodium currents were similar between genotypes; (2) responses to 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbene disulphonic acid were 3.3-fold greater in CF animals, suggesting elevated baseline chloride transport through non-CFTR channels in a subset of CF animals; and (3) a lack of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)/forskolin–stimulated and N-(2-Naphthalenyl)-((3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene)glycine hydrazide (GlyH-101)–inhibited currents in CF animals due to the lack of CFTR. CFTR mRNA was present throughout all levels of the WT ferret and IBMX/forskolin–inducible ISC was only observed in WT animals. However, despite the lack of CFTR function in the knockout ferret, the luminal pH of the CF ferret gallbladder, stomach, and intestines was not significantly changed relative to WT. The WT stomach and gallbladder exhibited significantly enhanced IBMX/forskolin ISC responses and inhibition by GlyH-101 relative to CF samples. These findings demonstrate that multiple organs affected by disease in the CF ferret have bioelectric abnormalities consistent with the lack of cAMP-mediated chloride transport. PMID:23782101

  20. Calumenin contributes to ER-Ca2+ homeostasis in bronchial epithelial cells expressing WT and F508del mutated CFTR and to F508del-CFTR retention.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Réginald; Antigny, Fabrice; Buscaglia, Paul; Norez, Caroline; Huguet, Florentin; Castelbou, Cyril; Trouvé, Pascal; Becq, Frédéric; Frieden, Maud; Férec, Claude; Mignen, Olivier

    2017-03-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent fatal genetic disease in Caucasian populations. Mutations in the chloride channel CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene are responsible for functional defects of the protein and multiple associated dysregulations. The most common mutation in patients with CF, F508del-CFTR, causes defective CFTR protein folding. Thus minimal levels of the receptor are expressed at the cell surface as the mutated CFTR is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it correlates with defective calcium (Ca 2+ ) homeostasis. In this study, we discovered that the Ca 2+ binding protein Calumenin (CALU) is a key regulator in the maintenance of ER-Ca 2+ calcium homeostasis in both wild type and F508del-CFTR expressing cells. Calumenin modulates SERCA pump activity without drastically affecting ER-Ca 2+ concentration. In addition, reducing Calumenin expression in CF cells results in a partial restoration of CFTR activity, highlighting a potential function of Calumenin in CFTR maturation. These findings demonstrate a pivotal role for Calumenin in CF cells, providing insights into how modulation of Calumenin expression or activity may be used as a potential therapeutic tool to correct defects in F508del-CFTR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Applying Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Genetics and CFTR2 Data to Facilitate Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Sosnay, Patrick R; Salinas, Danieli B; White, Terry B; Ren, Clement L; Farrell, Philip M; Raraigh, Karen S; Girodon, Emmanuelle; Castellani, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    As a Mendelian disease, genetics plays an integral role in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). The identification of 2 disease-causing mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in an individual with a phenotype provides evidence that the disease is CF. However, not all variations in CFTR always result in CF. Therefore, for CFTR genotype to provide the same level of evidence of CFTR dysfunction as shown by direct tests such as sweat chloride or nasal potential difference, the mutations identified must be known to always result in CF. The use of CFTR genetics in CF diagnosis, therefore, relies heavily on mutation interpretation. Progress that has been made on mutation interpretation and annotation was reviewed at the recent CF Foundation Diagnosis Consensus Conference. A modified Delphi method was used to identify consensus statements on the use of genetic analysis in CF diagnosis. The largest recent advance in CF genetics has come through the Clinical and Functional Translation of CFTR (CFTR2) project. This undertaking seeks to characterize CFTR mutations from patients with CF around the world. The project also established guidelines for the clinical, functional, and population/penetrance criteria that can be used to interpret mutations not yet included in CFTR2's review. The use of CFTR genetics to aid in diagnosis of CF requires that the mutations identified have a known disease liability. The demonstration of 2 in trans mutations known to always result in CF is satisfactory evidence of CFTR dysfunction. However, if the identified mutations are known to be associated with variable outcomes, or have unknown consequence, that genotype may not result in a CF phenotype. In these cases, other tests of CFTR function may help. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane recruiter the alter ego of CFTR as a multi-kinase anchor

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on a newly discovered interaction between protein kinases involved in cellular energetics, a process that may be disturbed in cystic fibrosis for unknown reasons. I propose a new model where kinase-mediated cellular transmission of energy provides mechanistic insight to a latent role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). I suggest that CFTR acts as a multi-kinase recruiter to the apical epithelial membrane. My group finds that, in the cytosol, two protein kinases involved in cell energy homeostasis, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), bind one another. Preliminary data suggest that both can also bind CFTR (function unclear). The disrupted role of this CFTR-kinase complex as ‘membrane transmitter to the cell’ is proposed as an alternative paradigm to the conventional ion transport mediated and CFTR/chloride-centric view of cystic fibrosis pathogenesis. Chloride remains important, but instead, chloride-induced control of the phosphohistidine content of one kinase component (NDPK, via a multi-kinase complex that also includes a third kinase, CK2; formerly casein kinase 2). I suggest that this complex provides the necessary near-equilibrium conditions needed for efficient transmission of phosphate energy to proteins controlling cellular energetics. Crucially, a new role for CFTR as a kinase controller is proposed with ionic concentration acting as a signal. The model posits a regulatory control relay for energy sensing involving a cascade of protein kinases bound to CFTR. PMID:17805562

  3. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and its stability.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xin; Clews, Jack; Kargas, Vasileios; Wang, Xiaomeng; Ford, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is responsible for the disease cystic fibrosis (CF). It is a membrane protein belonging to the ABC transporter family functioning as a chloride/anion channel in epithelial cells around the body. There are over 1500 mutations that have been characterised as CF-causing; the most common of these, accounting for ~70 % of CF cases, is the deletion of a phenylalanine at position 508. This leads to instability of the nascent protein and the modified structure is recognised and then degraded by the ER quality control mechanism. However, even pharmacologically 'rescued' F508del CFTR displays instability at the cell's surface, losing its channel function rapidly and it is rapidly removed from the plasma membrane for lysosomal degradation. This review will, therefore, explore the link between stability and structure/function relationships of membrane proteins and CFTR in particular and how approaches to study CFTR structure depend on its stability. We will also review the application of a fluorescence labelling method for the assessment of the thermostability and the tertiary structure of CFTR.

  4. Restoration of CFTR function in patients with cystic fibrosis carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, Daniela De; Villella, Valeria R; Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Sepe, Angela; Gregorio, Fabiola De; Salvadori, Laura; Grassia, Rosa; Leone, Carlo A; Rosa, Giuseppe De; Maiuri, Maria C; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Guido, Stefano; Bossi, Anna; Zolin, Anna; Venerando, Andrea; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Mehta, Anil; Bona, Gianni; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi; Raia, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of BECN1/Beclin 1-dependent autophagy and depletion of SQSTM1/p62 by genetic manipulation or autophagy-stimulatory proteostasis regulators, such as cystamine, have positive effects on mouse models of human cystic fibrosis (CF). These measures rescue the functional expression of the most frequent pathogenic CFTR mutant, F508del, at the respiratory epithelial surface and reduce lung inflammation in CftrF508del homozygous mice. Cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine, is an FDA-approved drug. Here, we report that oral treatment with cysteamine greatly reduces the mortality rate and improves the phenotype of newborn mice bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation. Cysteamine was also able to increase the plasma membrane expression of the F508del-CFTR protein in nasal epithelial cells from F508del homozygous CF patients, and these effects persisted for 24 h after cysteamine withdrawal. Importantly, this cysteamine effect after washout was further sustained by the sequential administration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, both in vivo, in mice, and in vitro, in primary epithelial cells from CF patients. In a pilot clinical trial involving 10 F508del-CFTR homozygous CF patients, the combination of cysteamine and EGCG restored BECN1, reduced SQSTM1 levels and improved CFTR function from nasal epithelial cells in vivo, correlating with a decrease of chloride concentrations in sweat, as well as with a reduction of the abundance of TNF/TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor) and CXCL8 (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 8) transcripts in nasal brushing and TNF and CXCL8 protein levels in the sputum. Altogether, these results suggest that optimal schedules of cysteamine plus EGCG might be used for the treatment of CF caused by the F508del-CFTR mutation. PMID:25350163

  5. The intact CFTR protein mediates ATPase rather than adenylate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Ugwu, Francisca; Stratford, Fiona L L; Huan, Ling-Jun; Li, Canhui; Bear, Christine E

    2008-06-01

    The two NBDs (nucleotide-binding domains) of ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) proteins function in a complex to mediate ATPase activity and this activity has been linked to their regulated transport activity. A similar model has been proposed for CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), the chloride channel defective in cystic fibrosis, wherein ATP binding and hydrolysis regulate the channel gate. Recently, it was shown that the individual NBDs isolated from CFTR primarily mediate adenylate kinase activity, raising the possibility that this activity may also contribute to gating of the CFTR channel. However, this present study shows that whereas the isolated NBDs exhibit adenylate kinase activity, the full-length purified and reconstituted CFTR protein functions as an ATPase, arguing that the enzymatic activity of the NBDs is dependent on their molecular context and appropriate domain-domain assembly. As expected, the disease-causing mutant bearing a mutation in the ABC signature motif, CFTR-G551D, exhibited a markedly reduced ATPase activity. Furthermore, mutation of the putative catalytic base in CFTR caused a reduction in ATPase activity, with the CFTR-E1371Q mutant supporting a low level of residual activity. Neither of these mutants exhibited detectable adenylate kinase activity. Together, these findings support the concept that the molecular mechanism of action of CFTR is dependent on ATP binding and hydrolysis, and that the structure of prokaryotic ABC ATPases provide a useful template for understanding their mechanism of action.

  6. Impact of the F508del mutation on ovine CFTR, a Cl− channel with enhanced conductance and ATP-dependent gating

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhiwei; Palmai-Pallag, Timea; Khuituan, Pissared; Mutolo, Michael J; Boinot, Clément; Liu, Beihui; Scott-Ward, Toby S; Callebaut, Isabelle; Harris, Ann; Sheppard, David N

    2015-01-01

    Cross-species comparative studies are a powerful approach to understanding the epithelial Cl− channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is defective in the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, we investigate the single-channel behaviour of ovine CFTR and the impact of the most common CF mutation, F508del-CFTR, using excised inside-out membrane patches from transiently transfected CHO cells. Like human CFTR, ovine CFTR formed a weakly inwardly rectifying Cl− channel regulated by PKA-dependent phosphorylation, inhibited by the open-channel blocker glibenclamide. However, for three reasons, ovine CFTR was noticeably more active than human CFTR. First, single-channel conductance was increased. Second, open probability was augmented because the frequency and duration of channel openings were increased. Third, with enhanced affinity and efficacy, ATP more strongly stimulated ovine CFTR channel gating. Consistent with these data, the CFTR modulator phloxine B failed to potentiate ovine CFTR Cl− currents. Similar to its impact on human CFTR, the F508del mutation caused a temperature-sensitive folding defect, which disrupted ovine CFTR protein processing and reduced membrane stability. However, the F508del mutation had reduced impact on ovine CFTR channel gating in contrast to its marked effects on human CFTR. We conclude that ovine CFTR forms a regulated Cl− channel with enhanced conductance and ATP-dependent channel gating. This phylogenetic analysis of CFTR structure and function demonstrates that subtle changes in structure have pronounced effects on channel function and the consequences of the CF mutation F508del. Key points Malfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a gated pathway for chloride movement, causes the common life-shortening genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Towards the development of a sheep model of CF, we have investigated the function of sheep CFTR. We found that

  7. Manipulating proteostasis to repair the F508del-CFTR defect in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Villella, Valeria R; Raia, Valeria; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal monogenic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that entails the (diagnostic) increase in sweat electrolyte concentrations, progressive lung disease with chronic inflammation and recurrent bacterial infections, pancreatic insufficiency, and male infertility. Therapies aimed at restoring the CFTR defect have emerged. Thus, a small molecule which facilitates chloride channel opening, the potentiator Ivacaftor, has been approved for the treatment of CF patients bearing a particular class of rare CFTR mutations. However, small molecules that directly target the most common misfolded CFTR mutant, F508del, and improve its intracellular trafficking in vitro, have been less effective than expected when tested in CF patients, even in combination with Ivacaftor. Thus, new strategies are required to circumvent the F508del-CFTR defect. Airway and intestinal epithelial cells from CF patients bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation exhibit an impressive derangement of cellular proteostasis, with oxidative stress, overactivation of the tissue transglutaminase (TG2), and disabled autophagy. Proteostasis regulators such as cysteamine can rescue and stabilize a functional F508del-CFTR protein through suppressing TG2 activation and restoring autophagy in vivo in F508del-CFTR homozygous mice, in vitro in CF patient-derived cell lines, ex vivo in freshly collected primary patient's nasal cells, as well as in a pilot clinical trial involving homozygous F508del-CFTR patients. Here, we discuss how the therapeutic normalization of defective proteostasis can be harnessed for the treatment of CF patients with the F508del-CFTR mutation.

  8. Revisiting CFTR inhibition: a comparative study of CFTRinh-172 and GlyH-101 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Melis, N; Tauc, M; Cougnon, M; Bendahhou, S; Giuliano, S; Rubera, I; Duranton, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE For decades, inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel have been used as tools to investigate the role and function of CFTR conductance in cystic fibrosis research. In the early 2000s, two new and potent inhibitors of CFTR, CFTRinh-172 and GlyH-101, were described and are now widely used to inhibit specifically CFTR. However, despite some evidence, the effects of both drugs on other types of Cl−-conductance have been overlooked. In this context, we explore the specificity and the cellular toxicity of both inhibitors in CFTR-expressing and non–CFTR-expressing cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Using patch-clamp technique, we tested the effects of CFTRinh-172 and GlyH-101 inhibitors on three distinct types of Cl− currents: the CFTR-like conductance, the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl− conductance (VSORC) and finally the Ca2+-dependent Cl− conductance (CaCC). We also explored the effect of both inhibitors on cell viability using live/dead and cell proliferation assays in two different cell lines. KEY RESULTS We confirmed that these two compounds were potent inhibitors of the CFTR-mediated Cl− conductance. However,GlyH-101 also inhibited the VSORC conductance and the CaCC at concentrations used to inhibit CFTR. The CFTRinh-172 did not affect the CaCC but did inhibit the VSORC, at concentrations higher than 5 µM. Neither inhibitor (20 µM; 24 h exposure) affected cell viability, but both were cytotoxic at higher concentrations. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Both inhibitors affected Cl− conductances apart from CFTR. Our results provided insights into their use in mouse models. PMID:24758416

  9. Rab4GTPase modulates CFTR function by impairing channel expression at plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Sunil K.; Kaur, Simarna; George, Constantine

    2006-03-03

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), an autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by the disruption of biosynthesis or the function of a membrane cAMP-activated chloride channel, CFTR. CFTR regulatory mechanisms include recruitment of channel proteins to the cell surface from intracellular pools and by protein-protein interactions. Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in regulated trafficking controlling vesicle docking and fusion. Rab4 controls recycling events from endosome to the plasma membrane, fusion, and degradation. The colorectal cell line HT-29 natively expresses CFTR and responds to cAMP stimulation with an increase in CFTR-mediated currents. Rab4 over-expression in HT-29 cells inhibits both basal and cAMP-stimulated CFTR-mediatedmore » currents. GTPase-deficient Rab4Q67L and GDP locked Rab4S22N both inhibit channel activity, which appears characteristically different. Active status of Rab4 was confirmed by GTP overlay assay, while its expression was verified by Western blotting. The pull-down and immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that Rab4 physically interacts with CFTR through protein-protein interaction. Biotinylation with cell impermeant NHS-Sulfo-SS-Biotin implies that Rab4 impairs CFTR expression at cell surface. The enhanced cytosolic CFTR indicates that Rab4 expression restrains CFTR appearance at the cell membrane. The study suggests that Rab4 regulates the channel through multiple mechanisms that include protein-protein interaction, GTP/GDP exchange, and channel protein trafficking. We propose that Rab4 is a dynamic molecule with a significant role in CFTR function.« less

  10. CFTR p.Arg117His associated with CBAVD and other CFTR-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Munck, Anne; Huet, Frédéric; de Becdelièvre, Alix; Jimenez, Clément; Lalau, Guy; Gautier, Elodie; Rollet, Jacques; Flori, Jean; Nové-Josserand, Raphaëlle; Soufir, Jean-Claude; Haloun, Alain; Hubert, Dominique; Houssin, Elise; Bellis, Gil; Rault, Gilles; David, Albert; Janny, Laurent; Chiron, Raphaël; Rives, Nathalie; Hairion, Dominique; Collignon, Patrick; Valeri, Antoine; Karsenty, Gilles; Rossi, Annick; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Férec, Claude; Leclerc, Julie; Georges, Marie des; Claustres, Mireille; Bienvenu, Thierry; Gérard, Bénédicte; Boisseau, Pierre; Cabet-Bey, Faïza; Cheillan, David; Feldmann, Delphine; Clavel, Christine; Bieth, Eric; Iron, Albert; Simon-Bouy, Brigitte; Izard, Vincent; Steffann, Julie; Viville, Stéphane; Costa, Catherine; Drouineaud, Véronique; Fauque, Patricia; Binquet, Christine; Bonithon-Kopp, Claire; Morris, Mike A; Faivre, Laurence; Goossens, Michel; Roussey, Michel; Girodon, Emmanuelle

    2013-04-01

    The high frequency of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation p.Arg117His in patients with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) and in newborns screened for CF has created a dilemma. Phenotypic and genotypic data were retrospectively collected in 179 non-newborn French individuals carrying p.Arg117His and a second CFTR mutation referred for symptoms or family history, by all French molecular genetics laboratories, referring physicians, CF care centres and infertility clinics. 97% of the patients had the intronic T7 normal variant in cis with p.Arg117His. 89% patients were male, with CBAVD being the reason for referral in 76%. In 166/179 patients with available detailed clinical features, final diagnoses were: four late-onset marked pulmonary disease, 83 isolated CBAVD, 67 other CFTR-related phenotypes, including 44 CBAVD with pulmonary and/or pancreatic symptoms and 12 asymptomatic cases. Respiratory symptoms were observed in 30% of the patients, but the overall phenotype was mild. No correlation was observed between sweat chloride concentrations and disease severity. Five couples at risk of CF offspring were identified and four benefited from prenatal or preimplantation genetic diagnoses (PND or PGD). Eight children were born, including four who were compound heterozygous for p.Arg117His and one with a severe CF mutation. Patients with CBAVD carrying p.Arg117His and a severe CF mutation should benefit from a clinical evaluation and follow-up. Depending on the CBAVD patients' genotype, a CFTR analysis should be considered in their partners in order to identify CF carrier couples and offer PND or PGD.

  11. Correctors and Potentiators Rescue Function of the Truncated W1282X-Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) Translation Product.

    PubMed

    Haggie, Peter M; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Tan, Joseph-Anthony; Xu, Haijin; Avramescu, Radu G; Perdomo, Doranda; Zlock, Lorna; Nielson, Dennis W; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Lukacs, Gergely L; Verkman, Alan S

    2017-01-20

    W1282X is the fifth most common cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutation that causes cystic fibrosis. Here, we investigated the utility of a small molecule corrector/potentiator strategy, as used for ΔF508-CFTR, to produce functional rescue of the truncated translation product of the W1282X mutation, CFTR 1281 , without the need for read-through. In transfected cell systems, certain potentiators and correctors, including VX-809 and VX-770, increased CFTR 1281 activity. To identify novel correctors and potentiators with potentially greater efficacy on CFTR 1281 , functional screens were done of ∼30,000 synthetic small molecules and drugs/nutraceuticals in CFTR 1281 -transfected cells. Corrector scaffolds of 1-arylpyrazole-4-arylsulfonyl-piperazine and spiro-piperidine-quinazolinone classes were identified with up to ∼5-fold greater efficacy than VX-809, some of which were selective for CFTR 1281 , whereas others also corrected ΔF508-CFTR. Several novel potentiator scaffolds were identified with efficacy comparable with VX-770; remarkably, a phenylsulfonamide-pyrrolopyridine acted synergistically with VX-770 to increase CFTR 1281 function ∼8-fold over that of VX-770 alone, normalizing CFTR 1281 channel activity to that of wild type CFTR. Corrector and potentiator combinations were tested in primary cultures and conditionally reprogrammed cells generated from nasal brushings from one W1282X homozygous subject. Although robust chloride conductance was seen with correctors and potentiators in homozygous ΔF508 cells, increased chloride conductance was not found in W1282X cells despite the presence of adequate transcript levels. Notwithstanding the negative data in W1282X cells from one human subject, we speculate that corrector and potentiator combinations may have therapeutic efficacy in cystic fibrosis caused by the W1282X mutation, although additional studies are needed on human cells from W1282X subjects. © 2017 by The American Society for

  12. miR-16 rescues F508del-CFTR function in native cystic fibrosis epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Bhattacharyya, S; Peters, K W; Glover, M L; Sen, A; Cox, R T; Kundu, S; Caohuy, H; Frizzell, R A; Pollard, H B; Biswas, R

    2015-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is due to mutations in the CFTR gene, which prevents correct folding, trafficking and function of the mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The dysfunctional effect of CFTR mutations, principally the F508del-CFTR mutant, is further manifested by hypersecretion of the pro-inflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 into the airway lumen, which further contributes to morbidity and mortality. We have hypothesized that microRNA (miR)-based therapeutics could rescue the dysfunctional consequences of mutant CFTR. Here we report that a miR-16 mimic can effectively rescue F508del-CFTR protein function in airway cell lines and primary cultures, of differentiated human bronchial epithelia from F508del homozygotes, which express mutant CFTR endogenously. We also identify two other miRs, miR-1 and miR-302a, which are also active. Although miR-16 is expressed at basal comparable levels in CF and control cells, miR-1 and miR-302a are undetectable. When miR mimics are expressed in CF lung or pancreatic cells, the expression of the F508del-CFTR protein is significantly increased. Importantly, miR-16 promotes functional rescue of the cyclic AMP-activated apical F508del-CFTR chloride channel in primary lung epithelial cells from CF patients. We interpret these findings to suggest that these miRs may constitute novel targets for CF therapy.

  13. Compartmentalized crosstalk of CFTR and TMEM16A (ANO1) through EPAC1 and ADCY1.

    PubMed

    Lérias, Joana; Pinto, Madalena; Benedetto, Roberta; Schreiber, Rainer; Amaral, Margarida; Aureli, Massimo; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2018-04-01

    Airway epithelial cells express both Ca 2+ activated TMEM16A/ANO1 and cAMP activated CFTR anion channels. Previous work suggested a significant crosstalk of intracellular Ca 2+ and cAMP signaling pathways, leading to activation of both chloride channels. We demonstrate that in airway epithelial cells, stimulation of purinergic or muscarinic G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) activates TMEM16A and CFTR. Additional expression of G q/11 and phospholipase C coupled GPCRs strongly enhanced the crosstalk between Ca 2+ - and cAMP-dependent signaling. Knockdown of endogenous GRCRs attenuated crosstalk and functional coupling between TMEM16A and CFTR. The number of receptors did not affect expression or membrane localization of TMEM16A or CFTR, but controlled assembly of the local signalosome. GPCRs translocate Ca 2+ -sensitive adenylate cyclase type 1 (ADCY1) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC1) to particular plasma membrane domains containing GPCRs, CFTR and TMEM16A, thereby producing compartmentalized Ca 2+ and cAMP signals and significant crosstalk. While biosynthesis and membrane trafficking of CFTR requires a functional Golgi apparatus, maturation and membrane trafficking of TMEM16A may occur independent of the Golgi. Because Ca 2+ activated TMEM16A currents are only transient, continuous Cl - secretion by airway epithelial cells requires CFTR. The present data also explain why receptor-dependent activation of TMEM16A is more efficient than direct stimulation by Ca 2+ . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacological Correction of Cystic Fibrosis: Molecular Mechanisms at the Plasma Membrane to Augment Mutant CFTR Function.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kavisha; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1980s, a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel was identified to be the primary cause of cystic fibrosis (CF); a fatal multiple-organ disorder that mostly affects Caucasians. To date, approximately 2000 genetic mutations have been identified in the CFTR gene (http://www.genet.sickkids.on.ca/cftr/app). The most common cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with CF is a progressive deterioration in lung function leading ultimately to respiratory collapse. The median life expectancy of CF patients currently is estimated to be 39 years in the US. The most prevalent CFTR mutation, F508del, accounts for 70% of CF cases and causes a processing defect in the protein leading to premature endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) and reduced F508del-CFTR delivery to the cell surface. A CF corrector is defined as a chemical chaperone that increases cell-surface levels of F508del-CFTR. A series of CF correctors have been developed, and VX-809 (lumacaftor) has been cited as the most effective symptomatic CF corrector to date. VX-809 improves the function of the mutant protein by approximately 15% in in vitro culture systems. However, this effect did not completely translate clinically, with only a marginal improvement observed in lung function of the F508del-homozygous patients undergoing the therapy. New studies revealed that even after successful ER retrieval, rescued F508del-CFTR (rF508del-CFTR) once at the cell surface does not function properly, exhibiting poor stability and channel gating and structural abnormalities. This becomes further complicated by the existence of genes termed CFTR modifiers, which can alter CFTR function to be additionally defective and exacerbate the CF phenotype while also alternatively suggested be potentially targeted to improve F508del-CFTR functional outcome. It is necessary to understand the biology of F508del-CFTR post

  15. Computational Design of a PDZ Domain Peptide Inhibitor that Rescues CFTR Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kyle E.; Cushing, Patrick R.; Boisguerin, Prisca; Madden, Dean R.; Donald, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an epithelial chloride channel mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The most prevalent CFTR mutation, ΔF508, blocks folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Recent work has shown that some ΔF508-CFTR channel activity can be recovered by pharmaceutical modulators (“potentiators” and “correctors”), but ΔF508-CFTR can still be rapidly degraded via a lysosomal pathway involving the CFTR-associated ligand (CAL), which binds CFTR via a PDZ interaction domain. We present a study that goes from theory, to new structure-based computational design algorithms, to computational predictions, to biochemical testing and ultimately to epithelial-cell validation of novel, effective CAL PDZ inhibitors (called “stabilizers”) that rescue ΔF508-CFTR activity. To design the “stabilizers”, we extended our structural ensemble-based computational protein redesign algorithm to encompass protein-protein and protein-peptide interactions. The computational predictions achieved high accuracy: all of the top-predicted peptide inhibitors bound well to CAL. Furthermore, when compared to state-of-the-art CAL inhibitors, our design methodology achieved higher affinity and increased binding efficiency. The designed inhibitor with the highest affinity for CAL (kCAL01) binds six-fold more tightly than the previous best hexamer (iCAL35), and 170-fold more tightly than the CFTR C-terminus. We show that kCAL01 has physiological activity and can rescue chloride efflux in CF patient-derived airway epithelial cells. Since stabilizers address a different cellular CF defect from potentiators and correctors, our inhibitors provide an additional therapeutic pathway that can be used in conjunction with current methods. PMID:22532795

  16. Lectin conjugates as potent, nonabsorbable CFTR inhibitors for reducing intestinal fluid secretion in cholera.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, N D; Zhao, Dan; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Galietta, Luis J V; Verkman, A S

    2007-04-01

    Inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel are predicted to prevent intestinal fluid secretion in cholera. We previously discovered low- affinity glycine hydrazide (GlyH) CFTR inhibitors that block CFTR at its external pore. The goal of this study was to develop potent CFTR inhibitors that are minimally absorbed and washed out of the intestinal lumen for application as antisecretory agents in cholera. GlyH analogs (malonic hydrazides, MalH) were chemically conjugated to various lectins ("MalH-lectin") and purified. CFTR inhibition potency was measured by short-circuit current analysis, mechanism of action by patch-clamp, and antidiarrheal efficacy in closed-loop and suckling mouse models. By lectin conjugation, we improved CFTR inhibitory potency by approximately 100-fold (to 50 nmol/L) and retarded washout. High-affinity CFTR inhibition was abolished by MalH-lectin heat denaturation, protease digestion, or competition by mannose or unconjugated lectin. Patch-clamp analysis indicated CFTR inhibition by an external pore occlusion mechanism. Fluorescently labeled MalH-lectin remained membrane bound for >6 hours after washout, whereas washout occurred in a few minutes without the lectin. MalH-ConA and MalH-wheat (IC50 50-100 pmol) blocked cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in closed intestinal loops in mice and greatly reduced mortality in a suckling mouse model of cholera. The high potency of MalH-lectin conjugates results from "anchoring" the CFTR-blocking MalH to cell surface carbohydrates by the lectin. The high-affinity, slow washout, and external site of action of the MalH-lectin conjugates support their further development as antisecretory drugs for enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas.

  17. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70,000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. A CFTR corrector (lumacaftor) and a CFTR potentiator (ivacaftor) for treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis who have a phe508del CFTR mutation: a phase 2 randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Michael P; Bell, Scott C; Konstan, Michael W; McColley, Susanna A; Rowe, Steven M; Rietschel, Ernst; Huang, Xiaohong; Waltz, David; Patel, Naimish R; Rodman, David

    2014-07-01

    The phe508del CFTR mutation causes cystic fibrosis by limiting the amount of CFTR protein that reaches the epithelial cell surface. We tested combination treatment with lumacaftor, an investigational CFTR corrector that increases trafficking of phe508del CFTR to the cell surface, and ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator that enhances chloride transport of CFTR on the cell surface. In this phase 2 clinical trial, we assessed three successive cohorts, with the results of each cohort informing dose selection for the subsequent cohort. We recruited patients from 24 cystic fibrosis centres in Australia, Belgium, Germany, New Zealand, and the USA. Eligibility criteria were: confirmed diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, age at least 18 years, and a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 40% or more than predicted. Cohort 1 included phe508del CFTR homozygous patients randomly assigned to either lumacaftor 200 mg once per day for 14 days followed by addition of ivacaftor 150 mg or 250 mg every 12 h for 7 days, or 21 days of placebo. Together, cohorts 2 and 3 included phe508del CFTR homozygous and heterozygous patients, randomly assigned to either 56 days of lumacaftor (cohort 2: 200 mg, 400 mg, or 600 mg once per day, cohort 3: 400 mg every 12 h) with ivacaftor 250 mg every 12 h added after 28 days, or 56 days of placebo. The primary outcomes for all cohorts were change in sweat chloride concentration during the combination treatment period in the intention-to-treat population and safety (laboratory measurements and adverse events). The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01225211, and EudraCT, number 2010-020413-90. Cohort 1 included 64 participants. Cohort 2 and 3 combined contained 96 phe508del CFTR homozygous patients and 28 compound heterozygotes. Treatment with lumacaftor 200 mg once daily and ivacaftor 250 mg every 12 h decreased mean sweat chloride concentration by 9.1 mmol/L (p<0.001) during the combination treatment period in cohort 1. In cohorts 2 and 3

  19. Cross-linking of ΔF508-CFTR promotes its trafficking to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Karen; Kirk, Kevin L

    2010-01-01

    CFTR is a cAMP-activated chloride channel responsible for agonist stimulated chloride and fluid transport across epithelial surfaces.(1) Mutations in the CFTR gene lead to cystic fibrosis (CF) which affects the function of secretory organs like the intestine, the pancreas, the airways and the sweat glands. Most of the morbidity and mortality in CF has been linked to a decrease in airway function.(2) The ΔF508 mutation is the most common CF-related mutation in the Caucasian population and represents 90% of CF alleles. Homozygote carriers of this mutation present with a severe CF phenotype.(3) The ΔF508 mutation causes misfolding of the nascent CFTR polypeptide, which leads to inefficient export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and rapid degradation by the proteasome.

  20. CFTR Expression in Human Neutrophils and the Phagolysosomal Chlorination Defect in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Richard G.; Valentine, Vincent G.; Lanson, Nicholas A.; Leidal, Kevin; Zhang, Qiang; Lombard, Gisele; Thompson, Connie; Viswanathan, Anand; Nauseef, William M.; Wang, Guangdi; Wang, Guoshun

    2010-01-01

    Production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in neutrophils, a critical oxidant involved in bacterial killing, requires chloride anions. Because the primary defect of cystic fibrosis (CF) is the loss of chloride transport function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), we hypothesized that CF neutrophils may be deficient in chlorination of bacterial components due to limited chloride supply to the phagolysosomal compartment. Multiple approaches, including RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, and immunoblotting, were used to demonstrate that CFTR is expressed in resting neutrophils at the mRNA and protein levels. Probing fractions of resting neutrophils isolated by Percoll gradient fractionation and free flow electrophoresis for CFTR revealed its presence exclusively in secretory vesicles. The CFTR chloride channel was also detected in phagolysosomes, a special organelle formed after phagocytosis. Interestingly, HL-60 cells, a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, upregulated CFTR when induced to differentiate into neutrophils with DMSO, strongly suggesting its potential role in mature neutrophil function. Analyses by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that neutrophils from CF patients had a defect in their ability to chlorinate bacterial proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa metabolically pre-labeled with 13C-L-tyrosine, unveiling defective intraphagolysosomal HOCl production. In contrast, both normal and CF neutrophils exhibited normal extracellular production of HOCl when stimulated with phorbol ester, indicating that CF neutrophils had the normal ability to produce this oxidant in the extracellular medium. This report provides the evidence to suggest that CFTR channel expression in neutrophils and its dysfunction affects neutrophil chlorination of phagocytosed bacteria. PMID:16922501

  1. Neutrophil-Mediated Phagocytic Host Defense Defect in Myeloid Cftr-Inactivated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Hang Pong; Zhou, Yun; Song, Kejing; Hodges, Craig A.; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Wang, Guoshun

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common and deadly inherited disease, caused by mutations in the CFTR gene that encodes a cAMP-activated chloride channel. One outstanding manifestation of the disease is the persistent bacterial infection and inflammation in the lung, which claims over 90% of CF mortality. It has been debated whether neutrophil-mediated phagocytic innate immunity has any intrinsic defect that contributes to the host lung defense failure. Here we compared phagosomal CFTR targeting, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) production, and microbial killing of the neutrophils from myeloid Cftr-inactivated (Myeloid-Cftr−/−) mice and the non-inactivated control (Cftrfl10) mice. We found that the mutant CFTR that lacked Exon-10 failed to target to the neutrophil phagosomes. This dysfunction resulted in impaired intraphagosomal HOCl production and neutrophil microbial killing. In vivo lung infection with a lethal dose of Pseudomonas aeruginosa caused significantly higher mortality in the myeloid CF mice than in the controls. The myeloid-Cftr−/− lungs were deficient in bacterial clearance, and had sustained neutrophilic inflammation and stalled transition from early to late immunity. These manifestations recapitulated the symptoms of human CF lungs. The data altogether suggest that myeloid CFTR expression is critical to normal host lung defense. CFTR dysfunction in neutrophils compromises the phagocytic innate immunity, which may predispose CF lungs to infection. PMID:25184794

  2. Functional Reconstitution and Channel Activity Measurements of Purified Wildtype and Mutant CFTR Protein

    PubMed Central

    Eckford, Paul D. W.; Li, Canhui; Bear, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a unique channel-forming member of the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. The phosphorylation and nucleotide dependent chloride channel activity of CFTR has been frequently studied in whole cell systems and as single channels in excised membrane patches. Many Cystic Fibrosis-causing mutations have been shown to alter this activity. While a small number of purification protocols have been published, a fast reconstitution method that retains channel activity and a suitable method for studying population channel activity in a purified system have been lacking. Here rapid methods are described for purification and functional reconstitution of the full-length CFTR protein into proteoliposomes of defined lipid composition that retains activity as a regulated halide channel. This reconstitution method together with a novel flux-based assay of channel activity is a suitable system for studying the population channel properties of wild type CFTR and the disease-causing mutants F508del- and G551D-CFTR. Specifically, the method has utility in studying the direct effects of phosphorylation, nucleotides and small molecules such as potentiators and inhibitors on CFTR channel activity. The methods are also amenable to the study of other membrane channels/transporters for anionic substrates. PMID:25867140

  3. Mechanisms of CFTR Functional Variants That Impair Regulated Bicarbonate Permeation and Increase Risk for Pancreatitis but Not for Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michele D.; Park, Hyun Woo; Brand, Randall E.; Gelrud, Andres; Anderson, Michelle A.; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin; Lawrence, Christopher; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Baillie, John; Alkaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory; Gardner, Timothy B.; Amann, Stephen T.; Slivka, Adam; Sandhu, Bimaljit; Aloe, Amy; Kienholz, Michelle L.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Barmada, M. Michael; Bahar, Ivet; Lee, Min Goo; Whitcomb, David C.

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD) affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens) but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a) screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b) conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c) computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d) tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N) not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002). Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005) and male infertility (OR 395, p<<0.0001). WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in CFTR

  4. Mechanisms of CFTR functional variants that impair regulated bicarbonate permeation and increase risk for pancreatitis but not for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    LaRusch, Jessica; Jung, Jinsei; General, Ignacio J; Lewis, Michele D; Park, Hyun Woo; Brand, Randall E; Gelrud, Andres; Anderson, Michelle A; Banks, Peter A; Conwell, Darwin; Lawrence, Christopher; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Baillie, John; Alkaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory; Gardner, Timothy B; Amann, Stephen T; Slivka, Adam; Sandhu, Bimaljit; Aloe, Amy; Kienholz, Michelle L; Yadav, Dhiraj; Barmada, M Michael; Bahar, Ivet; Lee, Min Goo; Whitcomb, David C

    2014-07-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD) affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens) but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a) screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b) conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c) computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d) tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N) not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002). Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005) and male infertility (OR 395, p<0.0001). WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in CFTR

  5. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Collaco, Joseph M; Blackman, Scott M; Raraigh, Karen S; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M; Pace, Rhonda G; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R; Strug, Lisa J; Knowles, Michael R; Cutting, Garry R

    2016-12-01

    Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H 2  = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0-0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker for assessing response to therapies directed at mutant CFTR.

  6. Correctors and Potentiators Rescue Function of the Truncated W1282X-Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) Translation Product*♦

    PubMed Central

    Haggie, Peter M.; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Tan, Joseph-Anthony; Xu, Haijin; Avramescu, Radu G.; Perdomo, Doranda; Zlock, Lorna; Nielson, Dennis W.; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Lukacs, Gergely L.; Verkman, Alan S.

    2017-01-01

    W1282X is the fifth most common cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutation that causes cystic fibrosis. Here, we investigated the utility of a small molecule corrector/potentiator strategy, as used for ΔF508-CFTR, to produce functional rescue of the truncated translation product of the W1282X mutation, CFTR1281, without the need for read-through. In transfected cell systems, certain potentiators and correctors, including VX-809 and VX-770, increased CFTR1281 activity. To identify novel correctors and potentiators with potentially greater efficacy on CFTR1281, functional screens were done of ∼30,000 synthetic small molecules and drugs/nutraceuticals in CFTR1281-transfected cells. Corrector scaffolds of 1-arylpyrazole-4-arylsulfonyl-piperazine and spiro-piperidine-quinazolinone classes were identified with up to ∼5-fold greater efficacy than VX-809, some of which were selective for CFTR1281, whereas others also corrected ΔF508-CFTR. Several novel potentiator scaffolds were identified with efficacy comparable with VX-770; remarkably, a phenylsulfonamide-pyrrolopyridine acted synergistically with VX-770 to increase CFTR1281 function ∼8-fold over that of VX-770 alone, normalizing CFTR1281 channel activity to that of wild type CFTR. Corrector and potentiator combinations were tested in primary cultures and conditionally reprogrammed cells generated from nasal brushings from one W1282X homozygous subject. Although robust chloride conductance was seen with correctors and potentiators in homozygous ΔF508 cells, increased chloride conductance was not found in W1282X cells despite the presence of adequate transcript levels. Notwithstanding the negative data in W1282X cells from one human subject, we speculate that corrector and potentiator combinations may have therapeutic efficacy in cystic fibrosis caused by the W1282X mutation, although additional studies are needed on human cells from W1282X subjects. PMID:27895116

  7. CFTR and Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) contribute to cAMP amplified exocytosis and insulin secretion in human and murine pancreatic beta-cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene lead to the disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Although patients with CF often have disturbances in glucose metabolism including impaired insulin release, no previous studies have tested the hypothesis that CFTR has a biological function in pancreatic beta-cells. Methods Experiments were performed on islets and single beta-cells from human donors and NMRI-mice. Detection of CFTR was investigated using PCR and confocal microscopy. Effects on insulin secretion were measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA). The patch-clamp technique was used to measure ion channel currents and calcium-dependent exocytosis (as changes in membrane capacitance) on single cells with high temporal resolution. Analysis of ultrastructure was done on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Results We detected the presence of CFTR and measured a small CFTR conductance in both human and mouse beta-cells. The augmentation of insulin secretion at 16.7 mM glucose by activation of CFTR by cAMP (forskolin (FSK) or GLP-1) was significantly inhibited when CFTR antagonists (GlyH-101 and/or CFTRinh-172) were added. Likewise, capacitance measurements demonstrated reduced cAMP-dependent exocytosis upon CFTR-inhibition, concomitant with a decreased number of docked insulin granules. Finally, our studies demonstrate that CFTR act upstream of the chloride channel Anoctamin 1 (ANO1; TMEM16A) in the regulation of cAMP- and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusion Our work demonstrates a novel function for CFTR as a regulator of pancreatic beta-cell insulin secretion and exocytosis, and put forward a role for CFTR as regulator of ANO1 and downstream priming of insulin granules prior to fusion and release of insulin. The pronounced regulatory effect of CFTR on insulin secretion is consistent with impaired insulin secretion in patients with CF. PMID:24885604

  8. Acute administration of ivacaftor to people with cystic fibrosis and a G551D-CFTR mutation reveals smooth muscle abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Ryan J.; Hisert, Katherine B.; Dodd, Jonathan D.; Grogan, Brenda; Launspach, Janice L.; Barnes, Janel K.; Gallagher, Charles G.; Sieren, Jered P.; Gross, Thomas J.; Fischer, Anthony J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Welsh, Michael J.; McKone, Edward F.; Stoltz, David A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Airflow obstruction is common in cystic fibrosis (CF), yet the underlying pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. People with CF often exhibit airway hyperresponsiveness, CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is present in airway smooth muscle (ASM), and ASM from newborn CF pigs has increased contractile tone, suggesting that loss of CFTR causes a primary defect in ASM function. We hypothesized that restoring CFTR activity would decrease smooth muscle tone in people with CF. METHODS. To increase or potentiate CFTR function, we administered ivacaftor to 12 adults with CF with the G551D-CFTR mutation; ivacaftor stimulates G551D-CFTR function. We studied people before and immediately after initiation of ivacaftor (48 hours) to minimize secondary consequences of CFTR restoration. We tested smooth muscle function by investigating spirometry, airway distensibility, and vascular tone. RESULTS. Ivacaftor rapidly restored CFTR function, indicated by reduced sweat chloride concentration. Airflow obstruction and air trapping also improved. Airway distensibility increased in airways less than 4.5 mm but not in larger-sized airways. To assess smooth muscle function in a tissue outside the lung, we measured vascular pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index, which both decreased following CFTR potentiation. Finally, change in distensibility of <4.5-mm airways correlated with changes in PWV. CONCLUSIONS. Acute CFTR potentiation provided a unique opportunity to investigate CFTR-dependent mechanisms of CF pathogenesis. The rapid effects of ivacaftor on airway distensibility and vascular tone suggest that CFTR dysfunction may directly cause increased smooth muscle tone in people with CF and that ivacaftor may relax smooth muscle. FUNDING. This work was funded in part from an unrestricted grant from the Vertex Investigator-Initiated Studies Program. PMID:27158673

  9. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel blockers: Pharmacological, biophysical and physiological relevance.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, Paul

    2014-02-26

    Dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel causes cystic fibrosis, while inappropriate activity of this channel occurs in secretory diarrhea and polycystic kidney disease. Drugs that interact directly with CFTR are therefore of interest in the treatment of a number of disease states. This review focuses on one class of small molecules that interacts directly with CFTR, namely inhibitors that act by directly blocking chloride movement through the open channel pore. In theory such compounds could be of use in the treatment of diarrhea and polycystic kidney disease, however in practice all known substances acting by this mechanism to inhibit CFTR function lack either the potency or specificity for in vivo use. Nevertheless, this theoretical pharmacological usefulness set the scene for the development of more potent, specific CFTR inhibitors. Biophysically, open channel blockers have proven most useful as experimental probes of the structure and function of the CFTR chloride channel pore. Most importantly, the use of these blockers has been fundamental in developing a functional model of the pore that includes a wide inner vestibule that uses positively charged amino acid side chains to attract both permeant and blocking anions from the cell cytoplasm. CFTR channels are also subject to this kind of blocking action by endogenous anions present in the cell cytoplasm, and recently this blocking effect has been suggested to play a role in the physiological control of CFTR channel function, in particular as a novel mechanism linking CFTR function dynamically to the composition of epithelial cell secretions. It has also been suggested that future drugs could target this same pathway as a way of pharmacologically increasing CFTR activity in cystic fibrosis. Studying open channel blockers and their mechanisms of action has resulted in significant advances in our understanding of CFTR as a pharmacological target in disease

  10. Crystallographic and single-particle analyses of native- and nucleotide-bound forms of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein.

    PubMed

    Awayn, N H; Rosenberg, M F; Kamis, A B; Aleksandrov, L A; Riordan, J R; Ford, R C

    2005-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis, one of the major human inherited diseases, is caused by defects in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), a cell-membrane protein. CFTR acts as a chloride channel which can be opened by ATP. Low-resolution structural studies of purified recombinant human CFTR are described in the present paper. Localization of the C-terminal decahistidine tag in CFTR was achieved by Ni2+-nitriloacetate nanogold labelling, followed by electron microscopy and single-particle analysis. The presence of the gold label appears to improve the single-particle-alignment procedure. Projection structures of CFTR from two-dimensional crystals analysed by electron crystallography displayed two alternative conformational states in the presence of nucleotide and nanogold, but only one form of the protein was observed in the quiescent (nucleotide-free) state.

  11. MAST205 Competes with Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-associated Ligand for Binding to CFTR to Regulate CFTR-mediated Fluid Transport*

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Aixia; Zhang, Weiqiang; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Sinha, Chandrima; Arora, Kavisha; Moon, Chang-Suk; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.

    2013-01-01

    The PDZ (postsynaptic density-95/discs large/zona occludens-1) domain-based interactions play important roles in regulating the expression and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Several PDZ domain-containing proteins (PDZ proteins for short) have been identified as directly or indirectly interacting with the C terminus of CFTR. To better understand the regulation of CFTR processing, we conducted a genetic screen and identified MAST205 (a microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase with a molecular mass of 205 kDa) as a new CFTR regulator. We found that overexpression of MAST205 increased the expression of CFTR and augmented CFTR-mediated fluid transport in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of MAST205 inhibited CFTR function. The PDZ motif of CFTR is required for the regulatory role of MAST205 in CFTR expression and function. We further demonstrated that MAST205 and the CFTR-associated ligand competed for binding to CFTR, which facilitated the processing of CFTR and consequently up-regulated the expression and function of CFTR at the plasma membrane. More importantly, we found that MAST205 could facilitate the processing of F508del-CFTR mutant and augment its quantity and channel function at the plasma membrane. Taken together, our data suggest that MAST205 plays an important role in regulating CFTR expression and function. Our findings have important clinical implications for treating CFTR-associated diseases such as cystic fibrosis and secretory diarrheas. PMID:23504457

  12. MAST205 competes with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-associated ligand for binding to CFTR to regulate CFTR-mediated fluid transport.

    PubMed

    Ren, Aixia; Zhang, Weiqiang; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Sinha, Chandrima; Arora, Kavisha; Moon, Chang-Suk; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2013-04-26

    The PDZ (postsynaptic density-95/discs large/zona occludens-1) domain-based interactions play important roles in regulating the expression and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Several PDZ domain-containing proteins (PDZ proteins for short) have been identified as directly or indirectly interacting with the C terminus of CFTR. To better understand the regulation of CFTR processing, we conducted a genetic screen and identified MAST205 (a microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase with a molecular mass of 205 kDa) as a new CFTR regulator. We found that overexpression of MAST205 increased the expression of CFTR and augmented CFTR-mediated fluid transport in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of MAST205 inhibited CFTR function. The PDZ motif of CFTR is required for the regulatory role of MAST205 in CFTR expression and function. We further demonstrated that MAST205 and the CFTR-associated ligand competed for binding to CFTR, which facilitated the processing of CFTR and consequently up-regulated the expression and function of CFTR at the plasma membrane. More importantly, we found that MAST205 could facilitate the processing of F508del-CFTR mutant and augment its quantity and channel function at the plasma membrane. Taken together, our data suggest that MAST205 plays an important role in regulating CFTR expression and function. Our findings have important clinical implications for treating CFTR-associated diseases such as cystic fibrosis and secretory diarrheas.

  13. Assessment of p.Phe508del-CFTR functional restoration in pediatric primary cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sutanto, Erika N.; Scaffidi, Amelia; Garratt, Luke W.; Looi, Kevin; Foo, Clara J.; Tessari, Michela A.; Janssen, Richard A.; Fischer, David F.; Stick, Stephen M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene can reduce function of the CFTR ion channel activity and impair cellular chloride secretion. The gold standard method to assess CFTR function of ion transport using the Ussing chamber requires a high number of airway epithelial cells grown at air-liquid interface, limiting the application of this method for high throughput screening of potential therapeutic compounds in primary airway epithelial cells (pAECs) featuring less common CFTR mutations. This study assessed an alternative approach, using a small scale halide assay that can be adapted for a personalized high throughput setting to analyze CFTR function of pAEC. Methods Pediatric pAECs derived from children with CF (pAECCF) were established and expanded as monolayer cultures, before seeding into 96-well plates for the halide assay. Cells were then transduced with an adenoviral construct containing yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) reporter gene, alone or in combination with either wild-type CFTR (WT-CFTR) or p.Phe508del CFTR. Four days post transduction, cells were stimulated with forskolin and genistein, and assessed for quenching of the eYFP signal following injection of iodide solution into the assay media. Results Data showed that pAECCF can express eYFP at high efficiency following transduction with the eYFP construct. The halide assay was able to discriminate functional restoration of CFTR in pAECCF treated with either WT-CFTR construct or the positive controls syntaxin 8 and B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 shRNAs. Significance The current study demonstrates that the halide assay can be adapted for pediatric pAECCF to evaluate restoration of CFTR function. With the ongoing development of small molecules to modulate the folding and/or activity of various mutated CFTR proteins, this halide assay presents a small-scale personalized screening platform that could assess therapeutic potential of molecules across a broad

  14. Annexin V is directly involved in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator's chloride channel function.

    PubMed

    Trouvé, Pascal; Le Drévo, Marie-Anne; Kerbiriou, Mathieu; Friocourt, Gaëlle; Fichou, Yann; Gillet, Danièle; Férec, Claude

    2007-10-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions as a cAMP-activated chloride channel, which is regulated by protein-protein interactions. The extent to which CFTR is regulated by these interactions remains unknown. Annexin V is overexpressed in cystic fibrosis (CF), and given the functional properties of annexin V and CFTR we considered whether they are associated and if so whether this has implications for CFTR function. Using co-immunoprecipitation and overlay experiments, we show that annexin V is associated with nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1) of CFTR. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) indicated different KD values in the absence and presence of both calcium and ATP, suggesting that this interaction is calcium- and ATP-dependent. Using an siRNA approach and overexpression, we showed that CFTR chloride channel function and its localization in the cell membranes were dependent on annexin V expression. We concluded that annexin V is necessary for normal CFTR chloride channel activity. Furthermore, we show that CFTR and annexin V are partially co-distributed in normal epithelial cells in human bronchi. In conclusion, we show for the first time that annexin V is associated with CFTR and is involved in its function.

  15. Potentiators of Defective ΔF508-CFTR Gating that Do Not Interfere with Corrector Action.

    PubMed

    Phuan, Puay-Wah; Veit, Guido; Tan, Joseph A; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Lukacs, Gergely L; Verkman, A S

    2015-10-01

    Combination drug therapies under development for cystic fibrosis caused by the ∆F508 mutation in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) include a "corrector" to improve its cellular processing and a "potentiator" to improve its chloride channel function. Recently, it was reported that the approved potentiator N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (Ivacaftor) reduces ∆F508-CFTR cellular stability and the efficacy of investigational correctors, including 3-(6-[([1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropyl]carbonyl) amino]-3-methyl-2-pyridinyl)-benzoic acid and 1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-(1-[(2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl]-6-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxy-1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-indol-5-yl), which might contribute to the modest reported efficacy of combination therapy in clinical trials. Here, we report the identification and characterization of potentiators that do not interfere with ∆F508-CFTR stability or corrector action. High-throughput screening and structure-activity analysis identified several classes of potentiators that do not impair corrector action, including tetrahydrobenzothiophenes, thiooxoaminothiazoles, and pyrazole-pyrrole-isoxazoles. The most potent compounds have an EC(50) for ∆F508-CFTR potentiation down to 18 nM and do not reduce corrector efficacy in heterologous ∆F508-CFTR-expressing cells or primary cultures of ∆F508/∆F508 human bronchial epithelia. The ΔF508-CFTR potentiators also activated wild-type and G551D CFTR, albeit weakly. The efficacy of combination therapy for cystic fibrosis caused by the ∆F508 mutation may be improved by replacement of Ivacaftor with a potentiator that does not interfere with corrector action. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. A novel treatment of cystic fibrosis acting on-target: cysteamine plus epigallocatechin gallate for the autophagy-dependent rescue of class II-mutated CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Tosco, A; De Gregorio, F; Esposito, S; De Stefano, D; Sana, I; Ferrari, E; Sepe, A; Salvadori, L; Buonpensiero, P; Di Pasqua, A; Grassia, R; Leone, C A; Guido, S; De Rosa, G; Lusa, S; Bona, G; Stoll, G; Maiuri, M C; Mehta, A; Kroemer, G; Maiuri, L; Raia, V

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that the combination of two safe proteostasis regulators, cysteamine and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), can be used to improve deficient expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in patients homozygous for the CFTR Phe508del mutation. Here we provide the proof-of-concept that this combination treatment restored CFTR function and reduced lung inflammation (P<0.001) in Phe508del/Phe508del or Phe508del/null-Cftr (but not in Cftr-null mice), provided that such mice were autophagy-competent. Primary nasal cells from patients bearing different class II CFTR mutations, either in homozygous or compound heterozygous form, responded to the treatment in vitro. We assessed individual responses to cysteamine plus EGCG in a single-centre, open-label phase-2 trial. The combination treatment decreased sweat chloride from baseline, increased both CFTR protein and function in nasal cells, restored autophagy in such cells, decreased CXCL8 and TNF-α in the sputum, and tended to improve respiratory function. These positive effects were particularly strong in patients carrying Phe508del CFTR mutations in homozygosity or heterozygosity. However, a fraction of patients bearing other CFTR mutations failed to respond to therapy. Importantly, the same patients whose primary nasal brushed cells did not respond to cysteamine plus EGCG in vitro also exhibited deficient therapeutic responses in vivo. Altogether, these results suggest that the combination treatment of cysteamine plus EGCG acts ‘on-target' because it can only rescue CFTR function when autophagy is functional (in mice) and improves CFTR function when a rescuable protein is expressed (in mice and men). These results should spur the further clinical development of the combination treatment. PMID:27035618

  17. Ouabain Mimics Low Temperature Rescue of F508del-CFTR in Cystic Fibrosis Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Donglei; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Anjos, Suzana M.; Carissimo, Annamaria; Liao, Jie; Carlile, Graeme W.; Balghi, Haouaria; Robert, Renaud; Luini, Alberto; Hanrahan, John W.; Thomas, David Y.

    2012-01-01

    Most cases of cystic fibrosis (CF) are caused by the deletion of a single phenylalanine residue at position 508 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The mutant F508del-CFTR is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded, but can be induced by low temperature incubation (29°C) to traffic to the plasma membrane where it functions as a chloride channel. Here we show that, cardiac glycosides, at nanomolar concentrations, can partially correct the trafficking of F508del-CFTR in human CF bronchial epithelial cells (CFBE41o-) and in an F508del-CFTR mouse model. Comparison of the transcriptional profiles obtained with polarized CFBE41o-cells after treatment with ouabain and by low temperature has revealed a striking similarity between the two corrector treatments that is not shared with other correctors. In summary, our study shows a novel function of ouabain and its analogs in the regulation of F508del-CFTR trafficking and suggests that compounds that mimic this low temperature correction of trafficking will provide new avenues for the development of therapeutics for CF. PMID:23060796

  18. Pharmacological analysis of epithelial chloride secretion mechanisms in adult murine airways.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Ambra; Ferrera, Loretta; Philp, Amber R; Caci, Emanuela; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Galietta, Luis J V; Flores, Carlos A

    2016-06-15

    Defective epithelial chloride secretion occurs in humans with cystic fibrosis (CF), a genetic defect due to loss of function of CFTR, a cAMP-activated chloride channel. In the airways, absence of an active CFTR causes a severe lung disease. In mice, genetic ablation of CFTR function does not result in similar lung pathology. This may be due to the expression of an alternative chloride channel which is activated by calcium. The most probable protein performing this function is TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). Our aim was to assess the relative contribution of CFTR and TMEM16A to chloride secretion in adult mouse trachea. For this purpose we tested pharmacological inhibitors of chloride channels in normal and CF mice. The amplitude of the cAMP-activated current was similar in both types of animals and was not affected by a selective CFTR inhibitor. In contrast, a CaCC inhibitor (CaCCinh-A01) strongly blocked the cAMP-activated current as well as the calcium-activated chloride secretion triggered by apical UTP. Although control experiments revealed that CaCCinh-A01 also shows inhibitory activity on CFTR, our results indicate that transepithelial chloride secretion in adult mouse trachea is independent of CFTR and that another channel, possibly TMEM16A, performs both cAMP- and calcium-activated chloride transport. The prevalent function of a non-CFTR channel may explain the absence of a defect in chloride transport in CF mice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. CFTR and cationic trypsinogen mutations in idiopathic pancreatitis and neonatal hypertrypsinemia.

    PubMed

    Gomez Lira, M; Patuzzo, C; Castellani, C; Bovo, P; Cavallini, G; Mastella, G; Pignatti, P F

    2001-01-01

    The CFTR gene has been shown to be involved in sporadic idiopathic pancreatitis (IP) and neonatal hypertrypsinemia with normal sweat chloride test (NHNST). The cationic trypsinogen gene (Try4) is responsible for hereditary pancreatitis. The aim of the present study was to find a correlation between mutations in the two genes and the two phenotypes. Analysis of some known gene mutations and complete gene screening by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing were undertaken. Thirty-two sporadic IP patients were investigated for the CFTR study, while 13 sporadic IP patients plus 4 hereditary pancreatitis families (24 tested individuals) were examined for the Try4 study. Fifty neonates with NHNST were investigated for the study of both genes. CFTR mutations were more frequently observed in sporadic IP cases with a common cystic fibrosis mutation or borderline sweat chloride than in cases with a negative sweat test. Try4 mutations were found in 1 out of the 13 sporadic IP cases tested. The CFTR gene may be involved in IP and NHNST, while the Try4 gene may be involved in IP, but not in NHNST, in this limited series of observations.

  20. Thymosin α-1 does not correct F508del-CFTR in cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Tomati, Valeria; Caci, Emanuela; Ferrera, Loretta; Pesce, Emanuela; Sondo, Elvira; Cholon, Deborah M; Quinney, Nancy L; Boyles, Susan E; Armirotti, Andrea; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Galietta, Luis Jv; Gentzsch, Martina; Pedemonte, Nicoletta

    2018-02-08

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), deletion of phenylalanine 508 (F508del) in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel causes misfolding and premature degradation. Considering the numerous effects of the F508del mutation on the assembly and processing of CFTR protein, combination therapy with several pharmacological correctors is likely to be required to treat CF patients. Recently, it has been reported that thymosin α-1 (Tα-1) has multiple beneficial effects that could lead to a single-molecule-based therapy for CF patients with F508del. Such effects include suppression of inflammation, improvement in F508del-CFTR maturation and gating, and stimulation of chloride secretion through the calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). Given the importance of such a drug, we aimed to characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms of action of Tα-1. In-depth analysis of Tα-1 effects was performed using well-established microfluorimetric, biochemical, and electrophysiological techniques on epithelial cell lines and primary bronchial epithelial cells from CF patients. The studies, which were conducted in 2 independent laboratories with identical outcome, demonstrated that Tα-1 is devoid of activity on mutant CFTR as well as on CaCC. Although Tα-1 may still be useful as an antiinflammatory agent, its ability to target defective anion transport in CF remains to be further investigated.

  1. Thymosin α-1 does not correct F508del-CFTR in cystic fibrosis airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Tomati, Valeria; Caci, Emanuela; Ferrera, Loretta; Pesce, Emanuela; Sondo, Elvira; Cholon, Deborah M.; Quinney, Nancy L.; Boyles, Susan E.; Armirotti, Andrea; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Galietta, Luis J.V.; Gentzsch, Martina

    2018-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), deletion of phenylalanine 508 (F508del) in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel causes misfolding and premature degradation. Considering the numerous effects of the F508del mutation on the assembly and processing of CFTR protein, combination therapy with several pharmacological correctors is likely to be required to treat CF patients. Recently, it has been reported that thymosin α-1 (Tα-1) has multiple beneficial effects that could lead to a single-molecule-based therapy for CF patients with F508del. Such effects include suppression of inflammation, improvement in F508del-CFTR maturation and gating, and stimulation of chloride secretion through the calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). Given the importance of such a drug, we aimed to characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms of action of Tα-1. In-depth analysis of Tα-1 effects was performed using well-established microfluorimetric, biochemical, and electrophysiological techniques on epithelial cell lines and primary bronchial epithelial cells from CF patients. The studies, which were conducted in 2 independent laboratories with identical outcome, demonstrated that Tα-1 is devoid of activity on mutant CFTR as well as on CaCC. Although Tα-1 may still be useful as an antiinflammatory agent, its ability to target defective anion transport in CF remains to be further investigated. PMID:29415893

  2. CFTR Folding Consortium: methods available for studies of CFTR folding and correction.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kathryn W; Okiyoneda, Tsukasa; Balch, William E; Braakman, Ineke; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Guggino, William B; Penland, Christopher M; Pollard, Harvey B; Sorscher, Eric J; Skach, William R; Thomas, Philip J; Lukacs, Gergely L; Frizzell, Raymond A

    2011-01-01

    The CFTR Folding Consortium (CFC) was formed in 2004 under the auspices of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and its drug discovery and development affiliate, CFF Therapeutics. A primary goal of the CFC is the development and distribution of reagents and assay methods designed to better understand the mechanistic basis of mutant CFTR misfolding and to identify targets whose manipulation may correct CFTR folding defects. As such, reagents available from the CFC primarily target wild-type CFTR NBD1 and its common variant, F508del, and they include antibodies, cell lines, constructs, and proteins. These reagents are summarized here, and two protocols are described for the detection of cell surface CFTR: (a) an assay of the density of expressed HA-tagged CFTR by ELISA and (b) the generation and use of an antibody to CFTR's first extracellular loop for the detection of endogenous CFTR. Finally, we highlight a systematic collection of assays, the CFC Roadmap, which is being used to assess the cellular locus and mechanism of mutant CFTR correction. The Roadmap queries CFTR structure-function relations at levels ranging from purified protein to well-differentiated human airway primary cultures.

  3. Glucocorticoids Distinctively Modulate the CFTR Channel with Possible Implications in Lung Development and Transition into Extrauterine Life.

    PubMed

    Laube, Mandy; Bossmann, Miriam; Thome, Ulrich H

    2015-01-01

    During fetal development, the lung is filled with fluid that is secreted by an active Cl- transport promoting lung growth. The basolateral Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1) participates in Cl- secretion. The apical Cl- channels responsible for secretion are unknown but studies suggest an involvement of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). CFTR is developmentally regulated with a high expression in early fetal development and a decline in late gestation. Perinatal lung transition is triggered by hormones that stimulate alveolar Na+ channels resulting in fluid absorption. Little is known on how hormones affect pulmonary Cl- channels. Since the rise of fetal cortisol levels correlates with the decrease in fetal CFTR expression, a causal relation may be assumed. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of glucocorticoids on pulmonary Cl- channels. Alveolar cells from fetal and adult rats, A549 cells, bronchial Calu-3 and 16HBE14o- cells, and primary rat airway cells were studied with real-time quantitative PCR and Ussing chambers. In fetal and adult alveolar cells, glucocorticoids strongly reduced Cftr expression and channel activity, which was prevented by mifepristone. In bronchial and primary airway cells CFTR mRNA expression was also reduced, whereas channel activity was increased which was prevented by LY-294002 in Calu-3 cells. Therefore, glucocorticoids strongly reduce CFTR expression while their effect on CFTR activity depends on the physiological function of the cells. Another apical Cl- channel, anoctamin 1 showed a glucocorticoid-induced reduction of mRNA expression in alveolar cells and an increase in bronchial cells. Furthermore, voltage-gated chloride channel 5 and anoctamine 6 mRNA expression were increased in alveolar cells. NKCC1 expression was reduced by glucocorticoids in alveolar and bronchial cells alike. The results demonstrate that glucocorticoids differentially modulate pulmonary Cl- channels and are likely

  4. Correction of F508del CFTR in airway epithelium using nanoparticles delivering triplex-forming PNAs

    PubMed Central

    McNeer, Nicole Ali; Anandalingam, Kavitha; Fields, Rachel J.; Caputo, Christina; Kopic, Sascha; Gupta, Anisha; Quijano, Elias; Polikoff, Lee; Kong, Yong; Bahal, Raman; Geibel, John P; Glazer, Peter M.; Saltzman, W. Mark; Egan, Marie E.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal genetic disorder most commonly caused by the F508del mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. It is not readily amenable to gene therapy because of its systemic nature and challenges including in vivo gene delivery and transient gene expression. Here, we use triplex-forming PNA molecules and donor DNA in biodegradable polymer nanoparticles to correct F508del. We confirm modification with sequencing and a functional chloride efflux assay. In vitro correction of chloride efflux occurs in up to 25% of human cells. Deep sequencing reveals negligible off-target effects in partially homologous sites. Intranasal application of nanoparticles in CF mice produces changes in nasal epithelium potential differences consistent with corrected CFTR, with gene correction also detected in lung tissue. This work represents facile genome engineering in vivo with oligonucleotides using a nanoparticle system to achieve clinically relevant levels of gene editing without off-target effects. PMID:25914116

  5. CFTR Folding Consortium: Methods Available for Studies of CFTR Folding and Correction

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Kathryn W.; Okiyoneda, Tsukasa; Balch, William E.; Braakman, Ineke; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.; Guggino, William B.; Penland, Christopher M.; Pollard, Harvey B.; Sorscher, Eric J.; Skach, William R.; Thomas, Philip J.; Lukacs, Gergely L.; Frizzell, Raymond A.

    2012-01-01

    The CFTR Folding Consortium (CFC) was formed in 2004 under the auspices of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and its drug discovery and development affiliate, CFF Therapeutics. A primary goal of the CFC is the development and distribution of reagents and assay methods designed to better understand the mechanistic basis of mutant CFTR misfolding and to identify targets whose manipulation may correct CFTR folding defects. As such, reagents available from the CFC primarily target wild-type CFTR NBD1 and its common variant, F508del, and they include antibodies, cell lines, constructs, and proteins. These reagents are summarized here, and two protocols are described for the detection of cell surface CFTR: (a) an assay of the density of expressed HA-tagged CFTR by ELISA and (b) the generation and use of an antibody to CFTR’s first extracellular loop for the detection of endogenous CFTR. Finally, we highlight a systematic collection of assays, the CFC Roadmap, which is being used to assess the cellular locus and mechanism of mutant CFTR correction. The Roadmap queries CFTR structure–function relations at levels ranging from purified protein to well-differentiated human airway primary cultures. PMID:21547742

  6. Development of rAAV2-CFTR: History of the First rAAV Vector Product to be Used in Humans.

    PubMed

    Loring, Heather S; ElMallah, Mai K; Flotte, Terence R

    2016-04-01

    The first human gene therapy trials using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors were performed in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Over 100 CF patients were enrolled in 5 separate trials of rAAV2-CFTR administration via nasal, endobronchial, maxillary sinus, and aerosol delivery. Recombinant AAV vectors were designed to deliver the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene and correct the basic CFTR defect by restoring chloride transport and reverting the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. However, vector DNA expression was limited in duration because of the low incidence of integration and natural airway epithelium turnover. In addition, repeated administration of AAV-CFTR vector resulted in a humoral immune response that prevented effective gene transfer from subsequent doses of vector. AAV serotype 2 was used in human trials before the comparison with other serotypes and determination that serotypes 1 and 5 not only possess higher tropism for the airway epithelium, but also are capable of bypassing the binding and trafficking processes-both were important hindrances to the effectiveness of rAAV2. Although rAAV-CFTR gene therapy does not appear likely to supplant newer small-molecule CFTR modulators in the near future, early work with rAAV-CFTR provided an important foundation for later use of rAAV in humans.

  7. Development of rAAV2-CFTR: History of the First rAAV Vector Product to be Used in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Loring, Heather S.; ElMallah, Mai K.; Flotte, Terence R.

    2016-01-01

    The first human gene therapy trials using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors were performed in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Over 100 CF patients were enrolled in 5 separate trials of rAAV2-CFTR administration via nasal, endobronchial, maxillary sinus, and aerosol delivery. Recombinant AAV vectors were designed to deliver the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene and correct the basic CFTR defect by restoring chloride transport and reverting the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. However, vector DNA expression was limited in duration because of the low incidence of integration and natural airway epithelium turnover. In addition, repeated administration of AAV-CFTR vector resulted in a humoral immune response that prevented effective gene transfer from subsequent doses of vector. AAV serotype 2 was used in human trials before the comparison with other serotypes and determination that serotypes 1 and 5 not only possess higher tropism for the airway epithelium, but also are capable of bypassing the binding and trafficking processes—both were important hindrances to the effectiveness of rAAV2. Although rAAV-CFTR gene therapy does not appear likely to supplant newer small-molecule CFTR modulators in the near future, early work with rAAV-CFTR provided an important foundation for later use of rAAV in humans. PMID:26895204

  8. Molecular modelling and molecular dynamics of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Callebaut, Isabelle; Hoffmann, Brice; Lehn, Pierre; Mornon, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as an ATP-gated channel. Considerable progress has been made over the last years in the understanding of the molecular basis of the CFTR functions, as well as dysfunctions causing the common genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). This review provides a global overview of the theoretical studies that have been performed so far, especially molecular modelling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A special emphasis is placed on the CFTR-specific evolution of an ABC transporter framework towards a channel function, as well as on the understanding of the effects of disease-causing mutations and their specific modulation. This in silico work should help structure-based drug discovery and design, with a view to develop CFTR-specific pharmacotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of CF in the context of precision medicine.

  9. Gastrointestinal Pathology in Juvenile and Adult CFTR-Knockout Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingshen; Olivier, Alicia K.; Yi, Yaling; Pope, Christopher E.; Hayden, Hillary S.; Liang, Bo; Sui, Hongshu; Zhou, Weihong; Hager, Kyle R.; Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Xiaoming; Yan, Ziying; Fisher, John T.; Keiser, Nicholas W.; Song, Yi; Tyler, Scott R.; Goeken, J. Adam; Kinyon, Joann M.; Radey, Matthew C.; Fligg, Danielle; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Weiliang; Lynch, Thomas J.; Kaminsky, Paul M.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Miller, Samuel I.; Parekh, Kalpaj; Meyerholz, David K.; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Frana, Timothy; Stewart, Zoe A.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multiorgan disease caused by loss of a functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel in many epithelia of the body. Here we report the pathology observed in the gastrointestinal organs of juvenile to adult CFTR-knockout ferrets. CF gastrointestinal manifestations included gastric ulceration, intestinal bacterial overgrowth with villous atrophy, and rectal prolapse. Metagenomic phylogenetic analysis of fecal microbiota by deep sequencing revealed considerable genotype-independent microbial diversity between animals, with the majority of taxa overlapping between CF and non-CF pairs. CF hepatic manifestations were variable, but included steatosis, necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and biliary fibrosis. Gallbladder cystic mucosal hyperplasia was commonly found in 67% of CF animals. The majority of CF animals (85%) had pancreatic abnormalities, including extensive fibrosis, loss of exocrine pancreas, and islet disorganization. Interestingly, 2 of 13 CF animals retained predominantly normal pancreatic histology (84% to 94%) at time of death. Fecal elastase-1 levels from these CF animals were similar to non-CF controls, whereas all other CF animals evaluated were pancreatic insufficient (<2 μg elastase-1 per gram of feces). These findings suggest that genetic factors likely influence the extent of exocrine pancreas disease in CF ferrets and have implications for the etiology of pancreatic sufficiency in CF patients. In summary, these studies demonstrate that the CF ferret model develops gastrointestinal pathology similar to CF patients. PMID:24637292

  10. CFTR and sphingolipids mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Tabeling, Christoph; Yu, Hanpo; Wang, Liming; Ranke, Hannes; Goldenberg, Neil M.; Zabini, Diana; Noe, Elena; Krauszman, Adrienn; Gutbier, Birgitt; Yin, Jun; Schaefer, Michael; Arenz, Christoph; Hocke, Andreas C.; Suttorp, Norbert; Proia, Richard L.; Witzenrath, Martin; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching in regional hypoxia, but promotes pulmonary hypertension in global hypoxia. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch is a major cause of hypoxemia in cystic fibrosis. We hypothesized that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) may be critical in HPV, potentially by modulating the response to sphingolipids as mediators of HPV. HPV and ventilation-perfusion mismatch were analyzed in isolated mouse lungs or in vivo. Ca2+ mobilization and transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) translocation were studied in human pulmonary (PASMCs) or coronary (CASMCs) artery smooth muscle cells. CFTR inhibition or deficiency diminished HPV and aggravated ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In PASMCs, hypoxia caused CFTR to interact with TRPC6, whereas CFTR inhibition attenuated hypoxia-induced TRPC6 translocation to caveolae and Ca2+ mobilization. Ca2+ mobilization by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was also attenuated by CFTR inhibition in PASMCs, but amplified in CASMCs. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) blocked HPV, whereas exogenous nSMase caused TRPC6 translocation and vasoconstriction that were blocked by CFTR inhibition. nSMase- and hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction, yet not TRPC6 translocation, were blocked by inhibition or deficiency of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) or antagonism of S1P receptors 2 and 4 (S1P2/4). S1P and nSMase had synergistic effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction that involved TRPC6, phospholipase C, and rho kinase. Our findings demonstrate a central role of CFTR and sphingolipids in HPV. Upon hypoxia, nSMase triggers TRPC6 translocation, which requires its interaction with CFTR. Concomitant SphK1-dependent formation of S1P and activation of S1P2/4 result in phospholipase C-mediated TRPC6 and rho kinase activation, which conjointly trigger vasoconstriction. PMID:25829545

  11. CFTR genotype and clinical outcomes of adult patients carried as cystic fibrosis disease.

    PubMed

    Bonadia, Luciana Cardoso; de Lima Marson, Fernando Augusto; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida; Pereira, Monica Corso; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Bertuzzo, Carmen Silvia

    2014-05-01

    There are nearly 2000 cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutations that cause cystic fibrosis (CF). These mutations are classified into six classes; on the one hand, the first three classes cause severe disease involvement in early childhood, on the other hand, the Class IV, V and VI mutations cause minor severe disease in the same age. Nowadays, with therapeutic advances in CF management and competence of pediatricians, physicians of adults have to deal with two groups of CF patients: (i) adults diagnosed in childhood with severe mutations and (ii) adults who initiated symptoms in adulthood and with Class IV, V and VI mutations. The aim of this study was to analyze adults from a clinical center, treated as CF disease, screening the CFTR genotype and evaluating the clinical characteristics. Thirty patients followed as CF disease at the University Hospital were enrolled. After a complete molecular CFTR negative screening and sweat test levels between 40 and 59mEq/L, five patients were characterized as non-CF disease and were excluded. Molecular screening was performed by CFTR gene sequencing/MLPA or by specific mutation screening. Clinical data was obtained from medical records. The patients were divided into three groups: (1) patients with Class I, II and III mutations in two CFTR alleles; (2) genotype with at least one allele of Class IV, V or VI CFTR mutations and, (3) non-identified CFTR mutation+one patient with one allele with CFTR mutation screened (Class I). There was an association of CFTR class mutation and sodium/chloride concentration in the sweat test (sodium: p=0.040; chloride: p=0.016), onset of digestive symptoms (p=0.012), lung function parameter (SpO2 - p=0.016), Bhalla score (p=0.021), age at diagnosis (p=0.008) and CF-related diabetes (p=0.029). There was an association between Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic colonization (as clinical marker for the lung disease status) and lung impairment (FEV1% - p=0.027; Bhalla score - p=0.021), CF

  12. Structure-activity analysis of a CFTR channel potentiator: Distinct molecular parts underlie dual gating effects.

    PubMed

    Csanády, László; Töröcsik, Beáta

    2014-10-01

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily that functions as an epithelial chloride channel. Gating of the CFTR ion conduction pore involves a conserved irreversible cyclic mechanism driven by ATP binding and hydrolysis at two cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs): formation of an intramolecular NBD dimer that occludes two ATP molecules opens the pore, whereas dimer disruption after ATP hydrolysis closes it. CFTR dysfunction resulting from inherited mutations causes CF. The most common CF mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508), impairs both protein folding and processing and channel gating. Development of ΔF508 CFTR correctors (to increase cell surface expression) and potentiators (to enhance open probability, Po) is therefore a key focus of CF research. The practical utility of 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoate (NPPB), one of the most efficacious potentiators of ΔF508 CFTR identified to date, is limited by its pore-blocking side effect. NPPB-mediated stimulation of Po is unique in that it involves modulation of gating transition state stability. Although stabilization by NPPB of the transition state for pore opening enhances both the rate of channel opening and the very slow rate of nonhydrolytic closure, because of CFTR's cyclic gating mechanism, the net effect is Po stimulation. In addition, slowing of ATP hydrolysis by NPPB delays pore closure, further enhancing Po. Here we show that NPPB stimulates gating at a site outside the pore and that these individual actions of NPPB on CFTR are fully attributable to one or the other of its two complementary molecular parts, 3-nitrobenzoate (3NB) and 3-phenylpropylamine (3PP), both of which stimulate Po: the pore-blocking 3NB selectively stabilizes the transition state for opening, whereas the nonblocking 3PP selectively slows the ATP hydrolysis step. Understanding structure-activity relationships of NPPB

  13. Clinical practice and genetic counseling for cystic fibrosis and CFTR-related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, Samuel M.; Chmiel, James F.; Sternen, Darci L.; Cheng, Edith; Gibson, Ronald L; Marshall, Susan G.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-related disorders encompass a disease spectrum from focal male reproductive tract involvement in congenital absence of the vas deferens to multiorgan involvement in classic cystic fibrosis. The reproductive, gastrointestinal, and exocrine manifestations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator deficiency are correlated with CFTR genotype, whereas the respiratory manifestations that are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis are less predictable. Molecular genetic testing of CFTR has led to new diagnostic strategies and will enable targeting of molecular therapies now in development. Older diagnostic methods that measure sweat chloride and nasal potential difference nonetheless remain important because of their sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the measurement of immunoreactive trypsinogen and the genotyping of CFTR alleles are key to newborn screening programs because of low cost. The multiorgan nature of cystic fibrosis leads to a heavy burden of care, thus therapeutic regimens are tailored to the specific manifestations present in each patient. The variability of cystic fibrosis lung disease and the variable expressivity of mild CFTR alleles complicate genetic counseling for this autosomal recessive disorder. Widespread implementation of newborn screening programs among populations with significant cystic fibrosis mutation carrier frequencies is expected to result in increasing demands on genetic counseling resources. PMID:19092437

  14. Combined Bicarbonate Conductance-Impairing Variants in CFTR and SPINK1 Are Associated with Chronic Pancreatitis in Patients without Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Alexander; LaRusch, Jessica; Sun, Xiumei; Aloe, Amy; Lamb, Janette; Hawes, Robert; Cotton, Peter; Brand, Randall E.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Money, Mary E.; Banks, Peter A.; Lewis, Michele D.; Baillie, John; Sherman, Stuart; DiSario, James; Burton, Frank R.; Gardner, Timothy B.; Amann, Stephen T.; Gelrud, Andres; George, Ryan; Kassabian, Sirvart; Martinson, Jeremy; Slivka, Adam; Yadav, Dhiraj; Oruc, Nevin; Barmada, M. Michael; Frizzell, Raymond; Whitcomb, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP) is a complex inflammatory disorder associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors. In individuals without cystic fibrosis (CF), variants of CFTR that inhibit bicarbonate conductance but maintain chloride conductance might selectively impair secretion of pancreatic juice, leading to trypsin activation and pancreatitis. We investigated whether sequence variants in the gene encoding the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, SPINK1, further increase the risk of pancreatitis in these patients. Methods We screened patients with ICP (sporadic or familial) and controls for variants in SPINK1 associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP) risk (in exon 3) and in all 27 exons of CFTR. The final study group included 53 patients with sporadic ICP, 27 probands with familial ICP, and 150 unrelated controls, plus 503 controls for limited genotyping. CFTR wild-type (wt) and p.R75Q were cloned and expressed in HEK293 cells and relative conductances of HCO3− and Cl− were measured. Results SPINK1 variants were identified in 36% of subjects and 3% controls (odds ratio [OR]=16.5). One variant of CFTR that has not been associated with CF, p.R75Q, was found in 16% of subjects and 5.4% controls (OR=3.4). Co-inheritance of CFTR p.R75Q and SPINK1 variants occurred in 8.75% of patients and 0.15% controls (OR=62.5). Patch-clamp recordings of cells that expressed CFTR p.R75Q demonstrated normal chloride currents but significantly reduced bicarbonate currents (P=0.0001). Conclusions The CFTR variant p.R75Q causes a selective defect in bicarbonate conductance and increases risk for pancreatitis. Co-inheritance of CF-associated, and some not associated, CFTR variants with SPINK1 variants significantly increase risk of ICP. PMID:20977904

  15. Catalyst-like modulation of transition states for CFTR channel opening and closing: New stimulation strategy exploits nonequilibrium gating

    PubMed Central

    Töröcsik, Beáta

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the chloride ion channel mutated in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. It is an ATP-binding cassette protein, and its resulting cyclic nonequilibrium gating mechanism sets it apart from most other ion channels. The most common CF mutation (ΔF508) impairs folding of CFTR but also channel gating, reducing open probability (Po). This gating defect must be addressed to effectively treat CF. Combining single-channel and macroscopic current measurements in inside-out patches, we show here that the two effects of 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoate (NPPB) on CFTR, pore block and gating stimulation, are independent, suggesting action at distinct sites. Furthermore, detailed kinetic analysis revealed that NPPB potently increases Po, also of ΔF508 CFTR, by affecting the stability of gating transition states. This finding is unexpected, because for most ion channels, which gate at equilibrium, altering transition-state stabilities has no effect on Po; rather, agonists usually stimulate by stabilizing open states. Our results highlight how for CFTR, because of its unique cyclic mechanism, gating transition states determine Po and offer strategic targets for potentiator compounds to achieve maximal efficacy. PMID:24420771

  16. Pore dilatation increases the bicarbonate permeability of CFTR, ANO1 and glycine receptor anion channels

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Ikhyun; Cheng, Mary Hongying; Sim, Eunji; Jung, Jinsei; Suh, Bong Lim; Kim, Yonjung; Son, Hankil; Park, Kyungsoo; Kim, Chul Hoon; Yoon, Joo‐Heon; Whitcomb, David C.; Bahar, Ivet

    2016-01-01

    Key points Cellular stimuli can modulate the ion selectivity of some anion channels, such as CFTR, ANO1 and the glycine receptor (GlyR), by changing pore size.Ion selectivity of CFTR, ANO1 and GlyR is critically affected by the electric permittivity and diameter of the channel pore.Pore size change affects the energy barriers of ion dehydration as well as that of size‐exclusion of anion permeation.Pore dilatation increases the bicarbonate permeability (P HC O3/ Cl ) of CFTR, ANO1 and GlyR.Dynamic change in P HC O3/ Cl may mediate many physiological and pathological processes. Abstract Chloride (Cl−) and bicarbonate (HCO3 −) are two major anions and their permeation through anion channels plays essential roles in our body. However, the mechanism of ion selection by the anion channels is largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that pore dilatation increases the bicarbonate permeability (P HC O3/ Cl ) of anion channels by reducing energy barriers of size‐exclusion and ion dehydration of HCO3 − permeation. Molecular, physiological and computational analyses of major anion channels, such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), anoctamin‐1(ANO1/TMEM16A) and the glycine receptor (GlyR), revealed that the ion selectivity of anion channels is basically determined by the electric permittivity and diameter of the pore. Importantly, cellular stimuli dynamically modulate the anion selectivity of CFTR and ANO1 by changing the pore size. In addition, pore dilatation by a mutation in the pore‐lining region alters the anion selectivity of GlyR. Changes in pore size affected not only the energy barriers of size exclusion but that of ion dehydration by altering the electric permittivity of water‐filled cavity in the pore. The dynamic increase in P HC O3/ Cl by pore dilatation may have many physiological and pathophysiological implications ranging from epithelial HCO3 − secretion to neuronal excitation. PMID:26663196

  17. Targeting the regulation of CFTR channels.

    PubMed

    Eckford, Paul D W; Bear, Christine E

    2011-04-15

    In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Zhang et al. reveal a new strategy for modifying the regulated function of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) on the apical surface of epithelial cells. Simply stated, these authors tested the idea that the cAMP-dependent channel activity of CFTR could be effectively enhanced by disruption of a protein-protein interaction which is normally inhibitory for the production of cAMP. This particular protein-protein interaction [between the PDZ motif of LPA2 (type 2 lysophosphatidic acid receptor) and the scaffold protein Nherf2 (Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 2)] is localized in the CFTR interactome on the apical membrane of epithelial cells. Hence disruption of the LPA2-Nherf2 interaction should lead to a localized elevation in cAMP and, consequently, increased cAMP-dependent CFTR activity on the surface of epithelial cells. Zhang et al. confirmed these expectations for a small-molecule compound targeting the LPA2-Nherf2 interaction using relevant cultures and tissues thought to model the human respiratory epithelium. The success of this strategy depended on previous knowledge regarding the role for multiple PDZ-motif-mediated interactions in signalling (directly or indirectly) to CFTR. Given the number and diversity of such PDZ-mediated interactions, future structural and computational studies will be essential for guiding the design of specific pharmacological interventions.

  18. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Scott M.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Strug, Lisa J.; Knowles, Michael R.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. Objectives: To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. Methods: A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Measurements and Main Results: Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H2 = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0–0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Conclusions: Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker

  19. Correlation of sweat chloride and percent predicted FEV1 in cystic fibrosis patients treated with ivacaftor.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Meredith C; Beusmans, Jack; Panorchan, Paul; Van Goor, Fredrick

    2017-01-01

    Ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator that enhances chloride transport by acting directly on CFTR to increase its channel gating activity, has been evaluated in patients with different CFTR mutations. Several previous analyses have reported no statistical correlation between change from baseline in ppFEV 1 and reduction in sweat chloride levels for individuals treated with ivacaftor. The objective of the post hoc analysis described here was to expand upon previous analyses and evaluate the correlation between sweat chloride levels and absolute ppFEV 1 changes across multiple cohorts of patients with different CF-causing mutations who were treated with ivacaftor. The goal of the analysis was to help define the potential value of sweat chloride as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for use in CFTR modulator trials. For any given study, reductions in sweat chloride levels and improvements in absolute ppFEV 1 were not correlated for individual patients. However, when the data from all studies were combined, a statistically significant correlation between sweat chloride levels and ppFEV 1 changes was observed (p<0.0001). Thus, sweat chloride level changes in response to potentiation of the CFTR protein by ivacaftor appear to be a predictive pharmacodynamic biomarker of lung function changes on a population basis but are unsuitable for the prediction of treatment benefits for individuals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [New therapies for cystic fibrosis targeting the CFTR gene or the CFTR protein].

    PubMed

    Hubert, D; Bui, S; Marguet, C; Colomb-Jung, V; Murris-Espin, M; Corvol, H; Munck, A

    2016-10-01

    The treatment of cystic fibrosis has been symptom-based for a number of years. New therapies that aim to improve CFTR protein function are now emerging. The results of gene therapy has been modest but a recent clinical trial shows a positive effect on FEV1. Recent research has focused primarily on CFTR protein function. Significant respiratory improvement (an average 10% FEV1 increase and a decrease in the frequency of exacerbations) has been achieved with ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in patients with gating mutations, resulting in its marketing authorization (in 2012 for the G551D mutation and in 2015 for rarer mutations). In phe508del homozygous patients, the combination of ivacaftor with a CFTR corrector (lumacaftor) has also led to respiratory improvement, albeit less impressive. The effectiveness of ataluren in patients with nonsense mutations is being evaluated. New CFTR correctors and potentiators are being developed. CFTR protein therapy could change the course of the disease but cost/effectiveness issues should not be overlooked. Ivacaftor can be prescribed in CF patients with a class 3 mutation from the age of 6 years. The Orkambi ® will soon be available for homozygous phe508del patients from the age of 12 years. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-physiopathological consequences of the c.1392G>T CFTR mutation revealed by clinical and cellular investigations.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Raed; El-Seedy, Ayman; El-Moussaoui, Kamal; Pasquet, Marie-Claude; Adolphe, Catherine; Bieth, Eric; Languepin, Jeanne; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Kitzis, Alain; Ladevèze, Véronique

    2015-02-01

    This study combines a clinical approach and multiple level cellular analyses to determine the physiopathological consequences of the c.1392G>T (p.Lys464Asn) CFTR exon 10 mutation, detected in a CF patient with a frameshift deletion in trans and a TG(11)T(5) in cis. Minigene experiment, with different TG(m)T(n) alleles, and nasal cell mRNA extracts were used to study the impact of c.1392G>T on splicing in both in cellulo and in vivo studies. The processing and localization of p.Lys464Asn protein were evaluated, in cellulo, by western blotting analyses and confocal microscopy. Clinical and channel exploration tests were performed on the patient to determine the exact CF phenotype profile and the CFTR chloride transport activity. c.1392G>T affects exon 10 splicing by inducing its complete deletion and encoding a frameshift transcript. The polymorphism TG(11)T(5) aggravates the effects of this mutation on aberrant splicing. Analysis of mRNA obtained from parental airway epithelial cells confirmed these in cellulo results. At the protein level the p.Lys464Asn protein showed neither maturated form nor membrane localization. Furthermore, the in vivo channel tests confirmed the absence of CFTR activity. Thus, the c.1392G>T mutation alone or in association with the TG repeats and the poly T tract revealed obvious impacts on splicing and CFTR protein processing and functionality. The c.[T(5); 1392G>T] complex allele contributes to the CF phenotype by affecting splicing and inducing a severe misprocessing defect. These results demonstrate that the classical CFTR mutations classification is not sufficient: in vivo and in cellulo studies of a possible complex allele in a patient are required to provide correct CFTR mutation classification, adequate medical counseling, and adapted therapeutic strategies.

  2. Potentiators of Defective ΔF508–CFTR Gating that Do Not Interfere with Corrector Action

    PubMed Central

    Phuan, Puay-Wah; Veit, Guido; Tan, Joseph A.; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Lukacs, Gergely L.

    2015-01-01

    Combination drug therapies under development for cystic fibrosis caused by the ∆F508 mutation in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) include a “corrector” to improve its cellular processing and a “potentiator” to improve its chloride channel function. Recently, it was reported that the approved potentiator N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (Ivacaftor) reduces ∆F508-CFTR cellular stability and the efficacy of investigational correctors, including 3-(6-[([1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropyl]carbonyl) amino]-3-methyl-2-pyridinyl)-benzoic acid and 1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-(1-[(2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl]-6-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxy-1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-indol-5-yl), which might contribute to the modest reported efficacy of combination therapy in clinical trials. Here, we report the identification and characterization of potentiators that do not interfere with ∆F508-CFTR stability or corrector action. High-throughput screening and structure-activity analysis identified several classes of potentiators that do not impair corrector action, including tetrahydrobenzothiophenes, thiooxoaminothiazoles, and pyrazole-pyrrole-isoxazoles. The most potent compounds have an EC50 for ∆F508-CFTR potentiation down to 18 nM and do not reduce corrector efficacy in heterologous ∆F508-CFTR–expressing cells or primary cultures of ∆F508/∆F508 human bronchial epithelia. The ΔF508-CFTR potentiators also activated wild-type and G551D CFTR, albeit weakly. The efficacy of combination therapy for cystic fibrosis caused by the ∆F508 mutation may be improved by replacement of Ivacaftor with a potentiator that does not interfere with corrector action. PMID:26245207

  3. CFTR protein repair therapy in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Gallego, Esther; Delgado-Pecellín, Isabel; Calero Acuña, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a single gene, autosomal recessive disorder, in which more than 1,900 mutations grouped into 6 classes have been described. It is an example a disease that could be well placed to benefit from personalised medicine. There are currently 2 very different approaches that aim to correct the basic defect: gene therapy, aimed at correcting the genetic alteration, and therapy aimed at correcting the defect in the CFTR protein. The latter is beginning to show promising results, with several molecules under development. Ataluren (PTC124) is a molecule designed to make the ribosomes become less sensitive to the premature stop codons responsible for class i mutations. Lumacaftor (VX-809) is a CFTR corrector directed at class ii mutations, among which Phe508del is the most frequent, with encouraging results. Ivacaftor (VX-770) is a potentiator, the only one marketed to date, which has shown good efficacy for the class iii mutation Gly551Asp in children over the age of 6 and adults. These drugs, or a combination of them, are currently undergoing various clinical trials for other less common genetic mutations. In the last 5 years, CFTR has been designated as a therapeutic target. Ivacaftor is the first drug to treat the basic defect in cystic fibrosis, but only provides a response in a small number of patients. New drugs capable of restoring the CFTR protein damaged by the most common mutations are required. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. CFTR-France, a national relational patient database for sharing genetic and phenotypic data associated with rare CFTR variants.

    PubMed

    Claustres, Mireille; Thèze, Corinne; des Georges, Marie; Baux, David; Girodon, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Thierry; Audrezet, Marie-Pierre; Dugueperoux, Ingrid; Férec, Claude; Lalau, Guy; Pagin, Adrien; Kitzis, Alain; Thoreau, Vincent; Gaston, Véronique; Bieth, Eric; Malinge, Marie-Claire; Reboul, Marie-Pierre; Fergelot, Patricia; Lemonnier, Lydie; Mekki, Chadia; Fanen, Pascale; Bergougnoux, Anne; Sasorith, Souphatta; Raynal, Caroline; Bareil, Corinne

    2017-10-01

    Most of the 2,000 variants identified in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator) gene are rare or private. Their interpretation is hampered by the lack of available data and resources, making patient care and genetic counseling challenging. We developed a patient-based database dedicated to the annotations of rare CFTR variants in the context of their cis- and trans-allelic combinations. Based on almost 30 years of experience of CFTR testing, CFTR-France (https://cftr.iurc.montp.inserm.fr/cftr) currently compiles 16,819 variant records from 4,615 individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) or CFTR-RD (related disorders), fetuses with ultrasound bowel anomalies, newborns awaiting clinical diagnosis, and asymptomatic compound heterozygotes. For each of the 736 different variants reported in the database, patient characteristics and genetic information (other variations in cis or in trans) have been thoroughly checked by a dedicated curator. Combining updated clinical, epidemiological, in silico, or in vitro functional data helps to the interpretation of unclassified and the reassessment of misclassified variants. This comprehensive CFTR database is now an invaluable tool for diagnostic laboratories gathering information on rare variants, especially in the context of genetic counseling, prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. CFTR-France is thus highly complementary to the international database CFTR2 focused so far on the most common CF-causing alleles. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Revisiting sweat chloride test results based on recent guidelines for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pagaduan, Jayson V; Ali, Mahesheema; Dowlin, Michael; Suo, Liye; Ward, Tabitha; Ruiz, Fadel; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2018-03-01

    Recent sweat chloride guidelines published by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation changed the intermediate sweat chloride concentration range from 40-59 mmol/L to 30-59 mmol/L for age > 6 months. We wanted to know how this new guideline would impact detection of cystic fibrosis among patients who previously had sweat tests done at Texas Children's Hospital. We revisited sweat chloride test results (n = 3012) in the last 5 years at Texas Children's Hospital based on the new guidelines on diagnosis of cystic fibrosis from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. We identified 125 patients that would be reclassified in the intermediate sweat chloride value with the new guidelines that were classified as "unlikely to have CF" in the previous guidelines. 8 (32%) patients with CFTR gene testing were positive for CFTR gene mutation(s). 4 (50%) of these patients were identified to have 2 CFTR mutations. One had variant combination that was reported to cause CF but all were diagnosed with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome. Our findings concur with the new CF diagnosis guidelines that changing the intermediate cut-off to 30-59 mmol/L sweat chloride concentration in combination with CFTR genetic analysis enhances the probability of identifying individuals that have risk of developing CF or have CF and enables for earlier therapeutic intervention.

  6. Patterns of gastrointestinal disease associated with mutations of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Wilschanski, Michael

    2008-06-01

    This review focuses on the pathobiology of the gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) disease in relation to their genetic basis in mutations of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. It reviews the nature of the CFTR protein, a categorization of the types of gene mutations underlying CF's various manifestations, and the ways in which absent or reduced CFTR produces various functional abnormalities in the different organs affected by CF. Subsequently, the particular organ-related clinical manifestations of CF directly associated with loss of CFTR function are addressed. Thereafter, the review discusses some of the complexities of the genotype-phenotype relationships related to milder mutations or complex genetic disorders in which CFTR abnormalities interact with other genetic and environmental factors, and the potential diagnostic roles of sweat testing or other electrophysiologic testing. This discussion examines secondary gastrointestinal manifestations of CF and the particular cases of diseases that may be related to abnormalities of CFTR.

  7. 5'-adenosine monophosphate mediated cooling treatment enhances ΔF508-Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) stability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueqiang; O'Brien, William G; Zhao, Zhaoyang; Lee, Cheng Chi

    2015-09-04

    Gene mutations that produce misprocessed proteins are linked to many human disorders. Interestingly, some misprocessed proteins retained their biological function when stabilized by low temperature treatment of cultured cells in vitro. Here we investigate whether low temperature treatment in vivo can rescue misfolded proteins by applying 5'-AMP mediated whole body cooling to a Cystic Fibrosis (CF) mouse model carrying a mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) with a deletion of the phenylalanine residue in position 508 (ΔF508-CFTR). Low temperature treatment of cultured cells was previously shown to be able to alleviate the processing defect of ΔF508-CFTR, enhancing its plasma membrane localization and its function in mediating chloride ion transport. Here, we report that whole body cooling enhanced the retention of ΔF508-CFTR in intestinal epithelial cells. Functional analysis based on β-adrenergic dependent salivary secretion and post-natal mortality rate revealed a moderate but significant improvement in treated compared with untreated CF mice. Our findings demonstrate that temperature sensitive processing of mutant proteins can be responsive to low temperature treatment in vivo.

  8. CFTR stabilizes ENaC at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Jiang, C; Pribanic, S; Rotin, D

    2007-11-30

    CFTR was reported to regulate ENaC channel opening, decreasing ENaC activity in airways and increasing it in sweat ducts. We generated MDCK-I cell lines stably expressing tagged alphabetagammaENaC+CFTR or ENaC alone, and developed an assay to quantify cell-surface half-life of ENaC. Surprisingly, we found that co-expressed CFTR stabilizes ENaC at the plasma membrane, suggesting that CFTR regulates ENaC stability, not just opening.

  9. In Vivo Readout of CFTR Function: Ratiometric Measurement of CFTR-Dependent Secretion by Individual, Identifiable Human Sweat Glands

    PubMed Central

    Wine, Jeffrey J.; Char, Jessica E.; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E.; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Tran, Kim V.; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H.

    2013-01-01

    To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (∼50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ∼0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with ‘CFTR-related’ conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics. PMID:24204751

  10. Changes of CFTR functional measurements and clinical improvements in cystic fibrosis patients with non p.Gly551Asp gating mutations treated with ivacaftor.

    PubMed

    Mesbahi, Myriam; Shteinberg, Michal; Wilschanski, Michael; Hatton, Aurelie; Nguyen-Khoa, Thao; Friedman, Hannah; Cohen, Michael; Escabasse, Virginie; Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Lucidi, Vicenzina; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Bassinet, Laurence; Livnat, Galit

    2017-01-01

    Ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, has been found to improve CFTR function and clinical outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) gating mutations. We investigated the effects of ivacaftor on CFTR functional measurement in CF patients carrying gating mutations other than p.Gly551Asp. Two siblings aged 13 and 12 carrying the p.Ser549Asn mutation, two sisters (45 and 43years old) compound heterozygotes for p.Asp1152His and p.Gly1244Glu, a 37year old man homozygous for the p.Gly1244Glu mutation, and a 7year old girl with p.Arg352Gln and p.Gly1244Glu mutations commenced treatment with ivacaftor. NPD was performed in all the patients and approached normal for four patients who had also clinical improvement (p.Ser549Asn compound heterozygotes, and p.Asp1152His/p.Gly1244Glu siblings). Beta-adrenergic sweat chloride secretion performed in thep.Asp1152His/p.Gly1244Glu patients improved significantly. The p.Gly1244Glu mutation homozygous patient, who had undergone an ileal resection with ileostomy and enterocutaneous fistula, did not respond clinically to ivacaftor and did not modify his sweat test. These results highlight the importance of different CFTR activity measurements to explore CFTR modulator efficacy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Small molecule anionophores promote transmembrane anion permeation matching CFTR activity.

    PubMed

    Hernando, Elsa; Capurro, Valeria; Cossu, Claudia; Fiore, Michele; García-Valverde, María; Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Moran, Oscar; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Quesada, Roberto

    2018-02-08

    Anion selective ionophores, anionophores, are small molecules capable of facilitating the transmembrane transport of anions. Inspired in the structure of natural product prodigiosin, four novel anionophores 1a-d, including a 1,2,3-triazole group, were prepared. These compounds proved highly efficient anion exchangers in model phospholipid liposomes. The changes in the hydrogen bond cleft modified the anion transport selectivity exhibited by these compounds compared to prodigiosin and suppressed the characteristic high toxicity of the natural product. Their activity as anionophores in living cells was studied and chloride efflux and iodine influx from living cells mediated by these derivatives was demonstrated. These compounds were shown to permeabilize cellular membranes to halides with efficiencies close to the natural anion channel CFTR at doses that do not compromise cellular viability. Remarkably, optimal transport efficiency was measured in the presence of pH gradients mimicking those found in the airway epithelia of Cystic Fibrosis patients. These results support the viability of developing small molecule anionophores as anion channel protein surrogates with potential applications in the treatment of conditions such as Cystic Fibrosis derived from the malfunction of natural anion transport mechanisms.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and safety of cavosonstat (N91115) in healthy and cystic fibrosis adults homozygous for F508DEL-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Scott H; Solomon, George M; Zeitlin, Pamela L; Flume, Patrick A; Casey, Alicia; McCoy, Karen; Zemanick, Edith T; Mandagere, Arun; Troha, Janice M; Shoemaker, Steven A; Chmiel, James F; Taylor-Cousar, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    Cavosonstat (N91115), an orally bioavailable inhibitor of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase, promotes cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) maturation and plasma membrane stability, with a mechanism of action complementary to CFTR correctors and potentiators. A Phase I program evaluated pharmacokinetics, drug-drug interactions and safety of cavosonstat in healthy and cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects homozygous for F508del-CFTR. Exploratory outcomes included changes in sweat chloride in CF subjects. Cavosonstat was rapidly absorbed and demonstrated linear and predictable pharmacokinetics. Exposure was unaffected by a high-fat meal or rifampin-mediated effects on drug metabolism and transport. Cavosonstat was well tolerated, with no dose-limiting toxicities or significant safety findings. At the highest dose, significant reductions from baseline in sweat chloride were observed (-4.1mmol/L; P=0.032) at day 28. The favorable safety and clinical profile warrant further study of cavosonstat in CF. ClinicalTrials.gov Numbers: NCT02275936, NCT02013388, NCT02500667. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) allelic variants relate to shifts in faecal microbiota of cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Schippa, Serena; Iebba, Valerio; Santangelo, Floriana; Gagliardi, Antonella; De Biase, Riccardo Valerio; Stamato, Antonella; Bertasi, Serenella; Lucarelli, Marco; Conte, Maria Pia; Quattrucci, Serena

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene variants on the composition of faecal microbiota, in patients affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF). CFTR mutations (F508del is the most common) lead to a decreased secretion of chloride/water, and to mucus sticky secretions, in pancreas, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Intestinal manifestations are underestimated in CF, leading to ileum meconium at birth, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth in adult age. Thirty-six CF patients, fasting and under no-antibiotic treatment, were CFTR genotyped on both alleles. Faecal samples were subjected to molecular microbial profiling through Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis and species-specific PCR. Ecological parameters and multivariate algorithms were employed to find out if CFTR variants could be related to the microbiota structure. Patients were classified by two different criteria: 1) presence/absence of F508del mutation; 2) disease severity in heterozygous and homozygous F508del patients. We found that homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients exhibited an enhanced dysbiotic faecal microbiota composition, even within the CF cohort itself, with higher biodiversity and evenness. We also found, by species-specific PCR, that potentially harmful species (Escherichia coli and Eubacterium biforme) were abundant in homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients, while beneficial species (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium spp., and Eubacterium limosum) were reduced. This is the first report that establishes a link among CFTR variants and shifts in faecal microbiota, opening the way to studies that perceive CF as a 'systemic disease', linking the lung and the gut in a joined axis.

  14. Identification of a novel mutation (S13F) in the CFTR gene in a CF patient of Sardinian origin.

    PubMed

    Leoni, G B; Pitzalis, S; Tonelli, R; Cao, A

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel CF mutation consisting in a C-->T substitution at nucleotide 170 in exon 1 of CFTR gene, converting a serine residue into phenylalanine at position 12 (S13F) of the CFTR protein. This mutation was detected in a single patient of Sardinian descent in compound heterozygosity with T338I, who presented at 9 years of age with hyponatremic dehydration associated with hypochloremia, hypokaliemia and metabolic alkalosis. Sweat chloride values were 120 mmol/l. Now the patient is 11 years old and has not shown so far any pancreatic or lung involvement. The serine to phenylalanine substitution is a non-conservative change, replacing a non polar for a polar amino acid residue and therefore is most likely a disease-causing mutation.

  15. Processing of CFTR: traversing the cellular maze--how much CFTR needs to go through to avoid cystic fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Amaral, Margarida D

    2005-06-01

    Biosynthesis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), like other proteins aimed at the cell surface, involves transport through a series of membranous compartments, the first of which is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where CFTR encounters the appropriate environment for folding, oligomerization, maturation, and export from the ER. After exiting the ER, CFTR has to traffic through complex pathways until it reaches the cell surface. Although not yet fully understood, the fine details of these pathways are starting to emerge, partially through identification of an increasing number of CFTR-interacting proteins (CIPs) and the clarification of their roles in CFTR trafficking and function. These aspects of CFTR biogenesis/degradation and by membrane traffic and CIPs are discussed in this review. Following this description of complex pathways and multiple checkpoints to which CFTR is subjected in the cell, the basic question remains of how much CFTR has to overcome these barriers and be functionally expressed at the plasma membrane to avoid CF. This question is also discussed here. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. A CFTR potentiator in patients with cystic fibrosis and the G551D mutation.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Bonnie W; Davies, Jane; McElvaney, N Gerard; Tullis, Elizabeth; Bell, Scott C; Dřevínek, Pavel; Griese, Matthias; McKone, Edward F; Wainwright, Claire E; Konstan, Michael W; Moss, Richard; Ratjen, Felix; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Rowe, Steven M; Dong, Qunming; Rodriguez, Sally; Yen, Karl; Ordoñez, Claudia; Elborn, J Stuart

    2011-11-03

    Increasing the activity of defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a potential treatment for cystic fibrosis. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate ivacaftor (VX-770), a CFTR potentiator, in subjects 12 years of age or older with cystic fibrosis and at least one G551D-CFTR mutation. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 150 mg of ivacaftor every 12 hours (84 subjects, of whom 83 received at least one dose) or placebo (83, of whom 78 received at least one dose) for 48 weeks. The primary end point was the estimated mean change from baseline through week 24 in the percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)). The change from baseline through week 24 in the percent of predicted FEV(1) was greater by 10.6 percentage points in the ivacaftor group than in the placebo group (P<0.001). Effects on pulmonary function were noted by 2 weeks, and a significant treatment effect was maintained through week 48. Subjects receiving ivacaftor were 55% less likely to have a pulmonary exacerbation than were patients receiving placebo, through week 48 (P<0.001). In addition, through week 48, subjects in the ivacaftor group scored 8.6 points higher than did subjects in the placebo group on the respiratory-symptoms domain of the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-revised instrument (a 100-point scale, with higher numbers indicating a lower effect of symptoms on the patient's quality of life) (P<0.001). By 48 weeks, patients treated with ivacaftor had gained, on average, 2.7 kg more weight than had patients receiving placebo (P<0.001). The change from baseline through week 48 in the concentration of sweat chloride, a measure of CFTR activity, with ivacaftor as compared with placebo was -48.1 mmol per liter (P<0.001). The incidence of adverse events was similar with ivacaftor and placebo, with a lower proportion of serious adverse events with ivacaftor than with placebo (24% vs. 42

  17. Chloride channels in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain, ie, stroke. Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Cl−) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke. At least three Cl− channel genes are expressed in VSMCs: 1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1), which may encode the calcium-activated Cl− channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Cl− channel and Cl−/H+ antiporter, which is closely related to the volume-regulated Cl− channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes the PKA- and PKC-activated Cl− channels. Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs. Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension. In addition, Cl− current mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death. This review focuses on the functional roles of Cl− channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Cl− channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23103617

  18. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs

    PubMed Central

    Stoltz, David A.; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E.; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Karp, Philip H.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Rector, Michael V.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Alaiwa, Mahmoud H. Abou; Hoegger, Mark J.; Ludwig, Paula S.; Taft, Peter J.; Wallen, Tanner J.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D.; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L.; Adam, Ryan J.; Hornick, Emma E.; Nelson, George A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Chang, Eugene H.; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B.; Prather, Randall S.; Meyerholz, David K.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid–binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR–/–;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies. PMID:23676501

  19. A neutrophil intrinsic impairment affecting Rab27a and degranulation in cystic fibrosis is corrected by CFTR potentiator therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Kerstin; Hayes, Elaine; Keenan, Joanne; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Molloy, Kevin; Jundi, Bakr; Bergin, David A.; McCarthy, Cormac; McElvaney, Oliver J.; White, Michelle M.; Clynes, Martin; McElvaney, Noel G.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have endeavored to reconcile whether dysfunction of neutrophils in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a result of the genetic defect or is secondary due to infection and inflammation. In this study, we illustrate that disrupted function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), such as that which occurs in patients with ∆F508 and/or G551D mutations, correlates with impaired degranulation of antimicrobial proteins. We demonstrate that CF blood neutrophils release less secondary and tertiary granule components compared with control cells and that activation of the low-molecular-mass GTP-binding protein Rab27a, involved in the regulation of granule trafficking, is defective. The mechanism leading to impaired degranulation involves altered ion homeostasis caused by defective CFTR function with increased cytosolic levels of chloride and sodium, yet decreased magnesium measured in CF neutrophils. Decreased magnesium concentration in vivo and in vitro resulted in significantly decreased levels of GTP-bound Rab27a. Treatment of G551D patients with the ion channel potentiator ivacaftor resulted in normalized neutrophil cytosolic ion levels and activation of Rab27a, thereby leading to increased degranulation and bacterial killing. Our results confirm that intrinsic alterations of circulating neutrophils from patients with CF are corrected by ivacaftor, thus illustrating additional clinical benefits for CFTR modulator therapy. PMID:24934256

  20. The H-loop in the Second Nucleotide-binding Domain of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator is Required for Efficient Chloride Channel Closing

    PubMed Central

    Kloch, Monika; Milewski, Michał; Nurowska, Ewa; Dworakowska, Beata; Cutting, Garry R.; Dołowy, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride channel. The recent model of CFTR gating predicts that the ATP binding to both nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 and NBD2) of CFTR is required for the opening of the channel, while the ATP hydrolysis at NBD2 induces subsequent channel closing. In most ABC proteins, efficient hydrolysis of ATP requires the presence of the invariant histidine residue within the H-loop located in the C-terminal part of the NBD. However, the contribution of the corresponding region (H-loop) of NBD2 to the CFTR channel gating has not been examined so far. Here we report that the alanine substitution of the conserved dipeptide HR motif (HR→AA) in the H-loop of NBD2 leads to prolonged open states of CFTR channel, indicating that the H-loop is required for efficient channel closing. On the other hand, the HR→AA substitution lead to the substantial decrease of CFTR-mediated current density (pA/pF) in transfected HEK 293 cells, as recorded in the whole-cell patch-clamp analysis. These results suggest that the H-loop of NBD2, apart from being required for CFTR channel closing, may be involved in regulating CFTR trafficking to the cell surface. PMID:20110677

  1. Activation of AMPK Inhibits Cholera Toxin Stimulated Chloride Secretion in Human and Murine Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Nadia; Collins, Danielle; Collaco, Anne; Baird, Alan W.; Winter, Desmond C.; Ameen, Nadia; Geibel, John P.; Kopic, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Increased intestinal chloride secretion through chloride channels, such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), is one of the major molecular mechanisms underlying enterotoxigenic diarrhea. It has been demonstrated in the past that the intracellular energy sensing kinase, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), can inhibit CFTR opening. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMPK can abrogate the increased chloride flux through CFTR occurring during cholera toxin (CTX) mediated diarrhea. Chloride efflux was measured in isolated rat colonic crypts using real-time fluorescence imaging. AICAR and metformin were used to activate AMPK in the presence of the secretagogues CTX or forskolin (FSK). In order to substantiate our findings on the whole tissue level, short-circuit current (SCC) was monitored in human and murine colonic mucosa using Ussing chambers. Furthermore, fluid accumulation was measured in excised intestinal loops. CTX and forskolin (FSK) significantly increased chloride efflux in isolated colonic crypts. The increase in chloride efflux could be offset by using the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin. In human and mouse mucosal sheets, CTX and FSK increased SCC. AICAR and metformin inhibited the secretagogue induced rise in SCC, thereby confirming the findings made in isolated crypts. Moreover, AICAR decreased CTX stimulated fluid accumulation in excised intestinal segments. The present study suggests that pharmacological activation of AMPK effectively reduces CTX mediated increases in intestinal chloride secretion, which is a key factor for intestinal water accumulation. AMPK activators may therefore represent a supplemental treatment strategy for acute diarrheal illness. PMID:23935921

  2. Role of CFTR in oxidative stress and suicidal death of renal cells during cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rubera, I; Duranton, C; Melis, N; Cougnon, M; Mograbi, B; Tauc, M

    2013-01-01

    The clinical use of the antineoplastic drug cisplatin is limited by its deleterious nephrotoxic side effect. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is associated with an increase in oxidative stress, leading ultimately to renal cell death and irreversible kidney dysfunction. Oxidative stress could be modified by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR), a Cl− channel not only involved in chloride secretion but as well in glutathione (GSH) transport. Thus, we tested whether the inhibition of CFTR could protect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Using a renal proximal cell line, we show that the specific inhibitor of CFTR, CFTRinh-172, prevents cisplatin-induced cell death and apoptosis by modulating the intracellular reactive oxygen species balance and the intracellular GSH concentration. This CFTRinh-172-mediated protective effect occurs without affecting cellular cisplatin uptake or the formation of platinum-DNA adducts. The protective effect of CFTRinh-172 in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was also investigated in a rat model. Five days after receiving a single cisplatin injection (5 mg/kg), rats exhibited renal failure, as evidenced by the alteration of biochemical and functional parameters. Pretreatment of rats with CFTRinh-172 (1 mg/kg) prior to cisplatin injection significantly prevented these deleterious cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic effects. Finally, we demonstrate that CFTRinh-172 does not impair cisplatin-induced cell death in the cisplatin-sensitive A549 cancer cell line. In conclusion, the use of a specific inhibitor of CFTR may represent a novel therapeutic approach in the prevention of nephrotoxic side effects during cisplatin treatment without affecting its antitumor efficacy. PMID:24091660

  3. Cysteamine re-establishes the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by macrophages bearing the cystic fibrosis-relevant F508del-CFTR mutation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Eleonora; Monzani, Romina; Villella, Valeria R; Esposito, Speranza; Saluzzo, Francesca; Rossin, Federica; D'Eletto, Manuela; Tosco, Antonella; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Izzo, Valentina; Maiuri, Maria C; Kroemer, Guido; Raia, Valeria; Maiuri, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal monogenic disease in Caucasians, is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and colonization, mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, resulting in unresolved airway inflammation. CF is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, which functions as a chloride channel in epithelial cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Impaired bacterial handling by macrophages is a feature of CF airways, although it is still debated how defective CFTR impairs bacterial killing. Recent evidence indicates that a defective autophagy in CF macrophages leads to alterations of bacterial clearance upon infection. Here we use bone marrow-derived macrophages from transgenic mice to provide the genetic proof that defective CFTR compromises both uptake and clearance of internalized Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We demonstrate that the proteostasis regulator cysteamine, which rescues the function of the most common F508del-CFTR mutant and hence reduces lung inflammation in CF patients, can also repair the defects of CF macrophages, thus restoring both bacterial internalization and clearance through a process that involves upregulation of the pro-autophagic protein Beclin 1 and re-establishment of the autophagic pathway. Altogether these results indicate that cysteamine restores the function of several distinct cell types, including that of macrophages, which might contribute to its beneficial effects on CF. PMID:28079883

  4. Cysteamine re-establishes the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by macrophages bearing the cystic fibrosis-relevant F508del-CFTR mutation.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Eleonora; Monzani, Romina; Villella, Valeria R; Esposito, Speranza; Saluzzo, Francesca; Rossin, Federica; D'Eletto, Manuela; Tosco, Antonella; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Izzo, Valentina; Maiuri, Maria C; Kroemer, Guido; Raia, Valeria; Maiuri, Luigi

    2017-01-12

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal monogenic disease in Caucasians, is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and colonization, mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, resulting in unresolved airway inflammation. CF is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, which functions as a chloride channel in epithelial cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Impaired bacterial handling by macrophages is a feature of CF airways, although it is still debated how defective CFTR impairs bacterial killing. Recent evidence indicates that a defective autophagy in CF macrophages leads to alterations of bacterial clearance upon infection. Here we use bone marrow-derived macrophages from transgenic mice to provide the genetic proof that defective CFTR compromises both uptake and clearance of internalized Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We demonstrate that the proteostasis regulator cysteamine, which rescues the function of the most common F508del-CFTR mutant and hence reduces lung inflammation in CF patients, can also repair the defects of CF macrophages, thus restoring both bacterial internalization and clearance through a process that involves upregulation of the pro-autophagic protein Beclin 1 and re-establishment of the autophagic pathway. Altogether these results indicate that cysteamine restores the function of several distinct cell types, including that of macrophages, which might contribute to its beneficial effects on CF.

  5. Evaluation of autophagy inducers in epithelial cells carrying the ΔF508 mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator CFTR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoyi; Stoll, Gautier; Pedro, José Manuel Bravo San; Sica, Valentina; Sauvat, Allan; Obrist, Florine; Kepp, Oliver; Li, Yousheng; Maiuri, Luigi; Zamzami, Naoufal; Kroemer, Guido

    2018-02-07

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) due to the ΔF508 mutation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be treated with a combination of cysteamine and Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Since ECGC is not a clinically approved drug, we attempted to identify other compounds that might favourably interact with cysteamine to induce autophagy and thus rescuing the function of ΔF508 CFTR as a chloride channel in the plasma membrane. For this, we screened a compound library composed by chemically diverse autophagy inducers for their ability to enhance autophagic flux in the presence of cysteamine. We identified the antiarrhythmic Ca 2+ channel blocker amiodarone, as an FDA-approved drug having the property to cooperate with cysteamine to stimulate autophagy in an additive manner. Amiodarone promoted the re-expression of ΔF508 CFTR protein in the plasma membrane of respiratory epithelial cells. Hence, amiodarone might be yet another compound for the etiological therapy of CF in patients bearing the ΔF508 CFTR mutation.

  6. The CFTR-Associated Ligand Arrests the Trafficking of the Mutant ΔF508 CFTR Channel in the ER Contributing to Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bergbower, Emily; Boinot, Clement; Sabirzhanova, Inna; Guggino, William; Cebotaru, Liudmila

    2018-01-01

    The CFTR-Associated Ligand (CAL), a PDZ domain containing protein with two coiled-coil domains, reduces cell surface WT CFTR through degradation in the lysosome by a well-characterized mechanism. However, CAL's regulatory effect on ΔF508 CFTR has remained almost entirely uninvestigated. In this study, we describe a previously unknown pathway for CAL by which it regulates the membrane expression of ΔF508 CFTR through arrest of ΔF508 CFTR trafficking in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) using a combination of cell biology, biochemistry and electrophysiology. We demonstrate that CAL is an ER localized protein that binds to ΔF508 CFTR and is degraded in the 26S proteasome. When CAL is inhibited, ΔF508 CFTR retention in the ER decreases and cell surface expression of mature functional ΔF508 CFTR is observed alongside of enhanced expression of plasma membrane scaffolding protein NHERF1. Chaperone proteins regulate this novel process, and ΔF508 CFTR binding to HSP40, HSP90, HSP70, VCP, and Aha1 changes to improve ΔF508 CFTR cell surface trafficking. Our results reveal a pathway in which CAL regulates the cell surface availability and intracellular retention of ΔF508 CFTR. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Rectification of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel mediated by extracellular divalent cations.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J; Zerhusen, B; Xie, J; Drumm, M L; Davis, P B; Ma, J

    1996-01-01

    We report here distinct rectification of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel reconstituted in lipid bilayer membranes. Under the symmetrical ionic condition of 200 mM KCl (with 1 mM MgCl2 in cis intracellular and 0 MgCl2 in trans extracellular solutions, pH in both solutions buffered at 7.4 with 10 mM HEPES), the inward currents (intracellular-->extracellular chloride movement) through a single CFTR channel were approximately 20% larger than the outward currents. This inward rectification of the CFTR channel was mediated by extracellular divalent cations, as the linear current-voltage relationship of the channel could be restored through the addition of millimolar concentrations of MgCl2 or CaCl2 to the trans solution. The dose responses for [Mg]zero and [Ca]zero had half-dissociation constants of 152 +/- 72 microM and 172 +/- 40 microM, respectively. Changing the pH buffer from HEPES to N-tris-(hydroxymethyl)methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid did not alter rectification of the CFTR channel. The nonlinear conductance property of the CFTR channel seemed to be due to negative surface charges on the CFTR protein, because in pure neutral phospholipid bilayers, clear rectification of the channel was also observed when the extracellular solution did not contain divalent cations. The CFTR protein contains clusters of negatively charged amino acids on several extracellular loops joining the transmembrane segments, which could constitute the putative binding sites for Ca and Mg. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:8913585

  8. Activation of CFTR by ASBT-mediated bile salt absorption.

    PubMed

    Bijvelds, Marcel J C; Jorna, Huub; Verkade, Henkjan J; Bot, Alice G M; Hofmann, Franz; Agellon, Luis B; Sinaasappel, Maarten; de Jonge, Hugo R

    2005-11-01

    In cholangiocytes, bile salt (BS) uptake via the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) may evoke ductular flow by enhancing cAMP-mediated signaling to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. We considered that ASBT-mediated BS uptake in the distal ileum might also modulate intestinal fluid secretion. Taurocholate (TC) induced a biphasic rise in the short circuit current across ileal tissue, reflecting transepithelial electrogenic ion transport. This response was sensitive to bumetanide and largely abrogated in Cftr-null mice, indicating that it predominantly reflects CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion. The residual response in Cftr-null mice could be attributed to electrogenic ASBT activity, as it matched the TC-coupled absorptive Na+ flux. TC-evoked Cl- secretion required ASBT-mediated TC uptake, because it was blocked by a selective ASBT inhibitor and was restricted to the distal ileum. Suppression of neurotransmitter or prostaglandin release, blocking of the histamine H1 receptor, or pretreatment with 5-hydroxytryptamine did not abrogate the TC response, suggesting that neurocrine or immune mediators of Cl- secretion are not involved. Responses to TC were retained after carbachol treatment and after permeabilization of the basolateral membrane with nystatin, indicating that BS modulate CFTR channel gating rather than the driving force for Cl- exit. TC-induced Cl- secretion was maintained in cGMP-dependent protein kinase II-deficient mice and only partially inhibited by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H89, suggesting a mechanism of CFTR activation different from cAMP or cGMP signaling. We conclude that active BS absorption in the ileum triggers CFTR activation and, consequently, local salt and water secretion, which may serve to prevent intestinal obstruction in the postprandial state.

  9. Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor Treatment of Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Heterozygous for F508del-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Steven M; McColley, Susanna A; Rietschel, Ernst; Li, Xiaolei; Bell, Scott C; Konstan, Michael W; Marigowda, Gautham; Waltz, David; Boyle, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    In a prior study, lumacaftor/ivacaftor treatment (≤28 d) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) heterozygous for F508del-CFTR did not improve lung function. To evaluate an optimized lumacaftor/ivacaftor dosing regimen with a longer duration in a cohort of patients heterozygous for F508del-CFTR. Patients aged 18 years or older with a confirmed CF diagnosis and percent predicted FEV 1 (ppFEV 1 ) of 40 to 90 were randomized to lumacaftor/ivacaftor (400 mg/250 mg every 12 h) or placebo daily for 56 days. Primary outcomes were change in ppFEV 1 at Day 56 and safety. Other disease markers were evaluated. Of 126 patients, 119 (94.4%) completed the study. Lumacaftor/ivacaftor was well tolerated, although chest tightness and dyspnea occurred more frequently with active treatment than with placebo (27.4% vs. 14.3% and 14.5% vs. 6.3%, respectively). Mean (SD) ppFEV 1 values at baseline were 62.9 (14.3) in the active treatment group and 60.1 (14.0) in the placebo group. Absolute changes in ppFEV 1 (least squares mean [SE]) at Day 56 were -0.6 (0.8) percentage points in the active treatment group and -1.2 (0.8) percentage points in the placebo group (P = 0.60). CF respiratory symptom scores in the active treatment group improved by a mean of 5.7 points versus a decrease of -0.8 in the placebo group (P < 0.01). No changes in body mass index occurred. Changes from baseline in sweat chloride (least squares mean [SE]) at Day 56 were -11.8 (1.3) mmol/L in the active treatment group and -0.8 (1.2) mmol/L in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). Sweat chloride and respiratory symptom scores improved with lumacaftor/ivacaftor, though no meaningful benefit was seen in ppFEV 1 or body mass index in patients heterozygous for F508del-CFTR. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01225211).

  10. Guanylate cyclase 2C agonism corrects CFTR mutants

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Kavisha; Mun, Kyushik; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Sundaram, Nambirajan; Kessler, Marco M.; Hannig, Gerhard; Kurtz, Caroline B.; Silos-Santiago, Inmaculada; Helmrath, Michael; Palermo, Joseph J.; Clancy, John P.; Steinbrecher, Kris A.; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder in which epithelium-generated fluid flow from the lung, intestine, and pancreas is impaired due to mutations disrupting CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel function. CF manifestations of the pancreas and lung are present in the vast majority of CF patients, and 15% of CF infants are born with obstructed gut or meconium ileus. However, constipation is a significantly underreported outcome of CF disease, affecting 47% of the CF patients, and management becomes critical in the wake of increasing life span of CF patients. In this study, we unraveled a potentially novel molecular role of a membrane-bound cyclic guanosine monophosphate–synthesizing (cGMP-synthesizing) intestinal enzyme, guanylate cyclase 2C (GCC) that could be targeted to ameliorate CF-associated intestinal fluid deficit. We demonstrated that GCC agonism results in functional rescue of murine F508del/F508del and R117H/R117H Cftr and CFTR mutants in CF patient–derived intestinal spheres. GCC coexpression and activation facilitated processing and ER exit of F508del CFTR and presented a potentially novel rescue modality in the intestine, similar to the CF corrector VX-809. Our findings identify GCC as a biological CFTR corrector and potentiator in the intestine. PMID:28978796

  11. CFTR Modulators: Shedding Light on Precision Medicine for Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-threatening monogenic disease afflicting Caucasian people. It affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal, glandular and reproductive systems. The major cause of morbidity and mortality in CF is the respiratory disorder caused by a vicious cycle of obstruction of the airways, inflammation and infection that leads to epithelial damage, tissue remodeling and end-stage lung disease. Over the past decades, life expectancy of CF patients has increased due to early diagnosis and improved treatments; however, these patients still present limited quality of life. Many attempts have been made to rescue CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) expression, function and stability, thereby overcoming the molecular basis of CF. Gene and protein variances caused by CFTR mutants lead to different CF phenotypes, which then require different treatments to quell the patients’ debilitating symptoms. In order to seek better approaches to treat CF patients and maximize therapeutic effects, CFTR mutants have been stratified into six groups (although several of these mutations present pleiotropic defects). The research with CFTR modulators (read-through agents, correctors, potentiators, stabilizers and amplifiers) has achieved remarkable progress, and these drugs are translating into pharmaceuticals and personalized treatments for CF patients. This review summarizes the main molecular and clinical features of CF, emphasizes the latest clinical trials using CFTR modulators, sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying these new and emerging treatments, and discusses the major breakthroughs and challenges to treating all CF patients. PMID:27656143

  12. Assessing the residual CFTR gene expression in human nasal epithelium cells bearing CFTR splicing mutations causing cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Masvidal, Laia; Igreja, Susana; Ramos, Maria D; Alvarez, Antoni; de Gracia, Javier; Ramalho, Anabela; Amaral, Margarida D; Larriba, Sara; Casals, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the present study was to quantify correctly spliced CFTR transcripts in human nasal epithelial cells from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients carrying the splicing mutations c.580-1G>T (712-1G>T) and c.2657+5G>A (2789+5G>A) and to assess the applicability of this model in CFTR therapeutic approaches. We performed the relative quantification of CFTR mRNA by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of these splicing mutations in four groups (wild type, CF-F508del controls, CF patients and CF carriers) of individuals. In addition, in vitro assays using minigene constructs were performed to evaluate the effect of a new CF complex allele c.[2657+5G>A; 2562T>G]. Ex vivo qPCR data show that the primary consequence of both mutations at the RNA level is the skipping of their neighboring exon (6 and 16, respectively). The CFTR minigenes results mimicked the ex vivo data, as exon 16 skipping is the main aberrant transcript, and the correctly spliced transcript level was observed in a similar proportion when the c.2657+5G>A mutation is present. In summary, we provide evidence that ex vivo quantitative transcripts analysis using RT/qPCR is a robust technology that could be useful for measuring the efficacy of therapeutic approaches that attempt to achieve an increase in CFTR gene expression. PMID:24129438

  13. CFTR, Mucins, and Mucus Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kreda, Silvia M.; Davis, C. William; Rose, Mary Callaghan

    2012-01-01

    Mucus pathology in cystic fibrosis (CF) has been known for as long as the disease has been recognized and is sometimes called mucoviscidosis. The disease is marked by mucus hyperproduction and plugging in many organs, which are usually most fatal in the airways of CF patients, once the problem of meconium ileus at birth is resolved. After the CF gene, CFTR, was cloned and its protein product identified as a cAMP-regulated Cl− channel, causal mechanisms underlying the strong mucus phenotype of the disease became obscure. Here we focus on mucin genes and polymeric mucin glycoproteins, examining their regulation and potential relationships to a dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Detailed examination of CFTR expression in organs and different cell types indicates that changes in CFTR expression do not always correlate with the severity of CF disease or mucus accumulation. Thus, the mucus hyperproduction that typifies CF does not appear to be a direct cause of a defective CFTR but, rather, to be a downstream consequence. In organs like the lung, up-regulation of mucin gene expression by inflammation results from chronic infection; however, in other instances and organs, the inflammation may have a non-infectious origin. The mucus plugging phenotype of the β-subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel (βENaC)-overexpressing mouse is proving to be an archetypal example of this kind of inflammation, with a dehydrated airway surface/concentrated mucus gel apparently providing the inflammatory stimulus. Data indicate that the luminal HCO3 − deficiency recently described for CF epithelia may also provide such a stimulus, perhaps by causing a mal-maturation of mucins as they are released onto luminal surfaces. In any event, the path between CFTR dysfunction and mucus hyperproduction has proven tortuous, and its unraveling continues to offer its own twists and turns, along with fascinating glimpses into biology. PMID:22951447

  14. Pro-Secretory Activity and Pharmacology in Rabbits of an Aminophenyl-1,3,5-Triazine CFTR Activator for Dry Eye Disorders.

    PubMed

    Felix, Christian M; Lee, Sujin; Levin, Marc H; Verkman, Alan S

    2017-09-01

    Pharmacological activation of ocular surface cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels is a potential pro-secretory approach to treat dry eye disorders. We previously reported the discovery of aminophenyl-1,3,5-triazines, one of which, N-methyl-N-phenyl-6-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (herein called CFTRact-K267), fully activated human wildtype CFTR with EC50 ∼ 30 nM and increased tear volume for 8 hours in mice. Here, functional and pharmacological studies of CFTRact-K267 were done in adult New Zealand white rabbits. CFTR chloride conductance was measured in vivo by ocular surface potential differences and in ex vivo conjunctiva by short-circuit current. Tear volume was measured by the Schirmer tear test II and CFTRact-K267 pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Toxicity profile was studied for 28 days with twice-daily topical administration. Electrophysiological measurements in vivo and in ex vivo conjunctiva demonstrated CFTR activation by CFTRact-K267. A single topical dose of 3 nmol CFTRact-K267 increased tear production by >5 mm for 9 hours by the Schirmer tear test, with predicted therapeutic concentrations maintained in tear fluid. No tachyphylaxis was seen following 28-day twice-daily administration, and changes were not observed in corneal surface integrity or thickness, intraocular pressure, or ocular histology. At day 28, CFTRact-K267 was concentrated in the cornea and conjunctiva and was not detectable in blood or peripheral organs. These studies support the development of CFTRact-K267 as a pro-secretory therapy for dry eye disorders.

  15. Sweat gland bioelectrics differ in cystic fibrosis: a new concept for potential diagnosis and assessment of CFTR function in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gonska, T; Ip, W; Turner, D; Han, W S; Rose, J; Durie, P; Quinton, P

    2009-11-01

    For nearly 50 years the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) has depended on measurements of sweat chloride concentration. While the validity of this test is universally accepted, increasing diagnostic challenges and the search for adequate biomarker assays to support curative-orientated clinical drug trials have created a new demand for accurate, reliable and more practical CF tests. A novel concept is proposed that may provide a more efficient real-time method for assessing CFTR function in vivo. Cholinergic and beta-adrenergic agonists were iontophoresed to stimulate sweating. The bioelectric potential from stimulated sweat glands (SPD) was measured in vivo using a standard ECG electrode applied to the skin surface. SPD and sweat chloride concentrations were compared in cohorts predicted to express a range of CFTR function as presented by healthy controls (HC), heterozygotes (Hz), pancreatic sufficient (CFPS) and pancreatic insufficient patients with CF (CFPI). The median SPD was hyperpolarized in patients with CF compared with control subjects (-47.4 mV vs -14.5 mV, p<0.001). In distinguishing between control and CF subjects, SPD (area under receiver operator curve (AUC) = 0.997) was similar to sweat chloride concentration (AUC = 0.986). Sequential cholinergic/beta-adrenergic sweat stimulation dramatically depolarised the SPD in patients with CF (p<0.001) but had no effect in control subjects (p = 0.6) or on the sweat chloride concentration in either group (p>0.5). Furthermore, the positive SPD response was larger in CFPI than in CFPS subjects (p = 0.04). These results support the concept that skin surface voltages arising from stimulated sweat glands can be exploited to assess expressed CFTR function in vivo and may prove to be a useful diagnostic tool.

  16. ∆F508 CFTR interactome remodelling promotes rescue of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pankow, Sandra; Bamberger, Casimir; Calzolari, Diego; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Balch, William E; Yates, John R

    2015-12-24

    Deletion of phenylalanine 508 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (∆F508 CFTR) is the major cause of cystic fibrosis, one of the most common inherited childhood diseases. The mutated CFTR anion channel is not fully glycosylated and shows minimal activity in bronchial epithelial cells of patients with cystic fibrosis. Low temperature or inhibition of histone deacetylases can partly rescue ∆F508 CFTR cellular processing defects and function. A favourable change of ∆F508 CFTR protein-protein interactions was proposed as a mechanism of rescue; however, CFTR interactome dynamics during temperature shift and inhibition of histone deacetylases are unknown. Here we report the first comprehensive analysis of the CFTR and ∆F508 CFTR interactome and its dynamics during temperature shift and inhibition of histone deacetylases. By using a novel deep proteomic analysis method, we identify 638 individual high-confidence CFTR interactors and discover a ∆F508 deletion-specific interactome, which is extensively remodelled upon rescue. Detailed analysis of the interactome remodelling identifies key novel interactors, whose loss promote ∆F508 CFTR channel function in primary cystic fibrosis epithelia or which are critical for CFTR biogenesis. Our results demonstrate that global remodelling of ∆F508 CFTR interactions is crucial for rescue, and provide comprehensive insight into the molecular disease mechanisms of cystic fibrosis caused by deletion of F508.

  17. Vinyl Chloride

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about vinyl chloride, which can raise the risk of a rare form of liver cancer, as well as brain and lung cancers, and leukemia and lymphoma. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make PVC, a substance used in products such as pipes.

  18. Thermodynamic study of the native and phosphorylated regulatory domain of the CFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Marasini, Carlotta, E-mail: marasini@ge.ibf.cnr.it; Galeno, Lauretta; Moran, Oscar

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFTR mutations produce cystic fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloride transport depends on the regulatory domain phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regulatory domain is intrinsically disordered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary structure and protein stability change upon phosphorylation. -- Abstract: The regulatory domain (RD) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the defective protein in cystic fibrosis, is the region of the channel that regulates the CFTR activity with multiple phosphorylation sites. This domain is an intrinsically disordered protein, characterized by lack of stable or unique tertiary structure. The disordered character of a protein is directly correlated with its function. The flexibility of RD may bemore » important for its regulatory role: the continuous conformational change may be necessary for the progressive phosphorylation, and thus activation, of the channel. However, the lack of a defined and stable structure results in a considerable limitation when trying to in build a unique molecular model for the RD. Moreover, several evidences indicate significant structural differences between the native, non-phosphorylated state, and the multiple phosphorylated state of the protein. The aim of our work is to provide data to describe the conformations and the thermodynamic properties in these two functional states of RD. We have done the circular dichroism (CD) spectra in samples with a different degree of phosphorylation, from the non-phosphorylated state to a bona fide completely phosphorylated state. Analysis of CD spectra showed that the random coil and {beta}-sheets secondary structure decreased with the polypeptide phosphorylation, at expenses of an increase of {alpha}-helix. This observation lead to interpret phosphorylation as a mechanism favoring a more structured state. We also studied the thermal denaturation curves of the protein in the

  19. Novel short chain fatty acids restore chloride secretion in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Toan D.; Kim, Ug-Sung; Perrine, Susan P.

    2006-03-31

    Phenylalanine deletion at position 508 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ({delta}F508-CFTR), the most common mutation in cystic fibrosis (CF), causes a misfolded protein exhibiting partial chloride conductance and impaired trafficking to the plasma membrane. 4-Phenylbutyrate corrects defective {delta}F508-CFTR trafficking in vitro, but is not clinically efficacious. From a panel of short chain fatty acid derivatives, we showed that 2,2-dimethyl-butyrate (ST20) and {alpha}-methylhydrocinnamic acid (ST7), exhibiting high oral bioavailability and sustained plasma levels, correct the {delta}F508-CFTR defect. Pre-incubation ({>=}6 h) of CF IB3-1 airway cells with {>=}1 mM ST7 or ST20 restored the ability of 100 {mu}M forskolin tomore » stimulate an {sup 125}I{sup -} efflux. This efflux was fully inhibited by NPPB, DPC, or glibenclamide, suggesting mediation through CFTR. Partial inhibition by DIDS suggests possible contribution from an additional Cl{sup -} channel regulated by CFTR. Thus, ST7 and ST20 offer treatment potential for CF caused by the {delta}F508 mutation.« less

  20. Buserelin alleviates chloride transport defect in human cystic fibrosis nasal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Calvez, Marie-Laure; Benz, Nathalie; Huguet, Florentin; Saint-Pierre, Aude; Rouillé, Elise; Coraux, Christelle; Férec, Claude; Kerbiriou, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease in Caucasians caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) chloride (Cl-) channel regulated by protein kinases, phosphatases, divalent cations and by protein-protein interactions. Among protein-protein interactions, we previously showed that Annexin A5 (AnxA5) binds to CFTR and is involved in the channel localization within membranes and in its Cl- channel function. The deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (F508del) is the most common mutation in CF which leads to an altered protein (F508del-CFTR) folding with a nascent protein retained within the ER and is quickly degraded. We previously showed that AnxA5 binds to F508del-CFTR and that its increased expression due to a Gonadoliberin (GnRH) augments Cl- efflux in cells expressing F508del-CFTR. The aim of the present work was to use the GnRH analog buserelin which is already used in medicine. Human nasal epithelial cells from controls and CF patients (F508del/F508del) were treated with buserelin and we show here that the treatment alleviates Cl- channel defects in CF cells. Using proteomics we highlighted some proteins explaining this result. Finally, we propose that buserelin is a potential new pharmaceutical compound that can be used in CF and that bronchus can be targeted since we show here that they express GnRH-R. PMID:29145426

  1. Partial correction of the CFTR-dependent ABPA mouse model with recombinant adeno-associated virus gene transfer of truncated CFTR gene.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Christian; Torrez, Daniel; Braag, Sofia; Martino, Ashley; Clarke, Tracy; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Flotte, Terence R

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we have developed a model of airway inflammation in a CFTR knockout mouse utilizing Aspergillus fumigatus crude protein extract (Af-cpe) to mimic allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) 1, an unusual IgE-mediated hypersensitivity syndrome seen in up to 15% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and rarely elsewhere. We hypothesized that replacement of CFTR via targeted gene delivery to airway epithelium would correct aberrant epithelial cytokine signaling and ameliorate the ABPA phenotype in CFTR-deficient (CFTR 489X - /-, FABP-hCFTR + / +) mice. CFTR knockout mice underwent intra-tracheal (IT) delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (rAAV5Delta-264CFTR) or rAAV5-GFP at 2.58 x 10(12) viral genomes/mouse. All mice were then sensitized with two serial injections (200 microg) of crude Af antigen via the intra-peritoneal (IP) route. Untreated mice were sensitized without virus exposure. Challenges were performed 2 weeks after final sensitization, using a 0.25% solution containing Aspergillus fumigatus crude protein extract delivered by inhalation on three consecutive days. The rAAV5Delta-264CFTR-treated mice had lower total serum IgE levels (172513 ng/ml +/- 1312) than rAAV5-GFP controls (26 892 ng/ml +/- 3715) (p = 0.037) and non-treated, sensitized controls (24 816 +/- 4219 ng/ml). Serum IgG1 levels also were lower in mice receiving the CFTR vector. Interestingly, splenocytes from rAAV5Delta-264CFTR-treated mice secreted less IL-13, INFg, TNFa, RANTES and GM-CSF after ConA stimulation. Gene therapy with rAAV5Delta-264CFTR attenuated the hyper-IgE response in this reproducible CF mouse model of ABPA, with systemic effects also evident in the cytokine response of stimulated splenocytes. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Structural effects of extracellular loop mutations in CFTR helical hairpins.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Heng; Stone, Tracy A; Chin, Stephanie; Glibowicka, Mira; Bear, Christine E; Deber, Charles M

    2018-01-05

    Missense mutations constitute 40% of 2000 cystic fibrosis-phenotypic mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) database, yet the precise mechanism as to how a point mutation can render the entire 1480-residue CFTR protein dysfunctional is not well-understood. Here we investigate the structural effects of two CF-phenotypic mutations - glutamic acid to glycine at position 217 (E217G) and glutamine to arginine at position 220 (Q220R) - in the extracellular (ECL2) loop region of human CFTR using helical hairpin constructs derived from transmembrane (TM) helices 3 and 4 of the first membrane domain. We systematically replaced the wild type (WT) residues E217 and Q220 with the subset of missense mutations that could arise through a single nucleotide change in their respective codons. Circular dichroism spectra of E217G revealed that a significant increase in helicity vs. WT arises in the membrane-mimetic environment of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelles, while this mutant showed a similar gel shift to WT on SDS-PAGE gels. In contrast, the CF-mutant Q220R showed similar helicity but an increased gel shift vs. WT. These structural variations are compared with the maturation levels of the corresponding mutant full-length CFTRs, which we found are reduced to approx. 50% for E217G and 30% for Q220R vs. WT. The overall results with CFTR hairpins illustrate the range of impacts that single mutations can evoke in intramolecular protein-protein and/or protein-lipid interactions - and the levels to which corresponding mutations in full-length CFTR may be flagged by quality control mechanisms during biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chloride transport in functionally active phagosomes isolated from Human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Martha L.; Painter, Richard G.; Zhou, Yun; Wang, Guoshun

    2012-01-01

    Chloride anion is critical for hypochlorous acid (HOCl) production and microbial killing in neutrophil phagosomes. However, the molecular mechanism by which this anion is transported to the organelle is poorly understood. In this report, membrane-enclosed and functionally active phagosomes were isolated from human neutrophils by using opsonized paramagnetic latex microspheres and a rapid magnetic separation method. The phagosomes recovered were highly enriched for specific protein markers associated with this organelle such as lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin, and NADPH oxidase. When FITC–dextran was included in the phagocytosis medium, the majority of the isolated phagosomes retained the fluorescent label after isolation, indicative of intact membrane structure. Flow cytometric measurement of acridine orange, a fluorescent pH indicator, in the purified phagosomes demonstrated that the organelle in its isolated state was capable of transporting protons to the phagosomal lumen via the vacuolar-type ATPase proton pump (V-ATPase). When NADPH was supplied, the isolated phagosomes constitutively oxidized dihydrorhodamine 123, indicating their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. The preparations also showed a robust production of HOCl within the phagosomal lumen when assayed with the HOCl-specific fluorescent probe R19-S by flow cytometry. MPO-mediated iodination of the proteins covalently conjugated to the phagocytosed beads was quantitatively measured. Phagosomal uptake of iodide and protein iodination were significantly blocked by chloride channel inhibitors, including CFTRinh-172 and NPPB. Further experiments determined that the V-ATPase-driving proton flux into the isolated phagosomes required chloride cotransport, and the cAMP-activated CFTR chloride channel was a major contributor to the chloride transport. Taken together, the data suggest that the phagosomal preparation described herein retains ion transport

  4. Chloride transport in functionally active phagosomes isolated from Human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Martha L; Painter, Richard G; Zhou, Yun; Wang, Guoshun

    2012-12-15

    Chloride anion is critical for hypochlorous acid (HOCl) production and microbial killing in neutrophil phagosomes. However, the molecular mechanism by which this anion is transported to the organelle is poorly understood. In this report, membrane-enclosed and functionally active phagosomes were isolated from human neutrophils by using opsonized paramagnetic latex microspheres and a rapid magnetic separation method. The phagosomes recovered were highly enriched for specific protein markers associated with this organelle such as lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin, and NADPH oxidase. When FITC-dextran was included in the phagocytosis medium, the majority of the isolated phagosomes retained the fluorescent label after isolation, indicative of intact membrane structure. Flow cytometric measurement of acridine orange, a fluorescent pH indicator, in the purified phagosomes demonstrated that the organelle in its isolated state was capable of transporting protons to the phagosomal lumen via the vacuolar-type ATPase proton pump (V-ATPase). When NADPH was supplied, the isolated phagosomes constitutively oxidized dihydrorhodamine 123, indicating their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. The preparations also showed a robust production of HOCl within the phagosomal lumen when assayed with the HOCl-specific fluorescent probe R19-S by flow cytometry. MPO-mediated iodination of the proteins covalently conjugated to the phagocytosed beads was quantitatively measured. Phagosomal uptake of iodide and protein iodination were significantly blocked by chloride channel inhibitors, including CFTRinh-172 and NPPB. Further experiments determined that the V-ATPase-driving proton flux into the isolated phagosomes required chloride cotransport, and the cAMP-activated CFTR chloride channel was a major contributor to the chloride transport. Taken together, the data suggest that the phagosomal preparation described herein retains ion transport properties

  5. Characterization of DNASE I hypersensitive sites in the 120kb 5' to the CFTR gene.

    PubMed

    Smith, A N; Wardle, C J; Harris, A

    1995-06-06

    The chromatin structure of 120kb of genomic DNA 5' to the CFTR gene has been analysed in a number of CFTR expressing and non-expressing cell types, including primary genital duct epithelial cells. Novel DNAse I hypersensitive sites have been observed at -79.5kb and -20.5kb 5' to the ATG translation start codon of the CFTR coding sequence. Neither of these sites appears to show strong correlation with CFTR expression in the cell types investigated, hence they are unlikely to reflect the sites of binding of the major CFTR tissue specific regulator(s). However, they may still play an important part in the complex series of events involved in the regulation of CFTR transcription.

  6. Phenotypes of California CF Newborn Screen-Positive Children with CFTR 5T Allele by TG Repeat Length.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Danieli Barino; Azen, Colleen; Young, Suzanne; Keens, Thomas G; Kharrazi, Martin; Parad, Richard B

    2016-09-01

    At the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene (IVS8)-(TG)m(T)n locus, a lower number of thymidines (legacy names 9T vs. 7T vs. 5T) and a higher number of (TG) repeats (TG-11 vs. 12 vs. 13) are associated with decreasing translation of functional CFTR protein in vitro. Retrospective cohort study comparing phenotypes of California CF newborn screen-positive children (followed 2-8 years) who had two CF-causing mutations (diagnosed as CF) with those who had one mutation from a panel of 40 CF-causing mutations (CF40mut) and one (IVS8)-(TG)11, 12, or 13-5T mutation detected by sequencing (diagnosed as CFTR-related metabolic syndrome [cRMS]). The study included 428 children, of which 234 had two CF-causing mutations, and were used to compare with the other 194 children with one CF-causing mutation and one isolated 5T allele [CF40mut/(TG)13-5T = 21, CF40mut/(TG)12-5T = 85, and CF40mut/(TG)11-5T = 88]. Among children with CF40mut/(TG)13-5T, 38% were diagnosed with CF by 8 years, based on sweat chloride results and clinical presentation. Six percent of those with CF40mut/(TG)12-5T, and none with CF40mut/(TG)11-5T, reached diagnostic criteria. CFTR (IVS8)-(TG)m-5T allele (TG) tract length determination provides valuable information in predicting the risk of developing a CF phenotype. Of the three types of 5T alleles evaluated, screen-positive children with genotype CF40mut/(TG)13-5T progressed from CRMS to CF at a high rate, while there was little evidence of clinical disease in those with CF40mut/(TG)11-5T. Additional data from longer follow-up intervals are needed to fully understand the natural history of individuals with a CF40mut/(TG)m-5T genotype.

  7. Processing and function of CFTR-ΔF508 are species-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Rogers, Christopher S.; Dong, Qian; Randak, Christoph O.; Vermeer, Daniel W.; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Karp, Philip H.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis. The most common mutation, a deletion of the phenylalanine at position 508 (ΔF508), disrupts processing of the protein. Nearly all human CFTR-ΔF508 is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded, preventing maturation to the plasma membrane. In addition, the F508 deletion reduces the activity of single CFTR channels. Human CFTR-ΔF508 has been extensively studied to better understand its defects. Here, we adopted a cross-species comparative approach, examining human, pig, and mouse CFTR-ΔF508. As with human CFTR-ΔF508, the ΔF508 mutation reduced the single-channel activity of the pig and mouse channels. However, the mutant pig and mouse proteins were at least partially processed like their wild-type counterparts. Moreover, pig and mouse CFTR-ΔF508 partially restored transepithelial Cl− transport to CF airway epithelia. Our data, combined with earlier work, suggest that there is a gradient in the severity of the CFTR-ΔF508 processing defect, with human more severe than pig or mouse. These findings may explain some previously puzzling observations in CF mice, they have important implications for evaluation of potential therapeutics, and they suggest new strategies for discovering the mechanisms that disrupt processing of human CFTR-ΔF508. PMID:17873061

  8. CFTR gene mutations in isolated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pignatti, P.F.; Bombien, C.; Marigo, C.

    1994-09-01

    In order to identify a possible hereditary predisposition to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we have looked for the presence of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene DNA sequence modifications in 28 unrelated patients with no signs of cystic fibrosis. The known mutations in Italian CF patients, as well as the most frequent worldwide CF mutations, were investigated. In addition, a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of about half of the coding sequence of the gene in 56 chromosomes from the patients and in 102 chromosomes from control individuals affected by other pulmonary diseases and from normalmore » controls was performed. Nine different CFTR gene mutations and polymorphisms were found in seven patients, a highly significant increase over controls. Two of the patients were compound heterozygotes. Two frequent CF mutations were detected: deletion F508 and R117H; two rare CF mutations: R1066C and 3667ins4; and five CF sequence variants: R75Q (which was also described as a disease-causing mutation in male sterility cases due to the absence of the vasa deferentia), G576A, 2736 A{r_arrow}G, L997F, and 3271+18C{r_arrow}T. Seven (78%) of the mutations are localized in transmembrane domains. Six (86%) of the patients with defined mutations and polymorphisms had bronchiectasis. These results indicate that CFTR gene mutations and sequence alterations may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of some cases of COPD.« less

  9. CFTR (ABCC7) is a hydrolyzable-ligand-gated channel.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Riordan, John R

    2007-02-01

    As the product of the gene mutated in cystic fibrosis, the most common genetic disease of Caucasians, CFTR is an atypical ABC protein. From an evolutionary perspective, it is apparently a relatively young member of the ABC family, present only in metazoans where it plays a critical role in epithelial salt and fluid homeostasis. Functionally, the membrane translocation process it mediates, the passive bidirectional diffusion of small inorganic anions, is simpler than the vectorial transport of larger more complex substrates ("allocrites") by most ABC transporters. However, the control of the permeation pathway which cannot go unchecked is necessarily more stringent than in the case of the transporters. There is tight regulation by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the unique CFTR R domain superimposed on the basic ABC regulation mode of ATP binding and hydrolysis at the dual nucleotide binding sites. As with other ABCC subfamily members, only the second of these sites is hydrolytic in CFTR. The phosphorylation and ATP binding/hydrolysis events do not strongly influence each other; rather, R domain phosphorylation appears to enable transduction of the nucleotide binding allosteric signal to the responding channel gate. ATP hydrolysis is not required for either the opening or closing gating transitions but efficiently clears the ligand-binding site enabling a new gating cycle to be initiated.

  10. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  11. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  13. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  14. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  15. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  16. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 01 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  17. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R01 / 003 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 74 - 87 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2001 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance

  18. CFTR mutations impart elevated immune reactivity in a murine model of cystic fibrosis related diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stalvey, Michael S; Brusko, Todd M; Mueller, Christian; Wasserfall, Clive H; Schatz, Desmond A; Atkinson, Mark A; Flotte, Terence R

    2008-10-01

    Increased life expectancy in cystic fibrosis (CF) is accompanied by an increasing incidence of CF related diabetes (CFRD). Altered immune reactivity occurs in CF, which we hypothesize, is exacerbated by hyperglycemia. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator deficient (CFTR-/-) mice were rendered hyperglycemic by streptozotocin (STZ) to test this hypothesis. CFTR-/-, C57BL/6J, and FVB/NJ mice received either STZ or lactated ringers (LR) (n=5-10). Four weeks later, splenocytes were harvested, mitogen stimulated, and analyzed for cytokine production (IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10) along with stimulation indices (SI). SI of STZ-treated CFTR-/- were elevated compared to LR-treated mice, although both were greater than C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ (p<0.05). Fasting glucose levels of STZ-treated CFTR-/- mice correlated with SI (p<0.003). Stimulated IL-10 concentrations were elevated in STZ-treated CFTR-/- compared to LR-treated animals and controls (p<0.05). IL-2 levels were greater in CFTR-/- mice compared to controls (p<0.05), but unrelated to STZ. Reinforcing generalized cytokine up-regulation in CFTR-/-, IL-4 levels were greater in CFTR-/- mice compared to C57BL/6J, but FVB/NJ mice demonstrated greatest concentrations following STZ. These results suggest that, hyperglycemia may exacerbate the clinical course in CF by impacting immune reactivity. There is clear need to maximize metabolic management in CFRD.

  19. Rescuing mutant CFTR: a multi-task approach to a better outcome in treating cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Margarida D; Farinha, Carlos M

    2013-01-01

    Correcting multiple defects of mutant CFTR with small molecule compounds has been the goal of an increasing number of recent Cystic Fibrosis (CF) drug discovery programmes. However, the mechanism of action (MoA) by which these molecules restore mutant CFTR is still poorly understood, in particular of CFTR correctors, i.e., compounds rescuing to the cells surface the most prevalent mutant in CF patients--F508del-CFTR. However, there is increasing evidence that to fully restore the multiple defects associated with F508del-CFTR, different small molecules with distinct corrective properties may be required. Towards this goal, a better insight into MoA of correctors is needed and several constraints should be addressed. The methodological approaches to achieve this include: 1) testing the combined effect of compounds with that of other (non-pharmacological) rescuing strategies (e.g., revertants or low temperature); 2) assessing effects in multiple cellular models (non-epithelial vs epithelial, non-human vs human, immortalized vs primary cultures, polarized vs non polarized, cells vs tissues); 3) assessing compound effects on isolated CFTR domains (e.g., compound binding by surface plasmon resonance, assessing effects on domain folding and aggregation); and finally 4) assessing compounds specificity in rescuing different CFTR mutants and other mutant proteins. These topics are reviewed and discussed here so as to provide a state-of-the art review on how to combine multiple ways of rescuing mutant CFTR to the ultimate benefit of CF patients.

  20. Electrophysiological Evidence for the Presence of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in Mouse Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Dulce, Figueiras Fierro; José, Acevedo Juan; Pablo, Martínez; Escoffier, Jessica; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.; Enrique, Balderas; Gerardo, Orta; Pablo, Visconti; Alberto, Darszon

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian sperm must undergo a maturational process, named capacitation, in the female reproductive tract to fertilize the egg. Sperm capacitation is regulated by a cAMP/PKA pathway and involves increases in intracellular Ca2+, pH, Cl−, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and in mouse and some other mammals a membrane potential hyperpolarization. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl− channel modulated by cAMP/PKA and ATP, was detected in mammalian sperm and proposed to modulate capacitation. Our whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from testicular mouse sperm now reveal a Cl− selective component to membrane current that is ATP-dependent, stimulated by cAMP, cGMP and genistein (a CFTR agonist, at low concentrations), and inhibited by DPC and CFTRinh-172, two well-known CFTR antagonists. Furthermore, the Cl− current component activated by cAMP and inhibited by CFTRinh-172 is absent in recordings on testicular sperm from mice possessing the CFTR ΔF508 loss-of-function mutation, indicating that CFTR is responsible for this component. A Cl− selective like current component displaying CFTR characteristics was also found in wild type epididymal sperm bearing the cytoplasmatic droplet. Capacitated sperm treated with CFTRinh-172 undergo a shape change, suggesting that CFTR is involved in cell volume regulation. These findings indicate that functional CFTR channels are present in mouse sperm and their biophysical properties are consistent with their proposed participation in capacitation. PMID:22833409

  1. Cystic fibrosis gene modifier SLC26A9 modulates airway response to CFTR-directed therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Strug, Lisa J; Gonska, Tanja; He, Gengming; Keenan, Katherine; Ip, Wan; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Lin, Fan; Panjwani, Naim; Gong, Jiafen; Li, Weili; Soave, David; Xiao, Bowei; Tullis, Elizabeth; Rabin, Harvey; Parkins, Michael D; Price, April; Zuberbuhler, Peter C; Corvol, Harriet; Ratjen, Felix; Sun, Lei; Bear, Christine E; Rommens, Johanna M

    2016-10-15

    Cystic fibrosis is realizing the promise of personalized medicine. Recent advances in drug development that target the causal CFTR directly result in lung function improvement, but variability in response is demanding better prediction of outcomes to improve management decisions. The genetic modifier SLC26A9 contributes to disease severity in the CF pancreas and intestine at birth and here we assess its relationship with disease severity and therapeutic response in the airways. SLC26A9 association with lung disease was assessed in individuals from the Canadian and French CF Gene Modifier consortia with CFTR-gating mutations and in those homozygous for the common Phe508del mutation. Variability in response to a CFTR-directed therapy attributed to SLC26A9 genotype was assessed in Canadian patients with gating mutations. A primary airway model system determined if SLC26A9 shows modification of Phe508del CFTR function upon treatment with a CFTR corrector. In those with gating mutations that retain cell surface-localized CFTR we show that SLC26A9 modifies lung function while this is not the case in individuals homozygous for Phe508del where cell surface expression is lacking. Treatment response to ivacaftor, which aims to improve CFTR-channel opening probability in patients with gating mutations, shows substantial variability in response, 28% of which can be explained by rs7512462 in SLC26A9 (P = 0.0006). When homozygous Phe508del primary bronchial cells are treated to restore surface CFTR, SLC26A9 likewise modifies treatment response (P = 0.02). Our findings indicate that SLC26A9 airway modification requires CFTR at the cell surface, and that a common variant in SLC26A9 may predict response to CFTR-directed therapeutics.

  2. Paranasal sinus size is decreased in CFTR heterozygotes with chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Calton, Joshua B; Koripella, Pradeep C; Willis, Amanda L; Le, Christopher H; Chiu, Alexander G; Chang, Eugene H

    2017-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) heterozygotes with a single mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are at significantly higher risk to develop chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However the reasons why remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that CFTR heterozygotes would have smaller sinus volumes than healthy controls. To exclude sinus disease as a confounding factor we also assessed paranasal sinus volume in those with CRS, but without known CFTR mutations. A total of 131 adults of white Northern European and Latino origin were recruited: 81 diagnosed with CRS and 50 healthy controls. Subjects were genotyped for 9 common CFTR mutations covering >80% of mutation prevalence. Those with CRS were separated by CFTR mutational status and matched demographically to healthy controls. Three-dimensional sinus volume, mucosal opacification, and skull volume were quantified to obtain the percentage of pneumatization and extent of mucosal disease in each sinus. Twenty-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20) and endoscopy scores were also analyzed. In individuals diagnosed with CRS we identified 7 CFTR heterozygotes (8.64%); no CFTR mutations were identified in our healthy controls. There were no significant differences between the 3 matched groups other than sinus pneumatization. The frontal and maxillary sinuses were significantly smaller in CFTR heterozygotes with CRS compared to CFTR wild-type subjects with or without disease. CFTR heterozygotes with CRS have significantly smaller frontal and maxillary sinus size compared to those without mutations, irrespective of disease state. This sinus hypoplasia may contribute to impaired mucus clearance and chronic sinus disease development. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  3. Lower Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xian; Wang, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Yue, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background The incidence and death rates of endometrial cancer are alarmingly increasing. The diagnosis and treatment of endometrial cancer is crucial to decreasing mortality. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) belongs to the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter family and plays an essential role in anion regulation and tissue homeostasis of various epithelia. This study explored the expression of CFTR in endometrial carcinoma and the role of CFTR in proliferation and migration of endometrial carcinoma cells. Material/Methods Immunohistochemistry and real-time (RT)-PCR were used to test the expression of CFTR in normal endometrium and endometrial carcinoma. CFTR inhibitor was used to restrain the expression of CFTR on the endometrial carcinoma, the effects on the proliferation and migration of endometrial carcinoma cells were also studied. RT-PCR was performed to test the expression of mir-125b after restraining CFTR. Proliferation and migration capability of endometrial carcinoma cells were detected after transfection of endometrial carcinoma cells with mir-125b mimic. Results Compared with cells from normal endometrium, the expression of CFTR was significantly upregulated in endometrial carcinoma cells. After adding CFTR(inh)172, the capability for proliferation and transfer of endometrial carcinoma cells was strengthened, the expression of mir-125b was reduced, and after transfection with mir-125b mimics entering the endometrial carcinoma cells, the ability of the proliferation and transfer of endometrial carcinoma cells was also reduced. Conclusions The high expression of CFTR in the endometrial carcinoma cells played a pivotal role in restraining the proliferation and transfer of endometrial carcinoma cells. PMID:28225751

  4. CFTR-regulated MAPK/NF-κB signaling in pulmonary inflammation in thermal inhalation injury.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhi Wei; Chen, Jing; Ruan, Ye Chun; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Yu; Chen, YaJie; Tsang, Lai Ling; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Peng, Yi Zhi

    2015-10-30

    The mechanism underlying pulmonary inflammation in thermal inhalation injury remains elusive. Cystic fibrosis, also hallmarked with pulmonary inflammation, is caused by mutations in CFTR, the expression of which is temperature-sensitive. We investigated whether CFTR is involved in heat-induced pulmonary inflammation. We applied heat-treatment in 16HBE14o- cells with CFTR knockdown or overexpression and heat-inhalation in rats in vivo. Heat-treatment caused significant reduction in CFTR and, reciprocally, increase in COX-2 at early stages both in vitro and in vivo. Activation of ERK/JNK, NF-κB and COX-2/PGE2 were detected in heat-treated cells, which were mimicked by knockdown, and reversed by overexpression of CFTR or VX-809, a reported CFTR mutation corrector. JNK/ERK inhibition reversed heat-/CFTR-knockdown-induced NF-κB activation, whereas NF-κB inhibitor showed no effect on JNK/ERK. IL-8 was augmented by heat-treatment or CFTR-knockdown, which was abolished by inhibition of NF-κB, JNK/ERK or COX-2. Moreover, in vitro or in vivo treatment with curcumin, a natural phenolic compound, significantly enhanced CFTR expression and reversed the heat-induced increases in COX-2/PGE2/IL-8, neutrophil infiltration and tissue damage in the airway. These results have revealed a CFTR-regulated MAPK/NF-κB pathway leading to COX-2/PGE2/IL-8 activation in thermal inhalation injury, and demonstrated therapeutic potential of curcumin for alleviating heat-induced pulmonary inflammation.

  5. Nasal Potential Difference Measurements to Assess CFTR Ion Channel Activity

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Jean-Paul; Wilschanski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Nasal potential difference is used to measure the voltage across the nasal epithelium, which results from transepithelial ion transport and reflects in part CFTR function. The electrophysiologic abnormality in cystic fibrosis was first described 30 years ago and correlates with features of the CF phenotype. NPD is an important in vivo research and diagnostic tool, and is used to assess the efficacy of new treatments such as gene therapy and ion transport modulators. This chapter will elaborate on the electrophysiological principles behind the test, the equipment required, the methods, and the analysis of the data. PMID:21594779

  6. Introduction to section III: biochemical methods to study CFTR protein.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Margarida D; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2011-01-01

    This section of Cystic Fibrosis: Diagnosis and Protocols is focussed on methods aimed at detecting expression, localization, endocytic sorting and metabolism (biogenesis and turnover), as well as interacting partners of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the protein product of the gene mutated in cystic fibrosis (CF). An overview of the protocols to be found in subsequent chapters of this book section is provided here, as well as the rationale for utilizing these protocols (also as a workflow) explaining which scientific question(s) each of them helps to address. Protocols included in other sections of this book are also cross-referenced.

  7. Synergy-Based Small-Molecule Screen Using a Human Lung Epithelial Cell Line Yields ΔF508-CFTR Correctors That Augment VX-809 Maximal Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Phuan, Puay-Wah; Veit, Guido; Tan, Joseph; Roldan, Ariel; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; L. Lukacs, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    The most prevalent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation causing cystic fibrosis, ΔF508, impairs folding of nucleotide binding domain (NBD) 1 and stability of the interface between NBD1 and the membrane-spanning domains. The interfacial stability defect can be partially corrected by the investigational drug VX-809 (3-[6-[[[1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropyl]carbonyl]amino]-3-methyl-2-pyridinyl]-benzoic acid) or the R1070W mutation. Second-generation ΔF508-CFTR correctors are needed to improve on the modest efficacy of existing cystic fibrosis correctors. We postulated that a second corrector targeting a distinct folding/interfacial defect might act in synergy with VX-809 or the R1070W suppressor mutation. A biochemical screen for ΔF508-CFTR cell surface expression was developed in a human lung epithelium–derived cell line (CFBE41o−) by expressing chimeric CFTRs with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the fourth exofacial loop in either the presence or absence of R1070W. Using a luminescence readout of HRP activity, screening of approximately 110,000 small molecules produced nine novel corrector scaffolds that increased cell surface ∆F508-CFTR expression by up to 200% in the presence versus absence of maximal VX-809. Further screening of 1006 analogs of compounds identified from the primary screen produced 15 correctors with an EC50 < 5 µM. Eight chemical scaffolds showed synergy with VX-809 in restoring chloride permeability in ∆F508-expressing A549 cells. An aminothiazole increased chloride conductance in human bronchial epithelial cells from a ΔF508 homozygous subject beyond that of maximal VX-809. Mechanistic studies suggested that NBD2 is required for the aminothiazole rescue. Our results provide proof of concept for synergy screening to identify second-generation correctors, which, when used in combination, may overcome the “therapeutic ceiling” of first-generation correctors. PMID:24737137

  8. Synergy-based small-molecule screen using a human lung epithelial cell line yields ΔF508-CFTR correctors that augment VX-809 maximal efficacy.

    PubMed

    Phuan, Puay-Wah; Veit, Guido; Tan, Joseph; Roldan, Ariel; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Lukacs, Gergely L; Verkman, A S

    2014-07-01

    The most prevalent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation causing cystic fibrosis, ΔF508, impairs folding of nucleotide binding domain (NBD) 1 and stability of the interface between NBD1 and the membrane-spanning domains. The interfacial stability defect can be partially corrected by the investigational drug VX-809 (3-[6-[[[1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropyl]carbonyl]amino]-3-methyl-2-pyridinyl]-benzoic acid) or the R1070W mutation. Second-generation ΔF508-CFTR correctors are needed to improve on the modest efficacy of existing cystic fibrosis correctors. We postulated that a second corrector targeting a distinct folding/interfacial defect might act in synergy with VX-809 or the R1070W suppressor mutation. A biochemical screen for ΔF508-CFTR cell surface expression was developed in a human lung epithelium-derived cell line (CFBE41o(-)) by expressing chimeric CFTRs with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the fourth exofacial loop in either the presence or absence of R1070W. Using a luminescence readout of HRP activity, screening of approximately 110,000 small molecules produced nine novel corrector scaffolds that increased cell surface ∆F508-CFTR expression by up to 200% in the presence versus absence of maximal VX-809. Further screening of 1006 analogs of compounds identified from the primary screen produced 15 correctors with an EC50 < 5 µM. Eight chemical scaffolds showed synergy with VX-809 in restoring chloride permeability in ∆F508-expressing A549 cells. An aminothiazole increased chloride conductance in human bronchial epithelial cells from a ΔF508 homozygous subject beyond that of maximal VX-809. Mechanistic studies suggested that NBD2 is required for the aminothiazole rescue. Our results provide proof of concept for synergy screening to identify second-generation correctors, which, when used in combination, may overcome the "therapeutic ceiling" of first-generation correctors. Copyright © 2014 by The

  9. Targeting the Intracellular Environment in Cystic Fibrosis: Restoring Autophagy as a Novel Strategy to Circumvent the CFTR Defect

    PubMed Central

    Villella, Valeria Rachela; Esposito, Speranza; Bruscia, Emanuela M.; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Raia, Valeria; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients harboring the most common deletion mutation of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), F508del, are poor responders to potentiators of CFTR channel activity which can be used to treat a small subset of CF patients who genetically carry plasma membrane (PM)-resident CFTR mutants. The misfolded F508del-CFTR protein is unstable in the PM even if rescued by pharmacological agents that prevent its intracellular retention and degradation. CF is a conformational disease in which defective CFTR induces an impressive derangement of general proteostasis resulting from disabled autophagy. In this review, we discuss how rescuing Beclin 1 (BECN1), a major player of autophagosome formation, either by means of direct gene transfer or indirectly by administration of proteostasis regulators, could stabilize F508del-CFTR at the PM. We focus on the relationship between the improvement of peripheral proteostasis and CFTR PM stability in F508del-CFTR homozygous bronchial epithelia or mouse lungs. Moreover, this article reviews recent pre-clinical evidence indicating that targeting the intracellular environment surrounding the misfolded mutant CFTR instead of protein itself could constitute an attractive therapeutic option to sensitize patients carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation to the beneficial action of CFTR potentiators on lung inflammation. PMID:23346057

  10. Thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor identified by high-throughput screening blocks cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tonghui; Thiagarajah, Jay R; Yang, Hong; Sonawane, Nitin D; Folli, Chiara; Galietta, Luis J V; Verkman, A S

    2002-12-01

    Secretory diarrhea is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries and a major cause of morbidity in adults. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is required for fluid secretion in the intestine and airways and, when defective, causes the lethal genetic disease cystic fibrosis. We screened 50,000 chemically diverse compounds for inhibition of cAMP/flavone-stimulated Cl(-) transport in epithelial cells expressing CFTR. Six CFTR inhibitors of the 2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone chemical class were identified. The most potent compound discovered by screening of structural analogs, CFTR(inh)-172, reversibly inhibited CFTR short-circuit current in less than 2 minutes in a voltage-independent manner with K(I) approximately 300 nM. CFTR(inh)-172 was nontoxic at high concentrations in cell culture and mouse models. At concentrations fully inhibiting CFTR, CFTR(inh)-172 did not prevent elevation of cellular cAMP or inhibit non-CFTR Cl(-) channels, multidrug resistance protein-1 (MDR-1), ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, or a series of other transporters. A single intraperitoneal injection of CFTR(inh)-172 (250 micro g/kg) in mice reduced by more than 90% cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion in the small intestine over 6 hours. Thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitors may be useful in developing large-animal models of cystic fibrosis and in reducing intestinal fluid loss in cholera and other secretory diarrheas.

  11. Cyanoquinolines with Independent Corrector and Potentiator Activities Restore ΔPhe508-Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Chloride Channel Function in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Phuan, Puay-Wah; Yang, Baoxue; Knapp, John M.; Wood, Alex B.; Lukacs, Gergely L.; Kurth, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    The ΔPhe508 mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein impairs its folding, stability, and chloride channel gating. Although small molecules that separately correct defective ΔPhe508-CFTR folding/cellular processing (“correctors”) or chloride channel gating (“potentiators”) have been discovered and are in clinical trials, single compounds with bona fide dual corrector and potentiator activities have not been identified. Here, screening of ∼110,000 small molecules not tested previously revealed a cyanoquinoline class of compounds with independent corrector and potentiator activities (termed CoPo). Analysis of 180 CoPo analogs revealed 6 compounds with dual corrector and potentiator activities and 13 compounds with only potentiator activity. N-(2-((3-Cyano-5,7-dimethylquinolin-2-yl)amino)ethyl)-3-methoxybenzamide (CoPo-22), which was synthesized in six steps in 52% overall yield, had low micromolar EC50 for ΔPhe508-CFTR corrector and potentiator activities by short-circuit current assay. Maximal corrector and potentiator activities were comparable with those conferred by the bithiazole Corr-4a and the flavone genistein, respectively. CoPo-22 also activated wild-type and G551D CFTR chloride conductance within minutes in a forskolin-dependent manner. Compounds with dual corrector and potentiator activities may be useful for single-drug treatment of cystic fibrosis caused by ΔPhe508 mutation. PMID:21730204

  12. Analysis of long-range interactions in primary human cells identifies cooperative CFTR regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Moisan, Stéphanie; Berlivet, Soizik; Ka, Chandran; Gac, Gérald Le; Dostie, Josée; Férec, Claude

    2016-01-01

    A mechanism by which control DNA elements regulate transcription over large linear genomic distances is by achieving close physical proximity with genes, and looping of the intervening chromatin paths. Alterations of such regulatory ‘chromatin looping’ systems are likely to play a critical role in human genetic disease at large. Here, we studied the spatial organization of a ≈790 kb locus encompassing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Dysregulation of CFTR is responsible for cystic fibrosis, which is the most common lethal genetic disorder in Caucasian populations. CFTR is a relatively large gene of 189 kb with a rather complex tissue-specific and temporal expression profile. We used chromatin conformation at the CFTR locus to identify new DNA sequences that regulate its transcription. By comparing 5C chromatin interaction maps of the CFTR locus in expressing and non-expressing human primary cells, we identified several new contact points between the CFTR promoter and its surroundings, in addition to regions featuring previously described regulatory elements. We demonstrate that two of these novel interacting regions cooperatively increase CFTR expression, and suggest that the new enhancer elements located on either side of the gene are brought together through chromatin looping via CTCF. PMID:26615198

  13. Molecular evaluation of CFTR sequence variants in male infertility of testicular origin.

    PubMed

    Larriba, S; Bonache, S; Sarquella, J; Ramos, M D; Giménez, J; Bassas, L; Casals, T

    2005-10-01

    Although the involvement of the CFTR gene has been well established in congenital agenesia of vas deferens, its role in non-obstructive (NOb) infertility is still a matter of debate. In order to definitively define the involvement of the CFTR gene in spermatogenic impairment and a potential synergistic contribution to known genetic and clinical factors, genetic variants in the entire coding sequence and the immediately flanking regions of the CFTR gene, along with a thorough clinical evaluation, were analysed in 83 NOb infertile patients and 87 clinically well-defined fertile individuals as controls. The results of our study showed no statistical difference between CFTR carrier frequency in the infertile and fertile population. Specifically, the IVS8-6(5T) allele carrier frequency was similar in NOb infertile patients when compared with fertile men, but it is noteworthy that, when fertile men were classified into having optimal and suboptimal fertility, no 5T allele was found among the 35 men with optimal fertility parameters. In conclusion, extensive CFTR analysis in infertile individuals and fertile population as adequate control definitively excludes the involvement of the CFTR gene variants in sperm production and stresses the importance of carefully identifying those individuals with obstructive defects, in whom CFTR screening will be beneficial.

  14. The HDAC inhibitor SAHA does not rescue CFTR membrane expression in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bergougnoux, Anne; Petit, Aurélie; Knabe, Lucie; Bribes, Estelle; Chiron, Raphaël; De Sario, Albertina; Claustres, Mireille; Molinari, Nicolas; Vachier, Isabelle; Taulan-Cadars, Magali; Bourdin, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    The development of suitable Cystic Fibrosis (CF) models for preclinical bench tests of therapeutic candidates is challenging. Indeed, the validation of molecules to rescue the p.Phe508del-CFTR channel (encoded by the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator gene carrying the p.Phe508del mutation) requires taking into account their overall effects on the epithelium. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), was previously shown to be a CFTR corrector via proteostasis modulation in CFTR-deficient immortalized cells. Here, we tested SAHA effects on goblet cell metaplasia using an ex vivo model based on the air-liquid interface (ALI) culture of differentiated airway epithelial cells obtained by nasal scraping from CF patients and healthy controls. Ex vivo epithelium grew successfully in ALI cultures with significant rise in the expression of CFTR and of markers of airway epithelial differentiation compared to monolayer cell culture. SAHA decreased CFTR transcript and protein levels in CF and non-CF epithelia. Whereas SAHA induced lysine hyperacetylation, it did not change histone modifications at the CFTR promoter. SAHA reduced MUC5AC and MUC5B expression and inhibited goblet epithelial cell differentiation. Similar effects were obtained in CF and non-CF epithelia. All the effects were fully reversible within five days from SAHA withdrawal. We conclude that, ex vivo, SAHA modulate the structure of airway epithelia without specific effect on CFTR gene and protein suggesting that HDACi cannot be useful for CF treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Membrane lateral diffusion and capture of CFTR within transient confinement zones.

    PubMed

    Bates, Ian R; Hébert, Benedict; Luo, Yishan; Liao, Jie; Bachir, Alexia I; Kolin, David L; Wiseman, Paul W; Hanrahan, John W

    2006-08-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel interacts with scaffolding and other proteins that are expected to restrict its lateral movement, yet previous studies have reported predominantly free diffusion. We examined the lateral mobility of CFTR channels on live baby hamster kidney cells using three complementary methods. Channels bearing an extracellular biotinylation target sequence were labeled with streptavidin conjugated with fluorescent dyes (Alexa Fluor 488 or 568) or quantum dots (qDot605). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and image correlation spectroscopy of the dye-labeled channels revealed a significant immobile population ( approximately 50%), which was confirmed by direct single particle tracking (SPT) of qDot605-labeled CFTR. Adding 10 histidine residues at the C-terminus of CFTR to mask the postsynaptic density 95, Discs large, ZO-1 (PDZ) binding motif abolished its association with EBP50/NHERF1, reduced the immobile fraction, and increased mobility. Other interactions that are not normally detected on this timescale became apparent when binding of PDZ domain proteins was disrupted. SPT revealed that CFTR(His-10) channels diffuse randomly, become immobilized for periods lasting up to 1 min, and in some instances are recaptured at the same location. The impact of transient confinement on the measured diffusion using the three fluorescence techniques were assessed using computer simulations of the biological experiments. Finally, the impact of endosomal CFTR on mobility measurements was assessed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. These results reveal unexpected features of CFTR dynamics which may influence its ion channel activity.

  16. CFTR Deletion in Mouse Testis Induces VDAC1 Mediated Inflammatory Pathway Critical for Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huijuan, Liao; Jiang, Xie; Ming, Yang; Huaqin, Sun; Wenming, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common genetic disease among Caucasians and affects tissues including lung, pancreas and reproductive tracts. It has been shown that Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress and heat shock response are two major deregulated functional modules related to CFTR dysfunction. To identify the impact of CFTR deletion during spermatogenesis, we examined the expression of spermiogenesis-related genes in the testis of CFTR mutant mice (CF mice). We confirmed expression changes of MSY2, a germ cell specific RNA binding protein, resulting from deletion of CFTR in testis. Furthermore, real time PCR and Western blot results showed that an inflammatory response was activated in CF mice testis, as reflected by the altered expression of cytokines. We demonstrate for the first time that expression of MSY2 is decreased in CF mice. Our results suggest that CFTR deletion in testis influences inflammatory responses and these features are likely to be due to the unique environment of the seminiferous tubule during the spermatogenesis process. The current study also suggests avenues to understand the pathophysiology of CFTR during spermatogenesis and provides targets for the possible treatment of CFTR-related infertility. PMID:27483469

  17. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Abdurrahman Erdem; Karataş-Torun, Nimet; Maslak, İbrahim Cemal; Bingöl, Ayşen; Alper, Özgül M

    2017-01-01

    Başaran AE, Karataş-Torun N, Maslak İC, Bingöl A, Alper ÖM. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 68-70. A 5-month-old patient presented with complaints of fever and cough. He was hospitalized with the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia and pseudo-Bartter's syndrome. Patient was further investigated for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. The chloride (Cl) level in sweat was determined within the normal range (25.1 mmol/L, 20.3 mmol/L). CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator gene; NM_000492.2) genotyping results were positive for p.E92K; p.F1052V mutations. The patient was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. In our patient, with features of CF and normal sweat test, mutation analysis was helpful for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

  18. CFTR Genotype and Maximal Exercise Capacity in Cystic Fibrosis: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Thomas; Hebestreit, Helge; Gallati, Sabina; Schneiderman, Jane E; Braun, Julia; Stevens, Daniel; Hulzebos, Erik Hj; Takken, Tim; Boas, Steven R; Urquhart, Don S; Lands, Larry C; Tejero, Sergio; Sovtic, Aleksandar; Dwyer, Tiffany; Petrovic, Milos; Harris, Ryan A; Karila, Chantal; Savi, Daniela; Usemann, Jakob; Mei-Zahav, Meir; Hatziagorou, Elpis; Ratjen, Felix; Kriemler, Susi

    2018-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells. Variations of CFTR dysfunction among patients with cystic fibrosis may be an important determinant of maximal exercise capacity in cystic fibrosis. Previous studies on the relationship between CFTR genotype and maximal exercise capacity are scarce and contradictory. This study was designed to explore factors influencing maximal exercise capacity, expressed as peak oxygen uptake (V.O2peak), with a specific focus on CFTR genotype in children and adults with cystic fibrosis. In an international, multicenter, cross-sectional study, we collected data on CFTR genotype and cardiopulmonary exercise tests in patients with cystic fibrosis who were ages 8 years and older. CFTR mutations were classified into functional classes I–V. The final analysis included 726 patients (45% females; age range, 8–61 yr; forced expiratory volume in 1 s, 16 to 123% predicted) from 17 cystic fibrosis centers in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia, all of whom had both valid maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests and complete CFTR genotype data. Overall, patients exhibited exercise intolerance (V.O2peak, 77.3 ± 19.1% predicted), but values were comparable among different CFTR classes. We did not detect an association between CFTR genotype functional classes I–III and either V.O2peak (percent predicted) (adjusted β = −0.95; 95% CI, −4.18 to 2.29; P = 0.57) or maximum work rate (Wattmax) (adjusted β = −1.38; 95% CI, −5.04 to 2.27; P = 0.46) compared with classes IV–V. Those with at least one copy of a F508del-CFTR mutation and one copy of a class V mutation had a significantly lower V.O2peak (β = −8.24%; 95% CI, −14.53 to −2.99; P = 0.003) and lower Wattmax (adjusted β = −7.59%; 95% CI, −14.21 to −0.95; P = 0.025) than those with two copies of a class II mutation. On the basis of linear regression analysis adjusted for

  19. Unique presentations and chronic complications in adult cystic fibrosis: do they teach us anything about CFTR?

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Michael P

    2000-01-01

    The increase in numbers of adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) has allowed us to identify previously unrecognized chronic complications of CF, as well as appreciate unique presentations of cystic fibrosis-related diseases. Do these chronic complications and unique presentations provide us with new insight into cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function? Current data suggest that the 'chronic complications' reveal mainly the effect of a long-term absence of previously recognized CFTR functions. In contrast, the 'unique presentations' provide new insight into the role of CFTR in different tissues. PMID:11667976

  20. A Survey of Detergents for the Purification of Stable, Active Human Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Ellen; Zhang, Qinghai; Cant, Natasha; Ding, Haitao; Dai, Qun; Peng, Lingling; Fu, Yu; DeLucas, Lawrence J.; Ford, Robert; Kappes, John C.; Urbatsch, Ina L.

    2014-01-01

    Structural knowledge of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) requires developing methods to purify and stabilize this aggregation-prone membrane protein above 1 mg/ml. Starting with green fluorescent protein- and epitope-tagged human CFTR produced in mammalian cells known to properly fold and process CFTR, we devised a rapid tandem affinity purification scheme to minimize CFTR exposure to detergent in order to preserve its ATPase function. We compared a panel of detergents, including widely used detergents (maltosides, neopentyl gycols (MNG), C12E8, lysolipids, Chaps) and innovative detergents (branched alkylmaltosides, facial amphiphiles) for CFTR purification, function, monodispersity and stability. ATPase activity after reconstitution into proteoliposomes was 2–3 times higher when CFTR was purified using facial amphiphiles. ATPase activity was also demonstrated in purified CFTR samples without detergent removal using a novel lipid supplementation assay. By electron microscopy, negatively stained CFTR samples were monodisperse at low concentration, and size exclusion chromatography showed a predominance of monomer even after CFTR concentration above 1 mg/ml. Rates of CFTR aggregation quantified in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that detergents which best preserved reconstituted ATPase activity also supported the greatest stability, with CFTR monomer half-lives of 6–9 days in MNG or Chaps, and 12–17 days in facial amphiphile. Cryoelectron microscopy of concentrated CFTR in MNG or facial amphiphile confirmed mostly monomeric protein, producing low resolution reconstructions in conformity with similar proteins. These protocols can be used to generate samples of pure, functional, stable CFTR at concentrations amenable to biophysical characterization. PMID:25065669

  1. Chloride Blood Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. Why do I need a chloride blood test? Your health care provider may have ordered a chloride blood test ... Trouble breathing What happens during a chloride blood test? A health care professional will take a blood sample from a ...

  2. Peripheral Protein Quality Control Removes Unfolded CFTR from the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Okiyoneda, Tsukasa; Barrière, Hervé; Bagdány, Miklós; Rabeh, Wael M.; Du, Kai; Höhfeld, Jörg; Young, Jason C.; Lukacs, Gergely L.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic efforts to restore biosynthetic processing of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator lacking the F508 residue (ΔF508CFTR) are hampered by ubiquitin-dependent lysosomal degradation of nonnative, rescued ΔF508CFTR from the plasma membrane. Here, functional small interfering RNA screens revealed the contribution of chaperones, cochaperones, and ubiquitin-conjugating and -ligating enzymes to the elimination of unfolded CFTR from the cell surface, as part of a peripheral protein quality-control system. Ubiquitination of nonnative CFTR was required for efficient internalization and lysosomal degradation. This peripheral protein quality-control mechanism probably participates in the preservation of cellular homeostasis by degrading damaged plasma membrane proteins that have escaped from the endoplasmic reticulum quality control or are generated by environmental stresses in situ. PMID:20595578

  3. Side chain and backbone contributions of Phe508 to CFTR folding

    SciTech Connect

    Thibodeau, Patrick H.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Machius, Mischa

    2010-12-07

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an integral membrane protein, cause cystic fibrosis (CF). The most common CF-causing mutant, deletion of Phe508, fails to properly fold. To elucidate the role Phe508 plays in the folding of CFTR, missense mutations at this position were generated. Only one missense mutation had a pronounced effect on the stability and folding of the isolated domain in vitro. In contrast, many substitutions, including those of charged and bulky residues, disrupted folding of full-length CFTR in cells. Structures of two mutant nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) reveal only local alterations of the surface near positionmore » 508. These results suggest that the peptide backbone plays a role in the proper folding of the domain, whereas the side chain plays a role in defining a surface of NBD1 that potentially interacts with other domains during the maturation of intact CFTR.« less

  4. Purification and crystallization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR).

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Mark F; Kamis, Alhaji Bukar; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Ford, Robert C; Riordan, John R

    2004-09-10

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane protein that is mutated in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Here we report the purification and first crystallization of wild-type human CFTR. Functional characterization of the material showed it to be highly active. Electron crystallography of negatively stained two-dimensional crystals of CFTR has revealed the overall architecture of this channel for two different conformational states. These show a strong structural homology to two conformational states of another eukaryotic ATP-binding cassette transporter, P-glycoprotein. In contrast to P-glycoprotein, however, both conformational states can be observed in the presence of a nucleotide, which may be related to the role of CFTR as an ion channel rather than a transporter. The hypothesis that the two conformations could represent the "open" and "closed" states of the channel is considered.

  5. CFTR impairment upregulates c-Src activity through IL-1β autocrine signaling.

    PubMed

    Massip-Copiz, María Macarena; Clauzure, Mariángeles; Valdivieso, Ángel Gabriel; Santa-Coloma, Tomás Antonio

    2017-02-15

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Previously, we found several genes showing a differential expression in CFDE cells (epithelial cells derived from a CF patient). One corresponded to c-Src; its expression and activity was found increased in CFDE cells, acting as a signaling molecule between the CFTR activity and MUC1 overexpression. Here we report that bronchial IB3-1 cells (CF cells) also showed increased c-Src activity compared to 'CFTR-corrected' S9 cells. In addition, three different Caco-2 cell lines, each stably transfected with a different CFTR-specific shRNAs, displayed increased c-Src activity. The IL-1β receptor antagonist IL1RN reduced the c-Src activity of Caco-2/pRS26 cells (expressing a CFTR-specific shRNA). In addition, increased mitochondrial and cellular ROS levels were detected in Caco-2/pRS26 cells. ROS levels were partially reduced by incubation with PP2 (c-Src inhibitor) or IL1RN, and further reduced by using the NOX1/4 inhibitor GKT137831. Thus, IL-1β→c-Src and IL-1β→NOX signaling pathways appear to be responsible for the production of cellular and mitochondrial ROS in CFTR-KD cells. In conclusion, IL-1β constitutes a new step in the CFTR signaling pathway, located upstream of c-Src, which is stimulated in cells with impaired CFTR activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Low temperature restoring effect on F508del-CFTR misprocessing: A proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Alves, Patricia; Neves, Sofia; Coelho, Ana V; Penque, Deborah

    2009-12-01

    To gain insight into the proteins potentially involved in the low temperature-induced F508del-CFTR rescue process, we have explored by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) the proteome of BHK cell lines expressing wt or F508del-CFTR, grown at 37 degrees C or 26 degrees C/24h or 26 degrees C/48h followed by 3h of metabolic labelling with [(35)S]-methionine. A set of 139 protein spots (yielding 125 mass spectrometry identifications) was identified as differentially expressed (p ANOVA<0.05) among the six phenotypic groups analysed. The data analysis suggests that the unfolded protein response (UPR) induction and some cell-metabolism repression are the major cold-shock responses that may generate a favourable cellular environment to promote F508del-CFTR rescue. Down-regulation of proteasome regulatory PA28 and/or COP9 signalosome subunit, both involved in CFTR degradation, could also be a relevant cold-shock-induced condition for F508de-CFTR rescue. Moreover, cold-shock may promote the reestablishment of some proteostasis imbalance associated with over-expression of F508del-CFTR. In BHK-F508del cells, the deregulation of RACK1, a protein described to be important for stable expression of CFTR in the plasma membrane, is partially repaired after low temperature treatment. Together these findings give new insights about F508del-CFTR rescue by low temperature treatment and the proteins involved could ultimately constitute potential therapeutic targets in CF disease.

  7. Channel Gating Regulation by the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) First Cytosolic Loop.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Annette; Chung, W Joon; Pyle, Louise C; Wang, Wei; Nowotarski, Krzysztof; Mulvihill, Cory M; Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Hong, Jeong; Velu, Sadanandan E; Lewis, Hal A; Atwell, Shane; Aller, Steve; Bear, Christine E; Lukacs, Gergely L; Kirk, Kevin L; Sorscher, Eric J

    2016-01-22

    In this study, we present data indicating a robust and specific domain interaction between the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) first cytosolic loop (CL1) and nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1) that allows ion transport to proceed in a regulated fashion. We used co-precipitation and ELISA to establish the molecular contact and showed that binding kinetics were not altered by the common clinical mutation F508del. Both intrinsic ATPase activity and CFTR channel gating were inhibited severely by CL1 peptide, suggesting that NBD1/CL1 binding is a crucial requirement for ATP hydrolysis and channel function. In addition to cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prevalent diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acquired rhinosinusitis, pancreatitis, and lethal secretory diarrhea (e.g. cholera). On the basis of clinical relevance of the CFTR as a therapeutic target, a cell-free drug screen was established to identify modulators of NBD1/CL1 channel activity independent of F508del CFTR and pharmacologic rescue. Our findings support a targetable mechanism of CFTR regulation in which conformational changes in the NBDs cause reorientation of transmembrane domains via interactions with CL1 and result in channel gating. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Membrane Lateral Diffusion and Capture of CFTR within Transient Confinement Zones

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Ian R.; Hébert, Benedict; Luo, Yishan; Liao, Jie; Bachir, Alexia I.; Kolin, David L.; Wiseman, Paul W.; Hanrahan, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel interacts with scaffolding and other proteins that are expected to restrict its lateral movement, yet previous studies have reported predominantly free diffusion. We examined the lateral mobility of CFTR channels on live baby hamster kidney cells using three complementary methods. Channels bearing an extracellular biotinylation target sequence were labeled with streptavidin conjugated with fluorescent dyes (Alexa Fluor 488 or 568) or quantum dots (qDot605). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and image correlation spectroscopy of the dye-labeled channels revealed a significant immobile population (∼50%), which was confirmed by direct single particle tracking (SPT) of qDot605-labeled CFTR. Adding 10 histidine residues at the C-terminus of CFTR to mask the postsynaptic density 95, Discs large, ZO-1 (PDZ) binding motif abolished its association with EBP50/NHERF1, reduced the immobile fraction, and increased mobility. Other interactions that are not normally detected on this timescale became apparent when binding of PDZ domain proteins was disrupted. SPT revealed that CFTRHis-10 channels diffuse randomly, become immobilized for periods lasting up to 1 min, and in some instances are recaptured at the same location. The impact of transient confinement on the measured diffusion using the three fluorescence techniques were assessed using computer simulations of the biological experiments. Finally, the impact of endosomal CFTR on mobility measurements was assessed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. These results reveal unexpected features of CFTR dynamics which may influence its ion channel activity. PMID:16714353

  9. Rescue of CF airway epithelial cell function in vitro by a CFTR potentiator, VX-770

    PubMed Central

    Van Goor, Fredrick; Hadida, Sabine; Grootenhuis, Peter D. J.; Burton, Bill; Cao, Dong; Neuberger, Tim; Turnbull, Amanda; Singh, Ashvani; Joubran, John; Hazlewood, Anna; Zhou, Jinglan; McCartney, Jason; Arumugam, Vijayalaksmi; Decker, Caroline; Yang, Jennifer; Young, Chris; Olson, Eric R.; Wine, Jeffery J.; Frizzell, Raymond A.; Ashlock, Melissa; Negulescu, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a fatal genetic disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a protein kinase A (PKA)-activated epithelial anion channel involved in salt and fluid transport in multiple organs, including the lung. Most CF mutations either reduce the number of CFTR channels at the cell surface (e.g., synthesis or processing mutations) or impair channel function (e.g., gating or conductance mutations) or both. There are currently no approved therapies that target CFTR. Here we describe the in vitro pharmacology of VX-770, an orally bioavailable CFTR potentiator in clinical development for the treatment of CF. In recombinant cells VX-770 increased CFTR channel open probability (Po) in both the F508del processing mutation and the G551D gating mutation. VX-770 also increased Cl− secretion in cultured human CF bronchial epithelia (HBE) carrying the G551D gating mutation on one allele and the F508del processing mutation on the other allele by ≈10-fold, to ≈50% of that observed in HBE isolated from individuals without CF. Furthermore, VX-770 reduced excessive Na+ and fluid absorption to prevent dehydration of the apical surface and increased cilia beating in these epithelial cultures. These results support the hypothesis that pharmacological agents that restore or increase CFTR function can rescue epithelial cell function in human CF airway. PMID:19846789

  10. Acute inhibition of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel by thyroid hormones involves multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhiwei; Li, Hongyu; Chen, Jeng-Haur

    2013-01-01

    The chemical structures of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) resemble those of small-molecules that inhibit the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel. We therefore tested the acute effects of T3, T4 and reverse T3 (rT3) on recombinant wild-type human CFTR using the patch-clamp technique. When added directly to the intracellular solution bathing excised membrane patches, T3, T4, and rT3 (all tested at 50 μM) inhibited CFTR in several ways: they strongly reduced CFTR open probability by impeding channel opening; they moderately decreased single-channel current amplitude, and they promoted transitions to subconductance states. To investigate the mechanism of CFTR inhibition, we studied T3. T3 (50 μM) had multiple effects on CFTR gating kinetics, suggestive of both allosteric inhibition and open-channel blockade. Channel inhibition by T3 was weakly voltage dependent and stronger than the allosteric inhibitor genistein, but weaker than the open-channel blocker glibenclamide. Raising the intracellular ATP concentration abrogated T3 inhibition of CFTR gating, but not the reduction in single-channel current amplitude nor the transitions to subconductance states. The decrease in single-channel current amplitude was relieved by membrane depolarization, but not the transitions to subconductance states. We conclude that T3 has complex effects on CFTR consistent with both allosteric inhibition and open-channel blockade. Our results suggest that there are multiple allosteric mechanisms of CFTR inhibition, including interference with ATP-dependent channel gating and obstruction of conformational changes that gate the CFTR pore. CFTR inhibition by thyroid hormones has implications for the development of innovative small-molecule CFTR inhibitors. PMID:23784545

  11. [Expression pattern of congenital chloride diarrhea pathogenic gene Slc26a3 in the reproductive tract of male rodents].

    PubMed

    Chen, Liangju; Xu, Wenming

    2014-10-01

    To determine the expression pattern of Slc26a3 gene in reproductive tract of male rodents to clarify whether the expression pattern is related to the subfertility observed in congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) disease. The expression of Slc26a3 in mouse and rat epididymis has been studied with immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Its developmental expression pattern in rat testis was detected by Western blotting, while both of immunofluorescence and Western blotting were used to localize the expression of Slc26a3 in mouse sperms. The potential change of Slc26a3 expression in CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) knockout mice and CFTR mutant mice was also detected with Western blotting. The expression level of Slc26a3 gradually decreased along epididymis from its caput to corpus, then to its cauda part. This gradually decreasing expression pattern was also found in rat testis during development. Slc26a3 was localized mainly on the trunk of mouse sperm tail. In the testis and epididymis of CFTR knockout mice and CFTR mutant mice, no significant change of Slc26a3 expression was found. Slc26a3 is expressed in male reproductive tract, and its expression pattern is related to the function. Thus, the subfertility observed in CLD disease may be related to the important role of SLC26A3 in acid-base regulation of epididymis.

  12. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of aminoarylthiazole derivatives as correctors of the chloride transport defect in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Emanuela; Bellotti, Marta; Liessi, Nara; Guariento, Sara; Damonte, Gianluca; Cichero, Elena; Galatini, Andrea; Salis, Annalisa; Gianotti, Ambra; Pedemonte, Nicoletta; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Fossa, Paola; Galietta, Luis J V; Millo, Enrico

    2015-06-24

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel present in the membrane of epithelial cells. Mutations affecting the CFTR gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF), a multi-organ severe disease. The most common CF mutation, F508del, impairs the processing and activity (gating) of CFTR protein. Other mutations, like G551D, only cause a gating defect. Processing and gating defects can be targeted by small molecules called generically correctors and potentiators, respectively. Aminoarylthiazoles (AATs) represent an interesting class of compounds that includes molecules with dual activity, as correctors and potentiators. With the aim to improve the activity profile of AATs, we have now designed and synthesized a library of novel compounds in order to establish an initial SAR that may provide indications about the chemical groups that are beneficial or detrimental for rescue activity. The new compounds were tested as correctors and potentiators in CFBE41o-expressing F508del-CFTR using a functional assay. A dual active compound, AAT-4a, characterized by improved efficacy and marked synergy when combined with the corrector VX-809 has been identified. Moreover, by computational methods, a possible binding site for AATs in nucleotide binding domain NBD1 has been detected. These results will direct the synthesis of new analogues with possibly improved activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. ER-associated complexes (ERACs) containing aggregated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are degraded by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lianwu; Sztul, Elizabeth

    2009-04-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy are the two major mechanisms responsible for the clearance of cellular proteins. We have used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) as a model substrate to study the interactive function of these two pathways in the degradation of misfolded proteins. EGFP-tagged human CFTR was introduced into yeast and expressed under a copper-inducible promoter. The localization and degradation of EGFP-CFTR in live cells were monitored by time-lapse imaging following its de novo synthesis. EGFP-CFTR first appears within the perinuclear and sub-cortical ER and is mobile within the plane of the membrane as assessed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). This pool of EGFP-CFTR is subsequently degraded through a proteasome-dependent pathway that is inhibited in the pre1-1 yeast strain defective in proteasomal degradation. Prolonged expression of EGFP-CFTR leads to the sequestration of EGFP-CFTR molecules into ER structures called ER-associated complexes (ERACs). The sequestration of EGFP-CFTR into ERACs appears to be driven by aggregation since EGFP-CFTR molecules present within ERACs are immobile as measured by FRAP. Individual ERACs are cleared from cells through the autophagic pathway that is blocked in the atg6Delta and atg1Delta yeast strains defective in autophagy. Our results suggest that the proteasomal and the autophagic pathways function together to clear misfolded proteins from the ER.

  14. Characterization of defects in ion transport and tissue development in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Tuggle, Katherine L; Birket, Susan E; Cui, Xiaoxia; Hong, Jeong; Warren, Joe; Reid, Lara; Chambers, Andre; Ji, Diana; Gamber, Kevin; Chu, Kengyeh K; Tearney, Guillermo; Tang, Li Ping; Fortenberry, James A; Du, Ming; Cadillac, Joan M; Bedwell, David M; Rowe, Steven M; Sorscher, Eric J; Fanucchi, Michelle V

    2014-01-01

    Animal models for cystic fibrosis (CF) have contributed significantly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Here we describe development and characterization of the first cystic fibrosis rat, in which the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) was knocked out using a pair of zinc finger endonucleases (ZFN). The disrupted Cftr gene carries a 16 base pair deletion in exon 3, resulting in loss of CFTR protein expression. Breeding of heterozygous (CFTR+/-) rats resulted in Mendelian distribution of wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous (CFTR-/-) pups. Nasal potential difference and transepithelial short circuit current measurements established a robust CF bioelectric phenotype, similar in many respects to that seen in CF patients. Young CFTR-/- rats exhibited histological abnormalities in the ileum and increased intracellular mucus in the proximal nasal septa. By six weeks of age, CFTR-/- males lacked the vas deferens bilaterally. Airway surface liquid and periciliary liquid depth were reduced, and submucosal gland size was abnormal in CFTR-/- animals. Use of ZFN based gene disruption successfully generated a CF animal model that recapitulates many aspects of human disease, and may be useful for modeling other CF genotypes, including CFTR processing defects, premature truncation alleles, and channel gating abnormalities.

  15. Mashiningan Improves Opioid-Induced Constipation in Rats by Activating Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Chloride Channel.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yumi; Iizuka, Seiichi; Saegusa, Yayoi; Mogami, Sachiko; Fujitsuka, Naoki; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-07-01

    Opioid receptor stimulants are analgesics used in patients with and without cancer; however, they often cause constipation, resulting in poor adherence and deterioration of the quality of life. Hence, suitable treatments for constipation are required. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological mechanisms of action of mashiningan (MNG), a Kampo medicine used to treat constipation, and evaluated the effect of MNG on opioid-induced constipation in rats. MNG (100 or 300 mg/kg) was orally administered to normal or codeine phosphate (CPH)-induced constipation in rats, and its effect was evaluated on the basis of fecal counts, characteristics, and weight. Small intestinal fluid secretion was measured after treatment with MNG alone or coadministration with a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-specific inhibitor (CFTRinh-172). The effects of MNG on the CFTR and type-2 chloride channel were determined using patch-clamp or short-circuit current experiments, respectively. MNG increased the fecal weight and proportion of soft feces in normal rats. CPH-induced constipation in rats decreased fecal counts and weight, whereas MNG prevented these effects and increased the proportion of soft feces. MNG increased the electronic chloride current, and this effect was inhibited by the CFTRinh-172 in the CFTR assay. Furthermore, MNG increased small intestinal fluid secretion, and this effect was abolished by coadministration with the CFTRinh-172. MNG improved opioid-induced constipation in rats, and this improvement may have been mediated by increasing intestinal fluid secretion via CFTR chloride channel activation. Therefore, MNG is expected as a medicine of the treatment of constipation in patients taking opioids. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  16. A Little CFTR Goes a Long Way: CFTR-Dependent Sweat Secretion from G551D and R117H-5T Cystic Fibrosis Subjects Taking Ivacaftor

    PubMed Central

    Char, Jessica E.; Wolfe, Marlene H.; Cho, Hyung-ju; Park, Il-Ho; Jeong, Jin Hyeok; Frisbee, Eric; Dunn, Colleen; Davies, Zoe; Milla, Carlos; Moss, Richard B.; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    To determine if oral dosing with the CFTR-potentiator ivacaftor (VX-770, Kalydeco) improves CFTR-dependent sweating in CF subjects carrying G551D or R117H-5T mutations, we optically measured sweat secretion from 32–143 individually identified glands in each of 8 CF subjects; 6 F508del/G551D, one G551D/R117H-5T, and one I507del/R117H-5T. Two subjects were tested only (−) ivacaftor, 3 only (+) ivacaftor and 3 (+/−) ivacaftor (1–5 tests per condition). The total number of gland measurements was 852 (−) ivacaftor and 906 (+) ivacaftor. A healthy control was tested 4 times (51 glands). For each gland we measured both CFTR-independent (M-sweat) and CFTR-dependent (C-sweat); C-sweat was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevated [cAMP]i while blocking muscarinic receptors. Absent ivacaftor, almost all CF glands produced M-sweat on all tests, but only 1/593 glands produced C-sweat (10 tests, 5 subjects). By contrast, 6/6 subjects (113/342 glands) produced C-sweat in the (+) ivacaftor condition, but with large inter-subject differences; 3–74% of glands responded with C/M sweat ratios 0.04%–2.57% of the average WT ratio of 0.265. Sweat volume losses cause proportionally larger underestimates of CFTR function at lower sweat rates. The losses were reduced by measuring C/M ratios in 12 glands from each subject that had the highest M-sweat rates. Remaining losses were estimated from single channel data and used to correct the C/M ratios, giving estimates of CFTR function (+) ivacaftor  = 1.6%–7.7% of the WT average. These estimates are in accord with single channel data and transcript analysis, and suggest that significant clinical benefit can be produced by low levels of CFTR function. PMID:24520399

  17. Loss of carbonic anhydrase XII function in individuals with elevated sweat chloride concentration and pulmonary airway disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Melissa; Vecchio-Pagán, Briana; Sharma, Neeraj; Waheed, Abdul; Li, Xiaopeng; Raraigh, Karen S; Robbins, Sarah; Han, Sangwoo T; Franca, Arianna L; Pellicore, Matthew J; Evans, Taylor A; Arcara, Kristin M; Nguyen, Hien; Luan, Shan; Belchis, Deborah; Hertecant, Jozef; Zabner, Joseph; Sly, William S; Cutting, Garry R

    2016-05-15

    Elevated sweat chloride levels, failure to thrive (FTT), and lung disease are characteristic features of cystic fibrosis (CF, OMIM #219700). Here we describe variants in CA12 encoding carbonic anhydrase XII in two pedigrees exhibiting CF-like phenotypes. Exome sequencing of a white American adult diagnosed with CF due to elevated sweat chloride, recurrent hyponatremia, infantile FTT and lung disease identified deleterious variants in each CA12 gene: c.908-1 G>A in a splice acceptor and a novel frameshift insertion c.859_860insACCT. In an unrelated consanguineous Omani family, two children with elevated sweat chloride, infantile FTT, and recurrent hyponatremia were homozygous for a novel missense variant (p.His121Gln). Deleterious CFTR variants were absent in both pedigrees. CA XII protein was localized apically in human bronchiolar epithelia and basolaterally in the reabsorptive duct of human sweat glands. Respiratory epithelial cell RNA from the adult proband revealed only aberrant CA12 transcripts and in vitro analysis showed greatly reduced CA XII protein. Studies of ion transport across respiratory epithelial cells in vivo and in culture revealed intact CFTR-mediated chloride transport in the adult proband. CA XII protein bearing either p.His121Gln or a previously identified p.Glu143Lys missense variant localized to the basolateral membranes of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, but enzyme activity was severely diminished when assayed at physiologic concentrations of extracellular chloride. Our findings indicate that loss of CA XII function should be considered in individuals without CFTR mutations who exhibit CF-like features in the sweat gland and lung. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Loss of carbonic anhydrase XII function in individuals with elevated sweat chloride concentration and pulmonary airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Melissa; Vecchio-Pagán, Briana; Sharma, Neeraj; Waheed, Abdul; Li, Xiaopeng; Raraigh, Karen S.; Robbins, Sarah; Han, Sangwoo T.; Franca, Arianna L.; Pellicore, Matthew J.; Evans, Taylor A.; Arcara, Kristin M.; Nguyen, Hien; Luan, Shan; Belchis, Deborah; Hertecant, Jozef; Zabner, Joseph; Sly, William S.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated sweat chloride levels, failure to thrive (FTT), and lung disease are characteristic features of cystic fibrosis (CF, OMIM #219700). Here we describe variants in CA12 encoding carbonic anhydrase XII in two pedigrees exhibiting CF-like phenotypes. Exome sequencing of a white American adult diagnosed with CF due to elevated sweat chloride, recurrent hyponatremia, infantile FTT and lung disease identified deleterious variants in each CA12 gene: c.908-1 G>A in a splice acceptor and a novel frameshift insertion c.859_860insACCT. In an unrelated consanguineous Omani family, two children with elevated sweat chloride, infantile FTT, and recurrent hyponatremia were homozygous for a novel missense variant (p.His121Gln). Deleterious CFTR variants were absent in both pedigrees. CA XII protein was localized apically in human bronchiolar epithelia and basolaterally in the reabsorptive duct of human sweat glands. Respiratory epithelial cell RNA from the adult proband revealed only aberrant CA12 transcripts and in vitro analysis showed greatly reduced CA XII protein. Studies of ion transport across respiratory epithelial cells in vivo and in culture revealed intact CFTR-mediated chloride transport in the adult proband. CA XII protein bearing either p.His121Gln or a previously identified p.Glu143Lys missense variant localized to the basolateral membranes of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, but enzyme activity was severely diminished when assayed at physiologic concentrations of extracellular chloride. Our findings indicate that loss of CA XII function should be considered in individuals without CFTR mutations who exhibit CF-like features in the sweat gland and lung. PMID:26911677

  19. Genotype-phenotype correlation and functional studies in patients with cystic fibrosis bearing CFTR complex alleles.

    PubMed

    Terlizzi, Vito; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Salvatore, Donatello; Lucarelli, Marco; Raia, Valeria; Angioni, Adriano; Carnovale, Vincenzo; Cirilli, Natalia; Casciaro, Rosaria; Colombo, Carla; Di Lullo, Antonella Miriam; Elce, Ausilia; Iacotucci, Paola; Comegna, Marika; Scorza, Manuela; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Perfetti, Anna; Cimino, Roberta; Quattrucci, Serena; Seia, Manuela; Sofia, Valentina Maria; Zarrilli, Federica; Amato, Felice

    2017-04-01

    The effect of complex alleles in cystic fibrosis (CF) is poorly defined for the lack of functional studies. To describe the genotype-phenotype correlation and the results of either in vitro and ex vivo studies performed on nasal epithelial cells (NEC) in a cohort of patients with CF carrying cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR ) complex alleles. We studied 70 homozygous, compound heterozygous or heterozygous for CFTR mutations: p.[Arg74Trp;Val201Met;Asp1270Asn], n=8; p.[Ile148Thr;Ile1023_Val1024del], n=5; p.[Arg117Leu;Leu997Phe], n=6; c.[1210-34TG[12];1210-12T[5];2930C>T], n=3; p.[Arg74Trp;Asp1270Asn], n=4; p.Asp1270Asn, n=2; p.Ile148Thr, n=6; p.Leu997Phe, n=36. In 39 patients, we analysed the CFTR gating activity on NEC in comparison with patients with CF (n=8) and carriers (n=4). Finally, we analysed in vitro the p.[Arg74Trp;Val201Met;Asp1270Asn] complex allele. The p.[Ile148Thr;Ile1023_Val1024del] caused severe CF in five compound heterozygous with a class I-II mutation. Their CFTR activity on NEC was comparable with patients with two class I-II mutations (mean 7.3% vs 6.9%). The p.[Arg74Trp;Asp1270Asn] and the p.Asp1270Asn have scarce functional effects, while p.[Arg74Trp;Val201Met;Asp1270Asn] caused mild CF in four of five subjects carrying a class I-II mutation in trans , or CFTR-related disorders (CFTR-RD) in three having in trans a class IV-V mutation. The p.[Arg74Trp;Val201Met;Asp1270Asn] causes significantly (p<0.001) higher CFTR activity compared with compound heterozygous for class I-II mutations. Furthermore, five of six compounds heterozygous with the p.[Arg117Leu;Leu997Phe] had mild CF, whereas the p.Leu997Phe, in trans with a class I-II CFTR mutation, caused CFTR-RD or a healthy status (CFTR activity: 21.3-36.9%). Finally, compounds heterozygous for the c.[1210-34TG[12];1210-12T[5];2930C>T] and a class I-II mutation had mild CF or CFTR-RD (gating activity: 18.5-19.0%). The effect of complex alleles partially depends on the

  20. CFTR mediates bicarbonate-dependent activation of miR-125b in preimplantation embryo development

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yong Chao; Chen, Hui; Fok, Kin Lam; Tsang, Lai Ling; Yu, Mei Kuen; Zhang, Xiao Hu; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Xiaohua; Chung, Yiu Wa; Ma, Alvin Chun Hang; Leung, Anskar Yu Hung; Huang, He Feng; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2012-01-01

    Although HCO3− is known to be required for early embryo development, its exact role remains elusive. Here we report that HCO3− acts as an environmental cue in regulating miR-125b expression through CFTR-mediated influx during preimplantation embryo development. The results show that the effect of HCO3− on preimplantation embryo development can be suppressed by interfering the function of a HCO3−-conducting channel, CFTR, by a specific inhibitor or gene knockout. Removal of extracellular HCO3− or inhibition of CFTR reduces miR-125b expression in 2 cell-stage mouse embryos. Knockdown of miR-125b mimics the effect of HCO3− removal and CFTR inhibition, while injection of miR-125b precursor reverses it. Downregulation of miR-125b upregulates p53 cascade in both human and mouse embryos. The activation of miR-125b is shown to be mediated by sAC/PKA-dependent nuclear shuttling of NF-κB. These results have revealed a critical role of CFTR in signal transduction linking the environmental HCO3− to activation of miR-125b during preimplantation embryo development and indicated the importance of ion channels in regulation of miRNAs. PMID:22664907

  1. Defective CFTR induces aggresome formation and lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis through ROS-mediated autophagy inhibition.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Alessandro; Villella, Valeria Rachela; Esposito, Speranza; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Medina, Diego; Settembre, Carmine; Gavina, Manuela; Pulze, Laura; Giardino, Ida; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; D'Apolito, Maria; Guido, Stefano; Masliah, Eliezer; Spencer, Brian; Quaratino, Sonia; Raia, Valeria; Ballabio, Andrea; Maiuri, Luigi

    2010-09-01

    Accumulation of unwanted/misfolded proteins in aggregates has been observed in airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), a life-threatening genetic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Here we show how the defective CFTR results in defective autophagy and decreases the clearance of aggresomes. Defective CFTR-induced upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) drive the crosslinking of beclin 1, leading to sequestration of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI(3)K) complex III and accumulation of p62, which regulates aggresome formation. Both CFTR knockdown and the overexpression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged-CFTR(F508del) induce beclin 1 downregulation and defective autophagy in non-CF airway epithelia through the ROS-TG2 pathway. Restoration of beclin 1 and autophagy by either beclin 1 overexpression, cystamine or antioxidants rescues the localization of the beclin 1 interactome to the endoplasmic reticulum and reverts the CF airway phenotype in vitro, in vivo in Scnn1b-transgenic and Cftr(F508del) homozygous mice, and in human CF nasal biopsies. Restoring beclin 1 or knocking down p62 rescued the trafficking of CFTR(F508del) to the cell surface. These data link the CFTR defect to autophagy deficiency, leading to the accumulation of protein aggregates and to lung inflammation.

  2. Normal CFTR Inhibits Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Dependent Pro-Inflammatory Chemokine Production in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suil; Nadel, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein cause cystic fibrosis, a disease characterized by exaggerated airway epithelial production of the neutrophil chemokine interleukin (IL)-8, which results in exuberant neutrophilic inflammation. Because activation of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling cascade induces airway epithelial IL-8 production, we hypothesized that normal CFTR suppresses EGFR-dependent IL-8 production and that loss of CFTR at the surface exaggerates IL-8 production via activation of a pro-inflammatory EGFR cascade. We examined this hypothesis in human airway epithelial (NCI-H292) cells and in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells containing normal CFTR treated with a CFTR-selective inhibitor (CFTR-172), and in human airway epithelial (IB3) cells containing mutant CFTR versus isogenic (C38) cells containing wild-type CFTR. In NCI-H292 cells, CFTR-172 induced IL-8 production EGFR-dependently. Pretreatment with an EGFR neutralizing antibody or the metalloprotease TACE inhibitor TAPI-1, or TACE siRNA knockdown prevented CFTR-172-induced EGFR phosphorylation (EGFR-P) and IL-8 production, implicating TACE-dependent EGFR pro-ligand cleavage in these responses. Pretreatment with neutralizing antibodies to IL-1R or to IL-1alpha, but not to IL-1beta, markedly suppressed CFTR-172-induced EGFR-P and IL-8 production, suggesting that binding of IL-1alpha to IL-1R stimulates a TACE-EGFR-IL-8 cascade. Similarly, in NHBE cells, CFTR-172 increased IL-8 production EGFR-, TACE-, and IL-1alpha/IL-1R-dependently. In IB3 cells, constitutive IL-8 production was markedly increased compared to C38 cells. EGFR-P was increased in IB3 cells compared to C38 cells, and exaggerated IL-8 production in the IB3 cells was EGFR-dependent. Activation of TACE and binding of IL-1alpha to IL-1R contributed to EGFR-P and IL-8 production in IB3 cells but not in C38 cells. Thus, we conclude that normal CFTR suppresses airway

  3. Chronic cough with normal sweat chloride: Phenotypic descriptions of two rare cystic fibrosis genotypes.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Hemang; Lim, Kaiser G

    2016-01-01

    While our understanding of cystic fibrosis genetics has expanded in recent decades, the genetics and clinical manifestations of the disease remains highly heterogeneous. Diagnosis of CF in non-classical mutations remains a clinical challenge. We describe the clinical presentation of two patients with chronic cough found to have normal sweat chlorides. We discuss the subsequent evaluation that lead to the diagnosis of two rare CF mutations. We briefly discuss the use of the expanded 106-panel of CF mutations (homozygous 3849 + 10  kb C > T), and the role of whole CFTR gene sequencing (heterozygous c.2752-26 A > G/5T).

  4. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  5. Chloride test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Serum chloride test ... A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma) Diarrhea Metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis (compensated) Renal ...

  6. Chloride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002417.htm Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  7. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  8. First functional polymorphism in CFTR promoter that results in decreased transcriptional activity and Sp1/USF binding

    SciTech Connect

    Taulan, M.; Universite Montpellier1, UFR de Medecine, Montpellier; CHU Montpellier, Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Montpellier F-34000

    2007-09-28

    Growing evidences show that functionally relevant polymorphisms in various promoters alter both transcriptional activity and affinities of existing protein-DNA interactions, and thus influence disease progression in humans. We previously reported the -94G>T CFTR promoter variant in a female CF patient in whom any known disease-causing mutation has been detected. To investigate whether the -94G>T could be a regulatory variant, we have proceeded to in silico analyses and functional studies including EMSA and reporter gene assays. Our data indicate that the promoter variant decreases basal CFTR transcriptional activity in different epithelial cells and alters binding affinities of both Sp1 and USFmore » nuclear proteins to the CFTR promoter. The present report provides evidence for the first functional polymorphism that negatively affects the CFTR transcriptional activity and demonstrates a cooperative role of Sp1 and USF transcription factors in transactivation of the CFTR gene promoter.« less

  9. The gene for congenital chloride diarrhea maps close to but is distinct from the gene for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    PubMed Central

    Kere, J; Sistonen, P; Holmberg, C; de la Chapelle, A

    1993-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is characterized by watery stools with high chloride content beginning prenatally and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Perfusion studies have established a basic defect in ileal and colonic Cl-/HCO3- transport, resulting in defective chloride absorption. The protein and its gene defects have, however, remained uncharacterized. We attempted to exclude candidate genes by considering linkage disequilibrium as well as genetic linkage in a small number of Finnish families. Initial results were suggestive of linkage between CLD and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR). Extended analysis in eight families confirmed close linkage to chromosome 7 markers proximal of CFTR, with maximum logarithm of odds scores of 5.11 and 5.06 for D7S501 and D7S496, respectively, at zero recombination. Allelic associations were observed that were striking between CLD and D7S496 and weaker between CLD and D7S501. Multipoint analyses mapped CLD unequivocally at D7S496 with a maximum logarithm of odds score of 9.33. We conclude that the CLD gene maps close to, but is distinct from, CFTR. PMID:7504277

  10. Mechanosensitivity of wild-type and G551D cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) controls regulatory volume decrease in simple epithelia.

    PubMed

    Xie, Changyan; Cao, Xu; Chen, Xibing; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Wei Kevin; Sun, Ying; Hu, Wenbao; Zhou, Zijing; Wang, Yan; Huang, Pingbo

    2016-04-01

    Mutations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an epithelial ligand-gated anion channel, are associated with the lethal genetic disease cystic fibrosis. The CFTR G551D mutation impairs ATP hydrolysis and thereby makes CFTR refractory to cAMP stimulation. Both wild-type (WT) and G551D CFTR have been implicated in regulatory volume decrease (RVD), but the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that the channel activity of both WT and G551D CFTR is directly stimulated by mechanical perturbation induced by cell swelling at the single-channel, cellular, and tissue levels. Hypotonicity activated CFTR single channels in cell-attached membrane patches and WT-CFTR-mediated short-circuit current (Isc) in Calu-3 cells, and this was independent of Ca(2+)and cAMP/PKA signaling. Genetic suppression and ablation but not G551D mutation of CFTR suppressed the hypotonicity- and stretch-inducedIscin Calu-3 cells and mouse duodena. Moreover, ablation but not G551D mutation of the CFTR gene inhibited the RVD of crypts isolated from mouse intestine; more importantly, CFTR-specific blockers markedly suppressed RVD in both WT- and G551D CFTR mice, demonstrating for the first time that the channel activity of both WT and G551D CFTR is required for epithelial RVD. Our findings uncover a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying CFTR involvement in epithelial RVD and suggest that the mechanosensitivity of G551D CFTR might underlie the mild phenotypes resulting from this mutation.-Xie, C., Cao, X., Chen, X, Wang, D., Zhang, W. K., Sun, Y., Hu, W., Zhou, Z., Wang, Y., Huang, P. Mechanosensitivity of wild-type and G551D cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) controls regulatory volume decrease in simple epithelia. © FASEB.

  11. Lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination for cystic fibrosis patients homozygous for Phe508del-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y H; Strokes, D C; Naren, A P

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening inherited disease caused by the loss or dysfunction of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel activity resulting from mutations in the CFTR gene. Phe508del is the most prevalent mutation, with approximately 90% of all CF patients carrying it on at least one allele. Over the past two or three decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of CF, and in the development of effective CF therapies. The approval of Orkambi® (lumacaftor/ivacaftor) marks another milestone in CF therapeutics development, which, with the advent of personalized medicine, could potentially revolutionize CF care and management. This article reviews the rationale, progress and future direction in the development of lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination to treat CF patients homozygous for the Phe508del-CFTR mutation. Copyright 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  12. Lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination for CF patients homozygous for Phe508del-CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiqiang; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yanhui H.; Stokes, Dennis C; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening inherited disease caused by the loss or dysfunction of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel activity resulting from mutations in the CFTR gene. Phe508del is the most prevalent mutation with approximately 90% of CF patients carries it on at least one allele. Over the past 2-3 decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of CF and development of effective CF therapies. The approval of Orkambi ™ (lumacaftor/ivacaftor) marks another mile stone in CF therapeutics development, and with the advent of personalized medicine, could potentially revolutionize the CF care and management. This article reviews the rationale, progress, and future direction in the development of lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination to treat CF patients homozygous for Phe508del-CFTR. PMID:27252987

  13. A sequence upstream of canonical PDZ-binding motif within CFTR COOH-terminus enhances NHERF1 interaction.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeraj; LaRusch, Jessica; Sosnay, Patrick R; Gottschalk, Laura B; Lopez, Andrea P; Pellicore, Matthew J; Evans, Taylor; Davis, Emily; Atalar, Melis; Na, Chan-Hyun; Rosson, Gedge D; Belchis, Deborah; Milewski, Michal; Pandey, Akhilesh; Cutting, Garry R

    2016-12-01

    The development of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) targeted therapy for cystic fibrosis has generated interest in maximizing membrane residence of mutant forms of CFTR by manipulating interactions with scaffold proteins, such as sodium/hydrogen exchange regulatory factor-1 (NHERF1). In this study, we explored whether COOH-terminal sequences in CFTR beyond the PDZ-binding motif influence its interaction with NHERF1. NHERF1 displayed minimal self-association in blot overlays (NHERF1, K d = 1,382 ± 61.1 nM) at concentrations well above physiological levels, estimated at 240 nM from RNA-sequencing and 260 nM by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in sweat gland, a key site of CFTR function in vivo. However, NHERF1 oligomerized at considerably lower concentrations (10 nM) in the presence of the last 111 amino acids of CFTR (20 nM) in blot overlays and cross-linking assays and in coimmunoprecipitations using differently tagged versions of NHERF1. Deletion and alanine mutagenesis revealed that a six-amino acid sequence 1417 EENKVR 1422 and the terminal 1478 TRL 1480 (PDZ-binding motif) in the COOH-terminus were essential for the enhanced oligomerization of NHERF1. Full-length CFTR stably expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells fostered NHERF1 oligomerization that was substantially reduced (∼5-fold) on alanine substitution of EEN, KVR, or EENKVR residues or deletion of the TRL motif. Confocal fluorescent microscopy revealed that the EENKVR and TRL sequences contribute to preferential localization of CFTR to the apical membrane. Together, these results indicate that COOH-terminal sequences mediate enhanced NHERF1 interaction and facilitate the localization of CFTR, a property that could be manipulated to stabilize mutant forms of CFTR at the apical surface to maximize the effect of CFTR-targeted therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. A sequence upstream of canonical PDZ-binding motif within CFTR COOH-terminus enhances NHERF1 interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neeraj; LaRusch, Jessica; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Gottschalk, Laura B.; Lopez, Andrea P.; Pellicore, Matthew J.; Evans, Taylor; Davis, Emily; Atalar, Melis; Na, Chan-Hyun; Rosson, Gedge D.; Belchis, Deborah; Milewski, Michal; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    The development of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) targeted therapy for cystic fibrosis has generated interest in maximizing membrane residence of mutant forms of CFTR by manipulating interactions with scaffold proteins, such as sodium/hydrogen exchange regulatory factor-1 (NHERF1). In this study, we explored whether COOH-terminal sequences in CFTR beyond the PDZ-binding motif influence its interaction with NHERF1. NHERF1 displayed minimal self-association in blot overlays (NHERF1, Kd = 1,382 ± 61.1 nM) at concentrations well above physiological levels, estimated at 240 nM from RNA-sequencing and 260 nM by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in sweat gland, a key site of CFTR function in vivo. However, NHERF1 oligomerized at considerably lower concentrations (10 nM) in the presence of the last 111 amino acids of CFTR (20 nM) in blot overlays and cross-linking assays and in coimmunoprecipitations using differently tagged versions of NHERF1. Deletion and alanine mutagenesis revealed that a six-amino acid sequence 1417EENKVR1422 and the terminal 1478TRL1480 (PDZ-binding motif) in the COOH-terminus were essential for the enhanced oligomerization of NHERF1. Full-length CFTR stably expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells fostered NHERF1 oligomerization that was substantially reduced (∼5-fold) on alanine substitution of EEN, KVR, or EENKVR residues or deletion of the TRL motif. Confocal fluorescent microscopy revealed that the EENKVR and TRL sequences contribute to preferential localization of CFTR to the apical membrane. Together, these results indicate that COOH-terminal sequences mediate enhanced NHERF1 interaction and facilitate the localization of CFTR, a property that could be manipulated to stabilize mutant forms of CFTR at the apical surface to maximize the effect of CFTR-targeted therapeutics. PMID:27793802

  15. Stimulation of Airway and Intestinal Mucosal Secretion by Natural Coumarin CFTR Activators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Xu, Li-Na; Sui, Yu-Jie; Liu, Xin; He, Cheng-Yan; Fang, Rou-Yu; Liu, Jia; Hao, Feng; Ma, Tong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Mutations of cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause lethal hereditary disease CF that involves extensive destruction and dysfunction of serous epithelium. Possible pharmacological therapy includes correction of defective intracellular processing and abnormal channel gating. In a previous study, we identified five natural coumarin potentiators of ΔF508-CFTR including osthole, imperatorin, isopsoralen, praeruptorin A, and scoparone. The present study was designed to determine the activity of these coumarine compounds on CFTR activity in animal tissues as a primary evaluation of their therapeutic potential. In the present study, we analyzed the affinity of these coumarin potentiators in activating wild-type CFTR and found that they are all potent activators. Osthole showed the highest affinity with K(d) values <50 nmol/L as determined by Ussing chamber short-circuit current assay. Stimulation of rat colonic mucosal secretion by osthole was tested by the Ussing chamber short-circuit current assay. Osthole reached maximal activation of colonic Cl(-) secretion at 5 μmol/L. Stimulation of mouse tracheal mucosal secretion was analyzed by optical measurement of single gland secretion. Fluid secretion rate of tracheal single submucosal gland stimulated by osthole at 10 μmol/L was three-fold more rapid than that in negative control. In both cases the stimulated secretions were fully abolished by CFTR(inh)-172. In conclusion, the effective stimulation of Cl(-) and fluid secretion in colonic and tracheal mucosa by osthole suggested the therapeutic potential of natural coumarin compounds for the treatment of CF and other CFTR-related diseases.

  16. Functional studies of rare missense mutations in CFTR facilitate interpretation of genotype-phenotype relationships

    PubMed Central

    Krasnov, Kristina V.; Tzetis, Maria; Cheng, Jie; Guggino, William B.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2009-01-01

    We have been investigating the functional consequences of rare disease-associated amino acid substitutions in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR). Mutations of the arginine residue at codon 1070 have been associated with different disease consequences R1070P and R1070Q have “severe” pancreatic insufficient cystic fibrosis (CF) and R1070W have “mild” pancreatic sufficient CF or congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. Intriguingly, CFTR bearing each of these mutations is functional when expressed in non-polarized cells. To determine whether R1070 mutations cause disease by affecting CFTR localization, we created polarized MDCK cell lines that express either wild-type or mutant CFTR from the same genomic integration site. Confocal microscopy and biotinylation studies revealed that R1070P was not inserted into the apical membrane, R1070W was inserted at levels reduced from wild-type while R1070Q was present in the apical membrane at levels comparable to wild-type. The abnormal localization of CFTR bearing R1070P and R1070W was consistent with deleterious consequences in patients however the profile of CFTR R1070Q was inconsistent with a “severe” phenotype. Re-analysis of 16 patients with the R1070Q mutation revealed that 11 carried an in cis nonsense mutation, S466X. All 11 patients carrying the complex allele R1070Q-S466X had severe disease, while 4 of 5 patients with R1070Q had “mild” disease, thereby reconciling the apparent discrepancy between the functional studies of R1070Q and the phenotype of patients bearing this mutation. Our results emphasize that localization studies in relevant model systems are needed for the interpretation of the disease-causing potential of rare missense mutations. PMID:18951463

  17. Some gating potentiators, including VX-770, diminish ΔF508-CFTR functional expression.

    PubMed

    Veit, Guido; Avramescu, Radu G; Perdomo, Doranda; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Bagdany, Miklos; Apaja, Pirjo M; Borot, Florence; Szollosi, Daniel; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Hegedus, Tamas; Verkman, Alan S; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2014-07-23

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) that result in reduced anion conductance at the apical membrane of secretory epithelia. Treatment of CF patients carrying the G551D gating mutation with the potentiator VX-770 (ivacaftor) largely restores channel activity and has shown substantial clinical benefit. However, most CF patients carry the ΔF508 mutation, which impairs CFTR folding, processing, function, and stability. Studies in homozygous ΔF508 CF patients indicated little clinical benefit of monotherapy with the investigational corrector VX-809 (lumacaftor) or VX-770, whereas combination clinical trials show limited but significant improvements in lung function. We show that VX-770, as well as most other potentiators, reduces the correction efficacy of VX-809 and another investigational corrector, VX-661. To mimic the administration of VX-770 alone or in combination with VX-809, we examined its long-term effect in immortalized and primary human respiratory epithelia. VX-770 diminished the folding efficiency and the metabolic stability of ΔF508-CFTR at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and post-ER compartments, respectively, causing reduced cell surface ΔF508-CFTR density and function. VX-770-induced destabilization of ΔF508-CFTR was influenced by second-site suppressor mutations of the folding defect and was prevented by stabilization of the nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1)-NBD2 interface. The reduced correction efficiency of ΔF508-CFTR, as well as of two other processing mutations in the presence of VX-770, suggests the need for further optimization of potentiators to maximize the clinical benefit of corrector-potentiator combination therapy in CF. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. cAMP and genistein stimulate HCO3- conductance through CFTR in human airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Illek, B; Yankaskas, J R; Machen, T E

    1997-04-01

    We studied the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel as an HCO3- conductor during adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent regulation in human airway epithelial cell lines. HCO3- or Cl- currents across the apical membrane were measured in the presence of an HCO3- or Cl- gradient under short-circuit conditions in intact and alpha-toxin-permeabilized monolayers, which allowed manipulation of the intracellular regulators cAMP and ATP. CFTR as the current carrier for HCO3- was identified by 1) stimulation by cAMP, 2) ATP dependence, 3) blocker sensitivity, 4) stimulation by genistein, and 5) lack of stimulation in CF epithelia bearing mutated delta F508 CFTR. In pulmonary alpha-toxin-permeabilized Calu-3 monolayers, cytosolic addition of 100 microM cAMP stimulated apical HCO3- currents from -9.4 +/- 1.6 to -31.1 +/- 3.9 microA/cm2 (n = 18), and apical Cl- currents increased from -54.1 +/- 7.1 to -203.2 +/- 15.4 microA/cm2 (n = 27). Average relative permselectivity for HCO3- vs. Cl- was approximately 15%. Absence of cytosolic ATP resulted in loss of cAMP stimulation of HCO3- and Cl- currents. Genistein (50 microM), which has been proposed to inhibit phosphatases controlling apical CFTR, as well as the alkaline phosphatase inhibitor (-)-p-bromotetramisole (1 mM) further activated cAMP-stimulated HCO3- and Cl- currents. Activated currents remained stimulated on removal of cAMP, suggesting inhibition of a protein phosphatase by genistein and bromotetramisole. The Cl- channel blockers glibenclamide (300 microM) and N-phenylanthranilic acid (5 mM), but not 4,4'-dinitro-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (100 microM), inhibited cAMP- and genistein-stimulated HCO3- and Cl- currents. Blocker effects were absent in human CF tracheal cells homozygous for the delta F508 mutation of CFTR (CFT1); Cl- and HCO3- currents were rescued in CFT1 cells recombinantly expressing wild-type CFTR. Thus CFTR functions as a HCO3- and Cl

  19. Biophysical and Pharmacological Characterization of Hypotonically Activated Chloride Currents in Cortical Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    PARKERSON, KIMBERLY A.; SONTHEIMER, HARALD

    2008-01-01

    Rat cortical astrocytes regulate their cell volume in response to hypotonic challenge. This regulation is believed to depend largely on the release of chloride or organic osmolytes through anion channels. Using whole-cell recordings, we identified weakly outwardly rectifying chloride currents that could be activated in response to hypotonic challenge. These currents exhibited the following permeability sequence upon replacement of chloride in the bathing solution with various anions: I->NO3->Cl->Gluc- ≥MeS->Ise-. Interestingly, extracellular I-, albeit showing the greatest permeability, blocked the currents with an IC50 of ≈50 mM. Currents were almost completely inhibited by 123 μM NPPB and partially inhibited by 200 μM niflumic acid or 200 μM DIDS. Additionally, the total number of Cl- ions effluxed through the hypotonically activated channels was markedly similar to the total solute efflux during volume regulation. We therefore propose the hypotonically activated chloride channel as a major contributor to volume regulation of astrocytes. To examine potential candidate chloride channel genes expressed by astrocytes, we employed RTPCR to demonstrate the presence of transcripts for ClC-2, 3, 4, 5, and 7, as well as for VDAC and CFTR in cultured astrocytes. Moreover, we performed immunostaining with antibodies against each of these channels and showed the strongest expression of ClC-2 and ClC-3, strong expression of ClC-5 and VDAC, weak expression of ClC-7 and very weak expression of ClC-4 and CFTR. Intriguingly, although we found at least seven Cl- channel proteins from three different gene families in astrocytes, none appeared to be active in resting cells. PMID:15095372

  20. VAMP-associated Proteins (VAP) as Receptors That Couple Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Proteostasis with Lipid Homeostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Wayne L.; Shome, Kuntala; Wu, Christine C.; Gong, Xiaoyan; Aridor, Meir

    2016-01-01

    Unesterified cholesterol accumulates in late endosomes in cells expressing the misfolded cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). CFTR misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or general activation of ER stress led to dynein-mediated clustering of cholesterol-loaded late endosomes at the Golgi region, a process regulated by ER-localized VAMP-associated proteins (VAPs). We hypothesized that VAPs serve as intracellular receptors that couple lipid homeostasis through interactions with two phenylalanines in an acidic track (FFAT) binding signals (found in lipid sorting and sensing proteins, LSS) with proteostasis regulation. VAPB inhibited the degradation of ΔF508-CFTR. The activity was mapped to the ligand-binding major sperm protein (MSP) domain, which was sufficient in regulating CFTR biogenesis. We identified mutations in an unstructured loop within the MSP that uncoupled VAPB-regulated CFTR biogenesis from basic interactions with FFAT. Using this information, we defined functional and physical interactions between VAPB and proteostasis regulators (ligands), including the unfolded protein response sensor ATF6 and the ER degradation cluster that included FAF1, VCP, BAP31, and Derlin-1. VAPB inhibited the degradation of ΔF508-CFTR in the ER through interactions with the RMA1-Derlin-BAP31-VCP pathway. Analysis of pseudoligands containing tandem FFAT signals supports a competitive model for VAP interactions that direct CFTR biogenesis. The results suggest a model in which VAP-ligand binding couples proteostasis and lipid homeostasis leading to observed phenotypes of lipid abnormalities in protein folding diseases. PMID:26740627

  1. A Genotypic-Oriented View of CFTR Genetics Highlights Specific Mutational Patterns Underlying Clinical Macrocategories of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lucarelli, Marco; Bruno, Sabina Maria; Pierandrei, Silvia; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Stamato, Antonella; Narzi, Fabiana; Amato, Annalisa; Cimino, Giuseppe; Bertasi, Serenella; Quattrucci, Serena; Strom, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The genotype–phenotype relationship in this disease is still unclear, and diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic challenges persist. We enrolled 610 patients with different forms of CF and studied them from a clinical, biochemical, microbiological and genetic point of view. Overall, there were 125 different mutated alleles (11 with novel mutations and 10 with complex mutations) and 225 genotypes. A strong correlation between mutational patterns at the genotypic level and phenotypic macrocategories emerged. This specificity appears to largely depend on rare and individual mutations, as well as on the varying prevalence of common alleles in different clinical macrocategories. However, 19 genotypes appeared to underlie different clinical forms of the disease. The dissection of the pathway from the CFTR mutated genotype to the clinical phenotype allowed to identify at least two components of the variability usually found in the genotype–phenotype relationship. One component seems to depend on the genetic variation of CFTR, the other component on the cumulative effect of variations in other genes and cellular pathways independent from CFTR. The experimental dissection of the overall biological CFTR pathway appears to be a powerful approach for a better comprehension of the genotype–phenotype relationship. However, a change from an allele-oriented to a genotypic-oriented view of CFTR genetics is mandatory, as well as a better assessment of sources of variability within the CFTR pathway. PMID:25910067

  2. Upregulation of CFTR in patients with endometriosis and its involvement in NFκB-uPAR dependent cell migration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenqing; Jin, Aihong; Zhang, Jieting; Wang, Chaoqun; Tsang, Lai Ling; Cai, Zhiming; Zhou, Xiaping; Chen, Hao; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2017-09-15

    Endometriotic tissues exhibit high migration ability with the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Our previous studies have demonstrated that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) acts as a tumor suppressor regulating cell migration. In the present study, we explored whether CFTR plays a role in the development of human endometriosis. We found that both mRNA and protein expression levels of CFTR and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) were significantly increased in ectopic endometrial tissues from patients with endometriosis compared to normal endometrial tissues from women without endometriosis and positively correlated. In human endometrial Ishikawa (ISK) cells, overexpression of CFTR stimulated cell migration with upregulated NFκB p65 and uPAR. Knockdown of CFTR inhibited cell migration. Furthermore, inhibition of NFκB with its inhibitors (curcumin or Bay) significantly reduced the expression of uPAR and cell migration in the CFTR-overexpressing ISK cells. Collectively, the present results suggest that the CFTR-NFκB-uPAR signaling may contribute to the progression of human endometriosis, and indicate potential targets for diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Upregulation of CFTR in patients with endometriosis and its involvement in NFκB-uPAR dependent cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chaoqun; Tsang, Lai Ling; Cai, Zhiming; Zhou, Xiaping; Chen, Hao; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2017-01-01

    Endometriotic tissues exhibit high migration ability with the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Our previous studies have demonstrated that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) acts as a tumor suppressor regulating cell migration. In the present study, we explored whether CFTR plays a role in the development of human endometriosis. We found that both mRNA and protein expression levels of CFTR and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) were significantly increased in ectopic endometrial tissues from patients with endometriosis compared to normal endometrial tissues from women without endometriosis and positively correlated. In human endometrial Ishikawa (ISK) cells, overexpression of CFTR stimulated cell migration with upregulated NFκB p65 and uPAR. Knockdown of CFTR inhibited cell migration. Furthermore, inhibition of NFκB with its inhibitors (curcumin or Bay) significantly reduced the expression of uPAR and cell migration in the CFTR-overexpressing ISK cells. Collectively, the present results suggest that the CFTR-NFκB-uPAR signaling may contribute to the progression of human endometriosis, and indicate potential targets for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28978008

  4. Effect of L-ascorbate on Chloride Transport in Freshly Excised Sinonasal Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Do-Yeon; Hwang, Peter H.; Illek, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) occurs at high frequency in patients with cystic fibrosis, suggesting that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride (Cl) ion channel might be involved in the development of chronic sinusitis in the general population. CFTR Cl ion transport controls the hydration of mucosal surfaces and promotes effective mucociliary clearance. Altered ion transport, and hence disrupted mucociliary function, could play a role in the pathogenesis of sinus disease. L-ascorbate is a metabolically active component of the nasal and tracheobronchial airway lining fluids and appears to serve as an important biological effector of CFTR-mediated chloride secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of L-ascorbate on Cl ion transport in freshly excised sinonasal epithelia from normal controls and patients with CRS. Methods Four different types of sinonasal tissue (normal sinus mucosa, sinus mucosa from CRS, normal nasal mucosa, nasal mucosa from CRS) were obtained during endoscopic sinus surgery and mounted on sliders with open areas of 0.03 to 0.71cm2 between Ussing hemichambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) was continuously recorded, and a serosa-to-mucosa-directed Cl gradient was applied to increase the electrochemical driving force. Results L-ascorbate (500µM) stimulated Cl currents (ΔICl, µA/cm2) across sinonasal epithelia from normal and CRS patients. The Cl secretory response to L-ascorbate was effectively blocked by the Cl ion transport inhibitors glibenclamide and bumetanide. A maximal dose of L-ascorbate (at 1 mM) stimulated 53–70% of Cl currents elicited by the cAMP agonist forskolin. CRS sinonasal tissue was characterized by impaired Cl secretory responses to L-ascorbate that were reduced by 33% in sinus epithelial tissue and by 70% in nasal epithelial tissue when compared to normal subjects. In nasal epithelial tissue from normal subjects, Cl secretion was approximately 2-fold

  5. Effect of L-ascorbate on chloride transport in freshly excised sinonasal epithelia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Do-Yeon; Hwang, Peter H; Illek, Beate

    2009-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) occurs at high frequency in patients with cystic fibrosis, suggesting that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride (Cl) ion channel might be involved in the development of chronic sinusitis in the general population. CFTR Cl ion transport controls the hydration of mucosal surfaces and promotes effective mucociliary clearance. Altered ion transport and, hence, disrupted mucociliary function, could play a role in the pathogenesis of sinus disease. L-ascorbate is a metabolically active component of the nasal and tracheobronchial airway lining fluids and appears to serve as an important biological effector of CFTR-mediated chloride secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of L-ascorbate on Cl ion transport in freshly excised sinonasal epithelia from normal controls and patients with CRS. Four different types of sinonasal tissue (normal sinus mucosa, sinus mucosa from CRS, normal nasal mucosa, nasal mucosa from CRS) were obtained during endoscopic sinus surgery and mounted on sliders with open areas of 0.03-0.71 cm2 between Ussing hemichambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) was continuously recorded, and a serosa-to-mucosa-directed Cl gradient was applied to increase the electrochemical driving force. L-ascorbate (500 microM) stimulated Cl currents (DeltaI(Cl), microA/cm2) across sinonasal epithelia from normal and CRS patients. The Cl secretory response to L-ascorbate was effectively blocked by the Cl ion transport inhibitors glibenclamide and bumetanide. A maximal dose of L-ascorbate (at 1 mM) stimulated 53-70% of Cl currents elicited by the cAMP agonist forskolin. CRS sinonasal tissue was characterized by impaired Cl secretory responses to L-ascorbate that were reduced by 33% in sinus epithelial tissue and by 70% in nasal epithelial tissue when compared with normal subjects. In nasal epithelial tissue from normal subjects, Cl secretion was approximately twofold increased when compared

  6. Chlorogenic Acid Activates CFTR-Mediated Cl- Secretion in Mice and Humans: Therapeutic Implications for Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Illing, Elisa; Cho, Do-Yeon; Zhang, Shaoyan; Skinner, Daniel F.; Dunlap, Quinn A.; Sorscher, Eric J.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Salubrious effects of the green coffee bean are purportedly secondary to high concentrations of chlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid has a molecular structure similar to bioflavonoids that activate transepithelial Cl- transport in sinonasal epithelia. In contrast to flavonoids, the drug is freely soluble in water. The objective of this study is to evaluate the Cl- secretory capability of chlorogenic acid and its potential as a therapeutic activator of mucus clearance in sinus disease. Study Design Basic research Setting Laboratory Subjects and Methods Chlorogenic acid was tested on primary murine nasal septal epithelial(MNSE)[CFTR+/+ and transgenic CFTR-/-] and human sinonasal epithelial(HSNE)[CFTR+/+ and F508del/F508del] cultures under pharmacologic conditions in Ussing chambers to evaluate effects on transepithelial Cl- transport. Cellular cAMP, phosphorylation of the CFTR regulatory domain(R-D), and CFTR mRNA transcription were also measured. Results Chlorogenic acid stimulated transepithelial Cl- secretion [(change in short-circuit current(ΔISC=μA/cm2)] in MNSE(13.1+/-0.9 vs. 0.1+/-0.1, p<0.05) and HSNE(34.3+/-0.9 vs. 0.0+/-0.1, p<0.05). The drug had a long duration until peak effect at 15-30 minutes after application. Significant inhibition with INH-172, as well as absent stimulation in cultures lacking functional CFTR, suggests effects are dependent on CFTR-mediated pathways. However, the absence of elevated cellular cAMP and phosphorylation the CFTR R-D indicates chlorogenic acid does not work through a PKA-dependent mechanism. Conclusion Chlorogenic acid is a water soluble agent that promotes CFTR-mediated Cl- transport in mouse and human sinonasal epithelium. Translating activators of mucociliary transport to clinical use provides a new therapeutic approach to sinus disease. Further in vivo evaluation is planned. PMID:26019132

  7. Chlorogenic Acid Activates CFTR-Mediated Cl- Secretion in Mice and Humans: Therapeutic Implications for Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Illing, Elisa A; Cho, Do-Yeon; Zhang, Shaoyan; Skinner, Daniel F; Dunlap, Quinn A; Sorscher, Eric J; Woodworth, Bradford A

    2015-08-01

    Salubrious effects of the green coffee bean are purportedly secondary to high concentrations of chlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid has a molecular structure similar to bioflavonoids that activate transepithelial Cl(-) transport in sinonasal epithelia. In contrast to flavonoids, the drug is freely soluble in water. The objective of this study is to evaluate the Cl(-) secretory capability of chlorogenic acid and its potential as a therapeutic activator of mucus clearance in sinus disease. Basic research. Laboratory. Chlorogenic acid was tested on primary murine nasal septal epithelial (MNSE) (CFTR(+/+) and transgenic CFTR(-/-)) and human sinonasal epithelial (HSNE) (CFTR(+/+) and F508del/F508del) cultures under pharmacologic conditions in Ussing chambers to evaluate effects on transepithelial Cl(-) transport. Cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), phosphorylation of the CFTR regulatory domain (R-D), and CFTR mRNA transcription were also measured. Chlorogenic acid stimulated transepithelial Cl(-) secretion (change in short-circuit current [ΔISC = µA/cm(2)]) in MNSE (13.1 ± 0.9 vs 0.1 ± 0.1; P < .05) and HSNE (34.3 ± 0.9 vs 0.0 ± 0.1; P < .05). The drug had a long duration until peak effect at 15 to 30 minutes after application. Significant inhibition with INH-172 as well as absent stimulation in cultures lacking functional CFTR suggest effects are dependent on CFTR-mediated pathways. However, the absence of elevated cellular cAMP and phosphorylation the CFTR R-D indicates chlorogenic acid does not work through a PKA-dependent mechanism. Chlorogenic acid is a water-soluble agent that promotes CFTR-mediated Cl(-) transport in mouse and human sinonasal epithelium. Translating activators of mucociliary transport to clinical use provides a new therapeutic approach to sinus disease. Further in vivo evaluation is planned. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  8. A molecular switch in the scaffold NHERF1 enables misfolded CFTR to evade the peripheral quality control checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Cláudia A; Matos, Ana Margarida; Dias-Alves, Ângela; Pereira, Joana F; Uliyakina, Inna; Barros, Patrícia; Amaral, Margarida D; Matos, Paulo

    2015-05-19

    The peripheral protein quality control (PPQC) checkpoint removes improperly folded proteins from the plasma membrane through a mechanism involving the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein). PPQC limits the efficacy of some cystic fibrosis (CF) drugs, such as VX-809, that improve trafficking to the plasma membrane of misfolded mutants of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), including F508del-CFTR, which retains partial functionality. We investigated the PPQC checkpoint in lung epithelial cells with F508del-CFTR that were exposed to VX-809. The conformation of the scaffold protein NHERF1 (Na(+)/H(+) exchange regulatory factor 1) determined whether the PPQC recognized "rescued" F508del-CFTR (the portion that reached the cell surface in VX-809-treated cells). Activation of the cytoskeletal regulator Rac1 promoted an interaction between the actin-binding adaptor protein ezrin and NHERF1, triggering exposure of the second PDZ domain of NHERF1, which interacted with rescued F508del-CFTR. Because binding of F508del-CFTR to the second PDZ of NHERF1 precluded the recruitment of CHIP, the coexposure of airway cells to Rac1 activator nearly tripled the efficacy of VX-809. Interference with the NHERF1-ezrin interaction prevented the increase of efficacy of VX-809 by Rac1 activation, but the actin-binding domain of ezrin was not required for the increase in efficacy. Thus, rather than mainly directing anchoring of F508del-CFTR to the actin cytoskeleton, induction of ezrin activation by Rac1 signaling triggered a conformational change in NHERF1, which was then able to bind and stabilize misfolded CFTR at the plasma membrane. These insights into the cell surface stabilization of CFTR provide new targets to improve treatment of CF. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Monomerization and ER Relocalization of GRASP Is a Requisite for Unconventional Secretion of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoon; Noh, Shin Hye; Piao, He; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Kuglae; Cha, Jeong Seok; Chung, Woo Young; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Joo Young; Lee, Min Goo

    2016-07-01

    Induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi blockade or ER stress induces Golgi reassembly stacking protein (GRASP)-mediated, Golgi-independent unconventional cell-surface trafficking of the folding-deficient ΔF508-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). However, molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. Here, we show that phosphorylation-dependent dissociation of GRASP homotypic complexes and subsequent relocalization of GRASP to the ER play a critical role in the unconventional secretion of CFTR. Immunolocalization analyses of mammalian cells revealed that the Golgi protein GRASP55 was redistributed to the ER by stimuli that induce unconventional secretion of ΔF508-CFTR, such as induction of ER-to-Golgi blockade by the Arf1 mutant. Notably, the same stimuli also induced phosphorylation of regions near the C-terminus of GRASP55 and dissociation of GRASP homomultimer complexes. Furthermore, phosphorylation-mimicking mutations of GRASP55 induced the monomerization and ER relocalization of GRASP55, and these changes were nullified by phosphorylation-inhibiting mutations. These results provide mechanistic insights into how GRASP accesses the ER-retained ΔF508-CFTR and mediates the ER stress-induced unconventional secretion pathway. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Mutation analysis of CFTR gene in 70 Iranian cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Alibakhshi, Reza; Zamani, Mahdi

    2006-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common inherited disorder in Caucasian populations, with over 1400 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations. The type of mutations and their distributions varies widely between different countries and/or ethnic groups. Seventy Iranian cystic fibrosis patients were screened for the CFTR gene mutation using ARMS/PCR (amplification refractory mutation system) for the following mutations: deltaF508, N1303K, G542X, 1717-1G>A, R553X, W1282X, G551D, 621+1G>T, deltaI507 and R560T. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of exons 3, 7, 10, 11 and 17b, including both the exon/intron junctions, of the CFTR gene was performed in patients in whom no mutation could be identified on one or both CFTR genes. As a result of this screening, only three mutations were found: deltaF508 mutation was found in 25 (17.8%) alleles, N1303K in six (4.3%) alleles and G542X in five (3.6%) alleles. Thus, a total of 3 mutations cover 25.7% of CF alleles. These finding will be used for planning future screening and appropriate genetic counseling programs in Iranian CF patients.

  11. From CFTR biology toward combinatorial pharmacotherapy: expanded classification of cystic fibrosis mutations

    PubMed Central

    Veit, Gudio; Avramescu, Radu G.; Chiang, Annette N.; Houck, Scott A.; Cai, Zhiwei; Peters, Kathryn W.; Hong, Jeong S.; Pollard, Harvey B.; Guggino, William B.; Balch, William E.; Skach, William R.; Cutting, Garry R.; Frizzell, Raymond A.; Sheppard, David N.; Cyr, Douglas M.; Sorscher, Eric J.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.; Lukacs, Gergely L.

    2016-01-01

    More than 2000 mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) have been described that confer a range of molecular cell biological and functional phenotypes. Most of these mutations lead to compromised anion conductance at the apical plasma membrane of secretory epithelia and cause cystic fibrosis (CF) with variable disease severity. Based on the molecular phenotypic complexity of CFTR mutants and their susceptibility to pharmacotherapy, it has been recognized that mutations may impose combinatorial defects in CFTR channel biology. This notion led to the conclusion that the combination of pharmacotherapies addressing single defects (e.g., transcription, translation, folding, and/or gating) may show improved clinical benefit over available low-efficacy monotherapies. Indeed, recent phase 3 clinical trials combining ivacaftor (a gating potentiator) and lumacaftor (a folding corrector) have proven efficacious in CF patients harboring the most common mutation (deletion of residue F508, ΔF508, or Phe508del). This drug combination was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for patients homozygous for ΔF508. Emerging studies of the structural, cell biological, and functional defects caused by rare mutations provide a new framework that reveals a mixture of deficiencies in different CFTR alleles. Establishment of a set of combinatorial categories of the previously defined basic defects in CF alleles will aid the design of even more efficacious therapeutic interventions for CF patients. PMID:26823392

  12. Small molecule correctors of F508del-CFTR discovered by structure-based virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    Mense, Martin; Fischman, Sharon; Shitrit, Alina; Bihler, Hermann; Ben-Zeev, Efrat; Schutz, Nili; Pedemonte, Nicoletta; Thomas, Philip J.; Bridges, Robert J.; Wetmore, Diana R.; Marantz, Yael; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2014-01-01

    Folding correctors of F508del-CFTR were discovered by in silico structure-based screening utilizing homology models of CFTR. The intracellular segment of CFTR was modeled and three cavities were identified at inter-domain interfaces: (1) Interface between the two Nucleotide Binding Domains (NBDs); (2) Interface between NBD1 and Intracellular Loop (ICL) 4, in the region of the F508 deletion; (3) multi-domain interface between NBD1:2:ICL1:2:4. We hypothesized that compounds binding at these interfaces may improve the stability of the protein, potentially affecting the folding yield or surface stability. In silico structure-based screening was performed at the putative binding-sites and a total of 496 candidate compounds from all three sites were tested in functional assays. A total of 15 compounds, representing diverse chemotypes, were identified as F508del folding correctors. This corresponds to a 3% hit rate, ∼tenfold higher than hit rates obtained in corresponding high-throughput screening campaigns. The same binding sites also yielded potentiators and, most notably, compounds with a dual corrector-potentiator activity (dual-acting). Compounds harboring both activity types may prove to be better leads for the development of CF therapeutics than either pure correctors or pure potentiators. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of structure-based discovery of CFTR modulators. PMID:20976528

  13. Newborn Screening Quality Assurance Program for CFTR Mutation Detection and Gene Sequencing to Identify Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, Miyono M.; Foster, Stephanie L.; Cordovado, Suzanne K.

    2016-01-01

    All newborn screening laboratories in the United States and many worldwide screen for cystic fibrosis. Most laboratories use a second-tier genotyping assay to identify a panel of mutations in the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Newborn Screening Quality Assurance Program houses a dried blood spot repository of samples containing CFTR mutations to assist newborn screening laboratories and ensure high-quality mutation detection in a high-throughput environment. Recently, CFTR mutation detection has increased in complexity with expanded genotyping panels and gene sequencing. To accommodate the growing quality assurance needs, the repository samples were characterized with several multiplex genotyping methods, Sanger sequencing, and 3 next-generation sequencing assays using a high-throughput, low-concentration DNA extraction method. The samples performed well in all of the assays, providing newborn screening laboratories with a resource for complex CFTR mutation detection and next-generation sequencing as they transition to new methods. PMID:28261631

  14. Hyposecretion of fluid from tracheal submucosal glands of CFTR-deficient pigs

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Nam Soo; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Khansaheb, Monal; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) results from mutations that disrupt CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel found mainly in apical membranes of epithelial cells. CF leads to chronic infection of the airways with normally innocuous bacteria and fungi. Hypotheses to explain the pathophysiology of CF airways have been difficult to test because mouse models of CF do not develop human-like airway disease. The recent production of pigs lacking CFTR and pigs expressing the most common CF-causing CFTR mutant, ΔF508, provide another model that might help clarify the pathophysiology of CF airway disease. Here, we studied individual submucosal glands from 1-day-old piglets in situ in explanted tracheas, using optical methods to monitor mucus secretion rates from multiple glands in parallel. Secretion rates from control piglets (WT and CFTR+/–) and piglets with CF-like disease (CFTR–/– and CFTR–/ΔF508) were measured under 5 conditions: unstimulated (to determine basal secretion), stimulated with forskolin, stimulated with carbachol, stimulated with substance P, and, as a test for synergy, stimulated with forskolin and a low concentration of carbachol. Glands from piglets with CF-like disease responded qualitatively to all agonists like glands from human patients with CF, producing virtually no fluid in response to stimulation with forskolin and substantially less in response to all other agonists except carbachol. These data are a step toward determining whether gland secretory defects contribute to CF airway disease. PMID:20739758

  15. Newborn cystic fibrosis screening in southeastern Mexico: Birth prevalence and novel CFTR gene variants.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-González, Isabel; Campos-Garcia, Felix-Julián; Herrera-Pérez, Luz Del Alba; Martínez-Cruz, Patricia; Moreno-Graciano, Claudia-Margarita; Contreras-Capetillo, Silvina-Noemí; León-Burgos, Verónica; Maldonado-Solis, Felipe-Angel; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; González Del Angel, Ariadna; Vela-Amieva, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Objective To use the results of the first five years of a cystic fibrosis newborn screening program to estimate the cystic fibrosis birth prevalence and spectrum of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR) gene variants in Yucatan, Mexico. Methods Screening was performed from 2010 to 2015, using two-tier immunoreactive trypsinogen testing, followed by a sweat test. When sweat test values were >30 mmol/L, the CFTR gene was analyzed. Results Of 96,071 newborns screened, a second sample was requested in 119 cases. A sweat test was performed in 30 newborns, and 9 possible cases were detected (seven confirmed cystic fibrosis and two inconclusive). The most frequently detected CFTR pathogenic variant (5/14 cystic fibrosis alleles, 35.7%) was p.(Phe508del); novel p.(Ala559Pro) and p.(Thr1299Hisfs*29) pathogenic variants were found. Conclusions Cystic fibrosis birth prevalence in southeastern Mexico is 1:13,724 newborns. Immunoreactive trypsinogen blood concentration is influenced by gestational age and by the time of sampling. The spectrum of CFTR gene variants in Yucatan is heterogeneous.

  16. The Spectrum of CFTR Variants in Nonwhite Cystic Fibrosis Patients: Implications for Molecular Diagnostic Testing.

    PubMed

    Schrijver, Iris; Pique, Lynn; Graham, Steve; Pearl, Michelle; Cherry, Athena; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Despite the implementation of cystic fibrosis (CF) newborn screening programs across the United States, the identification of CFTR gene variants in nonwhite populations compared with whites remains suboptimal. Our objective was to establish the spectrum of CFTR variants and their frequencies in CF patients in the United States with African, Native American, Asian, East Indian, or Middle Eastern backgrounds. By using direct DNA sequencing, we identified two CFTR variants in 89 of 140 affected nonwhite individuals with uncharacterized genotypes. Seven variants were novel. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification detected 14 rearrangements in the remaining 51 patients, 6 of which were novel. Deletions and duplications accounted for 17% of unidentified alleles. A cross-sectional analysis of genotyping data from the CF Foundation Patient Registry was performed, comparing 3496 nonwhite patients with 22,206 white CF patients. Patients of Hispanic, black, or Asian ancestry were less likely to have two identified CFTR variants (P < 0.0001 for Hispanics and blacks, P = 0.003 for Asians), and more likely to carry no mutations on the commonly used 23 mutation carrier screening panel (P < 0.0001). We analyzed the mutations recorded for each ancestry and summarized the most frequent ones. This research could facilitate equity in mutation detection between white and nonwhite or mixed-ethnicity CF patients, enabling an earlier diagnosis improving their quality of life. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Small molecule correctors of F508del-CFTR discovered by structure-based virtual screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalid, Ori; Mense, Martin; Fischman, Sharon; Shitrit, Alina; Bihler, Hermann; Ben-Zeev, Efrat; Schutz, Nili; Pedemonte, Nicoletta; Thomas, Philip J.; Bridges, Robert J.; Wetmore, Diana R.; Marantz, Yael; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2010-12-01

    Folding correctors of F508del-CFTR were discovered by in silico structure-based screening utilizing homology models of CFTR. The intracellular segment of CFTR was modeled and three cavities were identified at inter-domain interfaces: (1) Interface between the two Nucleotide Binding Domains (NBDs); (2) Interface between NBD1 and Intracellular Loop (ICL) 4, in the region of the F508 deletion; (3) multi-domain interface between NBD1:2:ICL1:2:4. We hypothesized that compounds binding at these interfaces may improve the stability of the protein, potentially affecting the folding yield or surface stability. In silico structure-based screening was performed at the putative binding-sites and a total of 496 candidate compounds from all three sites were tested in functional assays. A total of 15 compounds, representing diverse chemotypes, were identified as F508del folding correctors. This corresponds to a 3% hit rate, tenfold higher than hit rates obtained in corresponding high-throughput screening campaigns. The same binding sites also yielded potentiators and, most notably, compounds with a dual corrector-potentiator activity (dual-acting). Compounds harboring both activity types may prove to be better leads for the development of CF therapeutics than either pure correctors or pure potentiators. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of structure-based discovery of CFTR modulators.

  18. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance... DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5900 Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR... intended as an aid in confirmatory diagnostic testing of individuals with suspected cystic fibrosis (CF...

  19. Adeno-associated virus–targeted disruption of the CFTR gene in cloned ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingshen; Yan, Ziying; Yi, Yaling; Li, Ziyi; Lei, Diana; Rogers, Christopher S.; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Yulong; Welsh, Michael J.; Leno, Gregory H.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Somatic cell gene targeting combined with nuclear transfer cloning presents tremendous potential for the creation of new, large-animal models of human diseases. Mouse disease models often fail to reproduce human phenotypes, underscoring the need for the generation and study of alternative disease models. Mice deficient for CFTR have been poor models for cystic fibrosis (CF), lacking many aspects of human CF lung disease. In this study, we describe the production of a CFTR gene–deficient model in the domestic ferret using recombinant adeno-associated virus–mediated gene targeting in fibroblasts, followed by nuclear transfer cloning. As part of this approach, we developed a somatic cell rejuvenation protocol using serial nuclear transfer to produce live CFTR-deficient clones from senescent gene-targeted fibroblasts. We transferred 472 reconstructed embryos into 11 recipient jills and obtained 8 healthy male ferret clones heterozygous for a disruption in exon 10 of the CFTR gene. To our knowledge, this study represents the first description of genetically engineered ferrets and describes an approach that may be of substantial utility in modeling not only CF, but also other genetic diseases. PMID:18324338

  20. Clinical phenotype and genotype of children with borderline sweat test and abnormal nasal epithelial chloride transport.

    PubMed

    Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Girodon, Emanuelle; Sands, Dorota; Stremmler, Nathalie; Vavrova, Vera; Deneuville, Eric; Reix, Philippe; Bui, Stéphanie; Huet, Frédéric; Lebourgeois, Muriel; Munck, Anne; Iron, Albert; Skalicka, Veronika; Bienvenu, Thierry; Roussel, Delphine; Lenoir, Gérard; Bellon, Gabriel; Sarles, Jacques; Macek, Milan; Roussey, Michel; Fajac, Isabelle; Edelman, Aleksander

    2010-10-01

    The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) is based on a characteristic clinical picture in association with a sweat chloride (Cl(-)) concentration greater than 60 mmol/L or the identification of two CF-causing mutations. A challenging problem is the significant number of children for whom no definitive diagnosis is possible because they present with symptoms suggestive of CF, a sweat chloride level in the intermediate range between 30 and 60 mmol/L, and only one or no identified CF-causing mutation. To investigate the function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein in the airways of children with intermediate sweat tests and inconclusive genetic findings in correlation with clinical phenotype and genotype. We developed a composite nasal potential difference (NPD) diagnostic score to discriminate patients with CF from non-CF patients. We tested NPD in 50 children (age, 6 mo to 18 yr) with equivocal diagnoses and correlated the NPD diagnostic score with clinical phenotypes and genotypes. Fifteen of the 50 children had NPD scores in the CF range. Eight of the 15 carried two CFTR mutations compared with only 5 of the 35 children with normal NPD scores (P = 0.01). They were significantly younger at evaluation and had recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, chronic productive coughs, and chronic Staphylococcus aureus colonization significantly more often than the 35 children with normal NPD results. Evaluation of CFTR function in the nasal epithelium of children with inconclusive CF diagnoses can be a useful diagnostic tool and help clinicians to individualize therapeutic strategy.

  1. Important Role of Platelets in Modulating Endotoxin-Induced Lung Inflammation in CFTR-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Caiqi; Su, Emily M.; Yang, Xi; Gao, Zhaowei; Li, Ling; Wu, Haiya; Jiang, Yiyi; Su, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mutation of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) leads to cystic fibrosis (CF). Patients with CF develop abnormalities of blood platelets and recurrent lung inflammation. However, whether CFTR-mutated platelets play a role in the development of lung inflammation is elusive. Therefore, we intratracheally challenged wildtype and F508del (a common type of CFTR mutation) mice with LPS to observe changes of F508del platelets in the peripheral blood and indexes of lung inflammation (BAL neutrophils and protein levels). Furthermore, we investigated whether or not and how F508del platelets modulate the LPS-induced acute lung inflammation by targeting anti-platelet aggregation, depletion of neutrophils, reconstitution of bone marrow or neutrophils, blockade of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), platelet activating factor (PAF), and correction of mutated CFTR trafficking. We found that LPS-challenged F508del mice developed severe thrombocytopenia and had higher levels of plasma TXB2 coincided with neutrophilic lung inflammation relative to wildtype control. Inhibition of F508del platelet aggregation or depletion of F508del neutrophils diminished the LPS-induced lung inflammation in the F508del mice. Moreover, wildtype mice reconstituted with either F508del bone marrow or neutrophils developed worse thrombocytopenia. Blocking PSGL-1, platelet activating factor (PAF), or rectifying trafficking of mutated CFTR in F508del mice diminished and alveolar neutrophil transmigration in the LPS-challenged F508del mice. These findings suggest that F508del platelets and their interaction with neutrophils are requisite for the development of LPS-induced lung inflammation and injury. As such, targeting platelets might be an emerging strategy for dampening recurrent lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients. PMID:24367540

  2. Important role of platelets in modulating endotoxin-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Caiqi; Su, Emily M; Yang, Xi; Gao, Zhaowei; Li, Ling; Wu, Haiya; Jiang, Yiyi; Su, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Mutation of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) leads to cystic fibrosis (CF). Patients with CF develop abnormalities of blood platelets and recurrent lung inflammation. However, whether CFTR-mutated platelets play a role in the development of lung inflammation is elusive. Therefore, we intratracheally challenged wildtype and F508del (a common type of CFTR mutation) mice with LPS to observe changes of F508del platelets in the peripheral blood and indexes of lung inflammation (BAL neutrophils and protein levels). Furthermore, we investigated whether or not and how F508del platelets modulate the LPS-induced acute lung inflammation by targeting anti-platelet aggregation, depletion of neutrophils, reconstitution of bone marrow or neutrophils, blockade of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), platelet activating factor (PAF), and correction of mutated CFTR trafficking. We found that LPS-challenged F508del mice developed severe thrombocytopenia and had higher levels of plasma TXB2 coincided with neutrophilic lung inflammation relative to wildtype control. Inhibition of F508del platelet aggregation or depletion of F508del neutrophils diminished the LPS-induced lung inflammation in the F508del mice. Moreover, wildtype mice reconstituted with either F508del bone marrow or neutrophils developed worse thrombocytopenia. Blocking PSGL-1, platelet activating factor (PAF), or rectifying trafficking of mutated CFTR in F508del mice diminished and alveolar neutrophil transmigration in the LPS-challenged F508del mice. These findings suggest that F508del platelets and their interaction with neutrophils are requisite for the development of LPS-induced lung inflammation and injury. As such, targeting platelets might be an emerging strategy for dampening recurrent lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients.

  3. Stimulation of Airway and Intestinal Mucosal Secretion by Natural Coumarin CFTR Activators

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong; Xu, Li-Na; Sui, Yu-jie; Liu, Xin; He, Cheng-yan; Fang, Rou-yu; Liu, Jia; Hao, Feng; Ma, Tong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Mutations of cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause lethal hereditary disease CF that involves extensive destruction and dysfunction of serous epithelium. Possible pharmacological therapy includes correction of defective intracellular processing and abnormal channel gating. In a previous study, we identified five natural coumarin potentiators of ΔF508-CFTR including osthole, imperatorin, isopsoralen, praeruptorin A, and scoparone. The present study was designed to determine the activity of these coumarine compounds on CFTR activity in animal tissues as a primary evaluation of their therapeutic potential. In the present study, we analyzed the affinity of these coumarin potentiators in activating wild-type CFTR and found that they are all potent activators. Osthole showed the highest affinity with Kd values <50 nmol/L as determined by Ussing chamber short-circuit current assay. Stimulation of rat colonic mucosal secretion by osthole was tested by the Ussing chamber short-circuit current assay. Osthole reached maximal activation of colonic Cl− secretion at 5 μmol/L. Stimulation of mouse tracheal mucosal secretion was analyzed by optical measurement of single gland secretion. Fluid secretion rate of tracheal single submucosal gland stimulated by osthole at 10 μmol/L was three-fold more rapid than that in negative control. In both cases the stimulated secretions were fully abolished by CFTRinh-172. In conclusion, the effective stimulation of Cl– and fluid secretion in colonic and tracheal mucosa by osthole suggested the therapeutic potential of natural coumarin compounds for the treatment of CF and other CFTR-related diseases. PMID:21991256

  4. Personalized medicine in cystic fibrosis: genistein supplementation as a treatment option for patients with a rare S1045Y-CFTR mutation

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Kavisha; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Zhang, Weiqiang; Moon, ChangSuk; Bouquet, Erin; Srinivasan, Saumini; Li, Chunying; Stokes, Dennis C.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening disease caused by the mutations that generate nonfunctional CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. A rare serine-to-tyrosine (S1045Y) CFTR mutation was earlier reported to result in CF-associated fatality. We identified an African-American patient with the S1045Y mutation in CFTR, as well as a stop-codon mutation, who has a mild CF phenotype. The underlying mechanism of CF caused by S1045Y-CFTR has not been elucidated. In this study, we determined that S1045Y-CFTR exhibits twofold attenuated function compared with wild-type (WT)-CFTR. We report that serine-to-tyrosine mutation leads to increased tyrosine phosphorylation of S1045Y-CFTR, followed by recruitment and binding of E3-ubiquitin ligase c-cbl, resulting in enhanced ubiquitination and passage of S1045Y-CFTR in the endosome/lysosome degradative compartments. We demonstrate that inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation partially rescues S1045Y-CFTR surface expression and function. Based on our findings, it could be suggested that consuming genistein (a tyrosine phosphorylation inhibitor) would likely ameliorate CF symptoms in individuals with S1045Y-CFTR, providing a unique personalized therapy for this rare CF mutation. PMID:27261451

  5. Quorum Sensing Down-Regulation Counteracts the Negative Impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on CFTR Channel Expression, Function and Rescue in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maillé, Émilie; Ruffin, Manon; Adam, Damien; Messaoud, Hatem; Lafayette, Shantelle L.; McKay, Geoffrey; Nguyen, Dao; Brochiero, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    The function of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels is crucial in human airways. However unfortunately, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection has been shown to impair CFTR proteins in non-CF airway epithelial cells (AEC) and to alter the efficiency of new treatments with CFTR modulators designed to correct the basic CFTR default in AEC from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients carrying the F508del mutation. Our aim was first to compare the effect of laboratory strains, clinical isolates, engineered and natural mutants to determine the role of the LasR quorum sensing system in CFTR impairment, and second, to test the efficiency of a quorum sensing inhibitor to counteract the deleterious impact of P. aeruginosa both on wt-CFTR and on the rescue of F508del-CFTR by correctors. We first report that exoproducts from either the laboratory PAO1 strain or a clinical ≪Early≫ isolate (from an early stage of infection) altered CFTR expression, localization and function in AEC expressing wt-CFTR. Genetic inactivation of the quorum-sensing LasR in PAO1 (PAO1ΔlasR) or in a natural clinical mutant (≪Late≫ CF-adapted clinical isolate) abolished wt-CFTR impairment. PAO1 exoproducts also dampened F508del-CFTR rescue by VRT-325 or Vx-809 correctors in CF cells, whereas PAO1ΔlasR had no impact. Importantly, treatment of P. aeruginosa cultures with a quorum sensing inhibitor (HDMF) prevented the negative effect of P. aeruginosa exoproducts on wt-CFTR and preserved CFTR rescue by correctors in CF AEC. These findings indicate that LasR-interfering strategies could be of benefits to counteract the deleterious effect of P. aeruginosa in infected patients. PMID:29177135

  6. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene abnormalities in Indian males with congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens & renal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Gajbhiye, Rahul; Kadam, Kaushiki; Khole, Aalok; Gaikwad, Avinash; Kadam, Seema; Shah, Rupin; Kumaraswamy, Rangaswamy; Khole, Vrinda

    2016-05-01

    The role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations in congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens and unilateral renal agenesis (CBAVD-URA) has been controversial. Here, we report the cases of five Indian males with CBAVD-URA. The objective was to evaluate the presence or absence of CFTR gene mutations and variants in CBAVD-URA. The female partners of these males were also screened for cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier status. Direct DNA sequencing of CFTR gene was carried out in five Indian infertile males having CBAVD-URA. Female partners (n=5) and healthy controls (n=32) were also screened. Three potential regulatory CFTR gene variants (c.1540A>G, c.2694T>G and c.4521G>A) were detected along with IVS8-5T mutation in three infertile males with CBAVD-URA. Five novel CFTR gene variants (c.621+91A>G, c.2752+106A>T, c.2751+85_88delTA, c.3120+529InsC and c.4375-69C>T), four potential regulatory CFTR gene variants (M470V, T854T, P1290P, Q1463Q) and seven previously reported CFTR gene variants (c.196+12T>C, c.875+40A>G, c.3041-71G>C, c.3271+42A>T, c.3272-93T>C, c.3500-140A>C and c.3601-65C>A) were detected in infertile men having CBAVD and renal anomalies Interpretation & conclusions: Based on our findings, we speculate that CBAVD-URA may also be attributed to CFTR gene mutations and can be considered as CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD). The CFTR gene mutation screening may be offered to CBAVD-URA men and their female partners undergoing ICSI. Further studies need to be done in a large sample to confirm the findings.

  7. Current insights into the role of PKA phosphorylation in CFTR channel activity and the pharmacological rescue of cystic fibrosis disease-causing mutants.

    PubMed

    Chin, Stephanie; Hung, Maurita; Bear, Christine E

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel gating is predominantly regulated by protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation. In addition to regulating CFTR channel activity, PKA phosphorylation is also involved in enhancing CFTR trafficking and mediating conformational changes at the interdomain interfaces of the protein. The major cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing mutation is the deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (F508del); it causes many defects that affect CFTR trafficking, stability, and gating at the cell surface. Due to the multiple roles of PKA phosphorylation, there is growing interest in targeting PKA-dependent signaling for rescuing the trafficking and functional defects of F508del-CFTR. This review will discuss the effects of PKA phosphorylation on wild-type CFTR, the consequences of CF mutations on PKA phosphorylation, and the development of therapies that target PKA-mediated signaling.

  8. A Mutation in CFTR Modifies the Effects of the Adenylate Kinase Inhibitor Ap5A on Channel Gating

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qian; Randak, Christoph O.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis. The CFTR anion channel is controlled by ATP binding and enzymatic activity at the two nucleotide-binding domains. CFTR exhibits two types of enzymatic activity: 1), ATPase activity in the presence of ATP and 2), adenylate kinase activity in the presence of ATP plus physiologic concentrations of AMP or ADP. Previous work showed that P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′)pentaphosphate (Ap5A), a specific adenylate kinases inhibitor, inhibited wild-type CFTR. In this study, we report that Ap5A increased activity of CFTR with an L1254A mutation. This mutation increased the EC50 for ATP by >10-fold and reduced channel activity by prolonging the closed state. Ap5A did not elicit current on its own nor did it alter ATP EC50 or maximal current. However, it changed the relationship between ATP concentration and current. At submaximal ATP concentrations, Ap5A stimulated current by stabilizing the channel open state. Whereas previous work indicated that adenylate kinase activity regulated channel opening, our data suggest that Ap5A binding may also influence channel closing. These results also suggest that a better understanding of the adenylate kinase activity of CFTR may be of value in developing new therapeutic strategies for cystic fibrosis. PMID:18805924

  9. A mutation in CFTR modifies the effects of the adenylate kinase inhibitor Ap5A on channel gating.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Randak, Christoph O; Welsh, Michael J

    2008-12-01

    Mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis. The CFTR anion channel is controlled by ATP binding and enzymatic activity at the two nucleotide-binding domains. CFTR exhibits two types of enzymatic activity: 1), ATPase activity in the presence of ATP and 2), adenylate kinase activity in the presence of ATP plus physiologic concentrations of AMP or ADP. Previous work showed that P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate (Ap(5)A), a specific adenylate kinases inhibitor, inhibited wild-type CFTR. In this study, we report that Ap(5)A increased activity of CFTR with an L1254A mutation. This mutation increased the EC50 for ATP by >10-fold and reduced channel activity by prolonging the closed state. Ap(5)A did not elicit current on its own nor did it alter ATP EC50 or maximal current. However, it changed the relationship between ATP concentration and current. At submaximal ATP concentrations, Ap(5)A stimulated current by stabilizing the channel open state. Whereas previous work indicated that adenylate kinase activity regulated channel opening, our data suggest that Ap(5)A binding may also influence channel closing. These results also suggest that a better understanding of the adenylate kinase activity of CFTR may be of value in developing new therapeutic strategies for cystic fibrosis.

  10. CFTR Mutations Spectrum and the Efficiency of Molecular Diagnostics in Polish Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Rutkiewicz, Ewa; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Klimek, Barbara; Voelkel, Katarzyna; Witt, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR). In light of the strong allelic heterogeneity and regional specificity of the mutation spectrum, the strategy of molecular diagnostics and counseling in CF requires genetic tests to reflect the frequency profile characteristic for a given population. The goal of the study was to provide an updated comprehensive estimation of the distribution of CFTR mutations in Polish CF patients and to assess the effectiveness of INNOLiPA_CFTR tests in Polish population. The analyzed cohort consisted of 738 patients with the clinically confirmed CF diagnosis, prescreened for molecular defects using INNOLiPA_CFTR panels from Innogenetics. A combined efficiency of INNOLiPA CFTR_19 and CFTR_17_TnUpdate tests was 75.5%; both mutations were detected in 68.2%, and one mutation in 14.8% of the affected individuals. The group composed of all the patients with only one or with no mutation detected (109 and 126 individuals, respectively) was analyzed further using a mutation screening approach, i.e. SSCP/HD (single strand conformational polymorphism/heteroduplex) analysis of PCR products followed by sequencing of the coding sequence. As a result, 53 more mutations were found in 97 patients. The overall efficiency of the CF allele detection was 82.5% (7.0% increase compared to INNOLiPA tests alone). The distribution of the most frequent mutations in Poland was assessed. Most of the mutations repetitively found in Polish patients had been previously described in other European populations. The most frequent mutated allele, F508del, represented 54.5% of Polish CF chromosomes. Another eight mutations had frequencies over 1%, 24 had frequencies between 1 and 0.1%; c.2052-2053insA and c.3468+2_3468+3insT were the most frequent non-INNOLiPA mutations. Mutation distribution described herein is also relevant to the Polish diaspora. Our study also demonstrates that the reported efficiency of

  11. Lumacaftor-Ivacaftor in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Homozygous for Phe508del CFTR.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Claire E; Elborn, J Stuart; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Marigowda, Gautham; Huang, Xiaohong; Cipolli, Marco; Colombo, Carla; Davies, Jane C; De Boeck, Kris; Flume, Patrick A; Konstan, Michael W; McColley, Susanna A; McCoy, Karen; McKone, Edward F; Munck, Anne; Ratjen, Felix; Rowe, Steven M; Waltz, David; Boyle, Michael P

    2015-07-16

    Cystic fibrosis is a life-limiting disease that is caused by defective or deficient cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein activity. Phe508del is the most common CFTR mutation. We conducted two phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies that were designed to assess the effects of lumacaftor (VX-809), a CFTR corrector, in combination with ivacaftor (VX-770), a CFTR potentiator, in patients 12 years of age or older who had cystic fibrosis and were homozygous for the Phe508del CFTR mutation. In both studies, patients were randomly assigned to receive either lumacaftor (600 mg once daily or 400 mg every 12 hours) in combination with ivacaftor (250 mg every 12 hours) or matched placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was the absolute change from baseline in the percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at week 24. A total of 1108 patients underwent randomization and received study drug. The mean baseline FEV1 was 61% of the predicted value. In both studies, there were significant improvements in the primary end point in both lumacaftor-ivacaftor dose groups; the difference between active treatment and placebo with respect to the mean absolute improvement in the percentage of predicted FEV1 ranged from 2.6 to 4.0 percentage points (P<0.001), which corresponded to a mean relative treatment difference of 4.3 to 6.7% (P<0.001). Pooled analyses showed that the rate of pulmonary exacerbations was 30 to 39% lower in the lumacaftor-ivacaftor groups than in the placebo group; the rate of events leading to hospitalization or the use of intravenous antibiotics was lower in the lumacaftor-ivacaftor groups as well. The incidence of adverse events was generally similar in the lumacaftor-ivacaftor and placebo groups. The rate of discontinuation due to an adverse event was 4.2% among patients who received lumacaftor-ivacaftor versus 1.6% among those who received placebo. These data show that lumacaftor in

  12. Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor in Patients Aged 6-11 Years with Cystic Fibrosis and Homozygous for F508del-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Milla, Carlos E; Ratjen, Felix; Marigowda, Gautham; Liu, Fang; Waltz, David; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    Combination lumacaftor/ivacaftor has been shown to improve lung function and other endpoints in patients aged 12 years and older with cystic fibrosis and homozygous for F508del-CFTR, but it has not been assessed in younger patients. In this open-label phase III trial, we evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination therapy in patients aged 6-11 years with cystic fibrosis who were homozygous for F508del-CFTR. Patients (N = 58) received 200 mg lumacaftor/250 mg ivacaftor orally every 12 hours for 24 weeks in addition to their existing cystic fibrosis medications. Lumacaftor/ivacaftor was well tolerated; the safety profile was generally similar to that observed in larger lumacaftor/ivacaftor trials with older patients. Four patients discontinued (two because of drug-related adverse events: elevated liver transaminases, n = 1; rash, n = 1). No safety concerns were associated with spirometry. No significant changes in percent predicted FEV 1 were observed (change from baseline at Week 24, +2.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.2 to 5.2; P = 0.0671). At Week 24, significant improvements from baseline were observed in sweat chloride (-24.8 mmol/L; 95% CI, -29.1 to -20.5; P < 0.0001), body mass index z score (+0.15; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.22; P < 0.0001), Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised respiratory domain score (+5.4; 95% CI, 1.4 to 9.4; P = 0.0085), and lung clearance index based on lung volume turnover required to reach 2.5% of starting N 2 concentration (-0.88; 95% CI, -1.40 to -0.37; P = 0.0018). Lumacaftor/ivacaftor was well tolerated in this young population; no new safety concerns were identified. Improvements in lung clearance index, sweat chloride, nutritional status, and health-related quality of life were observed after 24 weeks of treatment. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01897233).

  13. Activation of 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent Kinase 1 (PDK1) and Serum- and Glucocorticoid-induced Protein Kinase 1 (SGK1) by Short-chain Sphingolipid C4-ceramide Rescues the Trafficking Defect of ΔF508-Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (ΔF508-CFTR)*

    PubMed Central

    Caohuy, Hung; Yang, Qingfeng; Eudy, Yvonne; Ha, Thien-An; Xu, Andrew E.; Glover, Matthew; Frizzell, Raymond A.; Jozwik, Catherine; Pollard, Harvey B.

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is due to a folding defect in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The most common mutation, ΔF508, prevents CFTR from trafficking to the apical plasma membrane. Here we show that activation of the PDK1/SGK1 signaling pathway with C4-ceramide (C4-CER), a non-toxic small molecule, functionally corrects the trafficking defect in both cultured CF cells and primary epithelial cell explants from CF patients. The mechanism of C4-CER action involves a series of mutual autophosphorylation and phosphorylation events between PDK1 and SGK1. Detailed mechanistic studies indicate that C4-CER initially induces autophosphorylation of SGK1 at Ser422. SGK1[Ser(P)422] and C4-CER coincidently bind PDK1 and permit PDK1 to autophosphorylate at Ser241. Then PDK1[Ser(P)241] phosphorylates SGK1[Ser(P)422] at Thr256 to generate fully activated SGK1[Ser422, Thr(P)256]. SGK1[Ser(P)422,Thr(P)256] phosphorylates and inactivates the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2. ΔF508-CFTR is thus free to traffic to the plasma membrane. Importantly, C4-CER-mediated activation of both PDK1 and SGK1 is independent of the PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. Physiologically, C4-CER significantly increases maturation and stability of ΔF508-CFTR (t½ ∼10 h), enhances cAMP-activated chloride secretion, and suppresses hypersecretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8). We suggest that candidate drugs for CF directed against the PDK1/SGK1 signaling pathway, such as C4-CER, provide a novel therapeutic strategy for a life-limiting disorder that affects one child, on average, each day. PMID:25384981

  14. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  16. Regulated recycling of mutant CFTR is partially restored by pharmacological treatment

    PubMed Central

    Holleran, John P.; Zeng, Jianxin; Frizzell, Raymond A.; Watkins, Simon C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Efficient trafficking of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to and from the cell surface is essential for maintaining channel density at the plasma membrane (PM) and ensuring proper physiological activity. The most common mutation, F508del, exhibits reduced surface expression and impaired function despite treatment with currently available pharmacological small molecules, called correctors. To gain more detailed insight into whether CFTR enters compartments that allow corrector stabilization in the cell periphery, we investigated the peripheral trafficking itineraries and kinetics of wild type (WT) and F508del in living cells using high-speed fluorescence microscopy together with fluorogen activating protein detection. We directly visualized internalization and accumulation of CFTR WT from the PM to a perinuclear compartment that colocalized with the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC) markers Rab11 and EHD1, reaching steady-state distribution by 25 minutes. Stimulation by protein kinase A (PKA) depleted this intracellular pool and redistributed CFTR channels to the cell surface, elicited by reduced endocytosis and active translocation to the PM. Corrector or temperature rescue of F508del also resulted in targeting to the ERC and exhibited subsequent PKA-stimulated trafficking to the PM. Corrector treatment (24 hours) led to persistent residence of F508del in the ERC, while thermally destabilized F508del was targeted to lysosomal compartments by 3 hours. Acute addition of individual correctors, C4 or C18, acted on peripheral trafficking steps to partially block lysosomal targeting of thermally destabilized F508del. Taken together, corrector treatment redirects F508del trafficking from a degradative pathway to a regulated recycling route, and proteins that mediate this process become potential targets for improving the efficacy of current and future correctors. PMID:23572510

  17. Regulated recycling of mutant CFTR is partially restored by pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Holleran, John P; Zeng, Jianxin; Frizzell, Raymond A; Watkins, Simon C

    2013-06-15

    Efficient trafficking of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to and from the cell surface is essential for maintaining channel density at the plasma membrane (PM) and ensuring proper physiological activity. The most common mutation, F508del, exhibits reduced surface expression and impaired function despite treatment with currently available pharmacological small molecules, called correctors. To gain more detailed insight into whether CFTR enters compartments that allow corrector stabilization in the cell periphery, we investigated the peripheral trafficking itineraries and kinetics of wild type (WT) and F508del in living cells using high-speed fluorescence microscopy together with fluorogen activating protein detection. We directly visualized internalization and accumulation of CFTR WT from the PM to a perinuclear compartment that colocalized with the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC) markers Rab11 and EHD1, reaching steady-state distribution by 25 minutes. Stimulation by protein kinase A (PKA) depleted this intracellular pool and redistributed CFTR channels to the cell surface, elicited by reduced endocytosis and active translocation to the PM. Corrector or temperature rescue of F508del also resulted in targeting to the ERC and exhibited subsequent PKA-stimulated trafficking to the PM. Corrector treatment (24 hours) led to persistent residence of F508del in the ERC, while thermally destabilized F508del was targeted to lysosomal compartments by 3 hours. Acute addition of individual correctors, C4 or C18, acted on peripheral trafficking steps to partially block lysosomal targeting of thermally destabilized F508del. Taken together, corrector treatment redirects F508del trafficking from a degradative pathway to a regulated recycling route, and proteins that mediate this process become potential targets for improving the efficacy of current and future correctors.

  18. A simple, fast and inexpensive method for mutation scanning of CFTR gene.

    PubMed

    Figueredo Lago, Juan Emilio; Armas Cayarga, Anny; González González, Yaimé Josefina; Collazo Mesa, Teresa

    2017-05-25

    Mutation scanning methods in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene may not distinguish between a Cystic Fibrosis (CF) causing mutation and a benign variant. We have developed a simple and fast method for scanning 14 selected CF-causing mutations which have high frequency in Latin America. In a group of 35 samples coming from CF patients previously characterized and using two allele-specific real-time multiplex PCRs targeting wild-type and mutant alleles respectively, we detect the presence of mutations by analyzing the Ct variation. Twenty-five samples without mutations considered non-carrier samples, were also included in this study. High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) was performed to confirm the result of the scanning method and in most cases allowed the genotype determination. The results validate this method for CF diagnosis. A least one CFTR gene mutation was detected in the samples of CF patients, as predicted by their ΔCt values. The ΔCt value also indicated the zygosity of the sample according to the distribution of CFTR gene mutations. In most cases, HRMA allowed the identification of the mutation(s), thereby confirming the efficiency of this scanning strategy. This strategy simplifies the detection of CF, reducing the analysis of 14 CF-causing mutations to two parallel reactions and making the procedure compatible with the analysis of a large number of samples. As the method is fast, inexpensive and highly reliable, it is advisable for scanning CFTR gene mutations in newborns, patients with a clinical suspicion of CF as well as in the preconception carrier screening.

  19. From CFTR biology toward combinatorial pharmacotherapy: expanded classification of cystic fibrosis mutations.

    PubMed

    Veit, Gudio; Avramescu, Radu G; Chiang, Annette N; Houck, Scott A; Cai, Zhiwei; Peters, Kathryn W; Hong, Jeong S; Pollard, Harvey B; Guggino, William B; Balch, William E; Skach, William R; Cutting, Garry R; Frizzell, Raymond A; Sheppard, David N; Cyr, Douglas M; Sorscher, Eric J; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2016-02-01

    More than 2000 mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) have been described that confer a range of molecular cell biological and functional phenotypes. Most of these mutations lead to compromised anion conductance at the apical plasma membrane of secretory epithelia and cause cystic fibrosis (CF) with variable disease severity. Based on the molecular phenotypic complexity of CFTR mutants and their susceptibility to pharmacotherapy, it has been recognized that mutations may impose combinatorial defects in CFTR channel biology. This notion led to the conclusion that the combination of pharmacotherapies addressing single defects (e.g., transcription, translation, folding, and/or gating) may show improved clinical benefit over available low-efficacy monotherapies. Indeed, recent phase 3 clinical trials combining ivacaftor (a gating potentiator) and lumacaftor (a folding corrector) have proven efficacious in CF patients harboring the most common mutation (deletion of residue F508, ΔF508, or Phe508del). This drug combination was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for patients homozygous for ΔF508. Emerging studies of the structural, cell biological, and functional defects caused by rare mutations provide a new framework that reveals a mixture of deficiencies in different CFTR alleles. Establishment of a set of combinatorial categories of the previously defined basic defects in CF alleles will aid the design of even more efficacious therapeutic interventions for CF patients. © 2016 Veit et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. [Congenital chloride diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Contreras, Mónica; Rocca, Ana; Benedetti, Laura; Kakisu, Hisae; Delgado, Sabrina; Ruiz, José Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare hereditary disease, with a prenatal onset, secondary to a deficit in the intestinal chloride transport. In the present study, we describe the clinical characteristics of three patients with congenital watery diarrhea, two of them females, aged between 9 and 14 months at the first visit. All patients presented perinatal antecedents of polyhydramnios and prematurity, watery stools since birth and growth failure. Metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were found. Stool ionogram with elevated doses of chloride, exceeding both sodium and potassium, confirmed the diagnosis of CCD. Substitute treatment with sodium and potassium chloride was started with good results. CCD should be considered as a differential diagnosis to congenital watery diarrhea, since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory for the normal development of the child, avoiding severe complications such as neurological sequelae and even death.

  1. EFFECT OF ALLERGY AND INFLAMMATION ON EICOSANOID GENE EXPRESSION IN CFTR DEFICIENCY

    PubMed Central

    Bickford, Justin S.; Mueller, Christian; Newsom, Kimberly J.; Barilovits, Sarah J.; Beachy, Dawn E.; Herlihy, John D.; Keeler, Benjamin; Flotte, Terence R.; Nick, Harry S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a complicating factor in cystic fibrosis (CF), affecting 2–15% of patients. We hypothesized that sensitization/challenge of CFTR−/− mice with an Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) extract will affect eicosanoid pathway gene expression, impacting ABPA and CF. Methods FABP-hCFTR+/−-CFTR−/− mice were sensitized/challenged with an Af extract and gene expression of lung mRNA was evaluated for >40 genes, with correlative data in human CF (IB3.1) and CFTR-corrected (S9) bronchoepithelial cell lines. Results Pla2g4c, Pla2g2c, Pla2g2d and Pla2g5 were induced in response to Af in CFTR−/− mice. Interestingly, PLA2G2D was induced by LPS, IL-2, IL-6, IL-13, and Af only in CFTR-deficient human IB3.1 cells. Prostanoid gene expression was relatively constant, however, several 12/15-lipoxygenase genes were induced in response to Af. Numerous cytokines also caused differential expression of ALOX15 only in IB3.1 cells. Conclusions The distinct regulation of PLA2G4C, PLA2G2D and ALOX15 genes in Aspergillus sensitization and/or cystic fibrosis could provide new insights into diagnosis and treatment of ABPA and CF. PMID:22985691

  2. CFTR founder mutation causes protein trafficking defects in Chinese patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Leung, Gordon K C; Ying, Dingge; Mak, Christopher C Y; Chen, Xin-Ying; Xu, Weiyi; Yeung, Kit-San; Wong, Wai-Lap; Chu, Yoyo W Y; Mok, Gary T K; Chau, Christy S K; McLuskey, Jenna; Ong, Winnie P T; Leong, Huey-Yin; Chan, Kelvin Y K; Yang, Wanling; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Li, Albert M; Sham, Pak C; Lau, Yu-Lung; Chung, Brian H Y; Lee, So-Lun

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a rare condition in Asians. Since 1985, only about 30 Chinese patients have been reported with molecular confirmation. Using our in-house next-generation sequencing (NGS) pipeline for childhood bronchiectasis, we identified disease-causing CFTR mutations in CF patients in Hong Kong. After identifying p.I1023R in multiple patients, haplotype analysis was performed with genome-wide microarray to ascertain the likelihood of this being a founder mutation. We also assessed the processing and gating activity of the mutant protein by Western hybridization and patch-clamp test. Molecular diagnoses were confirmed in four patients, three of whom shared a missense mutation: CFTR :c.3068T>G:p.I1023R. The results suggested that p.I1023R is a founder mutation in southern Han Chinese. In addition, the processing and gating activity of the mutant protein was assessed by gel electrophoresis and a patch-clamp test. The mutant protein exhibited trafficking defects, suggesting that the dysfunction is caused by reduced cell surface expression of the fully glycosylated proteins. Together with other previously reported mutations, the specific founder mutation presented herein suggests a unique CFTR mutation spectrum in the southern Chinese populations, and this finding has vital implications for improving molecular testing and mutation-specific treatments for Chinese patients with CF.

  3. Role of individual R domain phosphorylation sites in CFTR regulation by protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Tamás; Aleksandrov, Andrei; Mengos, April; Cui, Liying; Jensen, Timothy J; Riordan, John R

    2009-06-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plays a critical role in transcellular ion transport and when defective, results in the genetic disease cystic fibrosis. CFTR is novel in the ATP-binding cassette superfamily as an ion channel that is enabled by a unique unstructured regulatory domain. This R domain contains multiple protein kinase A sites, which when phosphorylated allow channel gating. Most of the sites have been indicated to stimulate channel activity, while two of them have been suggested to be inhibitory. It is unknown whether individual sites act coordinately or distinctly. To address this issue, we raised monoclonal antibodies recognizing the unphosphorylated, but not the phosphorylated states of four functionally relevant sites (700, 737, 768, and 813). This enabled simultaneous monitoring of their phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and revealed that both processes occurred rapidly at the first three sites, but more slowly at the fourth. The parallel phosphorylation rates of the stimulatory 700 and the putative inhibitory 737 and 768 sites prompted us to reexamine the role of the latter two. With serines 737 and 768 reintroduced individually into a PKA insensitive variant, in which serines at 15 sites had been replaced by alanines, a level of channel activation by PKA was restored, showing that these sites can mediate stimulation. Thus, we have provided new tools to study the CFTR regulation by phosphorylation and found that sites proposed to inhibit channel activity can also participate in stimulation.

  4. Isolated idiopathic chronic pancreatitis associated with a compound heterozygosity for two mutations of the CFTR gene.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Marie-Pierre; Laharie, David; Amouretti, Michel; Lacombe, Didier; Iron, Albert

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a patient suffering from idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP) and compound heterozygous for mutations G542X and S1235R of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene. The patient had normal sweat test and no other clinical sign usually linked with a typical or moderate pathology (bronchiectasis, nasal polyposis, congenital absence of the vas deferens) of the CFTR gene. G542X is a severe mutation, which is usually found in classical cystic fibrosis when associated with other severe mutations. S1235R is a quite rare abnormality recently reported as being potentially pathogenic when combined in trans with a second CF mutation. Our case is quite similar to the only other six patients in the literature in whom only the pancreas is affected and who bear a rare mutation with moderate effect. The history and the clinical features of our patient indicate an unambiguous isolated ICP in which the presence of the S1235R mutation--in trans with regard to G542X--is likely responsible for the ICP phenotype. This case could throw light on some of the as yet poorly known abnormalities of the CFTR gene in the ICP phenotype.

  5. A novel computational and structural analysis of nsSNPs in CFTR gene

    PubMed Central

    George Priya Doss, C.; Rajasekaran, R.; Sudandiradoss, C.; Ramanathan, K.; Purohit, R.

    2008-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are being intensively studied to understand the biological basis of complex traits and diseases. The Genetics of human phenotype variation could be understood by knowing the functions of SNPs. In this study using computational methods, we analyzed the genetic variations that can alter the expression and function of the CFTR gene responsible candidate for causing cystic fibrosis. We applied an evolutionary perspective to screen the SNPs using a sequence homology-based SIFT tool, which suggested that 17 nsSNPs (44%) were found to be deleterious. The structure-based approach PolyPhen server suggested that 26 nsSNPS (66%) may disrupt protein function and structure. The PupaSuite tool predicted the phenotypic effect of SNPs on the structure and function of the affected protein. Structure analysis was carried out with the major mutation that occurred in the native protein coded by CFTR gene, and which is at amino acid position F508C for nsSNP with id (rs1800093). The amino acid residues in the native and mutant modeled protein were further analyzed for solvent accessibility, secondary structure and stabilizing residues to check the stability of the proteins. The SNPs were further subjected to iHAP analysis to identify htSNPs, and we report potential candidates for future studies on CFTR mutations. PMID:18716917

  6. Bowel ultrasound imaging in patients with cystic fibrosis: Relationship with clinical symptoms and CFTR genotype.

    PubMed

    Fraquelli, Mirella; Baccarin, Alessandra; Corti, Fabiola; Conti, Clara Benedetta; Russo, Maria Chiara; Della Valle, Serena; Pozzi, Roberta; Cressoni, Massimo; Conte, Dario; Colombo, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is used to assess bowel abnormalities in gastrointestinal diseases. We aimed to assess the rate of predefined bowel ultrasound signs and their relationship with gastrointestinal symptoms and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genotype in cystic fibrosis patients in regular follow-up. Prospective study of 70 consecutive patients with cystic fibrosis and 45 controls who underwent abdominal ultrasound; pertinent findings were related to gastrointestinal symptoms and, in cystic fibrosis patients, to pancreatic status, malabsorption degree, lipase intake, CFTR genotype (classified as severe or mild against functional class of CFTR mutations). 96% patients showed at least one abnormal bowel ultrasound sign. Most frequent signs were lymph node enlargement (64%), bowel loop dilatation (55%), thick corpuscular intraluminal content (49%), bowel wall hypervascularization (26%), thickened bowel wall (22%) and intussusception (17%). Patients with recurrent abdominal pain showed more bowel wall hypervascularization than patients without recurrent pain (47% vs. 19%, respectively; p = 0.02) and intussusception (58% vs. 17%, respectively; p < 0.01). Genotype was not associated to specific bowel ultrasound signs. Patients with bowel loop intussusception showed greater lipase intake than those without intussusception (8.118 ± 2.083 vs. 5.994 ± 4.187, respectively; p < 0.01). Cystic fibrosis patients present a higher rate of bowel ultrasound abnormalities than controls. Bowel ultrasound abnormalities are associated with abdominal symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CFTR-dependent defect in alternatively-activated macrophages in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tarique, Abdullah A; Sly, Peter D; Holt, Patrick G; Bosco, Anthony; Ware, Robert S; Logan, Jayden; Bell, Scott C; Wainwright, Claire E; Fantino, Emmanuelle

    2017-07-01

    The role of the macrophages in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease has been poorly studied. We hypothesized that alternatively activated M2 macrophages are abnormal in CF lung disease. Blood samples were collected from adults (n=13) children (n=27) with CF on admission for acute pulmonary exacerbation and when clinically stable. Monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and polarized into classical (M1) and alternatively-activated (M2) phenotypes, function determined ex-vivo and compared with healthy controls. In the absence of functional cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR), either naturally in patients with CF or induced with CFTR inhibitors, monocyte-derived macrophages do not respond to IL-13/IL-4, fail to polarize into M2s associated with a post-transcriptional failure to produce and express IL-13Rα1 on the macrophage surface Polarization to the M1 phenotype was unaffected. CFTR-dependent imbalance of macrophage phenotypes and functions could contribute to the exaggerated inflammatory response seen in CF lung disease. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of CFTR-null and CFTR-ΔF508 heterozygous pigs by adeno-associated virus–mediated gene targeting and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Christopher S.; Hao, Yanhong; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Samuel, Melissa; Stoltz, David A.; Li, Yuhong; Petroff, Elena; Vermeer, Daniel W.; Kabel, Amanda C.; Yan, Ziying; Spate, Lee; Wax, David; Murphy, Clifton N.; Rieke, August; Whitworth, Kristin; Linville, Michael L.; Korte, Scott W.; Engelhardt, John F.; Welsh, Michael J.; Prather, Randall S.

    2008-01-01

    Progress toward understanding the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) and developing effective therapies has been hampered by lack of a relevant animal model. CF mice fail to develop the lung and pancreatic disease that cause most of the morbidity and mortality in patients with CF. Pigs may be better animals than mice in which to model human genetic diseases because their anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, size, and genetics are more similar to those of humans. However, to date, gene-targeted mammalian models of human genetic disease have not been reported for any species other than mice. Here we describe the first steps toward the generation of a pig model of CF. We used recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors to deliver genetic constructs targeting the CF transmembrane conductance receptor (CFTR) gene to pig fetal fibroblasts. We generated cells with the CFTR gene either disrupted or containing the most common CF-associated mutation (ΔF508). These cells were used as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer to porcine oocytes. We thereby generated heterozygote male piglets with each mutation. These pigs should be of value in producing new models of CF. In addition, because gene-modified mice often fail to replicate human diseases, this approach could be used to generate models of other human genetic diseases in species other than mice. PMID:18324337

  9. Chloride transporters and receptor-mediated endocytosis in the renal proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    Devuyst, Olivier; Luciani, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The epithelial cells lining the proximal tubules of the kidney reabsorb a large amount of filtered ions and solutes owing to receptor-mediated endocytosis and polarized transport systems that reflect final cell differentiation. Dedifferentiation of proximal tubule cells and dysfunction of receptor-mediated endocytosis characterize Dent’s disease, a rare disorder caused by inactivating mutations in the CLCN5 gene that encodes the endosomal chloride–proton exchanger, ClC-5. The disease is characterized by a massive urinary loss of solutes (renal Fanconi syndrome), with severe metabolic complications and progressive renal failure. Investigations of mutations affecting the gating of ClC-5 revealed that the proximal tubule dysfunction may occur despite normal endosomal acidification. In addition to defective endocytosis, proximal tubule cells lacking ClC-5 show a trafficking defect in apical receptors and transporters, as well as lysosomal dysfunction and typical features of dedifferentiation, proliferation and oxidative stress. A similar but milder defect is observed in mouse models with defective CFTR, a chloride channel that is also expressed in the endosomes of proximal tubule cells. These data suggest a major role for endosomal chloride transport in the maintenance of epithelial differentiation and reabsorption capacity of the renal proximal tubule. Key points The reabsorptive activity of renal proximal tubule cells is mediated by receptor-mediated endocytosis and polarized transport systems that reflect final cell differentiation. Loss-of-function mutations of the endosomal chloride–proton exchanger ClC-5 (Dent’s disease) cause a major trafficking defect in proximal tubule cells, associated with lysosomal dysfunction, oxidative stress and dedifferentiation/proliferation. A similar but milder defect is associated with mutations in CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator). Vesicular chloride transport appears to be important for

  10. Linaclotide activates guanylate cyclase-C/cGMP/protein kinase-II-dependent trafficking of CFTR in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Md Kaimul; Tchernychev, Boris; Kessler, Marco M; Solinga, Robert M; Arthur, David; Linde, Cristina I; Silos-Santiago, Inmaculada; Hannig, Gerhard; Ameen, Nadia A

    2017-06-01

    The transmembrane receptor guanylyl cyclase-C (GC-C), expressed on enterocytes along the intestine, is the molecular target of the GC-C agonist peptide linaclotide, an FDA-approved drug for treatment of adult patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation and Chronic Idiopathic Constipation. Polarized human colonic intestinal cells (T84, CaCo-2BBe) rat and human intestinal tissues were employed to examine cellular signaling and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-trafficking pathways activated by linaclotide using confocal microscopy, in vivo surface biotinylation, and protein kinase-II (PKG-II) activity assays. Expression and activity of GC-C/cGMP pathway components were determined by PCR, western blot, and cGMP assays. Fluid secretion as a marker of CFTR cell surface translocation was determined using in vivo rat intestinal loops. Linaclotide treatment (30 min) induced robust fluid secretion and translocation of CFTR from subapical compartments to the cell surface in rat intestinal loops. Similarly, linaclotide treatment (30 min) of T84 and CaCo-2BBe cells increased cell surface CFTR levels. Linaclotide-induced activation of the GC-C/cGMP/PKGII signaling pathway resulted in elevated intracellular cGMP and pVASP ser239 phosphorylation. Inhibition or silencing of PKGII significantly attenuated linaclotide-induced CFTR trafficking to the apical membrane. Inhibition of protein kinase-A (PKA) also attenuated linaclotide-induced CFTR cell surface trafficking, implying cGMP-dependent cross-activation of PKA pathway. Together, these findings support linaclotide-induced activation of the GC-C/cGMP/PKG-II/CFTR pathway as the major pathway of linaclotide-mediated intestinal fluid secretion, and that linaclotide-dependent CFTR activation and recruitment/trafficking of CFTR from subapical vesicles to the cell surface is an important step in this process. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on

  11. Mutations of the Down-regulated in adenoma (DRA) gene cause congenital chloride diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Höglund, P; Haila, S; Socha, J; Tomaszewski, L; Saarialho-Kere, U; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, M L; Airola, K; Holmberg, C; de la Chapelle, A; Kere, J

    1996-11-01

    A major transport function of the human intestine involves the absorption of chloride in exchange for bicarbonate. We have studied a recessively inherited defect of this exchange, congenital chloride diarrhoea (CLD; MIM 214700). The clinical presentation of CLD is a lifetime, potentially fatal diarrhoea with a high chloride content. The CLD locus was previously mapped to 7q3 adjacent to the cystic fibrosis gene (CFTR). By refined genetic and physical mapping, a cloned gene having anion transport function, Down-regulated in adenoma (DRA), was implicated as a positional and functional candidate for CLD. In this study, we report segregation of two missense mutations, delta V317 and H124L, and one frameshift mutation, 344delT, of DRA in 32 Finnish and four Polish CLD patients. The disease-causing nature of delta V317 is supported by genetic data in relation to the population history of Finland. By mRNA in situ hybridization, we demonstrate that the expression of DRA occurs preferentially in highly differentiated colonic epithelial cells, is unchanged in Finnish CLD patients with delta V317, and is low in undifferentiated (including neoplastic) cells. We conclude that DRA is an intestinal anion transport molecule that causes chloride diarrhoea when mutated.

  12. Whole-gene CFTR sequencing combined with digital RT-PCR improves genetic diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Straniero, Letizia; Soldà, Giulia; Costantino, Lucy; Seia, Manuela; Melotti, Paola; Colombo, Carla; Asselta, Rosanna; Duga, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    Despite extensive screening, 1-5% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients lack a definite molecular diagnosis. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is making affordable genetic testing based on the identification of variants in extended genomic regions. In this frame, we analyzed 23 CF patients and one carrier by whole-gene CFTR resequencing: 4 were previously characterized and served as controls; 17 were cases lacking a complete diagnosis after a full conventional CFTR screening; 3 were consecutive subjects referring to our centers, not previously submitted to any screening. We also included in the custom NGS design the coding portions of the SCNN1A, SCNN1B and SCNN1G genes, encoding the subunits of the sodium channel ENaC, which were found to be mutated in CF-like patients. Besides 2 novel SCNN1B missense mutations, we identified 22 previously-known CFTR mutations, including 2 large deletions (whose breakpoints were precisely mapped), and novel deep-intronic variants, whose role on splicing was excluded by ex-vivo analyses. Finally, for 2 patients, compound heterozygotes for a CFTR mutation and the intron-9c.1210-34TG [11-12] T 5 allele-known to be associated with decreased CFTR mRNA levels-the molecular diagnosis was implemented by measuring the residual level of wild-type transcript by digital reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction performed on RNA extracted from nasal brushing.

  13. Vardenafil reduces macrophage pro-inflammatory overresponses in cystic fibrosis through PDE5- and CFTR-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Noel, Sabrina; Panin, Nadtha; Beka, Mathilde; Dhooghe, Barbara; Huaux, François; Leal, Teresinha

    2017-06-01

    Chronic inflammation that progressively disrupts the lung tissue is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF). In mice, vardenafil, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), restores transepithelial ion transport and corrects mislocalization of the most common CF mutation, F508del-CFTR. It also reduces lung pro-inflammatory responses in mice and in patients with CF. To test the hypothesis that macrophages are target effector cells of the immunomo-dulatory effect of vardenafil, we isolated lung macrophages from mice homozygous for the F508del mutation or invalidated for the cftr gene and from their corresponding wild-type (WT) littermates. We then evaluated the effect of vardenafil on the classical M1 polarization, mirroring release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We confirmed that macrophages from different body compartments express CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and showed that vardenafil targets the cells through PDE5- and CFTR-dependent mechanisms. In the presence of the F508del mutation, vardenafil down-regulated overresponses of the M1 markers, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-2. Our study identifies lung macrophages as target cells of the anti-inflammatory effect of vardenafil in CF and supports the view that the drug is potentially beneficial for treating CF as it combines rescue of CFTR protein and anti-inflammatory properties. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. CFTR is the primary known apical glutathione transporter involved in cigarette smoke-induced adaptive responses in the lung.

    PubMed

    Gould, Neal S; Min, Elysia; Martin, Richard J; Day, Brian J

    2012-04-01

    One of the most abundant antioxidants in the lung is glutathione (GSH), a low-molecular-weight thiol, which functions to attenuate both oxidative stress and inflammation. GSH is concentrated in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the lung and can be elevated in response to the increased oxidant burden from cigarette smoke (CS). However, the transporter(s) responsible for the increase in ELF GSH with cigarette smoke is not known. Three candidate apical GSH transporters in the lung are CFTR, BCRP, and MRP2, but their potential roles in ELF GSH transport in response to CS have not been investigated. In vitro, the inhibition of CFTR, BCRP, or MRP2 resulted in decreased GSH efflux in response to cigarette smoke extract. In vivo, mice deficient in CFTR, BCRP, or MRP2 were exposed to either air or acute CS. CFTR-deficient mice had reduced basal and CS-induced GSH in the ELF, whereas BCRP or MRP2 deficiency had no effect on ELF GSH basal or CS-exposed levels. Furthermore, BCRP or MRP2 deficiency had little effect on lung tissue GSH. These data indicate that CFTR is predominantly involved in maintaining basal ELF GSH and increasing ELF GSH in response to CS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Co action of CFTR and AQP1 increases permeability of peritoneal epithelial cells on estrogen-induced ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pei-Yin; Lu, Yong-Chao; Li, Ling; Han, Qin-Fu

    2012-08-28

    Ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an iatrogenic complication associated with fertility drugs. It is characterized by increased vascular permeability and substantial fluid shift with accumulation in the body cavity. The pathogenesis of OHSS remains obscure, and no definitive treatments are currently available. Using western blot and short-circuit current (Isc) techniques, we investigate the potential coactions of analysis in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and aquaporin 1 (AQP1) on the hyper permeability of body cavity peritoneal epithelial cells in the pathogenesis of OHSS. The rats develop OHSS symptoms, with the up regulation of both CFTR and AQP1 expression and enhanced CFTR channel activity in peritoneal epithelial cells, can also be mimicked by administration of estrogen, alone in ovariectomized rats. Administration of progesterone suppresses CFTR activity, OHSS symptoms as well as CFTR and AQP1 expression. Besides, AQP1 inhibitor, HgCl(2), can suppress CFTR channel activity. Therefore, antisera against CFTR or AQP1 to OHSS animals may result in alleviation of the symptom. This study confirms the coactions of CFTR and AQP1 play a critical role in the development and progression of increased peritoneal epithelial permeability in severe OHSS. These findings may provide grounds for ameliorating assisted reproduction treatment strategy to reduce the risk of OHSS in in vitro fertilization (IVF).

  16. Co action of CFTR and AQP1 increases permeability of peritoneal epithelial cells on estrogen-induced ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an iatrogenic complication associated with fertility drugs. It is characterized by increased vascular permeability and substantial fluid shift with accumulation in the body cavity. The pathogenesis of OHSS remains obscure, and no definitive treatments are currently available. Results Using western blot and short-circuit current (Isc) techniques, we investigate the potential coactions of analysis in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and aquaporin 1 (AQP1) on the hyper permeability of body cavity peritoneal epithelial cells in the pathogenesis of OHSS. The rats develop OHSS symptoms, with the up regulation of both CFTR and AQP1 expression and enhanced CFTR channel activity in peritoneal epithelial cells, can also be mimicked by administration of estrogen, alone in ovariectomized rats. Administration of progesterone suppresses CFTR activity, OHSS symptoms as well as CFTR and AQP1 expression. Besides, AQP1 inhibitor, HgCl2, can suppress CFTR channel activity. Therefore, antisera against CFTR or AQP1 to OHSS animals may result in alleviation of the symptom. Conclusion This study confirms the coactions of CFTR and AQP1 play a critical role in the development and progression of increased peritoneal epithelial permeability in severe OHSS. These findings may provide grounds for ameliorating assisted reproduction treatment strategy to reduce the risk of OHSS in in vitro fertilization (IVF). PMID:22928917

  17. Attenuation of Phosphorylation-dependent Activation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) by Disease-causing Mutations at the Transmission Interface.

    PubMed

    Chin, Stephanie; Yang, Donghe; Miles, Andrew J; Eckford, Paul D W; Molinski, Steven; Wallace, B A; Bear, Christine E

    2017-02-03

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a multidomain membrane protein that functions as a phosphorylation-regulated anion channel. The interface between its two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains and coupling helices conferred by intracellular loops extending from the channel pore domains has been referred to as a transmission interface and is thought to be critical for the regulated channel activity of CFTR. Phosphorylation of the regulatory domain of CFTR by protein kinase A (PKA) is required for its channel activity. However, it was unclear if phosphorylation modifies the transmission interface. Here, we studied purified full-length CFTR protein using spectroscopic techniques to determine the consequences of PKA-mediated phosphorylation. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that purified full-length wild-type CFTR is folded and structurally responsive to phosphorylation. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence studies of CFTR showed that phosphorylation reduced iodide-mediated quenching, consistent with an effect of phosphorylation in burying tryptophans at the transmission interface. Importantly, the rate of phosphorylation-dependent channel activation was compromised by the introduction of disease-causing mutations in either of the two coupling helices predicted to interact with nucleotide binding domain 1 at the interface. Together, these results suggest that phosphorylation modifies the interface between the catalytic and pore domains of CFTR and that this modification facilitates CFTR channel activation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Update on SLC26A3 mutations in congenital chloride diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Wedenoja, Satu; Pekansaari, Elina; Höglund, Pia; Mäkelä, Siru; Holmberg, Christer; Kere, Juha

    2011-07-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder with around 250 cases reported so far. Life-long secretory diarrhea is caused by mutations in the solute carrier family 26 member 3 (SLC26A3) gene disrupting the epithelial Cl(-) /HCO 3- transport in the ileum and colon. Although salt substitution allows favorable outcome, possible manifestations include renal impairment, intestinal inflammation, and male infertility. At least 55 mutations, of which 21 (38%) novel are reported here, cause CLD. Majority of the mutations are single nucleotide substitutions (n = 30; 55%) with 18 missense, 7 nonsense, and 5 splice-site mutations. Additional mutations are minor deletions/insertions or their combinations (n = 21; 38%), major deletions (n = 3; 5%), and a major insertion (n = 1; 2%). Distinct founder mutations appear in Finland, Poland, and Arab countries, whereas patients from other countries carry rare homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations. None of the studied SLC26A3 mutants shows significant Cl(-) /HCO 3- exchange activity in vitro, and accordingly, evidence of genotype-phenotype differencies remain nonexistent. The domain interaction between SLC26A3 and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) raises a possibility of CFTR modulation in the pathogenesis of CLD. This review summarizes the current knowledge of SLC26A3 mutations and polymorphisms, and their biological and clinical relevance. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Isoflavone genistein inhibits estrogen-induced chloride and bicarbonate secretory mechanisms in the uterus in rats.

    PubMed

    Chinigarzadeh, Asma; Karim, Kamarulzaman; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2017-04-01

    We hypothesized that genistein could affect the chloride (Cl - ) and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) secretory mechanisms in uterus. Ovariectomized female rats were given estradiol or estradiol plus progesterone with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day genistein. Following completion of the treatment, uterine fluid Cl - and HCO 3 - concentrations were determined by in vivo uterine perfusion. Uteri were subjected for molecular biological analysis (Western blot, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry) to detect levels of expression of Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), Cl - /HCO 3 - exchanger (SLC26a6), Na + /HCO 3 - cotransporter (SLC4a4), and estrogen receptor (ER)-α and β. Coadministration of genistein resulted in decrease in Cl - and HCO 3 - concentrations and expression of CFTR, SLC26a6, SLC4a4, and ER-α and ER-β in the uteri of estradiol-treated rats. In estradiol plus progesterone-treated rats, a significant increase in the above parameters were observed following high-dose genistein treatment except for the SLC24a4 level. In conclusion, genistein-induced changes in the uterus could affect the reproductive processes that might result in infertility. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Manifestation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) in hepatic ductal structures and renal tubules of female rats with experimental cholestasis of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, M I; Kushnareva, N S; Smirnova, O V

    2014-03-01

    Studies by the immunohistochemical method with semiquantitative analysis of images showed that hyperprolactinemia stimulated CFTR protein manifestation in the bile ducts of female rats, which was clearly expressed in experimental cholestasis of pregnancy. The expression of CFTR in the renal tubules was reduced in hyperprolactinemia under conditions of normal liver function and in cholestasis of pregnancy. Significant positive correlations between CFTR, prolactin receptor, and multiple drug resistance protein 3 were detected in the bile ducts, but not in the renal tubules. Presumably, prolactin has a direct effect on CFTR expression in the bile ducts and indirect effect in the renal tubules. Changes in CFTR protein manifestation in the hepatic ductal structures and renal tubules in experimental pregnancy cholestasis could aggravate the disease.

  1. Atmospheric Methyl Chloride

    DOE Data Explorer

    Khalil, M. A. K. [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Rasmussen, R. A. [Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR (USA)

    1999-01-01

    This data set provides monthly average concentrations of atmospheric methyl chloride taken from seven locations distributed among the polar, middle, and tropical latitudes of both hemispheres. The seven primary sites include Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Cape Kumukahi and Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Cape Matatula, Samoa; Cape Grim, Tasmania; and the South Pole and Palmer Station, Antarctica. Concentration measurements from these seven sites cover a period of 16 years, extending from 1981-1997. Monthly data taken between 1987-1989 from 20 short-term sites and vertical distribution measured at various latitudes are also provided. Air samples were collected from various sites in stainless steel flasks and methyl chloride concentrations were measured using an Electron Capture Gas Chromatograph. Concentrations are reported as mixing ratios in dry air. The concentrations are determined by using a set of calibration standards that are referenced against a primary standard which is also used to establish the absolute concentration. The primary standards were prepared by the investigators in the absence of an available standard from a centralized location. The data are useful in global methyl chloride budget analyses and for determining the atmospheric distribution and trends of methyl chloride and estimating the total emissions at various latitudes.

  2. New insights into interactions between the nucleotide‐binding domain of CFTR and keratin 8

    PubMed Central

    Premchandar, Aiswarya; Kupniewska, Anna; Bonna, Arkadiusz; Faure, Grazyna; Fraczyk, Tomasz; Roldan, Ariel; Hoffmann, Brice; Faria da Cunha, Mélanie; Herrmann, Harald; Lukacs, Gergely L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The intermediate filament protein keratin 8 (K8) interacts with the nucleotide‐binding domain 1 (NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane regulator (CFTR) with phenylalanine 508 deletion (ΔF508), and this interaction hampers the biogenesis of functional ΔF508‐CFTR and its insertion into the plasma membrane. Interruption of this interaction may constitute a new therapeutic target for CF patients bearing the ΔF508 mutation. Here, we aimed to determine the binding surface between these two proteins, to facilitate the design of the interaction inhibitors. To identify the NBD1 fragments perturbed by the ΔF508 mutation, we used hydrogen–deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry (HDX‐MS) on recombinant wild‐type (wt) NBD1 and ΔF508‐NBD1 of CFTR. We then performed the same analysis in the presence of a peptide from the K8 head domain, and extended this investigation using bioinformatics procedures and surface plasmon resonance, which revealed regions affected by the peptide binding in both wt‐NBD1 and ΔF508‐NBD1. Finally, we performed HDX‐MS analysis of the NBD1 molecules and full‐length K8, revealing hydrogen‐bonding network changes accompanying complex formation. In conclusion, we have localized a region in the head segment of K8 that participates in its binding to NBD1. Our data also confirm the stronger binding of K8 to ΔF508‐NBD1, which is supported by an additional binding site located in the vicinity of the ΔF508 mutation in NBD1. PMID:27870250

  3. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene mutations in North Egyptian population: implications for the genetic diagnosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Seedy, A; Pasquet, M C; Shafiek, H; Morsi, T; Kitzis, A; Ladevèze, V

    2016-11-30

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) occurrence in Arab populations is not common and still remains underidentified. Furthermore, the lack of disease awareness and diagnosis facilities have mislead the identification of cystic fibrosis for decades. The knowledge about cystic fibrosis (CF) in Egypt is very limited, and a few reports have drawn attention to the existence of CF or CFTR-related disorders (CFTR-RDs) in the Egyptian population. Therefore a comprehensive genetic analysis of the CFTR gene was realized in patients of North Egypt. DNA samples of 56 Egyptian patients were screened for the CFTR gene mutations. The 27 exons and their flanking regions of the CFTR gene were amplified by PCR, using the published primer pairs, and were studied by automated direct DNA sequencing to detect disease-causing mutations. Moreover, large duplication/deletion was analysed by MLPA technique. CFTR screening revealed the identification of thirteen mutations including four novel ones: c.92G>A (p.Arg31His), c.2782G>C (p.Ala928Pro), c.3718-24G>A, c.4207A>G (p.Arg1403Gly) and nine previously reported mutations: c.454A>T (p.Met152Leu), c.902A>G (p.Tyr301Cys), c.1418delG, c.2620-15C>G, c.2997_3000delAATT, c.3154T>G (p.Phe1052Val), c.3872A>G (p.Gln1291Arg), c.3877G>A (p.Val1293Ile), c.4242+10T>C. Furthermore, eight polymorphisms were found: c.743+40A>G, c.869+11C>T, c.1408A>G, c.1584G>A, c.2562T>G, c.3870A>G, c.4272C>T, c.4389G>A. These mutations and polymorphisms were not previously described in the Egyptian population except for the c.1408A>G polymorphism. Here we demonstrate the importance of the newly discovered mutations in Egyptian patients and the presence of CF, whereas the p.Phe508del mutation is not detected. The identification of CFTR mutations will become increasingly important in undocumented populations. The current findings will help us expand the mutational spectrum of CF and establish the first panel of the CFTR gene

  4. Is sweat chloride predictive of severity of cystic fibrosis lung disease assessed by chest computed tomography?

    PubMed

    Caudri, Daan; Zitter, David; Bronsveld, Inez; Tiddens, Harm

    2017-09-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by a marked heterogeneity. Sweat chloride-level is a functional marker of the CF Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) protein and could be an important predictor of later disease severity. In this retrospective analysis children from the Rotterdam CF clinic with available sweat chloride level at diagnosis and at least one routine spirometry-controlled volumetric chest CT scan in follow-up were included. CT scans were scored using the CF-CT scoring system (% of maximum). Associations between sweat chloride-levels and CF-CT scores were calculated using linear regression models, adjusting for age at sweat test and age at follow-up. Because structural lung damage develops over the course of many years, effect modification by the age at follow-up CT-scan was tested for by age-stratification. In 59 children (30 male) sweat chloride was measured at diagnosis (median age 0.5 years, range 0-13) and later chest CT performed (median age 14 years, range 6-18). Sweat chloride was associated with significantly higher CT-CT total score, bronchiectasis score, and mucus plugging score. Stratification for age at follow-up in tertiles showed this association remained only in the oldest age group (range 15-18 years). In that subgroup associations were found with all but one of the CF-CT subscores, as well as with all tested lung functions parameters. Sweat chloride-level is a significant predictor of CF lung disease severity as determined by chest CT and lung function. This association could only be demonstrated in children with follow-up to age 15 years and above. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Resveratrol Ameliorates Abnormalities of Fluid and Electrolyte Secretion in a Hypoxia-Induced Model of Acquired CFTR Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Hypothesis Ineffective mucociliary clearance (MCC) is a common pathophysiologic process that underlies airway inflammation and infection. A dominant fluid and electrolyte secretory pathway in the nasal airways is governed by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Decreased transepithelial Cl− transport secondary to an acquired CFTR deficiency may exacerbate respiratory epithelial dysfunction by diminishing MCC and increasing mucus viscosity. The objectives of the present study are to 1) develop a model of acquired CFTR deficiency in sinonasal epithelium using hypoxia, 2) investigate whether the polyphenol resveratrol promotes CFTR-mediated anion transport, 3) explore resveratrol mechanism of action and determine therapeutic suitability for overcoming acquired CFTR defects, and 4) test the drug in the hypoxic model of acquired CFTR deficiency in preparation for a clinical trial in human sinus disease. We hypothesize that hypoxia will induce depletion of airway surface liquid (ASL) secondary to acquired CFTR deficiency and that resveratrol will restore transepithelial Cl− secretion and recover ASL hydration. Study Design Basic science Methods Murine nasal septal (MNSE) and human sinonasal epithelial (HSNE) cultures were incubated under hypoxic conditions (1% O2,5% CO2) and transepithelial ion transport (change in short-circuit current=ΔISC) evaluated in Ussing chambers. Resveratrol was tested using primary cells and HEK293 cells expressing human CFTR by Ussing chamber and patch clamp techniques under both phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating conditions. CFTR activation was evaluated in human explants and by murine in vivo (nasal potential difference) assessment. Cellular cAMP (ELISA) and subsequent CFTR regulatory domain (R-D) phosphorylation (gel-shift assay) were also evaluated. Effects of hypoxia and resveratrol on ASL were tested using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and micro-optical coherence tomography (

  6. Keratin 8 knockdown leads to loss of the chloride transporter DRA in the colon.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M Nadeem; Priyamvada, Shubha; Nyström, Joel H; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu Natarajan; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-06-01

    Keratins (K) are intermediate filament proteins important in protection from stress. The roles of keratins in the intestine are not clear, but K8 knockout (K8(-/-)) mice develop a Th2-type colonic inflammation, epithelial hyperproliferation, and mild diarrhea caused by a keratin level-dependent decrease in short-circuit current and net sodium and chloride absorption in the distal colon. The lack of K8 leads to mistargeting or altered levels of membrane proteins in colonocytes; however, the main transporter responsible for the keratin-related ion transport defect is unknown. We here analyzed protein and mRNA levels of candidate ion transporters CFTR, PAT-1, NHE-3, and DRA in ileum, cecum, and proximal and distal colon. Although no differences were observed for CFTR, PAT-1, or NHE-3, DRA mRNA levels were decreased by three- to fourfold and DRA protein was almost entirely lost in K8(-/-) cecum and proximal and distal colon compared with K8(+/+), whereas the levels in ileum were normal. In K8(+/-) mice, DRA mRNA levels were unaltered, while decreased DRA protein levels were detected in the proximal colon. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the loss of DRA in K8(-/-) distal colon, while K8(+/-) displayed a similar but more patchy apical DRA distribution compared with K8(+/+) DRA was similarly decreased when K8 was knocked down in Caco-2 cells, confirming that K8 levels modulate DRA levels in an inflammation-independent manner. Taken together, the loss of DRA in the K8(-/-) mouse colon and cecum explains the dramatic chloride transport defect and diarrheal phenotype after K8 inactivation and identifies K8 as a novel regulator of DRA.

  7. S-palmitoylation regulates biogenesis of core glycosylated wild-type and F508del CFTR in a post-ER compartment

    PubMed Central

    McClure, M.L.; Wen, H.; Fortenberry, J.; Hong, J.S.; Sorscher, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Defects in CFTR maturation are central to the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Palmitoylation serves as a key regulator of maturational processing in other integral membrane proteins, but has not been tested previously for functional effects on CFTR. In this study, we used metabolic labeling to confirm that wild-type and F508del CFTR are palmitoylated, and show that blocking palmitoylation with the pharmacologic inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) decreases steady state levels of both wild-type and low temperature-corrected F508del CFTR, disrupts post-ER maturation, and reduces ion channel function at the cell surface. Protein acyl transferases (PATs) comprise a family of 23 gene products that contain a DHHC motif and mediate palmitoylation. Recombinant expression of specific PATs led to increased levels of CFTR protein and enhanced palmitoylation as judged by western blot and metabolic labeling. Specifically, we show that DHHC-7: 1) increases steady state levels of wild-type and F508del CFTR band B, 2) interacts preferentially with the band B glycoform, and 3) augments radiolabeling by 3H-palmitic acid. Interestingly, immunofluorescence revealed that DHHC-7 also sequesters the F508del protein to a post-ER (Golgi) compartment. Our findings point to the importance of palmitoylation during wild-type and F508del CFTR trafficking. PMID:24475974

  8. Is congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens a primary form of cystic fibrosis? Analyses of the CFTR gene in 67 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mercier, B.; Verlingue, C.; Audrezet, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) is an important cause of sterility in men. Although the genetic basis of this condition is still unclear, it has been shown recently that some of these patients carry mutations in their cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genes. To extend this observation, we have analyzed the entire coding sequence of the CFTR gene in a cohort of 67 men with CBAVD, who are otherwise healthy. We have identified four novel missense mutations (A800G, G149R, R258G, and E193K). We have shown that 42% of subjects were carriers of one CFTR allele andmore » that 24% are compound heterozygous for CFTR alleles. Thus, we have been unable to identify 76% of these patients as carrying two CFTR mutations. Furthermore, we have described the segregation of CFTR haplotypes in the family of one CBAVD male; in this family are two male siblings, with identical CFTR loci but displaying different phenotypes, one of them being fertile and the other sterile. The data presented in this family, indicating a discordance between the CBAVD phenotype and a marked carrier ({delta}F508) chromosome, support the involvement of another gene(s), in the etiology of CBAVD. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  9. A Quick Reference on Chloride.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Andrea A; de Morais, Helio Autran

    2017-03-01

    Chloride is an essential element, playing important roles in digestion, muscular activity, regulation of body fluids, and acid-base balance. As the most abundant anion in extracellular fluid, chloride plays a major role in maintaining electroneutrality. Chloride is intrinsically linked to sodium in maintaining osmolality and fluid balance and has an inverse relationship with bicarbonate in maintaining acid-base balance. It is likely because of these close ties that chloride does not get the individual attention it deserves; we can use these facts to simplify and interpret changes in serum chloride concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating the age of CFTR mutations predominantly found in Brittany (Western France).

    PubMed

    Fichou, Yann; Génin, Emmanuelle; Le Maréchal, Cédric; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Scotet, Virginie; Férec, Claude

    2008-03-01

    Disparities in the spectrum of mutations within the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are commonly observed in populations from different ethnical and/or geographical origins. The occurrence of CF in Brittany (western France) is one of the highest in populations from Caucasian origin (<1/2000 in specific areas). The W846X(2), 1078delT and G551D mutations, as well as the I1027T polymorphism in cis with the DeltaF508 mutation (currently referred to as p.F508del) are particularly frequent in this area. We investigated the age of the respective variants in the region of interest. Several polymorphic markers surrounding the CFTR gene were genotyped. Allele frequencies as well as mutation rates and other parameters were used to calculate the respective age of the most recent common ancestors in the region of interest by a previously employed, simple likelihood-based method. Following haplotype reconstruction and simulation, the ages were estimated to be approximately 600, 1000, 1200 and 600 years, respectively (with a 95% confidence interval). These datings thus provide historical insights in the context of understanding population migrations. They also underline the usefulness of this method for estimating the age of rare mutations with a limited number of carriers.

  11. Ethnic heterogeneity and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutation frequencies in Chicago-area CF families

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, C.; Lester, L.A.; Mott, C.

    1992-12-01

    The identification of a common mutation, [Delta]F508, in the CFTR gene allowed, for the first time, the detection of cystic fibrosis (CF) carriers in the general population. Further genetic studies revealed >100 additional disease-causing mutations in this gene, few of which occur on >1% of CF chromosomes in any ethnic group. Prior to establishing counseling guidelines and carrier risk assessments, the authors sought to establish the frequencies of the CFTR mutations that are present in CF families living in the Chicago are, a region notable for its ethnic heterogeneity. Their sample included 283 unrelated CF carriers, with the following ethnicmore » composition: 78% non-Ashkenazi Caucasians, 5% Ashkenazi, 9% African-American, 3% Mexican, 0.3% Native American, and 5% mixed ancestry. When a panel of 10 mutations ([Delta]F508, [Delta]I507, G542X, G551D, R553X, S549N, R1162X, W1282X, N1303K, and 1717-1G[r arrow]A) was used, detection rates ranged from 75% in non-Ashkenazi Caucasians to 40% in African-Americans. These data suggest that the goal of screening for 90%-95% of CF mutations may be unrealistic in this and other, similar US populations. 22 refs., 1 tab.« less

  12. CFTR in cystic fibrosis and cholera: from membrane transport to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Barbara E; Percy, William H

    2005-06-01

    We have used a brief analysis of transport via cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulators (CFTRs) in various organ systems to highlight the importance of basic membrane transport processes across epithelial cells for first-year medical students in physiology. Because CFTRs are involved in transport both physiologically and pathologically in various systems, we have used this clinical correlation to analyze how a defective gene leading to defective transport proteins can be directly involved in the symptoms of cholera and CF. This article is a "Staying Current" approach to transport via CFTRs including numerous helpful references with further information for a teaching faculty member. The article follows our normal presentation which begins with a discussion of the involvement of CFTR transport in the intestine and how cholera affects intestinal transport, extends to CFTR transport in various organ systems in CF, and concludes with the logic behind many of the treatments that improve CF. Student learning objectives are included to assist in assessment of student understanding of the basic concepts.

  13. Substance P stimulates human airway submucosal gland secretion mainly via a CFTR-dependent process

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Young; Khansaheb, Monal; Joo, Nam Soo; Krouse, Mauri E.; Robbins, Robert C.; Weill, David; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic bacterial airway infections are the major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). Normal airway defenses include reflex stimulation of submucosal gland mucus secretion by sensory neurons that release substance P (SubP). CFTR is an anion channel involved in fluid secretion and mutated in CF; the role of CFTR in secretions stimulated by SubP is unknown. We used optical methods to measure SubP-mediated secretion from human submucosal glands in lung transplant tissue. Glands from control but not CF subjects responded to mucosal chili oil. Similarly, serosal SubP stimulated secretion in more than 60% of control glands but only 4% of CF glands. Secretion triggered by SubP was synergistic with vasoactive intestinal peptide and/or forskolin but not with carbachol; synergy was absent in CF glands. Pig glands demonstrated a nearly 10-fold greater response to SubP. In 10 of 11 control glands isolated by fine dissection, SubP caused cell volume loss, lumen expansion, and mucus flow, but in 3 of 4 CF glands, it induced lumen narrowing. Thus, in CF, the reduced ability of mucosal irritants to stimulate airway gland secretion via SubP may be another factor that predisposes the airways to infections. PMID:19381016

  14. The silent codon change I507-ATC->ATT contributes to the severity of the ΔF508 CFTR channel dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lazrak, Ahmed; Fu, Lianwu; Bali, Vedrana; Bartoszewski, Rafal; Rab, Andras; Havasi, Viktoria; Keiles, Steve; Kappes, John; Kumar, Ranjit; Lefkowitz, Elliot; Sorscher, Eric J; Matalon, Sadis; Collawn, James F; Bebok, Zsuzsanna

    2013-11-01

    The most common disease-causing mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is the out-of-frame deletion of 3 nucleotides (CTT). This mutation leads to the loss of phenylalanine-508 (ΔF508) and a silent codon change (SCC) for isoleucine-507 (I507-ATC→ATT). ΔF508 CFTR is misfolded and degraded by endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). We have demonstrated that the I507-ATC→ATT SCC alters ΔF508 CFTR mRNA structure and translation dynamics. By comparing the biochemical and functional properties of the I507-ATT and I507-ATC ΔF508 CFTR, we establish that the I507-ATC→ATT SCC contributes to the cotranslational misfolding, ERAD, and to the functional defects associated with ΔF508 CFTR. We demonstrate that the I507-ATC ΔF508 CFTR is less susceptible to the ER quality-control machinery during translation than the I507-ATT, although 27°C correction is necessary for sufficient cell-surface expression. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings indicate sustained, thermally stable cAMP-activated Cl(-) transport through I507-ATC and unstable function of the I507-ATT ΔF508 CFTR. Single-channel recordings reveal improved gating properties of the I507-ATC compared to I507-ATT ΔF508 CFTR (NPo=0.45±0.037 vs. NPo=0.09±0.002; P<0.001). Our results signify the role of the I507-ATC→ATT SCC in the ΔF508 CFTR defects and support the importance of synonymous codon choices in determining the function of gene products.

  15. Restoration of CFTR Activity in Ducts Rescues Acinar Cell Function and Reduces Inflammation in Pancreatic and Salivary Glands of Mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mei; Szymczak, Mitchell; Ahuja, Malini; Zheng, Changyu; Yin, Hongen; Swaim, William; Chiorini, John A; Bridges, Robert J; Muallem, Shmuel

    2017-10-01

    Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune pancreatitis are disorders with decreased function of salivary, lacrimal glands, and the exocrine pancreas. Nonobese diabetic/ShiLTJ mice and mice transduced with the cytokine BMP6 develop Sjögren's syndrome and chronic pancreatitis and MRL/Mp mice are models of autoimmune pancreatitis. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a ductal Cl -  channel essential for ductal fluid and HCO 3 - secretion. We used these models to ask the following questions: is CFTR expression altered in these diseases, does correction of CFTR correct gland function, and most notably, does correcting ductal function correct acinar function? We treated the mice models with the CFTR corrector C18 and the potentiator VX770. Glandular, ductal, and acinar cells damage, infiltration, immune cells and function were measured in vivo and in isolated duct/acini. In the disease models, CFTR expression is markedly reduced. The salivary glands and pancreas are inflamed with increased fibrosis and tissue damage. Treatment with VX770 and, in particular, C18 restored salivation, rescued CFTR expression and localization, and nearly eliminated the inflammation and tissue damage. Transgenic overexpression of CFTR exclusively in the duct had similar effects. Most notably, the markedly reduced acinar cell Ca 2+ signaling, Orai1, inositol triphosphate receptors, Aquaporin 5 expression, and fluid secretion were restored by rescuing ductal CFTR. Our findings reveal that correcting ductal function is sufficient to rescue acinar cell function and suggests that CFTR correctors are strong candidates for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome and pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  17. Functional Modifications of Acid-Sensing Ion Channels by Ligand-Gated Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuanmao; Whissell, Paul; Orser, Beverley A.; MacDonald, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Together, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) constitute the majority of voltage-independent sodium channels in mammals. ENaC is regulated by a chloride channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Here we show that ASICs were reversibly inhibited by activation of GABAA receptors in murine hippocampal neurons. This inhibition of ASICs required opening of the chloride channels but occurred with both outward and inward GABAA receptor-mediated currents. Moreover, activation of the GABAA receptors modified the pharmacological features and kinetic properties of the ASIC currents, including the time course of activation, desensitization and deactivation. Modification of ASICs by open GABAA receptors was also observed in both nucleated patches and outside-out patches excised from hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, ASICs and GABAA receptors interacted to regulate synaptic plasticity in CA1 hippocampal slices. The activation of glycine receptors, which are similar to GABAA receptors, also modified ASICs in spinal neurons. We conclude that GABAA receptors and glycine receptors modify ASICs in neurons through mechanisms that require the opening of chloride channels. PMID:21789198

  18. Gq activity- and β-arrestin-1 scaffolding-mediated ADGRG2/CFTR coupling are required for male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui; Li, Rui-Rui; Liang, Zong-Lai; Gao, Yuan; Yang, Zhao; He, Dong-Fang; Lin, Amy; Mo, Hui; Lu, Yu-Jing; Li, Meng-Jing; Kong, Wei; Chung, Ka Young; Yi, Fan; Li, Jian-Yuan; Qin, Ying-Ying; Li, Jingxin; Thomsen, Alex R B; Kahsai, Alem W; Chen, Zi-Jiang; Xu, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Mingyao

    2018-01-01

    Luminal fluid reabsorption plays a fundamental role in male fertility. We demonstrated that the ubiquitous GPCR signaling proteins Gq and β-arrestin-1 are essential for fluid reabsorption because they mediate coupling between an orphan receptor ADGRG2 (GPR64) and the ion channel CFTR. A reduction in protein level or deficiency of ADGRG2, Gq or β-arrestin-1 in a mouse model led to an imbalance in pH homeostasis in the efferent ductules due to decreased constitutive CFTR currents. Efferent ductule dysfunction was rescued by the specific activation of another GPCR, AGTR2. Further mechanistic analysis revealed that β-arrestin-1 acts as a scaffold for ADGRG2/CFTR complex formation in apical membranes, whereas specific residues of ADGRG2 confer coupling specificity for different G protein subtypes, this specificity is critical for male fertility. Therefore, manipulation of the signaling components of the ADGRG2-Gq/β-arrestin-1/CFTR complex by small molecules may be an effective therapeutic strategy for male infertility. PMID:29393851

  19. Interaction between a novel TGFB1 haplotype and CFTR genotype is associated with improved lung function in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Lindsay A; Blackman, Scott M; Vanscoy, Lori L; McDougal, Kathryn E; Bowers, Amanda; Naughton, Kathleen M; Cutler, David J; Cutting, Garry R

    2008-07-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal single gene disorder in Caucasians, is due to mutations in the CFTR gene. Twin and sibling analysis indicates that modifier genes, rather than allelic variation in CFTR, are responsible for most of the variability in severity of lung disease, the major cause of mortality in CF patients. We used a family-based approach to test for association between lung function and two functional SNPs (rs1800469, '-509' and rs1982073, 'codon 10') in the 5' region of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFB1), a putative CF modifier gene. Quantitative transmission disequilibrium testing of 472 CF patient-parent-parent trios revealed that both TGFB1 SNPs showed significant transmission distortion when patients were stratified by CFTR genotype. Although lung function and nutritional status are correlated in CF patients, there was no evidence of association between the TGFB1 SNPs and variation in nutritional status. Additional tagging SNPs (rs8179181, rs2278422, rs8110090, rs4803455 and rs1982072) that capture most of the diversity in TGFB1 were also typed but none showed association with variation in lung function. However, a haplotype composed of the -509 C and codon 10 T alleles along with the C allele of the 3' SNP rs8179181 was highly associated with increased lung function in patients grouped by CFTR genotype. These results demonstrate that TGFB1 is a modifier of CF lung disease and reveal a previously unrecognized beneficial effect of TGFB1 variants upon the pulmonary phenotype.

  20. Physiology of Epithelial Chloride and Fluid Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Frizzell, Raymond A.; Hanrahan, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial salt and water secretion serves a variety of functions in different organ systems, such as the airways, intestines, pancreas, and salivary glands. In cystic fibrosis (CF), the volume and/or composition of secreted luminal fluids are compromised owing to mutations in the gene encoding CFTR, the apical membrane anion channel that is responsible for salt secretion in response to cAMP/PKA stimulation. This article examines CFTR and related cellular transport processes that underlie epithelial anion and fluid secretion, their regulation, and how these processes are altered in CF disease to account for organ-specific secretory phenotypes. PMID:22675668

  1. [Aquagenic palmar keratoderma in a patient heterozygous for the mutation c.3197G>C in the CFTR gene].

    PubMed

    Nadal, M; Laudier, B; Malinge, M C; Binois, R; Estève, E

    2015-03-01

    Aquagenic palmar keratoderma is an entity recently described in the literature by English and McCollough in 1996. It is a rare condition affecting young women and is of unknown incidence. It causes a wrinkled and oedematous appearance in the skin of the hands that may be seen a few minutes after immersion in water. This condition may be associated with a heterozygous mutation in CFTR, the gene involved in cystic fibrosis. We report the first case of aquagenic keratoderma associated with a new mutation in the CFTR gene. An 18-year-old patient with no particular history was referred for a painful rash on both palms occurring whenever she showered, and which had been ongoing for several months. The clinical examination was normal except for an appearance of moderate palmar hyperhidrosis. Following a test in which both hands were immersed in cold water for 5minutes, the patient presented itching, burning and pain localized to the hands. The palms were wrinkled and oedematous with white, translucent and confluent papules. A clinical diagnosis of aquagenic palmar keratoderma was made. Since this condition may be associated with mutations in the CFTR gene, a genetic study was performed for this patient and revealed the presence of a new mutation in the CFTR gene for cystic fibrosis in the heterozygous state inherited from her mother: c.3197G>C or p.Arg1066.Pro and a heterozygous polypyrimidic 5T variant inherited from her father. We report a new case of aquagenic palmar keratoderma in a patient heterozygous for a new mutation of the gene involved in cystic fibrosis. Several studies have shown association of aquagenic keratoderma with the CFTR gene for heterozygotes (carriers without cystic fibrosis), for patients with cystic fibrosis and for a patient presenting CFTRopathy with pancreatic insufficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. ΔF508-CFTR Modulator Screen Based on Cell Surface Targeting of a Chimeric Nucleotide Binding Domain 1 Reporter.

    PubMed

    Phuan, Puay-Wah; Veit, Guido; Tan, Joseph-Anthony; Roldan, Ariel; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Haggie, Peter M; Lukacs, Gergely L; Verkman, Alan S

    2018-03-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis-causing mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is deletion of phenylalanine at residue 508 (∆F508). The ∆F508 mutation impairs folding of nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1) and interfacial interactions of NBD1 and the membrane spanning domains. Here, we report a domain-targeted screen to identify ∆F508-CFTR modulators that act on NBD1. A biochemical screen for ΔF508-NBD1 cell surface expression was done in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing a chimeric reporter consisting of ΔF508-NBD1, the CD4 transmembrane domain, and an extracellular horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reporter. Using a luminescence readout of HRP activity, the screen was robust with a Z' factor of 0.7. The screening of ~20,000 synthetic small molecules allowed the identification of compounds from four chemical classes that increased ∆F508-NBD1 cell surface expression by up to 4-fold; for comparison, a 12-fold increased cell surface expression was found for a wild-type NBD1 chimera. While the compounds were inactive as correctors of full-length ΔF508-CFTR, several carboxamide-benzothiophenes had potentiator activity with low micromolar EC 50 . Interestingly, the potentiators did not activate G551D or wild-type CFTR. Our results provide a proof of concept for a cell-based NBD1 domain screen to identify ∆F508-CFTR modulators that target the NBD1 domain.

  3. Acute regulation of the SLC26A3 congenital chloride diarrhoea anion exchanger (DRA) expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, Marina N; Jiang, Lianwei; Shmukler, Boris E; Schweinfest, Clifford W; Blanco, Paola; Freedman, Steven D; Stewart, Andrew K; Alper, Seth L

    2003-01-01

    Mutations in the human SLC26A3 gene, also known as down-regulated in adenoma (hDRA), cause autosomal recessive congenital chloride-losing diarrhoea (CLD). hDRA expressed in Xenopus oocytes mediated bidirectional Cl−-Cl− and Cl−-HCO3− exchange. In contrast, transport of oxalate was low, and transport of sulfate and of butyrate was undetectable. Two CLD missense disease mutants of hDRA were nonfunctional in oocytes. Truncation of up to 44 C-terminal amino acids from the putatively cytoplasmic C-terminal hydrophilic domain left transport function unimpaired, but deletion of the adjacent STAS (sulfate transporter anti-sigma factor antagonist) domain abolished function. hDRA-mediated Cl− transport was insensitive to changing extracellular pH, but was inhibited by intracellular acidification and activated by NH4+ at acidifying concentrations. These regulatory responses did not require the presence of either hDRA's N-terminal cytoplasmic tail or its 44 C-terminal amino acids, but they did require more proximate residues of the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Although only weakly sensitive to inhibition by stilbenes, hDRA was inhibited with two orders of magnitude greater potency by the anti-inflammatory drugs niflumate and tenidap. cAMP-insensitive Cl−-HCO3− exchange mediated by hDRA gained modest cAMP sensitivity when co-expressed with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Despite the absence of hDRA transcripts in human cell lines derived from CFTR patients, DRA mRNA was present at wild-type levels in proximal colon and nearly so in the distal ileum of CFTR(-/-) mice. Thus, pharmacological modulation of DRA might be a useful adjunct treatment of cystic fibrosis. PMID:12651923

  4. Acute regulation of the SLC26A3 congenital chloride diarrhoea anion exchanger (DRA) expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Chernova, Marina N; Jiang, Lianwei; Shmukler, Boris E; Schweinfest, Clifford W; Blanco, Paola; Freedman, Steven D; Stewart, Andrew K; Alper, Seth L

    2003-05-15

    Mutations in the human SLC26A3 gene, also known as down-regulated in adenoma (hDRA), cause autosomal recessive congenital chloride-losing diarrhoea (CLD). hDRA expressed in Xenopus oocytes mediated bidirectional Cl--Cl- and Cl--HCO3- exchange. In contrast, transport of oxalate was low, and transport of sulfate and of butyrate was undetectable. Two CLD missense disease mutants of hDRA were nonfunctional in oocytes. Truncation of up to 44 C-terminal amino acids from the putatively cytoplasmic C-terminal hydrophilic domain left transport function unimpaired, but deletion of the adjacent STAS (sulfate transporter anti-sigma factor antagonist) domain abolished function. hDRA-mediated Cl- transport was insensitive to changing extracellular pH, but was inhibited by intracellular acidification and activated by NH4+ at acidifying concentrations. These regulatory responses did not require the presence of either hDRA's N-terminal cytoplasmic tail or its 44 C-terminal amino acids, but they did require more proximate residues of the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Although only weakly sensitive to inhibition by stilbenes, hDRA was inhibited with two orders of magnitude greater potency by the anti-inflammatory drugs niflumate and tenidap. cAMP-insensitive Cl--HCO3- exchange mediated by hDRA gained modest cAMP sensitivity when co-expressed with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Despite the absence of hDRA transcripts in human cell lines derived from CFTR patients, DRA mRNA was present at wild-type levels in proximal colon and nearly so in the distal ileum of CFTR(-/-) mice. Thus, pharmacological modulation of DRA might be a useful adjunct treatment of cystic fibrosis.

  5. Airway epithelial cell exposure to distinct e-cigarette liquid flavorings reveals toxicity thresholds and activation of CFTR by the chocolate flavoring 2,5-dimethypyrazine.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Cara L; Boitano, Scott

    2016-05-17

    that the increases in ion conductance evoked by 2,5-dimethylpyrazine were largely attributed to a protein kinase A-dependent (PKA) activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) ion channel. Data from our high-capacity screening assays demonstrates that individual e-cigarette liquid flavoring chemicals vary in their cytotoxicity profiles and that some constituents evoke a cellular physiological response on their own independent of cell death. The activation of CFTR by 2,5-dimethylpyrazine may have detrimental consequences for airway surface liquid homeostasis in individuals that use e-cigarettes habitually.

  6. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  7. Congenital chloride diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, C

    1986-07-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhoea is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by life-long watery diarrhoea of prenatal onset with high faecal Cl- concentration. Seventy-nine patients have so far been reported. The basic defect involves the active Cl-/HCO3- exchange mechanism of the distal ileum and colon. The defect causes impaired absorption of Cl-, acidity of intestinal contents because of impaired excretion of HCO3-, and, secondarily, impaired Na+ absorption. Intra-uterine diarrhoea leads to hydramnios and often to premature birth. Unless adequately treated, most patients will die of hypo-electrolytaemic dehydration within the 1st few months of life. Some infants will survive in such a state, with severe alkalosis, hypochloraemia, hypokalaemia, and retarded growth and development. Their plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations will become grossly elevated, and pathological changes will develop in the kidneys. The diagnosis is established when faecal Cl- concentration exceeds 90 mmol/l after water and electrolyte deficits have been corrected. Congenital chloride diarrhoea should be treated with full oral replacement of the faecal losses of Cl-, Na+, K+, and water. This therapy will abolish all the secondary disorders, provide for normal growth and development, and prevent renal disease. Though this therapy does not abolish the diarrhoea, most children will become toilet trained at a normal age, their social adjustment will be unimpaired, and they will live a perfectly normal life.

  8. Lipoxin A4 and Platelet Activating Factor Are Involved in E. coli or LPS-Induced Lung Inflammation in CFTR-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haiya; Yang, Jun; Su, Emily M.; Li, Ling; Zhao, Caiqi; Yang, Xi; Gao, Zhaowei; Pan, Mengyao; Sun, Peiyu; Sun, Wei; Jiang, Yiyi; Su, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is expressed by both neutrophils and platelets. Lack of functional CFTR could lead to severe lung infection and inflammation. Here, we found that mutation of CFTR (F508del) or inhibition of CFTR in mice led to more severe thrombocytopenia, alveolar neutrocytosis and bacteriosis, and lower lipoxin A4/MIP-2 (macrophage inhibitory protein-2) or lipoxin A4/neutrophil ratios in the BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) during acute E. coli pneumonia. In vitro, inhibition of CFTR promotes MIP-2 production in LPS-stimulated neutrophils; however, lipoxin A4 could dose-dependently suppress this effect. In LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, blockade of PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1) or P-selectin, antagonism of PAF by WEB2086, or correction of mutated CFTR trafficking by KM11060 could significantly increase plasma lipoxin A4 levels in F508del relevant to wildtype mice. Concurrently, F508del mice had higher plasma platelet activating factor (PAF) levels and PAF-AH activity compared to wildtype under LPS challenge. Inhibiting hydrolysis of PAF by a specific PAF-AH (PAF-acetylhydrolase) inhibitor, MAFP, could worsen LPS-induced lung inflammation in F508del mice compared to vehicle treated F508del group. Particularly, depletion of platelets in F508del mice could significantly decrease plasma lipoxin A4 and PAF-AH activity and deteriorate LPS-induced lung inflammation compared to control F508del mice. Taken together, lipoxin A4 and PAF are involved in E. coli or LPS-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice, suggesting that lipoxin A4 and PAF might be therapeutic targets for ameliorating CFTR-deficiency deteriorated lung inflammation. PMID:24671173

  9. Demonstration of Phosphoryl Group Transfer Indicates That the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Exhibits Adenylate Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Randak, Christoph O.; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane-spanning adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. ABC transporters and other nuclear and cytoplasmic ABC proteins have ATPase activity that is coupled to their biological function. Recent studies with CFTR and two nonmembrane-bound ABC proteins, the DNA repair enzyme Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, challenge the model that the function of all ABC proteins depends solely on their associated ATPase activity. Patch clamp studies indicated that in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), CFTR Cl− channel function is coupled to adenylate kinase activity (ATP+AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). Work with Rad50 and SMC showed that these enzymes catalyze both ATPase and adenylate kinase reactions. However, despite the supportive electrophysiological results with CFTR, there are no biochemical data demonstrating intrinsic adenylate kinase activity of a membrane-bound ABC transporter. We developed a biochemical assay for adenylate kinase activity, in which the radioactive γ-phosphate of a nucleotide triphosphate could transfer to a photoactivatable AMP analog. UV irradiation could then trap the 32P on the adenylate kinase. With this assay, we discovered phosphoryl group transfer that labeled CFTR, thereby demonstrating its adenylate kinase activity. Our results also suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for adenylate kinase activity. These biochemical data complement earlier biophysical studies of CFTR and indicate that the ABC transporter CFTR can function as an adenylate kinase. PMID:22948143

  10. Demonstration of phosphoryl group transfer indicates that the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) exhibits adenylate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Randak, Christoph O; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J

    2012-10-19

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane-spanning adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. ABC transporters and other nuclear and cytoplasmic ABC proteins have ATPase activity that is coupled to their biological function. Recent studies with CFTR and two nonmembrane-bound ABC proteins, the DNA repair enzyme Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, challenge the model that the function of all ABC proteins depends solely on their associated ATPase activity. Patch clamp studies indicated that in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), CFTR Cl(-) channel function is coupled to adenylate kinase activity (ATP+AMP <==> 2 ADP). Work with Rad50 and SMC showed that these enzymes catalyze both ATPase and adenylate kinase reactions. However, despite the supportive electrophysiological results with CFTR, there are no biochemical data demonstrating intrinsic adenylate kinase activity of a membrane-bound ABC transporter. We developed a biochemical assay for adenylate kinase activity, in which the radioactive γ-phosphate of a nucleotide triphosphate could transfer to a photoactivatable AMP analog. UV irradiation could then trap the (32)P on the adenylate kinase. With this assay, we discovered phosphoryl group transfer that labeled CFTR, thereby demonstrating its adenylate kinase activity. Our results also suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for adenylate kinase activity. These biochemical data complement earlier biophysical studies of CFTR and indicate that the ABC transporter CFTR can function as an adenylate kinase.

  11. Genealogy and geographical distribution of CFTR mutations in Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean (Quebec, Canada).

    PubMed

    De Braekeleer, M; Daigneault, J; Allard, C; Simard, F; Aubin, G

    1996-01-01

    Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean (SLSJ), a region located in northeastern Quebec, has a high incidence of cystic fibrosis (CF). During the past few years the majority of the CF patients have been genotyped. The geographical distribution of the birth places of the patients and obligate carriers of the 621 + 1G-->T, the A455E and the delta F508 mutations (which accounted for 89% of the CF chromosomes) showed differences that can be explained by some degree of isolation but also by differential migration. The mean inbreeding and kinship coefficients were higher among the various CFTR mutation groups than in the general population. An ancestor couple common to most of the A455E carriers was identified. These data further substantiate the role of founder effect in the CF population of SLSJ.

  12. Detection of 100% of the CFTR mutations in 63 CF families from Tyrol.

    PubMed

    Stuhrmann, M; Dörk, T; Frühwirth, M; Golla, A; Skawran, B; Antonin, W; Ebhardt, M; Loos, A; Ellemunter, H; Schmidtke, J

    1997-10-01

    We identified 100% of the CFTR gene mutations, including three novel mutations, in 126 unrelated cystic fibrosis chromosomes from Tyrol, Austria. The frequency of the major mutation deltaF508 (74.6%) was not significantly different in Tyrolian CF-patients than in patients from Bavaria (71.0%) and Middle- and Northern Germany (71.9%), but was significantly higher than in patients from Styria (58.1%) or Northern Italy (47.6%). Interestingly, the distribution of the next most frequent mutations, R1162X (8.7%) 2183AA-->G, 2789+5G-->A and G542X (2.4% each), was more similar to the distribution of these mutations among CF-patients from Northern Italy than to those from Styria, Bavaria or Middle- and Northern Germany. Nine further mutations occurred once or twice. One of these, the missense mutation M1101K, is rare worldwide but very frequent in the Hutterite brethren, a small founder population which came from Southern Austria to Northern America. Three other different mutations (deltaL453, 1874insT and 4108delT) were present in single Tyrolian families and have not been described before. The identification of 100% of CFTR gene mutations in a particular CF population demonstrates the power of genetic analysis for the diagnosis and counselling of CF families in this restricted geographical area of Austria. Our study provides evidence for a closer genetic relation between CF patients from Tyrol and those from Bavaria or Middle- and Northern Germany as well as Northern Italy, than between CF patients from the two Austrian states Tyrol and Styria.

  13. Mild CFTR mutations and genetic predisposition to lactase persistence in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mądry, Edyta; Fidler, Ewa; Sobczyńska-Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Krzyżanowska, Patrycja; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Minarowski, Łukasz; Oralewska, Beata; Mojs, Ewa; Sapiejka, Ewa; Marciniak, Ryszard; Sands, Dorota; Korzon-Burakowska, Anna; Kwiecień, Jarosław; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2011-07-01

    Taking into account the reported incidence of hypolactasia in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the possible impact of milk products on nutritional status we aimed to assess the genetic predisposition to adult-type hypolactasia (ATH) and its incidence in CF. Single nucleotide polymorphism upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) was assessed in 289 CF patients. In subject with -13910C/C genotype (C/C) predisposing to ATH, hydrogen-methane breath test (BT) with lactose loading was conducted and clinical symptoms typical for lactose malabsorption were assessed. The percentage of CF patients with C/C was similar to that observed in healthy subjects (HS) (31.5 vs 32.5% ). Eleven out of 52 (24.5%) CF C/C patients had abnormal BT results. The recalculated frequency of lactose malabsorption was similar for the entire CF and HS populations (6.9 vs 7.2%). Similarly as in the control group, few CF patients have identified and linked to lactose consumption clinical symptoms. The frequency of LCT polymorphic variants in CF patients having and not having severe mutations of CFTR gene showed significant differences. The C allele was more frequent in homozygotes of the severe mutations than in patients carrying at least one mild/unknown mutation (P<0.0028) and in patients with at least one mild mutation (P < 0.0377). In conclusion, CF patients carrying mild CFTR mutations seem to have lower genetic predisposition to ATH. Lactose malabsorption due to ATH in CF is not more frequent than in the general population. Symptomatic assessment of lactose malabsorption in CF is not reliable.

  14. Trypsin Reduces Pancreatic Ductal Bicarbonate Secretion by Inhibiting CFTR Cl- channel and Luminal Anion Exchangers

    PubMed Central

    Pallagi, Petra; Venglovecz, Viktória; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Borka, Katalin; Korompay, Anna; Ózsvári, Béla; Judák, Linda; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Geisz, Andrea; Schnúr, Andrea; Maléth, József; Takács, Tamás; Gray, Mike A.; Argent, Barry E.; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Wittmann, Tibor; Hegyi, Péter

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims The effects of trypsin on pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDEC) vary among species and depend on localization of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). Bicarbonate secretion is similar in human and guinea pig PDEC; we compared its localization in these cell types and isolated guinea pig ducts to study the effects of trypsin and a PAR-2 agonist on this process. Methods PAR-2 localization was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in guinea pig and human pancreatic tissue samples (from 15 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 15 without pancreatic disease). Functions of guinea pig PDEC were studied by microperfusion of isolated ducts, measurements of intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i, and patch clamp analysis. The effect of pH on trypsinogen autoactivation was assessed using recombinant human cationic trypsinogen. Results PAR-2 localized to the apical membrane of human and guinea pig PDEC. Trypsin increased [Ca2+]i and pHi, and inhibited secretion of bicarbonate by the luminal anion exchanger and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel. Autoactivation of human cationic trypsinogen accelerated when the pH was reduced from 8.5 to 6.0. PAR-2 expression was strongly down-regulated, at transcriptional and protein levels, in the ducts of patients with chronic pancreatitis, consistent with increased activity of intraductal trypsin. Importantly, in PAR-2 knockout mice, the effects of trypsin were PAR-2 dependent. Conclusions Trypsin reduces pancreatic ductal bicarbonate secretion via PAR-2–dependent inhibition of the apical anion exchanger and the CFTR Cl- channel. This could contribute to the development of chronic pancreatitis, decreasing luminal pH and promoting premature activation of trypsinogen in the pancreatic ducts. PMID:21893120

  15. Mild CFTR mutations and genetic predisposition to lactase persistence in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mądry, Edyta; Fidler, Ewa; Sobczyńska-Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Krzyżanowska, Patrycja; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Minarowski, Łukasz; Oralewska, Beata; Mojs, Ewa; Sapiejka, Ewa; Marciniak, Ryszard; Sands, Dorota; Korzon-Burakowska, Anna; Kwiecień, Jarosław; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the reported incidence of hypolactasia in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the possible impact of milk products on nutritional status we aimed to assess the genetic predisposition to adult-type hypolactasia (ATH) and its incidence in CF. Single nucleotide polymorphism upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) was assessed in 289 CF patients. In subject with −13910C/C genotype (C/C) predisposing to ATH, hydrogen-methane breath test (BT) with lactose loading was conducted and clinical symptoms typical for lactose malabsorption were assessed. The percentage of CF patients with C/C was similar to that observed in healthy subjects (HS) (31.5 vs 32.5% ). Eleven out of 52 (24.5%) CF C/C patients had abnormal BT results. The recalculated frequency of lactose malabsorption was similar for the entire CF and HS populations (6.9 vs 7.2%). Similarly as in the control group, few CF patients have identified and linked to lactose consumption clinical symptoms. The frequency of LCT polymorphic variants in CF patients having and not having severe mutations of CFTR gene showed significant differences. The C allele was more frequent in homozygotes of the severe mutations than in patients carrying at least one mild/unknown mutation (P<0.0028) and in patients with at least one mild mutation (P<0.0377). In conclusion, CF patients carrying mild CFTR mutations seem to have lower genetic predisposition to ATH. Lactose malabsorption due to ATH in CF is not more frequent than in the general population. Symptomatic assessment of lactose malabsorption in CF is not reliable. PMID:21407263

  16. Complete Ascertainment of Intragenic Copy Number Mutations (CNMs) in the CFTR Gene and its Implications for CNM Formation at Other Autosomal Loci

    PubMed Central

    Quemener, Sylvia; Chen, Jian-Min; Chuzhanova, Nadia; Bénech, Caroline; Casals, Teresa; Macek, Milan; Bienvenu, Thierry; McDevitt, Trudi; Farrell, Philip M.; Loumi, Ourida; Messaoud, Taieb; Cuppens, Harry; Cutting, Garry R.; Stenson, Peter D.; Giteau, Karine; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Cooper, David N.; Férec, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 20 years since the discovery of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, more than 1,600 different putatively pathological CFTR mutations have been identified. Until now, however, copy number mutations (CNMs) involving the CFTR gene have not been methodically analyzed, resulting almost certainly in the underascertainment of CFTR gene duplications compared with deletions. Here, high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (averaging one interrogating probe every 95 bp) was used to analyze the entire length of the CFTR gene (189 kb) in 233 cystic fibrosis chromosomes lacking conventional mutations. We succeeded in identifying five duplication CNMs that would otherwise have been refractory to analysis. Based upon findings from this and other studies, we propose that deletion and duplication CNMs in the human autosomal genome are likely to be generated in the proportion of approximately 2–3:1. We further postulate that intragenic gene duplication CNMs in other disease loci may have been routinely underascertained. Finally, our analysis of ±20 bp flanking each of the 40 CFTR breakpoints characterized at the DNA sequence level provide support for the emerging concept that non-B DNA conformations in combination with specific sequence motifs predispose to both recurring and nonrecurring genomic rearrangements. PMID:20052766

  17. Complete ascertainment of intragenic copy number mutations (CNMs) in the CFTR gene and its implications for CNM formation at other autosomal loci.

    PubMed

    Quemener, Sylvia; Chen, Jian-Min; Chuzhanova, Nadia; Bénech, Caroline; Casals, Teresa; Macek, Milan; Bienvenu, Thierry; McDevitt, Trudi; Farrell, Philip M; Loumi, Ourida; Messaoud, Taieb; Cuppens, Harry; Cutting, Garry R; Stenson, Peter D; Giteau, Karine; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Cooper, David N; Férec, Claude

    2010-04-01

    Over the last 20 years since the discovery of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, more than 1,600 different putatively pathological CFTR mutations have been identified. Until now, however, copy number mutations (CNMs) involving the CFTR gene have not been methodically analyzed, resulting almost certainly in the underascertainment of CFTR gene duplications compared with deletions. Here, high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (averaging one interrogating probe every 95 bp) was used to analyze the entire length of the CFTR gene (189 kb) in 233 cystic fibrosis chromosomes lacking conventional mutations. We succeeded in identifying five duplication CNMs that would otherwise have been refractory to analysis. Based upon findings from this and other studies, we propose that deletion and duplication CNMs in the human autosomal genome are likely to be generated in the proportion of approximately 2-3:1. We further postulate that intragenic gene duplication CNMs in other disease loci may have been routinely underascertained. Finally, our analysis of +/-20 bp flanking each of the 40 CFTR breakpoints characterized at the DNA sequence level provide support for the emerging concept that non-B DNA conformations in combination with specific sequence motifs predispose to both recurring and nonrecurring genomic rearrangements. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. mRNA-based detection of rare CFTR mutations improves genetic diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in populations with high genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Felício, V; Ramalho, A S; Igreja, S; Amaral, M D

    2017-03-01

    Even with advent of next generation sequencing complete sequencing of large disease-associated genes and intronic regions is economically not feasible. This is the case of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF). Yet, to confirm a CF diagnosis, proof of CFTR dysfunction needs to be obtained, namely by the identification of two disease-causing mutations. Moreover, with the advent of mutation-based therapies, genotyping is an essential tool for CF disease management. There is, however, still an unmet need to genotype CF patients by fast, comprehensive and cost-effective approaches, especially in populations with high genetic heterogeneity (and low p.F508del incidence), where CF is now emerging with new diagnosis dilemmas (Brazil, Asia, etc). Herein, we report an innovative mRNA-based approach to identify CFTR mutations in the complete coding and intronic regions. We applied this protocol to genotype individuals with a suspicion of CF and only one or no CFTR mutations identified by routine methods. It successfully detected multiple intronic mutations unlikely to be detected by CFTR exon sequencing. We conclude that this is a rapid, robust and inexpensive method to detect any CFTR coding/intronic mutation (including rare ones) that can be easily used either as primary approach or after routine DNA analysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Benzalkonium chloride and glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L; Kiland, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology.

  20. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

  1. Chloride: the queen of electrolytes?

    PubMed

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O B

    2012-04-01

    Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general do not allocate chapters exclusively on hypochloremia or hyperchloremia and information on chloride other than channelopathies is scattered in the literature. To systematically review the function of chloride in man, data for this review include searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and references from relevant articles including the search terms "chloride," "HCl," "chloride channel" "acid-base," "acidosis," "alkalosis," "anion gap" "strong anion gap" "Stewart," "base excess" and "lactate." In addition, internal medicine, critical care, nephrology and gastroenterology textbooks were evaluated on topics pertaining the assessment and management of acid-base disorders, including reference lists from journals or textbooks. Chloride is, after sodium, the most abundant electrolyte in serum, with a key role in the regulation of body fluids, electrolyte balance, the preservation of electrical neutrality, acid-base status and it is an essential component for the assessment of many pathological conditions. When assessing serum electrolytes, abnormal chloride levels alone usually signify a more serious underlying metabolic disorder, such as metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. Chloride is an important component of diagnostic tests in a wide array of clinical situations. In these cases, chloride can be tested in sweat, serum, urine and feces. Abnormalities in chloride channel expression and function in many organs can cause a range of disorders. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional repair of CFTR by CRISPR/Cas9 in intestinal stem cell organoids of cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Schwank, Gerald; Koo, Bon-Kyoung; Sasselli, Valentina; Dekkers, Johanna F; Heo, Inha; Demircan, Turan; Sasaki, Nobuo; Boymans, Sander; Cuppen, Edwin; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Beekman, Jeffrey M; Clevers, Hans

    2013-12-05

    Single murine and human intestinal stem cells can be expanded in culture over long time periods as genetically and phenotypically stable epithelial organoids. Increased cAMP levels induce rapid swelling of such organoids by opening the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductor receptor (CFTR). This response is lost in organoids derived from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here we use the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system to correct the CFTR locus by homologous recombination in cultured intestinal stem cells of CF patients. The corrected allele is expressed and fully functional as measured in clonally expanded organoids. This study provides proof of concept for gene correction by homologous recombination in primary adult stem cells derived from patients with a single-gene hereditary defect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Washing bridges to reduce chloride : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-07-01

    Chloride ions are known to promote the corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete. This project was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of washing, to reduce existing chloride content and chloride ion uptake. The project consisted of a laboratory c...

  4. Washing bridges to reduce chloride : interim report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-12-01

    Chloride ions are known to promote the corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete. This project was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of washing, to reduce chloride content and chloride ion uptake. The project consists of a laboratory and a field...

  5. The silent codon change I507-ATC→ATT contributes to the severity of the ΔF508 CFTR channel dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lazrak, Ahmed; Fu, Lianwu; Bali, Vedrana; Bartoszewski, Rafal; Rab, Andras; Havasi, Viktoria; Keiles, Steve; Kappes, John; Kumar, Ranjit; Lefkowitz, Elliot; Sorscher, Eric J.; Matalon, Sadis; Collawn, James F.; Bebok, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    The most common disease-causing mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is the out-of-frame deletion of 3 nucleotides (CTT). This mutation leads to the loss of phenylalanine-508 (ΔF508) and a silent codon change (SCC) for isoleucine-507 (I507-ATC→ATT). ΔF508 CFTR is misfolded and degraded by endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). We have demonstrated that the I507-ATC→ATT SCC alters ΔF508 CFTR mRNA structure and translation dynamics. By comparing the biochemical and functional properties of the I507-ATT and I507-ATC ΔF508 CFTR, we establish that the I507-ATC→ATT SCC contributes to the cotranslational misfolding, ERAD, and to the functional defects associated with ΔF508 CFTR. We demonstrate that the I507-ATC ΔF508 CFTR is less susceptible to the ER quality-control machinery during translation than the I507-ATT, although 27°C correction is necessary for sufficient cell-surface expression. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings indicate sustained, thermally stable cAMP-activated Cl− transport through I507-ATC and unstable function of the I507-ATT ΔF508 CFTR. Single-channel recordings reveal improved gating properties of the I507-ATC compared to I507-ATT ΔF508 CFTR (NPo=0.45±0.037 vs. NPo=0.09±0.002; P<0.001). Our results signify the role of the I507-ATC→ATT SCC in the ΔF508 CFTR defects and support the importance of synonymous codon choices in determining the function of gene products.—Lazrak, A., Fu, L., Bali, V., Bartoszewski, R., Rab, A., Havasi, V., Keiles, S., Kappes, J., Kumar, R., Lefkowitz, E., Sorscher, E. J., Matalon, S., Collawn, J. F., Bebok, Z. The silent codon change I507-ATC→ATT contributes to the severity of the ΔF508 CFTR. PMID:23907436

  6. Cystic fibrosis and the role of gastrointestinal outcome measures in the new era of therapeutic CFTR modulation.

    PubMed

    Bodewes, Frank A J A; Verkade, Henkjan J; Taminiau, Jan A J M; Borowitz, Drucy; Wilschanski, Michael

    2015-03-01

    With the development of new drugs that directly affect CFTR protein function, clinical trials are being designed or initiated for a growing number of patients with cystic fibrosis. The currently available and accepted clinical endpoints, FEV1 and BMI, have limitations. The aim of this report is to draw attention to the need and the ample possibilities for the development and validation of relevant gastrointestinal clinical endpoints for scientific evaluation of CFTR modulation treatment, particularly in young children and infants. The gastrointestinal tract offers very good opportunities to measure CFTR protein function and systematically evaluate CF related clinical outcomes based on the principal clinical gastrointestinal manifestations of CF: intestinal pH, intestinal transit time, intestinal bile salt malabsorption, intestinal inflammation, exocrine pancreatic function and intestinal fat malabsorption. We present a descriptive analysis of a variety of gastrointestinal outcome measures for clinical relevance, reliability, validity, responsiveness to interventions, feasibility in particular in young children and the availability of reference values. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of cystic fibrosis-associated P67L CFTR illustrates barriers to personalized therapeutics for orphan diseases.

    PubMed

    Sabusap, Carleen M; Wang, Wei; McNicholas, Carmel M; Chung, W Joon; Fu, Lianwu; Wen, Hui; Mazur, Marina; Kirk, Kevin L; Collawn, James F; Hong, Jeong S; Sorscher, Eric J

    2016-09-08

    Emerging knowledge indicates the difficulty in categorizing unusual cystic fibrosis (CF) mutations, with regard to both pathogenic mechanism and theratype. As case in point, we present data concerning P67L mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a defect carried by a small number of individuals with CF and sometimes attributed to a channel conductance abnormality. Findings from our laboratory and others establish that P67L causes protein misfolding, disrupts maturation, confers gating defects, is thermally stable, and exhibits near normal conductance. These results provide one framework by which rare CF alleles such as P67L can be more comprehensively profiled vis-à-vis molecular pathogenesis. We also demonstrate that emerging CF treatments - ivacaftor and lumacaftor - can mediate pronounced pharmacologic activation of P67L CFTR. Infrequent CF alleles are often improperly characterized, in part, due to the small numbers of patients involved. Moreover, access to new personalized treatments among patients with ultra-orphan genotypes has been limited by difficulty arranging phase III clinical trials, and off-label prescribing has been impaired by high drug cost and difficulty arranging third party reimbursement. Rare CFTR mutations such as P67L are emblematic of the challenges to "precision" medicine, including use of the best available mechanistic knowledge to treat patients with unusual forms of disease.

  8. Mutation and new polymorphisms insight in introns 11 to 14a of CFTR gene of northern Iranian cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili Dooki, Mohammad Reza; Tabaripour, Reza; Rahimi, Razieh; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh

    2015-06-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease in Caucasians, caused by mutation in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The type and distribution of mutations vary widely between different countries and ethnic groups. We therefore aimed to perform a comprehensive analysis of the CFTR gene in northern Iranian CF patients. Forty northern Iranian CF patients were analyzed for mutations in introns 11 to 14a of their CFTR genes, using sequencing and reverse dot blot methods. Five normal subjects were also analyzed as normal control. One mutation and seven polymorphisms were identified. Of the eighty alleles studied, c.2043delG in exon 13 represented 12.5% of mutant alleles and was associated with two distinct haplotypes. rs1042077T>G, rs4148712delAT, rs4148711T>A and rs3808183 T>C with frequencies varying between 29.2% and 6.9% for the least common allele, as well as three new polymorphisms c.1680-224C>A (11.1%), c.2491-275T>G (14.1%) and c.2491-274C>G (35.9%) were detected. These findings suggest a founder effect for c.2043delG in the Middle East and will assist in genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and future screening of CF in Iran. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Variability of sweat chloride concentration in subjects with cystic fibrosis and G551D mutations.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, F; Le Camus, C; Davies, J C; Bilton, D; Milenković, D; De Boeck, K

    2017-01-01

    Sweat chloride concentration, a biomarker of CFTR function, is an appropriate outcome parameter in clinical trials aimed at correcting the basic CF defect. Although there is consensus on a cut-off value to diagnose CF, we have only limited information on the within subject variability of sweat chloride over time. Such information would be useful for sample size calculations in clinical trials. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed repeated sweat chloride values obtained in patients with G551D mutation(s) assigned to placebo in an ivacaftor interventional trial. In subjects with G551D at least 12years of age, a pilocarpine sweat test using Macroduct collector was taken on both arms at 8 time points over 48weeks. We explored 1062 pilocarpine sweat test values obtained in 78 placebo patients of the VX08-770-102 trial. Mean overall sweat chloride value (all patients, all tests, n=1062) was 100.8mmol/L (SD 12.7mmol/L). Using a multilevel mixed model, the between-subject standard deviation (SD) for sweat chloride was 8.9mmol/L (95% CI 7.4-10.6) and within-subject SD was 8.1mmol/L (95% CI 7.5-8.7). Limits of repeatability for repeat measurements were -19.7 to +21.6mmol/L using values from one arm, and -13.3 to 11.8mmol/L using mean of values obtained at 4 test occasions. Sample size calculations showed that the minimal treatment effect on sweat chloride concentration that can be demonstrated for a group of 5 patients is around 15mmol/L, using a cross-over design and combinations of 4 tests for each phase of the trial. Although the sweat test is considered a robust measure, sweat chloride measurements in patients with CF and a G551D mutation had an inherent biological variability that is higher than commonly considered. Further analyses of placebo group data are crucial to learn more about the natural variability of this outcome parameter. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Conserved allosteric hot spots in the transmembrane domains of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) pumps.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L; Kirk, Kevin L

    2014-07-18

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. ATP and AMP Mutually Influence Their Interaction with the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) at Separate Binding Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Randak, Christoph O.; Dong, Qian; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Elcock, Adrian H.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. In the presence of ATP and physiologically relevant concentrations of AMP, CFTR exhibits adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). Previous studies suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for this activity. Two other ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome protein, also have adenylate kinase activity. All three ABC adenylate kinases bind and hydrolyze ATP in the absence of other nucleotides. However, little is known about how an ABC adenylate kinase interacts with ATP and AMP when both are present. Based on data from non-ABC adenylate kinases, we hypothesized that ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with CFTR at separate binding sites. We further hypothesized that only one of the two CFTR ATP-binding sites is involved in the adenylate kinase reaction. We found that 8-azidoadenosine 5′-triphosphate (8-N3-ATP) and 8-azidoadenosine 5′-monophosphate (8-N3-AMP) photolabeled separate sites in CFTR. Labeling of the AMP-binding site with 8-N3-AMP required the presence of ATP. Conversely, AMP enhanced photolabeling with 8-N3-ATP at ATP-binding site 2. The adenylate kinase active center probe P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′) pentaphosphate interacted simultaneously with an AMP-binding site and ATP-binding site 2. These results show that ATP and AMP interact with separate binding sites but mutually influence their interaction with the ABC adenylate kinase CFTR. They further indicate that the active center of the adenylate kinase comprises ATP-binding site 2. PMID:23921386

  12. Structure of wild type and mutant F508del CFTR: A small-angle X-ray scattering study of the protein-detergent complexes.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Naomi L; Satriano, Letizia; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Ford, Robert C; Moran, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    CFTR is an anionic channel expressed in epithelia whose mutations cause cystic fibrosis. Wild (WT) and mutated (F508del) types were over-expressed in yeast, solubilised in the detergent LPG-14 and purified. The detergent-CFTR complexes were studied by SAXS techniques using a solvent of variable density. The final result of the study is the numerical value of a set of parameters: molecular mass, volume and radius of gyration, average electron density and second moment of the electron density fluctuations inside the particles. It is also shown that in the complex the centres of gravity of CFTR and of the detergent are displaced relative to each other. The analysis of these parameters led to the determination of the size and shape of the volumes occupied by protein and by detergent in the complex. WT-CFTR to be an elongated molecule (maximum diameter ∼12.4nm) which spans a flat detergent micelle. The distance distribution function, P(r) confirms that the WT-CFTR is elongated and with an inhomogeneous electronic density. The F508del-CFTR molecule is also elongated (maximum diameter ∼13.2nm), but the associated detergent micelle hides a larger surface, plausibly related to an increased exposure of hydrophobic portions of the mutated protein. The corresponding P(r) is consistent with the presence of well defined domains, probably linked by flexible regions. These differences suggest that the full-length mutant F508del-CFTR has a detectably different conformation, in contrast to the minor differences observed for the isolated F508-containing domain. We interpret the data in terms of an incomplete post-translational assembly of the protein domains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) adenylate kinase cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) at separate binding sites.

    PubMed

    Randak, Christoph O; Dong, Qian; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Elcock, Adrian H; Welsh, Michael J

    2013-09-20

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. In the presence of ATP and physiologically relevant concentrations of AMP, CFTR exhibits adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP &lrarr2; 2 ADP). Previous studies suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for this activity. Two other ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome protein, also have adenylate kinase activity. All three ABC adenylate kinases bind and hydrolyze ATP in the absence of other nucleotides. However, little is known about how an ABC adenylate kinase interacts with ATP and AMP when both are present. Based on data from non-ABC adenylate kinases, we hypothesized that ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with CFTR at separate binding sites. We further hypothesized that only one of the two CFTR ATP-binding sites is involved in the adenylate kinase reaction. We found that 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (8-N3-ATP) and 8-azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate (8-N3-AMP) photolabeled separate sites in CFTR. Labeling of the AMP-binding site with 8-N3-AMP required the presence of ATP. Conversely, AMP enhanced photolabeling with 8-N3-ATP at ATP-binding site 2. The adenylate kinase active center probe P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate interacted simultaneously with an AMP-binding site and ATP-binding site 2. These results show that ATP and AMP interact with separate binding sites but mutually influence their interaction with the ABC adenylate kinase CFTR. They further indicate that the active center of the adenylate kinase comprises ATP-binding site 2.

  14. Chloride channel inhibition by a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule prevents rotaviral secretory diarrhoea in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun-A; Jin, Byung-Ju; Namkung, Wan; Ma, Tonghui; Thiagarajah, Jay R; Verkman, A S

    2014-07-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe secretory diarrhoea in infants and young children globally. The rotaviral enterotoxin, NSP4, has been proposed to stimulate calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) on the apical plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. We previously identified red wine and small molecule CaCC inhibitors. To investigate the efficacy of a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule, CaCCinh-A01, in inhibiting intestinal CaCCs and rotaviral diarrhoea. Inhibition of CaCC-dependent current was measured in T84 cells and mouse ileum. The effectiveness of an orally administered wine extract and CaCCinh-A01 in inhibiting diarrhoea in vivo was determined in a neonatal mouse model of rotaviral infection. Screening of ∼150 red wines revealed a Cabernet Sauvignon that inhibited CaCC current in T84 cells with IC50 at a ∼1:200 dilution, and higher concentrations producing 100% inhibition. A >1 kdalton wine extract prepared by dialysis, which retained full inhibition activity, blocked CaCC current in T84 cells and mouse intestine. In rotavirus-inoculated mice, oral administration of the wine extract prevented diarrhoea by inhibition of intestinal fluid secretion without affecting rotaviral infection. The wine extract did not inhibit the cystic fibrosis chloride channel (CFTR) in cell cultures, nor did it prevent watery stools in neonatal mice administered cholera toxin, which activates CFTR-dependent fluid secretion. CaCCinh-A01 also inhibited rotaviral diarrhoea. Our results support a pathogenic role for enterocyte CaCCs in rotaviral diarrhoea and demonstrate the antidiarrhoeal action of CaCC inhibition by an alcohol-free, red wine extract and by a synthetic small molecule. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Chloride channel inhibition by a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule prevents rotaviral secretory diarrhoea in neonatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun-A; Jin, Byung-Ju; Namkung, Wan; Ma, Tonghui; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Verkman, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe secretory diarrhoea in infants and young children globally. The rotaviral enterotoxin, NSP4, has been proposed to stimulate calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) on the apical plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. We previously identified red wine and small molecule CaCC inhibitors. Objective To investigate the efficacy of a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule, CaCCinh-A01, in inhibiting intestinal CaCCs and rotaviral diarrhoea. Design Inhibition of CaCC-dependent current was measured in T84 cells and mouse ileum. The effectiveness of an orally administered wine extract and CaCCinh-A01 in inhibiting diarrhoea in vivo was determined in a neonatal mouse model of rotaviral infection. Results Screening of ~150 red wines revealed a Cabernet Sauvignon that inhibited CaCC current in T84 cells with IC50 at a ~1:200 dilution, and higher concentrations producing 100% inhibition. A >1 kdalton wine extract prepared by dialysis, which retained full inhibition activity, blocked CaCC current in T84 cells and mouse intestine. In rotavirus-inoculated mice, oral administration of the wine extract prevented diarrhoea by inhibition of intestinal fluid secretion without affecting rotaviral infection. The wine extract did not inhibit the cystic fibrosis chloride channel (CFTR) in cell cultures, nor did it prevent watery stools in neonatal mice administered cholera toxin, which activates CFTR-dependent fluid secretion. CaCCinh-A01 also inhibited rotaviral diarrhoea. Conclusions Our results support a pathogenic role for enterocyte CaCCs in rotaviral diarrhoea and demonstrate the antidiarrhoeal action of CaCC inhibition by an alcohol-free, red wine extract and by a synthetic small molecule. PMID:24052273

  16. CFTR genotype-related body water and electrolyte balance during a marathon.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, J; Lara, B; Salinero, J J; Areces, F; Ruiz-Vicente, D; Gallo-Salazar, C; Abián-Vicén, J; Cacabelos, R

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of CFTR genotype on body water and electrolyte balance during a marathon. Fifty-one experienced runners completed a marathon race. Before and after the race, body mass and a sample of venous blood were obtained. During the race, sweat samples were collected using sweat patches, and fluid and electrolyte intake were obtained using self-reported questionnaires. Thirty-eight participants (74.5% of the total) were 7T/7T homozygotes, 11 (21.6%) were 7T/9T heterozygotes, and one participant presented the rare genotype 5T/7T. Another participant with 9T/9T presented the mutation p.L206W. Participants with 7T/7T showed higher sweat sodium concentrations (42.2 ± 21.6 mmol/L) than 7T/9T (29.0 ± 24.7 mmol/L; P = 0.04). The runner with the 5T/7T genotype (10.2 mmol/L) and the participant with the p.L206W mutation (20.5 mmol/L) exhibited low-range sweat sodium concentrations. However, post-race serum sodium concentration was similar in 7T/7T and 7T/9T (142.1 ± 1.3 and 142.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.27) and did not show abnormalities in participants with the 5T/7T genotype (140.0 mmol/L) and the p.L206W mutation (143.0 mmol/L). Runners with the CFTR-7T/7T genotype exhibited increased sweat sodium concentrations during a marathon. However, this phenotype was not related with increased likelihood of suffering body water and electrolyte imbalances during real competitions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Efficacy and safety of lumacaftor and ivacaftor in patients aged 6-11 years with cystic fibrosis homozygous for F508del-CFTR: a randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Ratjen, Felix; Hug, Christopher; Marigowda, Gautham; Tian, Simon; Huang, Xiaohong; Stanojevic, Sanja; Milla, Carlos E; Robinson, Paul D; Waltz, David; Davies, Jane C

    2017-07-01

    Lumacaftor and ivacaftor combination treatment showed efficacy in patients aged 12 years or older with cystic fibrosis homozygous for F508del-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in placebo-controlled studies and patients aged 6-11 years with cystic fibrosis homozygous for F508del-CFTR in an open-label study. We report efficacy and safety of lumacaftor and ivacaftor in patients with cystic fibrosis aged 6-11 years homozygous for F508del-CFTR. In this phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study, patients were enrolled at 54 hospitals and medical centres in nine countries (the USA, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden, and the UK). Eligible patients weighed at least 15 kg, with a confirmed diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) of 70 or more, and lung clearance index 2·5 (LCI 2·5 ) of 7·5 or more at screening (values less than these thresholds were permitted at day 1). All patients were tested for CFTR genotype at screening; eligible patients had to have the F508del-CFTR mutation on both alleles. Exclusion criteria included any comorbidity or laboratory abnormality that might confound the study results or pose additional risk to the patient. Patients were stratified by weight (<25 kg vs ≥25 kg) and ppFEV 1 severity (<90 vs ≥90) determined at the screening visit, and randomly assigned 1:1 to treatment using an interactive web response system to receive 200 mg lumacaftor and 250 mg ivacaftor every 12 hours or placebo for 24 weeks. Patients, all site personnel including the investigator and the site monitor, and the study team were blinded, with the exception of site personnel needing this information in the event of medical emergency or pregnancy and patient safety and regulatory affairs personnel to meet serious adverse event reporting requirements. The primary endpoint was the mean absolute change in LCI 2·5 from all on-treatment study

  18. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  19. RNF185 Is a Novel E3 Ligase of Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation (ERAD) That Targets Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)*

    PubMed Central

    El Khouri, Elma; Le Pavec, Gwenaëlle; Toledano, Michel B.; Delaunay-Moisan, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), misfolded or improperly assembled proteins are exported to the cytoplasm and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through a process called ER-associated degradation (ERAD). ER-associated E3 ligases, which coordinate substrate recognition, export, and proteasome targeting, are key components of ERAD. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is one ERAD substrate targeted to co-translational degradation by the E3 ligase RNF5/RMA1. RNF185 is a RING domain-containing polypeptide homologous to RNF5. We show that RNF185 controls the stability of CFTR and of the CFTRΔF508 mutant in a RING- and proteasome-dependent manner but does not control that of other classical ERAD model substrates. Reciprocally, its silencing stabilizes CFTR proteins. Turnover analyses indicate that, as RNF5, RNF185 targets CFTR to co-translational degradation. Importantly, however, simultaneous depletion of RNF5 and RNF185 profoundly blocks CFTRΔF508 degradation not only during translation but also after synthesis is complete. Our data thus identify RNF185 and RNF5 as a novel E3 ligase module that is central to the control of CFTR degradation. PMID:24019521

  20. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  4. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  5. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c) The...

  6. Activation of CFTR Cl- conductance in polarized T84 cells by luminal extracellular ATP.

    PubMed

    Stutts, M J; Lazarowski, E R; Paradiso, A M; Boucher, R C

    1995-02-01

    Luminal extracellular ATP evoked a bumetanide-sensitive short-circuit current in cultured T84 cell epithelia (90.2 +/- 18.2 microA/cm2 at 100 microM ATP, apparent 50% effective concentration, 11.5 microM). ATP appeared to increase the Cl- conductance of the apical membrane but not the driving force for Cl- secretion determined by basolateral membrane K+ conductance. Specifically, the magnitude of Cl- secretion stimulated by ATP was independent of basal current, and forskolin pretreatment abolished subsequent stimulation of Cl- secretion by ATP. Whereas ATP stimulated modest production of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) by T84 cells, ATP caused smaller increases in intracellular Ca2+ and inositol phosphate activities than the Ca(2+)-signaling Cl- secretagogue carbachol. An inhibitor of 5'-nucleotidase, alpha,beta-methyleneadenosine 5'-diphosphate, blocked most of the response to luminal ATP. The adenosine receptor antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline blocked both the luminal ATP-dependent generation of cAMP and Cl- secretion when administered to the luminal but not submucosal bath. These results demonstrate that the Cl- secretion stimulated by luminal ATP is mediated by a A2-adenosine receptor located on the apical cell membrane. Thus metabolism of extracellular ATP to adenosine regulates the activity of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductor regulator (CFTR) in the apical membrane of polarized T84 cells.

  7. Cystic fibrosis newborn screening programs: implications of the CFTR variant spectrum in nonwhite patients.

    PubMed

    Pique, Lynn; Graham, Steve; Pearl, Michelle; Kharrazi, Martin; Schrijver, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis newborn screening (CFNBS) has been offered across the United States since 2010. However, as compared with white patients with CF, CFTR variant identification in nonwhite populations remains inequitable. Utilizing the recent characterization of the nonwhite CF variant spectrum, we examined the effectiveness of current CFNBS molecular panels in identifying affected nonwhite newborns. Based on a cross-sectional evaluation of genotyping data from the CF Foundation Patient Registry that compared 3,496 nonwhite with 22,206 white CF patients, the current CFNBS algorithms used in the 50 states and the District of Columbia were analyzed. We assessed the percentage of CF patients of Hispanic, African, Asian, and Native American heritage who would not be identified by the molecular panels most commonly used. Compared with whites, variant detection was significantly lower in Hispanic, black, and Asian newborns (P ≤ 0.0001 each), as well as in Native American newborns (P values ranged from 0.001 to 0.0003), for the most common CFNBS panels. This study provides a perspective on the applicability of current panels to a diverse population and enables CFNBS programs to consider more inclusive test approaches to facilitate diagnosis, timely clinical intervention, and enhanced prognosis for CF patients of nonwhite and mixed ethnicities.Genet Med 19 1, 36-44.

  8. Feasibility of placebo-controlled trial designs for new CFTR modulator evaluation.

    PubMed

    VanDevanter, Donald R; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael

    2017-07-01

    New CFTR modulators are in development that sponsors anticipate will be comparable or superior to approved modulators. Testing these agents for efficacy will require either placebo-controlled or active-comparator trials. We surveyed US CF physicians and their patients eligible to receive approved modulators or their families for willingness to participate in placebo-controlled modulator trials of varying duration. Interest in placebo-controlled trials of short duration (2-4weeks) was greatest, with few respondents, particularly among patient respondents, willing to consider 6month studies. Patients/families with access to approved modulators were consistently less interested in placebo-controlled modulator trials of any duration. Sample size and interpretability advantages of placebo-controlled trials outweigh alternative active-comparator trials, but must consider physician and patient thresholds for forgoing treatment with approved modulators. Enrollment will be most feasible for short-duration trials and those conducted among populations without access to approved modulators. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. EBIO, an agent causing maintained epithelial chloride secretion by co-ordinate actions at both apical and basolateral membranes.

    PubMed

    MacVinish, L J; Keogh, J; Cuthbert, A W

    2001-01-01

    The effect of 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolone (EBIO) on electrogenic chloride secretion in murine colonic and nasal epithelium was investigated by the short-circuit technique. In the colon, EBIO produces a sustained current increase in the presence of amiloride, which is sensitive to furosemide. In nasal epithelium EBIO causes only a small, transient current increase. Sustained increases in current were obtained in response to forskolin in both epithelia. To examine the mechanisms by which EBIO increases chloride secretion, the effects on intracellular mediators were measured in colonic crypts. There was no effect on [Ca(2+)]i but cAMP content was increased, more so in the presence of IBMX, indicating a direct effect on adenylate cyclase. In colonic epithelia in which the apical surface was permeabilized by nystatin, and the tissue subjected to an apical to basolateral K(+) gradient, EBIO caused a current increase that was entirely sensitive to charybdotoxin (ChTX). In similarly permeabilized colons Br-cAMP caused a current increase that was entirely sensitive to 293B. Thus EBIO increases chloride secretion in the colon by coordinated actions at both the apical and basolateral faces of the cells. These include direct and indirect actions on Ca(2+)-sensitive and cAMP-sensitive K(+) channels respectively, and indirect actions on the basolateral cotransporter and apical CFTR chloride channels via cAMP. In CF colonic epithelia EBIO did not evoke chloride secretion. It is not clear why the nasal epithelium responds poorly to EBIO whereas it gives a sustained response to the related compound chlorzoxazone.

  10. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and pipe...

  11. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride...

  13. Increased NF-κB Activity and Decreased Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Mediate Reduced Osteoblast Differentiation and Function in ΔF508 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Le Henaff, Carole; Mansouri, Rafik; Modrowski, Dominique; Zarka, Mylène; Geoffroy, Valérie; Marty, Caroline; Tarantino, Nadine; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Marie, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalent human ΔF508 mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is associated with reduced bone formation and bone loss in mice. The molecular mechanisms by which the ΔF508-CFTR mutation causes alterations in bone formation are poorly known. In this study, we analyzed the osteoblast phenotype in ΔF508-CFTR mice and characterized the signaling mechanisms underlying this phenotype. Ex vivo studies showed that the ΔF508-CFTR mutation negatively impacted the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into osteoblasts and the activity of osteoblasts, demonstrating that the ΔF508-CFTR mutation alters both osteoblast differentiation and function. Treatment with a CFTR corrector rescued the abnormal collagen gene expression in ΔF508-CFTR osteoblasts. Mechanistic analysis revealed that NF-κB signaling and transcriptional activity were increased in mutant osteoblasts. Functional studies showed that the activation of NF-κB transcriptional activity in mutant osteoblasts resulted in increased β-catenin phosphorylation, reduced osteoblast β-catenin expression, and altered expression of Wnt/β-catenin target genes. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activity or activation of canonical Wnt signaling rescued Wnt target gene expression and corrected osteoblast differentiation and function in bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts from ΔF508-CFTR mice. Overall, the results show that the ΔF508-CFTR mutation impairs osteoblast differentiation and function as a result of overactive NF-κB and reduced Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Moreover, the data indicate that pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB or activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling can rescue the abnormal osteoblast differentiation and function induced by the prevalent ΔF508-CFTR mutation, suggesting novel therapeutic strategies to correct the osteoblast dysfunctions in cystic fibrosis. PMID:26060255

  14. Infertility due to congenital absence of vas deferens in mainly caused by variable exon 9 skipping of the CFTR gene in heterozygous males for cystic fibrosis mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Chillon, M.; Casals, T.; Nunes, V.

    1994-09-01

    About 65% or the individuals with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) have mutations in at least one of the CFTR alleles. We have studied the phenotypic effects of the CFTR gene intron 8 polyT tract 5T allele in 90 CBAVD subjects and in parents of CF patients. This group was compared with normal individuals, and with fathers and mothers of CF patients. Allele 5T was significantly associated with CBAVD (19.6%) when compared to the general population (5.2%) ({chi}{sup 2} = 33.3%; p<<0.0001). It was represented poorly in fathers of CF patients (1.3%). Mutations were identified in onemore » (60%) or both CFTR alleles (8.9%) of CBAVD patients. Heterozygosity for the 5T allele was strongly associated with heterozygosity for CF mutations ({chi}{sup 2} = 10.9; p<0.0004). The strong correlation between allele 5T and CBAVD, together with the low frequency of this allele in fathers of CF patients, demonstrates that variable {Delta}exon 9 produces infertility in males if associated with a CF mutation on the other chromosome. The 30% of CBAVD cases with only one CFTR mutation and without a 5T-allele may be due to other molecular mechanisms involving CFTR, distinct from {Delta}exon 9. Since there is a relatively high proportion of CBAVD without CF mutations (25%), other gene(s), distinct from CFTR, may have a role in the CBAVD phenotype.« less

  15. CFTR mutations and IVS8-5T variant in newborns with hypertrypsinaemia and normal sweat test.

    PubMed Central

    Castellani, C; Bonizzato, A; Mastella, G

    1997-01-01

    Neonates positive for immunoreactive trypsinogen assay (IRT) and negative for sweat test have formerly been found to carry the major cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation, delta F508, much more frequently than the general population. Among the 716 IRT positive newborns detected by a three tier (IRT, mutation analysis plus meconium lactase assay, sweat test) CF screening programme in north eastern Italy during the period January 1993 to March 1996, we found 45 carriers, a number significantly higher than the expected 17 (p < 0.001). We speculated that some of these heterozygotes could actually be affected by a very mild form of CF, and carry on the other chromosome an undetected CFTR mutation or a DNA variant, such as the 5-thymidine allele in intron 8 of the CFTR gene (IVS8-5T). This hypothesis was tested in four samples; group A (the 45 carriers mentioned above), group B (51 non-carrier, IRT positive neonates), group C (50 IRT negative neonates), and group D (90 CF adult female carriers). Chromosomes with IVS8-5T were seven (7.78%) in group A, seven (6.86%) in group B, five (5%) in group C, and four in group D (2.22%). The 5T prevalence in group A was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to group D; similarly, a higher (p < 0.05) 5T frequency in group A compared to group C was detected by considering the chromosomes free from CFTR mutations. This study is consistent with previous papers in finding among neonates with high trypsin levels a CF carrier frequency significantly higher than that expected. It is also suggested that in at least some babies raised trypsin levels at birth could be a phenotypic expression of compound heterozygosity for a major CF mutation plus IVS8-5T. PMID:9138152

  16. Serum zinc concentration in cystic fibrosis patients with CFTR I1234V mutation associated with pancreatic sufficiency.

    PubMed

    AbdulWahab, Atqah; Abushahin, Ahmed; Allangawi, Mona; Chandra, Prem; Abdel Rahman, Mohamed Osman; Soliman, Ashraf

    2017-05-01

    To determine serum zinc (Zn) level among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with homozygous CFTR I1234V mutation associated with pancreatic sufficiency (PS). A cross-sectional study was conducted including both pediatric and adult CF patients. Data on age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, FEV1, and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection were collected. Serum Zn, albumin, and total proteins were measured and analyzed. Forty-five CF patients with homozygous CFTR I1234V mutation belonging to a large Arab kindred tribe and eight CF patients with other mutations associated with pancreatic insufficiency (PI). Patient's age ranged from 2 to 49 years with a mean age of 15.1 ± 9.1 years and mean plasma Zn of 0.78 ± 0.15 mcg/mL. Seven (13.2%) patients with CFTR I1234V and PS had low Zn levels (<0.6 mcg/mL). Mean age among Zn deficient group was significantly older. The mean FEV1 in the deficient group was found to be insignificant low. Persistent P. aeruginosa colonization was more prevalent in Zn deficient group. BMI Z-scosre of CF patients were positively correlated with Zn levels. Forty-five healthy subjects belonging to the same Arab tribe were selected in order to assess their Zn levels and their mean plasma Zn of 0.84 ± 0.11 mcg/mL (range 0.65-1.1 mcg/mL) with mean age 20.4 ± 10.1 years (range 6-40 years). These findings suggest that Zn deficiency can occur in CF patients with PS. The association of Zn levels and the frequency of P. aeruginosa isolated in CF patients need further investigation. © 2015 The Authors. The Clinical Respiratory Journal Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dendrimer-based selective autophagy-induction rescues ΔF508-CFTR and inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Scott Mackenzie; Bodas, Manish; Silverberg, David; Sharma, Ajit

    2017-01-01

    Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder caused by mutation(s) in the CF-transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) gene. The most common mutation, ΔF508, leads to accumulation of defective-CFTR protein in aggresome-bodies. Additionally, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa), a common CF pathogen, exacerbates obstructive CF lung pathology. In the present study, we aimed to develop and test a novel strategy to improve the bioavailability and potentially achieve targeted drug delivery of cysteamine, a potent autophagy-inducing drug with anti-bacterial properties, by developing a dendrimer (PAMAM-DEN)-based cysteamine analogue. Results We first evaluated the effect of dendrimer-based cysteamine analogue (PAMAM-DENCYS) on the intrinsic autophagy response in IB3-1 cells and observed a significant reduction in Ub-RFP and LC3-GFP co-localization (aggresome-bodies) by PAMAM-DENCYS treatment as compared to plain dendrimer (PAMAM-DEN) control. Next, we observed that PAMAM-DENCYS treatment shows a modest rescue of ΔF508-CFTR as the C-form. Moreover, immunofluorescence microscopy of HEK-293 cells transfected with ΔF508-CFTR-GFP showed that PAMAM-DENCYS is able to rescue the misfolded-ΔF508-CFTR from aggresome-bodies by inducing its trafficking to the plasma membrane. We further verified these results by flow cytometry and observed significant (p<0.05; PAMAM-DEN vs. PAMAM-DENCYS) rescue of membrane-ΔF508-CFTR with PAMAM-DENCYS treatment using non-permeabilized IB3-1 cells immunostained for CFTR. Finally, we assessed the autophagy-mediated bacterial clearance potential of PAMAM-DENCYS by treating IB3-1 cells infected with PA01-GFP, and observed a significant (p<0.01; PAMAM-DEN vs. PAMAM-DENCYS) decrease in intracellular bacterial counts by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Also, PAMAM-DENCYS treatment significantly inhibits the growth of PA01-GFP bacteria and demonstrates potent mucolytic properties. Conclusions We demonstrate here the efficacy of

  18. Cysteine accessibility probes timing and extent of NBD separation along the dimer interface in gating CFTR channels

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Luiz A. Poletto

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel opening and closing are driven by cycles of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding–induced formation and hydrolysis-triggered disruption of a heterodimer of its cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Although both composite sites enclosed within the heterodimer interface contain ATP in an open CFTR channel, ATP hydrolysis in the sole catalytically competent site causes channel closure. Opening of the NBD interface at that site then allows ADP–ATP exchange. But how frequently, and how far, the NBD surfaces separate at the other, inactive composite site remains unclear. We assessed separation at each composite site by monitoring access of nucleotide-sized hydrophilic, thiol-specific methanothiosulfonate (MTS) reagents to interfacial target cysteines introduced into either LSGGQ-like ATP-binding cassette signature sequence (replacing equivalent conserved serines: S549 and S1347). Covalent MTS-dependent modification of either cysteine while channels were kept closed by the absence of ATP impaired subsequent opening upon ATP readdition. Modification while channels were opening and closing in the presence of ATP caused macroscopic CFTR current to decline at the same speed as when the unmodified channels shut upon sudden ATP withdrawal. These results suggest that the target cysteines can be modified only in closed channels; that after modification the attached MTS adduct interferes with ATP-mediated opening; and that modification in the presence of ATP occurs rapidly once channels close, before they can reopen. This interpretation was corroborated by the finding that, for either cysteine target, the addition of the hydrolysis-impairing mutation K1250R (catalytic site Walker A Lys) similarly slowed, by an order of magnitude, channel closing on ATP removal and the speed of modification by MTS reagent in ATP. We conclude that, in every CFTR channel gating cycle, the NBD dimer interface separates

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients With G551D-CFTR Treated With Ivacaftor

    PubMed Central

    Heltshe, Sonya L.; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Burns, Jane L.; Khan, Umer; Baines, Arthur; Ramsey, Bonnie W.; Rowe, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ivacaftor improves outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with the G551D mutation; however, effects on respiratory microbiology are largely unknown. This study examines changes in CF respiratory pathogens with ivacaftor and correlates them with baseline characteristics and clinical response. Methods. The G551D Observational Study enrolled a longitudinal observational cohort of US patients with CF aged 6 years and older with at least 1 copy of the G551D mutation. Results were linked with retrospective and prospective culture data in the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's National Patient Registry. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection category in the year before and year after ivacaftor was compared and correlated with clinical findings. Results. Among 151 participants prescribed ivacaftor, 29% (26/89) who were culture positive for P. aeruginosa the year prior to ivacaftor use were culture negative the year following treatment; 88% (52/59) of those P. aeruginosa free remained uninfected. The odds of P. aeruginosa positivity in the year after ivacaftor compared with the year prior were reduced by 35% (odds ratio [OR], 0.65; P < .001). Ivacaftor was also associated with reduced odds of mucoid P. aeruginosa (OR, 0.77; P = .013) and Aspergillus (OR, 0.47; P = .039), but not Staphylococcus aureus or other common CF pathogens. Patients with intermittent culture positivity and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were most likely to turn culture negative. Reduction in P. aeruginosa was not associated with change in FEV1, body mass index, or hospitalizations. Conclusions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture positivity was significantly reduced following ivacaftor treatment. Efficacious CFTR modulation may contribute to lower frequency of culture positivity for P. aeruginosa and other respiratory pathogens, particularly in patients with less established disease. PMID:25425629

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients with G551D-CFTR treated with ivacaftor.

    PubMed

    Heltshe, Sonya L; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Burns, Jane L; Khan, Umer; Baines, Arthur; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Rowe, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    Ivacaftor improves outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with the G551D mutation; however, effects on respiratory microbiology are largely unknown. This study examines changes in CF respiratory pathogens with ivacaftor and correlates them with baseline characteristics and clinical response. The G551D Observational Study enrolled a longitudinal observational cohort of US patients with CF aged 6 years and older with at least 1 copy of the G551D mutation. Results were linked with retrospective and prospective culture data in the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's National Patient Registry. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection category in the year before and year after ivacaftor was compared and correlated with clinical findings. Among 151 participants prescribed ivacaftor, 29% (26/89) who were culture positive for P. aeruginosa the year prior to ivacaftor use were culture negative the year following treatment; 88% (52/59) of those P. aeruginosa free remained uninfected. The odds of P. aeruginosa positivity in the year after ivacaftor compared with the year prior were reduced by 35% (odds ratio [OR], 0.65; P < .001). Ivacaftor was also associated with reduced odds of mucoid P. aeruginosa (OR, 0.77; P = .013) and Aspergillus (OR, 0.47; P = .039), but not Staphylococcus aureus or other common CF pathogens. Patients with intermittent culture positivity and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were most likely to turn culture negative. Reduction in P. aeruginosa was not associated with change in FEV1, body mass index, or hospitalizations. Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture positivity was significantly reduced following ivacaftor treatment. Efficacious CFTR modulation may contribute to lower frequency of culture positivity for P. aeruginosa and other respiratory pathogens, particularly in patients with less established disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For

  1. The effect of environmental salinity on the protein expression of Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, anion exchanger 1, and chloride channel 3 in gills of a euryhaline teleost, Tetraodon nigroviridis.

    PubMed

    Tang, C H; Lee, T H

    2007-06-01

    Chloride transport mechanisms in the gills of the estuarine spotted green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) were investigated. Protein abundance of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and the other four chloride transporters, i.e., Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) anion exchanger 1 (AE1), and chloride channel 3 (CLC-3) in gills of the seawater- (SW; 35 per thousand) or freshwater (FW)-acclimatized fish were examined by immunoblot analysis. Appropriate negative controls were used to confirm the specificity of the antibodies to the target proteins. The relative protein abundance of NKA was higher (i.e., 2-fold) in gills of the SW group compared to the FW group. NKCC and CFTR were expressed in gills of the SW group but not in the FW group. In contrast, the levels of relative protein abundance of branchial AE1 and CLC-3 in the FW group were 23-fold and 2.7-fold higher, respectively, compared to those of the SW group. This study is first of its kind to provide direct in vivo evidence of the protein expression of CLC-3 in teleostean gills, as well as to examine the simultaneous protein expression of the Cl(-) transporters, especially AE1 and CLC-3 of FW- and SW-acclimatized teleosts. The differential protein expression of NKA, chloride transporters in gills of the FW- and SW-acclimatized T. nigroviridis observed in the present study shows their close relationship to the physiological homeostasis (stable blood osmolality), as well as explains the impressive ionoregulatory ability of this euryhaline species in response to salinity challenges.

  2. Secondary chloride-losing diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, Ian

    1971-01-01

    Among 40 infants with postoperative diarrhoea, 3 were found to have a stool chloride concentration in excess of the sum of sodium and potassium ion concentrations. All 3 had had a recent episode of intestinal obstruction and had developed a sugar intolerance. PMID:5565458

  3. Mutagenicity studies of vinyl chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Fabricant, J D; Legator, M S

    1981-01-01

    Mutagenicity studies in both man and in test organisms clearly demonstrate positive mutagenic activity of vinyl chloride. In terms of the mutagenicity studies using a variety of in vitro procedures covering both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, positive effects were found. Cytogenetic in vivo studies in animals and in humans indicate not only somatic mutations, but also germinal effects with this chemical. PMID:7333237

  4. General anesthetic octanol and related compounds activate wild-type and delF508 cystic fibrosis chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Marcet, Brice; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline; Delmas, Patrick; Verrier, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel is defective during cystic fibrosis (CF). Activators of the CFTR Cl− channel may be useful for therapy of CF. Here, we demonstrate that a range of general anesthetics like normal-alkanols (n-alkanols) and related compounds can stimulate the Cl− channel activity of wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant. The effects of n-alkanols like octanol on CFTR activity were measured by iodide (125I) efflux and patch-clamp techniques on three distinct cellular models: (1) CFTR-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells, (2) human airway Calu-3 epithelial cells and (3) human airway JME/CF15 epithelial cells which express the delF508-CFTR mutant. Our data show for the first time that n-alkanols activate both wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant. Octanol stimulated 125I efflux in a dose-dependent manner in CFTR-expressing cells (wild-type and delF508) but not in cell lines lacking CFTR. 125I efflux and Cl− currents induced by octanol were blocked by glibenclamide but insensitive to 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid, as expected for a CFTR Cl− current. CFTR activation by octanol was neither due to cell-to-cell uncoupling properties of octanol nor to an intracellular cAMP increase. CFTR activation by octanol requires phosphorylation by protein kinase-A (PKA) since it was prevented by H-89, a PKA inhibitor. n-Alkanols chain length was an important determinant for channel activation, with rank order of potencies: 1-heptanol<1-octanol<2-octanol<1-decanol. Our findings may be of valuable interest for developing novel therapeutic strategies for CF. PMID:14967738

  5. General anesthetic octanol and related compounds activate wild-type and delF508 cystic fibrosis chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Brice; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline; Delmas, Patrick; Verrier, Bernard

    2004-03-01

    1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel is defective during cystic fibrosis (CF). Activators of the CFTR Cl(-) channel may be useful for therapy of CF. Here, we demonstrate that a range of general anesthetics like normal-alkanols (n-alkanols) and related compounds can stimulate the Cl(-) channel activity of wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant. 2. The effects of n-alkanols like octanol on CFTR activity were measured by iodide ((125)I) efflux and patch-clamp techniques on three distinct cellular models: (1). CFTR-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells, (2). human airway Calu-3 epithelial cells and (3). human airway JME/CF15 epithelial cells which express the delF508-CFTR mutant. 3. Our data show for the first time that n-alkanols activate both wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant. Octanol stimulated (125)I efflux in a dose-dependent manner in CFTR-expressing cells (wild-type and delF508) but not in cell lines lacking CFTR. (125)I efflux and Cl(-) currents induced by octanol were blocked by glibenclamide but insensitive to 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, as expected for a CFTR Cl(-) current. 4. CFTR activation by octanol was neither due to cell-to-cell uncoupling properties of octanol nor to an intracellular cAMP increase. CFTR activation by octanol requires phosphorylation by protein kinase-A (PKA) since it was prevented by H-89, a PKA inhibitor. 5. n-Alkanols chain length was an important determinant for channel activation, with rank order of potencies: 1-heptanol<1-octanol<2-octanol<1-decanol. Our findings may be of valuable interest for developing novel therapeutic strategies for CF.

  6. Congenital chloride diarrhoea in a Malay child.

    PubMed

    Norzila, M Z; Azizi, B H

    1994-03-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhoea is a rare disorder mainly reported in Finland. A Malay child with congenital chloride diarrhoea presenting at six months of age with watery stools from birth and failure to thrive is reported.

  7. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. Surface Chloride Levels in Colorado Structural Concrete

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-01-01

    This project focused on the chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in structural concrete. The primary goal of this project is to analyze the surface chloride concentration level of the concrete bridge decks throughout Colorado. The study in...

  20. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Steven J.; Thomas, Thomas R.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  1. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, S.J.; Thomas, T.R.

    1975-11-14

    A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel, and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  2. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  6. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  7. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  8. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  9. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  10. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No... will be followed by a potable water rinse of the carcass. [72 FR 67576, Nov. 29, 2007] ...

  11. Meconium Ileus Caused by Mutations in GUCY2C, Encoding the CFTR-Activating Guanylate Cyclase 2C

    PubMed Central

    Romi, Hila; Cohen, Idan; Landau, Daniella; Alkrinawi, Suliman; Yerushalmi, Baruch; Hershkovitz, Reli; Newman-Heiman, Nitza; Cutting, Garry R.; Ofir, Rivka; Sivan, Sara; Birk, Ohad S.

    2012-01-01

    Meconium ileus, intestinal obstruction in the newborn, is caused in most cases by CFTR mutations modulated by yet-unidentified modifier genes. We now show that in two unrelated consanguineous Bedouin kindreds, an autosomal-recessive phenotype of meconium ileus that is not associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by different homozygous mutations in GUCY2C, leading to a dramatic reduction or fully abrogating the enzymatic activity of the encoded guanlyl cyclase 2C. GUCY2C is a transmembrane receptor whose extracellular domain is activated by either the endogenous ligands, guanylin and related peptide uroguanylin, or by an external ligand, Escherichia coli (E. coli) heat-stable enterotoxin STa. GUCY2C is expressed in the human intestine, and the encoded protein activates the CFTR protein through local generation of cGMP. Thus, GUCY2C is a likely candidate modifier of the meconium ileus phenotype in CF. Because GUCY2C heterozygous and homozygous mutant mice are resistant to E. coli STa enterotoxin-induced diarrhea, it is plausible that GUCY2C mutations in the desert-dwelling Bedouin kindred are of selective advantage. PMID:22521417

  12. Current strategies for the long-term assessment, monitoring, and management of cystic fibrosis patients treated with CFTR modulator therapy.

    PubMed

    Elborn, J Stuart; Davies, Jane; Mall, Marcus A; Flume, Patrick A; Plant, Barry

    2017-01-01

    The content for this activity is based on the satellite symposium, "Current Strategies for the Long-term Assessment, Monitoring, and Management for Cystic Fibrosis Patients Treated with CFTR Modulator Therapy" that was presented at the 39th European Cystic Fibrosis Society Conference on June 10, 2016 (Online access: http://courses.elseviercme.com/ecfs2016e/619e). The emergence of novel targeted agents, that directly correct CFTR loss function alleles, has created new treatment opportunities for patients with cystic fibrosis with advanced disease. Knowledge of the role of these agents in the clinical setting is quickly evolving and will require physicians to stay acquainted with the latest data as well as evidence-based treatment guidelines in order to achieve optimized cystic fibrosis patient care. Ideally, after diagnosis, a personalized approach would be adapted and tailored to the patient through genome-informed medicine. However, due to the relative recentness of genomic-based therapeutics, physicians may have a limited knowledge base regarding these new treatment options and how to best incorporate these agents into patient management plans. Although cystic fibrosis is still largely regarded as a pediatric disease, the median survival for patients is 35years of age. Consequently, pediatric-to-adult cystic fibrosis care programs would allow suitable preparation time for this transition and develop a standardized group of self-care and management skills. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of epithelial sodium channel variants in nonwhite cystic fibrosis patients with non-diagnostic CFTR genotypes.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Marie-Luise; Pique, Lynn M; Schrijver, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a role for the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in cystic fibrosis (CF). The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of genetic variants in the ENaC subunits (α, β, γ) in nonwhite CF patients in whom CFTR molecular testing has been non-diagnostic. Samples were obtained from patients who were nonwhite and whose molecular CFTR testing did not identify two mutations. Sequencing of the SCNN1A, B, and G genes was performed and variants assessed for pathogenicity and association with CF using databases, protein and splice site mutation analysis software, and literature review. We identified four nonsynonymous amino acid variants in SCNN1A, three in SCNN1B and one in SCNN1G. There was no convincing evidence of pathogenicity. Whereas all have been reported in the dbSNP database, only p.Ala334Thr, p.Val573Ile, and p.Thr663Ala in SCNN1A, p.Gly442Val in SCNN1B and p.Gly183Ser in SCNN1G were previously reported in ENaC genetic studies of CF or CF-like patients. Synonymous substitutions were also observed but novel synonymous variants were not detected. There is no conclusive association of ENaC genetic variants with CF in nonwhite CF patients. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially...

  15. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  16. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  17. Structures of a minimal human CFTR first nucleotide-binding domain as a monomer, head-to-tail homodimer, and pathogenic mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Atwell, Shane; Brouillette, Christie G.; Conners, Kris

    2010-04-26

    Upon removal of the regulatory insert (RI), the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be heterologously expressed and purified in a form that remains stable without solubilizing mutations, stabilizing agents or the regulatory extension (RE). This protein, NBD1 387-646({Delta}405-436), crystallizes as a homodimer with a head-to-tail association equivalent to the active conformation observed for NBDs from symmetric ATP transporters. The 1.7-{angstrom} resolution X-ray structure shows how ATP occupies the signature LSGGQ half-site in CFTR NBD1. The {Delta}F508 version of this protein also crystallizes as a homodimer and differs from the wild-type structuremore » only in the vicinity of the disease-causing F508 deletion. A slightly longer construct crystallizes as a monomer. Comparisons of the homodimer structure with this and previously published monomeric structures show that the main effect of ATP binding at the signature site is to order the residues immediately preceding the signature sequence, residues 542-547, in a conformation compatible with nucleotide binding. These residues likely interact with a transmembrane domain intracellular loop in the full-length CFTR channel. The experiments described here show that removing the RI from NBD1 converts it into a well-behaved protein amenable to biophysical studies yielding deeper insights into CFTR function.« less

  18. Lumacaftor/ivacaftor, a novel agent for the treatment of cystic fibrosis patients who are homozygous for the F580del CFTR mutation.

    PubMed

    Bulloch, Marilyn N; Hanna, Cameron; Giovane, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease affecting up to 90,000 people worldwide. Approximately 73% of patients are homozygous for the F508del cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator [CFTR] mutation. Traditionally treatment has only included supportive care. Therefore, there is a need for safe and effective novel therapies targeting the underlying molecular defects seen with CF. Areas covered: In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission approved LUM/IVA (Orkambi), a CFTR modulator that includes both a CFTR corrector and potentiator, for CF patients homozygous for the F508del CFTR mutation. This article reviews the pharmacologic features, clinical efficacy, and safety of LUM/IVA and summarize the available pre-clinical and clinical data of LUM/IVA use. Expert commentary: LUM/IVA showed modest, but significant improvements from baseline in percent predicted FEV 1 (ppFEV 1 ) as well as a reduction in pulmonary exacerbations by 35% It was shown to be safe for short- and long-term use. Currently, LUM/IVA is the only oral agent in its class available and represents a milestone the development of therapies for the management of CF. Nonetheless, pharmacoeconomic data are necessary to justify its high cost before is use becomes standard of care.

  19. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally...

  6. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  7. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From... Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from... contained in USITC Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731...

  8. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS...

  13. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From... to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  14. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1910.1017 Section 1910.1017 Labor... Vinyl chloride. (a) Scope and application. (1) This section includes requirements for the control of employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 75014. (2) This...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  17. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a...

  18. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  19. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322... exceed 150 g (5.30 ounces) per capsule; (2) The capsule must be free of faults liable to impair its... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  9. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  10. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  11. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in themore » acidic and the basic solutions.« less

  12. Elevated Mirc1/Mir17-92 cluster expression negatively regulates autophagy and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) function in CF macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Mia F; Dakhlallah, Duaa A; Caution, Kyle; Gerber, Madelyn M; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Khalil, Hany; Kopp, Benjamin T; Ahmed, Amr E; Krause, Kathrin; Davis, Ian; Marsh, Clay; Lovett-Racke, Amy E; Schlesinger, Larry S; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Amer, Amal O

    2016-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a fatal, genetic disorder that critically affects the lungs and is directly caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, resulting in defective CFTR function. Macroautophagy/autophagy is a highly regulated biological process that provides energy during periods of stress and starvation. Autophagy clears pathogens and dysfunctional protein aggregates within macrophages. However, this process is impaired in CF patients and CF mice, as their macrophages exhibit limited autophagy activity. The study of microRNAs (Mirs), and other noncoding RNAs, continues to offer new therapeutic targets. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of Mirs in dysregulated autophagy-related genes in CF macrophages, and then target them to restore this host-defense function and improve CFTR channel function. We identified the Mirc1/Mir17-92 cluster as a potential negative regulator of autophagy as CF macrophages exhibit decreased autophagy protein expression and increased cluster expression when compared to wild-type (WT) counterparts. The absence or reduced expression of the cluster increases autophagy protein expression, suggesting the canonical inverse relationship between Mirc1/Mir17-92 and autophagy gene expression. An in silico study for targets of Mirs that comprise the cluster suggested that the majority of the Mirs target autophagy mRNAs. Those targets were validated by luciferase assays. Notably, the ability of macrophages expressing mutant F508del CFTR to transport halide through their membranes is compromised and can be restored by downregulation of these inherently elevated Mirs, via restoration of autophagy. In vivo, downregulation of Mir17 and Mir20a partially restored autophagy expression and hence improved the clearance of Burkholderia cenocepacia. Thus, these data advance our understanding of mechanisms underlying the pathobiology of CF and provide a new therapeutic platform for restoring CFTR function

  13. Compounds that correct F508del-CFTR trafficking can also correct other protein trafficking diseases: an in vitro study using cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Heidi M; Lam, Hung; Chen, Pei-Chun; Zhang, Donglei; Mottillo, Cristina; Mirza, Myriam; Qasim, Karim; Shrier, Alvin; Shyng, Show-Ling; Hanrahan, John W; Thomas, David Y

    2013-01-14

    Many genetic diseases are due to defects in protein trafficking where the mutant protein is recognized by the quality control systems, retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and degraded by the proteasome. In many cases, the mutant protein retains function if it can be trafficked to its proper cellular location. We have identified structurally diverse correctors that restore the trafficking and function of the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis, F508del-CFTR. Most of these correctors do not act directly as ligands of CFTR, but indirectly on other pathways to promote folding and correction. We hypothesize that these proteostasis regulators may also correct other protein trafficking diseases. To test our hypothesis, we used stable cell lines or transient transfection to express 2 well-studied trafficking disease mutations in each of 3 different proteins: the arginine-vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2, also known as V2R), the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (KCNH2, also known as hERG), and finally the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (ABCC8, also known as SUR1). We treated cells expressing these mutant proteins with 9 structurally diverse F508del-CFTR correctors that function through different cellular mechanisms and assessed whether correction occurred via immunoblotting and functional assays. Results were deemed significantly different from controls by a one-way ANOVA (p < 0.05). Here we show that F508del-CFTR correctors RDR1, KM60 and KM57 also correct some mutant alleles of other protein trafficking diseases. We also show that one corrector, the cardiac glycoside ouabain, was found to alter the glycosylation of all mutant alleles tested. Correctors of F508del-CFTR trafficking might have broader applications to other protein trafficking diseases.

  14. Molecular biology of major components of chloride cells.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Shigehisa; Kaneko, Toyoji; Naito, Nobuko; Takei, Yoshio

    2003-12-01

    Current understanding of chloride cells (CCs) is briefly reviewed with emphasis on molecular aspects of their channels, transporters and regulators. Seawater-type and freshwater-type CCs have been identified based on their shape, location and response to different ionic conditions. Among the freshwater-type CCs, subpopulations are emerging that are implicated in the uptake of Na(+), Cl(-) and Ca(2+), respectively, and can be distinguished by their shape of apical crypt and affinity for lectins. The major function of the seawater CC is transcellular secretion of Cl(-), which is accomplished by four major channels and transporters: (1). CFTR Cl(-) channel, (2). Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, (3). Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter and (4). a K(+) channel. The first three components have been cloned and characterized, but concerning the K(+) channel that is essential for the continued generation of the driving force by Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, only one candidate is identified. Although controversial, freshwater CCs seem to perform the uptake of Na(+), Cl(-) and Ca(2+) in a manner analogous to but slightly different from that seen in the absorptive epithelia of mammalian kidney and intestine since freshwater CCs face larger concentration gradients than ordinary epithelial cells. The components involved in these processes are beginning to be cloned, but their CC localization remains to be established definitively. The most important yet controversial issue is the mechanism of Na(+) uptake. Two models have been postulated: (i). the original one involves amiloride-sensitive electroneutral Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) with the driving force generated by Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA) and (ii). the current model suggests that Na(+) uptake occurs through an amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) electrogenically coupled to H(+)-ATPase. While fish ENaC remains to be identified by molecular cloning and database mining, fish NHE has been cloned and shown to be highly

  15. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is an extracellular chloride sensor.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Steven D; Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Bear, Christine E; Argent, Barry E; Linsdell, Paul; Gray, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a Cl(-) channel that governs the quantity and composition of epithelial secretions. CFTR function is normally tightly controlled as dysregulation can lead to life-threatening diseases such as secretory diarrhoea and cystic fibrosis. CFTR activity is regulated by phosphorylation of its cytosolic regulatory (R) domain, and ATP binding and hydrolysis at two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Here, we report that CFTR activity is also controlled by extracellular Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]o). Patch clamp current recordings show that a rise in [Cl(-)]o stimulates CFTR channel activity, an effect conferred by a single arginine residue, R899, in extracellular loop 4 of the protein. Using NBD mutants and ATP dose response studies in WT channels, we determined that [Cl(-)]o sensing was linked to changes in ATP binding energy at NBD1, which likely impacts NBD dimer stability. Biochemical measurements showed that increasing [Cl(-)]o decreased the intrinsic ATPase activity of CFTR mainly through a reduction in maximal ATP turnover. Our studies indicate that sensing [Cl(-)]o is a novel mechanism for regulating CFTR activity and suggest that the luminal ionic environment is an important physiological arbiter of CFTR function, which has significant implications for salt and fluid homeostasis in epithelial tissues.

  16. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  17. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  18. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid