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Sample records for a-derived peptide inhibits

  1. [Chromogranin A derived peptide CGA47-66 inhibits hyper-permeability of blood brain barrier in mice with sepsis].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Dan; Jiang, Liping; Wei, Fu; Xu, Shan

    2016-02-01

    content: (78.15±0.73)% vs. (79.77±0.62)%, EB (μg/g): 7.09±2.59 vs. 13.87±4.50, both P < 0.05]. It was shown by EB fluorescence observation that the fluorescence signal displayed only in the meninges in NS group, and EB fluorescence was widely distributed in brain parenchyma in LPS group, indicating that the EB leakage in LPS group was more marked than that of NS group. In CHR pretreatment groups, EB fluorescence was decreased in brain parenchyma, indicating that EB leakage was significantly less marked, while it was more obvious in high dose CHR group. It was shown by HE staining that cerebral blood vessel structure was intact in NS group, and the gap around blood vessel was not significant increased. On the other hand, brain structure in LPS group appeared loose, with widening of small perivascular spaces and obvious edema. Brain edema in CHR pretreatment groups was improved as compared with that of the LPS group, and it was more apparent in high dose CHR group. LPS induced change in blood brain barrier permeability in mice in a time-dependent manner. Exogenous CGA derived peptides CHR can inhibit LPS induced hyper-permeability of blood brain barrier in septic mice, thus reduces brain edema, protects the brain tissue, and the effect is more obvious with a high dose of CHR (77.5 μg/kg).

  2. Peptide bioregulators inhibit apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V K; Kvetnoii, I M

    2000-12-01

    The effects of peptide bioregulators epithalon and vilon on the dynamics of irradiation-induced apoptotic death of spleen lymphocytes in rats indicate that these agents inhibit physiologically programmed cell death. The antiapoptotic effect of vilon was more pronounced, which corroborates the concept on tissue-specific effect of peptide bioregulators.

  3. Inhibition of HIV infection by caerin 1 antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    VanCompernolle, Scott; Smith, Patricia B; Bowie, John H; Tyler, Michael J; Unutmaz, Derya; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2015-09-01

    The major mode of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is by sexual intercourse. In the effort to halt the spread of HIV, one measure that holds great promise is the development of effective microbicides that can prevent transmission. Previously we showed that several amphibian antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) completely inhibit HIV infection of T cells while maintaining good viability of the T cell targets. These peptides also inhibited the transfer of HIV by dendritic cells (DCs) to T cells when added up to 8h after virus exposure. Here we report on the anti-HIV activity of 18 additional structurally related caerin 1 family peptides in comparison with our previous best candidate caerin 1.9. Nine peptides were equally effective or more effective in the inhibition of T cell infection and disruption of the HIV envelope as caerin 1.9. Of those nine peptides, three peptides (caerin 1.2, caerin 1.10, and caerin 1.20) exhibited excellent inhibition of HIV infectivity at low concentrations (12-25μM) and limited toxicity against target T cells and endocervical epithelial cells. There was a direct correlation between the effectiveness of the peptides in disruption of the viral envelope and their capacity to inhibit infection. Thus, several additional caerin 1 family peptides inhibit HIV infection have limited toxicity for vaginal epithelial cells, and would be good candidates for inclusion in microbicide formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydroxyapatite Growth Inhibition Effect of Pellicle Statherin Peptides.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; Karttunen, M; Jalkanen, J; Mussi, M C M; Liao, Y; Grohe, B; Lagugné-Labarthet, F; Siqueira, W L

    2015-08-01

    In our recent studies, we have shown that in vivo-acquired enamel pellicle is a sophisticated biological structure containing a significant portion of naturally occurring salivary peptides. From a functional aspect, the identification of peptides in the acquired enamel pellicle is of interest because many salivary proteins exhibit functional domains that maintain the activities of the native protein. Among the in vivo-acquired enamel pellicle peptides that have been newly identified, 5 peptides are derived from statherin. Here, we assessed the ability of these statherin pellicle peptides to inhibit hydroxyapatite crystal growth. In addition, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms of hydroxyapatite growth inhibition. A microplate colorimetric assay was used to quantify hydroxyapatite growth. Statherin protein, 5 statherin-derived peptides, and a peptide lacking phosphate at residues 2 and 3 were analyzed. Statherin peptide phosphorylated on residues 2 and 3 indicated a significant inhibitory effect when compared with the 5 other peptides (P < 0.05). MD simulations showed a strong affinity and fast adsorption to hydroxyapatite for phosphopeptides, whereas unphosphorylated peptides interacted weakly with the hydroxyapatite. Our data suggest that the presence of a covalently linked phosphate group (at residues 2 and 3) in statherin peptides modulates the effect of hydroxyapatite growth inhibition. This study provides a mechanism to account for the composition and function of acquired enamel pellicle statherin peptides that will contribute as a base for the development of biologically stable and functional synthetic peptides for therapeutic use against dental caries and/or periodontal disease. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  5. Novel Antimicrobial Peptides That Inhibit Gram Positive Bacterial Exotoxin Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Merriman, Joseph A.; Nemeth, Kimberly A.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, cause serious human illnesses through combinations of surface virulence factors and secretion of exotoxins. Our prior studies using the protein synthesis inhibitor clindamycin and signal transduction inhibitors glycerol monolaurate and α-globin and β-globin chains of hemoglobin indicate that their abilities to inhibit exotoxin production by S. aureus are separable from abilities to inhibit growth of the organism. Additionally, our previous studies suggest that inhibition of exotoxin production, in absence of ability to kill S. aureus and normal flora lactobacilli, will prevent colonization by pathogenic S. aureus, while not interfering with lactobacilli colonization. These disparate activities may be important in development of novel anti-infective agents that do not alter normal flora. We initiated studies to explore the exotoxin-synthesis-inhibition activity of hemoglobin peptides further to develop potential agents to prevent S. aureus infections. We tested synthesized α-globin chain peptides, synthetic variants of α-globin chain peptides, and two human defensins for ability to inhibit exotoxin production without significantly inhibiting S. aureus growth. All of these peptides were weakly or not inhibitory to bacterial growth. However, the peptides were inhibitory to exotoxin production with increasing activity dependent on increasing numbers of positively-charged amino acids. Additionally, the peptides could be immobilized on agarose beads or have amino acid sequences scrambled and still retain exotoxin-synthesis-inhibition. The peptides are not toxic to human vaginal epithelial cells and do not inhibit growth of normal flora L. crispatus. These peptides may interfere with plasma membrane signal transduction in S. aureus due to their positive charges. PMID:24748386

  6. HIPdb: a database of experimentally validated HIV inhibiting peptides.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Abid; Thakur, Nishant; Kumar, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    Besides antiretroviral drugs, peptides have also demonstrated potential to inhibit the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For example, T20 has been discovered to effectively block the HIV entry and was approved by the FDA as a novel anti-HIV peptide (AHP). We have collated all experimental information on AHPs at a single platform. HIPdb is a manually curated database of experimentally verified HIV inhibiting peptides targeting various steps or proteins involved in the life cycle of HIV e.g. fusion, integration, reverse transcription etc. This database provides experimental information of 981 peptides. These are of varying length obtained from natural as well as synthetic sources and tested on different cell lines. Important fields included are peptide sequence, length, source, target, cell line, inhibition/IC(50), assay and reference. The database provides user friendly browse, search, sort and filter options. It also contains useful services like BLAST and 'Map' for alignment with user provided sequences. In addition, predicted structure and physicochemical properties of the peptides are also included. HIPdb database is freely available at http://crdd.osdd.net/servers/hipdb. Comprehensive information of this database will be helpful in selecting/designing effective anti-HIV peptides. Thus it may prove a useful resource to researchers for peptide based therapeutics development.

  7. Dual effect of chloramphenicol peptides on ribosome inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bougas, Anthony; Vlachogiannis, Ioannis A; Gatos, Dimitrios; Arenz, Stefan; Dinos, George P

    2017-05-01

    Chloramphenicol peptides were recently established as useful tools for probing nascent polypeptide chain interaction with the ribosome, either biochemically, or structurally. Here, we present a new 10mer chloramphenicol peptide, which exerts a dual inhibition effect on the ribosome function affecting two distinct areas of the ribosome, namely the peptidyl transferase center and the polypeptide exit tunnel. According to our data, the chloramphenicol peptide bound on the chloramphenicol binding site inhibits the formation of both acetyl-phenylalanine-puromycin and acetyl-lysine-puromycin, showing, however, a decreased peptidyl transferase inhibition compared to chloramphenicol-mediated inhibition per se. Additionally, we found that the same compound is a strong inhibitor of green fluorescent protein synthesis in a coupled in vitro transcription-translation assay as well as a potent inhibitor of lysine polymerization in a poly(A)-programmed ribosome, showing that an additional inhibitory effect may exist. Since chemical protection data supported the interaction of the antibiotic with bases A2058 and A2059 near the entrance of the tunnel, we concluded that the extra inhibition effect on the synthesis of longer peptides is coming from interactions of the peptide moiety of the drug with residues comprising the ribosomal tunnel, and by filling up the tunnel and blocking nascent chain progression through the restricted tunnel. Therefore, the dual interaction of the chloramphenicol peptide with the ribosome increases its inhibitory effect and opens a new window for improving the antimicrobial potency of classical antibiotics or designing new ones.

  8. A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Jeffrey W.; Smith, Jeffrey M.; Ripoll, Daniel R.; Spik, Kristin W.; Taylor, Shannon L.; Badger, Catherine V.; Grant, Rebecca J.; Ogg, Monica M.; Wallqvist, Anders; Guttieri, Mary C.; Garry, Robert F.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2013-01-01

    For enveloped viruses, fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane is critical for a productive infection to occur. This fusion process is mediated by at least three classes of fusion proteins (Class I, II, and III) based on the protein sequence and structure. For Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), the glycoprotein Gc (Class II fusion protein) mediates this fusion event following entry into the endocytic pathway, allowing the viral genome access to the cell cytoplasm. Here, we show that peptides analogous to the RVFV Gc stem region inhibited RVFV infectivity in cell culture by inhibiting the fusion process. Further, we show that infectivity can be inhibited for diverse, unrelated RNA viruses that have Class I (Ebola virus), Class II (Andes virus), or Class III (vesicular stomatitis virus) fusion proteins using this single peptide. Our findings are consistent with an inhibition mechanism similar to that proposed for stem peptide fusion inhibitors of dengue virus in which the RVFV inhibitory peptide first binds to both the virion and cell membranes, allowing it to traffic with the virus into the endocytic pathway. Upon acidification and rearrangement of Gc, the peptide is then able to specifically bind to Gc and prevent fusion of the viral and endocytic membranes, thus inhibiting viral infection. These results could provide novel insights into conserved features among the three classes of viral fusion proteins and offer direction for the future development of broadly active fusion inhibitors. PMID:24069485

  9. A Novel Factor Xa-Inhibiting Peptide from Centipedes Venom.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yi; Shao, Yu; Chen, Hao; Ming, Xin; Wang, Jin-Bin; Li, Zhi-Yu; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Centipedes have been used as traditional medicine for thousands of years in China. Centipede venoms consist of many biochemical peptides and proteins. Factor Xa (FXa) is a serine endopeptidase that plays the key role in blood coagulation, and has been used as a new target for anti-thrombotic drug development. A novel FXa inhibitor, a natural peptide with the sequence of Thr-Asn-Gly-Tyr-Thr (TNGYT), was isolated from the venom of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans using a combination of size-exclusion and reverse-phase chromatography. The molecular weight of the TNGYT peptide was 554.3 Da measured by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The amino acid sequence of TNGYT was determined by Edman degradation. TNGYT inhibited the activity of FXa in a dose-dependent manner with an IC 50 value of 41.14 mg/ml. It prolonged the partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time in both in vitro and ex vivo assays. It also significantly prolonged whole blood clotting time and bleeding time in mice. This is the first report that an FXa inhibiting peptide was isolated from centipedes venom.

  10. An antimicrobial helix A-derived peptide of heparin cofactor II blocks endotoxin responses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Singh, Shalini; Mörgelin, Matthias; Schmidtchen, Artur; Malmsten, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Host defense peptides are key components of the innate immune system, providing multi-facetted responses to invading pathogens. Here, we describe that the peptide GKS26 (GKSRIQRLNILNAKFAFNLYRVLKDQ), corresponding to the A domain of heparin cofactor II (HCII), ameliorates experimental septic shock. The peptide displays antimicrobial effects through direct membrane disruption, also at physiological salt concentration and in the presence of plasma and serum. Biophysical investigations of model lipid membranes showed the antimicrobial action of GKS26 to be mirrored by peptide incorporation into, and disordering of, bacterial lipid membranes. GKS26 furthermore binds extensively to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as its endotoxic lipid A moiety, and displays potent anti-inflammatory effects, both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, for mice challenged with ip injection of LPS, GKS26 suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduces vascular leakage and infiltration in lung tissue, and normalizes coagulation. Together, these findings suggest that GKS26 may be of interest for further investigations as therapeutic against severe infections and septic shock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural Basis of Rap Phosphatase Inhibition by Phr Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Gallego del Sol, Francisca; Marina, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Two-component systems, composed of a sensor histidine kinase and an effector response regulator (RR), are the main signal transduction devices in bacteria. In Bacillus, the Rap protein family modulates complex signaling processes mediated by two-component systems, such as competence, sporulation, or biofilm formation, by inhibiting the RR components involved in these pathways. Despite the high degree of sequence homology, Rap proteins exert their activity by two completely different mechanisms of action: inducing RR dephosphorylation or blocking RR binding to its target promoter. However the regulatory mechanism involving Rap proteins is even more complex since Rap activity is antagonized by specific signaling peptides (Phr) through a mechanism that remains unknown at the molecular level. Using X-ray analyses, we determined the structure of RapF, the anti-activator of competence RR ComA, alone and in complex with its regulatory peptide PhrF. The structural and functional data presented herein reveal that peptide PhrF blocks the RapF-ComA interaction through an allosteric mechanism. PhrF accommodates in the C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat domain of RapF by inducing its constriction, a conformational change propagated by a pronounced rotation to the N-terminal ComA-binding domain. This movement partially disrupts the ComA binding site by triggering the ComA disassociation, whose interaction with RapF is also sterically impaired in the PhrF-induced conformation of RapF. Sequence analyses of the Rap proteins, guided by the RapF-PhrF structure, unveil the molecular basis of Phr recognition and discrimination, allowing us to relax the Phr specificity of RapF by a single residue change. PMID:23526880

  12. Inhibition of cell growth by a hypothalamic peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1982-01-01

    A fraction purified from acetic acid extracts of porcine hypothalami was found to contain significant antimitogenic activity when tested in normal and neoplastic cell lines. Addition of this hypothalamic material (1-100 micrograms/ml) to culture media significantly inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into cellular DNA in several cell lines. Amino acid incorporation into pituitary proteins and uridine incorporation into RNA were also significantly reduced by this factor(s). Addition to the culture media of this hypothalamic material at 5 micrograms/ml and 50 micrograms/ml per day decreased by 17% and 36%, respectively, cell numbers of 3T6 fibroblast cell cultures. Time-response curves showed that the inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in 3T6 fibroblast cells begins within 2 hr after adding this fraction to the culture medium. The inhibitory action cannot be explained by a direct cytotoxic effect since 3T6 cells labeled with 51Cr and incubated for 6 hr in the presence of this hypothalamic fraction fail to show an increase in the release of 51Cr into the medium as compared with controls. Incubation with trypsin and chymotrypsin completely abolished the antimitogenic activity of this material and pepsin decreased it. This strongly suggests that the antimitogenic activity exhibited by this fraction is due to a polypeptide(s). These observations provide evidence for the presence in the mammalian hypothalamus of an antimitogenic peptide(s) that may be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:6757925

  13. N-octanoylated ghrelin peptide inhibits bovine oocyte meiotic resumption.

    PubMed

    Xu, X L; Bai, J H; Feng, T; Xiao, L L; Song, Y Q; Xiao, Y X; Liu, Y

    2018-07-01

    Studies have shown that ghrelin plays an important role in the mammalian reproductive system, including the central, gonadal levels, and also during in vitro maturation of oocytes; however, the functions of ghrelin in bovine oocyte meiosis require further investigation. We aimed to evaluate the effects of an n-octanoylated ghrelin peptide on oocyte meiotic resumption and the developmental competence of mature oocytes in vitro. design: The expression of GHRL (encoding ghrelin) mRNA and its receptor (the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHSR) in the cumulus-oocyte complex (COCs), denuded oocytes (DOs), and cumulus cells (CCs) was assessed using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), and the effects of the n-octanoylated ghrelin peptide on meiotic resumption were studied at four different doses (0, 10, 50, and 100 ng/mL) in a 6 h culture system. qRT-PCR analysis showed that GHRL and GHSR mRNAs were expressed in all tested samples; however, GHRL was predominantly expressed in DOs, and GHSR was predominantly expressed in CCs. Germinal vesicle breakdown was inhibited significantly by 50 ng/mL ghrelin compared with that in the negative control (P < 0.05). Further studies showed that n-octanoylated ghrelin increased the levels of cAMP and cGMP in the CCs and DOs, which inhibited the meiotic resumption of bovine oocytes. And the inhibitory role in the developmental competence of mature oocytes were also included, ghrelin could significantly improve the cleavage rate (P < 0.05) and blastocyst rate (P < 0.05). N-octanoylated ghrelin maintained bovine oocytes meiotic arrest and further improved their developmental competence; therefore, n-octanoylated ghrelin could be considered as a potential pharmaceutical inhibitor of meiosis for the in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-RSV Peptide-Loaded Liposomes for the Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sameer; Chaudhari, Atul A; Dennis, Vida; Kirby, Daniel J; Perrie, Yvonne; Singh, Shree Ram

    2018-05-09

    Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infection in infants and adults, effective treatment options remain limited. To circumvent this issue, there is a novel approach, namely, the development of multifunctional liposomes for the delivery of anti RSV-peptides. While most of the peptides that are used for loading with the particulate delivery systems are the penetrating peptides, an alternative approach is the development of liposome-peptide systems, which are loaded with an RSV fusion peptide (RF-482), which has been designed to inhibit the RSV fusion and block infection. The results of this work have revealed that the liposomes themselves can serve as potential RSV inhibitors, whilst the anti-RSV-peptide with liposomes can significantly increase the RSV inhibition when compared with the anti-RSV peptide alone.

  15. Utilisation of the isobole methodology to study dietary peptide-drug and peptide-peptide interactive effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition.

    PubMed

    Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) is used as a means to regulate post-prandial serum glucose in type 2 diabetics. The effect of drug (Sitagliptin®)/peptide and binary peptide mixtures on DPP-IV inhibition was studied using an isobole approach. Five peptides (Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr, Trp-Lys, Trp-Pro, Trp-Arg and Trp-Leu), having DPP-IV half maximum inhibitory concentration values (IC₅₀)<60 μM and reported to act through different inhibition mechanisms, were investigated. The dose response relationship of Sitagliptin : peptide (1:0, 0:1, 1:852, 1:426 and 1:1704 on a molar basis) and binary Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr : peptide (1:0, 0:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 on a molar basis) mixtures for DPP-IV inhibition was characterised. Isobolographic analysis showed, in most instances, an additive effect on DPP-IV inhibition. However, a synergistic effect was observed with two Sitagliptin:Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr (1:426 and 1:852) mixtures and an antagonistic effect was seen with one Sitagliptin : Trp-Pro (1:852) mixture, and three binary peptide mixtures (Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr : Trp-Lys (1:1 and 2:1) and Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr:Trp-Leu (1:2)). The results show that Sitagliptin and food protein-derived peptides can interact, thereby enhancing overall DPP-IV inhibition. Combination of Sitagliptin with food protein-derived peptides may help in reducing drug dosage and possible associated side-effects.

  16. Endosomolytic Nano-Polyplex Platform Technology for Cytosolic Peptide Delivery To Inhibit Pathological Vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Evans, Brian C; Hocking, Kyle M; Kilchrist, Kameron V; Wise, Eric S; Brophy, Colleen M; Duvall, Craig L

    2015-06-23

    A platform technology has been developed and tested for delivery of intracellular-acting peptides through electrostatically complexed nanoparticles, or nano-polyplexes, formulated from an anionic endosomolytic polymer and cationic therapeutic peptides. This delivery platform has been initially tested and optimized for delivery of two unique vasoactive peptides, a phosphomimetic of heat shock protein 20 and an inhibitor of MAPKAP kinase II, to prevent pathological vasoconstriction (i.e., vasospasm) in human vascular tissue. These peptides inhibit vasoconstriction and promote vasorelaxation by modulating actin dynamics in vascular smooth muscle cells. Formulating these peptides into nano-polyplexes significantly enhances peptide uptake and retention, facilitates cytosolic delivery through a pH-dependent endosomal escape mechanism, and enhances peptide bioactivity in vitro as measured by inhibition of F-actin stress fiber formation. In comparison to treatment with the free peptides, which were endowed with cell-penetrating sequences, the nano-polyplexes significantly increased vasorelaxation, inhibited vasoconstriction, and decreased F-actin formation in the human saphenous vein ex vivo. These results suggest that these formulations have significant potential for treatment of conditions such as cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Furthermore, because many therapeutic peptides include cationic cell-penetrating segments, this simple and modular platform technology may have broad applicability as a cost-effective approach for enhancing the efficacy of cytosolically active peptides.

  17. Purification and characterization of angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition peptides from sandworm Sipunculus nudus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xueping; Wang, Man; Liu, Buming; Sun, Zhenliang

    2017-10-01

    Three angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition peptides were isolated from sandworm Sipunculus nudus protein hydrolysate prepared using protamex. Consecutive purification methods, including size exclusion chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), were used to isolate the ACE inhibition peptides. The amino acid sequences of the peptides were identified as Ile-Asn-Asp, Val-Glu-Pro-Gly and Leu-Ala-Asp-Glu-Phe. The IC50 values of the purified peptides for ACE inhibition activity were 34.72 μmol L-1, 20.55 μmol L-1 and 22.77 μmol L-1, respectively. These results suggested that S. nudus proteins contain specific peptides that can be released by enzymatic hydrolysis. This study may provide an experimental basis for further systematic research, rational development and clinical utilization of sandworm resources.

  18. Identification of the minimum peptide from mouse myostatin prodomain for human myostatin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kentaro; Noguchi, Yuri; Aoki, Shin; Takayama, Shota; Yoshida, Momoko; Asari, Tomo; Yakushiji, Fumika; Nishimatsu, Shin-ichiro; Ohsawa, Yutaka; Itoh, Fumiko; Negishi, Yoichi; Sunada, Yoshihide; Hayashi, Yoshio

    2015-02-12

    Myostatin, an endogenous negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, is a therapeutic target for muscle atrophic disorders. Here, we identified minimum peptides 2 and 7 to effectively inhibit myostatin activity, which consist of 24 and 23 amino acids, respectively, derived from mouse myostatin prodomain. These peptides, which had the propensity to form α-helix structure, interacted to myostatin with KD values of 30-36 nM. Moreover, peptide 2 significantly increased muscle mass in Duchenne muscular dystrophy model mice.

  19. Inhibition of multidrug resistant Listeria monocytogenes by peptides isolated from combinatorial phage display libraries.

    PubMed

    Flachbartova, Z; Pulzova, L; Bencurova, E; Potocnakova, L; Comor, L; Bednarikova, Z; Bhide, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize novel antimicrobial peptides from peptide phage library with antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant Listeria monocytogenes. Combinatorial phage-display library was used to affinity select peptides binding to the cell surface of multidrug resistant L. monocytogenes. After several rounds of affinity selection followed by sequencing, three peptides were revealed as the most promising candidates. Peptide L2 exhibited features common to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), and was rich in Asp, His and Lys residues. Peptide L3 (NSWIQAPDTKSI), like peptide L2, inhibited bacterial growth in vitro, without any hemolytic or cytotoxic effects on eukaryotic cells. L1 peptide showed no inhibitory effect on Listeria. Structurally, peptides L2 and L3 formed random coils composed of α-helix and β-sheet units. Peptides L2 and L3 exhibited antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant isolates of L. monocytogenes with no haemolytic or toxic effects. Both peptides identified in this study have the potential to be beneficial in human and veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydroxyapatite-binding peptides for bone growth and inhibition

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R [Berkeley, CA; Song, Jie [Shrewsbury, MA; Lee, Seung-Wuk [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-09-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptides are selected using combinatorial phage library display. Pseudo-repetitive consensus amino acid sequences possessing periodic hydroxyl side chains in every two or three amino acid sequences are obtained. These sequences resemble the (Gly-Pro-Hyp).sub.x repeat of human type I collagen, a major component of extracellular matrices of natural bone. A consistent presence of basic amino acid residues is also observed. The peptides are synthesized by the solid-phase synthetic method and then used for template-driven HA-mineralization. Microscopy reveal that the peptides template the growth of polycrystalline HA crystals .about.40 nm in size.

  1. Cadherin juxtamembrane region derived peptides inhibit TGFβ1 induced gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Stavropoulos, Ilias; Golla, Kalyan; Moran, Niamh; Martin, Finian; Shields, Denis C

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive peptides in the juxtamembrane regions of proteins are involved in many signaling events. The juxtamembrane regions of cadherins were examined for the identification of bioactive regions. Several peptides spanning the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane regions of E- and N-cadherin were synthesized and assessed for the ability to influence TGFβ responses in epithelial cells at the gene expression and protein levels. Peptides from regions closer to the membrane appeared more potent inhibitors of TGFβ signaling, blocking Smad3 phosphorylation. Thus inhibiting nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad complexes and subsequent transcriptional activation of TGFβ signal propagating genes. The peptides demonstrated a peptide-specific potential to inhibit other TGFβ superfamily members, such as BMP4. PMID:25108297

  2. Inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro by Arg-Gly-Asp-containing synthetic peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Nicosia, R. F.; Bonanno, E.

    1991-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the synthetic peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) on angiogenesis in serum-free collagen gel culture of rat aorta. The GRGDS peptide contains the amino acid sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), which has been implicated as a recognition site in interactions between extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and cell membrane receptors. RGD-containing synthetic peptides are known to inhibit attachment of endothelial cells to substrates, but their effect on angiogenesis has not been fully characterized. Aortic explants embedded in collagen gel in the absence of GRGDS generated branching microvessels through a process of endothelial migration and proliferation. Addition of GRGDS to the culture medium caused a marked inhibition of angiogenesis. In contrast, GRGES, a control peptide lacking the RGD sequence, failed to inhibit angiogenesis. The inhibitory effect of GRGDS was nontoxic and reversible. The angiogenic activity of aortic explants previously inhibited with GRGDS could be restored by incubating the cultures in GRGDS-free medium. These findings suggest that angiogenesis is an anchorage-dependent process that can be inhibited by interfering with the attachment of endothelial cells to the ECM. It also indicates that synthetic peptides can be used as probes to study the mechanisms by which the ECM regulates angiogenesis. Images Figure 1 PMID:1707235

  3. In vitro inhibition of feline leukaemia virus infection by synthetic peptides derived from the transmembrane domain.

    PubMed

    Boenzli, Eva; Robert-Tissot, Céline; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Cattori, Valentino; Meli, Marina Luisa; Gutte, Bernd; Rovero, Paolo; Flynn, Norman; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) is a gammaretrovirus commonly affecting cats. Infection with this virus often leads to fatal outcomes and, so far, no cure is available for this disease. Synthetic peptides with structures mimicking the transmembrane protein of the viral surface proteins hold the potential to effectively interfere with viral entry by hampering the fusion of viral and host cell membranes and constitute a novel approach for the treatment of infections with retroviruses. We identified and synthetically produced 11 FeLV peptides and evaluated their potential to block FeLV infection in vitro. Cell cultures were exposed to FeLV subgroup A prior to the addition of the peptides. The inhibitory effect of the peptides was assessed by measuring FeLV gag protein in the supernatant of peptide versus mock-treated cell cultures using an ELISA. A peptide (EPK364) of 37 amino acids in length, with sequence homology to the HIV fusion inhibitor T-20, significantly suppressed viral replication by 88%, whereas no effects were found for shorter peptides. Two structurally modified variants of EPK364 also inhibited viral replication by up to 58% (EPK397) and 27% (EPK398). Our data support the identification of synthetic FeLV peptides that have the potential for a curative short-term therapy of viraemic cats. In addition, these peptides might become an important tool in xenotransplantation, where endogenous gammaretroviruses of the donor species might be able to infect the host. © 2011 International Medical Press

  4. A derivative of oleamide potently inhibits the spontaneous metastasis of mouse melanoma BL6 cells.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akihiko; Morita, Nobuyoshi; Miura, Daisaku; Koma, Yu-Ichiro; Kataoka, Tatsuki R; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Yukihiko; Kita, Yasuyuki; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    We reported previously that the abnormally augmented expression of connexin 26 (Cx26) is responsible for the enhanced spontaneous metastasis of mouse BL6 melanoma cells, and that the exogenous expression of a dominant negative form of Cx26 inhibits the spontaneous metastasis of BL6. Here we show that daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of oleamide, a sleep-inducing lipid hormone, weakly inhibited the spontaneous metastasis of BL6 cells. To obtain a more effective reagent, 19 oleamide derivatives were chemically synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit the gap junction-mediated intercellular communications (GJIC) that are formed between HeLa cells by the ectopic expression of Cx26 or Cx43. One of these, denoted metastasis inhibitor-18 (MI-18), inhibited the GJIC formed by Cx26 as well as oleamide but unlike oleamide, which is a non-selective inhibitor of connexin, it did not inhibit the GJIC formed by Cx43. Daily i.p. injections of MI-18 potently blocked the spontaneous metastasis of BL6 cells down to 15% of that in the untreated control mice. MI-18 was safe because even after >7 weeks of daily injections, the survival rate of the mice was 93%. We propose that MI-18 may serve as a novel and clinically important prototype of a potent inhibitor of spontaneous metastasis.

  5. A novel peptide from TCTA protein inhibits proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes of rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Yago, Toru; Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi; Kawamoto, Manabu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Kotake, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Background We have demonstrated that a peptide, which we named ‘Peptide A’, derived from the extracellular domain of T-cell leukemia translocation-associated gene (TCTA) protein, inhibited human osteoclastogenesis. Objective In the current study, we examined whether this peptide inhibits the proliferation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) or not. Material and methods Fibroblast-like synoviocytes obtained from five RA patients were cultured in the absence or presence of 1, 5, 10 µg/ml of peptide. We used 29-mer scrambled peptide as a control. Results The peptide inhibited the proliferation of RA FLS dose-dependently. On the other hand, the scrambled peptide showed no inhibition. Conclusions The peptide inhibits both human osteoclastogenesis and the proliferation of RA FLS. Thus, the peptide may be used for the therapy of both osteoporosis and synovitis of RA patients. This is the first report of the new peptide we discovered, which inhibits both osteoclastogenesis and synovitis. Thus, this new peptide could be a new drug for patients with both osteoporosis and RA. PMID:26155164

  6. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Inhibits Human Small-Cell Lung Cancer Proliferation in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruno, Kaname; Absood, Afaf; Said, Sami I.

    1998-11-01

    Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is an aggressive, rapidly growing and metastasizing, and highly fatal neoplasm. We report that vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibits the proliferation of SCLC cells in culture and dramatically suppresses the growth of SCLC tumor-cell implants in athymic nude mice. In both cases, the inhibition was mediated apparently by a cAMP-dependent mechanism, because the inhibition was enhanced by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine in proportion to increases in intracellular cAMP levels, and the inhibition was abolished by selective inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. If confirmed in clinical trials, this antiproliferative action of vasoactive intestinal peptide may offer a new and promising means of suppressing SCLC in human subjects, without the toxic side effects of chemotherapeutic agents.

  7. Conformationally constrained peptides target the allosteric kinase dimer interface and inhibit EGFR activation.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Melody D; Hanold, Laura E; Ruan, Zheng; Patel, Sneha; Beedle, Aaron M; Kannan, Natarajan; Kennedy, Eileen J

    2018-03-15

    Although EGFR is a highly sought-after drug target, inhibitor resistance remains a challenge. As an alternative strategy for kinase inhibition, we sought to explore whether allosteric activation mechanisms could effectively be disrupted. The kinase domain of EGFR forms an atypical asymmetric dimer via head-to-tail interactions and serves as a requisite for kinase activation. The kinase dimer interface is primarily formed by the H-helix derived from one kinase monomer and the small lobe of the second monomer. We hypothesized that a peptide designed to resemble the binding surface of the H-helix may serve as an effective disruptor of EGFR dimerization and activation. A library of constrained peptides was designed to mimic the H-helix of the kinase domain and interface side chains were optimized using molecular modeling. Peptides were constrained using peptide "stapling" to structurally reinforce an alpha-helical conformation. Peptide stapling was demonstrated to notably enhance cell permeation of an H-helix derived peptide termed EHBI2. Using cell-based assays, EHBI2 was further shown to significantly reduce EGFR activity as measured by EGFR phosphorylation and phosphorylation of the downstream signaling substrate Akt. To our knowledge, this is the first H-helix-based compound targeting the asymmetric interface of the kinase domain that can successfully inhibit EGFR activation and signaling. This study presents a novel, alternative targeting site for allosteric inhibition of EGFR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis surface protein Rv0227c contains high activity binding peptides which inhibit cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Diana Marcela; Ocampo, Marisol; Curtidor, Hernando; Vanegas, Magnolia; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2012-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis surface proteins involved in target cell invasion may be identified as a strategy for developing subunit-based, chemically-synthesized vaccines. The Rv0227c protein was thus selected to assess its role in the invasion and infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis target cells. Results revealed Rv0227c localization on mycobacterial surface by immunoelectron microscopy and Western blot. Receptor-ligand assays using 20-mer, non-overlapping peptides covering the complete Rv0227c protein sequence revealed three high activity binding peptides for U937 phagocytic cells and seven for A549 cells. Peptide 16944 significantly inhibited mycobacterial entry to both cell lines while 16943 and 16949 only managed to inhibit entrance to U937 cells and 16951 to A549 cells. The Jnet bioinformatics tool predicted secondary structure elements for the complete protein, agreeing with elements determined for such chemically-synthesized peptides. It was thus concluded that high activity binding peptides which were able to inhibit mycobacterial entry to target cells are of great importance when selecting peptide candidates for inclusion in an anti-tuberculosis vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dehydroalanine-based inhibition of a peptide epimerase from spider venom.

    PubMed

    Murkin, Andrew S; Tanner, Martin E

    2002-11-29

    Ribosomally produced peptides that contain D-amino acids have been isolated from a number of vertebrate and invertebrate sources. In each case, the D-amino acids are introduced by a posttranslational modification of a parent peptide containing only amino acids of the L-configuration. The only known enzyme to catalyze such a reaction is the peptide epimerase (also known as peptide isomerase) from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. This enzyme interconverts two 48-amino-acid-long peptide toxins that differ only by the stereochemistry at a single serine residue. In this paper we report the synthesis and testing of two pentapeptide analogues that contain modified amino acids at the site normally occupied by the substrate serine residue. When the L-chloroalanine-containing peptide 3 was incubated with the epimerase it was converted into the dehydroalanine-containing peptide 4 via an elimination of HCl. The dehydroalanine peptide 4 was independently synthesized and found to act as a potent inhibitor of the epimerase (IC50 = 0.5 microM). These results support a direct deprotonation/reprotonation mechanism in which a carbanionic intermediate is formed. The observed inhibition by 4 can be attributed to the sp(2)-hybridization of the alpha-carbon in the dehydroalanine unit that mimics the planar geometry of the anionic intermediate.

  10. Inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus replication by mimic peptides in vitro

    PubMed Central

    JIA, HONGYU; LIU, CHANGHONG; YANG, YING; ZHU, HAIHONG; CHEN, FENG; LIU, JIHONG; ZHOU, LINFU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of specific mimic peptides targeting duck hepatitis B virus polymerase (DHBVP) on duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in primary duck hepatocytes. Phage display technology (PDT) was used to screen for mimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP and the associated coding sequences were determined using DNA sequencing. The selected mimic peptides were then used to treat primary duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV in vitro. Infected hepatocytes expressing the mimic peptides intracellularly were also prepared. The cells were divided into mimic peptide groups (EXP groups), an entecavir-treated group (positive control) and a negative control group. The medium was changed every 48 h. Following a 10-day incubation, the cell supernatants were collected. DHBV-DNA in the cellular nucleus, cytoplasm and culture supernatant was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eight mimic peptides were selected following three PDT screening rounds for investigation in the DHBV-infected primary duck hepatocytes. The qPCR results showed that following direct treatment with mimic peptide 2 or 7, intracellular expression of mimic peptide 2 or 7, or treatment with entecavir, the DHBV-DNA levels in the culture supernatant and cytoplasm of duck hepatocytes were significantly lower than those in the negative control (P<0.05). The cytoplasmic DHBV-DNA content of the cells treated with mimic peptide 7 was lower than that in the other groups (P<0.05). In addition, the DHBV-DNA content of the nuclear fractions following the intracellular expression of mimic peptide 7 was significantly lower than that in the other groups (P<0.05). Mimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP, administered directly or expressed intracellularly, can significantly inhibit DHBV replication in vitro. PMID:26640539

  11. Inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus replication by mimic peptides in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongyu; Liu, Changhong; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Haihong; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jihong; Zhou, Linfu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of specific mimic peptides targeting duck hepatitis B virus polymerase (DHBVP) on duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in primary duck hepatocytes. Phage display technology (PDT) was used to screen for mimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP and the associated coding sequences were determined using DNA sequencing. The selected mimic peptides were then used to treat primary duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV in vitro. Infected hepatocytes expressing the mimic peptides intracellularly were also prepared. The cells were divided into mimic peptide groups (EXP groups), an entecavir-treated group (positive control) and a negative control group. The medium was changed every 48 h. Following a 10-day incubation, the cell supernatants were collected. DHBV-DNA in the cellular nucleus, cytoplasm and culture supernatant was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eight mimic peptides were selected following three PDT screening rounds for investigation in the DHBV-infected primary duck hepatocytes. The qPCR results showed that following direct treatment with mimic peptide 2 or 7, intracellular expression of mimic peptide 2 or 7, or treatment with entecavir, the DHBV-DNA levels in the culture supernatant and cytoplasm of duck hepatocytes were significantly lower than those in the negative control (P<0.05). The cytoplasmic DHBV-DNA content of the cells treated with mimic peptide 7 was lower than that in the other groups (P<0.05). In addition, the DHBV-DNA content of the nuclear fractions following the intracellular expression of mimic peptide 7 was significantly lower than that in the other groups (P<0.05). Mimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP, administered directly or expressed intracellularly, can significantly inhibit DHBV replication in vitro .

  12. Designed Coiled-Coil Peptides Inhibit the Type Three Secretion System of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Larzábal, Mariano; Mercado, Elsa C.; Vilte, Daniel A.; Salazar-González, Hector; Cataldi, Angel; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Background Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are two categories of E. coli strains associated with human disease. A major virulence factor of both pathotypes is the expression of a type three secretion system (TTSS), responsible for their ability to adhere to gut mucosa causing a characteristic attaching and effacing lesion (A/E). The TTSS translocates effector proteins directly into the host cell that subvert mammalian cell biochemistry. Methods/Principal Findings We examined synthetic peptides designed to inhibit the TTSS. CoilA and CoilB peptides, both representing coiled-coil regions of the translocator protein EspA, and CoilD peptide, corresponding to a coiled–coil region of the needle protein EscF, were effective in inhibiting the TTSS dependent hemolysis of red blood cells by the EPEC E2348/69 strain. CoilA and CoilB peptides also reduced the formation of actin pedestals by the same strain in HEp-2 cells and impaired the TTSS-mediated protein translocation into the epithelial cell. Interestingly, CoilA and CoilB were able to block EspA assembly, destabilizing the TTSS and thereby Tir translocation. This blockage of EspA polymerization by CoilA or CoilB peptides, also inhibited the correct delivery of EspB and EspD as detected by immunoblotting. Interestingly, electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with the CoilA peptide showed a reduction of the length of EspA filaments. Conclusions Our data indicate that coiled-coil peptides can prevent the assembly and thus the functionality of the TTSS apparatus and suggest that these peptides could provide an attractive tool to block EPEC and EHEC pathogenesis. PMID:20140230

  13. Cathelicidin-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides Inhibit Zika Virus Through Direct Inactivation and Interferon Pathway.

    PubMed

    He, Miao; Zhang, Hainan; Li, Yuju; Wang, Guangshun; Tang, Beisha; Zhao, Jeffrey; Huang, Yunlong; Zheng, Jialin

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a neurotrophic flavivirus that is able to infect pregnant women and cause fetal brain abnormalities. Although there is a significant effort in identifying anti-ZIKV strategies, currently no vaccines or specific therapies are available to treat ZIKV infection. Antimicrobial peptides, which are potent host defense molecules in nearly all forms of life, have been found to be effective against several types of viruses such as HIV-1 and influenza A. However, they have not been tested in ZIKV infection. To determine whether antimicrobial peptides have anti-ZIKV effects, we used nine peptides mostly derived from human and bovine cathelicidins. Two peptides, GF-17 and BMAP-18, were found to have strong anti-ZIKV activities and little toxicity at 10 µM in an African green monkey kidney cell line. We further tested GF-17 and BMAP-18 in human fetal astrocytes, a known susceptible cell type for ZIKV, and found that GF-17 and BMAP-18 effectively inhibited ZIKV regardless of whether peptides were added before or after ZIKV infection. Interestingly, inhibition of type-I interferon signaling resulted in higher levels of ZIKV infection as measured by viral RNA production and partially reversed GF-17-mediated viral inhibition. More importantly, pretreatment with GF-17 and BMAP-18 did not affect viral attachment but reduced viral RNA early in the infection course. Direct incubation with GF-17 for 1 to 4 h specifically reduced the number of infectious Zika virions in the inoculum. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides inhibit ZIKV through direct inactivation of the virus and via the interferon pathway. Strategies that harness antimicrobial peptides might be useful in halting ZIKV infection.

  14. Inhibition of Dengue Virus Entry into Target Cells Using Synthetic Antiviral Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Alhoot, Mohammed Abdelfatah; Rathinam, Alwin Kumar; Wang, Seok Mui; Manikam, Rishya; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of DENV as a human pathogen, there is no specific treatment or protective vaccine. Successful entry into the host cells is necessary for establishing the infection. Recently, the virus entry step has become an attractive therapeutic strategy because it represents a barrier to suppress the onset of the infection. Four putative antiviral peptides were designed to target domain III of DENV-2 E protein using BioMoDroid algorithm. Two peptides showed significant inhibition of DENV when simultaneously incubated as shown by plaque formation assay, RT-qPCR, and Western blot analysis. Both DET4 and DET2 showed significant inhibition of virus entry (84.6% and 40.6% respectively) using micromolar concentrations. Furthermore, the TEM images showed that the inhibitory peptides caused structural abnormalities and alteration of the arrangement of the viral E protein, which interferes with virus binding and entry. Inhibition of DENV entry during the initial stages of infection can potentially reduce the viremia in infected humans resulting in prevention of the progression of dengue fever to the severe life-threatening infection, reduce the infected vector numbers, and thus break the transmission cycle. Moreover these peptides though designed against the conserved region in DENV-2 would have the potential to be active against all the serotypes of dengue and might be considered as Hits to begin designing and developing of more potent analogous peptides that could constitute as promising therapeutic agents for attenuating dengue infection. PMID:23630436

  15. Inhibition of p53 Mutant Peptide Aggregation In Vitro by Cationic Osmolyte Acetylcholine Chloride.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaolin; Kanapathipillai, Mathumai

    2017-01-01

    Mutations of tumor suppressor protein p53 are present in almost about 50% of all cancers. It has been reported that the p53 mutations cause aggregation and subsequent loss of p53 function, leading to cancer progression. Here in this study we focus on the inhibitory effects of cationic osmolyte molecules acetylcholine chloride, and choline on an aggregation prone 10 amino acid p53 mutant peptide WRPILTIITL, and the corresponding wildtype peptide RRPILTIITL in vitro. The characterization tools used for this study include Thioflavin- T (ThT) induced fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), congo red binding, turbidity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and cell viability assays. The results show that acetylcholine chloride in micromolar concentrations significantly inhibit p53 mutant peptide aggregation in vitro, and could be promising candidate for p53 mutant/ misfolded protein aggregation inhibition. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Computational and experimental analysis of short peptide motifs for enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jinglin; Larini, Luca; Cooper, Anthony J; Whittaker, John W; Ahmed, Azka; Dong, Junhao; Lee, Minyoung; Zhang, Ting

    2017-01-01

    The metabolism of living systems involves many enzymes that play key roles as catalysts and are essential to biological function. Searching ligands with the ability to modulate enzyme activities is central to diagnosis and therapeutics. Peptides represent a promising class of potential enzyme modulators due to the large chemical diversity, and well-established methods for library synthesis. Peptides and their derivatives are found to play critical roles in modulating enzymes and mediating cellular uptakes, which are increasingly valuable in therapeutics. We present a methodology that uses molecular dynamics (MD) and point-variant screening to identify short peptide motifs that are critical for inhibiting β-galactosidase (β-Gal). MD was used to simulate the conformations of peptides and to suggest short motifs that were most populated in simulated conformations. The function of the simulated motifs was further validated by the experimental point-variant screening as critical segments for inhibiting the enzyme. Based on the validated motifs, we eventually identified a 7-mer short peptide for inhibiting an enzyme with low μM IC50. The advantage of our methodology is the relatively simplified simulation that is informative enough to identify the critical sequence of a peptide inhibitor, with a precision comparable to truncation and alanine scanning experiments. Our combined experimental and computational approach does not rely on a detailed understanding of mechanistic and structural details. The MD simulation suggests the populated motifs that are consistent with the results of the experimental alanine and truncation scanning. This approach appears to be applicable to both natural and artificial peptides. With more discovered short motifs in the future, they could be exploited for modulating biocatalysis, and developing new medicine.

  17. Mechanism by which DHA inhibits the aggregation of KLVFFA peptides: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hong; Liu, Shengtang; Shao, Qiwen; Ma, Dongfang; Yang, Zaixing; Zhou, Ruhong

    2018-03-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is one of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which has shown promising applications in lowering Aβ peptide neurotoxicity in vitro by preventing aggregation of Aβ peptides and relieving accumulation of Aβ fibrils. Unfortunately, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how DHA interferes with the aggregation of Aβ peptides remain largely enigmatic. Herein, aggregation behaviors of amyloid-β(Aβ)16-21 peptides (KLVFFA) with or without the presence of a DHA molecule were comparatively studied using extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We found that DHA could effectively suppress the aggregation of KLVFFA peptides by redirecting peptides to unstructured oligomers. The highly hydrophobic and flexible nature of DHA made it randomly but tightly entangled with Leu-17, Phe-19, and Phe-20 residues to form unstructured but stable complexes. These lower-ordered unstructured oligomers could eventually pass through energy barriers to form ordered β-sheet structures through large conformational fluctuations. This study depicts a microscopic picture for understanding the role and mechanism of DHA in inhibition of aggregation of Aβ peptides, which is generally believed as one of the important pathogenic mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Inhibition of Vaccinia virus entry by a broad spectrum antiviral peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Altmann, S.E.; Jones, J.C.; Schultz-Cherry, S.

    2009-06-05

    Concerns about the possible use of Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, as a weapon for bioterrorism have led to renewed efforts to identify new antivirals against orthopoxviruses. We identified a peptide, EB, which inhibited infection by Vaccinia virus with an EC{sub 50} of 15 muM. A control peptide, EBX, identical in composition to EB but differing in sequence, was inactive (EC{sub 50} > 200 muM), indicating sequence specificity. The inhibition was reversed upon removal of the peptide, and EB treatment had no effect on the physical integrity of virus particles as determined by electron microscopy. Viral adsorption wasmore » unaffected by the presence of EB, and the addition of EB post-entry had no effect on viral titers or on early gene expression. The addition of EB post-adsorption resulted in the inhibition of beta-galactosidase expression from an early viral promoter with an EC{sub 50} of 45 muM. A significant reduction in virus entry was detected in the presence of the peptide when the number of viral cores released into the cytoplasm was quantified. Electron microscopy indicated that 88% of the virions remained on the surface of cells in the presence of EB, compared to 37% in the control (p < 0.001). EB also blocked fusion-from-within, suggesting that virus infection is inhibited at the fusion step. Analysis of EB derivatives suggested that peptide length may be important for the activity of EB. The EB peptide is, to our knowledge, the first known small molecule inhibitor of Vaccinia virus entry.« less

  19. Inhibition of pressure-activated cancer cell adhesion by FAK-derived peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Bixi; Devadoss, Dinesh; Wang, Shouye; Vomhof-DeKrey, Emilie E.; Kuhn, Leslie A.; Basson, Marc D.

    2017-01-01

    Forces within the surgical milieu or circulation activate cancer cell adhesion and potentiate metastasis through signaling requiring FAK-Akt1 interaction. Impeding FAK-Akt1 interaction might inhibit perioperative tumor dissemination, facilitating curative cancer surgery without global FAK or AKT inhibitor toxicity. Serial truncation and structurally designed mutants of FAK identified a seven amino acid, short helical structure within FAK that effectively competes with Akt1-FAK interaction. Adenoviral overexpression of this FAK-derived peptide inhibited pressure-induced FAK phosphorylation and AKT-FAK coimmunoprecipitation in human SW620 colon cancer cells briefly exposed to 15mmHg increased pressure, consistent with laparoscopic or post-surgical pressures. Adenoviral FAK-derived peptide expression prevented pressure-activation of SW620 adhesion not only to collagen-I-coated plates but also to murine surgical wounds. A scrambled peptide did not. Finally, we modeled operative shedding of tumor cells before irrigation and closure by transient cancer cell adhesion to murine surgical wounds before irrigation and closure. Thirty minute preincubation of SW620 cells at 15mmHg increased pressure impaired subsequent tumor free survival in mice exposed to cells expressing the scrambled peptide. The FAK-derived sequence prevented this. These results suggest that blocking FAK-Akt1 interaction may prevent perioperative tumor dissemination and that analogs or mimics of this 7 amino acid FAK-derived peptide could impair metastasis. PMID:29228673

  20. Inhibition of amyloid peptide fibril formation by gold-sulfur complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenji; Zhao, Cong; Zhu, Dengsen; Gong, Gehui; Du, Weihong

    2017-06-01

    Amyloid-related diseases are characterized by protein conformational change and amyloid fibril deposition. Metal complexes are potential inhibitors of amyloidosis. Nitrogen-coordinated gold complexes have been used to disaggregate prion neuropeptide (PrP106-126) and human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). However, the roles of metal complexes in peptide fibril formation and related bioactivity require further exploration. In this work, we investigated the interactions of amyloid peptides PrP106-126 and hIAPP with two tetracoordinated gold-sulfur complexes, namely, dichloro diethyl dithiocarbamate gold complex and dichloro pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate gold complex. We also determined the effects of these complexes on peptide-induced cytotoxicity. Thioflavin T assay, morphological characterization, and particle size analysis indicated that the two gold-sulfur complexes effectively inhibited the fibrillation of the amyloid peptides, which led to the formation of nanoscale particles. The complexes reduced the cytotoxicity induced by the amyloid peptides. Intrinsic fluorescence, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry revealed that the complexes interacted with PrP106-126 and hIAPP via metal coordination and hydrophobic interaction, which improved the inhibition and binding of the two gold-sulfur compounds. Our study provided new insights into the use of tetracoordinated gold-sulfur complexes as drug candidates against protein conformational disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Peptide-modified chitosan hydrogels promote skin wound healing by enhancing wound angiogenesis and inhibiting inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xionglin; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xueer; Chen, Yinghua; Yan, Yuan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous wound healing following trauma is a complex and dynamic process involving multiple overlapping events following trauma. Two critical elements affecting skin wound healing are neovascularization and inflammation. A nascent vessel can provide nutrition and oxygen to a healing wound. Therefore, treatments strategies that enhance angiogenesis and inhibit inflammation can promote skin wound healing. Previous studies have shown that the SIKVAV peptide (Ser-Ile-Lys-Val-Ala-Val) from laminin can promote angiogenesis in vitro. This study evaluated the effects of peptide SIKVAV-modified chitosan hydrogels on skin wound healing. We established skin wounds established in mice and treated them with SIKVAV-modified chitosan hydrogels. H&E staining showed that peptide-modified chitosan hydrogels accelerated the reepithelialization of wounds compared with the negative and positive controls. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that more myofibroblasts were deposited at wounds treated with peptide-modified chitosan hydrogels that at those treated with negative and positive controls. In addition, peptide-modified chitosan hydrogels promoted angiogenesis as well as keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, but inhibited inflammation in skin wounds. Taken together, these results suggest that SIKVAV-modified chitosan hydrogels are a promising treatment component for healing-impaired wounds. PMID:28559985

  2. Inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Zouhir, Abdelmajid; Jridi, Taoufik; Nefzi, Adel; Ben Hamida, Jeannette; Sebei, Khaled

    2016-12-01

    Drug-resistant bacterial infections cause considerable patient mortality and morbidity. The annual frequency of deaths from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has surpassed those caused by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), plant essential oils (EOs) and their combinations have proven to be quite effective in killing a wide selection of bacterial pathogens including MRSA. This review summarizes the studies in the use of AMPs, plant EOs and their combinations for coping with MRSA bacteria, and to formulate new prospects for future studies on this topic. The sources of scientific literature such as PubMed, library search, Google Scholar, Science Direct and electronic databases such as 'The Antimicrobial Peptide Database', 'Collection of Anti-Microbial Peptides' and 'YADAMP'. Physicochemical data of anti-MRSA peptides were determined by Scientific DataBase Maker software. Of the 118 peptides, 88 exhibited an activity against MRSA with the highest activity of minimum inhibitory concentration values. Various plant EOs have been effective against MRSA. Remarkably, lemongrass EOs completely inhibited all MRSA growth on the plate. Lemon myrtle, Mountain savory, Cinnamon bark and Melissa EOs showed a significant inhibition. Several of these AMPs, EOs and their combinations were effective against MRSA. Their activities have implications for the development of new drugs for medical use.

  3. Potent and Selective Peptide-based Inhibition of the G Protein Gαq*

    PubMed Central

    Charpentier, Thomas H.; Waldo, Gary L.; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G.; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Strahl, Brian D.; Kash, Thomas L.; Harden, T. Kendall; Sondek, John

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to G protein-coupled receptors, for which chemical and peptidic inhibitors have been extensively explored, few compounds are available that directly modulate heterotrimeric G proteins. Active Gαq binds its two major classes of effectors, the phospholipase C (PLC)-β isozymes and Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) related to Trio, in a strikingly similar fashion: a continuous helix-turn-helix of the effectors engages Gαq within its canonical binding site consisting of a groove formed between switch II and helix α3. This information was exploited to synthesize peptides that bound active Gαq in vitro with affinities similar to full-length effectors and directly competed with effectors for engagement of Gαq. A representative peptide was specific for active Gαq because it did not bind inactive Gαq or other classes of active Gα subunits and did not inhibit the activation of PLC-β3 by Gβ1γ2. In contrast, the peptide robustly prevented activation of PLC-β3 or p63RhoGEF by Gαq; it also prevented G protein-coupled receptor-promoted neuronal depolarization downstream of Gαq in the mouse prefrontal cortex. Moreover, a genetically encoded form of this peptide flanked by fluorescent proteins inhibited Gαq-dependent activation of PLC-β3 at least as effectively as a dominant-negative form of full-length PLC-β3. These attributes suggest that related, cell-penetrating peptides should effectively inhibit active Gαq in cells and that these and genetically encoded sequences may find application as molecular probes, drug leads, and biosensors to monitor the spatiotemporal activation of Gαq in cells. PMID:27742837

  4. Potent and Selective Peptide-based Inhibition of the G Protein Gαq.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Thomas H; Waldo, Gary L; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Strahl, Brian D; Kash, Thomas L; Harden, T Kendall; Sondek, John

    2016-12-02

    In contrast to G protein-coupled receptors, for which chemical and peptidic inhibitors have been extensively explored, few compounds are available that directly modulate heterotrimeric G proteins. Active Gα q binds its two major classes of effectors, the phospholipase C (PLC)-β isozymes and Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) related to Trio, in a strikingly similar fashion: a continuous helix-turn-helix of the effectors engages Gα q within its canonical binding site consisting of a groove formed between switch II and helix α3. This information was exploited to synthesize peptides that bound active Gα q in vitro with affinities similar to full-length effectors and directly competed with effectors for engagement of Gα q A representative peptide was specific for active Gα q because it did not bind inactive Gα q or other classes of active Gα subunits and did not inhibit the activation of PLC-β3 by Gβ 1 γ 2 In contrast, the peptide robustly prevented activation of PLC-β3 or p63RhoGEF by Gα q ; it also prevented G protein-coupled receptor-promoted neuronal depolarization downstream of Gα q in the mouse prefrontal cortex. Moreover, a genetically encoded form of this peptide flanked by fluorescent proteins inhibited Gα q -dependent activation of PLC-β3 at least as effectively as a dominant-negative form of full-length PLC-β3. These attributes suggest that related, cell-penetrating peptides should effectively inhibit active Gα q in cells and that these and genetically encoded sequences may find application as molecular probes, drug leads, and biosensors to monitor the spatiotemporal activation of Gα q in cells. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Inhibition of Sendai virus fusion with phospholipid vesicles and human erythrocyte membranes by hydrophobic peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, D.R.; Flanagan, T.D.; Young, J.E.

    1991-06-01

    Hydrophobic di- and tripeptides which are capable of inhibiting enveloped virus infection of cells are also capable of inhibiting at least three different types of membrane fusion events. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of N-methyl dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (N-methyl DOPE), containing encapsulated 1-aminonaphthalene-3,6,8-trisulfonic acid (ANTS) and/or p-xylene bis(pyridinium bromide) (DPX), were formed by extrusion. Vesicle fusion and leakage were then monitored with the ANTS/DPX fluorescence assay. Sendai virus fusion with lipid vesicles and Sendai virus fusion with human erythrocyte membranes were measured by following the relief of fluorescence quenching of virus labeled with octadecylrhodamine B chloride (R18). This study found that the effectivenessmore » of the peptides carbobenzoxy-L-Phe-L-Phe (Z-L-Phe-L-Phe), Z-L-Phe, Z-D-Phe, and Z-Gly-L-Phe-L-Phe in inhibiting N-methyl DOPE LUV fusion or fusion of virus with N-methyl DOPE LUV also paralleled their reported ability to block viral infectivity. Furthermore, Z-D-Phe-L-PheGly and Z-Gly-L-Phe inhibited Sendai virus fusion with human erythrocyte membranes with the same relative potency with which they inhibited vesicle-vesicle and virus-vesicle fusion. The evidence suggests a mechanism by which these peptides exert their inhibition of plaque formation by enveloped viruses. This class of inhibitors apparently acts by inhibiting fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane, thereby preventing viral infection. The physical pathway by which these peptides inhibit membrane fusion was investigated. {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of proposed intermediates in the pathway for membrane fusion in LUV revealed that the potent fusion inhibitor Z-D-Phe-L-PheGly selectively altered the structure (or dynamics) of the hypothesized fusion intermediates and that the poor inhibitor Z-Gly-L-Phe did not.« less

  6. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) activates human neutrophils--inhibition by chemotactic peptide antagonist BOC-MLP.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, J; Andersson, R; Edvinsson, L; Gullberg, U

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the neuropeptides substance P, neurokinin A and alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on human neutrophil granulocytes was investigated. Substance P induced secondary granule secretion at a concentration of 100 microM. CGRP induced a significant secretory response at 10 microM and thus appeared to be about 10 times more potent than substance P. Calcitonin and a fragment of CGRP, CGRP(8-37), had no effect on neutrophil degranulation. The chemotactic peptide antagonist BOC-MLP (100 microM) inhibited lactoferrin secretion mediated both by CGRP and chemotactic peptide FMLP almost completely, while secretion in response to tumour necrosis factor (TNF) was unaffected. Results from receptor binding studies showed that CGRP and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) do not compete for binding. This indicates that CGRP does not exert its effects by binding to the chemotactic peptide receptor. CGRP induced a rapid increase in the cytosolic-free calcium concentration and this increase was not, unlike that induced by FMLP, abolished by preincubation of the cells with pertussis toxin (1000 ng/ml). Therefore CGRP signal transduction in neutrophils appears to involve rapid changes in the cytosolic-free calcium concentration but not a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein. In summary, this is the first report to show that CGRP can directly activate neutrophil granulocytes, and this probably occurs via a cell surface receptor which is distinct from that of FMLP although both the CGRP and FMLP-mediated effects can be blocked by BOC-MLP. Images Figure 3 PMID:1282494

  7. A Chimeric Peptide Composed of a Dermaseptin Derivative and an RNA III-Inhibiting Peptide Prevents Graft-Associated Infections by Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Naomi; Gov, Yael; Giacometti, Andrea; Cirioni, Oscar; Ghiselli, Roberto; Mocchegiani, Federico; Orlando, Fiorenza; D'Amato, Giuseppina; Saba, Vittorio; Scalise, Giorgio; Bernes, Sabina; Mor, Amram

    2004-01-01

    Staphylococcal bacteria are a prevalent cause of infections associated with foreign bodies and indwelling medical devices. Bacteria are capable of escaping antibiotic treatment through encapsulation into biofilms. RNA III-inhibiting peptide (RIP) is a heptapeptide that inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation by obstructing quorum-sensing mechanisms. K4-S4(1-13)a is a 13-residue dermaseptin derivative (DD13) believed to kill bacteria via membrane disruption. We tested each of these peptides as well as a hybrid construct, DD13-RIP, for their ability to inhibit bacterial proliferation and suppress quorum sensing in vitro and for their efficacy in preventing staphylococcal infection in a rat graft infection model with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or S. epidermidis (MRSE). In vitro, proliferation assays demonstrated that RIP had no inhibitory effect, while DD13-RIP and DD13 were equally effective, and that the chimeric peptide but not DD13 was slightly more effective than RIP in inhibiting RNA III synthesis, a regulatory RNA molecule important for staphylococcal pathogenesis. In vivo, the three peptides reduced graft-associated bacterial load in a dose-dependent manner, but the hybrid peptide was most potent in totally preventing staphylococcal infections at the lowest dose. In addition, each of the peptides acted synergistically with antibiotics. The data indicate that RIP and DD13 act in synergy by attacking bacteria simultaneously by two different mechanisms. Such a chimeric peptide may be useful for coating medical devices to prevent drug-resistant staphylococcal infections. PMID:15215107

  8. Inhibition of Human Cytomegalovirus DNA Polymerase by C-Terminal Peptides from the UL54 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Loregian, Arianna; Rigatti, Roberto; Murphy, Mary; Schievano, Elisabetta; Palu, Giorgio; Marsden, Howard S.

    2003-01-01

    In common with other herpesviruses, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA polymerase contains a catalytic subunit (Pol or UL54) and an accessory protein (UL44) that is thought to increase the processivity of the enzyme. The observation that antisense inhibition of UL44 synthesis in HCMV-infected cells strongly inhibits viral DNA replication, together with the structural similarity predicted for the herpesvirus processivity subunits, highlights the importance of the accessory protein for virus growth and raises the possibility that the UL54/UL44 interaction might be a valid target for antiviral drugs. To investigate this possibility, overlapping peptides spanning residues 1161 to 1242 of UL54 were synthesized and tested for inhibition of the interaction between purified UL54 and UL44 proteins. A peptide, LPRRLHLEPAFLPYSVKAHECC, corresponding to residues 1221 to 1242 at the very C terminus of UL54, disrupted both the physical interaction between the two proteins and specifically inhibited the stimulation of UL54 by UL44. A mutant peptide lacking the two carboxy-terminal cysteines was markedly less inhibitory, suggesting a role for these residues in the UL54/UL44 interaction. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the UL54 C-terminal peptide can adopt a partially α-helical structure. Taken together, these results indicate that the two subunits of HCMV DNA polymerase most likely interact in a way which is analogous to that of the two subunits of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase, even though there is no sequence homology in the binding site, and suggest that the UL54 peptide, or derivatives thereof, could form the basis for developing a new class of anti-HCMV inhibitors that act by disrupting the UL54/UL44 interaction. PMID:12857903

  9. ABT-510, a modified type 1 repeat peptide of thrombospondin, inhibits malignant glioma growth in vivo by inhibiting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joshua C; Grammer, J Robert; Wang, Wenquan; Nabors, L Burton; Henkin, Jack; Stewart, Jerry E; Gladson, Candece L

    2007-03-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapies would be particularly beneficial in the treatment of malignant gliomas. Peptides derived from the second type 1 repeat (TSR) of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) have been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in non-glioma tumor models and a modified TSR peptide, ABT-510, has now entered into Phase II clinical trials of its efficacy in non-glioma tumors. As microvascular endothelial cells (MvEC) exhibit heterogeneity, we evaluated the ability of the modified TSR peptide (NAcSarGlyValDallolleThrNvalleArgProNHE, ABT-510) to inhibit malignant glioma growth in vivo and to induce apoptosis of brain microvessel endothelial cells (MvEC) propagated in vitro. We found that daily administration of ABT-510 until euthanasia (days 7 to 19), significantly inhibited the growth of human malignant astrocytoma tumors established in the brain of athymic nude mice. The microvessel density was significantly lower and the number of apoptotic MvEC was significantly higher (3-fold) in the tumors of the ABT-510-treated animals. Similar results were found using a model in which the established tumor is an intracerebral malignant glioma propagated in a syngeneic mouse model. ABT-510 treatment of primary human brain MvEC propagated as a monolayer resulted in induction of apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner through a caspase-8-dependent mechanism. It also inhibited tubular morphogenesis of MvEC propagated in collagen gels in a dose- and caspase-8 dependent manner through a mechanism that requires the TSP-1 receptor (CD36) on the MvEC. These findings indicate that ABT-510 should be evaluated as a therapeutic option for patients with malignant glioma.

  10. C-peptide prevents SMAD3 binding to alpha promoters to inhibit collagen type IV synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanning; Zhong, Yan; Gong, Wenjian; Gao, Xuehan; Qi, Huanli; Liu, Kun; Qi, Jinsheng

    2018-07-01

    Activation of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFB1)/SMAD3 signaling may lead to additional synthesis of collagen type IV (COL4), which is a major contributor to extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in diabetic nephropathy (DN). C-peptide can attenuate fibrosis to have unique beneficial effects in DN. However, whether and how C-peptide affects TGFB1/SMAD3-activated COL4 synthesis is unclear. In this study, pathological changes, expression of COL4 a1-a5 chains ( Col4a1-a5 ), COL4 distribution and protein and TGFB1 and SMAD3 protein were first assessed in a rat model of diabetes. Then, rat mesangial cells were treated with high glucose (HG) and/or C-peptide to investigate the underlying mechanism. Col4a1-a5 expression, COL4 protein and secretion, TGFB1 protein, SMAD3 nuclear translocation and binding of SMAD3 to its cognate sites in the promoters of Col4a1a2 , Col4a3a4 and Col4a5 were measured. It was found that C-peptide attenuated glomerular pathological changes and suppressed renal Col4a1 -a5 mRNA expression, COL4 protein content and TGFB1 protein content. C-peptide had a dose-dependent effect to inhibit Col4a1-a5 mRNA expression, COL4 protein content and secretion, in HG-stimulated mesangial cells. In addition, the HG-induced increase in TGFB1 protein content was significantly reduced by C-peptide. Although not apparently affecting SMAD3 nuclear translocation, C-peptide prevented SMAD3 from binding to its sites in the Col4a1a2 , Col4a3a4 and Col4a5 promoters in HG-stimulated mesangial cells. In conclusion, C-peptide could prevent SMAD3 from binding to its sites in the Col4a1a2 , Col4a3a4 and Col4a5 promoters, to inhibit COL4 generation. These results may provide a mechanism for the alleviation of fibrosis in DN by C-peptide. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. A novel antiangiogenic peptide derived from hepatocyte growth factor inhibits neovascularization in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Zhao, Hui; Zheng, Ying; Gu, Qing; Ma, Jianxing

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To study the antiangiogenic activity of two small peptides (H-RN and H-FT) derived from the hepatocyte growth factor kringle 1 domain (HGF K1) using in vitro and in vivo assays. Methods RF/6A rhesus macaque choroid-retina endothelial cells were used for in vitro studies. The inhibiting effect of two peptides on a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated cell proliferation, cell migration, and endothelial cell tube formation were investigated. For in vivo assays, the antiangiogenic activity of H-RN and H-FT in the chick chorioallantoic membrane model (CAM) and a mice oxygen-induced retinopathy model (OIR) were studied. A recombinant mouse VEGF-neutralizing antibody, bevacizumab, and a scrambled peptide were used as two control groups in separate studies. Results H-RN effectively inhibited VEGF-stimulated RF/6A cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation on Matrigel™, while H-FT did not. H-RN was also able to inhibit angiogenesis when applied to the CAM, and had antineovascularization activity in the retinal neovascularization of a mouse OIR model when administrated as an intravitreous injection. The antiangiogenic activity of H-RN was not as strong as that of VEGF antibodies. The H-FT and scrambled peptide had no such activity. Conclusions H-RN, a new peptide derived from the HGF K1 domain, was shown to have antiangiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. It may lead to new potential drug discoveries and the development of new treatments for pathological retinal angiogenesis. PMID:21031024

  12. Macrocycle peptides delineate locked-open inhibition mechanism for microorganism phosphoglycerate mutases

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hao; Dranchak, Patricia; Li, Zhiru

    Glycolytic interconversion of phosphoglycerate isomers is catalysed in numerous pathogenic microorganisms by a cofactor-independent mutase (iPGM) structurally distinct from the mammalian cofactor-dependent (dPGM) isozyme. The iPGM active site dynamically assembles through substrate-triggered movement of phosphatase and transferase domains creating a solvent inaccessible cavity. Here we identify alternate ligand binding regions using nematode iPGM to select and enrich lariat-like ligands from an mRNA-display macrocyclic peptide library containing >1012 members. Functional analysis of the ligands, named ipglycermides, demonstrates sub-nanomolar inhibition of iPGM with complete selectivity over dPGM. The crystal structure of an iPGM macrocyclic peptide complex illuminated an allosteric, locked-open inhibition mechanismmore » placing the cyclic peptide at the bi-domain interface. This binding mode aligns the pendant lariat cysteine thiolate for coordination with the iPGM transition metal ion cluster. The extended charged, hydrophilic binding surface interaction rationalizes the persistent challenges these enzymes have presented to small-molecule screening efforts highlighting the important roles of macrocyclic peptides in expanding chemical diversity for ligand discovery.« less

  13. Novel cyclo-peptides inhibit Ebola pseudotyped virus entry by targeting primed GP protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanjie; Ma, Ling; Yi, Dongrong; Wang, Han; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yongxin; Guo, Ying; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Jinming; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F; Cen, Shan

    2018-07-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes fatal hemorrhagic fever with high death rates in human. Currently, there are no available clinically-approved prophylactic or therapeutic treatments. The recently solved crystal structure of cleavage-primed EBOV glycoprotein (GPcl) in complex with the C domain of endosomal protein Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) provides a new target for the development of EBOV entry inhibitors. In this work, a computational approach using docking and molecular dynamic simulations is carried out for the rational design of peptide inhibitors. A novel cyclo-peptide (Pep-3.3) was identified to target at the late stage of EBOV entry and exhibit specific inhibitory activity against EBOV-GP pseudotyped viruses, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 5.1 μM. In vitro binding assay and molecular simulations revealed that Pep-3.3 binds to GPcl with a KD value of 69.7 μM, through interacting with predicted residues in the hydrophobic binding pocket of GPcl. Mutation of predicted residues T83 caused resistance to Pep-3.3 inhibition in viral infectivity, providing preliminary support for the model of the peptide binding to GPcl. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inhibiting EBOV entry by targeting GPcl with peptides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation through mitochondrial dynamics regulation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gloria; Morales, Pablo E; García-Miguel, Marina; Norambuena-Soto, Ignacio; Cartes-Saavedra, Benjamín; Vidal-Peña, Gonzalo; Moncada-Ruff, David; Sanhueza-Olivares, Fernanda; San Martín, Alejandra; Chiong, Mario

    2016-03-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a neuroendocrine hormone produced by gastrointestinal tract in response to food ingestion. GLP-1 plays a very important role in the glucose homeostasis by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibiting glucagon secretion, inhibiting gastric emptying, reducing appetite and food intake. Because of these actions, the GLP-1 peptide-mimetic exenatide is one of the most promising new medicines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In vivo treatments with GLP-1 or exenatide prevent neo-intima layer formation in response to endothelial damage and atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic tissue. Whether GLP-1 modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation by controlling mitochondrial dynamics is unknown. In this report, we showed that GLP-1 increased mitochondrial fusion and activity in a PKA-dependent manner in the VSMC cell line A7r5. GLP-1 induced a Ser-637 phosphorylation in the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, and decreased Drp1 mitochondrial localization. GLP-1 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration and proliferation, actions inhibited by overexpressing wild type Drp1 and mimicked by the Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 and by overexpressing dominant negative Drp1. These results show that GLP-1 stimulates mitochondrial fusion, increases mitochondrial activity and decreases PDGF-BB-induced VSMC dedifferentiation by a PKA/Drp1 signaling pathway. Our data suggest that GLP-1 inhibits vascular remodeling through a mitochondrial dynamics-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The molecular mechanism of fullerene-inhibited aggregation of Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Luogang; Luo, Yin; Lin, Dongdong; Xi, Wenhui; Yang, Xinju; Wei, Guanghong

    2014-07-01

    Amyloid deposits are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inhibition of β-sheet formation has been considered as the primary therapeutic strategy for AD. Increasing data show that nanoparticles can retard or promote the fibrillation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides depending on the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, our replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations show that fullerene nanoparticle - C60 (with a fullerene : peptide molar ratio greater than 1 : 8) can dramatically prevent β-sheet formation of Aβ(16-22) peptides. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments further confirm the inhibitory effect of C60 on Aβ(16-22) fibrillation, in support of our REMD simulations. An important finding from our REMD simulations is that fullerene C180, albeit with the same number of carbon atoms as three C60 molecules (3C60) and smaller surface area than 3C60, displays an unexpected stronger inhibitory effect on the β-sheet formation of Aβ(16-22) peptides. A detailed analysis of the fullerene-peptide interaction reveals that the stronger inhibition of β-sheet formation by C180 results from the strong hydrophobic and aromatic-stacking interactions of the fullerene hexagonal rings with the Phe rings relative to the pentagonal rings. The strong interactions between the fullerene nanoparticles and Aβ(16-22) peptides significantly weaken the peptide-peptide interaction that is important for β-sheet formation, thus retarding Aβ(16-22) fibrillation. Overall, our studies reveal the significant role of fullerene hexagonal rings in the inhibition of Aβ(16-22) fibrillation and provide novel insight into the development of drug candidates against Alzheimer's disease.Amyloid deposits are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inhibition of

  16. A Novel Trypsin Inhibitor-Like Cysteine-Rich Peptide from the Frog Lepidobatrachus laevis Containing Proteinase-Inhibiting Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Wei; Tan, Ji-Min; Du, Can-Wei; Luan, Ning; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Lai, Ren; Lu, Qiu-Min

    2015-08-01

    Various bio-active substances in amphibian skins play important roles in survival of the amphibians. Many protease inhibitor peptides have been identified from amphibian skins, which are supposed to negatively modulate the activity of proteases to avoid premature degradation or release of skin peptides, or to inhibit extracellular proteases produced by invading bacteria. However, there is no information on the proteinase inhibitors from the frog Lepidobatrachus laevis which is unique in South America. In this work, a cDNA encoding a novel trypsin inhibitor-like (TIL) cysteine-rich peptide was identified from the skin cDNA library of L. laevis. The 240-bp coding region encodes an 80-amino acid residue precursor protein containing 10 half-cysteines. By sequence comparison and signal peptide prediction, the precursor was predicted to release a 55-amino acid mature peptide with amino acid sequence, IRCPKDKIYKFCGSPCPPSCKDLTPNCIAVCKKGCFCRDGTVDNNHGKCVKKENC. The mature peptide was named LL-TIL. LL-TIL shares significant domain similarity with the peptides from the TIL supper family. Antimicrobial and trypsin-inhibitory abilities of recombinant LL-TIL were tested. Recombinant LL-TIL showed no antimicrobial activity, while it had trypsin-inhibiting activity with a Ki of 16.5178 μM. These results suggested there was TIL peptide with proteinase-inhibiting activity in the skin of frog L. laevis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of TIL peptide from frog skin.

  17. Peptidoglycan Branched Stem Peptides Contribute to Streptococcus pneumoniae Virulence by Inhibiting Pneumolysin Release

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Neil G.; Narciso, Ana R.; Filipe, Sergio R.; Camilli, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) colonizes the human nasopharynx and is a significant pathogen worldwide. Pneumolysin (Ply) is a multi-functional, extracellular virulence factor produced by this organism that is critical for pathogenesis. Despite the absence of any apparent secretion or cell surface attachment motifs, Ply localizes to the cell envelope of actively growing cells. We sought to characterize the consequences of this surface localization. Through functional assays with whole cells and subcellular fractions, we determined that Ply activity and its release into the extracellular environment are inhibited by peptidoglycan (PG) structure. The ability of PG to inhibit Ply release was dependent on the stem peptide composition of this macromolecule, which was manipulated by mutation of the murMN operon that encodes proteins responsible for branched stem peptide synthesis. Additionally, removal of choline-binding proteins from the cell surface significantly reduced Ply release to levels observed in a mutant with a high proportion of branched stem peptides suggesting a link between this structural feature and surface-associated choline-binding proteins involved in PG metabolism. Of clinical relevance, we also demonstrate that a hyperactive, mosaic murMN allele associated with penicillin resistance causes decreased Ply release with concomitant increases in the amount of branched stem peptides. Finally, using a murMN deletion mutant, we observed that increased Ply release is detrimental to virulence during a murine model of pneumonia. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role for branched stem peptides in pneumococcal pathogenesis and demonstrate the importance of controlled Ply release during infection. These results highlight the importance of PG composition in pathogenesis and may have broad implications for the diverse PG structures observed in other bacterial pathogens. PMID:26114646

  18. Peptidoglycan Branched Stem Peptides Contribute to Streptococcus pneumoniae Virulence by Inhibiting Pneumolysin Release.

    PubMed

    Greene, Neil G; Narciso, Ana R; Filipe, Sergio R; Camilli, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) colonizes the human nasopharynx and is a significant pathogen worldwide. Pneumolysin (Ply) is a multi-functional, extracellular virulence factor produced by this organism that is critical for pathogenesis. Despite the absence of any apparent secretion or cell surface attachment motifs, Ply localizes to the cell envelope of actively growing cells. We sought to characterize the consequences of this surface localization. Through functional assays with whole cells and subcellular fractions, we determined that Ply activity and its release into the extracellular environment are inhibited by peptidoglycan (PG) structure. The ability of PG to inhibit Ply release was dependent on the stem peptide composition of this macromolecule, which was manipulated by mutation of the murMN operon that encodes proteins responsible for branched stem peptide synthesis. Additionally, removal of choline-binding proteins from the cell surface significantly reduced Ply release to levels observed in a mutant with a high proportion of branched stem peptides suggesting a link between this structural feature and surface-associated choline-binding proteins involved in PG metabolism. Of clinical relevance, we also demonstrate that a hyperactive, mosaic murMN allele associated with penicillin resistance causes decreased Ply release with concomitant increases in the amount of branched stem peptides. Finally, using a murMN deletion mutant, we observed that increased Ply release is detrimental to virulence during a murine model of pneumonia. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role for branched stem peptides in pneumococcal pathogenesis and demonstrate the importance of controlled Ply release during infection. These results highlight the importance of PG composition in pathogenesis and may have broad implications for the diverse PG structures observed in other bacterial pathogens.

  19. Peptides derived from central turn motifs within integrin αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails inhibit integrin activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinlei; Liu, Yongqing; Haas, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    We previously found that peptides derived from the full length of integrin αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails inhibited their parent integrin activation, respectively. Here we showed that the cell-permeable peptides corresponding to the conserved central turn motif within αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails, myr-KRNRPPLEED (αIIb peptide) and myr-KRVRPPQEEQ (αV peptide), similarly inhibited both αIIb and αV integrin activation. Pre-treatment with αIIb or αV peptides inhibited Mn(2+)-activated αIIbβ3 binding to soluble fibrinogen as well as the binding of αIIbβ3-expressing Chinese Hamster Ovary cells to immobilized fibrinogen. Our turn peptides also inhibited adhesion of two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-435 and MCF7) to αV ligand vitronectin. These results suggest that αIIb and αV peptides share a same mechanism in regulating integrin function. Using αIIb peptide as a model, we found that replacement of RPP with AAA significantly attenuated the inhibitory activity of αIIb peptide. Furthermore, we found that αIIb peptide specifically bound to β-tubulin in cells. Our work suggests that the central motif of α tails is an anchoring point for cytoskeletons during integrin activation and integrin-mediated cell adhesion, and its function depends on the turn structure at RPP. However, post-treatment of peptides derived from the full-length tail or from the turn motif did not reverse αIIb and αV integrin activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oil Palm Phenolics Inhibit the In Vitro Aggregation of β-Amyloid Peptide into Oligomeric Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Koledova, Vera V.; Shin, Hyeari; Park, Jennifer H.; Tan, Yew Ai; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a severe neurodegenerative disease characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) into toxic oligomers which activate microglia and astrocytes causing acute neuroinflammation. Multiple studies show that the soluble oligomers of Aβ42 are neurotoxic and proinflammatory, whereas the monomers and insoluble fibrils are relatively nontoxic. We show that Aβ42 aggregation is inhibited in vitro by oil palm phenolics (OPP), an aqueous extract from the oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis). The data shows that OPP inhibits stacking of β-pleated sheets, which is essential for oligomerization. We demonstrate the inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation by (1) mass spectrometry; (2) Congo Red dye binding; (3) 2D-IR spectroscopy; (4) dynamic light scattering; (5) transmission electron microscopy; and (6) transgenic yeast rescue assay. In the yeast rescue assay, OPP significantly reduces the cytotoxicity of aggregating neuropeptides in yeast genetically engineered to overexpress these peptides. The data shows that OPP inhibits (1) the aggregation of Aβ into oligomers; (2) stacking of β-pleated sheets; and (3) fibrillar growth and coalescence. These inhibitory effects prevent the formation of neurotoxic oligomers and hold potential as a means to reduce neuroinflammation and neuronal death and thereby may play some role in the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:29666700

  1. Proline-Rich Peptide from the Coral Pathogen Vibrio shiloi That Inhibits Photosynthesis of Zooxanthellae

    PubMed Central

    Banin, Ehud; Khare, Sanjay K.; Naider, Fred; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    The coral-bleaching bacterium Vibrio shiloi biosynthesizes and secretes an extracellular peptide, referred to as toxin P, which inhibits photosynthesis of coral symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae). Toxin P was produced during the stationary phase when the bacterium was grown on peptone or Casamino Acids media at 29°C. Glycerol inhibited the production of toxin P. Toxin P was purified to homogeneity, yielding the following 12-residue peptide: PYPVYAPPPVVP (molecular weight, 1,295.54). The structure of toxin P was confirmed by chemical synthesis. In the presence of 12.5 mM NH4Cl, pure natural or synthetic toxin P (10 μM) caused a 64% decrease in the photosynthetic quantum yield of zooxanthellae within 5 min. The inhibition was proportional to the toxin P concentration. Toxin P bound avidly to zooxanthellae, such that subsequent addition of NH4Cl resulted in rapid inhibition of photosynthesis. When zooxanthellae were incubated in the presence of NH4Cl and toxin P, there was a rapid decrease in the pH (pH 7.8 to 7.2) of the bulk liquid, suggesting that toxin P facilitates transport of NH3 into the cell. It is known that uptake of NH3 into cells can destroy the pH gradient and block photosynthesis. This mode of action of toxin P can help explain the mechanism of coral bleaching by V. shiloi. PMID:11282602

  2. Proline-rich peptide from the coral pathogen Vibrio shiloi that inhibits photosynthesis of Zooxanthellae.

    PubMed

    Banin, E; Khare, S K; Naider, F; Rosenberg, E

    2001-04-01

    The coral-bleaching bacterium Vibrio shiloi biosynthesizes and secretes an extracellular peptide, referred to as toxin P, which inhibits photosynthesis of coral symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae). Toxin P was produced during the stationary phase when the bacterium was grown on peptone or Casamino Acids media at 29 degrees C. Glycerol inhibited the production of toxin P. Toxin P was purified to homogeneity, yielding the following 12-residue peptide: PYPVYAPPPVVP (molecular weight, 1,295.54). The structure of toxin P was confirmed by chemical synthesis. In the presence of 12.5 mM NH(4)Cl, pure natural or synthetic toxin P (10 microM) caused a 64% decrease in the photosynthetic quantum yield of zooxanthellae within 5 min. The inhibition was proportional to the toxin P concentration. Toxin P bound avidly to zooxanthellae, such that subsequent addition of NH(4)Cl resulted in rapid inhibition of photosynthesis. When zooxanthellae were incubated in the presence of NH(4)Cl and toxin P, there was a rapid decrease in the pH (pH 7.8 to 7.2) of the bulk liquid, suggesting that toxin P facilitates transport of NH(3) into the cell. It is known that uptake of NH(3) into cells can destroy the pH gradient and block photosynthesis. This mode of action of toxin P can help explain the mechanism of coral bleaching by V. shiloi.

  3. Identification of Equine Lactadherin-derived Peptides That Inhibit Rotavirus Infection via Integrin Receptor Competition.

    PubMed

    Civra, Andrea; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Donalisio, Manuela; Napolitano, Lorenzo; Takada, Yoshikazu; Coulson, Barbara S; Conti, Amedeo; Lembo, David

    2015-05-08

    Human rotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children under the age of 5 years in both developed and developing countries. Human lactadherin, a milk fat globule membrane glycoprotein, inhibits human rotavirus infection in vitro, whereas bovine lactadherin is not active. Moreover, it protects breastfed infants against symptomatic rotavirus infections. To explore the potential antiviral activity of lactadherin sourced by equines, we undertook a proteomic analysis of milk fat globule membrane proteins from donkey milk and elucidated its amino acid sequence. Alignment of the human, bovine, and donkey lactadherin sequences revealed the presence of an Asp-Gly-Glu (DGE) α2β1 integrin-binding motif in the N-terminal domain of donkey sequence only. Because integrin α2β1 plays a critical role during early steps of rotavirus host cell adhesion, we tested a minilibrary of donkey lactadherin-derived peptides containing DGE sequence for anti-rotavirus activity. A 20-amino acid peptide containing both DGE and RGD motifs (named pDGE-RGD) showed the greatest activity, and its mechanism of antiviral action was characterized; pDGE-RGD binds to integrin α2β1 by means of the DGE motif and inhibits rotavirus attachment to the cell surface. These findings suggest the potential anti-rotavirus activity of equine lactadherin and support the feasibility of developing an anti-rotavirus peptide that acts by hindering virus-receptor binding. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Human cathelicidin peptide LL37 inhibits both attachment capability and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Hell, E; Giske, C G; Nelson, A; Römling, U; Marchini, G

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possible effect of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL37 on biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis, a major causative agent of indwelling device-related infections. We performed initial attachment assay and biofilm formation solid surface assay in microtitre plates, as well as growth experiment in liquid medium using laboratory strain Staph. epidermidis ATCC35984. We found that already a low concentration of the peptide LL37 (1 mg l(-1)) significantly decreased both the attachment of bacteria to the surface and also the biofilm mass. No growth inhibition was observed even at 16 mg l(-1) concentration of LL37, indicating a direct effect of the peptide on biofilm production. As biofilm protects bacteria during infections in humans and allows their survival in a hostile environment, inhibition of biofilm formation by LL37 may have a key role to prevent bacterial colonization on indwelling devices. Our findings suggest that this host defence factor can be a potential candidate in prevention and treatment strategies of Staph. epidermidis infections in humans.

  5. Comparison of the susceptibility of porcine and human dipeptidyl-peptidase IV to inhibition by protein-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Isabelle M E; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

    2015-07-01

    The enzyme dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is recognized to be a promising target for the management of type 2 diabetes. Over the last decade, numerous synthetic molecules and more recently, peptides from dietary proteins, have been reported to be able to inhibit DPP-IV activity. Most studies that have investigated the in vitro effect of these inhibitors have used porcine or human DPP-IV. Although structurally alike, it is unclear whether these two species display similar inhibition patterns. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of protein-derived peptides on the activity of porcine and recombinant human DPP-IV. The two species showed different inhibition susceptibility to 43 of the 62 peptide sequences investigated. While 37 protein-derived peptides were more effective at inhibiting the porcine DPP-IV, only six caused a stronger inhibition of the activity of the human enzyme. Although the peptides WR, IPIQY and WCKDDQNPHS were found to be among the most potent inhibitors of both species, the inhibitory effect was greater on the porcine enzyme than on human DPP-IV (αKi or Ki=11.5, 13.4, 13.3 μM and 31.4, 28.2, 75.0 μM for porcine and human DPP-IV, respectively). Investigation into the mode of action of the most effective inhibitory peptides revealed that both species were inhibited in a similar manner by short fragments (≤5 amino acid residues), but that some of the longer peptides acted differently on the enzymes. This study shows that porcine DPP-IV is generally inhibited with greater potency by protein-derived peptides than is the human enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Receptor kinase complex transmits RALF peptide signal to inhibit root growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Du, Changqing; Li, Xiushan; Chen, Jia; Chen, Weijun; Li, Bin; Li, Chiyu; Wang, Long; Li, Jianglin; Zhao, Xiaoying; Lin, Jianzhong; Liu, Xuanming; Luan, Sheng; Yu, Feng

    2016-12-20

    A number of hormones work together to control plant cell growth. Rapid Alkalinization Factor 1 (RALF1), a plant-derived small regulatory peptide, inhibits cell elongation through suppression of rhizosphere acidification in plants. Although a receptor-like kinase, FERONIA (FER), has been shown to act as a receptor for RALF1, the signaling mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we identified a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (RPM1-induced protein kinase, RIPK), a plasma membrane-associated member of the RLCK-VII subfamily, that is recruited to the receptor complex through interacting with FER in response to RALF1. RALF1 triggers the phosphorylation of both FER and RIPK in a mutually dependent manner. Genetic analysis of the fer-4 and ripk mutants reveals RIPK, as well as FER, to be required for RALF1 response in roots. The RALF1-FER-RIPK interactions may thus represent a mechanism for peptide signaling in plants.

  7. The inhibition of calcium carbonate crystal growth by the cysteine-rich Mdm2 peptide.

    PubMed

    Dalas, E; Chalias, A; Gatos, D; Barlos, K

    2006-08-15

    The crystal growth of calcite, the most stable calcium carbonate polymorph, in the presence of the cysteine-rich Mdm2 peptide (containing 48 amino acids in the ring finger configuration), has been investigated by the constant composition technique. Crystallization took place exclusively on well-characterized calcite crystals in solutions supersaturated only with respect to this calcium carbonate salt. The kinetic results indicated a surface diffusion spiral growth mechanism. The presence of the Mdm2 peptide inhibited the crystal growth of calcite by 22-58% in the concentration range tested, through adsorption onto the active growth sites of the calcite crystal surface. The kinetic results favored a Langmuir-type adsorption model, and the value of the calculated affinity constant was k(aff)=147x10(4) dm(3)mol(-1), a(ads)=0.29.

  8. Bax-inhibiting peptide protects glutamate-induced cerebellar granule cell death by blocking Bax translocation.

    PubMed

    Iriyama, Takayuki; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Kozuma, Shiro; Taketani, Yuji

    2009-02-13

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurological damages and disorders. In the brain damage of immature animals such as neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, the excitotoxicity appears to be more intimately involved through apoptosis. Bax, a member of the Bcl-2 family proteins, plays a key role in the promotion of apoptosis by translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria and the release of apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c. Recently, Bax-inhibiting peptide (BIP), a novel membrane-permeable peptide which can bind Bax in the cytosol and inhibit its translocation to the mitochondria, was developed. To investigate the possibility of a new neuroprotection strategy targeting Bax translocation in glutamate-induced neuronal cell death, cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were exposed to glutamate with or without BIP. Pretreatment of CGNs with BIP elicited a dose-dependent reduction of glutamate-induced neuronal cell death as measured by MTT assay. BIP significantly suppressed both the number of TUNEL-positive cells and the increase in caspases 3 and 9 activities induced by glutamate. In addition, immunoblotting after subcellular fractionation revealed that BIP prevented the glutamate-induced Bax translocation to the mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. These results suggest that agents capable of inhibiting Bax activity such as BIP might lead to new drugs for glutamate-related diseases in the future.

  9. Neonatal NET-inhibitory factor and related peptides inhibit neutrophil extracellular trap formation

    PubMed Central

    Yost, Christian C.; Schwertz, Hansjörg; Cody, Mark J.; Wallace, Jared A.; Campbell, Robert A.; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Araujo, Claudia V.; Schubert, Sebastian; Harris, Estelle S.; Rowley, Jesse W.; Rondina, Matthew T.; Koening, Curry L.; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil granulocytes, also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), extrude molecular lattices of decondensed chromatin studded with histones, granule enzymes, and antimicrobial peptides that are referred to as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs capture and contain bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens. Nevertheless, experimental evidence indicates that NETs also cause inflammatory vascular and tissue damage, suggesting that identifying pathways that inhibit NET formation may have therapeutic implications. Here, we determined that neonatal NET-inhibitory factor (nNIF) is an inhibitor of NET formation in umbilical cord blood. In human neonatal and adult neutrophils, nNIF inhibits key terminal events in NET formation, including peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) activity, neutrophil nuclear histone citrullination, and nuclear decondensation. We also identified additional nNIF-related peptides (NRPs) that inhibit NET formation. nNIFs and NRPs blocked NET formation induced by pathogens, microbial toxins, and pharmacologic agonists in vitro and in mouse models of infection and systemic inflammation, and they improved mortality in murine models of systemic inflammation, which are associated with NET-induced collateral tissue injury. The identification of NRPs as neutrophil modulators that selectively interrupt NET generation at critical steps suggests their potential as therapeutic agents. Furthermore, our results indicate that nNIF may be an important regulator of NET formation in fetal and neonatal inflammation. PMID:27599294

  10. Spider peptide toxin lycosin-I induces apoptosis and inhibits migration of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongwei; Xie, Yuan; Ye, Senlin; He, Kancheng; Yi, Lu; Cui, Rongrong

    2018-05-01

    Spider toxins are molecularly diverse and some display not only a strong antibacterial effect but also exhibit significant inhibition of tumor growth and promote tumor cell apoptosis. The aim of the present investigation was to explore different antitumor effects of the spider peptide toxin lycosin-I through different pathways at different concentrations. It was found that by inactivating STAT3 pathway, high concentrations of lycosin-I induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and low concentrations of lycosin-I inhibit the migration of prostate cancer cells. This finding provides favorable evidence for further study of the molecular diversity of spider toxins. Impact statement The spider peptide toxin has become an important research topic. These toxins are molecularly diverse and some display not only a strong antibacterial effect but also exhibit significant inhibition of tumor growth and promote tumor cell apoptosis. Inspired by previous studies, the present study aims to investigate the effects of different concentrations of lycosin-I on the invasiveness and apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells. The findings provide favorable evidence for further study of the molecular diversity of spider toxins.

  11. A peptide that inhibits hydroxyapatite growth is in an extended conformation on the crystal surface

    PubMed Central

    Long, Joanna R.; Dindot, John L.; Zebroski, Henry; Kiihne, Suzanne; Clark, Rutilio H.; Campbell, Allison A.; Stayton, Patrick S.; Drobny, Gary P.

    1998-01-01

    Proteins play an important role in the biological mechanisms controlling hard tissue development, but the details of molecular recognition at inorganic crystal interfaces remain poorly characterized. We have applied a recently developed homonuclear dipolar recoupling solid-state NMR technique, dipolar recoupling with a windowless sequence (DRAWS), to directly probe the conformation of an acidic peptide adsorbed to hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals. The phosphorylated hexapeptide, DpSpSEEK (N6, where pS denotes phosphorylated serine), was derived from the N terminus of the salivary protein statherin. Constant-composition kinetic characterization demonstrated that, like the native statherin, this peptide inhibits the growth of HAP seed crystals when preadsorbed to the crystal surface. The DRAWS technique was used to measure the internuclear distance between two 13C labels at the carbonyl positions of the adjacent phosphoserine residues. Dipolar dephasing measured at short mixing times yielded a mean separation distance of 3.2 ± 0.1 Å. Data obtained by using longer mixing times suggest a broad distribution of conformations about this average distance. Using a more complex model with discrete α-helical and extended conformations did not yield a better fit to the data and was not consistent with chemical shift analysis. These results suggest that the peptide is predominantly in an extended conformation rather than an α-helical state on the HAP surface. Solid-state NMR approaches can thus be used to determine directly the conformation of biologically relevant peptides on HAP surfaces. A better understanding of peptide and protein conformation on biomineral surfaces may provide design principles useful for the modification of orthopedic and dental implants with coatings and biological growth factors that are designed to enhance biocompatibility with surrounding tissue. PMID:9770443

  12. Small molecule and peptide-mediated inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Young; Song, Kyung-A; Samsung Biomedical Research Institute

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence that targeting EBNA1 dimer, an EBV onco-antigen, can be achievable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small molecule and a peptide as EBNA1 dimerization inhibitors identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both inhibitors associated with EBNA1 and blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also, prevented its dimerization, and repressed viral gene transcription. -- Abstract: Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with human B cell lymphomas and certain carcinomas. EBV episome persistence, replication, and gene expression are dependent on EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)'s DNA binding domain (DBD)/dimerization domain (DD)-mediated sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Homodimerization of EBNA1 is essential for EBNA1 DNA binding and transactivation.more » In this study, we characterized a novel small molecule EBNA1 inhibitor EiK1, screened from the previous high throughput screening (HTS). The EiK1 compound specifically inhibited the EBNA1-dependent, OriP-enhanced transcription, but not EBNA1-independent transcription. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Biacore assay revealed that EiK1 associates with EBNA1 amino acid 459-607 DBD/DD. Consistent with the SPR data, in vitro gel shift assays showed that EiK1 suppressed the activity of EBNA1 binding to the cognate familial repeats (FR) sequence, but not control RBP-J{kappa} binding to the J{kappa} site. Subsequently, a cross-linker-mediated in vitro multimerization assay and EBNA1 homodimerization-dependent yeast two-hybrid assay showed that EiK1 significantly inhibited EBNA1 dimerization. In an attempt to identify more highly specific peptide inhibitors, small peptides encompassing the EBNA1 DBD/DD were screened for inhibition of EBNA1 DBD-mediated DNA binding function. The small peptide P85, covering EBNA1 a.a. 560-574, significantly blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity in vitro, prevented dimerization in vitro and in vivo, associated

  13. Inhibition of serotonin release by bombesin-like peptides in rat hypothalamus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saporito, M S; Warwick, R O

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the activity of bombesin (BN), neuromedin-C (NM-C) and neuromedin-B (NM-B) on serotonin (5-HT) release and reuptake in rat hypothalamus (HYP) in vitro. BN and NM-C but not NM-B (all 1 microM) decreased K+ evoked 3H-5-HT release from superfused HYP slices by 25%. Bacitracin (BCN, 2 micrograms/ml), a nonspecific peptidase inhibitor, reversed the inhibitory effect of BN on K+ evoked 3H-5-HT release. Phosphoramidon (PAN, 10 microM) an endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor, abolished the inhibitory effect of BN, but not NM-C, on K+ evoked 3H-5-HT release. The peptidyl dipeptidase A inhibitor enalaprilat (ENP, 10 microM), enhanced both BN and NM-C inhibition of 3H-5-HT release. Bestatin (BST, 10 microM) had no effect on BN or NM-C inhibitory activity on 3H-5-HT release. Neither BN, NM-C nor NM-B affected reuptake of 3H-5-HT into HYP synaptosomes alone or in combination with any of the peptidase inhibitors, nor did these peptides alter the ability of fluoxetine to inhibit 3H-5-HT uptake. These data suggest: a) that BN-like peptides may alter neurotransmission in the HYP by acting presynaptically on the 5-HT release mechanism; b) a similarity in the structural requirements for the BN induced inhibition of 5-HT release and BN evoked thermoregulatory disturbances; and c) that peptidases may selectively augment or reduce pharmacologic activity of BN-like peptides upon CNS administration.

  14. A synthetic peptide blocking TRPV1 activation inhibits UV-induced skin responses.

    PubMed

    Kang, So Min; Han, Sangbum; Oh, Jang-Hee; Lee, Young Mee; Park, Chi-Hyun; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Transient receptor potential type 1 (TRPV1) can be activated by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and mediates UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and proinflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes. Various chemicals and compounds targeting TRPV1 activation have been developed, but are not in clinical use mostly due to their safety issues. We aimed to develop a novel TRPV1-targeting peptide to inhibit UV-induced responses in human skin. We designed and generated a novel TRPV1 inhibitory peptide (TIP) which mimics the specific site in TRPV1 (aa 701-709: Gln-Arg-Ala-Ile-Thr-Ile-Leu-Asp-Thr, QRAITILDT), Thr 705 , and tested its efficacy of blocking UV-induced responses in HaCaT, mouse, and human skin. TIP effectively inhibited capsaicin-induced calcium influx and TRPV1 activation. Treatment of HaCaT with TIP prevented UV-induced increases of MMP-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In mouse skin in vivo, TIP inhibited UV-induced skin thickening and prevented UV-induced expression of MMP-13 and MMP-9. Moreover, TIP attenuated UV-induced erythema and the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, IL-6, and IL-8 in human skin in vivo. The novel synthetic peptide targeting TRPV1 can ameliorate UV-induced skin responses in vitro and in vivo, providing a promising therapeutic approach against UV-induced inflammation and photoaging. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-12

    Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. * E-mail: connie.schmaljohn@amedd.army.mil Introduction Rift Valley fever (RVF...against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) 5d...MFLGWSFDFGSLWGNKPWF stem 450–468 RVFV-10sc WSSGLPFGNFGLSWFDMGFWS stem 447–467 doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002430.t001 Author Summary Entry into a cell is an essential

  16. Streptococcus mutans competence-stimulating peptide inhibits Candida albicans hypha formation.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Lucja M; Deng, Dong Mei; van der Mei, Henny C; Crielaard, Wim; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2009-11-01

    The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the human oral cavity, where it interacts with S. mutans. C. albicans is a polymorphic fungus, and the yeast-to-hypha transition is involved in virulence and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to investigate interkingdom communication between C. albicans and S. mutans based on the production of secreted molecules. S. mutans UA159 inhibited C. albicans germ tube (GT) formation in cocultures even when physically separated from C. albicans. Only S. mutans spent medium collected in the early exponential phase (4-h-old cultures) inhibited the GT formation of C. albicans. During this phase, S. mutans UA159 produces a quorum-sensing molecule, competence-stimulating peptide (CSP). The role of CSP in inhibiting GT formation was confirmed by using synthetic CSP and a comC deletion strain of S. mutans UA159, which lacks the ability to produce CSP. Other S. mutans strains and other Streptococcus spp. also inhibited GT formation but to different extents, possibly reflecting differences in CSP amino acid sequences among Streptococcus spp. or differences in CSP accumulation in the media. In conclusion, CSP, an S. mutans quorum-sensing molecule secreted during the early stages of growth, inhibits the C. albicans morphological switch.

  17. Mechanisms underlying chemoreceptor inhibition induced by atrial natriuretic peptide in rabbit carotid body.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W J; He, L; Chen, J; Dinger, B; Fidone, S

    1993-01-01

    1. Previous studies in our laboratory revealed the presence of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in preneural chemosensory type I cells of the cat carotid body, and demonstrated that submicromolar concentrations of the peptide inhibited carotid sinus nerve (CSN) activity evoked by hypoxia. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of the cyclic nucleotide second messenger, cyclic GMP (cGMP), and the involvement of type I cells in rabbit chemosensory inhibition. 2. Submicromolar concentrations of the potent ANP analogue, APIII, greatly elevated both the content and release of cGMP from the carotid body. Denervation experiments confirmed earlier immunocytochemical studies which suggested that APIII-induced cGMP production occurs almost exclusively in type I cells; these experiments also indicate that both the sympathetic and sensory innervation to the carotid body exert a trophic influence on the metabolism of this second messenger. 3. Submicromolar concentrations of APIII inhibited the CSN activity evoked by hypoxia (79.8 +/- 3.2% (mean +/- S.E.M.) inhibition with 100 nM APIII) and nicotine (74.5 +/- 3.6% inhibition with 100 nM APIII), but did not affect basal CSN activity established in 100% O2-equilibrated superfusion solutions. 4. The biologically inactive analogue of ANP, C-ANP, failed to produce CSN inhibition; however, the inhibitory effects of APIII were mimicked by cell-permeant analogues of cGMP (dibutyryl-cGMP and 8-bromo-cGMP, 2 mM), which likewise did not alter basal CSN activity. Because we found that unmodified cGMP was an ineffective inhibitor of CSN activity, our data suggest that APIII inhibition is mediated intracellularly by cGMP produced within the type I cells. 5. APIII does not inhibit the CSN activity produced by 20 mM K+ (in zero Ca2+ media), which very probably results from direct depolarization of the sensory nerve terminals. 6. Catecholamine release from the carotid body evoked by hypoxia is likewise not altered by APIII (100 nM). 7

  18. A peptide of heparin cofactor II inhibits endotoxin-mediated shock and invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath; van der Plas, Mariena J A; Mörgelin, Matthias; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis and septic shock remain important medical problems with high mortality rates. Today's treatment is based mainly on using antibiotics to target the bacteria, without addressing the systemic inflammatory response, which is a major contributor to mortality in sepsis. Therefore, novel treatment options are urgently needed to counteract these complex sepsis pathologies. Heparin cofactor II (HCII) has recently been shown to be protective against Gram-negative infections. The antimicrobial effects were mapped to helices A and D of the molecule. Here we show that KYE28, a 28 amino acid long peptide representing helix D of HCII, is antimicrobial against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the fungus Candida albicans. Moreover, KYE28 binds to LPS and thereby reduces LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by decreasing NF-κB/AP-1 activation in vitro. In mouse models of LPS-induced shock, KYE28 significantly enhanced survival by dampening the pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Finally, in an invasive Pseudomonas infection model, the peptide inhibited bacterial growth and reduced the pro-inflammatory response, which lead to a significant reduction of mortality. In summary, the peptide KYE28, by simultaneously targeting bacteria and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses represents a novel therapeutic candidate for invasive infections.

  19. A Peptide of Heparin Cofactor II Inhibits Endotoxin-Mediated Shock and Invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath; van der Plas, Mariena J. A.; Mörgelin, Matthias; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis and septic shock remain important medical problems with high mortality rates. Today's treatment is based mainly on using antibiotics to target the bacteria, without addressing the systemic inflammatory response, which is a major contributor to mortality in sepsis. Therefore, novel treatment options are urgently needed to counteract these complex sepsis pathologies. Heparin cofactor II (HCII) has recently been shown to be protective against Gram-negative infections. The antimicrobial effects were mapped to helices A and D of the molecule. Here we show that KYE28, a 28 amino acid long peptide representing helix D of HCII, is antimicrobial against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the fungus Candida albicans. Moreover, KYE28 binds to LPS and thereby reduces LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by decreasing NF-κB/AP-1 activation in vitro. In mouse models of LPS-induced shock, KYE28 significantly enhanced survival by dampening the pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Finally, in an invasive Pseudomonas infection model, the peptide inhibited bacterial growth and reduced the pro-inflammatory response, which lead to a significant reduction of mortality. In summary, the peptide KYE28, by simultaneously targeting bacteria and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses represents a novel therapeutic candidate for invasive infections. PMID:25047075

  20. Chimeric peptide-mediated siRNA transduction to inhibit HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Bivalkar-Mehla, Shalmali; Mehla, Rajeev; Chauhan, Ashok

    2017-04-01

    Persistent human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection provokes immune activation and depletes CD4 +  lymphocytes, leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Uninterrupted administration of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected patients suppresses viral replication to below the detectable level and partially restores the immune system. However, cART-unresponsive residual HIV-1 infection and elusive transcriptionally silent but reactivatable viral reservoirs maintain a permanent viral DNA blue print. The virus rebounds within a few weeks after interruption of suppressive therapy. Adjunct gene therapy to control viral replication by ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing strategy that could suppress residual HIV-1 burden and overcome viral resistance. Small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs) are efficient transcriptional inhibitors, but need delivery systems to reach inside target cells. We investigated the potential of chimeric peptide (FP-PTD) to deliver specific siRNAs to HIV-1-susceptible and permissive cells. Chimeric FP-PTD peptide was designed with an RNA binding domain (PTD) to bind siRNA and a cell fusion peptide domain (FP) to enter cells. FP-PTD-siRNA complex entered and inhibited HIV-1 replication in susceptible cells, and could be a candidate for in vivo testing.

  1. Simultaneous inhibition of key growth pathways in melanoma cells and tumor regression by a designed bidentate constrained helical peptide.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Amlanjyoti; Mallick, Shampa; Ghosh, Piya; Maiti, Atanu; Ahmed, Israr; Bhattacharya, Seemana; Mandal, Tapashi; Manna, Asit; Roy, Koushik; Singh, Sandeep; Nayak, Dipak Kumar; Wilder, Paul T; Markowitz, Joseph; Weber, David; Ghosh, Mrinal K; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Guha, Rajdeep; Konar, Aditya; Bandyopadhyay, Santu; Roy, Siddhartha

    2014-07-01

    Protein-protein interactions are part of a large number of signaling networks and potential targets for drug development. However, discovering molecules that can specifically inhibit such interactions is a major challenge. S100B, a calcium-regulated protein, plays a crucial role in the proliferation of melanoma cells through protein-protein interactions. In this article, we report the design and development of a bidentate conformationally constrained peptide against dimeric S100B based on a natural tight-binding peptide, TRTK-12. The helical conformation of the peptide was constrained by the substitution of α-amino isobutyric acid--an amino acid having high helical propensity--in positions which do not interact with S100B. A branched bidentate version of the peptide was bound to S100B tightly with a dissociation constant of 8 nM. When conjugated to a cell-penetrating peptide, it caused growth inhibition and rapid apoptosis in melanoma cells. The molecule exerts antiproliferative action through simultaneous inhibition of key growth pathways, including reactivation of wild-type p53 and inhibition of Akt and STAT3 phosphorylation. The apoptosis induced by the bidentate constrained helix is caused by direct migration of p53 to mitochondria. At moderate intravenous dose, the peptide completely inhibits melanoma growth in a mouse model without any significant observable toxicity. The specificity was shown by lack of ability of a double mutant peptide to cause tumor regression at the same dose level. The methodology described here for direct protein-protein interaction inhibition may be effective for rapid development of inhibitors against relatively weak protein-protein interactions for de novo drug development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Whey peptide Isoleucine-Tryptophan inhibits expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Kopaliani, Irakli; Martin, Melanie; Zatschler, Birgit; Müller, Bianca; Deussen, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Aortic stiffness is an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases. Activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity leads to overproduction of angiotensin II (ANGII) from its precursor angiotensin I (ANGI). ANGII leads to overexpression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), which is critically associated with pathophysiology of aortic stiffness. We previously reported that the whey peptide Isoleucine-Tryptophan (IW) acts as a potent ACE inhibitor. Herein, we critically elucidate the mechanism of action by which IW causes inhibition of expression and activity of MMP2 in aortic tissue. Effects of IW on expression and activity of MMP2 were assessed on endothelial and smooth muscle cells (ECs and SMCs) in vitro and ex vivo (isolated rat aorta). As controls we used the pharmaceutical ACE inhibitor - captopril and the ANGII type 1 receptor blocker - losartan. In vitro, both ANGII and ANGI stimulation significantly (P<0.01) increased expression of MMP2 assessed with western blot. Similarly, to captopril IW significantly (P<0.05) inhibited ANGI, but not ANGII mediated increase in expression of MMP2, while losartan also blocked effects of ANGII. Signaling pathways regulating MMP2 expression in ECs and SMCs were similarly inhibited after treatment with IW or captopril. In ECs IW significantly (P<0.05) inhibited JNK pathway, whereas in SMCs JAK2/STAT3 pathway, assessed with western blot. In vitro findings were fully consistent with results in isolated rat aorta ex vivo. Moreover, IW not only inhibited the MMP2 expression, but also its activation assessed with gelatin zymography. Our findings demonstrate that IW effectively inhibits expression and activation of MMP2 in rat aorta by decreasing local conversion of ANGI to ANGII. Thus, similar to pharmaceutical ACE inhibitor captopril the dipeptide IW may effectively inhibit ACE activity and prevent the age and hypertension

  3. Myostatin inhibition by a follistatin-derived peptide ameliorates the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy model mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, K

    2008-07-01

    Gene-targeted therapies, such as adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-mediated gene therapy and cell-mediated therapy using myogenic stem cells, are hopeful molecular strategies for muscular dystrophy. In addition, drug therapies based on the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy patients are desirable. Multidisciplinary approaches to drug design would offer promising therapeutic strategies. Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is predominantly produced by skeletal muscle and negatively regulates the growth and differentiation of cells of the skeletal muscle lineage. Myostatin inhibition would increase the skeletal muscle mass and prevent muscle degeneration, regardless of the type of muscular dystrophy. Myostatin inhibitors include myostatin antibodies, myostatin propeptide, follistatin and follistatin-related protein. Although follistatin possesses potent myostatin-inhibiting activity, it works as an efficient inhibitor of activins. Unlike myostatin, activins regulate the growth and differentiation of nearly all cell types, including cells of the gonads, pituitary gland and skeletal muscle. We have developed a myostatin-specific inhibitor derived from follistatin, designated FS I-I. Transgenic mice expressing this myostatin-inhibiting peptide under the control of a skeletal muscle-specific promoter showed increased skeletal muscle mass and strength. mdx mice were crossed with FS I-I transgenic mice and any improvement of the pathological signs was investigated. The resulting mdx/FS I-I mice exhibited increased skeletal muscle mass and reduced cell infiltration in muscles. Muscle strength was also recovered in mdx/FS I-I mice. Our data indicate that myostatin inhibition by this follistatin-derived peptide has therapeutic potential for muscular dystrophy.

  4. Preliminary study on the inhibition of nuclear internalization of Tat peptides by conjugation with a receptor-specific peptide and fluorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Duanwen; Liang, Kexiang; Ye, Yunpeng; Tetteh, Elizabeth; Achilefu, Samuel

    2006-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that basic Tat peptide (48-57) internalized non-specifically in cells and localized in the nucleus. However, localization of imaging agents in cellular nucleus is not desirable because of the potential mutagenesis. When conjugated to the peptides that undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis, Tat peptide could target specific cells or pathologic tissue. We tested this hypothesis by incorporating a somatostatin receptor-avid peptide (octreotate, Oct) and two different fluorescent dyes, Cypate 2 (Cy2) and fluorescein 5'-carboxlic acid (5-FAM), into the Tat-peptide sequence. In addition to the Cy2 or 5-FAM-labeled Oct conjugated to Tat peptide (Tat) to produce Tat-Oct-Cypate2 or Tat-Oct-5-FAM, we also labeled the Tat the Tat peptide with these dyes (Tat-Cy2 and Tat-5-FAM) to serve as positive control. A somatostatin receptor-positive pancreatic tumor cell line, AR42J, was used to assess cell internalization. The results show that Tat-5-FAM and Tat-Cypate2 localized in both nucleus and cytoplasm of the cells. In contrast to Tat-Oct-Cypate2, which localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, Tat-Oct-5-FAM internalized in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus of AR42J cells. The internalizations were inhibited by adding non-labeled corresponding peptides, suggesting that the endocytoses of each group of labeled and the corresponding unlabeled compounds occurred through a common pathway. Thus, fluorescent probes and endocytosis complex between octreotate and somatostatin receptors in cytoplasm could control nuclear internalization of Tat peptides.

  5. Exploring monovalent and multivalent peptides for the inhibition of FBP21-tWW.

    PubMed

    Henning, Lisa Maria; Bhatia, Sumati; Bertazzon, Miriam; Marczynke, Michaela; Seitz, Oliver; Volkmer, Rudolf; Haag, Rainer; Freund, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of peptides to polyglycerol carriers represents an important route towards the multivalent display of protein ligands. In particular, the inhibition of low affinity intracellular protein-protein interactions can be addressed by this design. We have applied this strategy to develop binding partners for FBP21, a protein which is important for the splicing of pre-mRNA in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Firstly, by using phage display the optimized sequence WPPPPRVPR was derived which binds with K Ds of 80 μM and 150 µM to the individual WW domains and with a K D of 150 μM to the tandem-WW1-WW2 construct. Secondly, this sequence was coupled to a hyperbranched polyglycerol (hPG) that allowed for the multivalent display on the surface of the dendritic polymer. This novel multifunctional hPG-peptide conjugate displayed a K D of 17.6 µM which demonstrates that the new carrier provides a venue for the future inhibition of proline-rich sequence recognition by FBP21 during assembly of the spliceosome.

  6. Exploring monovalent and multivalent peptides for the inhibition of FBP21-tWW

    PubMed Central

    Bertazzon, Miriam; Marczynke, Michaela; Seitz, Oliver; Volkmer, Rudolf; Haag, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Summary The coupling of peptides to polyglycerol carriers represents an important route towards the multivalent display of protein ligands. In particular, the inhibition of low affinity intracellular protein–protein interactions can be addressed by this design. We have applied this strategy to develop binding partners for FBP21, a protein which is important for the splicing of pre-mRNA in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Firstly, by using phage display the optimized sequence WPPPPRVPR was derived which binds with K Ds of 80 μM and 150 µM to the individual WW domains and with a K D of 150 μM to the tandem-WW1–WW2 construct. Secondly, this sequence was coupled to a hyperbranched polyglycerol (hPG) that allowed for the multivalent display on the surface of the dendritic polymer. This novel multifunctional hPG-peptide conjugate displayed a K D of 17.6 µM which demonstrates that the new carrier provides a venue for the future inhibition of proline-rich sequence recognition by FBP21 during assembly of the spliceosome. PMID:26124874

  7. Klebsazolicin inhibits 70S ribosome by obstructing the peptide exit tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Metelev, Mikhail; Osterman, Ilya A.; Ghilarov, Dmitry

    Whereas screening of the small-molecule metabolites produced by most cultivatable microorganisms often results in the rediscovery of known compounds, genome-mining programs allow researchers to harness much greater chemical diversity, and result in the discovery of new molecular scaffolds. Here we report the genome-guided identification of a new antibiotic, klebsazolicin (KLB), from Klebsiella pneumoniae that inhibits the growth of sensitive cells by targeting ribosomes. A ribosomally synthesized post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP), KLB is characterized by the presence of a unique N-terminal amidine ring that is essential for its activity. Biochemical in vitro studies indicate that KLB inhibits ribosomes by interfering withmore » translation elongation. Structural analysis of the ribosome–KLB complex showed that the compound binds in the peptide exit tunnel overlapping with the binding sites of macrolides or streptogramin-B. KLB adopts a compact conformation and largely obstructs the tunnel. Engineered KLB fragments were observed to retain in vitro activity, and thus have the potential to serve as a starting point for the development of new bioactive compounds.« less

  8. Selective inhibition by a synthetic hirudin peptide of fibrin-dependent thrombosis in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Cadroy, Y.; Hanson, S.R.; Harker, L.A.

    1991-02-15

    To determine the importance of the thrombin substrate recognition exosite for fibrinogen binding in the formation of both arterial and venous thrombi the authors evaluated the antithrombotic effects of the tyrosine-sulfated dodecapeptide from residues 53-64 of hirudin (H peptide) in a nonhuman primate model. This peptide was studied because it inhibits thrombin cleavages of fibrinogen by simple competition without blocking enzyme catalytic-site function. When an exteriorized arteriovenous access shunt model was used in baboons (Papio anubis), thrombus formation was induced by placing a thrombogenic device made of (i) a segment of tubing coated covalently with type I collagen, which generatedmore » platelet-rich thrombi under arterial flow conditions, and (ii) two subsequent annular regions of flow expansion that produced fibrin-rich thrombi typically associated with venous valves and veins. Thrombus formation was quantified by measurements of {sup 111}In-labeled platelet and {sup 125}I-labeled fibrinogen deposition in both arterial-flow and venous-flow portions of the device. These finding suggest that, by competitive inhibition of fibrinogen binding to thrombin, fibrin-rich venous-type thrombus formation may be selectively prevented. This strategy may be therapeutically attractive for preserving normal platelet function when conventional anticoagulant therapy is contraindicated.« less

  9. Amyloid peptide Aβ40 inhibits aggregation of Aβ42: Evidence from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viet, Man Hoang; Li, Mai Suan

    2012-06-01

    Effects of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide Aβ40 on secondary structures of Aβ42 are studied by all-atom simulations using the GROMOS96 43a1 force field with explicit water. It is shown that in the presence of Aβ40 the beta-content of monomer Aβ42 is reduced. Since the fibril-prone conformation N* of full-length Aβ peptides has the shape of beta strand-loop-beta strand this result suggests that Aβ40 decreases the probability of observing N* of Aβ42 in monomer state. Based on this and the hypothesis that the higher is the population of N* the higher fibril formation rates, one can expect that, in agreement with the recent experiment, Aβ40 inhibit fibril formation of Aβ42. It is shown that the presence of Aβ40 makes the salt bridge D23-K28 and fragment 18-33 of Aβ42 more flexible providing additional support for this experimental fact. Our estimation of the binding free energy by the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area method reveals the inhibition mechanism that Aβ40 binds to Aβ42 modifying its morphology.

  10. Inhibition of the myostatin/Smad signaling pathway by short decorin-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    El Shafey, Nelly; Guesnon, Mickaël; Simon, Françoise; Deprez, Eric; Cosette, Jérémie; Stockholm, Daniel; Scherman, Daniel; Bigey, Pascal; Kichler, Antoine

    2016-02-15

    Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor 8, is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily that has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of the skeletal muscle mass. Indeed, while myostatin deletion or loss of function induces muscle hypertrophy, its overexpression or systemic administration causes muscle atrophy. Since myostatin blockade is effective in increasing skeletal muscle mass, myostatin inhibitors have been actively sought after. Decorin, a member of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family is a metalloprotein that was previously shown to bind and inactivate myostatin in a zinc-dependent manner. Furthermore, the myostatin-binding site has been shown to be located in the decorin N-terminal domain. In the present study, we investigated the anti-myostatin activity of short and soluble fragments of decorin. Our results indicate that the murine decorin peptides DCN48-71 and 42-65 are sufficient for inactivating myostatin in vitro. Moreover, we show that the interaction of mDCN48-71 to myostatin is strictly zinc-dependent. Binding of myostatin to activin type II receptor results in the phosphorylation of Smad2/3. Addition of the decorin peptide 48-71 decreased in a dose-dependent manner the myostatin-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 demonstrating thereby that the peptide inhibits the activation of the Smad signaling pathway. Finally, we found that mDCN48-71 displays a specificity towards myostatin, since it does not inhibit other members of the transforming growth factor-beta family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of the Hantavirus Fusion Process by Predicted Domain III and Stem Peptides from Glycoprotein Gc.

    PubMed

    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Villalón-Letelier, Fernando; Márquez, Chantal L; Bignon, Eduardo A; Acuña, Rodrigo; Ross, Breyan H; Monasterio, Octavio; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Vidal, Simon E; Tischler, Nicole D

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. To enter cells, hantaviruses fuse their envelope membrane with host cell membranes. Previously, we have shown that the Gc envelope glycoprotein is the viral fusion protein sharing characteristics with class II fusion proteins. The ectodomain of class II fusion proteins is composed of three domains connected by a stem region to a transmembrane anchor in the viral envelope. These fusion proteins can be inhibited through exogenous fusion protein fragments spanning domain III (DIII) and the stem region. Such fragments are thought to interact with the core of the fusion protein trimer during the transition from its pre-fusion to its post-fusion conformation. Based on our previous homology model structure for Gc from Andes hantavirus (ANDV), here we predicted and generated recombinant DIII and stem peptides to test whether these fragments inhibit hantavirus membrane fusion and cell entry. Recombinant ANDV DIII was soluble, presented disulfide bridges and beta-sheet secondary structure, supporting the in silico model. Using DIII and the C-terminal part of the stem region, the infection of cells by ANDV was blocked up to 60% when fusion of ANDV occurred within the endosomal route, and up to 95% when fusion occurred with the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the fragments impaired ANDV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion, and cross-inhibited the fusion mediated by the glycoproteins from Puumala virus (PUUV). The Gc fragments interfered in ANDV cell entry by preventing membrane hemifusion and pore formation, retaining Gc in a non-resistant homotrimer stage, as described for DIII and stem peptide inhibitors of class II fusion proteins. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hantavirus Gc shares not only structural, but also mechanistic similarity with class II viral fusion proteins, and will hopefully help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against hantaviruses.

  12. A peptide targeted against phosphoprotein and leader RNA interaction inhibits growth of Chandipura virus -- an emerging rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arunava; Chakraborty, Prasenjit; Polley, Smarajit; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Roy, Siddhartha

    2013-11-01

    The fatal illness caused by Chandipura virus (CHPV), an emerging pathogen, presently lacks any therapeutic option. Previous research suggested that interaction between the virally encoded phosphoprotein (P) and the positive sense leader RNA (le-RNA) may play an important role in the viral lifecycle. In this report, we have identified a β-sheet/loop motif in the C-terminal domain of the CHPV P protein as essential for this interaction. A synthetic peptide encompassing this motif and spanning a continuous stretch of 36 amino acids (Pep208-243) was found to bind the le-RNA in vitro and inhibit CHPV growth in infected cells. Furthermore, a stretch of three amino acid residues at position 217-219 was identified as essential for this interaction, both in vitro and in infected cells. siRNA knockdown-rescue experiments demonstrated that these three amino acid residues are crucial for the leader RNA binding function of P protein in the CHPV life cycle. Mutations of these three amino acid residues render the peptide completely ineffective against CHPV. Effect of inhibition of phosphoprotein-leader RNA interaction on viral replication was assayed. Peptide Pep208-243 tagged with a cell penetrating peptide was found to inhibit CHPV replication as ascertained by real time RT-PCR. The specific inhibition of viral growth observed using this peptide suggests a new possibility for designing of anti-viral agents against Mononegavirale group of human viruses. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Small peptides patterned after the N-terminus domain of SNAP25 inhibit SNARE complex assembly and regulated exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Blanes-Mira, Clara; Merino, Jaime M; Valera, Elvira; Fernández-Ballester, Gregorio; Gutiérrez, Luis M; Viniegra, Salvador; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic peptides patterned after the C-terminus of synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) efficiently abrogate regulated exocytosis. In contrast, the use of SNAP25 N-terminal-derived peptides to modulate SNAP receptors (SNARE) complex assembly and neurosecretion has not been explored. Here, we show that the N-terminus of SNAP25, specially the segment that encompasses 22Ala-44Ile, is essential for the formation of the SNARE complex. Peptides patterned after this protein domain are potent inhibitors of SNARE complex formation. The inhibitory activity correlated with their propensity to adopt an alpha-helical secondary structure. These peptides abrogated SNARE complex formation only when added previous to the onset of aggregate assembly. Analysis of the mechanism of action revealed that these peptides disrupted the binary complex formed by SNAP25 and syntaxin. The identified peptides inhibited Ca2+-dependent exocytosis from detergent-permeabilized excitable cells. Noteworthy, these amino acid sequences markedly protected intact hippocampal neurones against hypoglycaemia-induced, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity with a potency that rivalled that displayed by botulinum neurotoxins. Our findings indicate that peptides patterned after the N-terminus of SNAP25 are potent inhibitors of SNARE complex formation and neuronal exocytosis. Because of their activity in intact neurones, these cell permeable peptides may be hits for antispasmodic and analgesic drug development.

  14. Engineered chimeric peptides with antimicrobial and titanium-binding functions to inhibit biofilm formation on Ti implants.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hongjuan; Yuan, Yang; Adayi, Aidina; Zhang, Xu; Song, Xin; Gong, Lei; Zhang, Xi; Gao, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) implants have been commonly used in oral medicine. However, despite their widespread clinical application, these implants are susceptible to failure induced by microbial infection due to bacterial biofilm formation. Immobilization of chimeric peptides with antibacterial properties on the Ti surface may be a promising antimicrobial approach to inhibit biofilm formation. Here, chimeric peptides were designed by connecting three sequences (hBD-3-1/2/3) derived from human β-defensin-3 (hBD-3) with Ti-binding peptide-l (TBP-l: RKLPDAGPMHTW) via a triple glycine (G) linker to modify Ti surfaces. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the properties of individual domains of the chimeric peptides were evaluated for their binding activity toward the Ti surface. The antimicrobial and anti-biofilm efficacy of the peptides against initial settlers, Streptococcus oralis (S. oralis), Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii) and Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis), was evaluated with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to study cell membrane changes and the underlying antimicrobial mechanism. Compared with the other two peptides, TBP-1-GGG-hBD3-3 presented stronger antibacterial activity and remained stable in saliva and serum. Therefore, it was chosen as the best candidate to modify Ti surfaces in this study. This peptide inhibited the growth of initial streptococci and biofilm formation on Ti surfaces with no cytotoxicity to MC3T3-E1 cells. Disruption of the integrity of bacterial membranes and decreased expression of adhesion protein genes from S. gordonii revealed aspects of the antibacterial mechanism of TBP-1-GGG-hBD3-3. We conclude that engineered chimeric peptides with antimicrobial activity provide a potential solution for inhibiting biofilm formation on Ti surfaces to reduce or prevent the occurrence of peri

  15. IL-10 inhibits while calcitriol reestablishes placental antimicrobial peptides gene expression.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Barrera, David; Zaga-Clavellina, Verónica; Avila, Euclides; Halhali, Ali; Biruete, Benjamín; Larrea, Fernando; Díaz, Lorenza

    2015-04-01

    IL-10 and calcitriol help to achieve a successful pregnancy by suppressing active maternal immunity; however, these factors exert opposite effects upon microbial infections. In the skin and immune cells, IL-10 downregulates β-defensins while calcitriol induces cathelicidin gene expression in various tissues including placenta. Though, the regulation of human placental β-defensins by IL-10 and calcitriol has not been studied. Therefore, we explored the regulation of these antimicrobial peptides expression in cultured placental cells by calcitriol and IL-10 alone and combined. Real time PCR showed that calcitriol stimulated, while IL-10 inhibited, β-defensins and cathelicidin gene expression (P<0.05). In coincubations studies, calcitriol was able to maintain antimicrobial peptides gene expression above control values, overriding IL-10 inhibitory effects. Calcitriol downregulated endogenous IL-10 secretion. Interestingly, calcitriol and TNF-α cooperatively enhanced β-defensins, while TNF-α reduced basal and calcitriol-stimulated cathelicidin gene expression. In summary, calcitriol and IL-10 exerted opposite effects on antimicrobial peptides expression in the human placenta, suggesting that unbalanced production of IL-10 and calcitriol could be deleterious to innate immune responses during gestation. Our results suggest that calcitriol enhancement of placental defenses involves two mechanisms: (1) downregulation of IL-10 secretion and (2) direct upregulation of β-defensins and cathelicidin gene expression. Considering that IL-10 and calcitriol differentially regulate the innate immune response in the placenta, in the case of an infection, calcitriol might restrict IL-10 permissive actions towards microbial invasion while restrains inflammation, allowing for pregnancy to continue in quiescence. These results strongly advice maternal vitamin D sufficiency during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hsp70 and Antifibrillogenic Peptides Promote Degradation and Inhibit Intracellular Aggregation of Amyloidogenic Light Chains

    PubMed Central

    Dul, Jeanne L.; Davis, David P.; Williamson, Edward K.; Stevens, Fred J.; Argon, Yair

    2001-01-01

    In light chain (LC) amyloidosis an immunoglobulin LC assembles into fibrils that are deposited in various tissues. Little is known about how these fibrils form in vivo. We previously showed that a known amyloidogenic LC, SMA, can give rise to amyloid fibrils in vitro when a segment of one of its β sheets undergoes a conformational change, exposing an Hsp70 binding site. To examine SMA aggregation in vivo, we expressed it and its wild-type counterpart, LEN, in COS cells. While LEN is rapidly oxidized and subsequently secreted, newly synthesized SMA remains in the reduced state. Most SMA molecules are dislocated out of the ER into the cytosol, where they are ubiquitinylated and degraded by proteasomes. A parallel pathway for molecules that are not degraded is condensation into perinuclear aggresomes that are surrounded by vimentin-containing intermediate filaments and are dependent upon intact microtubules. Inhibition of proteasome activity shifts the balance toward aggresome formation. Intracellular aggregation is decreased and targeting to proteasomes improved by overexpression of the cytosolic chaperone Hsp70. Importantly, transduction into the cell of an Hsp70 target peptide, derived from the LC sequence, also reduces aggresome formation and increases SMA degradation. These results demonstrate that an amyloidogenic LC can aggregate intracellularly despite the common presentation of extracellular aggregates, and that a similar molecular surface mediates both in vitro fibril formation and in vivo aggregation. Furthermore, rationally designed peptides can be used to suppress this aggregation and may provide a feasible therapeutic approach. PMID:11266462

  17. Madumycin II inhibits peptide bond formation by forcing the peptidyl transferase center into an inactive state

    SciTech Connect

    Osterman, Ilya A.; Khabibullina, Nelli F.; Komarova, Ekaterina S.

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is limiting the effectiveness of commonly used antibiotics, which spurs a renewed interest in revisiting older and poorly studied drugs. Streptogramins A is a class of protein synthesis inhibitors that target the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) on the large subunit of the ribosome. In this work, we have revealed the mode of action of the PTC inhibitor madumycin II, an alanine-containing streptogramin A antibiotic, in the context of a functional 70S ribosome containing tRNA substrates. Madumycin II inhibits the ribosome prior to the first cycle of peptide bond formation. It allows binding of themore » tRNAs to the ribosomal A and P sites, but prevents correct positioning of their CCA-ends into the PTC thus making peptide bond formation impossible. We also revealed a previously unseen drug-induced rearrangement of nucleotides U2506 and U2585 of the 23S rRNA resulting in the formation of the U2506•G2583 wobble pair that was attributed to a catalytically inactive state of the PTC. The structural and biochemical data reported here expand our knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms by which peptidyl transferase inhibitors modulate the catalytic activity of the ribosome.« less

  18. Transition metal ions mediated tyrosine based short peptide amphiphile nanostructures inhibit bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Khashti Ballabh; Singh, Ramesh; Mishra, Narendra Kumar; Kumar, Vikas; Vinayak, Vandana

    2018-05-17

    We report the design and synthesis of biocompatible small peptide based molecule for the controlled and targeted delivery of the encapsulated bioactive metal ions via transforming their internal nanostructures. Tyrosine based short peptide amphiphile (sPA) was synthesized which self-assembled into β-sheet like secondary structures. The self assembly of the designed sPA was modulated by using different bioactive transition metal ions which is confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. These bioactive metal ions conjugated sPA hybrid structures are further used to develop antibacterial materials. It is due to the excellent antibacterial activity of zinc ions that the growth of clinically relevant bacteria such as E. Coli was inhibited in the presence of zinc-sPA conjugate. The bacterial test demonstrated that owing to high biocompatibility with bacterial cell, the designed sPA worked as metal ions delivery agent and therefore it can show great potential in locally addressing bacterial infections. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Towards Tuneable Retaining Glycosidase-Inhibiting Peptides by Mimicry of a Plant Flavonol Warhead.

    PubMed

    Yoshisada, Ryoji; van Gijzel, Lieke; Jongkees, Seino A K

    2017-12-05

    Retaining glycosidases are an important class of enzymes involved in glycan degradation. To study better the role of specific enzymes in deglycosylation processes, and thereby the importance of particular glycosylation patterns, a set of potent inhibitors, each specific to a particular glycosidase, would be an invaluable toolkit. Towards this goal, we detail here a more in-depth study of a prototypical macrocyclic peptide inhibitor of the model retaining glycosidase human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA). Notably, incorporation of l-DOPA into this peptide affords an inhibitor of HPA with potency that is tenfold higher (K i =480 pm) than that of the previously found consensus sequence. This represents a first successful step in converting a recently discovered natural-product-derived motif, already specific for the catalytic side-chain arrangement conserved in the active sites of retaining glycosidases, into a tuneable retaining glycosidase inhibition warhead. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Hsp70 and antifibrillogenic peptides promote degradation and inhibit intracellular aggregation of amyloidogenic light chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Dul, J. L.; Davis, D. P.; Williamson, E. K.

    2001-02-19

    In light chain (LC) amyloidosis an immunoglobulin LC assembles into fibrils that are deposited in various tissues. Little is known about how these fibrils form in vivo. We previously showed that a known amyloidogenic LC, SMA, can give rise to amyloid fibrils in vitro when a segment of one of its {beta} sheets undergoes a conformational change, exposing an Hsp70 binding site. To examine SMA aggregation in vivo, we expressed it and its wild-type counterpart, LEN, in COS cells. While LEN is rapidly oxidized and subsequently secreted, newly synthesized SMA remains in the reduced state. Most SMA molecules are dislocatedmore » out of the ER into the cytosol, where they are ubiquitinylated and degraded by proteasomes. A parallel pathway for molecules that are not degraded is condensation into perinuclear aggresomes that are surrounded by vimentin-containing intermediate filaments and are dependent upon intact microtubules. Inhibition of proteasome activity shifts the balance toward aggresome formation. Intracellular aggregation is decreased and targeting to proteasomes improved by overexpression of the cytosolic chaperone Hsp70. Importantly, transduction into the cell of an Hsp70 target peptide, derived from the LC sequence, also reduces aggresome formation and increases SMA degradation. These results demonstrate that an amyloidogenic LC can aggregate intracellularly despite the common presentation of extracellular aggregates, and that a similar molecular surface mediates both in vitro fibril formation and in vivo aggregation. Furthermore, rationally designed peptides can be used to suppress this aggregation and may provide a feasible therapeutic approach.« less

  1. Structural Basis for the Effective Myostatin Inhibition of the Mouse Myostatin Prodomain-Derived Minimum Peptide.

    PubMed

    Asari, Tomo; Takayama, Kentaro; Nakamura, Akari; Shimada, Takahiro; Taguchi, Akihiro; Hayashi, Yoshio

    2017-01-12

    Myostatin inhibition is one of the promising strategies for treating muscle atrophic disorders, including muscular dystrophy. It is well-known that the myostatin prodomain derived from the myostatin precursor acts as an inhibitor of mature myostatin. In our previous study, myostatin inhibitory minimum peptide 1 (WRQNTRYSRIEAIKIQILSKLRL-amide) was discovered from the mouse myostatin prodomain. In the present study, alanine scanning of 1 demonstrated that the key amino acid residues for the effective inhibitory activity are rodent-specific Tyr and C-terminal aliphatic residues, in addition to N-terminal Trp residue. Subsequently, we designed five Pro-substituted peptides and examined the relationship between secondary structure and inhibitory activity. As a result, we found that Pro-substitutions of Ala or Gln residues around the center of 1 significantly decreased both α-helicity and inhibitory activity. These results suggested that an α-helical structure possessing hydrophobic faces formed around the C-terminus is important for inhibitory activity.

  2. Triflavin, an Arg‐Gly‐Asp‐containing Peptide, Inhibits Tumor Cell‐induced Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Joen R.; Lin, Chao H.; Peng, Hui C.; Teng, Che M.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of triflavin, an Arg‐Gly‐Asp (RGD)‐containing snake venom peptide, on human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell‐ and B16‐F10 mouse melanoma cell‐induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) in heparinized platelet‐rich plasma. TCIPA appears to play an important role in the development of certain experimental tumor metastases. Two ADP‐scavenging agents, apyrase (10 U/ml) and creatine phosphate (CP) (5 mM)/creatine phosphokinase (CPK) (5 U/ml) completely inhibited B16‐F10 TCIPA, but hirudin (5 U/ml) had no effect. In contrast, apyrase and CP/CPK did not inhibit HeLa TCIPA while hirudin completely inhibited it. Furthermore, HeLa cells initially induced platelet aggregation and then blood coagulation at a later stage. In addition, HeLa cells shortened, in a concentration‐dependent manner, the recalcification time of normal as well as factor VIII‐ and IX‐deficient human plasma, but did not affect the recalciflcation time of factor VII‐deficient plasma. This suggests that HeLa TCIPA occurs via activation of the extrinsic pathway, probably owing to tumor cell expression of tissue factor‐like activity. HeLa cell‐induced thrombin generation was confirmed by detection of amidolytic activity towards a chromogenic substrate, S‐2238 (H‐D‐Phe‐Pip‐Arg‐p‐NA). Triflavin and GRGDS inhibited, in a dose‐dependent manner, TCIPA caused by either cell line. On a molar basis, triflavin was 10,000–30,000 times more potent than GRGDS in this regard. Moreover, monoclonal antibodies raised against glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa complex (i.e., 7E3 and AP2) and against GP Ib (i.e., AP1) completely inhibited HeLa TCIPA. 7E3 and AP2 inhibited B16‐F10 TCIPA by up to 80% whereas AP1 showed only 30% inhibition of B16‐F10 TCIPA. In conclusion, the inhibitory effect of triflavin on HeLa and B16‐F10 TCIPA may be mediated principally by the binding of triflavin to the fibrinogen receptor associated with GP IIb/IIIa complex on the

  3. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferricin, a Peptide Derived from Bovine Lactoferrin, Inhibit Tumor Metastasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shikiko; Watanabe, Ryosuke; Hata, Katsusuke; Shimazaki, Kei–ichi; Azuma, Ichiro

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a bovine milk protein, lactoferrin (LF–B), and a pepsin–generated peptide of LF–B, lactoferricin (Lfcin–B), on inhibition of tumor metastasis produced by highly metastatic murine tumor cells, B16–BL6 melanoma and L5178Y–ML25 lymphoma cells, using experimental and spontaneous metastasis models in syngeneic mice. The subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of bovine apo–lactoferrin (apo–LF–B, 1 mg/mouse) and Lfcin–B (0.5 mg/monse) 1 day after tumor inoculation significantly inhibited liver and lung metastasis of L5178Y–ML25 cells. However, human apo–lactoferrin (apo–LF–H) and bovine holo–lactoferrin (holo–LF–B) at the dose of 1 mg/mouse failed to inhibit tumor metastasis of L5178Y–ML25 cells. Similarly, the s.c. administration of apo–LF–B as well as Lfcin–B, but not apo–LF–H and holo–LF–B, 1 day after tumor inoculation resulted in significant inhibition of lung metastasis of B16–BL6 cells in an experimental metastasis model. Furthermore, in in vivo analysis for tumor–induced angiogenesis, both apo–LF–B and Lfcin–B inhibited the number of tumor–induced blood vessels and suppressed tumor growth on day 8 after tumor inoculation. However, in a long–term analysis of tumor growth for up to 21 days after tumor inoculation, single administration of apo–LF–B significantly suppressed the growth of B16–BL6 cells throughout the examination period, whereas Lfcin–B showed inhibitory activity only during the early period (8 days). In spontaneous metastasis of B16–BL6 melanoma cells, multiple administration of both apo–LF–B and Lfcin–B into tumor–bearing mice significantly inhibited lung metastasis produced by B16–BL6 cells, though only apo–LF–B exhibited an inhibitory effect on tumor growth at the time of primary tumor amputation (on day 21) after tumor inoculation. These results suggest that apo–LF–B and Lfcin–B inhibit tumor metastasis through different

  4. A peptide representing the carboxyl-terminal tail of the met receptor inhibits kinase activity and invasive growth.

    PubMed

    Bardelli, A; Longati, P; Williams, T A; Benvenuti, S; Comoglio, P M

    1999-10-08

    Interaction of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) with its receptor, the Met tyrosine kinase, results in invasive growth, a genetic program essential to embryonic development and implicated in tumor metastasis. Met-mediated invasive growth requires autophosphorylation of the receptor on tyrosines located in the kinase activation loop (Tyr(1234)-Tyr(1235)) and in the carboxyl-terminal tail (Tyr(1349)-Tyr(1356)). We report that peptides derived from the Met receptor tail, but not from the activation loop, bind the receptor and inhibit the kinase activity in vitro. Cell delivery of the tail receptor peptide impairs HGF-dependent Met phosphorylation and downstream signaling. In normal and transformed epithelial cells, the tail receptor peptide inhibits HGF-mediated invasive growth, as measured by cell migration, invasiveness, and branched morphogenesis. The Met tail peptide inhibits the closely related Ron receptor but does not significantly affect the epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor activities. These experiments show that carboxyl-terminal sequences impair the catalytic properties of the Met receptor, thus suggesting that in the resting state the nonphosphorylated tail acts as an intramolecular modulator. Furthermore, they provide a strategy to selectively target the MET proto-oncogene by using small, cell-permeable, peptide derivatives.

  5. Inhibition of Henipavirus fusion and infection by heptad-derived peptides of the Nipah virus fusion glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Bossart, Katharine N; Mungall, Bruce A; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Eaton, Bryan T; Broder, Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Background The recent emergence of four new members of the paramyxovirus family has heightened the awareness of and re-energized research on new and emerging diseases. In particular, the high mortality and person to person transmission associated with the most recent Nipah virus outbreaks, as well as the very recent re-emergence of Hendra virus, has confirmed the importance of developing effective therapeutic interventions. We have previously shown that peptides corresponding to the C-terminal heptad repeat (HR-2) of the fusion envelope glycoprotein of Hendra virus and Nipah virus were potent inhibitors of both Hendra virus and Nipah virus-mediated membrane fusion using recombinant expression systems. In the current study, we have developed shorter, second generation HR-2 peptides which include a capped peptide via amidation and acetylation and two poly(ethylene glycol)-linked (PEGylated) peptides, one with the PEG moity at the C-terminus and the other at the N-terminus. Here, we have evaluated these peptides as well as the corresponding scrambled peptide controls in Nipah virus and Hendra virus-mediated membrane fusion and against infection by live virus in vitro. Results Unlike their predecessors, the second generation HR-2 peptides exhibited high solubility and improved synthesis yields. Importantly, both Nipah virus and Hendra virus-mediated fusion as well as live virus infection were potently inhibited by both capped and PEGylated peptides with IC50 concentrations similar to the original HR-2 peptides, whereas the scrambled modified peptides had no inhibitory effect. These data also indicate that these chemical modifications did not alter the functional properties of the peptides as inhibitors. Conclusion Nipah virus and Hendra virus infection in vitro can be potently blocked by specific HR-2 peptides. The improved synthesis and solubility characteristics of the second generation HR-2 peptides will facilitate peptide synthesis for pre-clinical trial

  6. Inhibition of gentamicin binding to rat renal brush-border membrane by megalin ligands and basic peptides.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Junya; Saito, Masaki; Adachi, Yoshinori; Yumoto, Ryoko; Takano, Mikihisa

    2006-05-01

    Our previous studies showed that coadministration of cytochrome c and a 20-residue basic peptide, N-WASP181-200 (NISHTKEKKKGKAKKKRLTK, pI=10.87) inhibits renal accumulation of gentamicin. In this study, we examined effects of ligands of megalin, an endocytic receptor involved in renal uptake of gentamicin, and basic peptides including N-WASP180-200 and its mutant peptides on gentamicin binding to isolated rat renal brush-border membrane (BBM). Gentamicin binding to BBM was inhibited by megalin ligands, basic peptide fragments of cytochrome c, and N-WASP181-200 in a concentration-dependent manner. Klotz plot analysis showed that N-WASP181-200 inhibited the binding of gentamicin in a competitive manner. By substituting glycines for lysines in N-WASP181-200 at positions 9 and 15, the inhibitory effect on gentamicin binding to BBM was reduced, which may be related to a decrease in the alpha-helix content in the peptide. Gentamicin binding to BBM treated with trypsin, in which megalin completely disappeared, was significantly but not completely decreased compared with the native BBM. In addition, treatment of BBM with trypsin led to a decrease in the inhibitory effect of N-WASP181-200 on gentamicin binding. These observations support that megalin ligands and basic peptides including N-WASP181-200 decrease renal accumulation of gentamicin by inhibiting its binding to BBM of proximal tubule cells, partly interacting with megalin. In addition, the alpha-helix conformation may play an important role in the inhibitory effect of N-WASP181-200 on the binding of gentamicin to BBM.

  7. Atrial natriuretic peptide: a possible mediator involved in dexamethasone's inhibition of cell proliferation in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiang-Hua; Chang, Yu-Sui

    2012-08-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been recognized for several decades for its role of regulating blood pressure. Recently, cumulating evidences show that ANP plays an anticancer role in various solid tumors via blocking the kinase cascade of Ras-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 with the result of inhibition of DNA synthesis. ANP, as well as its receptors (NPR-A and NPR-C) has been identified present in the embryonic stem cell and a wide range of cancer cells. Various lymphoid organs, such as lymph nodes, have been detected the presence of ANP. Multiple myeloma (MM), though the therapies have evolved significantly, is still an incurable disease as B lymphocyte cell neoplasm. Dexamethasone is the cornerstone in treatment of MM via inactivation of Ras-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade reaction. Coincidently, dexamethasone can increase the expression of ANP markedly. Nevertheless, the role of ANP in MM is unclear. Based on these results above, we raise the hypothesis that ANP is involved in mediating dexamethasone's inhibition of proliferation in MM cells, which suggests that ANP may be a potential agent to treat MM. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lacosamide inhibits calcitonin gene-related peptide production and release at trigeminal level in the rat.

    PubMed

    Greco, M C; Capuano, A; Navarra, P; Tringali, G

    2016-07-01

    Several classes of drugs are effective in prevention and treatment of migraine, although they may differ among each other in their mode of action and in indications. One such class is represented by antiepileptics. Lacosamide is an approved antiepileptic drug that also shows antinociceptive activity in animal models, including analgesic efficacy in central and trigeminal pain. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is considered the main neuro-mediator of trigeminal signalling, playing an essential role in headache, migraine in particular. Here, we investigated the effects of lacosamide on CGRP signalling in both in vitro and ex vivo/vitro models in the rat. We assessed: (1) CGRP released from brainstem explants at baseline or after pharmacological challenges; and (2) CGRP levels in brain areas after in vivo treatments with test drugs. We found that: (1) lacosamide inhibits CGRP release from brainstem explants under basal conditions as well as after stimulation by 56 mM KCl, 10 μM veratridine or 1 μM capsaicin; and (2) the i.p. administration of nitroglycerine produces an increase in CGRP levels in the brainstem and trigeminal ganglia, which is inhibited by a pre-treatment with lacosamide. These findings provide preliminary evidence suggesting that lacosamide is able to control pain transmission under conditions affecting the trigeminal system, such as migraine. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  9. Fusion protein of CDR mimetic peptide with Fc inhibit TNF-alpha induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Weisong; Feng, Jiannan; Li, Yan; Lin, Zhou; Shen, Beifen

    2006-02-01

    The variable regions of antibodies play central roles in the binding with antigens. Based on the model of a tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) neutralizing monoclonal antibody (named as Z12) with TNF-alpha, heavy chain CDR2 (HCDR2) and light chain CDR3 (LCDR3) of Z12 were found to be the most responsible to bind with TNF-alpha. A mimetic peptide (PT) was designed based on the sequence derived from HCDR2 and LCDR3. Fusion protein PT-Fc was constructed by linking PT with Fc of human IgG1 through a flexible linker (GGGGGS). The primary structural characteristics of Fc and PT-Fc were analyzed, including the flexibility, hydrophilicity and epitopes. It was demonstrated that PT and Fc in the fusion protein possessed bio-function properly and non-interfering with each other. Furthermore, PT-Fc was expressed in Escherichia coli by fusion with thioredoxin (Trx). After trx-PT-Fc was cleaved with recombinant enterokinase, PT-Fc was obtained. The results of in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that both PT and PT-Fc could efficiently inhibit TNF-alpha induced apoptosis on L929 cells. At the same micromole concentration, the inhibition activity of PT-Fc was significantly higher than PT.

  10. DrsG from Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Inhibits the Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Danielle; Cameron, Ainslie; Davies, Mark R.; McNeilly, Celia; Hafner, Louise; Sriprakash, Kadaba S.

    2014-01-01

    SIC and DRS are related proteins present in only 4 of the >200 Streptococcus pyogenes emm types. These proteins inhibit complement-mediated lysis and/or the activity of certain antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). A gene encoding a homologue of these proteins, herein called DrsG, has been identified in the related bacterium Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Here we show that geographically dispersed isolates representing 14 of 50 emm types examined possess variants of drsG. However, not all isolates within the drsG-positive emm types possess the gene. Sequence comparisons also revealed a high degree of conservation in different S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis emm types. To examine the biological activity of DrsG, recombinant versions of two major DrsG variants, DrsGS and DrsGL, were expressed and purified. Western blot analysis using antisera raised to these proteins demonstrated both variants to be expressed and secreted into culture supernatants. Unlike SIC, but similar to DRS, DrsG does not inhibit complement-mediated lysis. However, like both SIC and DRS, DrsG is a ligand of the cathelicidin LL-37 and is inhibitory to its bactericidal activity in in vitro assays. Conservation of prolines in the C-terminal region also suggests that these residues are important in the biology of this family of proteins. This is the first report demonstrating the activity of an AMP-inhibitory protein in S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and suggests that inhibition of AMP activity is the primary function of this family of proteins. The acquisition of the complement-inhibitory activity of SIC may reflect its continuing evolution. PMID:24664506

  11. Virtual Screening of Peptide and Peptidomimetic Fragments Targeted to Inhibit Bacterial Dithiol Oxidase DsbA.

    PubMed

    Duprez, Wilko; Bachu, Prabhakar; Stoermer, Martin J; Tay, Stephanie; McMahon, Róisín M; Fairlie, David P; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial drugs with novel scaffolds and new mechanisms of action are desperately needed to address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. The periplasmic oxidative folding system in Gram-negative bacteria represents a possible target for anti-virulence antibacterials. By targeting virulence rather than viability, development of resistance and side effects (through killing host native microbiota) might be minimized. Here, we undertook the design of peptidomimetic inhibitors targeting the interaction between the two key enzymes of oxidative folding, DsbA and DsbB, with the ultimate goal of preventing virulence factor assembly. Structures of DsbB--or peptides--complexed with DsbA revealed key interactions with the DsbA active site cysteine, and with a hydrophobic groove adjacent to the active site. The present work aimed to discover peptidomimetics that target the hydrophobic groove to generate non-covalent DsbA inhibitors. The previously reported structure of a Proteus mirabilis DsbA active site cysteine mutant, in a non-covalent complex with the heptapeptide PWATCDS, was used as an in silico template for virtual screening of a peptidomimetic fragment library. The highest scoring fragment compound and nine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for DsbA binding and inhibition. These experiments discovered peptidomimetic fragments with inhibitory activity at millimolar concentrations. Although only weakly potent relative to larger covalent peptide inhibitors that interact through the active site cysteine, these fragments offer new opportunities as templates to build non-covalent inhibitors. The results suggest that non-covalent peptidomimetics may need to interact with sites beyond the hydrophobic groove in order to produce potent DsbA inhibitors.

  12. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections by a novel antiviral peptide derived from EV-71 capsid protein VP1.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chee Wah; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sim, Kooi Mow; Tan, Eng Lee; Poh, Chit Laa

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers) overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC(50) values ranging from 6-9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71.

  13. Complete covalent structure of statherin, a tyrosine-rich acidic peptide which inhibits calcium phosphate precipitation from human parotid saliva.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, D H; Hay, D I

    1977-03-10

    The complete amino acid sequence of human salivary statherin, a peptide which strongly inhibits precipitation from supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions, and therefore stabilizes supersaturated saliva, has been determined. The NH2-terminal half of this Mr=5380 (43 amino acids) polypeptide was determined by automated Edman degradations (liquid phase) on native statherin. The peptide was digested separately with trypsin, chymotrypsin, and Staphylococcus aureus protease, and the resulting peptides were purified by gel filtration. Manual Edman degradations on purified peptide fragments yielded peptides that completed the amino acid sequence through the penultimate COOH-terminal residue. These analyses, together with carboxypeptidase digestion of native statherin and of peptide fragments of statherin, established the complete sequence of the molecule. The 2 serine residues (positions 2 and 3) in statherin were identified as phosphoserine. The amino acid sequence of human salivary statherin is striking in a number of ways. The NH2-terminal one-third is highly polar and includes three polar dipeptides: H2PO3-Ser-Ser-H2PO3-Arg-Arg-, and Glu-Glu-. The COOH-terminal two-thirds of the molecule is hydrophobic, containing several repeating dipeptides: four of -Gn-Pro-, three of -Tyr-Gln-, two of -Gly-Tyr-, two of-Gln-Tyr-, and two of the tetrapeptide sequence -Pro-Tyr-Gln-Pro-. Unusual cleavage sites in the statherin sequence obtained with chymotrypsin and S. aureus protease were also noted.

  14. Empirical and bioinformatic characterization of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) colostrum whey peptides & their angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ashok, N R; Aparna, H S

    2017-08-01

    Whey based peptides are well known for their nutritional and multifunctional properties. In this context, whey proteins from buffalo colostrum & milk were digested by in vitro simulation digestion and analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. Functional protein association networks, gene annotations and localization of identified proteins were carried out. An ACE inhibitory peptide sorted from the library was custom synthesized and an in vitro ACE assay was performed. The study led to the identification of 74 small peptides which were clustered into 5 gene functional groups and majority of them were secretory proteins. Among the identified peptides, majority of them were found identical to angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and opioidal peptides. An octapeptide (m/z - 902.51, IQKVAGTW) synthesized was found to inhibit ACE with an IC 50 of 300±2µM. The present investigation thus establishes newer vista for food derived peptides having ACE inhibitory potential for nutraceutical or therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of the aggregation of lactoferrin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in the presence of polyphenols, oligosaccharides, and collagen peptide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Liu, Fuguo; Xu, Chenqi; Sun, Cuixia; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-05-27

    The aggregation of lactoferrin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was inhibited by polyphenols, oligosaccharides, and collagen peptide in this study. Polyphenols, oligosaccharides, or collagen peptide can effectively prevent the formation of lactoferrin-EGCG aggregates, respectively. The addition sequence of lactoferrin, polyphenols (oligosaccharides or collagen peptide) and EGCG can affect the turbidity and particle size of the ternary complexes in the buffer solution; however, it hardly affected the ζ-potential and fluorescence characteristics. With either positive or negative charge, polyphenols and collagen peptide disrupted the formation of lactoferrin-EGCG aggregate mainly through the mechanism of its competition with EGCG molecules which surrounded the lactoferrin molecule surface with weaker binding affinities, forming polyphenols or a collagen peptide-lactoferrin-EGCG ternary complex; for neutral oligosaccharides, the ternary complex was generated mainly through steric effects, accompanied by a change in the lactoferrin secondary structure induced by gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and xylo-oligosaccharide. Polyphenols, oligosaccharides, or collagen peptide restraining the formation of lactoferrin-EGCG aggregate could be applied in the design of clear products in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  16. The synthetic peptide P111-136 derived from the C-terminal domain of heparin affin regulatory peptide inhibits tumour growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP), also called pleiotrophin, is a heparin-binding, secreted factor that is overexpressed in several tumours and associated to tumour growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. The C-terminus part of HARP composed of amino acids 111 to 136 is particularly involved in its biological activities and we previously established that a synthetic peptide composed of the same amino acids (P111-136) was capable of inhibiting the biological activities of HARP. Here we evaluate the ability of P111-136 to inhibit in vitro and in vivo the growth of a human tumour cell line PC-3 which possess an HARP autocrine loop. Methods A total lysate of PC-3 cells was incubated with biotinylated P111-136 and pulled down for the presence of the HARP receptors in Western blot. In vitro, the P111-136 effect on HARP autocrine loop in PC-3 cells was determined by colony formation in soft agar. In vivo, PC-3 cells were inoculated in the flank of athymic nude mice. Animals were treated with P111-136 (5 mg/kg/day) for 25 days. Tumour volume was evaluated during the treatment. After the animal sacrifice, the tumour apoptosis and associated angiogenesis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In vivo anti-angiogenic effect was confirmed using a mouse Matrigel™ plug assay. Results Using pull down experiments, we identified the HARP receptors RPTPβ/ζ, ALK and nucleolin as P111-136 binding proteins. In vitro, P111-136 inhibits dose-dependently PC-3 cell colony formation. Treatment with P111-136 inhibits significantly the PC-3 tumour growth in the xenograft model as well as tumour angiogenesis. The angiostatic effect of P111-136 on HARP was also confirmed using an in vivo Matrigel™ plug assay in mice Conclusions Our results demonstrate that P111-136 strongly inhibits the mitogenic effect of HARP on in vitro and in vivo growth of PC-3 cells. This inhibition could be linked to a direct or indirect binding of this peptide to the HARP receptors (ALK, RPTP

  17. Chlorella 11-Peptide Inhibits the Production of Macrophage-Induced Adhesion Molecules and Reduces Endothelin-1 Expression and Endothelial Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Mei Fen; Chen, Lih Chi; Cherng, Jong Yuh

    2013-01-01

    The inflammation process in large vessels involves the up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) which are also known as the markers of atherosclerosis. We have reported that Chlorella 11-peptide exhibited effective anti-inflammatory effects. This peptide with an amino sequence Val-Glu-Cys-Tyr-Gly-Pro-Asn-Arg-Pro-Gln-Phe was further examined for its potential in preventing atherosclerosis in this study. In particular, the roles of Chlorella 11-peptide in lowering the production of vascular adhesion molecules, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) from endothelia (SVEC4-10 cells) were studied. The production of E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in SVEC4-10 cells was measured with ELISA. The mRNA expression of ET-1 was analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. Results showed that Chlorella 11-peptide significantly suppressed the levels of E-selectin, ICAM, VCAM, MCP-1 as well as ET-1 gene expression. The inhibition of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 production by Chlorella 11-peptide was reversed in the presence of protein kinase A inhibitor (H89) which suggests that the cAMP pathway was involved in the inhibitory cause of the peptide. In addition, this peptide was shown to reduce the extent of increased intercellular permeability induced by combination of 50% of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells medium and 50% normal SEVC cell culture medium (referred to as 50% RAW-conditioned medium). These data demonstrate that Chlorella 11-peptide is a promising biomolecule in preventing chronic inflammatory-related vascular diseases. PMID:24129228

  18. In Vitro Modulation of Renin-Angiotensin System Enzymes by Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) Protein-Derived Peptides: Alternative Mechanisms Different from ACE Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Alejandra V; Aphalo, Paula; Nardo, Agustina E; Añón, María C

    2017-08-30

    Among the factors affecting the development of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension is one of the most important. Research done on amaranth proteins has demonstrated their hypotensive capacity in vivo and in vitro; nevertheless, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the inhibition of peptides derived from an amaranth hydrolysate (AHH) on other RAS enzymes other than ACE. The chymase and renin activities were studied. AHH was not able to inhibit chymase activity, although a dose-response effect was found on renin activity (IC 50 0.6 mg/mL). To provide an approach to the renin inhibition mechanism, we analyzed AHH renin inhibition kinetics and performed a structural characterization of the peptides involved in the effect in terms of molecular size and hydrophobicity. Results suggest that amaranth peptides exhibit renin competitive inhibition behavior. Renin inhibition potency was directly related to peptide hydrophobicity. RP-HPLC separation of AHH and subsequent analysis of the peptide sequences showed 6 peptides belonging to 11S globulin (that can be grouped into 3 families) that would be responsible for renin inhibition. These results demonstrate that Amaranthus hypochondriacus seeds are an adequate source of peptides with renin inhibitory properties that could be used in functional food formulations.

  19. Postjunctional inhibition of contractor responses in the mouse vas deferens by rat and human calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRP).

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kazwini, S. J.; Craig, R. K.; Marshall, I.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of rat and human alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were compared in the mouse and rabbit isolated vas deferens preparation contracted by either field stimulation or acetylcholine. The peptides were about equipotent at inhibiting twitch responses of the mouse vas deferens to field stimulation at 0.2 Hz (IC50 12 +/- 4 nM and 15 +/- 3 nM, rat and human alpha-CGRP respectively). Rat alpha-CGRP was less potent at inhibiting responses to 10 Hz than to either 0.2 Hz or 1.0 Hz stimulation. The potency of rat alpha-CGRP at 1.0 Hz was unaltered by halving the calcium concentration of the Krebs solution. The inhibitory effect of human alpha-CGRP was not antagonized by either propranolol (300 nM) or idazoxan (300 nM), although in the same tissues these latter two drugs reduced responses to isoprenaline and clonidine respectively. Rat alpha-CGRP (100 nM) and human alpha-CGRP (1.0 microM) did not alter the uptake of [3H]-noradrenaline (30 nM) into mice isolated vasa deferentia. Rat alpha-CGRP (3-100 nM) did not alter the fractional release per pulse (1.0 Hz, 100 pulses) of tritium from vasa preloaded with [3H]-noradrenaline, although at the same time the peptide inhibited responses of the smooth muscle to field stimulation. Rat and human alpha-CGRP were equipotent at inhibiting contractions of the mouse vas deferens evoked by acetylcholine although the peptides were less potent than against twitch responses. In the rabbit vas deferens neither rat nor human alpha-CGRP (3 nM-1 microM) inhibited either twitch responses or acetylcholine contractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3486688

  20. In silico analysis of the amido phosphoribosyltransferase inhibition by PY873, PY899 and a derivative of isophthalic acid.

    PubMed

    Batool, Sidra; Nawaz, Muhammad Sulaman; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2013-10-01

    Selectively decreasing the availability of precursors for the de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides is a valid approach towards seeking a cure for leukaemia. Nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are required by living cells for syntheses of RNA, DNA, and cofactors such as NADP(+), FAD(+), coenzyme A and ATP. Nucleotides contain purine and pyrimidine bases, which can be synthesized through salvage pathway as well. Amido phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT), also known as glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase (GPAT), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPAT (phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase) gene. APRT catalyzes the first committed step of the de novo pathway using its substrate, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP). As APRT is inhibited by many folate analogues, therefore, in this study we focused on the inhibitory effects of three folate analogues on APRT activity. This is extension of our previous wet lab work to analyze and dissect molecular interaction and inhibition mechanism using molecular modeling and docking tools in the current study. Comparative molecular docking studies were carried out for three diamino folate derivatives employing a model of the human enzyme that was built using the 3D structure of Bacillus subtilis APRT (PDB ID; 1GPH) as the template. Binding orientation of interactome indicates that all compounds having nominal cluster RMSD in same active site's deep narrow polar fissure. On the basis of comparative conformational analysis, electrostatic interaction, binding free energy and binding orientation of interactome, we support the possibility that these molecules could behave as APRT inhibitors and therefore may block purine de novo biosynthesis. Consequently, we suggest that PY899 is the most active biological compound that would be a more potent inhibitor for APRT inhibition than PY873 and DIA, which also confirms previous wet lab report.

  1. Kinetic Studies of Inhibition of the Aβ(1–42) Aggregation Using a Ferrocene-tagged β-Sheet Breaker Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Yagnik, Gargey; Peng, Yong; Wang, Jianxiu; Xu, H. Howard; Hao, Yuanqiang; Liu, You-Nian; Zhou, Feimeng

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins/peptides has been closely linked to the neuropathology of several important neurological disorders. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides and their aggregation are believed to be at least partially responsible for the etiology of AD. The aggregate-inflicted cellular toxicity can be inhibited by short peptides whose sequence are homologous to segments of the Aβ(1–42) peptide responsible for β-sheet stacking (referred to as the β-sheet breaker peptides). Herein a water-soluble ferrocene (Fc)-tagged β-sheet breaker peptide (Fc-KLVFFK6) is used as an electrochemical probe for kinetic studies of the inhibition of the Aβ(1–42) fibrillation process and for determination of the optimal concentration of β-sheet breaker peptide for efficient inhibition. Our results demonstrated that Fc-KLVFFK6 interacts with the Aβ aggregates instantaneously in solution, and sub-stoichiometric amount of Fc-KLVFFK6 is sufficient to inhibit the formation of the Aβ oligomers and fibrils and to reduce the toxicity of Aβ(1–42). The interaction between Fc-KLVFFK6 and Aβ(1–42) follows a pseudo-first-order reaction, with a rate constant of 1.89 ± 0.05 × 10−4 s−1. Tagging β-sheet breaker peptides with a redox label facilitates design, screening, and rational use of peptidic inhibitors for impeding/altering Aβ aggregation. PMID:23232068

  2. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferrin-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Growth of Vibrio cholerae and Other Vibrio species

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Smith, Erika; Viveros-Jiménez, Karina; Canizalez-Román, Adrian; Reyes-Lopez, Magda; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Nazmi, Kamran; Flores-Villaseñor, Hector; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; de la Garza, Mireya; Martínez-Garcia, Jesús J.; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia

    2018-01-01

    Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, some of which can cause serious infectious diseases. Vibrio infections are associated with the consumption of contaminated food and classified in Vibrio cholera infections and non-cholera Vibrio infections. In the present study, we investigate whether bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and several synthetic peptides corresponding to bLF sequences, are able to inhibit the growth or have bactericidal effect against V. cholerae and other Vibrio species. The antibacterial activity of LF and LF-peptides was assessed by kinetics of growth or determination of colony forming unit in bacteria treated with the peptides and antibiotics. To get insight in the mode of action, the interaction between bLF and bLF-peptides (coupled to FITC) and V. cholera was evaluated. The damage of effector-induced bacterial membrane permeability was measured by inclusion of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide using flow cytometry, whereas the bacterial ultrastructural damage in bacteria treated was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that bLF and LFchimera inhibited the growth of the V. cholerae strains; LFchimera permeabilized the bacteria which membranes were seriously damaged. Assays with a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio species indicated that combination of sub-lethal doses of LFchimera with ampicillin or tetracycline strongly reduced the concentration of the antibiotics to reach 95% growth inhibition. Furthermore, LFchimera were effective to inhibit the V. cholerae counts and damage due to this bacterium in a model mice. These data suggest that LFchimera and bLF are potential candidates to combat the V. cholerae and other multidrug resistant Vibrio species. PMID:29375503

  3. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferrin-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Growth of Vibrio cholerae and Other Vibrio species.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Smith, Erika; Viveros-Jiménez, Karina; Canizalez-Román, Adrian; Reyes-Lopez, Magda; Bolscher, Jan G M; Nazmi, Kamran; Flores-Villaseñor, Hector; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; de la Garza, Mireya; Martínez-Garcia, Jesús J; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, some of which can cause serious infectious diseases. Vibrio infections are associated with the consumption of contaminated food and classified in Vibrio cholera infections and non-cholera Vibrio infections. In the present study, we investigate whether bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and several synthetic peptides corresponding to bLF sequences, are able to inhibit the growth or have bactericidal effect against V. cholerae and other Vibrio species. The antibacterial activity of LF and LF-peptides was assessed by kinetics of growth or determination of colony forming unit in bacteria treated with the peptides and antibiotics. To get insight in the mode of action, the interaction between bLF and bLF-peptides (coupled to FITC) and V. cholera was evaluated. The damage of effector-induced bacterial membrane permeability was measured by inclusion of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide using flow cytometry, whereas the bacterial ultrastructural damage in bacteria treated was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that bLF and LFchimera inhibited the growth of the V. cholerae strains; LFchimera permeabilized the bacteria which membranes were seriously damaged. Assays with a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio species indicated that combination of sub-lethal doses of LFchimera with ampicillin or tetracycline strongly reduced the concentration of the antibiotics to reach 95% growth inhibition. Furthermore, LFchimera were effective to inhibit the V. cholerae counts and damage due to this bacterium in a model mice. These data suggest that LFchimera and bLF are potential candidates to combat the V. cholerae and other multidrug resistant Vibrio species.

  4. Understanding peptide competitive inhibition of botulinum neurotoxin A binding to SV2 protein via molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shan; He, Hong-Qiu; Shen, Lin; Wan, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are known as the most toxic natural substances. Synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) has been proposed to be a protein receptor for BoNT/A. Recently, two short peptides (BoNT/A-A2 and SV2C-A3) were designed to inhibit complex formation between the BoNT/A receptor-binding domain (BoNT/A-RBD) and the synaptic vesicle protein 2C luminal domain (SV2C-LD). In this article, the two peptide complex systems are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The structural stability analysis indicates that BoNT/A-A2 system is more stable than SV2C-A3 system. The conformational analysis implies that the β-sheet in BoNT/A-A2 system maintains its secondary structure but the two β-strands in SV2C-A3 system have remarkable conformational changes. Based on the calculation of hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions and cation-π interactions, it is found that the internal hydrogen bonds play crucial roles in the structural stability of the peptides. Because of the stable secondary structure, the β-sheet in BoNT/A-A2 system establishes effective interactions at the interface and inhibits BoNT/A-RBD binding to SV2C-LD. In contrast, without other β-strands forming internal hydrogen bonds, the two isolated β-strands in SV2C-A3 system become the random coil. This conformational change breaks important hydrogen bonds and weakens cation-π interaction in the interface, so the complex formation is only partially inhibited by the two β-strands. These results are consistent with experimental studies and may be helpful in understanding the inhibition mechanisms of peptide inhibitors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Inhibition of discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated lung cancer cells progression by gold nanoparticle-aptamer-assisted delivery of peptides containing transmembrane-juxtamembrane 1/2 domain

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Daehwan; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Boeun

    The delivery of biologically functional peptides into mammalian cells can be a direct and effective method for cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a collagen-induced receptor tyrosine kinase recently identified as a novel therapeutic target in lung cancer. In this study, we report that peptides containing the functional domain of DDR2 can be efficiently delivered into lung malignant cancer cells via a gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer conjugate (AuNP-Apt)-based system. Peptide delivery resulted in the abrogation of DDR2 activation triggered by collagen. Moreover, the peptide delivered by the AuNP-Apt system inhibited cancer cell proliferation andmore » invasion mediated by DDR2 activation. Thus, these results suggest that peptide loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates can be used for the development of peptide-based biomedical applications for the treatment of DDR2-positive cancer. - Highlights: • TM-JM1/2 peptides are efficiently delivered into cells by AuNP-Apt-conjugates. • TM-JM1/2 peptides loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates inhibit DDR2 activation. • Inhibition of DDR2 activation by TM-JM1/2 peptides decreases tumor progression.« less

  6. [Prokaryotic expression and purification of antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and the inhibiting effect against Candida albicans].

    PubMed

    Huo, Y; Wang, F; Sun, B; Yin, L R; Zhang, P P; Zhang, Y J; Zhang, B M

    2016-02-01

    To study the inhibitory effect of antimicrobial peptide LL-37 on Candida albicans through its ability to promote the secretion of immune factors by vaginal epithelial cells. (1) LL-37 prokaryotic expression vector pET-Duet/LL-37 was constructed and its expression was induced in Escherichia coli M15. The expressed LL-37 fusion protein was purified and identified by western blot. Antifungal activity of the purified protein was initially identified by Kirby-Bauer (K-B) method. (2) Purified LL-37 protein was added to human vaginal epithelial cells co-cultured with Candida, and inhibitory effect on Candida growth was determined by the glucose consumption method. Interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 10 (IL-10) concentration and IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio were measured by ELISA at different time points. (1) LL-37 fusion protein was purified to 96% purity at a concentration of 433.92 μg/ml, and was shown to possess anti-fungal activity confirmed by the K-B method. (2) A Candida-vaginal epithelial cells co-culture system was successfully constructed. LL-37 recombinant protein inhibited the growth of Candida with absorbance values significantly higher in the treatment group compared to the control group at all measured time points (12-hour: 3.008±0.003 versus 2.967±0.003, 24-hour: 2.941±0.003 versus 2.601±0.003, 48-hour: 2.893 ± 0.004 versus 2.409 ± 0.003; all P<0.01). Furthermore, the rate of decrease was also much slower compared to the control group. In both control and experimental groups, IFN-γ and IL-10 secretion levels were observed to rise at first peaking at 24 hours and subsequently decrease. For each time period, IFN-γ concentration in the experimental group was significantly higher at 24 hours compared to the control group [(104.00 ± 1.07) versus (85.17 ± 0.28) pg/ml,P<0.01]. In contrast, IL-10 concentrations were significantly lower than the control group at all time points (P<0.01). IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio was also observed to be significantly higher than the

  7. Towards designing a synthetic antituberculosis vaccine: The Rv3587c peptide inhibits mycobacterial entry to host cells.

    PubMed

    Carabali-Isajar, Mary Lilian; Ocampo, Marisol; Rodriguez, Deisy Carolina; Vanegas, Magnolia; Curtidor, Hernando; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2018-05-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is considered one of the most successful pathogens in the history of mankind, having caused 1.7 million deaths in 2016. The amount of resistant and extensively resistant strains has increased; BCG has been the only vaccine to be produced in more than 100 years though it is still unable to prevent the disease's most disseminated form in adults; pulmonary tuberculosis. The search is thus still on-going for candidate antigens for an antituberculosis vaccine. This paper reports the use of a logical and rational methodology for finding such antigens, this time as peptides derived from the Rv3587c membrane protein. Bioinformatics tools were used for predicting mycobacterial surface location and Rv3587c protein structure whilst circular dichroism was used for determining its peptides' secondary structure. Receptor-ligand assays identified 4 high activity binding peptides (HABPs) binding specifically to A549 alveolar epithelial cells and U937 monocyte-derived macrophages, covering the region between amino acids 116 and 193. Their capability for inhibiting Mtb H37Rv invasion was evaluated. The recognition of antibodies from individuals suffering active and latent tuberculosis and from healthy individuals was observed in HABPs capable of avoiding mycobacterial entry to host cells. The results showed that 8 HABPs inhibited such invasion, two of them being common for both cell lines: 39265 ( 155 VLAAYVYSLDNKRLWSNLDT 173 ) and 39266 ( 174 APSNETLVKTFSPGEQVTTY 192 ). Peptide 39265 was the least recognised by antibodies from the individuals' sera evaluated in each group. According to the model proposed by FIDIC regarding synthetic vaccine development, peptide 39265 has become a candidate antigen for an antituberculosis vaccine. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus gD and Lymphotoxin-α Binding to HveA by Peptide Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Sarrias, Maria Rosa; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Rooney, Isabelle; Spruce, Lynn; Kay, Brian K.; Montgomery, Rebecca I.; Spear, Patricia G.; Ware, Carl F.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.; Lambris, John D.

    1999-01-01

    The herpesvirus entry mediator A (HveA) is a recently characterized member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family that mediates the entry of most herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains into mammalian cells. Studies on the interaction of HSV-1 with HveA have shown that of all the viral proteins involved in uptake, only gD has been shown to bind directly to HveA, and this binding mediates viral entry into cells. In addition to gD binding to HveA, the latter has been shown to interact with proteins of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor family, lymphotoxin-α (LT-α), and a membrane-associated protein referred to as LIGHT. To study the relationship between HveA, its natural ligands, and the viral proteins involved in HSV entry into cells, we have screened two phage-displayed combinatorial peptide libraries for peptide ligands of a recombinant form of HveA. Affinity selection experiments yielded two peptide ligands, BP-1 and BP-2, which could block the interaction between gD and HveA. Of the two peptides, only BP-2 inhibited HSV entry into CHO cells transfected with an HveA-expressing plasmid. When we analyzed these peptides for the ability to interfere with HveA binding to its natural ligand LT-α, we found that BP-1 inhibited the interaction of cellular LT-α with HveA. Thus, we have dissected the sites of interaction between the cell receptor, its natural ligand LT-α and gD, the virus-specific protein involved in HSV entry into cells. PMID:10364318

  9. The anticancer activity of lytic peptides is inhibited by heparan sulfate on the surface of the tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) with antitumor activity constitute a promising group of novel anticancer agents. These peptides induce lysis of cancer cells through interactions with the plasma membrane. It is not known which cancer cell membrane components influence their susceptibility to CAPs. We have previously shown that CAPs interact with the two glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), which are present on the surface of most cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the two GAGs in the cytotoxic activity of CAPs. Methods Various cell lines, expressing different levels of cell surface GAGs, were exposed to bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) and the designer peptide, KW5. The cytotoxic effect of the peptides was investigated by use of the colorimetric MTT viability assay. The cytotoxic effect on wild type CHO cells, expressing normal amounts of GAGs on the cell surface, and the mutant pgsA-745, that has no expression of GAGs on the cell surface, was also investigated. Results We show that cells not expressing HS were more susceptible to CAPs than cells expressing HS at the cell surface. Further, exogenously added heparin inhibited the cytotoxic effect of the peptides. Chondroitin sulfate had no effect on the cytotoxic activity of KW5 and only minor effects on LfcinB cytotoxicity. Conclusion Our results show for the first time that negatively charged molecules at the surface of cancer cells inhibit the cytotoxic activity of CAPs. Our results indicate that HS at the surface of cancer cells sequesters CAPs away from the phospholipid bilayer and thereby impede their ability to induce cytolysis. PMID:19527490

  10. The Design and Delivery of a Thermally Responsive Peptide to Inhibit S100B Mediated Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hearst, Scoty M; Walker, Leslie R; Shao, Qingmei; Lopez, Mariper; Raucher, Drazen; Vig, Parminder J S

    2011-01-01

    S100B, a glial secreted protein is believed to play a major role in neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, traumatic brain injury and spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1). SCA1 is a trinucleotide repeat disorder in which the expanded polyglutamine mutation in the protein ataxin-1 primarily targets Purkinje cells (PCs) of the cerebellum. Currently, the exact mechanism of S100B mediated PC damage in SCA1 is not clear. However, here we show that S100B may act via the activation of the RAGE signaling pathway resulting in oxidative stress mediated injury to mutant ataxin-1 expressing neurons. To combat S100B mediated neurodegeneration, we have designed a selective thermally responsive S100B inhibitory peptide, Synb1-ELP-TRTK. Our therapeutic polypeptide was developed using three key elements: (1) the elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), a thermally responsive polypeptide, (2) the TRTK12 peptide, a known S100B inhibitory peptide and (3) a cell penetrating peptide, Synb1, to enhance intracellular delivery. Binding studies revealed that our peptide, Synb1-ELP-TRTK, interacts with its molecular target S100B and maintains a high S100B binding affinity as comparable with the TRTK12 peptide alone. In addition, in vitro studies revealed that Synb1-ELP-TRTK treatment reduces S100B uptake in SHSY5Y cells. Furthermore, the Synb1-ELP-TRTK peptide decreased S100B induced oxidative damage to mutant ataxin-1 expressing neurons. To test the delivery capabilities of ELP based therapeutic peptides to the cerebellum; we treated mice with fluorescently labeled Synb1-ELP and observed that thermal targeting enhanced peptide delivery to the cerebellum. Here, we have laid the framework for thermal based therapeutic targeting to regions of the brain, particularly the cerebellum. Overall, our data suggests that thermal targeting of ELP based therapeutic peptides to the cerebellum is a novel treatment strategy for cerebellar neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21958864

  11. Characterization of peptides from common bean protein isolates and their potential to inhibit markers of type-2 diabetes, hypertension and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Luis; Luna-Vital, Diego A; González de Mejía, Elvira

    2017-06-01

    Diabetes and hypertension are diseases affecting a high proportion of the world population; the use of food-based products such as common bean peptides may contribute to reduce the risk of complications associated to chronic diseases. The aim was to produce and characterize peptides from common bean protein isolates and evaluate their potential to inhibit markers of type-2 diabetes, hypertension and oxidative stress. Mexican black and Brazilian Carioca bean isolated proteins were characterized after pepsin/pancreatin digestion. Also, four synthesized pure peptides, originally found in these beans, were evaluated. Bean protein digests and pure peptides exerted dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibition (IC 50 = 0.03-0.87 mg dry weight (DW) mL -1 ). Lineweaver-Burk plots and computational modeling showed competitive inhibition of DPP-IV. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition ranged from IC 50 = 0.09 to 0.99 mg DW mL -1 , and α-glucosidase inhibition ranged from 36.3 to 50.1% mg -1 DW. Carioca Perola bean digested proteins presented the highest antioxidant capacity (269.3 mmol L -1 Trolox equivalent g -1 DW) as the peptide KTYGL (P > 0.05) with the most potent DPP-IV and ACE inhibition. Peptides from common bean have antidiabetic and antihypertensive potential regardless of their antioxidant capacity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Peptide inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A: design, inhibition, cocrystal structures, structure-activity relationship and pharmacophore modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar G.; Swaminathan S.; Kumaran, D.

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins are classified as Category A bioterrorism agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The seven serotypes (A-G) of the botulinum neurotoxin, the causative agent of the disease botulism, block neurotransmitter release by specifically cleaving one of the three SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins and induce flaccid paralysis. Using a structure-based drug-design approach, a number of peptide inhibitors were designed and their inhibitory activity against botulinum serotype A (BoNT/A) protease was determined. The most potent peptide, RRGF, inhibited BoNT/A protease with an IC{sub 50} of 0.9 {micro}M and a K{sub i} ofmore » 358 nM. High-resolution crystal structures of various peptide inhibitors in complex with the BoNT/A protease domain were also determined. Based on the inhibitory activities and the atomic interactions deduced from the cocrystal structures, the structure-activity relationship was analyzed and a pharmacophore model was developed. Unlike the currently available models, this pharmacophore model is based on a number of enzyme-inhibitor peptide cocrystal structures and improved the existing models significantly, incorporating new features.« less

  13. Peptide inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A: design, inhibition, cocrystal structures, structure-activity relationship and pharmacophore modeling.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gyanendra; Kumaran, Desigan; Ahmed, S Ashraf; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2012-05-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins are classified as Category A bioterrorism agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The seven serotypes (A-G) of the botulinum neurotoxin, the causative agent of the disease botulism, block neurotransmitter release by specifically cleaving one of the three SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins and induce flaccid paralysis. Using a structure-based drug-design approach, a number of peptide inhibitors were designed and their inhibitory activity against botulinum serotype A (BoNT/A) protease was determined. The most potent peptide, RRGF, inhibited BoNT/A protease with an IC(50) of 0.9 µM and a K(i) of 358 nM. High-resolution crystal structures of various peptide inhibitors in complex with the BoNT/A protease domain were also determined. Based on the inhibitory activities and the atomic interactions deduced from the cocrystal structures, the structure-activity relationship was analyzed and a pharmacophore model was developed. Unlike the currently available models, this pharmacophore model is based on a number of enzyme-inhibitor peptide cocrystal structures and improved the existing models significantly, incorporating new features. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography

  14. Galectin-1-asialofetuin interaction is inhibited by peptides containing the tyr-xxx-tyr motif acting on the glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Wéber, Edit; Hetényi, Anasztázia; Váczi, Balázs; Szolnoki, Eva; Fajka-Boja, Roberta; Tubak, Vilmos; Monostori, Eva; Martinek, Tamás A

    2010-01-25

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a ubiquitous beta-galactoside-binding protein expressed by various normal and pathological tissues, has been implicated in cancer and autoimmune/inflammatory diseases in consequence of its regulatory role in adhesion, cell viability, proliferation, and angiogenesis. The functions of Gal-1 depend on its affinity for beta-galactoside-containing glycoconjugates; accordingly, the inhibition of sugar binding blocks its functions, hence promising potential therapeutic tools. The Tyr-Xxx-Tyr peptide motifs have been reported to be glycomimetic sequences, mainly on the basis of their inhibitory effect on the Gal-1-asialofetuin (ASF) interaction. However, the results regarding the efficacy of the Tyr-Xxx-Tyr motif as a glycomimetic inhibitor are still controversial. The present STD and trNOE NMR experiments reveal that the Tyr-Xxx-Tyr peptides studied do not bind to Gal-1, whereas their binding to ASF is clearly detected. (15)N,(1)H HSQC titrations with (15)N-labeled Gal-1 confirm the absence of any peptide-Gal-1 interaction. These data indicate that the Tyr-Xxx-Tyr peptides tested in this work are not glycomimetics as they interact with ASF via an unrevealed molecular linkage.

  15. Characterization of angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibiting peptide from Venerupis philippinarum with nano-liquid chromatography in combination with orbitrap mass spectrum detection and molecular docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; Wu, Tizhi; Sheng, Naijuan; Yang, Li; Wang, Qian; Liu, Rui; Wu, Hao

    2017-06-01

    The complexity and diversity of peptide mixture from protein hydrolysates make their characterization difficult. In this study, a method combining nano LC-MS/MS with molecular docking was applied to identifying and characterizing a peptide with angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibiting activity from Venerupis philippinarum hydrolysate. Firstly, ethanol supernatant of V. philippinarum hydrolysate was separated into active fractions with chromatographic methods such as ion-exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography in combination. Then seven peptides from active fraction were identified according to the searching result of the MS/MS spectra against protein databases. Peptides were synthesized and subjected to ACE-I-inhibition assay. The peptide NTLTLIDTGIGMTK showed the highest potency with an IC50 of 5.75 μmol L-1. The molecular docking analysis showed that the ACE-I inhibiting peptide NTLTLIDTGIGMTK bond with residues Glu123, Glu403, Arg522, Glu376, Gln281 and Asn285 of ACE-I. Therefore, active peptides could be identified with the present method rather than the traditional purification and identification strategies. It may also be feasible to identify other food-derived peptides which target other enzymes and receptors with the method developed in this study.

  16. Size-exclusion chromatography of tea tannins and intercepting potentials of peptides for the inhibition of trypsin-caseinolytic activity by tea tannins.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Naoya; Nakatsubo, Genki

    2006-07-12

    Molecular-weight distribution and characterization of tea tannin were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography and the equivalent preparative exclusion gel chromatography using Sephadex G-25. The characteristics of the fractions were studied regarding the amounts of terminal catechin, sugar, and gallic acid, the color reaction of the Folin-Chiocalteu reagent, the UV absorbance, and the inhibition activity for the trypsin-caseinolytic activity per weight. Furthermore, we investigated the intercepting activities of the inhibition by the amino acids, peptides, their analogues, poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs), and histatin 5 using the inhibition of trypsin-caseinolytic activity by tea. Arg, Lys, and their peptides had strong intercepting activities for the inhibition, but only a weak activity was detected in the Pro peptides or gelatin-like peptides of (Pro-Pro-Gly)(n) (n = 5 or 10). The guanidyl group of Arg and the amino methylene group of Lys were important for the intercepting activity, but the activity was weakly dependent upon the peptide bond formation. The intercepting activity of the peptides or PEG exponentially increased with the number of polymerizations. Histatin 5 did not have a remarkably strong intercepting activity considering the peptide length. The activity of the synthetic histatin 5 in which all of the Lys and Arg were substituted by Ala was at the same level as histatin 5.

  17. PDZ1 inhibitor peptide protects neurons against ischemia via inhibiting GluK2-PSD-95-module-mediated Fas signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Jing-Zhi; Yang, Guo; Chen, Li; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xi-Ping; Wu, Shi-Liang; Hou, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, GuangYi

    2016-04-15

    Respecting the selective inhibition of peptides on protein-protein interactions, they might become potent methods in ischemic stroke therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of PDZ1 inhibitor peptide on ischemic neuron apoptosis and the relative mechanism. Results showed that PDZ1 inhibitor peptide, which significantly disrupted GluK2-PSD-95 interaction, efficiently protected neuron from ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis. Further, PDZ1 inhibited FasL expression, DISC assembly and activation of Caspase 8, Bid, Caspase 9 and Caspase 3 after global brain ischemia. Based on our previous report that GluK2-PSD-95 pathway increased FasL expression after global brain ischemia, the neuron protection effect of PDZ1 inhibitor peptide was considered to be achieved by disrupting GluK2-PSD-95 interaction and subsequently inhibiting FasL expression and Fas apoptosis pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective albumin-binding surfaces modified with a thrombin-inhibiting peptide.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Sidónio C; Maia, Sílvia; Figueiredo, Ana C; Gomes, Paula; Pereira, Pedro J B; Barbosa, Mário A; Martins, M Cristina L

    2014-03-01

    Blood-contacting medical devices have been associated with severe clinical complications, such as thrombus formation, triggered by the activation of the coagulation cascade due to the adsorption of certain plasma proteins on the surface of biomaterials. Hence, the coating of such surfaces with antithrombotic agents has been used to increase biomaterial haemocompatibility. Biomaterial-induced clotting may also be decreased by albumin adsorption from blood plasma in a selective and reversible way, since this protein is not involved in the coagulation cascade. In this context, this paper reports that the immobilization of the thrombin inhibitor D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-D-Thr-CONH2 (fPrt) onto nanostructured surfaces induces selective and reversible adsorption of albumin, delaying the clotting time when compared to peptide-free surfaces. fPrt, synthesized with two glycine residues attached to the N-terminus (GGfPrt), was covalently immobilized onto self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) having different ratios of carboxylate-hexa(ethylene glycol)- and tri(ethylene glycol)-terminated thiols (EG6-COOH/EG3) that were specifically designed to control GGfPrt orientation, exposure and density at the molecular level. In solution, GGfPrt was able to inactivate the enzymatic activity of thrombin and to delay plasma clotting time in a concentration-dependent way. After surface immobilization, and independently of its concentration, GGfPrt lost its selectivity to thrombin and its capacity to inhibit thrombin enzymatic activity against the chromogenic substrate n-p-tosyl-Gly-Pro-Arg-p-nitroanilide. Nevertheless, surfaces with low concentrations of GGfPrt could delay the capacity of adsorbed thrombin to cleave fibrinogen. In contrast, GGfPrt immobilized in high concentrations was found to induce the procoagulant activity of the adsorbed thrombin. However, all surfaces containing GGfPrt have a plasma clotting time similar to the negative control (empty polystyrene wells), showing resistance to

  19. A carboxylated Zn-phthalocyanine inhibits fibril formation of Alzheimer's amyloid β peptide.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Shatera; Sheikh, Abdullah M; Yano, Shozo; Ikeue, Takafumi; Handa, Makoto; Nagai, Atsushi

    2015-02-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ), a 39-42 amino acid peptide derived from amyloid precursor protein, is deposited as fibrils in Alzheimer's disease brains, and is considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease. We have investigated the effects of a water-soluble Zn-phthalocyanine, ZnPc(COONa)₈, a macrocyclic compound with near-infrared optical properties, on Aβ fibril formation in vitro. A thioflavin T fluorescence assay showed that ZnPc(COONa)₈ significantly inhibited Aβ fibril formation, increasing the lag time and dose-dependently decreasing the plateau level of fibril formation. Moreover, it destabilized pre-formed Aβ fibrils, resulting in an increase in low-molecular-weight species. After fibril formation in the presence of ZnPc(COONa)₈, immunoprecipitation of Aβ₁₋₄₂ using Aβ-specific antibody followed by near-infrared scanning demonstrated binding of ZnPc(COONa)₈ to Aβ₁₋₄₂. A study using the hydrophobic fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid showed that ZnPc(COONa)8 decreased the hydrophobicity during Aβ₁₋₄₂ fibril formation. CD spectroscopy showed an increase in the α helix structure and a decrease in the β sheet structure of Aβ₁₋₄₀ in fibril-forming buffer containing ZnPc(COONa)₈. SDS/PAGE and a dot-blot immunoassay showed that ZnPc(COONa)₈ delayed the disappearance of low-molecular-weight species and the appearance of higher-molecular-weight oligomeric species of Aβ₁₋₄₂. A cell viability assay showed that ZnPc(COONa)₈ was not toxic to a neuronal cell line (A1), but instead protected A1 cells against Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced toxicity. Overall, our results indicate that ZnPc(COONa)₈ binds to Aβ and decreases the hydrophobicity, and this change is unfavorable for Aβ oligomerization and fibril formation. © 2014 FEBS.

  20. Impact of commercial precooking of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on the generation of peptides, after pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, capable to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Luis; Chen, Karen; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the bioactive properties of the released peptides from commercially available precook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Bioactive properties and peptide profiles were evaluated in protein hydrolysates of raw and commercially precooked common beans. Five varieties (Black, Pinto, Red, Navy, and Great Northern) were selected for protein extraction, protein and peptide molecular mass profiles, and peptide sequences. Potential bioactivities of hydrolysates, including antioxidant capacity and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), and angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE) were analyzed after digestion with pepsin/pancreatin. Hydrolysates from Navy beans were the most potent inhibitors of DPP-IV with no statistical differences between precooked and raw (IC50 = 0.093 and 0.095 mg protein/mL, respectively). α-Amylase inhibition was higher for raw Red, Navy and Great Northern beans (36%, 31%, 27% relative to acarbose (rel ac)/mg protein, respectively). α-Glucosidase inhibition among all bean hydrolysates did not show significant differences; however, inhibition values were above 40% rel ac/mg protein. IC50 values for ACE were not significantly different among all bean hydrolysates (range 0.20 to 0.34 mg protein/mL), except for Red bean that presented higher IC50 values. Peptide molecular mass profile ranged from 500 to 3000 Da. A total of 11 and 17 biologically active peptide sequences were identified in raw and precooked beans, respectively. Peptide sequences YAGGS and YAAGS from raw Great Northern and precooked Pinto showed similar amino acid sequences and same potential ACE inhibition activity. Processing did not affect the bioactive properties of released peptides from precooked beans. Commercially precooked beans could contribute to the intake of bioactive peptides and promote health. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Piracetam inhibits the lipid-destabilising effect of the amyloid peptide Abeta C-terminal fragment.

    PubMed

    Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Lins, Laurence; Bensliman, Mariam; Thomas, Annick; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Peuvot, Jacques; Schanck, André; Brasseur, Robert

    2003-01-10

    Amyloid peptide (Abeta) is a 40/42-residue proteolytic fragment of a precursor protein (APP), implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The hypothesis that interactions between Abeta aggregates and neuronal membranes play an important role in toxicity has gained some acceptance. Previously, we showed that the C-terminal domain (e.g. amino acids 29-42) of Abeta induces membrane permeabilisation and fusion, an effect which is related to the appearance of non-bilayer structures. Conformational studies showed that this peptide has properties similar to those of the fusion peptide of viral proteins i.e. a tilted penetration into membranes. Since piracetam interacts with lipids and has beneficial effects on several symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, we investigated in model membranes the ability of piracetam to hinder the destabilising effect of the Abeta 29-42 peptide. Using fluorescence studies and 31P and 2H NMR spectroscopy, we have shown that piracetam was able to significantly decrease the fusogenic and destabilising effect of Abeta 29-42, in a concentration-dependent manner. While the peptide induced lipid disorganisation and subsequent negative curvature at the membrane-water interface, the conformational analysis showed that piracetam, when preincubated with lipids, coats the phospholipid headgroups. Calculations suggest that this prevents appearance of the peptide-induced curvature. In addition, insertion of molecules with an inverted cone shape, like piracetam, into the outer membrane leaflet should make the formation of such structures energetically less favourable and therefore decrease the likelihood of membrane fusion.

  2. Minimum requirements for inhibition of smooth-muscle myosin light-chain kinase by synthetic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J T; Floyd, D M; Lee, V G; Little, D K; Moreland, S

    1989-01-01

    Although the amino acid residues that are important for peptide substrates of myosin light-chain kinase have been reported, those that are important for peptide inhibitors of this enzyme have not previously been investigated. Synthetic peptides based on the sequence Lys11-Lys12-Arg13-Ala-Ala-Arg16-Ala-Thr-Ser19 -Asn-Val21-Phe22-Ala of the chicken gizzard myosin light chain were tested as inhibitors of pig carotid-artery myosin light-chain kinase. The basic amino acid residues of the known myosin light-chain kinase inhibitor Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-Ala-Thr-Ser-NH2 (IC50 = 14 microM) [Pearson, Misconi & Kemp (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 25-27] were shown to be the important residues that contribute to inhibitor potency, as evidence by the finding that the hexapeptide Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-NH2 had an IC50 value of 22 microM. This indicates that binding of the phosphorylatable serine residue to myosin light-chain kinase, which is of obvious importance for a substrate, does not enhance the potency of an inhibitor. With the aim of preparing more potent inhibitors, peptides Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-Ala-Ala-Xaa-NH2 were prepared with a variety of amino acids substituted for the phosphorylatable serine residue. None of these peptides was a more potent inhibitor than the serine peptide. PMID:2920029

  3. Specific Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA Polymerase by Helical Peptides Corresponding to the Subunit Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digard, Paul; Williams, Kevin P.; Hensley, Preston; Brooks, Ian S.; Dahl, Charles E.; Coen, Donald M.

    1995-02-01

    The herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase consists of two subunits-a catalytic subunit and an accessory subunit, UL42, that increases processivity. Mutations affecting the extreme C terminus of the catalytic subunit specifically disrupt subunit interactions and ablate virus replication, suggesting that new antiviral drugs could be rationally designed to interfere with polymerase heterodimerization. To aid design, we performed circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation studies, which revealed that a 36-residue peptide corresponding to the C terminus of the catalytic subunit folds into a monomeric structure with partial α-helical character. CD studies of shorter peptides were consistent with a model where two separate regions of α-helix interact to form a hairpin-like structure. The 36-residue peptide and a shorter peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 18 residues blocked UL42-dependent long-chain DNA synthesis at concentrations that had no effect on synthesis by the catalytic subunit alone or by calf thymus DNA polymerase δ and its processivity factor. These peptides, therefore, represent a class of specific inhibitors of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase that act by blocking accessory-subunit-dependent synthesis. These peptides or their structures may form the basis for the synthesis of clinically effective drugs.

  4. Streptococcal adhesin SspA/B analogue peptide inhibits adherence and impacts biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tatsuro; Ichinosawa, Takahiro; Shimizu, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, the major causative agent of dental caries, adheres to tooth surfaces via the host salivary glycoprotein-340 (gp340). This adherence can be competitively inhibited by peptides derived from the SspA/B adhesins of Streptococcus gordonii, a human commensal microbe that competes for the same binding sites. Ssp(A4K-A11K), a double-lysine substituted SspA/B peptide analogue, has been shown to exhibit superior in vitro binding affinity for a gp340-derived peptide (SRCRP2), suggesting that Ssp(A4K-A11K) may be of clinical interest. In the present work, we tested the inhibitory effects of Ssp(A4K-A11K) on adherence and biofilm formation of S. mutans by reconstructing an artificial oral environment using saliva-coated polystyrene plates and hydroxyapatite disks. Bacterial adherence (adherence period: 1 h) was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using biotinylated bacterial cells. Biofilm formation (periods: 8, 11, or 14 h) was assessed by staining and imaging of the sessile cells, or by recovering biofilm cells and plating for cell counts. The pH values of the culture media were measured as a biofilm acidogenicity indicator. Bactericidality was measured by loss of optical density during culturing in the presence of the peptide. We observed that 650 μM Ssp(A4K-A11K) significantly inhibited adherence of S. mutans to saliva-coated polystyrene; a similar effect was seen on bacterial affinity for SRCRP2. Ssp(A4K-A11K) had lesser effects on the adherence of commensal streptococci. Pretreatment of polystyrene and hydroxyapatite with 650 μM Ssp(A4K-A11K) significantly attenuated biofilm formation, whether tested with glucose- or sucrose-containing media. The SspA/B peptide’s activity did not reflect bactericidality. Strikingly, pH in Ssp-treated 8-h (6.8 ± 0.06) and 11-h (5.5 ± 0.06) biofilms showed higher values than the critical pH. Thus, Ssp(A4K-A11K) acts by inhibiting bacterial adherence and cariogrnic biofilm formation. We further

  5. Functional selection of a type IV pili-binding peptide that specifically inhibits Salmonella Typhi adhesion to/invasion of human monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Lian; Pan, Qin; Wu, Jianguo

    2005-11-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is an important pathogen which infects humans exclusively and causes typhoid or enteric fever. Recently it has been discovered that type IVB pili, encoded by the S. Typhi pil operon located in the major pathogenicity island, may be important in the pathogenesis of epidemic enteric fever. To further investigate the roles of type IVB pili of S. Typhi, a 12-mer peptide (RQERSSLSKPVV), binding to the structural protein PilS of the type IVB pili of S. Typhi, was isolated with a ribosome display system. This peptide was designated as peptide R. We found that peptide R inhibited adhesion to/invasion of human monocytic THP-1 cells by piliated S. Typhi bacteria, but had no effects on nonpiliated S. Typhi bacteria. A random 12-mer peptide, of size and solubility equal to peptide R, served as a control on the specificity of peptide R. The specific interaction and binding equilibrium between the 12-mer peptide R and PilS protein was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a binding constant Ka determined to be between 0.4 x 10(5) and 2.2 x 10(5)L mol(-1). Our findings suggest that the type IV pili-binding peptide R holds potential as an antibacterial peptide effective against S. Typhi infections, both in terms of prevention and therapeutic treatment. The data further provide insights into the understanding of the pathogenic roles of the type IVB pili of S. Typhi.

  6. A Nerve Growth Factor Peptide Retards Seizure Development and Inhibits Neuronal Sprouting in a Rat Model of Epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Kashif; van der Zee, Catharina E. E. M.; Ross, Gregory M.; Chapman, C. Andrew; Stanisz, Jolanta; Riopelle, Richard J.; Racine, Ronald J.; Fahnestock, Margaret

    1995-10-01

    Kindling, an animal model of epilepsy wherein seizures are induced by subcortical electrical stimulation, results in the upregulation of neurotrophin mRNA and protein in the adult rat forebrain and causes mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus. Intraventricular infusion of a synthetic peptide mimic of a nerve growth factor domain that interferes with the binding of neurotrophins to their receptors resulted in significant retardation of kindling and inhibition of mossy fiber sprouting. These findings suggest a critical role for neurotrophins in both kindling and kindling-induced synaptic reorganization.

  7. Inhibition of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus by a peptide derived from vFLIP through its direct destabilization of viruses.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ho-Jin; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Hyun-Cheol; Park, Min-Eun; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Eun; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Chul-Joong; Jung, Jae U; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2017-07-07

    The antiviral activities of synthesized Kα2-helix peptide, which was derived from the viral FLICE-like inhibitor protein (vFLIP) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), against influenza A virus (IAV) were investigated in vitro and in vivo, and mechanisms of action were suggested. In addition to the robust autophagy activity of the Kα2-helix peptide, the present study showed that treatment with the Kα2 peptide fused with the TAT peptide significantly inhibited IAV replication and transmission. Moreover, TAT-Kα2 peptide protected the mice, that were challenged with lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 or H1N1 viruses. Mechanistically, we found that TAT-Kα2 peptide destabilized the viral membranes, depending on their lipid composition of the viral envelop. In addition to IAV, the Kα2 peptide inhibited infections with enveloped viruses, such as Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), without cytotoxicity. These results suggest that TAT-Kα2 peptide is a potential antiviral agent for controlling emerging or re-emerging enveloped viruses, particularly diverse subtypes of IAVs.

  8. T cell leukemia control via Ras-Raf pathway inhibition with peptides.

    PubMed

    Marin, G H; Rebollo, A; Bruzzoni-Giovanelli, H; Schinella, G; Piazzon, I; Duarte, A; Errecalde, J

    2017-01-01

    RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway has been considered a promising target for anticancer therapy. However, tumor cells may develop resistance against such drugs via hyperactivation of N-Ras, which explains why novel therapeut-ic approaches. In this sense, the Institute Curie- Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6) designed peptides in order to disturb Ras/Raf interaction which showed pro-apoptotic properties. These peptides were patented as WO2015001045 A2 (PCT/EP2014/064243)5. In order to check the anti-tumoral action of WO2015001045 A2 peptides in a very aggressive BALB/c mice spontaneous leukemia called LB, we performed the present study. 50 BALB/c mice inoculated with 106 LB tumor cells were randomly assigned either to control (placebo) or treatment group (that daily received 3 mg of peptide per kg of mice) during 30 days. By day 15 only 24% of the control group was alive vs. 100% of the treatment group. The average survival in treated group was 20,27 days while in control group the mean survival was 15,48 days. Either bone marrow, spleen or axillary nodes demonstrated a higher level of malignant T cell presence compare with treated group (89,78% ; 95,64% & 77,68% versus 72,45%, 80,23% & 63.44% respectively for each organ inspected. Our study demonstrated an improvement in survival curves in mice model affected by spontaneous T lymphoid leukemia when peptides WO2015001045 A2 were used. These peptides might be a valid option to become part of the therapeutic armory for malignant lymphoproliferative diseases control.

  9. A new class of synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptides inhibits influenza A virus replication by blocking cellular attachment.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Schneider, Carola; Heinbockel, Lena; Brandenburg, Klaus; Reimer, Rudolph; Gabriel, Gülsah

    2014-04-01

    Influenza A viruses are a continuous threat to human health as illustrated by the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Since circulating influenza virus strains become increasingly resistant against currently available drugs, the development of novel antivirals is urgently needed. Here, we have evaluated a recently described new class of broad-spectrum antiviral peptides (synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptides; SALPs) for their potential to inhibit influenza virus replication in vitro and in vivo. We found that particularly SALP PEP 19-2.5 shows high binding affinities for the influenza virus receptor molecule, N-Acetylneuraminic acid, leading to impaired viral attachment and cellular entry. As a result, replication of several influenza virus subtypes (H7N7, H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1) was strongly reduced. Furthermore, mice co-treated with PEP 19-2.5 were protected against an otherwise 100% lethal H7N7 influenza virus infection. These findings show that SALPs exhibit antiviral activity against influenza viruses by blocking virus attachment and entry into host cells. Thus, SALPs present a new class of broad-spectrum antiviral peptides for further development for influenza virus therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of endopeptidase inhibition on the relaxation response of isolated human penile erectile tissue to vasoactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Rahardjo, H E; Reichelt, K; Sonnenberg, J E; Sohn, M; Kuczyk, M A; Ückert, S

    2016-12-01

    Peptides, such as CNP, CGRP and VIP, are involved in the function of male penile erectile tissue. Tissue levels of said peptides are controlled by the endopeptidase enzymes. Theoretically, the inhibition of the degradation of CNP, CGRP and/or VIP should result in an enhancement in penile smooth muscle relaxation. The effects were investigated of CNP or VIP (0.1 nm-1 μm), without and following pre-exposure of the tissue to a threshold concentration of the endopeptidase inhibitor KC 12615 (10 μm, for 20 min), on the reversion of tension induced by means of electrical field stimulation. Drug effects on the production of cyclic AMP/GMP were also evaluated. Neither KC 12615, CNP and VIP nor the combination of CNP plus KC 12615 or VIP plus KC 12615 increased the response of the tissue to EFS. While no effects were observed of a pre-exposure of the tissue to KC 12615 on the production of cyclic AMP in the presence of VIP, an enhancement was registered in the accumulation of cyclic AMP in the presence of CNP plus KC 12615. Further studies are indicated to investigate whether endopeptidase inhibitors might tend to be more effective in tissues affected by a decreased local production of vasoactive peptides. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The antimicrobial peptide, lactoferricin B, is cytotoxic to neuroblastoma cells in vitro and inhibits xenograft growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Eliassen, Liv Tone; Berge, Gerd; Leknessund, Arild; Wikman, Mari; Lindin, Inger; Løkke, Cecilie; Ponthan, Frida; Johnsen, John Inge; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur; Kogner, Per; Flaegstad, Trond; Rekdal, Øystein

    2006-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been shown to exert cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells through their ability to interact with negatively charged cell membranes. In this study the cytotoxic effect of the antimicrobial peptide, LfcinB was tested in a panel of human neuroblastoma cell lines. LfcinB displayed a selective cytotoxic activity against both MYCN-amplified and non-MYCN-amplified cell lines. Non-transformed fibroblasts were not substantially affected by LfcinB. Treatment of neuroblastoma cells with LfcinB induced rapid destabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane and formation of membrane blebs. Depolarization of the mitochondria membranes and irreversible changes in the mitochondria morphology was also evident. Immuno- and fluorescence-labeled LfcinB revealed that the peptide co-localized with mitochondria. Furthermore, treatment of neuroblastoma cells with LfcinB induced cleavage of caspase-6, -7 and -9 followed by cell death. However, neither addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk, or specific caspase inhibitors could reverse the cytotoxic effect induced by LfcinB. Treatment of established SH-SY-5Y neuroblastoma xenografts with repeated injections of LfcinB resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition. These results revealed a selective destabilizing effect of LfcinB on two important targets in the neuroblastoma cells, the cytoplasmic- and the mitochondria membrane. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. The host antimicrobial peptide Bac71-35 binds to bacterial ribosomal proteins and inhibits protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mardirossian, Mario; Grzela, Renata; Giglione, Carmela; Meinnel, Thierry; Gennaro, Renato; Mergaert, Peter; Scocchi, Marco

    2014-12-18

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are molecules from innate immunity with high potential as novel anti-infective agents. Most of them inactivate bacteria through pore formation or membrane barrier disruption, but others cross the membrane without damages and act inside the cells, affecting vital processes. However, little is known about their intracellular bacterial targets. Here we report that Bac71-35, a proline-rich AMP belonging to the cathelicidin family, can reach high concentrations (up to 340 μM) inside the E. coli cytoplasm. The peptide specifically and completely inhibits in vitro translation in the micromolar concentration range. Experiments of incorporation of radioactive precursors in macromolecules with E. coli cells confirmed that Bac71-35 affects specifically protein synthesis. Ribosome coprecipitation and crosslinking assays showed that the peptide interacts with ribosomes, binding to a limited subset of ribosomal proteins. Overall, these results indicate that the killing mechanism of Bac71-35 is based on a specific block of protein synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Peptides Derived from a Phage Display Library Inhibit Adhesion and Protect the Host against Infection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Haroldo C.; Michaloski, Jussara S.; da Silva, Julhiany F.; Scorzoni, Liliana; de Paula e Silva, Ana C. A.; Marcos, Caroline M.; Assato, Patrícia A.; Yamazaki, Daniella S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M.; Giordano, Ricardo J.; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are dimorphic fungi and are the etiological agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Adhesion is one of the most important steps in infections with Paracoccidioides and is responsible for the differences in the virulence of isolates of these fungi. Because of the importance of adhesion to the establishment of an infection, this study focused on the preliminary development of a new therapeutic strategy to inhibit adhesion by Paracoccidioides, thus inhibiting infection and preventing the disease. We used two phage display libraries to select peptides that strongly bind to the Paracoccidioides cell wall to inhibit adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components (laminin, fibronectin, and type I and type IV collagen). This approach allowed us to identify four peptides that inhibited up to 64% of the adhesion of Paracoccidioides to pneumocytes in vitro and inhibited the adhesion to the ECM components by up to 57%. Encouraged by these results, we evaluated the ability of these peptides to protect Galleria mellonella from Paracoccidioides infection by treating G. mellonella larvae with the different peptides prior to infection with Paracoccidioides and observing larval survival. The results show that all of the peptides tested increased the survival of the larvae infected with P. brasiliensis by up to 64% and by up to 60% in those infected with P. lutzii. These data may open new horizons for therapeutic strategies to prevent PCM, and anti-adhesion therapy could be an important strategy. PMID:28066254

  14. Transgenic tobacco expressing a modified spider peptide inhibits the growth of plant pathogens and insect larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gene encoding lycotoxin I, an amphipathic pore-forming peptide, was modified to increase oral toxicity to insects. One of the most active modified genes was then constitutively expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and transformants were evaluated for insect and disease resistance. Pathogenic...

  15. Inhibition of HIV-1 by a peptide ligand of the genomic RNA packaging signal Psi.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Julia; Koch, Joachim; Kaur, Ajit; Raja, Chinnappan; Stein, Stefan; Grez, Manuel; Pustowka, Anette; Mensch, Sarah; Ferner, Jan; Möller, Lars; Bannert, Norbert; Tampé, Robert; Divita, Gilles; Mély, Yves; Schwalbe, Harald; Dietrich, Ursula

    2008-05-01

    The interaction of the nucleocapsid NCp7 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein with the RNA packaging signal Psi ensures specific encapsidation of the dimeric full length viral genome into nascent virus particles. Being an essential step in the HIV-1 replication cycle, specific genome encapsidation represents a promising target for therapeutic intervention. We previously selected peptides binding to HIV-1 Psi-RNA or stem loops (SL) thereof by phage display. Herein, we describe synthesis of peptide variants of the consensus HWWPWW motif on membrane supports to optimize Psi-RNA binding. The optimized peptide, psi-pepB, was characterized in detail with respect to its conformation and binding properties for the SL3 of the Psi packaging signal by NMR and tryptophan fluorescence quenching. Functional analysis revealed that psi-pepB caused a strong reduction of virus release by infected cells as monitored by reduced transduction efficiencies, capsid p24 antigen levels, and electron microscopy. Thus, this peptide shows antiviral activity and could serve as a lead compound to develop new drugs targeting HIV-1.

  16. In vitro growth of growth of campylobacter spp. inhibited by selected antimicrobial peptides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics are urgently needed for food-animal production. A goal of our laboratory is to develop and evaluate antimicrobial peptides (AMP) to control and reduce foodborne pathogens in poultry. AMP have been found in most every class of living organism...

  17. TRAM-Derived Decoy Peptides inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cells and a mastitis model in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Wei; Gao, Xuejiao; Qu, Shihui; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2015-10-05

    It has been proved that TRAM-Derived Decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRAM-Derived decoy peptide (TM6), belongs to TRAM TIR domain, of which sequence is "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK, KENFLRDTWCNFQFY-"C" and evaluated the effects of TM6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, LPS-induced mice mastitis model was established by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. TM6 was injected 1h before or after LPS treatment. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells were used to investigate the effects of TM6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TM6 inhibited LPS-induced mammary gland histopathologic changes, MPO activity, and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production in mice. In vitro, TM6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production, as well as NF-κB and MAPKs activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that TM6 had protective effects on LPS-mastitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Peptide inhibitor of CXCL4-CCL5 heterodimer formation, MKEY, inhibits experimental aortic aneurysm initiation and progression.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yasunori; Xu, Baohui; Xuan, Haojun; Glover, Keith J; Tanaka, Hiroki; Hu, Xiaolei; Fujimura, Naoki; Wang, Wei; Schultz, Joshua R; Turner, Court R; Dalman, Ronald L

    2013-04-01

    Macrophages are critical contributors to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease. We examined the ability of MKEY, a peptide inhibitor of CXCL4-CCL5 interaction, to influence AAA progression in murine models. AAAs were created in 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice by transient infrarenal aortic porcine pancreatic elastase infusion. Mice were treated with MKEY via intravenous injection either (1) before porcine pancreatic elastase infusion or (2) after aneurysm initiation. Immunostaining demonstrated CCL5 and CCR5 expression on aneurysmal aortae and mural monocytes/macrophages, respectively. MKEY treatment partially inhibited migration of adaptively transferred leukocytes into aneurysmal aortae in recipient mice. Although all vehicle-pretreated mice developed AAAs, aneurysms formed in only 60% (3/5) and 14% (1/7) of mice pretreated with MKEY at 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. MKEY pretreatment reduced aortic diameter enlargement, preserved medial elastin fibers and smooth muscle cells, and attenuated mural macrophage infiltration, angiogenesis, and aortic metalloproteinase 2 and 9 expression after porcine pancreatic elastase infusion. MKEY initiated after porcine pancreatic elastase infusion also stabilized or reduced enlargement of existing AAAs. Finally, MKEY treatment was effective in limiting AAA formation after angiotensin II infusion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. MKEY suppresses AAA formation and progression in 2 complementary experimental models. Peptide inhibition of CXCL4-CCL5 interactions may represent a viable translational strategy to limit progression of human AAA disease.

  19. Preparation and characterization of novel bioactive peptides responsible for angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition from wheat germ.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Li, C H; Osajima, Y

    1999-07-01

    Reported is the preparation of wheat germ (WG) hydrolyzate with potent angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and the characterization of peptides responsible for ACE inhibition. Successful hydrolyzate with the most potent ACE inhibitory activity was obtained by 0.5 wt.%-8 h Bacillus licheniformis alkaline protease hydrolysis after 3.0 wt.%-3 h alpha-amylase treatment of defatted WG (IC50; 0.37 mg protein ml(-1)). The activity of WG hydrolyzate was markedly increased by ODS and subsequent AG50W purifications (IC50; 0.018 mg protein ml(-1)). As a result of isolations by high performance liquid chromatographies, 16 peptides with the IC50 value of less than 20 microM, composed of 2-7 amino acid residues were identified from the WG hydrolyzate. Judging from the high content (260 mg in 100 g of AG50W fraction) and powerful ACE inhibitory activity (IC50; 0.48 microM), Ile-Val-Tyr was identified as a main contributor to the ACE inhibition of the hydrolyzate.

  20. Inhibition of Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by the Synthetic Lactoferricin Derived Peptide hLF1-11.

    PubMed

    Morici, Paola; Fais, Roberta; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Tavanti, Arianna; Lupetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the synthetic peptide hLF1-11 against biofilm produced by clinical isolates of Candida albicans with different fluconazole susceptibility. The antibiofilm activity of the peptide hLF1-11 was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm cellular density, metabolic activity and sessile cell viability. The extent of morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms was also investigated microscopically. Transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production were analysed by qRT-PCR in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms. Exogenous dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) was used to rescue morphogenesis in cells exposed to the peptide. The results revealed that hLF1-11 exhibited an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all C. albicans isolates tested in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility. Visual inspection of treated or untreated biofilm cells with an inverted microscope revealed a significant reduction in hyphal formation by hLF1-11 treated cells, as early as 3 hours of incubation. Moreover, hLF1-11 showed a reduced activity on preadherent cells. hLF1-11 induced the down-regulation of biofilm and hyphal-associated genes, which were predominantly regulated via the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Indeed, exogenous db-cAMP restored morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated cells. The hLF1-11 peptide significantly inhibited biofilm formation by C. albicans mainly at early stages, interfering with biofilm cellular density and metabolic activity, and affected morphogenesis through the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Our findings provide the first evidence that hLF1-11 could represent a potential candidate for the prevention of biofilm formation by C. albicans.

  1. Release of Membrane-Bound Vesicles and Inhibition of Tumor Cell Adhesion by the Peptide Neopetrosiamide A

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Pamela; Heller, Markus; Williams, David E.; McIntosh, Lawrence P.; Vogl, A. Wayne; Foster, Leonard J.; Andersen, Raymond J.; Roberge, Michel; Roskelley, Calvin D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Neopetrosiamide A (NeoA) is a 28-amino acid tricyclic peptide originally isolated from a marine sponge as a tumor cell invasion inhibitor whose mechanism of action is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that NeoA reversibly inhibits tumor cell adhesion, disassembles focal adhesions in pre-attached cells, and decreases the level of β1 integrin subunits on the cell surface. NeoA also induces the formation of dynamic, membrane-bound protrusions on the surface of treated cells and the release of membrane-bound vesicles into the culture medium. Proteomic analysis indicates that the vesicles contain EGF and transferrin receptors as well as a number of proteins involved in adhesion and migration including: β1 integrin and numerous α integrin subunits; actin and actin-binding proteins such as cofilin, moesin and myosin 1C; and membrane modulating eps15 homology domain (EHD) proteins. Surface labeling, trafficking inhibition, and real-time imaging experiments all suggest that β1 integrin-containing vesicles are released directly from NeoA-induced cell surface protrusions rather than from vesicles generated intracellularly. The biological activity of NeoA is dependent on its disulfide bond pattern and NMR spectroscopy indicates that the peptide is globular with a continuous ridge of hydrophobic groups flanked by charged amino acid residues that could facilitate a simultaneous interaction with lipids and proteins in the membrane. Conclusions/Significance NeoA is an anti-adhesive peptide that decreases cell surface integrin levels through a novel, yet to be elucidated, mechanism that involves the release of adhesion molecule-containing vesicles from the cell surface. PMID:20520768

  2. Lithium chloride increases the production of amyloid-beta peptide independently from its inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3.

    PubMed

    Feyt, Christine; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal; Leroy, Karelle; N'Kuli, Francisca; Courtoy, Pierre J; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Octave, Jean-Noël

    2005-09-30

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is able to phosphorylate tau at many sites that are found to be phosphorylated in paired helical filaments in Alzheimer disease. Lithium chloride (LiCl) efficiently inhibits GSK3 and was recently reported to also decrease the production of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) from its precursor, the amyloid precursor protein. Therefore, lithium has been proposed as a combined therapeutic agent, inhibiting both the hyperphosphorylation of tau and the production of Abeta. Here, we demonstrate that the inhibition of GSK3 by LiCl induced the nuclear translocation of beta-catenin in Chinese hamster ovary cells and rat cultured neurons, in which a decrease in tau phosphorylation was observed. In both cellular models, a nontoxic concentration of LiCl increased the production of Abeta by increasing the beta-cleavage of amyloid precursor protein, generating more substrate for an unmodified gamma-secretase activity. SB415286, another GSK3 inhibitor, induced the nuclear translocation of beta-catenin and slightly decreased Abeta production. It is concluded that the LiCl-mediated increase in Abeta production is not related to GSK3 inhibition.

  3. Short communication: Inhibition of angiotensin 1-converting enzyme by peptides derived from variants of bovine β-casein upon apical exposure to a Caco-2 cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Petrat-Melin, Bjørn; Le, Thao T; Møller, Hanne S; Larsen, Lotte B; Young, Jette F

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the consequence of genetically contingent amino acid substitutions in bovine β-casein (CN) genetic variants A 1 , A 2 , B, and I on the structure and bioactive potential of peptides following in vitro digestion. The β-CN variants were digested in vitro using pepsin and pancreatin, and a peptide profile was obtained by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, revealing among others, the β-casomorphin precursor peptides VYPFPGPIHN and VYPFPGPIPN, derived from variant A 1 /B and from A 2 /I, respectively. These 2 peptides were synthesized and assessed for angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacity before and after incubation with a monolayer of Caco-2 intestinal cells. The VYPFPGPIHN was a stronger ACE inhibitor than VYPFPGPIPN, with the concentration needed to reach half-maximal inhibition (IC 50 ) of 123 ± 14.2 μM versus 656 ± 7.6 μM. Exposure to a Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayer did not affect ACE inhibition by VYPFPGPIHN, but resulted in an almost 2-fold increase in inhibition by VYPFPGPIPN after incubation. Subsequent tandem mass spectrometric analysis identified the truncated peptide VYPFPGPIP, suggesting hydrolysis by a cell membrane associated peptidase. Thus, genetic variation in bovine β-CN results in the generation of peptides that differ in bioactivity, and are differently affected by intestinal brush border peptidases. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Membrane-tethered peptides patterned after the TRP domain (TRPducins) selectively inhibit TRPV1 channel activity.

    PubMed

    Valente, Pierluigi; Fernández-Carvajal, Asia; Camprubí-Robles, María; Gomis, Ana; Quirce, Susana; Viana, Félix; Fernández-Ballester, Gregorio; González-Ros, José M; Belmonte, Carlos; Planells-Cases, Rosa; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is a thermosensory receptor implicated in diverse physiological and pathological processes. The TRP domain, a highly conserved region in the C terminus adjacent to the internal channel gate, is critical for subunit tetramerization and channel gating. Here, we show that cell-penetrating, membrane-anchored peptides patterned after this protein domain are moderate and selective TRPV1 antagonists both in vitro and in vivo, blocking receptor activity in intact rat primary sensory neurons and their peripheral axons with mean decline time of 30 min. The most potent lipopeptide, TRP-p5, blocked all modes of TRPV1 gating with micromolar efficacy (IC(50)<10 μM), without significantly affecting other thermoTRP channels. In contrast, its retrosequence or the corresponding sequences of other TRPV channels did not alter TRPV1 channel activity (IC(50)>100 μM). TRP-p5 did not affect the capsaicin sensitivity of the vanilloid receptor. Our data suggest that TRP-p5 interferes with protein-protein interactions at the level of the TRP domain that are essential for the "conformational" change that leads to gate opening. Therefore, these palmitoylated peptides, which we termed TRPducins, are noncompetitive, voltage-independent, sequence-specific TRPV1 blockers. Our findings indicate that TRPducin-like peptides may embody a novel molecular strategy that can be exploited to generate a selective pharmacological arsenal for the TRP superfamily of ion channels.

  5. Inhibition of choline acetyltransferase as a mechanism for cholinergic dysfunction induced by amyloid-β peptide oligomers.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Tavares, Nilson; Santos, Luís Eduardo; Stutz, Bernardo; Brito-Moreira, Jordano; Klein, William L; Ferreira, Sérgio T; de Mello, Fernando G

    2012-06-01

    Dysregulated cholinergic signaling is an early hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD), usually ascribed to degeneration of cholinergic neurons induced by the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). It is now generally accepted that neuronal dysfunction and memory deficits in the early stages of AD are caused by the neuronal impact of soluble Aβ oligomers (AβOs). AβOs build up in AD brain and specifically attach to excitatory synapses, leading to synapse dysfunction. Here, we have investigated the possibility that AβOs could impact cholinergic signaling. The activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the enzyme that carries out ACh production) was inhibited by ~50% in cultured cholinergic neurons exposed to low nanomolar concentrations of AβOs. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction, lactate dehydrogenase release, and [(3)H]choline uptake assays showed no evidence of neuronal damage or loss of viability that could account for reduced ChAT activity under these conditions. Glutamate receptor antagonists fully blocked ChAT inhibition and oxidative stress induced by AβOs. Antioxidant polyunsaturated fatty acids had similar effects, indicating that oxidative damage may be involved in ChAT inhibition. Treatment with insulin, previously shown to down-regulate neuronal AβO binding sites, fully prevented AβO-induced inhibition of ChAT. Interestingly, we found that AβOs selectively bind to ~50% of cultured cholinergic neurons, suggesting that ChAT is fully inhibited in AβO-targeted neurons. Reduction in ChAT activity instigated by AβOs may thus be a relevant event in early stage AD pathology, preceding the loss of cholinergic neurons commonly observed in AD brains.

  6. Polysaccharide peptides from Coriolus versicolor competitively inhibit model cytochrome P450 enzyme probe substrates metabolism in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yeung, John H K; Or, Penelope M Y

    2012-03-15

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy or health supplement in China. Previous studies have shown that PSP decreased antipyrine clearance and inhibited rat CYP2C11-mediated tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation and in human CYP2C9. In this study, the effects of the water extractable fraction of PSP on the metabolism of model CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 probe substrates were investigated in pooled human liver microsomes. PSP (1.25-20μM) dose-dependently decreased CYP1A2-mediated metabolism of phenacetin to paracetamol (IC(50) 19.7μM) and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of testosterone to 6β-hydroxytestosterone (IC(20) 7.06μM). Enzyme kinetics studies showed the inhibition of CYP1A2 activity was competitive and concentration-dependent (K(i)=18.4μM). Inhibition of testosterone to 6β-hydroxytestosterone was also competitive and concentration-dependent (K(i)=31.8μM). Metabolism of dextromethorphan to dextrorphan (CYP2D6-mediated) and chlorzoxazone to 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (CYP2E1-mediated) was only minimally inhibited by PSP, with IC(20) values at 15.6μM and 11.9μM, respectively. This study demonstrated that PSP competitively inhibited the CYP1A2- and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of model probe substrates in human liver microsomes in vitro. The relatively high K(i) values for CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 would suggest a low potential for PSP to cause herb-drug interaction related to these CYP isoforms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Modification of Titanium Substrates with Chimeric Peptides Comprising Antimicrobial and Titanium-Binding Motifs Connected by Linkers To Inhibit Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zihao; Ma, Shiqing; Duan, Shun; Xuliang, Deng; Sun, Yingchun; Zhang, Xi; Xu, Xinhua; Guan, Binbin; Wang, Chao; Hu, Meilin; Qi, Xingying; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Ping

    2016-03-02

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are the primary causes of implant-associated infection, which is difficult to eliminate and may induce failure in dental implants. Chimeric peptides with both binding and antimicrobial motifs may provide a promising alternative to inhibit biofilm formation on titanium surfaces. In this study, chimeric peptides were designed by connecting an antimicrobial motif (JH8194: KRLFRRWQWRMKKY) with a binding motif (minTBP-1: RKLPDA) directly or via flexible/rigid linkers to modify Ti surfaces. We evaluated the binding behavior of peptides using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques and investigated the effect of the modification of titanium surfaces with these peptides on the bioactivity of Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii) and Streptococcus sanguis (S. sanguis). Compared with the flexible linker (GGGGS), the rigid linker (PAPAP) significantly increased the adsorption of the chimeric peptide on titanium surfaces (p < 0.05). Concentration-dependent adsorption is consistent with a single Langmuir model, whereas time-dependent adsorption is in line with a two-domain Langmuir model. Additionally, the chimeric peptide with the rigid linker exhibited more effective antimicrobial ability than the peptide with the flexible linker. This finding was ascribed to the ability of the rigid linker to separate functional domains and reduce their interference to the maximum extent. Consequently, the performance of chimeric peptides with specific titanium-binding motifs and antimicrobial motifs against bacteria can be optimized by the proper selection of linkers. This rational design of chimeric peptides provides a promising alternative to inhibit the formation of biofilms on titanium surfaces with the potential to prevent peri-implantitis and peri-implant mucositis.

  8. RGD peptide-modified multifunctional dendrimer platform for drug encapsulation and targeted inhibition of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    He, Xuedan; Alves, Carla S; Oliveira, Nilsa; Rodrigues, João; Zhu, Jingyi; Bányai, István; Tomás, Helena; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Development of multifunctional nanoscale drug-delivery systems for targeted cancer therapy still remains a great challenge. Here, we report the synthesis of cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide-conjugated generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers for anticancer drug encapsulation and targeted therapy of cancer cells overexpressing αvβ3 integrins. In this study, amine-terminated G5 dendrimers were used as a platform to be sequentially modified with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI) via a thiourea linkage and RGD peptide via a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer, followed by acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amines. The developed multifunctional dendrimer platform (G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-RGD) was then used to encapsulate an anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). We show that approximately six DOX molecules are able to be encapsulated within each dendrimer platform. The formed complexes are water-soluble, stable, and able to release DOX in a sustained manner. One- and two-dimensional NMR techniques were applied to investigate the interaction between dendrimers and DOX, and the impact of the environmental pH on the release rate of DOX from the dendrimer/DOX complexes was also explored. Furthermore, cell biological studies demonstrate that the encapsulation of DOX within the G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-RGD dendrimers does not compromise the anticancer activity of DOX and that the therapeutic efficacy of the dendrimer/DOX complexes is solely related to the encapsulated DOX drug. Importantly, thanks to the role played by RGD-mediated targeting, the developed dendrimer/drug complexes are able to specifically target αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing cancer cells and display specific therapeutic efficacy to the target cells. The developed RGD peptide-targeted multifunctional dendrimers may thus be used as a versatile platform for targeted therapy of different types of αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication by an E1-Derived p80/UAF1-Binding Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Lehoux, Michaël; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Lussier-Price, Mathieu; Omichinski, James G.

    2012-01-01

    The papillomavirus E1 helicase is recruited by E2 to the viral origin, where it assembles into a double hexamer that orchestrates replication of the viral genome. We previously identified the cellular WD40 repeat-containing protein p80/UAF1 as a novel interaction partner of E1 from anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) types. p80 was found to interact with the first 40 residues of HPV type 31 (HPV31) E1, and amino acid substitutions within this domain abrogated the maintenance of the viral episome in keratinocytes. In this study, we report that these p80-binding substitutions reduce by 70% the ability of E1 to support transient viral DNA replication without affecting its interaction with E2 and assembly at the origin in vivo. Microscopy studies revealed that p80 is relocalized from the cytoplasm to discrete subnuclear foci by E1 and E2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further revealed that p80 is recruited to the viral origin in an E1- and E2-dependent manner. Interestingly, overexpression of a 40-amino-acid-long p80-binding peptide, derived from HPV31 E1, was found to inhibit viral DNA replication by preventing the recruitment of endogenous p80 to the origin. Mutant peptides defective for p80 interaction were not inhibitory, demonstrating the specificity of this effect. Characterization of this E1 peptide by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that it is intrinsically disordered in solution, while mapping studies indicated that the WD repeats of p80 are required for E1 interaction. These results provide additional evidence for the requirement for p80 in anogenital HPV DNA replication and highlight the potential of E1-p80 interaction as a novel antiviral target. PMID:22278251

  10. Inhibition of GNNQQNY prion peptide aggregation by trehalose: a mechanistic view.

    PubMed

    Katyal, Nidhi; Deep, Shashank

    2017-07-26

    Deposition of amyloid fibrils is the seminal event in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. The formation of this amyloid assembly is the manifestation of a cascade of structural transitions including toxic oligomer formation in the early stages of aggregation. Thus a viable therapeutic strategy involves the use of small molecular ligands to interfere with this assembly. In this perspective, we have explored the kinetics of aggregate formation of the fibril forming GNNQQNY peptide fragment from the yeast prion protein SUP35 using multiple all atom MD simulations with explicit solvent and provided mechanistic insights into the way trehalose, an experimentally known aggregation inhibitor, modulates the aggregation pathway. The results suggest that the assimilation process is impeded by different barriers at smaller and larger oligomeric sizes: the initial one being easily surpassed at higher temperatures and peptide concentrations. The kinetic profile demonstrates that trehalose delays the aggregation process by increasing both these activation barriers, specifically the latter one. It increases the sampling of small-sized aggregates that lack the beta sheet conformation. Analysis reveals that the barrier in the growth of larger stable oligomers causes the formation of multiple stable small oligomers which then fuse together bimolecularly. The PCA of 26 properties was carried out to deconvolute the events within the temporary lag phases, which suggested dynamism in lags involving an increase in interchain contacts and burial of SASA. The predominant growth route is monomer addition, which changes to condensation on account of a large number of depolymerisation events in the presence of trehalose. The favourable interaction of trehalose specifically with the sidechain of the peptide promotes crowding of trehalose molecules in its vicinity - the combination of both these factors imparts the observed behaviour. Furthermore, increasing trehalose

  11. Sequestration of synaptic proteins by alpha-synuclein aggregates leading to neurotoxicity is inhibited by small peptide

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Do-Geun; Yu, Ri; Jang, You-Na

    2018-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn) is a major component of Lewy bodies found in synucleinopathies including Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Under the pathological conditions, α-syn tends to generate a diverse form of aggregates showing toxicity to neuronal cells and able to transmit across cells. However, mechanisms by which α-syn aggregates affect cytotoxicity in neurons have not been fully elucidated. Here we report that α-syn aggregates preferentially sequester specific synaptic proteins such as vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) through direct binding which is resistant to SDS. The sequestration effect of α-syn aggregates was shown in a cell-free system, cultured primary neurons, and PD mouse model. Furthermore, we identified a specific blocking peptide derived from VAMP2 which partially inhibited the sequestration by α-syn aggregates and contributed to reduced neurotoxicity. These results provide a mechanism of neurotoxicity mediated by α-syn aggregates and suggest that the blocking peptide interfering with the pathological role of α-syn aggregates could be useful for designing a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of PD. PMID:29608598

  12. Inhibition of formyl peptide receptor in high-grade astrocytoma by CHemotaxis Inhibitory Protein of S. aureus

    PubMed Central

    Boer, J C; Domanska, U M; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Boer, I G J; de Haas, C J C; Joseph, J V; Kruyt, F A E; de Vries, E G E; den Dunnen, W F A; van Strijp, J A G; Walenkamp, A M E

    2013-01-01

    Background: High-grade astrocytomas are malignant brain tumours that infiltrate the surrounding brain tissue and have a poor prognosis. Activation of formyl peptide receptor (FPR1) on the human astrocytoma cell line U87 promotes cell motility, growth and angiogenesis. We therefore investigated the FPR1 inhibitor, Chemotaxis Inhibitory Protein of S. aureus (CHIPS), as a potential anti-astrocytoma drug. Methods and results: FPR1 expression was studied immunohistochemically in astrocytomas WHO grades I–IV. With intracellular calcium mobilisation and migration assays, human ligands were tested for their ability to activate FPR1 on U87 cells and on a cell line derived from primary astrocytoma grade IV patient material. Thereafter, we selectively inhibited these ligand-induced responses of FPR1 with an anti-inflammatory compound called Chemotaxis Inhibitory Protein of S. aureus (CHIPS). U87 xenografts in NOD-SCID mice served to investigate the effects of CHIPS in vivo. FPR1 was expressed in 29 out of 32 (90%) of all grades of astrocytomas. Two human mitochondrial-derived formylated peptides, formyl-methionil-leucine-lysine-isoleucine-valine (fMLKLIV) and formyl-methionil-methionil-tyrosine-alanine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMMYALF), were potent activators of FPR1 on tumour cells. Ligand-induced responses of FPR1-expressing tumour cells could be inhibited with FPR1 inhibitor CHIPS. Treatment of tumour-bearing mice with CHIPS slightly reduced tumour growth and improved survival as compared to non-treated animals (P=0.0019). Conclusion: Targeting FPR1 with CHIPS reduces cell motility and tumour cell activation, and prolongs the survival of tumour-bearing mice. This strategy could be explored in future research to improve treatment results for astrocytoma patients. PMID:23322202

  13. Benzothiazole Aniline Tetra(ethylene glycol) and 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole Inhibit Neuroprotection against Amyloid Peptides by Catalase Overexpression in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease, Familial British dementia, Familial Danish dementia, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, plus Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are associated with amyloid fibril deposition and oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzyme catalase is a neuroprotective amyloid binding protein. Herein the effects of catalase overexpression in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells on the toxicity of amyloid-β (Aβ), amyloid-Bri (ABri), amyloid-Dan (ADan), amylin (IAPP), and prion protein (PrP) peptides were determined. Results showed catalase overexpression was neuroprotective against Aβ, ABri, ADan, IAPP, and PrP peptides. The catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) and catalase-amyloid interaction inhibitor benzothiazole aniline tetra(ethylene glycol) (BTA-EG4) significantly enhanced neurotoxicity of amyloid peptides in catalase overexpressing neuronal cells. This suggests catalase neuroprotection involves breakdown of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plus a direct binding interaction between catalase and the Aβ, ABri, ADan, IAPP, and PrP peptides. Kisspeptin 45–50 had additive neuroprotective actions against the Aβ peptide in catalase overexpressing cells. The effects of 3-AT had an intracellular site of action, while catalase-amyloid interactions had an extracellular component. These results suggest that the 3-AT and BTA-EG4 compounds may be able to inhibit endogenous catalase mediated neuroprotection. Use of BTA-EG4, or compounds that inhibit catalase binding to amyloid peptides, as potential therapeutics for Neurodegenerative diseases may therefore result in unwanted effects. PMID:23968537

  14. High-Throughput and Rapid Screening of Novel ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Sericin Source and Inhibition Mechanism by Using in Silico and in Vitro Prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huaju; Chang, Qing; Liu, Long; Chai, Kungang; Lin, Guangyan; Huo, Qingling; Zhao, Zhenxia; Zhao, Zhongxing

    2017-11-22

    Several novel peptides with high ACE-I inhibitory activity were successfully screened from sericin hydrolysate (SH) by coupling in silico and in vitro approaches for the first time. Most screening processes for ACE-I inhibitory peptides were achieved through high-throughput in silico simulation followed by in vitro verification. QSAR model based predicted results indicated that the ACE-I inhibitory activity of these SH peptides and six chosen peptides exhibited moderate high ACE-I inhibitory activities (log IC 50 values: 1.63-2.34). Moreover, two tripeptides among the chosen six peptides were selected for ACE-I inhibition mechanism analysis which based on Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated that they behave as competitive ACE-I inhibitors. The C-terminal residues of short-chain peptides that contain more H-bond acceptor groups could easily form hydrogen bonds with ACE-I and have higher ACE-I inhibitory activity. Overall, sericin protein as a strong ACE-I inhibition source could be deemed a promising agent for antihypertension applications.

  15. Primary structure of the 175K Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigen and identification of a peptide which elicits antibodies that inhibit malaria merozoite invasion.

    PubMed

    Sim, B K; Orlandi, P A; Haynes, J D; Klotz, F W; Carter, J M; Camus, D; Zegans, M E; Chulay, J D

    1990-11-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum gene encoding erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (EBA-175), a putative receptor for red cell invasion (Camus, D., and T. J. Hadley. 1985. Science (Wash. DC). 230:553-556.), has been isolated and characterized. DNA sequencing demonstrated a single open reading frame encoding a translation product of 1,435 amino acid residues. Peptides corresponding to regions on the deduced amino acid sequence predicted to be B cell epitopes were assessed for immunogenicity. Immunization of mice and rabbits with EBA-peptide 4, a synthetic peptide encompassing amino acid residues 1,062-1,103, produced antibodies that recognized P. falciparum merozoites in an indirect fluorescent antibody assay. When compared to sera from rabbits immunized with the same adjuvant and carrier protein, sera from rabbits immunized with EBA-peptide 4 inhibited merozoite invasion of erythrocytes in vitro by 80% at a 1:5 dilution. Furthermore, these sera inhibited the binding of purified, authentic EBA-175 to erythrocytes, suggesting that their activity in inhibiting merozoite invasion of erythrocytes is mediated by blocking the binding of EBA-175 to erythrocytes. Since the nucleotide sequence of EBA-peptide 4 is conserved among seven strains of P. falciparum from throughout the world (Sim, B. K. L. 1990. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 41:293-296.), these data identify a region of the protein that should be a focus of vaccine development efforts.

  16. A CD13-targeting peptide integrated protein inhibits human liver cancer growth by killing cancer stem cells and suppressing angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Bo; Gong, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xiu-Jun; Li, Yi; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2017-05-01

    CD13 is a marker of angiogenic endothelial cells, and recently it is proved to be a biomarker of human liver cancer stem cells (CSCs). Herein, the therapeutic effects of NGR-LDP-AE, a fusion protein composed of CD13-targeting peptide NGR and antitumor antibiotic lidamycin, on human liver cancer and its mechanism were studied. Western blot and immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that CD13 (WM15 epitope) was expressed in both human liver cancer cell lines and vascular endothelial cells, while absent in normal liver cells. MTT assay showed that NGR-LDP-AE displayed potent cytotoxicity to cultured tumor cell lines with IC 50 values at low nanomolar level. NGR-LDP-AE inhibited tumorsphere formation of liver cancer cells, and the IC 50 values were much lower than that in MTT assay, indicating selectively killing of CSCs. In endothelial tube formation assay, NGR-LDP-AE at low cytotoxic dose significantly inhibited the formation of intact tube networks. Animal experiment demonstrated that NGR-LDP-AE inhibited the growth of human liver cancer xenograft. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that NGR-LDP-AE induced the down-regulation of CD13. In vitro experiment using cultured tumor cells also confirmed this result. NGR-LDP-AE activated both apoptotic and autophagic pathways in cultured tumor cells, while the induced autophagy protected cells from death. Conclusively, NGR-LDP-AE exerts its antitumor activity via killing liver CSCs and inhibiting angiogenesis. With one targeting motif, NGR-LDP-AE acts on both liver CSCs and angiogenic endothelial cells. It is a promising dual targeting fusion protein for liver cancer therapy, especially for advanced or relapsed cancers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Inhibition of Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by the Synthetic Lactoferricin Derived Peptide hLF1-11

    PubMed Central

    Morici, Paola; Fais, Roberta; Rizzato, Cosmeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the synthetic peptide hLF1-11 against biofilm produced by clinical isolates of Candida albicans with different fluconazole susceptibility. The antibiofilm activity of the peptide hLF1-11 was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm cellular density, metabolic activity and sessile cell viability. The extent of morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms was also investigated microscopically. Transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production were analysed by qRT-PCR in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms. Exogenous dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) was used to rescue morphogenesis in cells exposed to the peptide. The results revealed that hLF1-11 exhibited an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all C. albicans isolates tested in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility. Visual inspection of treated or untreated biofilm cells with an inverted microscope revealed a significant reduction in hyphal formation by hLF1-11 treated cells, as early as 3 hours of incubation. Moreover, hLF1-11 showed a reduced activity on preadherent cells. hLF1-11 induced the down-regulation of biofilm and hyphal-associated genes, which were predominantly regulated via the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Indeed, exogenous db-cAMP restored morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated cells. The hLF1-11 peptide significantly inhibited biofilm formation by C. albicans mainly at early stages, interfering with biofilm cellular density and metabolic activity, and affected morphogenesis through the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Our findings provide the first evidence that hLF1-11 could represent a potential candidate for the prevention of biofilm formation by C. albicans. PMID:27902776

  18. Fibronectin connecting segment-1 peptide inhibits pathogenic leukocyte trafficking and inflammatory demyelination in experimental models of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chaoling; Greathouse, Kelsey M; Beacham, Rebecca L; Palladino, Steven P; Helton, E Scott; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

    2017-06-01

    The molecular determinants of pathogenic leukocyte migration across the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) are unknown. Specific disease modifying therapies for CIDP are also lacking. Fibronectin connecting segment-1 (FNCS1), an alternatively spliced fibronectin variant expressed by microvascular endothelial cells at sites of inflammation in vitro and in situ, is a counterligand for leukocyte α 4 integrin (also known as CD49d) implicated in pathogenic leukocyte trafficking in multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. We sought to determine the role of FNCS1 in CIDP patient leukocyte trafficking across the BNB in vitro and in severe chronic demyelinating neuritis in vivo using a representative spontaneous murine CIDP model. Peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from 7 untreated CIDP patients were independently infused into a cytokine-treated, flow-dependent in vitro BNB model system. Time-lapse digital video microscopy was performed to visualize and quantify leukocyte trafficking, comparing FNCS1 peptide blockade to relevant controls. Fifty 24-week old female B7-2 deficient non-obese diabetic mice with spontaneous autoimmune peripheral polyneuropathy (SAPP) were treated daily with 2mg/kg FNCS1 peptide for 5days via intraperitoneal injection with appropriate controls. Neurobehavioral measures of disease severity, motor nerve electrophysiology assessments and histopathological quantification of inflammation and morphometric assessment of demyelination were performed to determine in vivo efficacy. The biological relevance of FNCS1 and CD49d in CIDP was evaluated by immunohistochemical detection in affected patient sural nerve biopsies. 25μM FNCS1 peptide maximally inhibited CIDP leukocyte trafficking at the human BNB in vitro. FNCS1 peptide treatment resulted in significant improvements in disease severity, motor electrophysiological parameters of demyelination and histological measures of

  19. A cyclic peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein inhibits the proliferative effects of the epidermal growth factor and estradiol in MCF7 cells.

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristian; Antileo, Elmer; Epuñán, Maráa José; Pino, Ana María; Valladares, Luis Emilio; Sierralta, Walter Daniel

    2008-06-01

    A cyclic peptide derived from the active domain of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells stimulated with the epidermal growth factor (EGF) or estradiol (E2). The action of these three agents on cell growth was independent of the presence of calf serum in the culture medium. Our results demonstrated that the cyclic peptide interfered markedly with the regulation of MAPK by activated c-erbB2. The cyclic peptide showed no effect on the E2-stimulated release of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 nor on the shedding of heparin-binding EGF into the culture medium. We propose that the AFP-derived cyclic peptide represents a valuable novel antiproliferative agent for treating breast cancer.

  20. Hard-to-cook bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) proteins hydrolyzed by alcalase and bromelain produced bioactive peptide fractions that inhibit targets of type-2 diabetes and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Oseguera-Toledo, Miguel E; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Amaya-Llano, Silvia L

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of bioactive peptide fractions from de-hulled hard-to-cook (HTC) bean on enzyme targets of type-2 diabetes and oxidative stress. Protein isolates from Pinto Durango and Negro 8025 beans were hydrolyzed (120min) with either alcalase® or bromelain and separated into five peptide fractions (<1, 1-3.5, 3.5-5, 5-10, and >10kDa) using an ultrafiltration membrane system. The <1kDa pinto Durango-bromelain fraction showed the best inhibition of α-amylase (49.9±1.4%), and the <1kDa pinto Durango-alcalase fraction inhibited both, α-glucosidase (76.4±0.5%), and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV, 55.3±1.6%). Peptides LLSL, QQEG and NEGEAH were present in the most potent fractions. Hydrolysates and peptide fractions showed antioxidant capacity (ORAC: 159.6±2.9 to 932.6±1.1mmolTE/g) and nitric oxide inhibition (57.5±0.9 to 68.3±4.2%). Hydrolysates and fractions <1 and 1-3kDa were able to increase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from iNS-1E cells up to 57% compared to glucose control. Hydrolysates from HTC beans inhibited enzymes related to diabetes management, being the smallest peptides (<1kDa) the most potent. HTC bean could be a source of protein to produce bioactive peptides with potential antidiabetic properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure-activity relationships for a series of compounds that inhibit aggregation of the Alzheimer's peptide, Aβ42.

    PubMed

    McKoy, Angela F; Chen, Jermont; Schupbach, Trudi; Hecht, Michael H

    2014-11-01

    Inhibiting aggregation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide may be an effective strategy for combating Alzheimer's disease. As the high-resolution structure of the toxic Aβ aggregate is unknown, rational design of small molecule inhibitors is not possible, and inhibitors are best isolated by high-throughput screening. We applied high-throughput screening to a collection of 65,000 compounds to identify compound D737 as an inhibitor of Aβ aggregation. D737 diminished the formation of oligomers and fibrils, and reduced Aβ42-induced cytotoxicity. Most importantly, D737 increased the life span and locomotive ability of transgenic flies in a Drosophila melanogaster model of Alzheimer's disease (J Biol Chem, 287, 2012, 38992). To explore the chemical features that make D737 an effective inhibitor of Aβ42 aggregation and toxicity, we tested a small collection of eleven analogues of D737. Overall, the ability of a compound to inhibit Aβ aggregation was a good predictor of its efficacy in prolonging the life span and locomotive ability of transgenic flies expressing human Aβ42 in the central nervous system. Two compounds (D744 and D830) with fluorine substitutions on an aromatic ring were effective inhibitors of Aβ42 aggregation and increased the longevity of transgenic flies beyond that observed for the parent compound, D737. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibition prevents the impairing effects of hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonism on memory consolidation and extinction.

    PubMed

    Petry, Fernanda S; Dornelles, Arethuza S; Lichtenfels, Martina; Valiati, Fernanda E; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Parent, Marise B; Roesler, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    Hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) regulate memory formation and extinction, and disturbances in GRPR signaling may contribute to cognitive impairment associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene expression involved in memory formation, and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) rescue memory deficits in several models. The present study determined whether inhibiting histone deacetylation would prevent memory impairments produced by GRPR blockade in the hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were given an intrahippocampal infusion of saline (SAL) or the HDACi sodium butyrate (NaB) shortly before inhibitory avoidance (IA) training, followed by an infusion of either SAL or the selective GRPR antagonist RC-3095 immediately after training. In a second experiment, the infusions were administered before and after a retention test trial that served as extinction training. As expected, RC-3095 significantly impaired consolidation and extinction of IA memory. More importantly, pretraining administration of NaB, at a dose that had no effect when given alone, prevented the effects of RC-3095. In addition, the combination of NaB and RC-3095 increased hippocampal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These findings indicate that HDAC inhibition can protect against memory impairment caused by GRPR blockade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of neutral endopeptidase (neprilysin) inhibition on the response to other vasoactive peptides in small human resistance arteries: studies with thiorphan and omapatrilat.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Jonathan R; Seed, Alison; Berry, Colin; Whelan, Carol J; Petrie, Mark C; Padmanabhan, Neal; Clarke, Amanda; Biggerstaff, Fiona; Hillier, Christopher; McMurray, John J V

    2014-02-01

    New compounds with neprilysin or neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibiting activity are under clinical investigation in heart failure and hypertension. We investigated the effect of NEP inhibition on the functional vasomotor responses to a range of vasoactive peptides in human blood vessels. Small human resistance arteries from patients with coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular systolic function were studied. Thiorphan (a NEP inhibitor) was compared with captopril (an ACE inhibitor) and omapatrilat (a dual NEP-ACE inhibitor) with regard to their effects on the response of human arteries to key vasoactive peptides. As expected, both captopril and omapatrilat (but not thiorphan) inhibited the vasoconstrictor effect of angiotensin I (maximal response [SEM]: 27 ± 8% vehicle, 6 ± 2% captopril, 39 ± 10% thiorphan, 8 ± 7% omapatrilat, P < 0.05). Thiorphan, captopril, and omapatrilat all enhanced the vasodilator response to bradykinin (all P < 0.01). Omapatrilat markedly augmented the vasodilator action of adrenomedullin (P < 0.05), whilst thiorphan and captopril did not. None of the three inhibitors studied affected the vasodilator action of c-type natriuretic peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or substance P. NEP inhibition with thiorphan modestly augmented the vasodilator action of bradykinin, but did not potentiate the response to adrenomedullin; dual ACE and NEP inhibition with omapatrilat, as expected, markedly augmented the response to bradykinin and also potentiated the effect of adrenomedullin. Thiorphan weakly enhanced the vasoconstrictor response to angiotensin I. Neither omapatrilat nor thiorphan had any effect on the action of a range of other vasoactive peptides including CNP. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A peptide inhibitor of the urokinase/urokinase receptor system inhibits alteration of the blood-retinal barrier in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Navaratna, Deepti; Menicucci, Gina; Maestas, Joann; Srinivasan, Ramprasad; McGuire, Paul; Das, Arup

    2008-09-01

    One of the major complications of diabetes is the alteration of the blood-retinal barrier, leading to retinal edema and consequent vision loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)/uPA receptor (uPAR) system in the regulation of retinal vascular permeability. Biochemical, molecular, and histological techniques were used to examine the role of uPA and uPAR in the regulation of retinal vascular permeability in diabetic rats and cultured retinal endothelial cells. The increased retinal vascular permeability in diabetic rats was associated with a decrease in vascular endothelial (VE) -cadherin expression in retinal vessels. Treatment with the uPA/uPAR-inhibiting peptide (A6) was shown to reduce diabetes-induced permeability and the loss of VE-cadherin. The increased permeability of cultured cells in response to advanced glycation end products (AGEs) was significantly inhibited with A6. Treatment of endothelial cells with specific matrix metalloproteinases or AGEs resulted in loss of VE-cadherin from the cell surface, which could be inhibited by A6. uPA/uPAR physically interacts with AGEs/receptor for advanced glycation end products on the cell surface and regulates its activity. uPA and its receptor uPAR play important roles in the alteration of the blood-retinal barrier through proteolytic degradation of VE-cadherin. The ability of A6 to block retinal vascular permeability in diabetes suggests a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

  5. Inhibiting effects of Streptococcus salivarius on competence-stimulating peptide-dependent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Tamura, S; Yonezawa, H; Motegi, M; Nakao, R; Yoneda, S; Watanabe, H; Yamazaki, T; Senpuku, H

    2009-04-01

    The effects of Streptococcus salivarius on the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-dependent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans were investigated. Biofilms were grown on 96-well microtiter plates coated with salivary components in tryptic soy broth without dextrose supplemented with 0.25% sucrose. Biofilm formations were stained using safranin and quantification of stained biofilms was performed by measuring absorbance at 492 nm. S. mutans formed substantial biofilms, whereas biofilms of S. salivarius were formed poorly in the medium conditions used. Furthermore, in combination cultures, S. salivarius strongly inhibited biofilm formation when cultured with S. mutans. This inhibition occurred in the early phase of biofilm formation and was dependent on inactivation of the CSP of S. mutans, which is associated with competence, biofilm formation, and antimicrobial activity of the bacterium, and is induced by expression of the comC gene. Comparisons between the S. mutans clinical strains FSC-3 and FSC-3DeltaglrA in separate dual-species cultures with S. salivarius indicated that the presence of the bacitracin transport ATP-binding protein gene glrA caused susceptibility to inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation by S. salivarius, and was also associated with the regulation of CSP production by com gene-dependent quorum sensing systems. It is considered that regulation of CSP by glrA in S. mutans and CSP inactivation by S. salivarius are important functions for cell-to-cell communication between biofilm bacteria and oral streptococci such as S. salivarius. Our results provide useful information for understanding the ecosystem of oral streptococcal biofilms, as well as the competition between and coexistence of multiple species in the oral cavity.

  6. Neuropeptide Y and peptide YY inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Kirsteen N; Travagli, R Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Pancreatic polypeptides (PPs) such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) exert profound, vagally mediated effects on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and secretion. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made from brainstem slices containing identified GI-projecting rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurons to determine the mechanism of action of PPs. Electrical stimulation of nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) induced excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by NPY and PYY (both at 0.1–300 nm) in 65 % of the neurons. An increase in the paired-pulse ratio without changes in the postsynaptic membrane input resistance or EPSC rise and decay time suggested that the effects of PPs on EPSCs were due to actions at presynaptic receptors. The Y1 and Y2 receptor selective agonists [Leu31,Pro34]NPY and NPY(3–36) (both at 100 nm) mimicked the inhibition of NPY and PYY on the EPSC amplitude. The effects of 100 nm NPY, but not PYY, were antagonized partially by the Y1 receptor selective antagonist BIBP3226 (0.1 μm). In addition, the inhibition of the EPSC amplitude induced by NPY, but not PYY, was attenuated partially by pretreatment with the α2 adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (10 μm), and occluded partially by the α2 adrenoceptor agonist UK14,304 (10 μm) as well as by pretreatment with reserpine. Pretreatment with a combination of BIBP3226 and yohimbine almost completely antagonized the NPY-mediated effects on EPSCs. Contrary to the inhibition of EPSCs, perfusion with PPs had no effect on the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and a minimal effect on a minority of DMV neurons. Differences in the receptor subtypes utilized and in the mechanism of action of NPY and PYY may indicate functional differences in their roles within the circuitry of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC). PMID:12730340

  7. RP-1776, a novel cyclic peptide produced by Streptomyces sp., inhibits the binding of PDGF to the extracellular domain of its receptor.

    PubMed

    Toki, S; Agatsuma, T; Ochiai, K; Saitoh, Y; Ando, K; Nakanishi, S; Lokker, N A; Giese, N A; Matsuda, Y

    2001-05-01

    RP-1776, a novel cyclic peptide, was isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. KY11784. RP-1776 selectively inhibited the binding of PDGF BB to the extracellular domain of the PDGF beta-receptor with an IC50 value of 11 +/- 6 microM. Detailed binding experiments suggested that RP-1776 directly interacts with PDGF BB. RP-1776 inhibited the phosphorylation of the PDGF beta-receptor induced by PDGF BB. These results suggested that RP-1776 antagonizes the signaling of PDGF BB probably through the inhibition of PDGF BB binding to the PDGF beta-receptor.

  8. The Amphibian Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin B Inhibits In Vitro Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Marcocci, M E; Amatore, D; Villa, S; Casciaro, B; Aimola, P; Franci, G; Grieco, P; Galdiero, M; Palamara, A T; Mangoni, M L; Nencioni, L

    2018-05-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is widespread in the population, and in most cases its infection is asymptomatic. The currently available anti-HSV-1 drugs are acyclovir and its derivatives, although long-term therapy with these agents can lead to drug resistance. Thus, the discovery of novel antiherpetic compounds deserves additional effort. Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an interesting class of molecules with potential antiviral properties. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first demonstration of the in vitro anti-HSV-1 activity of temporin B (TB), a short membrane-active amphibian AMP. In particular, when HSV-1 was preincubated with 20 μg/ml TB, significant antiviral activity was observed (a 5-log reduction of the virus titer). Such an effect was due to the disruption of the viral envelope, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, TB partially affected different stages of the HSV-1 life cycle, including the attachment and the entry of the virus into the host cell, as well as the subsequent postinfection phase. Furthermore, its efficacy was confirmed on human epithelial cells, suggesting TB as a novel approach for the prevention and/or treatment of HSV-1 infections. Copyright © 2018 Marcocci et al.

  9. Theoretical study of Escherichia coli peptide deformylase inhibition by several drugs.

    PubMed

    Chikhi, Abdelouahab; Bensegueni, Abderrahmane; Boulahrouf, Abderrahmane; Bencharif, Mustapha

    2006-01-01

    Because peptide deformylase (PDF) is essential for the initiation of translation in eubacteria but not in eukaryotes, it is a potentially interesting target for antibiotics. Computer simulation using docking software can be used to model protein-ligand interactions, and in this brief report we describe its use in optimizing the design in PDF-directed inhibitors. PDF was used as target for a set of five inhibitors with substantial structural differences. Docking results show that the compound 1BB2 (actinonin) binds with high affinity to the enzyme and produces the most stable complex, forming nine hydrogen bonds with the enzyme active site. Its binding energy is DeltaG = -31.880 kJ/mol. The modeling study shows that when the methyl group of 1BB2 is replaced with an amine group, the binding energy is increased to -35.316 kJ/mole. This enhancement is more marked (DeltaG = -41.141 kJ/mol) when the propyl group and the five-membered ring of 1BB2 are replaced by an amide group and a phenyl ring, respectively. We describe an attempt to design better antibiotics on the basis of a computer-aided simulation of the interaction between a drug and its target molecule.

  10. Inhibiting effects of fructanase on competence-stimulating peptide-dependent quorum sensing system in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Ryo; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2017-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans produces glucosyltransferases encoded by the gtfB and gtfC genes, which synthesize insoluble glucan, and both insoluble and soluble glucans by conversion of sucrose, and are known as principal agents to provide strong biofilm formation and demineralization on tooth surfaces. S. mutans possess a Com-dependent quorum sensing (QS) system, which is important for survival in severe conditions. The QS system is stimulated by the interaction between ComD {Receptor to competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)} encoded by the comD and CSP encoded by the comC, and importantly associated with bacteriocin production and genetic competence. Previously, we found enzyme fructanase (FruA) as a new inhibitor for the glucan-dependent biofilm formation. In the present study, inhibiting effects by FruA on glucan-independent biofilm formation of S. mutans UA159, UA159.gtfB - , UA159.gtfC - , and UA159.gtfBC - were observed in sucrose and no sucrose sugars-supplemented conditions using the plate assay. The reduction of UA159.comC - and UA159.comD - biofilm formation were also observed as compared with UA159 in same conditions. These results suggested that inhibitions of glucan-independent and Com-dependent biofilm formation were involved in the inhibiting mechanism by FruA. To more thoroughly investigate effects by FruA on the QS system, we examined on CSP-stimulated and Com-dependent bacteriocin production and genetic transformation. FruA inhibited bacteriocin production in collaboration with CSP and genetic transformation in bacterial cell conditions treated with FruA. Our findings show that FruA has multiple effects that inhibit survival functions of S. mutans, including biofilm formation and CSP-dependent QS responses, indicating its potential use as an agent for prevention of dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The targeted delivery of the c-Src peptide complexed with schizophyllan to macrophages inhibits polymicrobial sepsis and ulcerative colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-Ram; Hwang, Jangsun; Koh, Hyun-Jung; Jang, Kiseok; Lee, Jong-Dae; Choi, Jonghoon; Yang, Chul-Su

    2016-05-01

    Hyper-inflammatory responses triggered by intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to a variety of diseases, including sepsis and colitis. However, the regulators of this process remain poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrate that c-Src is a negative regulator of cellular ROS generation through its binding to p47phox. This molecule also competitively inhibits the NADPH oxidase complex (NOX) assembly. Furthermore, we developed the schizophyllan (SPG)-c-Src SH3 peptide, which is a β-1,3-glucan conjugated c-Src SH3-derived peptide composed of amino acids 91-108 and 121-140 of c-Src. The SPG-SH3 peptide has a significant therapeutic effect on mouse ROS-mediated inflammatory disease models, cecal-ligation-puncture-induced sepsis, and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. It does so by inhibiting the NOX subunit assembly and proinflammatory mediator production. Therefore, the SPG-SH3 peptide is a potential therapeutic agent for ROS-associated lethal inflammatory diseases. Our findings provide clues for the development of new peptide-base drugs that will target p47phox. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Purification and Characterization of Peptides Inhibiting MMP-1 Activity with C Terminate of Gly-Leu from Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion Hydrolysates of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Skin Gelatin.

    PubMed

    Liping, Sun; Qiuming, Liu; Jian, Fan; Xiao, Li; Yongliang, Zhuang

    2018-01-24

    Tilapia skin gelatin hydrolysates (TSGHs) were prepared by simulated gastrointestinal digestion and separated by gel filtration and semi-preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-photoaging effects were evaluated using an ultraviolet radiation B (UVB)-induced mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) photoaging model in vitro. Three fractions from TSGHs with high inhibitory intercellular matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activities and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were obtained. Three key peptides, GYTGL, LGATGL, and VLGL, were identified, and their C terminate was Gly-Leu. Three peptides were synthesized and exhibited a significant inhibition of intercellular MMP-1 activity and ROS production. Furthermore, three peptides inhibiting MMP-1 activities were evaluated through their docking of S 1 ' and S 3 ' active pockets of MMP-1. Hydrogen bonds and C terminate Gly-Leu played important roles. Finally, the protective effects of three peptides on intercellular collagen in UVB-induced MEFs were compared. Our results indicated that tilapia gelatin peptides exhibited potential activities to prevent and regulate photoaging.

  13. Inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 binding to endocytosis receptors of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor family by a peptide isolated from a phage display library

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jan K.; Malmendal, Anders; Schiøtt, Birgit; Skeldal, Sune; Pedersen, Katrine E.; Celik, Leyla; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Andreasen, Peter A.; Wind, Troels

    2006-01-01

    The functions of the serpin PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) are based on molecular interactions with its target proteases uPA and tPA (urokinase-type and tissue-type plasminogen activator respectively), with vitronectin and with endocytosis receptors of the low-density-lipoprotein family. Understanding the significance of these interactions would be facilitated by the ability to block them individually. Using phage display, we have identified the disulfide-constrained peptide motif CFGWC with affinity for natural human PAI-1. The three-dimensional structure of a peptide containing this motif (DVPCFGWCQDA) was determined by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. A binding site in the so-called flexible joint region of PAI-1 was suggested by molecular modelling and validated through binding studies with various competitors and site-directed mutagenesis of PAI-1. The peptide with an N-terminal biotin inhibited the binding of the uPA–PAI-1 complex to the endocytosis receptors low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein 1A (LRP-1A) and very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) in vitro and inhibited endocytosis of the uPA–PAI-1 complex in U937 cells. We conclude that the isolated peptide represents a novel approach to pharmacological interference with the functions of PAI-1 based on inhibition of one specific molecular interaction. PMID:16813566

  14. Effective intracellular inhibition of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase by microinjection of a modified form of the specific inhibitor peptide PKi in living fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, A; Mery, J; Vandromme, M; Basset, M; Cavadore, J C; Lamb, N J

    1991-08-01

    In order to obtain a peptide retaining its biological activity following microinjection into living cells, we have modified a synthetic peptide [PKi(m)(6-24)], derived from the specific inhibitor protein of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) in two ways: (1) substitution of the arginine at position 18 for a D-arginine; (2) blockade of the side chain on the C-terminal aspartic acid by a cyclohexyl ester group. In an in vitro assay, PKi(m) has retained a specific inhibitory activity against A-kinase as assessed against six other kinases, with similar efficiency to that of the unmodified PKi(5-24) peptide. Microinjection of PKi(m) into living fibroblasts reveals its capacity to prevent the changes in cell morphology and cytoskeleton induced by drugs which activate endogenous A-kinase, whereas the original PKi peptide failed to do so. This inhibition of A-kinase in vivo by PKi(m) lasts between 4 and 6 h after injection. In light of its effective half-life, this modified peptide opens a route for the use of biologically active peptides in vivo, an approach which has been hampered until now by the exceedingly short half-life of peptides inside living cells. By providing a direct means of inhibiting A-kinase activity for sufficiently long periods to observe effects on cellular functions in living cells, PKi(m) represents a powerful tool in studying the potential role of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in vivo.

  15. Discovery of three toxin peptides with Kv1.3 channel and IL-2 cytokine-inhibiting activities from Non-Buthidae scorpions, Chaerilus tricostatus and Chaerilus tryznai.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Chen, Jing; Hao, Jinbo; Zhang, Jiahui; Huang, Xuejun; Hu, Fangfang; Wu, Zheng; Liu, Yaru; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Jian; Li, Shan; Liu, Hongyan; Wu, Wenlong; Chen, Zongyun

    2017-05-01

    Non-Buthidae venomous scorpions are huge natural sources of toxin peptides; however, only a few studies have been done to understand their toxin peptides. Herein, we describe three new potential immunomodulating toxin peptides, Ctri18, Ctry68 and Ctry2908, from two non-Buthidae scorpions, Chaerilus tricostatus and Chaerilus tryznai. Sequence alignment analyses showed that Ctri18, Ctry68 and Ctry2908 are three new members of the scorpion toxin α-KTx15 subfamily. Electrophysiological experiments showed that Ctri18, Ctry68 and Ctry2908 blocked the Kv1.3 channel at micromole to nanomole levels, but had weak effects on potassium channel KCNQ1 and sodium channel Nav1.4, which indicated that Ctri18, Ctry68 and Ctry2908 might have specific inhibiting effects on the Kv1.3 channel. ELISA experiments showed that Ctri18, Ctry68 and Ctry2908 inhibited IL-2 cytokine secretions of activated T lymphocyte in human PBMCs. Excitingly, consistent with the good Kv1.3 channel inhibitory activity, Ctry2908 inhibited cytokine IL-2 secretion in nanomole level, which indicated that Ctry2908 might be a new lead drug template toward Kv1.3 channels. Together, these studies discovered three new toxin peptides, Ctri18, Ctry68 and Ctry2908, with Kv1.3 channel and IL-2 cytokine-inhibiting activities from two scorpions, C. tricostatus and C. tryznai, and highlighted that non-Buthidae venomous scorpions are new natural toxin peptide sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional self-assembled peptide scaffold inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced inflammation and apoptosis in nucleus pulposus cells by suppressing nuclear factor-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochuan; Cheng, Shi; Wu, Yaohong; Ying, Jingwei; Wang, Chaofeng; Wen, Tianyong; Bai, Xuedong; Ji, Wei; Wang, Deli; Ruan, Dike

    2018-04-01

    Although nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue engineering has achieved tremendous success, researches still face the huge obstacles in maintaining cell survival and function. A novel functional self-assembled peptide RADA-KPSS was constructed by conjugating BMP-7 short active fragment (KPSS) to the C-terminus of RADA16-I that displays anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects. However, whether this functional self-assembled RADA-KPSS peptide can alleviate inflammation and NPC apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has not been studied. Therefore, we cultured NPCs treated with TNF-α for 48 h with the RADA-KPSS peptide, and compared the results to those with RADA16-I peptide. The cell apoptosis rate, inflammatory mediator secretion, expression of matrix-degrading enzymes, and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein levels were evaluated. The expression of nuclear factor-κB-p65 (NF-κB-p65) protein was also tested. TNF-α-treated NPCs cultured with the RADA16-I peptide showed up-regulated gene expression for matrix-degrading enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3), MMP-9, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS-4), and down-regulated gene expression for ECM proteins such as aggrecan, collagen II, and Sox-9. The RADA-KPSS peptide could attenuate the expression of MMP-3, MMP-9, and ADAMTS-4, promote accumulation of ECM proteins, and increase secretion of glycosaminoglycan as compared with the RADA16-I peptide. Moreover, the TNF-α-damaged NPCs was further demonstrated to inhibit NF-κB-p65, IL-1, IL-6, and prostaglandin E-2 proteins and decrease cell apoptosis in RADA-KPSS peptide. In conclusion, the functional self-assembled RADA-KPSS peptides have anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects by promoting anabolic processes and inhibiting catabolic processes in intervertebral disk degeneration. These peptides may be feasible for clinical applications in NP tissue engineering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J

  17. Regulating cancer associated fibroblasts with losartan-loaded injectable peptide hydrogel to potentiate chemotherapy in inhibiting growth and lung metastasis of triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunhua; Liu, Xiaoyu; Ran, Wei; Meng, Jia; Zhai, Yihui; Zhang, Pengcheng; Yin, Qi; Yu, Haijun; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping

    2017-11-01

    Preoperative chemotherapy is effective in improving the prognosis of patients, but its efficacy is impeded by cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that enhance the survival, growth, and metastasis of cancer cells. To inhibit the activity of CAFs, prolonged and localized drug exposure is necessary. Here, we report on the rational design, screening, and evaluation of an injectable peptide hydrogel as a local losartan depot aiming to inhibit CAFs and potentiate chemotherapy. We synthesized a set of peptide derivatives and found that C 16 -GNNQQNYKD-OH (C 16 -N) surpassed the others in hydrogel formation and drug encapsulation, due to its flexible hydrocarbon tail and interpeptide hydrogen bonding that allowed supramolecular self-assembly into long filaments with hydrophobic cores. C 16 -N co-assembled with losartan to form hydrogel from which losartan was sustainably released over 9 days. After intratumoral injection, the hydrogel could be retained in the tumor for more than 9 days, significantly inhibited the CAFs and collagen synthesis in orthotopic 4T1 tumors, and enhanced the efficacy of PEGylated doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (Dox-L) in inhibiting the tumor growth (64% vs. Dox-L alone) and lung metastasis (80% vs. Dox-L alone). These results provide important guiding principles for the rational design of injectable peptide hydrogels aiming to regulate CAFs and improve chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. NEMO Binding Domain peptide inhibits constitutive NF-κB activity and reduces tumor burden in a canine model of relapsed, refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita; Patel, Reema; Baldwin, Albert S.; May, Michael J.; Mason, Nicola J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Activated B-Cell Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) is an aggressive, poorly chemoresponsive lymphoid malignancy characterized by constitutive canonical NF-κB activity that promotes lymphomagenesis and chemotherapy resistance via over-expression of anti-apoptotic NF-κB target genes. Inhibition of the canonical NF-κB pathway may therefore have therapeutic relevance in ABC-DLBCL. Here we set out to determine whether dogs with spontaneous DLBCL have comparative aberrant constitutive NF-κB activity and to determine the therapeutic relevance of NF-κB inhibition in dogs with relapsed, resistant DLBCL. Experimental Design Canonical NF-κB activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and immunoblot analyses, and NF-κB target gene expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Primary malignant canine B lymphocytes were treated with the selective IKK complex inhibitor Nemo Binding Domain (NBD) peptide, and evaluated for NF-κB activity and apoptosis. NBD peptide was administered intra-nodally to dogs with relapsed B-cell lymphoma and NF-κB target gene expression and tumor burden were evaluated pre and post treatment. Results Constitutive canonical NF-κB activity and increased NF-κB target gene expression was detected in primary DLBCL tissue. NBD peptide inhibited this activity and induced apoptosis of primary malignant B cells in vitro. Intra-tumoral injections of NBD peptide to dogs with relapsed DLBCL inhibited NF-κB target gene expression and reduced tumor burden. Conclusions This work shows that dogs with spontaneous DLBCL represent a clinically relevant, spontaneous, large animal model for human ABC-DLBCL and demonstrates the therapeutic relevance of NF-κB inhibition in the treatment of ABC-DLBCL. These results have important translational relevance for ABC-DLBCL treatment in human patients. PMID:21610150

  19. Characterization and Molecular Mechanism of Peptide-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticle Inhibiting p53-HDM2 Interaction in Retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kalmodia, Sushma; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Ganapathy, Kalaivani; Yang, Wenrong; Barrow, Colin J; Kanwar, Jagat R; Roy, Kislay; Vasudevan, Madavan; Kulkarni, Kirti; Elchuri, Sailaja V; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2017-12-15

    Inhibition of the interaction between p53 and HDM2 is an effective therapeutic strategy in cancers that harbor a wild-type p53 protein such as retinoblastoma (RB). Nanoparticle-based delivery of therapeutic molecules has been shown to be advantageous in localized delivery, including to the eye, by overcoming ocular barriers. In this study, we utilized biocompatible gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to deliver anti-HDM2 peptide to RB cells. Characterization studies suggested that GNP-HDM2 was stable in biologically relevant solvents and had optimal cellular internalization capability, the primary requirement of any therapeutic molecule. GNP-HDM2 treatment in RB cells in vitro suggested that they function by arresting RB cells at the G2M phase of the cell cycle and initiating apoptosis. Analysis of molecular changes in GNP-HDM2-treated cells by qRT-PCR and western blotting revealed that the p53 protein was upregulated; however, transactivation of its downstream targets was minimal, except for the PUMA-BCl2 and Bax axis. Global gene expression and in silico bioinformatic analysis of GNP-HDM2-treated cells suggested that upregulation of p53 might presumptively mediate apoptosis through the induction of p53-inducible miRNAs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein inhibits the proliferation induced by estradiol in mammary tumor cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, Walter D; Epuñan, Maria J; Reyes, José M; Valladares, Luis E; Andersen, Thomas T; Bennett, James A; Jacobson, Herbert I; Pino, Ana M

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to obtain additional information on the activity of a cyclized 9-amino acid peptide (cP) containing the active site of alpha fetoprotein, which inhibits the estrogen-stimulated proliferation of tumor cells in culture and of xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Breast cancer cells cultured in the presence of 2 nM estradiol were exposed to cP for different periods and their proliferation, estradiol binding parameters, clustering tendency and expression of E-cadherin and p21Cip1 were analyzed by biochemical and cell biology methods. The proliferation of MCF7 cells was significantly decreased by the addition of 2 microg/ml cP to the medium. cP did not increase cell death rate nor alter the number of binding sites for estradiol nor the endogenous aromatase activity of MCF7 cells. cP also decreased the proliferation of estrogen-dependent ZR75-1 cells but had no effect on estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 cells. An increased nuclear p21Cip1 expression detected after cP treatment suggests that cP slows MCF7 cell proliferation via this regulator. We propose that cP could represent a novel breast cancer therapeutic agent whose mechanism of action is different from that of tamoxifen or of inhibitors of aromatase.

  1. A cyclized peptide derived from alpha fetoprotein inhibits the proliferation of ER-positive canine mammary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristian Gabriel; Pino, Ana María; Sierralta, Walter Daniel

    2009-06-01

    The effects of estradiol (E2) and of an AFP-derived cyclized peptide (cP) on the proliferation of primary cultures of cancer cells isolated from spontaneous canine mammary tumors were studied. The cellular response to E2 and cP was related to the expression of estradiol receptor (isoforms alpha and beta). In ER-positive cells, 2 nM estradiol increased cell proliferation and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2; 2 microg/ml cP inhibited all these effects. Estradiol also increased HER2 immunoreactivity in ER-positive cells, an effect that was reverted to its basal values by cP. Estradiol stimulated in these cells the release of MMP2 and MMP9 and the shedding of HB-EGF, effects that the cP did not affect. ER-negative cells were refractory to estradiol or cP. All canine mammary tumor cells in culture responded to treatments analogously to human mammary cancer cells. Our results support the proposal of cP as a new, potentially effective therapeutic agent for the management of mammary cancer.

  2. Short Stat5-Interacting Peptide Derived from Phospholipase C-β3 Inhibits Hematopoietic Cell Proliferation and Myeloid Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yasudo, Hiroki; Ando, Tomoaki; Xiao, Wenbin; Kawakami, Yuko; Kawakami, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Constitutive activation of the transcription factor Stat5 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells leads to various hematopoietic malignancies including myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Our recent study found that phospholipase C (PLC)-β3 is a novel tumor suppressor involved in MPN, lymphoma and other tumors. Stat5 activity is negatively regulated by the SH2 domain-containing protein phosphatase SHP-1 in a PLC-β3-dependent manner. PLC-β3 can form the multimolecular SPS complex together with SHP-1 and Stat5. The close physical proximity of SHP-1 and Stat5 brought about by interacting with the C-terminal segment of PLC-β3 (PLC-β3-CT) accelerates SHP-1-mediated dephosphorylation of Stat5. Here we identify the minimal sequences within PLC-β3-CT required for its tumor suppressor function. Two of the three Stat5-binding noncontiguous regions, one of which also binds SHP-1, substantially inhibited in vitro proliferation of Ba/F3 cells. Surprisingly, an 11-residue Stat5-binding peptide (residues 988-998) suppressed Stat5 activity in Ba/F3 cells and in vivo proliferation and myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, this study further defines PLC-β3-CT as the Stat5- and SHP-1-binding domain by identifying minimal functional sequences of PLC-β3 for its tumor suppressor function and implies their potential utility in the control of hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:21949826

  3. A shrimp C-type lectin inhibits proliferation of the hemolymph microbiota by maintaining the expression of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Wei; Xu, Ji-Dong; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Vasta, Gerardo Raul; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2014-04-25

    Some aquatic invertebrates such as shrimp contain low albeit stable numbers of bacteria in the circulating hemolymph. The proliferation of this hemolymph microbiota in such a nutrient-rich environment is tightly controlled in healthy animals, but the mechanisms responsible had remained elusive. In the present study, we report a C-type lectin (MjHeCL) from the kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) that participates in restraining the hemolymph microbiota. Although the expression of MjHeCL did not seem to be modulated by bacterial challenge, the down-regulation of its expression by RNA interference led to proliferation of the hemolymph microbiota, ultimately resulting in shrimp death. This phenotype was rescued by the injection of recombinant MjHeCL, which restored the healthy status of the knockdown shrimp. A mechanistic analysis revealed that MjHeCL inhibited bacterial proliferation by modulating the expression of antimicrobial peptides. The key function of MjHeCL in the shrimp immune homeostasis might be related to its broader recognition spectrum of the hemolymph microbiota components than other lectins. Our study demonstrates the role of MjHeCL in maintaining the healthy status of shrimp and provides new insight into the biological significance of C-type lectins, a diversified and abundant lectin family in invertebrate species.

  4. Short peptides derived from the BAG-1 C-terminus inhibit the interaction between BAG-1 and HSC70 and decrease breast cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Adam; Cutress, Ramsey I; Johnson, Peter W M; Packham, Graham; Townsend, Paul A

    2009-11-03

    BAG-1, a multifunctional protein, interacts with a plethora of cellular targets where the interaction with HSC70 and HSP70, is considered vital. Structural studies have demonstrated the C-terminal of BAG-1 forms a bundle of three alpha-helices of which helices 2 and 3 are directly involved in binding to the chaperones. Here we found peptides derived from helices 2 and 3 of BAG-1 interfered with BAG-1:HSC70 binding. We confirmed that a 12 amino-acid peptide from helix 2 directly interacted with HSC70 and when introduced into MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 cells, these peptides inhibited their growth. In conclusion, we have identified a small domain within BAG-1 which appears to play a critical role in the interaction with HSC70.

  5. Peripheral Administration of a Long-Acting Peptide Oxytocin Receptor Agonist Inhibits Fear-Induced Freezing.

    PubMed

    Modi, Meera E; Majchrzak, Mark J; Fonseca, Kari R; Doran, Angela; Osgood, Sarah; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle; Feyfant, Eric; McInnes, Heather; Darvari, Ramin; Buhl, Derek L; Kablaoui, Natasha M

    2016-08-01

    Oxytocin (OT) modulates the expression of social and emotional behaviors and consequently has been proposed as a pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric diseases, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia; however, endogenous OT has a short half-life in plasma and poor permeability across the blood-brain barrier. Recent efforts have focused on the development of novel drug delivery methods to enhance brain penetration, but few efforts have aimed at improving its half-life. To explore the behavioral efficacy of an OT analog with enhanced plasma stability, we developed PF-06655075 (PF1), a novel non-brain-penetrant OT receptor agonist with increased selectivity for the OT receptor and significantly increased pharmacokinetic stability. PF-06478939 was generated with only increased stability to disambiguate changes to selectivity versus stability. The efficacy of these compounds in evoking behavioral effects was tested in a conditioned fear paradigm. Both central and peripheral administration of PF1 inhibited freezing in response to a conditioned fear stimulus. Peripheral administration of PF1 resulted in a sustained level of plasma concentrations for greater than 20 hours but no detectable accumulation in brain tissue, suggesting that plasma or cerebrospinal fluid exposure was sufficient to evoke behavioral effects. Behavioral efficacy of peripherally administered OT receptor agonists on conditioned fear response opens the door to potential peripheral mechanisms in other behavioral paradigms, whether they are mediated by direct peripheral activation or feed-forward responses. Compound PF1 is freely available as a tool compound to further explore the role of peripheral OT in behavioral response. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Antimicrobial peptides secreted by equine mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit the growth of bacteria commonly found in skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Harman, Rebecca M; Yang, Steven; He, Megan K; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2017-07-04

    The prevalence of chronic skin wounds in humans is high, and treatment is often complicated by the presence of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, safe and innovative treatments to reduce the bacterial load in cutaneous wounds are needed. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are known to provide paracrine signals that act on resident skin cells to promote wound healing, but their potential antibacterial activities are not well described. The present study was designed to examine the antibacterial properties of MSC from horses, as this animal model offers a readily translatable model for MSC therapies in humans. Specifically, we aimed to (i) evaluate the in vitro effects of equine MSC on the growth of representative gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species commonly found in skin wounds and (ii) define the mechanisms by which MSC inhibit bacterial growth. MSC were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy horses. Gram-negative E. coli and gram-positive S. aureus were cultured in the presence of MSC and MSC conditioned medium (CM), containing all factors secreted by MSC. Bacterial growth was measured by plating bacteria and counting viable colonies or by reading the absorbance of bacterial cultures. Bacterial membrane damage was detected by incorporation of N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN). Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene and protein expression by equine MSC were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Blocking of AMP activity of MSC CM was achieved using AMP-specific antibodies. We found that equine MSC and MSC CM inhibit the growth of E. coli and S. aureus, and that MSC CM depolarizes the cell membranes of these bacteria. In addition, we found that equine MSC CM contains AMPs, and blocking these AMPs with antibodies reduces the effects of MSC CM on bacteria. Our results demonstrate that equine MSC inhibit bacterial growth and secrete factors that compromise the membrane integrity of bacteria commonly found in skin wounds. We also identified

  7. Synthetic peptides derived from salivary proteins and the control of surface charge densities of dental surfaces improve the inhibition of dental calculus formation.

    PubMed

    Grohe, Bernd

    2017-08-01

    Peptides descended from the salivary proteins statherin and histatin were recently identified in saliva and the acquired enamel pellicle (AEP), a proteomic layer coated on enamel. In particular, the statherin phosphopeptide DpSpSEEKFLR (DSS) was found to adsorb to enamel-like hydroxyapatite and inhibit plaque-related crystal formation. To determine the mechanism of these processes, we studied peptide-crystal interactions based on the sequences DSS and RKFHEKHHSHRGYR (RKF). The latter is a basic histatin sequence showing antimicrobial effects. To initiate crystallization we used calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), a rather secondary phase in the oral environment, however highly amenable to experimental analyses of nucleation and growth processes. Using electron microscopy we found that the peptides DSS, DSS-RKF and DSS-DSS all inhibit crystal formation; with DSS-DSS showing the strongest effects while RKF showed no effect. In addition, using either enamel-like or mica substrates, we found that the ratio of the substrate's surface charge densities was directly correlated with the ratio of COM nucleation rates on theses surfaces. The findings suggest that mineralization processes on enamel/AEP-films are controllable by the degree of peptide phosphorylation/acidity and the level of the enamel surface charge density. Both parameters can, when well adjusted, help to overcome periodontal disease and dental calculus formation. In addition, the presence of antimicrobial RKF will reduce the buildup of bacterial plaque. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Short communication: Is consumption of a cheese rich in angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibiting peptides, such as the Norwegian cheese Gamalost, associated with reduced blood pressure?

    PubMed

    Nilsen, R; Pripp, A H; Høstmark, A T; Haug, A; Skeie, S

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibiting peptides derived from dairy products may decrease blood pressure. These peptides have been identified in many cheeses, and Gamalost, a traditional Norwegian cheese, is particularly rich in these peptides. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether frequency of Gamalost intake was associated with blood pressure in a Norwegian population sample. Blood pressure and other clinical measurements, including the factors of metabolic syndrome, were obtained from 168 participants (56% female, mean age = 51 yr) who completed a questionnaire about dietary habits and other health-related factors. Mean Gamalost intake was 2 servings per week. The prevalence of hypertension was 23.8% in the population, with mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 128 and 78 mmHg, respectively. Intake of Gamalost was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure. Each increase in frequency unit of Gamalost intake corresponded to a reduction in systolic blood pressure of 0.72 mmHg, after controlling for sex, age, education, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status, and dairy food intake. Results from this study indicate that consumption of Gamalost (or other foods rich in ACE-inhibiting peptides) may reduce blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vaccination with liposome-coupled glypican-3-derived epitope peptide stimulates cytotoxic T lymphocytes and inhibits GPC3-expressing tumor growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Tatsuaki; Uchida, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yu; Tsuchiya, Nobuhiro; Sugai, Shiori; Fujinami, Norihiro; Shimomura, Manami; Yoshikawa, Toshiaki; Zhang, Rong; Uemura, Yasushi; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Because therapeutic manipulation of immunity can induce tumor regression, anti-cancer immunotherapy is considered a promising treatment modality. We previously reported that glypican-3 (GPC3), an oncofetal antigen overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is a useful target for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated cancer immunotherapy, and we have performed clinical trials using the GPC3-derived peptide vaccine. Although vaccine-induced GPC3-peptide-specific CTLs were often tumor reactive in vitro and were correlated with overall survival, no complete response was observed. In the current study, we synthesized liposome-coupled GPC3-derived CTL epitope peptide (pGPC3-lipsome) and investigated its antitumor potential. Vaccination with pGPC3-liposome induced peptide-specific CTLs at a lower dose than conventional vaccine emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Coupling of pGPC3 to liposomes was essential for effective priming of GPC3-specific CTLs. In addition, immunization with pGPC3-liposome inhibited GPC3-expressing tumor growth. Thus, vaccination with tumor-associated antigen-derived epitope peptides coupled to the surfaces of liposomes may be a novel therapeutic strategy for cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of neurotensin-stimulated mast cell secretion and carboxypeptidase A activity by the peptide inhibitor of carboxypeptidase A and neurotensin-receptor antagonist SR 48692.

    PubMed

    Miller, L A; Cochrane, D E; Feldberg, R S; Carraway, R E

    1998-06-01

    Neurotensin (NT), a peptide found in brain and several peripheral tissues, is a potent stimulus for mast cell secretion and its actions are blocked by the specific NT receptor antagonist, SR 48692. Subsequent to stimulation, NT is rapidly degraded by mast cell carboxypeptidase A (CPA). In the experiments described here, we tested for the involvement of CPA activity in the activation of mast cell secretion by the peptide, NT. Mast cells were isolated from the peritoneal and pleural cavities of rats, purified over metrizamide gradients and incubated at 37 degrees C in Locke solution or Locke containing the appropriate inhibitors. For some experiments, media derived from mast cells stimulated by compound 48/80 were used as a source of mast cell CPA activity. Treatment of mast cells with the highly specific peptide inhibitor of CPA derived from potato (PCI) inhibited histamine release in response to NT and NT8-13 (the biologically active region of NT). This inhibition required some 20 min to develop and was only partially reversed by a 20-min wash period. PCI (10 microM) did not inhibit histamine release in response to NT1-12, bradykinin, compound 48/80, the calcium ionophore, A23187, or anti-IgE serum. PCI also inhibited mast cell CPA activity. SR 48692, a highly selective antagonist of the brain NT receptor and of NT-stimulated mast cell secretion, also inhibited mast cell CPA activity as well as bovine pancreatic CPA activity in a concentration-dependent manner. It is suggested that the mast cell binding site for NT and the active site for CPA may share similar characteristics. The results are discussed in terms of NT mechanism of action on the mast cell.

  11. Calcineurin Regulates Homologous Desensitization of Natriuretic Peptide Receptor-A and Inhibits ANP-Induced Testosterone Production in MA-10 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Henesy, Michelle B.; Britain, Andrea L.; Zhu, Bing; Amable, Lauren; Honkanen, Richard E.; Corbin, Jackie D.; Francis, Sharron H.; Rich, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Receptor desensitization is a ubiquitous regulatory mechanism that defines the activatable pool of receptors, and thus, the ability of cells to respond to environmental stimuli. In recent years, the molecular mechanisms controlling the desensitization of a variety of receptors have been established. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie desensitization of natriuretic peptide receptors, including natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A). Here we report that calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B, PP2B, PPP3C) regulates homologous desensitization of NPR-A in murine Leydig tumor (MA-10) cells. We demonstrate that both pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin activity and siRNA-mediated suppression of calcineurin expression potentiate atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-induced cGMP synthesis. Treatment of MA-10 cells with inhibitors of other phosphoprotein phosphatases had little or no effect on ANP-induced cGMP accumulation. In addition, overexpression of calcineurin blunts ANP-induced cGMP synthesis. We also present data indicating that the inhibition of calcineurin potentiates ANP-induced testosterone production. To better understand the contribution of calcineurin in the regulation of NPR-A activity, we examined the kinetics of ANP-induced cGMP signals. We observed transient ANP-induced cGMP signals, even in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Inhibition of both calcineurin and phosphodiesterase dramatically slowed the decay in the response. These observations are consistent with a model in which calcineurin mediated dephosphorylation and desensitization of NPR-A is associated with significant inhibition of cGMP synthesis. PDE activity hydrolyzes cGMP, thus lowering intracellular cGMP toward the basal level. Taken together, these data suggest that calcineurin plays a previously unrecognized role in the desensitization of NPR-A and, thereby, inhibits ANP-mediated increases in testosterone production. PMID:22876290

  12. HbAHP-25, an In-Silico Designed Peptide, Inhibits HIV-1 Entry by Blocking gp120 Binding to CD4 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Tahir; Patgaonkar, Mandar; Kumar, Selvaa C; Pasi, Achhelal; Reddy, Kudumula Venkata Rami

    2015-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) poses a serious threat to the developing world and sexual transmission continues to be the major source of new infections. Therefore, the development of molecules, which prevent new HIV-1 infections, is highly warranted. In the present study, a panel of human hemoglobin (Hb)-α subunit derived peptides and their analogues, with an ability to bind gp120, were designed in-silico and their anti-HIV-1 activity was evaluated. Of these peptides, HbAHP-25, an analogue of Hb-α derived peptide, demonstrated significant anti-HIV-1 activity. HbAHP-25 was found to be active against CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains (ADA5 and BaL) and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 strains (IIIB and NL4-3). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and ELISA revealed direct interaction between HbAHP-25 and HIV-1 envelope protein, gp120. The peptide prevented binding of CD4 to gp120 and blocked subsequent steps leading to entry and/or fusion or both. Anti-HIV activity of HbAHP-25 appeared to be specific as it failed to inhibit the entry of HIV-1 pseudotyped virus (HIV-1 VSV). Further, HbAHP-25 was found to be non-cytotoxic to TZM-bl cells, VK2/E6E7 cells, CEM-GFP cells and PBMCs, even at higher concentrations. Moreover, HbAHP-25 retained its anti-HIV activity in presence of seminal plasma and vaginal fluid. In brief, the study identified HbAHP-25, a novel anti-HIV peptide, which directly interacts with gp120 and thus has a potential to inhibit early stages of HIV-1 infection.

  13. Brain RVD-haemopressin, a haemoglobin-derived peptide, inhibits bombesin-induced central activation of adrenomedullary outflow in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenjiro; Shimizu, Takahiro; Yanagita, Toshihiko; Nemoto, Takayuki; Nakamura, Kumiko; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Dimitriadis, Fotios; Yokotani, Kunihiko; Saito, Motoaki

    2014-01-01

    Haemopressin and RVD-haemopressin, derived from the haemoglobin α-chain, are bioactive peptides found in brain and are ligands for cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Activation of brain CB1 receptors inhibited the secretion of adrenal catecholamines (noradrenaline and adrenaline) induced by i.c.v. bombesin in the rat. Here, we investigated the effects of two haemoglobin-derived peptides on this bombesin-induced response Anaesthetised male Wistar rats were pretreated with either haemoglobin-derived peptide, given i.c.v., 30 min before i.c.v. bombesin and plasma catecholamines were subsequently measured electrochemically after HPLC. Direct effects of bombesin on secretion of adrenal catecholamines were examined using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Furthermore, activation of haemoglobin α-positive spinally projecting neurons in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, a regulatory centre of central adrenomedullary outflow) after i.c.v. bombesin was assessed by immunohistochemical techniques. Bombesin given i.c.v. dose-dependently elevated plasma catecholamines whereas incubation with bombesin had no effect on spontaneous and nicotine-induced secretion of catecholamines from chromaffin cells. The bombesin-induced increase in catecholamines was inhibited by pretreatment with i.c.v. RVD-haemopressin (CB1 receptor agonist) but not after pretreatment with haemopressin (CB1 receptor inverse agonist). Bombesin activated haemoglobin α-positive spinally projecting neurons in the PVN. The haemoglobin-derived peptide RVD-haemopressin in the brain plays an inhibitory role in bombesin-induced activation of central adrenomedullary outflow via brain CB1 receptors in the rat. These findings provide basic information for the therapeutic use of haemoglobin-derived peptides in the modulation of central adrenomedullary outflow. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Alpha-helical destabilization of the Bcl-2-BH4-domain peptide abolishes its ability to inhibit the IP3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Giovanni; Decrock, Elke; Nuyts, Koen; Wagner, Larry E; Luyten, Tomas; Strelkov, Sergei V; Missiaen, Ludwig; De Borggraeve, Wim M; Leybaert, Luc; Yule, David I; De Smedt, Humbert; Parys, Jan B; Bultynck, Geert

    2013-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein is the founding member and namesake of the Bcl-2-protein family. It has recently been demonstrated that Bcl-2, apart from its anti-apoptotic role at mitochondrial membranes, can also directly interact with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), the primary Ca(2+)-release channel in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Bcl-2 can thereby reduce pro-apoptotic IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release from the ER. Moreover, the Bcl-2 homology domain 4 (Bcl-2-BH4) has been identified as essential and sufficient for this IP3R-mediated anti-apoptotic activity. In the present study, we investigated whether the reported inhibitory effect of a Bcl-2-BH4 peptide on the IP 3R1 was related to the distinctive α-helical conformation of the BH4 domain peptide. We therefore designed a peptide with two glycine "hinges" replacing residues I14 and V15, of the wild-type Bcl-2-BH4 domain (Bcl-2-BH4-IV/GG). By comparing the structural and functional properties of the Bcl-2-BH4-IV/GG peptide with its native counterpart, we found that the variant contained reduced α-helicity, neither bound nor inhibited the IP 3R1 channel, and in turn lost its anti-apoptotic effect. Similar results were obtained with other substitutions in Bcl-2-BH4 that destabilized the α-helix with concomitant loss of IP3R inhibition. These results provide new insights for the further development of Bcl-2-BH4-derived peptides as specific inhibitors of the IP3R with significant pharmacological implications.

  15. HbAHP-25, an In-Silico Designed Peptide, Inhibits HIV-1 Entry by Blocking gp120 Binding to CD4 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Tahir; Patgaonkar, Mandar; Kumar C, Selvaa; Pasi, Achhelal; Reddy, Kudumula Venkata Rami

    2015-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) poses a serious threat to the developing world and sexual transmission continues to be the major source of new infections. Therefore, the development of molecules, which prevent new HIV-1 infections, is highly warranted. In the present study, a panel of human hemoglobin (Hb)-α subunit derived peptides and their analogues, with an ability to bind gp120, were designed in-silico and their anti-HIV-1 activity was evaluated. Of these peptides, HbAHP-25, an analogue of Hb-α derived peptide, demonstrated significant anti-HIV-1 activity. HbAHP-25 was found to be active against CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains (ADA5 and BaL) and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 strains (IIIB and NL4-3). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and ELISA revealed direct interaction between HbAHP-25 and HIV-1 envelope protein, gp120. The peptide prevented binding of CD4 to gp120 and blocked subsequent steps leading to entry and/or fusion or both. Anti-HIV activity of HbAHP-25 appeared to be specific as it failed to inhibit the entry of HIV-1 pseudotyped virus (HIV-1 VSV). Further, HbAHP-25 was found to be non-cytotoxic to TZM-bl cells, VK2/E6E7 cells, CEM-GFP cells and PBMCs, even at higher concentrations. Moreover, HbAHP-25 retained its anti-HIV activity in presence of seminal plasma and vaginal fluid. In brief, the study identified HbAHP-25, a novel anti-HIV peptide, which directly interacts with gp120 and thus has a potential to inhibit early stages of HIV-1 infection. PMID:25915507

  16. Inhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupperman, Joel J.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the use of the concept of inhibition in moral philosophy. Argues that there are strong practical reasons for basing moral teaching on simple moral rules and for inculcating inhibitions about breaking these rules. (Author)

  17. Rescue of Amyloid-Beta-Induced Inhibition of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by a Peptide Homologous to the Nicotine Binding Domain of the Alpha 7 Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Cleber A.; Sathler, Luciana B.; Juliano, Maria A.; Juliano, Luiz; Ulrich, Henning; Ferreira, Sergio T.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by brain accumulation of the neurotoxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and by loss of cholinergic neurons and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent evidence indicates that memory loss and cognitive decline in AD correlate better with the amount of soluble Aβ than with the extent of amyloid plaque deposits in affected brains. Inhibition of nAChRs by soluble Aβ40 is suggested to contribute to early cholinergic dysfunction in AD. Using phage display screening, we have previously identified a heptapeptide, termed IQ, homologous to most nAChR subtypes, binding with nanomolar affinity to soluble Aβ40 and blocking Aβ-induced inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced currents in PC12 cells expressing α7 nAChRs. Using alanine scanning mutagenesis and whole-cell current recording, we have now defined the amino acids in IQ essential for reversal of Aβ40 inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced responses in PC12 cells, mediated by α7 subtypes and other endogenously expressed nAChRs. We further investigated the effects of soluble Aβ, IQ and analogues of IQ on α3β4 nAChRs recombinantly expressed in HEK293 cells. Results show that nanomolar concentrations of soluble Aβ40 potently inhibit the function of α3β4 nAChRs, and that subsequent addition of IQ or its analogues does not reverse this effect. However, co-application of IQ makes the inhibition of α3β4 nAChRs by Aβ40 reversible. These findings indicate that Aβ40 inhibits different subtypes of nAChRs by interacting with specific receptor domains homologous to the IQ peptide, suggesting that IQ may be a lead for novel drugs to block the inhibition of cholinergic function in AD. PMID:23894286

  18. Peptides based on alphaV-binding domains of erythrocyte ICAM-4 inhibit sickle red cell-endothelial interactions and vaso-occlusion in the microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Dhananjay K; Liu, Xiao-du; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Mankelow, Tosti; Parsons, Stephen; Spring, Frances; An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla; Anstee, David; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2006-11-01

    Growing evidence shows that adhesion molecules on sickle erythrocytes interact with vascular endothelium leading to vaso-occlusion. Erythrocyte intercellular adhesion molecule-4 (ICAM-4) binds alphaV-integrins, including alphaVbeta3 on endothelial cells. To explore the contribution of ICAM-4 to vascular pathology of sickle cell disease, we tested the effects of synthetic peptides, V(16)PFWVRMS (FWV) and T(91)RWATSRI (ATSR), based on alphaV-binding domains of ICAM-4 and capable of inhibiting ICAM-4 and alphaV-binding in vitro. For these studies, we utilized an established ex vivo microvascular model system that enables intravital microscopy and quantitation of adhesion under shear flow. In this model, the use of platelet-activating factor, which causes endothelial oxidant generation and endothelial activation, mimicked physiological states known to occur in sickle cell disease. Infusion of sickle erythrocytes into platelet-activating factor-treated ex vivo rat mesocecum vasculature produced pronounced adhesion of erythrocytes; small-diameter venules were sites of maximal adhesion and frequent blockage. Both FWV and ATSR peptides markedly decreased adhesion, and no vessel blockage was observed with either of the peptides, resulting in improved hemodynamics. ATSR also inhibited adhesion in unactivated microvasculature. Although infused fluoresceinated ATSR colocalized with vascular endothelium, pretreatment with function-blocking antibody to alphaVbeta3-integrin markedly inhibited this interaction. Our data strengthen the thesis that ICAM-4 on sickle erythrocytes binds endothelium via alphaVbeta3 and that this interaction contributes to vaso-occlusion. Thus peptides or small molecule mimetics of ICAM-4 may have therapeutic potential.

  19. Alanine rich peptide from Populus trichocarpa inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus via targetting its extracellular domain of Sensor Histidine Kinase YycGex protein.

    PubMed

    Al Akeel, Raid; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Alqahtani, Mohammed S; Alqahtani, Ali S

    2018-05-22

    Due to growing concern towards microbial resistance, ongoing search for developing novel bioactive compounds such as peptides is on rise. The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial effect of Populus trichocarpa extract, chemically identify the active peptide fraction and finds its target in Staphylococcus aureus. In this study the active fraction of P. trichocarpa crude extract was purified and characterized using MS/MS. This peptide PT13 antimicrobial activity was confirmed by in-vitro agar based disk diffusion and in-vivo infection model of G. mellonella. The proteomic expression analysis of S. aureus under influence of PT13 was studied using LTQ-Orbitrap-MS in-solution digestion and identity of target protein was acquired with their quantified expression using label-free approach of Progenesis QI software. Docking study was performed with peptide PT13 and its target YycG protein using CABS-dock. The active fraction PT13 sequence was identified as KVPVAAAAAAAAAVVASSMVVAAAK, with 25 amino acid including 13 alanine having M/Z 2194.2469. PT13 was uniformly inhibited growth S. aureus SA91 and MIC was determined 16 μg/mL for SA91 S. aureus strain. Sensor histidine kinase (YycG) was most significant target found differentially expressed under influence of PT13. G. mellonella larvae were killed rapidly due to S aureus infection, whereas death in protected group was insignificant in compare to control. The docking models showed ten docking models with RMSD value 1.89 for cluster 1 and RMSD value 3.95 for cluster 2 which is predicted to be high quality model. Alanine rich peptide could be useful in constructing as antimicrobial peptide for targeting extracellular Domain of Sensor Histidine Kinase YycG from S. aureus used in the study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Natriuretic peptide receptor A inhibition suppresses gastric cancer development through reactive oxygen species-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest and cell death.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Ji-Wei; Wang, Wei-Zhi; Zhi, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Qun; Li, Bo-Wen; Wang, Lin-Jun; Xie, Kun-Ling; Tao, Jin-Qiu; Tang, Jie; Wei, Song; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Dian-Cai; Yang, Li; Xu, Ze-Kuan

    2016-10-01

    Natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA), the major receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), has been implicated in tumorigenesis; however, the role of ANP-NPRA signaling in the development of gastric cancer remains unclear. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that NPRA expression was positively associated with gastric tumor size and cancer stage. NPRA inhibition by shRNA induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, cell death, and autophagy in gastric cancer cells, due to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Either genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy led to caspase-dependent cell death. Therefore, autophagy induced by NPRA silencing may represent a cytoprotective mechanism. ROS accumulation activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). ROS-mediated activation of JNK inhibited cell proliferation by disturbing cell cycle and decreased cell viability. In addition, AMPK activation promoted autophagy in NPRA-downregulated cancer cells. Overall, our results indicate that the inhibition of NPRA suppresses gastric cancer development and targeting NPRA may represent a promising strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel FGFR3-binding peptide inhibits FGFR3 signaling and reverses the lethal phenotype of mice mimicking human thanatophoric dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Min; Yu, Ying; Qi, Huabing; Xie, Yangli; Su, Nan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Tan, Qiaoyan; Luo, Fengtao; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Quan; Du, Xiaolan; Xian, Cory J.; Liu, Peng; Huang, Haiyang; Shen, Yue; Deng, Chu-Xia; Chen, Di; Chen, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) lead to several types of human skeletal dysplasia syndromes including achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). Currently, there are no effective treatments for these skeletal dysplasia diseases. In this study, we screened, using FGFR3 as a bait, a random 12-peptide phage library and obtained 23 positive clones that share identical amino acid sequences (VSPPLTLGQLLS), named as peptide P3. This peptide had high binding specificity to the extracellular domain of FGFR3. P3 inhibited tyrosine kinase activity of FGFR3 and its typical downstream molecules, extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase. P3 also promoted proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of cultured ATDC5 chondrogenic cells. In addition, P3 alleviated the bone growth retardation in bone rudiments from mice mimicking human thanatophoric dysplasia type II (TDII). Finally, P3 reversed the neonatal lethality of TDII mice. Thus, this study identifies a novel inhibitory peptide for FGFR3 signaling, which may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasia. PMID:23014564

  2. Attenuation of LPS-induced inflammation by ICT, a derivate of icariin, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinfeng; Zhou, Junmin; Chen, Xianghong; Fortenbery, Nicole; Eksioglu, Erika A; Wei, Sheng; Dong, Jingcheng

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of ICT in LPS stimulated human innate immune cells. 3, 5, 7-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-(3-hydroxy-3- methylbutyl)-flavone (ICT) is a novel derivative of icariin, the major active ingredient of Herba Epimedii, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine. We previously demonstrated its anti-inflammatory potential in a murine macrophage cell line as well as in mouse models. We measured TNF-α production by ELISA, TLR4/CD14 expression by flow cytometry, and NF-κB and MAPK activation by western blot all in LPS-stimulated PBMC, human monocytes, or THP-1 cells after treatment with ICT. ICT inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α production in THP-1 cells, PBMCs and human monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. ICT treatment resulted in down-regulation of the expression of CD14/TLR4 and attenuated NF-κB and MAPK activation induced by LPS. We illustrate the anti-inflammatory property of ICT in human immune cells, especially in monocytes. These effects were mediated, at least partially, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptide Ghrelin Inhibits Homocysteine-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in Porcine Coronary Arteries and Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Nasim; Annambhotla, Suman; Jiang, Jun; Wang, Xinwen; Chai, Hong; Lin, Peter H.; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2009-01-01

    Objective Ghrelin, a novel growth-hormone releasing peptide, is implicated to play a protective role in cardiovascular tissues. However, it is not clear whether ghrelin protects vascular tissues from injury secondary to risk factors such as homocysteine (Hcy). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and potential mechanisms of ghrelin on Hcy-induced endothelial dysfunction. Methods Porcine coronary artery rings were incubated for 24 hours with ghrelin (100 ng/mL), Hcy (50 μM), or ghrelin plus Hcy. Endothelial vasomotor function was evaluated using the myograph tension model. The response to thromboxane A2 analog U466419, bradykinin, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was analyzed. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was determined using real time PCR and immunohistochemistry staining, and superoxide anion production by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence analysis. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated with different concentrations of Hcy, ghrelin, and/or anti-ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) antibody for 24 hours, eNOS protein levels were determined by western blot analysis. Results Maximal contraction with U466419 and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation with SNP were not different among the four groups. However, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation with bradykinin (10-6M) was significantly reduced by 34% with Hcy compared with controls (P<0.05). Addition of ghrelin to Hcy had a protective effect, with 61.6% relaxation, similar to controls (64.7%). Hcy significantly reduced eNOS expression, while ghrelin co-treatment effectively restored eNOS expression to the control levels. Superoxide anion levels, which were increased by 100% with Hcy, returned to control levels with ghrelin co-treatment. Ghrelin also effectively blocked Hcy-induced decrease of eNOS protein levels in HCAECs in a concentration dependent manner. Anti-ghrelin receptor antibody effectively inhibited ghrelin’s effect. Conclusions Ghrelin has a

  4. Inhibition of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli by antimicrobial peptides caseicin A and B and the factors affecting their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Mary J; Rivas, Lucia; Burgess, Catherine M; Fanning, Séamus; Duffy, Geraldine

    2012-02-15

    The antimic robial activities of caseicin A and B antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were assessed against a selection of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains (n=11), other bacterial pathogenic and spoilage bacteria (n=7), using a model broth system. The ability of the AMPs to retain their antimicrobial activities against a strain of E. coli O157:H7 380-94 under various test conditions (pH, temperature, water activity, sodium chloride concentrations, inoculum size and the presence of competitive microflora) was assessed and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and number of surviving E. coli O157:H7 calculated. The mean number of VTEC surviving after exposure to 2 mg/ml caseicin A and B was reduced by 4.96 and 4.19 log(10) cfu/ml compared to the respective controls. The susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 to the caseicin AMPs decreased as temperature, pH, water activity and inoculum size were reduced. The presence of sodium chloride (0.5-2.5%) did not affect the activity of caseicin A (p>0.05), however it did inhibit the activity of caseicin B. The presence of a competitive microflora cocktail did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the activities of the AMPs for the majority of the concentrations tested. Using a quantitative PCR assay, the levels of verotoxins (vt1 and vt2) expressed by E. coli O157:H7 following exposure to a sub-inhibitory concentration (0.5 mg/ml) of caseicin A showed that the verotoxin levels did not differ from the levels produced by the control cultures. The antimicrobial activity of caseicin A against E. coli O157:H7 was also tested in a model rumen system, however concentrations of ≥2 mg/ml did not significantly (p>0.05) reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers in the model system over a 24 h period. The application of caseicin AMPs in food and/or animal production may be valuable in combination with other antimicrobials although further research is required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. OMP Peptides Activate the DegS Stress-Sensor Protease by a Relief of Inhibition Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.

    2010-03-19

    In the E. coli periplasm, C-terminal peptides of misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease, triggering cleavage of a transmembrane regulator and transcriptional activation of stress genes. We show that an active-site DegS mutation partially bypasses the requirement for peptide activation and acts synergistically with mutations that disrupt contacts between the protease and PDZ domains. Biochemical results support an allosteric model, in which these mutations, active-site modification, and peptide/substrate binding act in concert to stabilize proteolytically active DegS. Cocrystal structures of DegS in complex with different OMP peptides reveal activation of the proteasemore » domain with varied conformations of the PDZ domain and without specific contacts from the bound OMP peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the binding of OMP peptides activates proteolysis principally by relieving inhibitory contacts between the PDZ domain and the protease domain of DegS.« less

  6. Antiviral Peptides Targeting the West Nile Virus Envelope Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Fengwei; Town, Terrence; Pradhan, Deepti; Cox, Jonathan; Ashish; Ledizet, Michel; Anderson, John F.; Flavell, Richard A.; Krueger, Joanna K.; Koski, Raymond A.; Fikrig, Erol

    2007-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) can cause fatal murine and human encephalitis. The viral envelope protein interacts with host cells. A murine brain cDNA phage display library was therefore probed with WNV envelope protein, resulting in the identification of several adherent peptides. Of these, peptide 1 prevented WNV infection in vitro with a 50% inhibition concentration of 67 μM and also inhibited infection of a related flavivirus, dengue virus. Peptide 9, a derivative of peptide 1, was a particularly potent inhibitor of WNV in vitro, with a 50% inhibition concentration of 2.6 μM. Moreover, mice challenged with WNV that had been incubated with peptide 9 had reduced viremia and fatality compared with control animals. Peptide 9 penetrated the murine blood-brain barrier and was found in the brain parenchyma, implying that it may have antiviral activity in the central nervous system. These short peptides serve as the basis for developing new therapeutics for West Nile encephalitis and, potentially, other flaviviruses. PMID:17151121

  7. A chimeric peptide of intestinal trefoil factor containing cholesteryl ester transfer protein B cell epitope significantly inhibits atherosclerosis in rabbits after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Qi, Gaofu; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Shengying; Xin, Shanshan; Du, Peng; Zhang, Qingye; Zhao, Xiuyun

    2011-04-01

    Vaccination against cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is proven to be effective for inhibiting atherosclerosis in animal models. In this study, the proteases-resistant intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3) was used as a molecular vehicle to construct chimeric TFF3 (cTFF3) containing CETP B cell epitope and tetanus toxin helper T cell epitope. It was found that cTFF3 still preserved a trefoil structure, and can resist proteases digestion in vitro. After oral immunization with cTFF3, the CETP-specific IgA and IgG could be found in intestine lavage fluid and serum, and the anti-CETP antibodies could inhibit partial CETP activity to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and inhibit atherosclerosis in animals. Therefore, TFF3 is a potential molecular vehicle for developing oral peptide vaccines. Our research highlights a novel strategy for developing oral peptide vaccines in the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Peptide derived from desalinated boiled tuna extract inhibits adipogenesis through the downregulation of C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, In-Hye; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2015-05-01

    Recently, obesity has increased due to a variety of reasons, including the availability of 'fast food' and high-fat diets. Developing anti-obesity functional drugs and foods from natural sources may offer solutions to this global concern. Generally, tuna is a high-protein, low-fat and low-calorie food with various bioactive effects. It may improve memory, reduce cholesterol levels and positively affect the development of brain cells. In this study, we screened the anti-obesity potential of peptides derived from tuna protein. We then observed protein bands by the Coomassie blue staining of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel. The protein mixture was concentrated and desalted using in-gel trypsin digestion and a C18 nano column and Poros R2 reversed-phase preparation, prior to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS). We screened the peptides for their ability to affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also measured glucose uptake, triglyceride levels and lipid droplets using Oil Red O staining. As a result, we confirmed that one peptide inhibited adipocyte differentiation. We also observed the expression of obesity-related genes by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The peptide from the tuna extract significantly reduced the expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBP-α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) adipocyte marker genes. Thus, our data suggest that this peptide from boiled tuna extract reduces lipid components and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, and these characteristics may be of value in the development of anti-obesity foods.

  9. Pyrrhocoricin, a proline-rich antimicrobial peptide derived from insect, inhibits the translation process in the cell-free Escherichia coli protein synthesis system.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masayuki; Ochiai, Akihito; Kondo, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Shun; Ishiyama, Yohei; Saitoh, Eiichi; Kato, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Takaaki

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that pyrrhocoricin, a proline-rich antimicrobial peptide (PrAMP), killed sensitive species in a dose-dependent manner by specifically binding to DnaK. Here, on the basis of the finding that DnaK-deficient Escherichia coli strains are susceptible to PrAMPs, we used pyrrhocoricin to investigate internal targets other than DnaK. Using conventional antibiotics (bleomycin, streptomycin, and fosfomycin) that have known modes of action, first, we validated the availability of an assay using a cell-free rapid translation system (RTS), which is an in vitro protein synthesis system based on E. coli lysate, for evaluating inhibition of protein synthesis. We found that, similarly to bleomycin and streptomycin, pyrrhocoricin inhibited GFP synthesis in RTS in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, blockage of transcription and translation steps in RTS was individually estimated using RT-PCR after gene expression to determine mRNA products and using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the amounts of GFP expressed from purified mRNA, respectively. The results demonstrated that this inhibition of GFP synthesis by pyrrhocoricin did not occur at the transcription step but rather at the translation step, in a manner similar to that of GFP synthesis by streptomycin, an inhibitor of the translation step by causing misreading of tRNA. These results suggest that RTS is a powerful assay system for determining if antimicrobial peptides inhibit protein synthesis and its transcription and/or translation steps. This is the first study to have shown that pyrrhocoricin inhibited protein synthesis by specifically repressing the translation step. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Endogenous peptide YY and neuropeptide Y inhibit colonic ion transport, contractility and transit differentially via Y1 and Y2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tough, IR; Forbes, S; Tolhurst, R; Ellis, M; Herzog, H; Bornstein, JC; Cox, HM

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Peptide YY (PYY) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) activate Y receptors, targets under consideration as treatments for diarrhoea and other intestinal disorders. We investigated the gastrointestinal consequences of selective PYY or NPY ablation on mucosal ion transport, smooth muscle activity and transit using wild-type, single and double peptide knockout mice, comparing mucosal responses with those from human colon. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Mucosae were pretreated with a Y1 (BIBO3304) or Y2 (BIIE0246) receptor antagonist and changes in short-circuit current recorded. Colonic transit and colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) were assessed in vitro and upper gastrointestinal and colonic transit measured in vivo. KEY RESULTS Y receptor antagonists revealed tonic Y1 and Y2 receptor-mediated antisecretory effects in human and wild-type mouse colon mucosae. In both, Y1 tone was epithelial while Y2 tone was neuronal. Y1 tone was reduced 90% in PYY−/− mucosa but unchanged in NPY−/− tissue. Y2 tone was partially reduced in NPY−/− or PYY−/− mucosae and abolished in tetrodotoxin-pretreated PYY−/− tissue. Y1 and Y2 tone were absent in NPYPYY−/− tissue. Colonic transit was inhibited by Y1 blockade and increased by Y2 antagonism indicating tonic Y1 excitation and Y2 inhibition respectively. Upper GI transit was increased in PYY−/− mice only. Y2 blockade reduced CMMC frequency in isolated mouse colon. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Endogenous PYY and NPY induced significant mucosal antisecretory tone mediated by Y1 and Y2 receptors, via similar mechanisms in human and mouse colon mucosa. Both peptides contributed to tonic Y2-receptor-mediated inhibition of colonic transit in vitro but only PYY attenuated upper GI transit. PMID:21457230

  11. Inhibition of Efflux Transporter-Mediated Fungicide Resistance in Pyrenophora tritici-repentis by a Derivative of 4′-Hydroxyflavone and Enhancement of Fungicide Activity

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Sven; Deising, Holger B.

    2005-01-01

    Populations of the causal agent of wheat tan spot, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, that are collected from fields frequently treated with reduced fungicide concentrations have reduced sensitivity to strobilurin fungicides and azole fungicides (C14-demethylase inhibitors). Energy-dependent efflux transporter activity can be induced under field conditions and after in vitro application of sublethal amounts of fungicides. Efflux transporters can mediate cross-resistance to a number of fungicides that belong to different chemical classes and have different modes of action. Resistant isolates can grow on substrata amended with fungicides and can infect plants treated with fungicides at levels above recommended field concentrations. We identified the hydroxyflavone derivative 2-(4-ethoxy-phenyl)-chromen-4-one as a potent inhibitor of energy-dependent fungicide efflux transporters in P. tritici-repentis. Application of this compound in combination with fungicides shifted fungicide-resistant P. tritici-repentis isolates back to normal sensitivity levels and prevented infection of wheat leaves. These results highlight the role of energy-dependent efflux transporters in fungicide resistance and could enable a novel disease management strategy based on the inhibition of fungicide efflux to be developed. PMID:15933029

  12. Genetic Selection of Peptide Aptamers That Interact and Inhibit Both Small Protein B and Alternative Ribosome-Rescue Factor A of Aeromonas veronii C4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Chen, Yong; Wang, Dan; Tang, Yanqiong; Tang, Hongqian; Song, Haichao; Sun, Qun; Zhang, Yueling; Liu, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium, which infects a variety of animals and results in mass mortality. The stalled-ribosome rescues are reported to ensure viability and virulence under stress conditions, of which primarily include trans-translation and alternative ribosome-rescue factor A (ArfA) in A. veronii. For identification of specific peptides that interact and inhibit the stalled-ribosome rescues, peptide aptamer library (pTRG-SN-peptides) was constructed using pTRG as vector and Staphylococcus aureus nuclease (SN) as scaffold protein, in which 16 random amino acids were introduced to form an exposed surface loop. In the meantime both Small Protein B (SmpB) which acts as one of the key components in trans-translation, and ArfA were inserted to pBT to constitute pBT-SmpB and pBT-ArfA, respectively. The peptide aptamer PA-2 was selected from pTRG-SN-peptides by bacterial two-hybrid system (B2H) employing pBT-SmpB or pBT-ArfA as baits. The conserved sites G133K134 and D138K139R140 of C-terminal SmpB were identified by interacting with N-terminal SN, and concurrently the residue K62 of ArfA was recognized by interacting with the surface loop of the specific peptide aptamer PA-2. The expression plasmids pN-SN or pN-PA-2, which combined the duplication origin of pRE112 with the neokanamycin promoter expressing SN or PA-2, were created and transformed into A. veronii C4, separately. The engineered A. veronii C4 which endowing SN or PA-2 expression impaired growth capabilities under stress conditions including temperatures, sucrose, glucose, potassium chloride (KCl) and antibiotics, and the stress-related genes rpoS and nhaP were down-regulated significantly by Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) when treating in 2.0% KCl. Thus, the engineered A. veronii C4 conferring PA-2 expression might be potentially attenuated vaccine, and also the peptide aptamer PA-2 could develop as anti-microbial drugs targeted to the ribosome rescued factors in A

  13. Genetic Selection of Peptide Aptamers That Interact and Inhibit Both Small Protein B and Alternative Ribosome-Rescue Factor A of Aeromonas veronii C4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Chen, Yong; Wang, Dan; Tang, Yanqiong; Tang, Hongqian; Song, Haichao; Sun, Qun; Zhang, Yueling; Liu, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium, which infects a variety of animals and results in mass mortality. The stalled-ribosome rescues are reported to ensure viability and virulence under stress conditions, of which primarily include trans-translation and alternative ribosome-rescue factor A (ArfA) in A. veronii. For identification of specific peptides that interact and inhibit the stalled-ribosome rescues, peptide aptamer library (pTRG-SN-peptides) was constructed using pTRG as vector and Staphylococcus aureus nuclease (SN) as scaffold protein, in which 16 random amino acids were introduced to form an exposed surface loop. In the meantime both Small Protein B (SmpB) which acts as one of the key components in trans-translation, and ArfA were inserted to pBT to constitute pBT-SmpB and pBT-ArfA, respectively. The peptide aptamer PA-2 was selected from pTRG-SN-peptides by bacterial two-hybrid system (B2H) employing pBT-SmpB or pBT-ArfA as baits. The conserved sites G133K134 and D138K139R140 of C-terminal SmpB were identified by interacting with N-terminal SN, and concurrently the residue K62 of ArfA was recognized by interacting with the surface loop of the specific peptide aptamer PA-2. The expression plasmids pN-SN or pN-PA-2, which combined the duplication origin of pRE112 with the neokanamycin promoter expressing SN or PA-2, were created and transformed into A. veronii C4, separately. The engineered A. veronii C4 which endowing SN or PA-2 expression impaired growth capabilities under stress conditions including temperatures, sucrose, glucose, potassium chloride (KCl) and antibiotics, and the stress-related genes rpoS and nhaP were down-regulated significantly by Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) when treating in 2.0% KCl. Thus, the engineered A. veronii C4 conferring PA-2 expression might be potentially attenuated vaccine, and also the peptide aptamer PA-2 could develop as anti-microbial drugs targeted to the ribosome rescued factors in A

  14. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 augments insulin secretion in response to exogenously administered glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, and gastrin-releasing peptide in mice.

    PubMed

    Ahrén, Bo; Hughes, Thomas E

    2005-04-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is currently being explored as a new approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This concept has emerged from the powerful and rapid action of the enzyme to inactivate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). However, other bioactive peptides with potential influence of islet function are also substrates of DPP-4. Whether this inactivation may add to the beneficial effects of DPP-4 inhibition is not known. In this study, we explored whether DPP-4 inhibition by valine-pyrrolidide (val-pyr; 100 micromol/kg administered through gastric gavage at t = -30 min) affects the insulin and glucose responses to iv glucose (1 g/kg) together with GLP-1 (10 nmol/kg), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP; 10 nmol/kg), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38; 1.3 nmol/kg), or gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP; 20 nmol/kg) given at t = 0 in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice. It was found that the acute (1-5 min) insulin response to GLP-1 was augmented by val-pyr by 80% (4.2 +/- 0.4 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.8 nmol/liter), that to GIP by 40% (2.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.4 nmol/liter), that to PACAP38 by 75% (4.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 8.1 +/- 0.6 nmol/liter), and that to GRP by 25% (1.8 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.3 +/- 0.3 nmol/liter; all P < 0.05 or less). This was associated with enhanced glucose elimination rate after GLP-1 [glucose elimination constant (K(G)) 2.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.3%/min] and PACAP38 (2.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.2 +/- 0.3%/min; both P < 0.01), but not after GIP or GRP. The augmented insulin response to GRP by val-pyr was prevented by the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin(3) (9-39), raising the possibility that GRP effects may occur secondary to stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. We conclude that DPP-4 inhibition augments the insulin response not only to GLP-1 but also to GIP, PACAP38, and GRP.

  15. Triflavin, an Arg‐Gly‐Asp‐containing Antiplatelet Peptide Inhibits Cell‐substratum Adhesion and Melanoma Cell‐induced Lung Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Joen R.; Lin, Chao H.; Chung, Jih L.; Teng, Che M.

    1992-01-01

    Triflavin, an Arg‐Gly‐Asp (RGD) containing peptide purified from Trimeresurus flavoviridis snake venom, inhibits human platelet aggregation by blocking fibrinogen binding to fibrinogen receptors associated with glycoprotein Ilb/IIIa complex. In this study, we show that triflavin (1‐30 μg/mouse) inhibits B16‐F10 melanoma cell‐induced lung colonization in C57BL/6 mice in a dose‐dependent manner. In vitro, triflavin dose‐dependently inhibits adhesion of B16‐F10 melanoma cells to extracellular matrices (ECMs; i.e., fibronectin, fibrinogen, vitronectin, and collagen type I). Triflavin is approximately 600‐800 times more potent than GRGDS at inhibiting cell adhesion. In addition, triflavin dose‐dependently inhibits B16‐F10 cell‐induced platelet aggregation. These results imply that the inhibitory effect of triflavin on the adhesion of tumor cells to ECMs (e.g., fibronectin, vitronectin and collagen type I) and/or tumor cell‐induced platelet aggregation may be partially responsible for its antimetastatic activity in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:1399825

  16. Inhibition of human megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro by platelet factor 4 (PF4) and a synthetic COOH-terminal PF4 peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Gewirtz, A M; Calabretta, B; Rucinski, B; Niewiarowski, S; Xu, W Y

    1989-01-01

    We report that highly purified human platelet factor 4 (PF4) inhibits human megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro. At greater than or equal to 25 micrograms/ml, PF4 inhibited megakaryocyte colony formation approximately 80% in unstimulated cultures, and approximately 58% in cultures containing recombinant human IL 3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Because PF4 (25 micrograms/ml) had no effect on either myeloid or erythroid colony formation lineage specificity of this effect was suggested. A synthetic COOH-terminal PF4 peptide of 24, but not 13 residues, also inhibited megakaryocyte colony formation, whereas a synthetic 18-residue beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) peptide and native beta-TG had no such effect when assayed at similar concentrations. The mechanism of PF4-mediated inhibition was investigated. First, we enumerated total cell number, and examined cell maturation in control colonies (n = 200) and colonies (n = 100) that arose in PF4-containing cultures. Total cells per colony did not differ dramatically in the two groups (6.1 +/- 3.0 vs. 4.2 +/- 1.6, respectively), but the numbers of mature large cells per colony was significantly decreased in the presence of PF4 when compared with controls (1.6 +/- 1.5 vs. 3.9 +/- 2.3; P less than 0.001). Second, by using the human leukemia cell line HEL as a model for primitive megakaryocytic cells, we studied the effect of PF4 on cell doubling time, on the expression of both growth-regulated (H3, p53, c-myc,and c-myb), and non-growth-regulated (beta 2-microglobulin) genes. At high concentrations of native PF4 (50 micrograms/ml), no effect on cell doubling time, or H3 or p53 expression was discerned. In contrast, c-myc and c-myb were both upregulated. These results suggested the PF4 inhibited colony formation by impeding cell maturation, as opposed to cell proliferation, perhaps by inducing expression of c-myc and c-myb. The ability of PF4 to inhibit a normal cell maturation function was then tested

  17. A new peptide (Ruviprase) purified from the venom of Daboia russelii russelii shows potent anticoagulant activity via non-enzymatic inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Rupamoni; Kumar, Ashok; Bose, Biplab; Panda, Dulal; Saikia, Debashree; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2014-10-01

    Compounds showing dual inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa (FXa) are the subject of great interest owing to their broader specificity for effective anticoagulation therapy against cardiovascular disorders. This is the first report on the functional characterization and assessment of therapeutic potential of a 4423.6 Da inhibitory peptide (Ruviprase) purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom. The secondary structure of Ruviprase is composed of α-helices (61.9%) and random coils (38.1%). The partial N-terminal sequence (E(1)-V(2)-X(3)-W(4)-W(5)-W(6)-A(7)-Q(8)-L(9)-S(10)) of Ruviprase demonstrated significant similarity (80.0%) with an internal sequence of apoptosis-stimulating protein reported from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah and Python bivittatus; albeit Ruviprase did not show sequence similarity with existing thrombin/FXa inhibitors, suggesting its uniqueness. Ruviprase demonstrated a potent in vitro anticoagulant property and inhibited both thrombin and FXa following slow binding kinetics. Ruviprase inhibited thrombin by binding to its active site via an uncompetitive mechanism with a Ki value and dissociation constant (KD) of 0.42 μM and 0.46 μM, respectively. Conversely, Ruviprase demonstrated mixed inhibition (Ki = 0.16 μM) of FXa towards its physiological substrate prothrombin. Furthermore, the biological properties of Ruviprase could not be neutralized by commercial polyvalent or monovalent antivenom. Ruviprase at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg was non-toxic and showed potent in vivo anticoagulant activity after 6 h of intraperitoneal treatment in mice. Because of the potent anticoagulant property as well as non-toxic nature of Ruviprase, the possible application of the peptide as an antithrombotic agent for combating thrombosis-associated ailments appears promising. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Seasonal plasticity in the peptide neuronal systems: potential roles of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, gonadotrophin-inhibiting hormone, neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the regulation of the reproductive axis in subtropical Indian weaver birds.

    PubMed

    Surbhi; Rastogi, A; Rani, S; Kumar, V

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments examined the expression of gonadotrophin-releasing and inhibiting hormones (GnRH-I, GnRH-II and GnIH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in subtropical Indian weaver birds, which demonstrate relative photorefractoriness. Experiment 1 measured peptide expression levels in the form of immunoreactive (-IR) cells, percentage cell area and cell optical density in the preoptic area (GnRH-I), midbrain (GnRH-II), paraventricular nucleus (GnIH), mediobasal hypothalamus [dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), infundibular complex (INc), NPY and VIP] and lateral septal organ (VIP) during the progressive, breeding, regressive and nonbreeding phases of the annual reproductive cycle. GnRH-I was decreased in the nonbreeding and VIP was increased in INc in the breeding and regressive states. GnRH-II and NPY levels did not differ between the testicular phases. Double-labelled immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed a close association between the GnRH/GnIH, GnRH/NPY, GnRH/VIP and GnIH/NPY peptide systems, implicating them interacting and playing roles in the reproductive regulation in weaver birds. Experiment 2 further measured these peptide levels in the middle of day and night in weaver birds that were maintained under short days (8 : 16 h light /dark cycle; photosensitive), exposed to ten long days (16 : 8 h light /dark cycle; photostimulated) or maintained for approximately 2 years on a 16 : 8 h light /dark cycle (photorefractory). Reproductively immature testes in these groups precluded the possible effect of an enhanced gonadal feedback on the hypothalamic peptide expression. There were group differences in the GnRH-I (not GnRH-II), GnIH, NPY and VIP immunoreactivity, albeit with variations in immunoreactivity measures in the present study. These results, which are consistent with those reported in birds with relative photorefractoriness, show the distribution and possibly a complex interaction of key neuropeptides in the regulation of the

  19. BG-4, a novel bioactive peptide from Momordica charantia, inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in THP-1 human macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a commonly used food crop for management of a variety of diseases most notably for control of diabetes, a disease associated with aberrant inflammation. Purpose: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of BG-4, a novel bioactive peptide isolated f...

  20. Lactoferrin-derived peptides and Lactoferricin chimera inhibit virulence factor production and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Xu, G; Xiong, W; Hu, Q; Zuo, P; Shao, B; Lan, F; Lu, X; Xu, Y; Xiong, S

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the bactericidal activity of lactoferrin-derived peptides and a new LF-derived peptides chimera (LFchimera) against P. aeruginosa and the influence on virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. Lactoferricin (LFcin) and lactoferrampin (LFampin) are highly bioactive peptides isolated from the N-terminal region of lactoferrin (LF) by pepsin digestion. In this study, we designed LFchimera containing LFcin amino acids 17-30 and LFampin amino acids 268-284. Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells were incubated in medium with peptides at different concentrations, and then the assays of viability, pyocyanin, elastase activity and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa were performed. We found that the concentration-dependent antibactericidal activity and down-regulating pyocyanin, elastase and biofilm formation of LFchimera were significantly stronger than those of LF, LFcin, LFampin or LFcin plus LFampin. Our results indicated that LF, LFcin, LFampin and LFchimera were potential candidates to combat P. aeruginosa, and LFchimera was the most effective in them. The new LFchimera has better activity against P. aeruginosa than LF, LFcin and LFampin and may be a promising new compound for treatment of P. aeruginosa infection. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Inhibition of Wnt signaling induces amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein and the production and aggregation of Amyloid-β (Aβ)42 peptides.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Burgos, Patricia V; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the most frequent cause of dementia in the aged population. According to the amyloid hypothesis, the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD. Aβ is generated from the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein and can aggregate to form oligomers, which have been described as a major synaptotoxic agent in neurons. Dysfunction of Wnt signaling has been linked to increased Aβ formation; however, several other studies have argued against this possibility. Herein, we use multiple experimental approaches to confirm that the inhibition of Wnt signaling promoted the amyloidogenic proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein. We also demonstrate that inhibiting Wnt signaling increases the production of the Aβ 42 peptide, the Aβ 42 /Aβ 40 ratio, and the levels of Aβ oligomers such as trimers and tetramers. Moreover, we show that activating Wnt signaling reduces the levels of Aβ 42 and its aggregates, increases Aβ 40 levels, and reduces the Aβ 42 /Aβ 40 ratio. Finally, we show that the protective effects observed in response to activation of the Wnt pathway rely on β-catenin-dependent transcription, which is demonstrated experimentally via the expression of various 'mutant forms of β-catenin'. Together, our findings indicate that loss of the Wnt signaling pathway may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Graphitized Porous Carbon for Rapid Screening of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptide GAMVVH from Silkworm Pupa Protein and Molecular Insight into Inhibition Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tao, Mengliang; Sun, Huaju; Liu, Long; Luo, Xuan; Lin, Guoyou; Li, Renbo; Zhao, Zhenxia; Zhao, Zhongxing

    2017-10-04

    A novel hydrophobic hexapeptide with high angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was screened from silkworm pupa protein (SPP) hydrolysate via graphitized porous carbon and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Graphitized porous carbon derived from dopamine, possessing high surface area and high graphitic carbon, was used to rapidly screen and enrich hydrophobic peptides from SPP hydrolysate. The ACE inhibition pattern and mechanism of the purified peptide were also systematically studied by the classic Lineweaver-Burk model and by molecular docking/dynamic simulation. The novel hydrophobic hexapeptide was identified as Gly-Ala-Met-Val-Val-His (GAMVVH, IC 50 = 19.39 ± 0.21 μM) with good thermal/antidigestive stabilities. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that GAMVVH behaved as a competitive ACE inhibitor. It formed hydrogen bonds with S1 and S2 pockets of ACE and established competitive coordination with Zn(II) of ACE. The synergy of hydrogen bonds with active pockets and Zn(II) coordination efficiently changed the three-dimensional structure of ACE and thus inhibited bioactivity of ACE.

  3. Potent inhibition of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15 by the phosphonamide peptide N-(phenylethylphosphonyl)-Gly-L-Pro-L-aminohexanoic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Barelli, H; Dive, V; Yiotakis, A; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1992-01-01

    A phosphonamide peptide, N-(phenylethylphosphonyl)-Gly-L-Pro-L-aminohexanoic acid, previously shown to block Clostridium histolyticum collagenases, was examined as a putative inhibitor of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15. Hydrolysis of two endopeptidase 24.16 substrates, i.e. 3-carboxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Mcc)-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-D-Lys-dinitrophenyl (Dnp) and neurotensin, were completely and dose-dependently inhibited by the phosphonamide inhibitor with KI values of 0.3 and 0.9 nM respectively. In addition, the phosphonamide peptide inhibited the hydrolysis of benzoyl (Bz)-Gly-Ala-Ala-Phe-(pAB) p-aminobenzoate and neurotensin by endopeptidase 24.15 with about a 10-fold lower potency (KI values of 5 and 7.5 nM respectively). The selectivity of this inhibitor towards several exo- and endo-peptidases belonging to the zinc-containing metallopeptidase family established that a 1 microM concentration of this inhibitor was unable to affect leucine aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase A, angiotensin-converting enzyme and endopeptidase 24.11. The present paper therefore reports on the first hydrophilic highly potent endopeptidase 24.16 inhibitor and describes the most potent inhibitory agent directed towards endopeptidase 24.15 developed to date. These tools should allow one to assess the contribution of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15 to the physiological inactivation of neurotensin as well as other neuropeptides. PMID:1332678

  4. Inhibition on JAK-STAT3 Signaling Transduction Cascade Is Taken by Bioactive Peptide Alpha-S2 Casein Protein from Goat Ethawah Breed Milk

    PubMed Central

    Rohmah, Rista Nikmatu; Hardiyanti, Ferlany; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah

    2015-01-01

    Background: RA is a systemic inflammatory disease that causes developing comorbidity conditions. This condition can cause by overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In a previous study, we have found bioactive peptide CSN1S2 from Ethawah goat milk for anti-inflammatory for repair the ileum destruction. However, the signaling transduction cascade of bioactive peptides inhibits inflammation still not clear yet. Therefore, we analyzed the signaling transduction cascade via JAK-STAT3 pathway by in vivo and in silico. Methods: The ileum was isolated DNA and amplification with specific primer. The sequence was analyzed using the Sanger sequencing method. Modeling 3D-structure was predicted by SWISS-MODEL and virtual interaction was analyzed by docking system using Pymol and Discovery Studio 4.0 software. Results: This study showed that STAT3 has target gene 480bp. The normal group and normal treating- CSN1S2 of goat milk have similarity from gene bank. Whereas, RA group had transversion mutation that the purine change into pyrimidine even cause frameshift mutation. Interestingly, after treating with the CSN1S2 protein of goat milk shows reverse to the normal acid sequence group. Based on in silico study, from eight peptides, only three peptides of CSN1S2 protein, which carried by PePT1 to enter the small intestine. The fragments are PepT1-41-NMAIHPR-47; PepT1-182-KISQYYQK-189 and PepT1-214-TNAIPYVR-221. We have found just one bioactive peptide of f182-KISQYYQK-189 is able bind to STAT3. The energy binding of f182-KISQYYQK-189 and RA-STAT3 amino acid, it was Σ = -402.43 kJ/mol and the energy binding of f182-KISQYYQK-189 and RAS-STAT3 amino acid is decreasing into Σ = -407.09 kJ/mol. Conclusion: This study suggested that the fragment 182-KISQYYQK-189 peptides from Ethawah goat milk may act as an anti-inflammatory agent via JAK-STAT3 signal transduction cascade at the cellular level. PMID:26483598

  5. A Novel Peptide Derived from the Fusion Protein Heptad Repeat Inhibits Replication of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Virus In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Koichi; Abe, Yusaku; Kodama, Eiichi N; Nabika, Ryota; Oishi, Shinya; Ohara, Shinichiro; Sato, Masatoki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Fujii, Nobutaka; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a persistent, progressive, and fatal degenerative disease resulting from persistent measles virus (MV) infection of the central nervous system. Most drugs used to treat SSPE have been reported to have limited effects. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently required. The SSPE virus, a variant MV strain, differs virologically from wild-type MV strain. One characteristic of the SSPE virus is its defective production of cell-free virus, which leaves cell-to-cell infection as the major mechanism of viral dissemination. The fusion protein plays an essential role in this cell-to-cell spread. It contains two critical heptad repeat regions that form a six-helix bundle in the trimer similar to most viral fusion proteins. In the case of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), a synthetic peptide derived from the heptad repeat region of the fusion protein enfuvirtide inhibits viral replication and is clinically approved as an anti-HIV-1 agent. The heptad repeat regions of HIV-1 are structurally and functionally similar to those of the MV fusion protein. We therefore designed novel peptides derived from the fusion protein heptad repeat region of the MV and examined their effects on the measles and SSPE virus replication in vitro and in vivo. Some of these synthetic novel peptides demonstrated high antiviral activity against both the measles (Edmonston strain) and SSPE (Yamagata-1 strain) viruses at nanomolar concentrations with no cytotoxicity in vitro. In particular, intracranial administration of one of the synthetic peptides increased the survival rate from 0% to 67% in an SSPE virus-infected nude mouse model.

  6. A Novel Peptide Derived from the Fusion Protein Heptad Repeat Inhibits Replication of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Virus In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Koichi; Abe, Yusaku; Kodama, Eiichi N.; Nabika, Ryota; Oishi, Shinya; Ohara, Shinichiro; Sato, Masatoki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Fujii, Nobutaka; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a persistent, progressive, and fatal degenerative disease resulting from persistent measles virus (MV) infection of the central nervous system. Most drugs used to treat SSPE have been reported to have limited effects. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently required. The SSPE virus, a variant MV strain, differs virologically from wild-type MV strain. One characteristic of the SSPE virus is its defective production of cell-free virus, which leaves cell-to-cell infection as the major mechanism of viral dissemination. The fusion protein plays an essential role in this cell-to-cell spread. It contains two critical heptad repeat regions that form a six-helix bundle in the trimer similar to most viral fusion proteins. In the case of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), a synthetic peptide derived from the heptad repeat region of the fusion protein enfuvirtide inhibits viral replication and is clinically approved as an anti-HIV-1 agent. The heptad repeat regions of HIV-1 are structurally and functionally similar to those of the MV fusion protein. We therefore designed novel peptides derived from the fusion protein heptad repeat region of the MV and examined their effects on the measles and SSPE virus replication in vitro and in vivo. Some of these synthetic novel peptides demonstrated high antiviral activity against both the measles (Edmonston strain) and SSPE (Yamagata-1 strain) viruses at nanomolar concentrations with no cytotoxicity in vitro. In particular, intracranial administration of one of the synthetic peptides increased the survival rate from 0% to 67% in an SSPE virus-infected nude mouse model. PMID:27612283

  7. Characterization of Histone H2A Derived Antimicrobial Peptides, Harriottins, from Sicklefin Chimaera Neoharriotta pinnata (Schnakenbeck, 1931) and Its Evolutionary Divergence with respect to CO1 and Histone H2A.

    PubMed

    Sathyan, Naveen; Philip, Rosamma; Chaithanya, E R; Anil Kumar, P R; Sanjeevan, V N; Singh, I S Bright

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are humoral innate immune components of fishes that provide protection against pathogenic infections. Histone derived antimicrobial peptides are reported to actively participate in the immune defenses of fishes. Present study deals with identification of putative antimicrobial sequences from the histone H2A of sicklefin chimaera, Neoharriotta pinnata. A 52 amino acid residue termed Harriottin-1, a 40 amino acid Harriottin-2, and a 21 mer Harriottin-3 were identified to possess antimicrobial sequence motif. Physicochemical properties and molecular structure of Harriottins are in agreement with the characteristic features of antimicrobial peptides, indicating its potential role in innate immunity of sicklefin chimaera. The histone H2A sequence of sicklefin chimera was found to differ from previously reported histone H2A sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on histone H2A and cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (CO1) gene revealed N. pinnata to occupy an intermediate position with respect to invertebrates and vertebrates.

  8. Characterization of Histone H2A Derived Antimicrobial Peptides, Harriottins, from Sicklefin Chimaera Neoharriotta pinnata (Schnakenbeck, 1931) and Its Evolutionary Divergence with respect to CO1 and Histone H2A

    PubMed Central

    Sathyan, Naveen; Philip, Rosamma; Chaithanya, E. R.; Anil Kumar, P. R.; Sanjeevan, V. N.; Singh, I. S. Bright

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are humoral innate immune components of fishes that provide protection against pathogenic infections. Histone derived antimicrobial peptides are reported to actively participate in the immune defenses of fishes. Present study deals with identification of putative antimicrobial sequences from the histone H2A of sicklefin chimaera, Neoharriotta pinnata. A 52 amino acid residue termed Harriottin-1, a 40 amino acid Harriottin-2, and a 21 mer Harriottin-3 were identified to possess antimicrobial sequence motif. Physicochemical properties and molecular structure of Harriottins are in agreement with the characteristic features of antimicrobial peptides, indicating its potential role in innate immunity of sicklefin chimaera. The histone H2A sequence of sicklefin chimera was found to differ from previously reported histone H2A sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on histone H2A and cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (CO1) gene revealed N. pinnata to occupy an intermediate position with respect to invertebrates and vertebrates. PMID:27398241

  9. Inhibition of ovarian cancer cell proliferation by a cell cycle inhibitory peptide fused to a thermally responsive polypeptide carrier.

    PubMed

    Massodi, Iqbal; Moktan, Shama; Rawat, Aruna; Bidwell, Gene L; Raucher, Drazen

    2010-01-15

    Current treatment of solid tumors is limited by normal tissue tolerance, resulting in a narrow therapeutic index. To increase drug specificity and efficacy and to reduce toxicity in normal tissues, we have developed a polypeptide carrier for a cell cycle inhibitory peptide, which has the potential to be thermally targeted to the tumor site. The design of this polypeptide is based on elastin-like polypeptide (ELP). The coding sequence of ELP was modified by the addition of the cell penetrating peptide Bac-7 at the N-terminus and a 23 amino acid peptide derived from p21 at the C-terminus (Bac-ELP1-p21). Bac-ELP1-p21 is soluble in aqueous solutions below physiological temperature (37 degrees C) but aggregates when the temperature is raised above 39 degrees C, making it a promising thermally responsive therapeutic carrier that may be actively targeted to solid tumors by application of focused hyperthermia. While Bac-ELP1-p21 at 37 degrees C did not have any effect on SKOV-3 cell proliferation, the use of hyperthermia increased the antiproliferative effect of Bac-ELP1-p21 compared with a thermally unresponsive control polypeptide. Bac-ELP1-p21 displayed both a cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution in the SKOV-3 cells, with nuclear-localized polypeptide enriched in the heated cells, as revealed by confocal microscopy. Using Western blotting, we show that Bac-ELP1-p21 caused a decrease in Rb phosphorylation levels in cells treated at 42 degrees C. The polypeptide also induced caspase activation, PARP cleavage, and cell cycle arrest in S-phase and G2/M-phase. These studies indicate that ELP is a promising macromolecular carrier for the delivery of cell cycle inhibitory peptides to solid tumors.

  10. Inhibition by calcitonin gene-related peptide of agonist-induced bronchoconstriction in various mammals including man.

    PubMed

    Cadieux, A; Lanoue, C

    1990-01-01

    The effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on the smooth muscle of mammalian airways has been investigated in vitro. CGRP itself lacked contractile activity but reduced responses evoked by bronchoconstrictor agents via a post-junctional action. The inhibitory effect of CGRP was concentration-related and greatest in distal airways. The results suggest that CGRP may contribute to regulating muscular tone in the tracheobronchial tree.

  11. Structures of proline-rich peptides bound to the ribosome reveal a common mechanism of protein synthesis inhibition

    DOE PAGES

    Gagnon, Matthieu G.; Roy, Raktim N.; Lomakin, Ivan B.; ...

    2016-01-24

    Here, with bacterial resistance becoming a serious threat to global public health, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have become a promising area of focus in antibiotic research. AMPs are derived from a diverse range of species, from prokaryotes to humans, with a mechanism of action that often involves disruption of the bacterial cell membrane. Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) are instead actively transported inside the bacterial cell where they bind and inactivate specific targets. Recently, it was reported that some PrAMPs, such as Bac7 1–35, oncocins and apidaecins, bind and inactivate the bacterial ribosome. Here we report the crystal structures of Bac7 1–35,more » Pyrrhocoricin, Metalnikowin and two oncocin derivatives, bound to the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome. Each of the PrAMPs blocks the peptide exit tunnel of the ribosome by simultaneously occupying three well characterized antibioticbinding sites and interferes with the initiation step of translation, thereby revealing a common mechanism of action used by these PrAMPs to inactivate protein synthesis. Our study expands the repertoire of PrAMPs and provides a framework for designing new-generation therapeutics.« less

  12. Structures of proline-rich peptides bound to the ribosome reveal a common mechanism of protein synthesis inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Matthieu G.; Roy, Raktim N.; Lomakin, Ivan B.

    Here, with bacterial resistance becoming a serious threat to global public health, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have become a promising area of focus in antibiotic research. AMPs are derived from a diverse range of species, from prokaryotes to humans, with a mechanism of action that often involves disruption of the bacterial cell membrane. Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) are instead actively transported inside the bacterial cell where they bind and inactivate specific targets. Recently, it was reported that some PrAMPs, such as Bac7 1–35, oncocins and apidaecins, bind and inactivate the bacterial ribosome. Here we report the crystal structures of Bac7 1–35,more » Pyrrhocoricin, Metalnikowin and two oncocin derivatives, bound to the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome. Each of the PrAMPs blocks the peptide exit tunnel of the ribosome by simultaneously occupying three well characterized antibioticbinding sites and interferes with the initiation step of translation, thereby revealing a common mechanism of action used by these PrAMPs to inactivate protein synthesis. Our study expands the repertoire of PrAMPs and provides a framework for designing new-generation therapeutics.« less

  13. Silibinin inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity and amyloid β peptide aggregation: a dual-target drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Duan, Songwei; Guan, Xiaoyin; Lin, Runxuan; Liu, Xincheng; Yan, Ying; Lin, Ruibang; Zhang, Tianqi; Chen, Xueman; Huang, Jiaqi; Sun, Xicui; Li, Qingqing; Fang, Shaoliang; Xu, Jun; Yao, Zhibin; Gu, Huaiyu

    2015-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid β (Aβ) peptide aggregation and cholinergic neurodegeneration. Therefore, in this paper, we examined silibinin, a flavonoid extracted from Silybum marianum, to determine its potential as a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Aβ peptide aggregation for AD treatment. To achieve this, we used molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations to examine the affinity of silibinin with Aβ and AChE in silico. Next, we used circular dichroism and transmission electron microscopy to study the anti-Aβ aggregation capability of silibinin in vitro. Moreover, a Morris Water Maze test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine double labeling, and a gene gun experiment were performed on silibinin-treated APP/PS1 transgenic mice. In molecular dynamics simulations, silibinin interacted with Aβ and AChE to form different stable complexes. After the administration of silibinin, AChE activity and Aβ aggregations were down-regulated, and the quantity of AChE also decreased. In addition, silibinin-treated APP/PS1 transgenic mice had greater scores in the Morris Water Maze. Moreover, silibinin could increase the number of newly generated microglia, astrocytes, neurons, and neuronal precursor cells. Taken together, these data suggest that silibinin could act as a dual inhibitor of AChE and Aβ peptide aggregation, therefore suggesting a therapeutic strategy for AD treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The analgesic agent tapentadol inhibits calcitonin gene-related peptide release from isolated rat brainstem via a serotonergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Greco, Maria Cristina; Navarra, Pierluigi; Tringali, Giuseppe

    2016-01-15

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that tapentadol inhibits GGRP release from the rat brainstem through a mechanism mediated by the inhibition of NA reuptake; as a second alternative hypothesis, we investigated whether tapentadol inhibits GGRP release via the inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Rat brainstems were explanted and incubated in short-term experiments. CGRP released in the incubation medium was taken as a marker of CGRP release from the central terminals of trigeminal neurons within the brainstem. CGRP levels were measured by radioimmunoassay under basal conditions or in the presence of tapentadol; NA, 5-HT, clonidine, yohimbine and ondansetron were used as pharmacological tools to investigate the action mechanism of tapentadol. The α2-antagonist yohimbine failed to counteract the effects of tapentadol. Moreover, neither NA nor the α2-agonist clonidine per se inhibited K(+)-stimulated CGRP release, thereby indicating that the effects of tapentadol are nor mediated through the block of NA reuptake. Further experiments showed that 5-HT and tramadol, which inhibits both NA and 5-HT reuptake, significantly reduced K(+)-stimulated CGRP release. Moreover, the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron was able to counteract the effects of tapentadol in this system. This study provided pharmacological evidence that tapentadol inhibits stimulated CGRP release from the rat brainstem in vitro through a mechanism involving an increase in 5-HT levels in the system and the subsequent activation of 5-HT3 receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. LX0702, a novel snake venom peptide derivative, inhibits thrombus formation via affecting the binding of fibrinogen with GPIIb/IIIa.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yi; Wang, Ying; Yang, Wei; Xie, Zhouling; Li, Zhiyu

    2015-04-01

    Based on the structure of AAP, a novel anti-thrombotic peptide from snake venom which we discovered in our previous study, more than 60 compounds were designed and synthesized. One of these termed as LX0702 exhibited stronger anti-platelet aggregation activity than AAP. This study aims to investigate the effects of LX0702 on anti-thrombotic formation and its underlying mechanism. We found that LX0702 inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, thrombin and collagen in a dose dependent manner, with IC50 values of 49.90 ± 2.03, 50.65 ± 0.34 and 83.90 ± 2.06 μM, respectively. It also inhibited thrombus formation in the rat arterio-venous shunt model. In addition, the effect of LX0702 on hemostasis system was tested. Compared to control saline, bleeding time was not prolonged. Furthermore, the ELISA revealed that LX0702 inhibited fibrinogen binding with GPIIb/IIIa in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 1.26 ± 0.13 μM. These findings clearly demonstrate that LX0702 has anti-platelet/anti-thrombotic effects without increased bleeding risk. Therefore it might be developed into an effective drug for the prevention or treatment of thrombotic diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of cytokine response to TLR stimulation and alleviation of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by Schistosoma japonicum peptide SJMHE1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Li; Wang, Jun; Dong, Liyang; Shu, Yang; Liang, Yong; Shi, Liang; Xu, Chengcheng; Zhou, Yuepeng; Wang, Yi; Chen, Deyu; Mao, Chaoming

    2017-03-01

    Helminth-derived products have recently been shown to prevent the development of inflammatory diseases in mouse models. However, most identified immunomodulators from helminthes are mixtures or macromolecules with potentially immunogenic side effects. We previously identified an immunomodulatory peptide called SJMHE1 from the HSP60 protein of Schistosoma japonicum. In this study, we assessed the ability of SJMHE1 to affect murine splenocytes and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated by toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in vitro and its treatment effect on mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We show that SJMHE1 not only modulates the cytokine production of murine macrophage (MΦ) and dendritic cell but also affects cytokine production upon coculturing with allogeneic CD4 + T cell. SJMHE1 potently inhibits the cytokine response to TLR ligands lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) or resiquimod (R848) from mouse splenocytes, and human PBMCs stimulated by LPS. Furthermore, SJMHE1 suppressed clinical signs of CIA in mice and blocked joint erosion progression. This effect was mediated by downregulation of key cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of CIA, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and IL-22 and up-regulation of the inhibitory cytokine IL-10, Tgf-β1 mRNA, and CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Tregs. This study provides new evidence that the peptide from S. japonicum, which is the 'safe' selective generation of small molecule peptide that has evolved during host-parasite interactions, is of great value in the search for novel anti-inflammatory agents and therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. Attenuation of microglial RANTES by NEMO-binding domain peptide inhibits the infiltration of CD8(+) T cells in the nigra of hemiparkinsonian monkey.

    PubMed

    Roy, A; Mondal, S; Kordower, J H; Pahan, K

    2015-08-27

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Despite intense investigations, little is known about its pathological mediators. Here, we report the marked upregulation of RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) and eotaxin, chemokines that are involved in T cell trafficking, in the serum of hemiparkinsonian monkeys. Interestingly, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), a Parkinsonian toxin, increased the expression of RANTES and eotaxin in mouse microglial cells. The presence of NF-κB binding sites in promoters of RANTES and eotaxin and down-regulation of these genes by NEMO-binding domain (NBD) peptide, selective inhibitor of induced NF-κB activation, in MPP(+)-stimulated microglial cells suggest that the activation of NF-κB plays an important role in the upregulation of these two chemokines. Consistently, serum enzyme-linked immuno assay (ELISA) and nigral immunohistochemistry further confirmed that these chemokines were strongly upregulated in MPTP-induced hemiparkinsonian monkeys and that treatment with NBD peptides effectively inhibited the level of these chemokines. Furthermore, the microglial upregulation of RANTES in the nigra of hemiparkinsonian monkeys could be involved in the altered adaptive immune response in the brain as we observed greater infiltration of CD8(+) T cells around the perivascular niche and deep brain parenchyma of hemiparkinsonian monkeys as compared to control. The treatment of hemiparkinsonian monkeys with NBD peptides decreased the microglial expression of RANTES and attenuated the infiltration of CD8(+) T cells in nigra. These results indicate the possible involvement of chemokine-dependent adaptive immune response in Parkinsonism. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cell-penetrating peptide-morpholino conjugates alter pre-mRNA splicing of DMD (Duchenne muscular dystrophy) and inhibit murine coronavirus replication in vivo.

    PubMed

    Moulton, H M; Fletcher, S; Neuman, B W; McClorey, G; Stein, D A; Abes, S; Wilton, S D; Buchmeier, M J; Lebleu, B; Iversen, P L

    2007-08-01

    The cellular uptake of PMOs (phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers) can be enhanced by their conjugation to arginine-rich CPPs (cell-penetrating peptides). Here, we discuss our recent findings regarding (R-Ahx-R)(4)AhxB (Ahx is 6-aminohexanoic acid and B is beta-alanine) CPP-PMO conjugates in DMD (Duchenne muscular dystrophy) and murine coronavirus research. An (R-Ahx-R)(4)AhxB-PMO conjugate was the most effective compound in inducing the correction of mutant dystrophin transcripts in myoblasts derived from a canine model of DMD. Similarly, normal levels of dystrophin expression were restored in the diaphragms of mdx mice, with treatment starting at the neonatal stage, and protein was still detecTable 22 weeks after the last dose of an (R-Ahx-R)(4)AhxB-PMO conjugate. Effects of length, linkage and carbohydrate modification of this CPP on the delivery of a PMO were investigated in a coronavirus mouse model. An (R-Ahx-R)(4)AhxB-PMO conjugate effectively inhibited viral replication, in comparison with other peptides conjugated to the same PMO. Shortening the CPP length, modifying it with a mannosylated serine moiety or replacing it with the R(9)F(2) CPP significantly decreased the efficacy of the resulting PPMO (CPP-PMO conjugate). We attribute the success of this CPP to its stability in serum and its capacity to transport PMO to RNA targets in a manner superior to that of poly-arginine CPPs.

  19. Biodegradable Hydrophilic Polyurethane PEGU25 Loading Antimicrobial Peptide Bmap-28: A Sustained-release Membrane Able to Inhibit Bacterial Biofilm Formation in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianzhong; Liu, Qinyu; Tian, Ye; Jian, Zhongyu; Li, Hong; Wang, Kunjie

    2015-01-01

    Catheter-related infection makes up a large part of hospital infection and contributes 80% to all nosocomial urological infection, costing hundreds of millions dollar per year for treatment. Biodegradable hydrophilic material incorporating antibiotic substance is a promising way to prevent catheter-related infection. And antimicrobial peptide seems an optimal drug for its desirable antibiotic effect. In the current research, we produced a new kind of antibiotic material by incorporating antimicrobial peptide Bmap-28 with polyurethane PEGU25 and tested its effect on Proteus mirabilis in vitro. Compared with the control group, PEGU25 membrane incorporating Bmap-28 had a significant lower bacteria load after co-cultured with the Proteus mirabilis. And its antibiotic effect could be observed throughout the whole 7-day test. Also the Bmap-28 membrane could delay catheter obstruction caused by encrustation. Our findings reveal that PEGU25 incorporating Bmap-28 can well inhibit bacterial biofilm formation of common pathogens for catheter-related urinary tract infection in vitro, which makes it a promising antibiotic material for medical tubes for urology. PMID:25727362

  20. Evidence that morphine and opioid peptides do not share a common pathway with adenosine in inhibiting acetylcholine release from isolated intestine.

    PubMed

    Vizi, E S; Somogyi, G T; Magyar, K

    1981-12-01

    1 The release of acetylcholine from guinea-pig ileal isolated longitudinal muscle strip with intact Auerbach's plexus was measured by bioassay and by a radioisotope technique. 2 Normorphine (5 x 10(-7)M) and D-Met2, Pro5-enkephalinamide (D-Met, Pro-EA) reduced the release of acetylcholine. Theophylline, an adenosine antagonist, failed to prevent the inhibitory effect of normorphine or D-Met, Pro-EA. 3 Theophylline (1.7 x 10(-4)M) by itself enhanced the twitch responses to field stimulation (0.1 Hz) but did not prevent the inhibitory effect of normorphine and D-Met, Pro-EA. 4 From the results it can be concluded that morphine and opioid peptides do not share a common pathway with adenosine in inhibiting acetylcholine release from axon terminals of Auerbach's plexus.

  1. Inhibition of the Electrostatic Interaction between β -amyloid Peptide and Membranes Prevents β -amyloid-induced Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, C.; Terzi, E.; Hauser, N.; Jakob-Rotne, R.; Seelig, J.; Kemp, J. A.

    1997-08-01

    The accumulation of β -amyloid peptides (Aβ ) into senile plaques is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease. Aggregated Aβ is toxic to cells in culture and this has been considered to be the cause of neurodegeneration that occurs in the Alzheimer disease brain. The discovery of compounds that prevent Aβ toxicity may lead to a better understanding of the processes involved and ultimately to possible therapeutic drugs. Low nanomolar concentrations of Aβ 1-42 and the toxic fragment Aβ 25-35 have been demonstrated to render cells more sensitive to subsequent insults as manifested by an increased sensitivity to formazan crystals following MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction. Formation of the toxic β -sheet conformation by Aβ peptides is increased by negatively charged membranes. Here we demonstrate that phloretin and exifone, dipolar compounds that decrease the effective negative charge of membranes, prevent association of Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 25-35 to negatively charged lipid vesicles and Aβ induced cell toxicity. These results suggest that Aβ toxicity is mediated through a nonspecific physicochemical interaction with cell membranes.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Action of an Antimicrobial Model Peptide That Suppresses the TRIF-Dependent Signaling Pathway via Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Endocytosis in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Do-Wan; Heo, Kang-Hyuck; Kim, Young-Kyu; Sim, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Tae-Bong; Choi, Jae-Wan; Sim, Dae-Won; Cheong, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hong; Bang, Jeong-Kyu; Won, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides, particularly those with amphipathic helical structures, are emerging as target molecules for therapeutic development due to their immunomodulatory properties. Although the antimicrobial activity of AMPs is known to be exerted primarily by permeation of the bacterial membrane, the mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory activity remains to be elucidated. We report potent anti-inflammatory activity of WALK11.3, an antimicrobial model peptide with an amphipathic helical conformation, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. This peptide inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, INF-β, and TNF-α. Although WALK11.3 did not exert a major effect on all downstream signaling in the MyD88-dependent pathway, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- mediated pro-inflammatory signals were markedly attenuated in the TRIF-dependent pathway due to inhibition of the phosphorylation of STAT1 by attenuation of IRF3 phosphorylation. WALK11.3 specifically inhibited the endocytosis of TLR4, which is essential for triggering TRIF-mediated signaling in macrophage cells. Hence, we suggest that specific interference with TLR4 endocytosis could be one of the major modes of the anti-inflammatory action of AMPs. Our designed WALK11 peptides, which possess both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, may be promising molecules for the development of therapies for infectious inflammation. PMID:26017270

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Action of an Antimicrobial Model Peptide That Suppresses the TRIF-Dependent Signaling Pathway via Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Endocytosis in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shim, Do-Wan; Heo, Kang-Hyuck; Kim, Young-Kyu; Sim, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Tae-Bong; Choi, Jae-Wan; Sim, Dae-Won; Cheong, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hong; Bang, Jeong-Kyu; Won, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides, particularly those with amphipathic helical structures, are emerging as target molecules for therapeutic development due to their immunomodulatory properties. Although the antimicrobial activity of AMPs is known to be exerted primarily by permeation of the bacterial membrane, the mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory activity remains to be elucidated. We report potent anti-inflammatory activity of WALK11.3, an antimicrobial model peptide with an amphipathic helical conformation, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. This peptide inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, INF-β, and TNF-α. Although WALK11.3 did not exert a major effect on all downstream signaling in the MyD88-dependent pathway, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- mediated pro-inflammatory signals were markedly attenuated in the TRIF-dependent pathway due to inhibition of the phosphorylation of STAT1 by attenuation of IRF3 phosphorylation. WALK11.3 specifically inhibited the endocytosis of TLR4, which is essential for triggering TRIF-mediated signaling in macrophage cells. Hence, we suggest that specific interference with TLR4 endocytosis could be one of the major modes of the anti-inflammatory action of AMPs. Our designed WALK11 peptides, which possess both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, may be promising molecules for the development of therapies for infectious inflammation.

  4. Polysaccharide peptides from Coriolus versicolor competitively inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in specific human CYP2C9 isoform and pooled human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yeung, John H K; Or, Penelope M Y

    2011-10-15

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy in China. Previous studies have shown that PSP decreased antipyrine clearance and inhibited CYP2C11-mediated tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in the rat both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the effects of water extractable fraction of PSP on tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation was investigated in pooled human liver microsomes and in specific human CYP2C9 isoform. PSP (2.5-20μM) dose-dependently decreased the biotransformation of tolbutamide to 4-hydroxy-tolbutamide. Enzyme kinetics studies showed inhibition of tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase activity was competitive and concentration-dependent. In pooled human liver microsomes, PSP had a K(i) value of 14.2μM compared to sulfaphenazole, a human CYP2C9 inhibitor, showed a K(i) value of 0.32μM. In human CYP2C9 isoform, the K(i) value of PSP was 29.5μM and the K(i) value of sulfaphenazole was 0.04μM. This study demonstrated that PSP can competitively inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in both pooled human liver microsomes and specific human CYP2C9 in vitro. This study compliments previous findings in the rat that PSP can inhibit human tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase, but the relatively high K(i) values in human CYP2C9 would suggest a low potential for PSP to cause herb-drug interaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV catalyzed peptide truncation by Vildagliptin ((2S)-{[(3-hydroxyadamantan-1-yl)amino]acetyl}-pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile).

    PubMed

    Brandt, Inger; Joossens, Jurgen; Chen, Xin; Maes, Marie-Berthe; Scharpé, Simon; De Meester, Ingrid; Lambeir, Anne-Marie

    2005-07-01

    Vildagliptin (NVP-LAF237/(2S)-{[(3-hydroxyadamantan-1-yl)amino]acetyl}-pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile) was described as a potent, selective and orally bio-available dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV, EC 3.4.14.5) inhibitor [Villhauer EB, Brinkman JA, Naderi GB, Burkey BF, Dunning BE, Prasad K, et al.1-[[(3-Hydroxy-1-adamantyl)amino]acetyl]-2-cyano-(S)-pyrrolidine: a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor with antihyperglycemic properties. J Med Chem 2003;46:2774-89]. Phase III clinical trials for the use of this compound in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes were started in the first quarter of 2004. In this paper, we report on (1) the kinetics of binding, (2) the type of inhibition, (3) the selectivity with respect to other peptidases, and (4) the inhibitory potency on the DPP IV catalyzed degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and substance P. Vildagliptin behaved as a slow-binding DPP IV inhibitor with an association rate constant of 1.4x10(5)M(-1)s(-1) and a K(i) of 17nM. It is a micromolar inhibitor for dipeptidyl-peptidase 8 and does not significantly inhibit dipeptidyl-peptidase II (EC 3.4.11.2), prolyl oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.21.26), aminopeptidase P (EC 3.4.11.9) or aminopeptidase M (EC 3.4.11.2). There was no evidence for substrate specific inhibition of DPP IV by Vildagliptin or for important allosteric factors affecting the inhibition constant in presence of GIP and GLP-1.

  6. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangshun; Mishra, Biswajit; Lau, Kyle; Lushnikova, Tamara; Golla, Radha; Wang, Xiuqing

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms. PMID:25806720

  7. CIGB-300, an anti-CK2 peptide, inhibits angiogenesis, tumor cell invasion and metastasis in lung cancer models.

    PubMed

    Benavent Acero, Fernando; Capobianco, Carla S; Garona, Juan; Cirigliano, Stéfano M; Perera, Yasser; Urtreger, Alejandro J; Perea, Silvio E; Alonso, Daniel F; Farina, Hernan G

    2017-05-01

    Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is overexpressed in several types of cancer. It has more than 300 substrates mainly involved in DNA reparation and replication, chromatin remodeling and cellular growth. In recent years CK2 became an interesting target for anticancer drug development. CIGB-300 is a peptidic inhibitor of CK2 activity, designed to bind to the phospho-acceptor domain of CK2 substrates, impairing the correct phosphorylation by the enzyme. The aim of this work was to explore the antitumor effects of this inhibitor in preclinical lung cancer models. Human H125 and murine 3LL Lewis lung carcinoma cell lines were used to evaluate the effect of CIGB-300 treatment in vitro. For this purpose, adhesion, migration and invasion capabilities of cancer cells were tested. Proteolytic activity of tumor cell-secreted uPA and MMP after CIGB-300 incubation was also analyzed. In vivo anticancer efficacy of the peptide was evaluated using experimental and spontaneous lung colonization assays in C57BL/6 mice. Finally, in order to test the effect of CIGB-300 on tumor cell-induced angiogenesis, a modified Matrigel plug assay was conducted. We demonstrate that treatment with low micromolar concentrations of CIGB-300 caused a drastic reduction of adhesion, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Reduced invasiveness after CIGB-300 incubation was associated with decreased proteolytic activity of tumor cell-conditioned medium. In vivo, intravenous administration of CIGB-300 (10mg/kg) markly decreased lung colonization and metastasis development of 3LL cells. Interestingly, after 5days of systemic treatment with CIGB-300, tumor cell-driven neovascularization was significantly reduced in comparison to control group. Altogether our data suggest an important role of CK2 in lung tumor development, suggesting a potential use of CIGB-300 as a novel therapeutic agent against lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A new class of HIV-1 protease inhibitor: the crystallographic structure, inhibition and chemical synthesis of an aminimide peptide isostere.

    PubMed

    Rutenber, E E; McPhee, F; Kaplan, A P; Gallion, S L; Hogan, J C; Craik, C S; Stroud, R M

    1996-09-01

    The essential role of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) in the viral life cycle makes it an attractive target for the development of substrate-based inhibitors that may find efficacy as anti-AIDS drugs. However, resistance has arisen to potent peptidomimetic drugs necessitating the further development of novel chemical backbones for diversity based chemistry focused on probing the active site for inhibitor interactions and binding modes that evade protease resistance. AQ148 is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 PR and represents a new class of transition state analogues incorporating an aminimide peptide isostere. A 3-D crystallographic structure of AQ148, a tetrapeptide isostere, has been determined in complex with its target HIV-1 PR to a resolution of 2.5 A and used to evaluate the specific structural determinants of AQ148 potency and to correlate structure-activity relationships within the class of related compounds. AQ148 is a competitive inhibitor of HIV-1 PR with a Ki value of 137 nM. Twenty-nine derivatives have been synthesized and chemical modifications have been made at the P1, P2, P1', and P2' sites. The atomic resolution structure of AQ148 bound to HIV-1 PR reveals both an inhibitor binding mode that closely resembles that of other peptidomimetic inhibitors and specific protein/inhibitor interactions that correlate with structure-activity relationships. The structure provides the basis for the design, synthesis and evaluation of the next generation of hydroxyethyl aminimide inhibitors. The aminimide peptide isostere is a scaffold with favorable biological properties well suited to both the combinatorial methods of peptidomimesis and the rational design of potent and specific substrate-based analogues.

  9. Purification of a peptide from seahorse, that inhibits TPA-induced MMP, iNOS and COX-2 expression through MAPK and NF-kappaB activation, and induces human osteoblastic and chondrocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ryu, BoMi; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-03-30

    Ongoing efforts to search for naturally occurring, bioactive substances for the amelioration of arthritis have led to the discovery of natural products with substantial bioactive properties. The seahorse (Hippocampus kuda Bleeler), a telelost fish, is one source of known beneficial products, yet has not been utilized for arthritis research. In the present work, we have purified and characterized a bioactive peptide from seahorse hydrolysis. Among the hydrolysates tested, pronase E-derived hydrolysate exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a phenotype marker of osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation. After its separation from the hydrolysate by several purification steps, the peptide responsible for the ALP activity was isolated and its sequence was identified as LEDPFDKDDWDNWK (1821Da). We have shown that the isolated peptide induces differentiation of osteoblastic MG-63 and chondrocytic SW-1353 cells by measuring ALP activity, mineralization and collagen synthesis. Our results indicate that the peptide acts during early to late stages of differentiation in MG-63 and SW-1353 cells. We also assessed the concentration dependence of the peptide's inhibition of MMP (-1, -3 and -13), iNOS and COX-2 expression after treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a common form of phorbol ester. The peptide also inhibited NO production in MG-63 and SW-1353 cells. To elucidate the mechanisms by which the peptide acted, we examined its effects on TPA-induced MAPKs/NF-kappaB activation and determined that the peptide treatment significantly reduced p38 kinase/NF-kappaB in MG-63 cells and MAPKs/NF-kappaB in SW-1353 cells.

  10. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in the nucleus accumbens shell inhibits cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization to transient over-expression of α-Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lixia; Meng, Qing; Sun, Xi; Lu, Xiangtong; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Qinghua; Yang, Jianhua; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hu, Zhenzhen

    2018-01-04

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is a widely distributed neurotransmitter that attenuates cocaine-induced locomotor activity when injected into the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Our previous work first confirmed that the inhibitory mechanism of the CART peptide on cocaine-induced locomotor activity is related to a reduction in cocaine-enhanced phosphorylated Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIα (pCaMKIIα) and the enhancement of cocaine-induced D3R function. This study investigated whether CART peptide inhibited cocaine-induced locomotor activity via inhibition of interactions between pCaMKIIα and the D3 dopamine receptor (D3R). We demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated gene transfer transiently increased pCaMKIIα expression, which peaked at 10 days after microinjection into the rat NAc shell, and induced a significant increase in Ca 2+ influx along with greater behavioral sensitivity in the open field test after intraperitoneal injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg). However, western blot analysis and coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that CART peptide treatment in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing NAc rat tissues or cells prior to cocaine administration inhibited the cocaine-induced Ca 2+ influx and attenuated the cocaine-increased pCaMKIIα expression in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing cells. CART peptide decreased the cocaine-enhanced phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) expression via inhibition of the pCaMKIIα-D3R interaction, which may account for the prolonged locomotor sensitization induced by repeated cocaine treatment in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing cells. These results provide strong evidence for the inhibitory modulation of CART peptide in cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. © 2018 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. SH3-binding Protein 5 Mediates the Neuroprotective Effect of the Secreted Bioactive Peptide Humanin by Inhibiting c-Jun NH2-terminal Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Yuji; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Nawa, Mikiro; Uchino, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Humanin is a secreted bioactive peptide that suppresses cell toxicity caused by a variety of insults. The neuroprotective effect of Humanin against Alzheimer disease (AD)-related death is mediated by the binding of Humanin to its heterotrimeric Humanin receptor composed of ciliary neurotrophic receptor α, WSX-1, and gp130, as well as the activation of intracellular signaling pathways including a JAK2 and STAT3 signaling axis. Despite the elucidation of the signaling pathways by which Humanin mediates its neuroprotection, the transcriptional targets of Humanin that behaves as effectors of Humanin remains undefined. In the present study, Humanin increased the mRNA and protein expression of SH3 domain-binding protein 5 (SH3BP5), which has been known to be a JNK interactor, in neuronal cells. Similar to Humanin treatment, overexpression of SH3BP5 inhibited AD-related neuronal death, while siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous SH3BP5 expression attenuated the neuroprotective effect of Humanin. These results indicate that SH3BP5 is a downstream effector of Humanin. Furthermore, biochemical analysis has revealed that SH3BP5 binds to JNK and directly inhibits JNK through its two putative mitogen-activated protein kinase interaction motifs (KIMs). PMID:23861391

  12. Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide ameliorates trauma-induced acute lung injury via inhibiting JAK/STAT signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi; Zhao, Xiu; Gao, Yan; Liu, Martin; Hou, Mingxiao; Jin, Hongxu; Cui, Yan

    2015-05-01

    JAK/STAT signal pathway plays an important role in the inflammation process of acute lung injury (ALI). This study aimed to investigate the correlation between recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and to explore the protective mechanism of rhBNP against trauma-induced ALI. The arterial partial pressure in oxygen, lung wet-dry weight ratios, protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the histopathologic of the lung, as well as the protein expressions of STAT1, JAK2, and STAT3 were detected. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: a control group, a sham-operated group, an ALI group, an ALI + rhBNP group, and an ALI + AG490 group. At 4 hours, 12 hours, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days after injury, injured lung specimens were harvested. rhBNP pretreatment significantly ameliorated hypoxemia and histopathologic changes and alleviated pulmonary edema in trauma-induced ALI rats. rhBNP pretreatment reduced the phosphorylated protein and total protein level of STAT1. Similarly to JAK-specific inhibitor AG490, rhBNP was shown to significantly inhibit the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in rats with trauma-induced ALI. Our experimental findings indicated that rhBNP can protect rats against trauma-induced ALI and that its underlying mechanism may be related to the inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling pathway activation.

  13. Cdk5 inhibitory peptide (CIP) inhibits Cdk5/p25 activity induced by high glucose in pancreatic beta cells and recovers insulin secretion from p25 damage.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya-Li; Li, Congyu; Hu, Ya-Fang; Cao, Li; Wang, Hui; Li, Bo; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Bao, Li; Luo, Hong-Yan; Shukla, Varsha; Amin, Niranjana D; Pant, Harish C

    2013-01-01

    Cdk5/p25 hyperactivity has been demonstrated to lead to neuron apoptosis and degenerations. Chronic exposure to high glucose (HG) results in hyperactivity of Cdk5 and reduced insulin secretion. Here, we set out to determine whether abnormal upregulation of Cdk5/p25 activity may be induced in a pancreatic beta cell line, Min6 cells. We first confirmed that p25 were induced in overexpressed p35 cells treated with HG and increased time course dependence. Next, we showed that no p25 was detected under short time HG stimulation (4-12 hrs), however was detectable in the long exposure in HG cells (24 hrs and 48 hrs). Cdk5 activity in the above cells was much higher than low glucose treated cells and resulted in more than 50% inhibition of insulin secretion. We confirmed these results by overexpression of p25 in Min6 cells. As in cortical neurons, CIP, a small peptide, inhibited Cdk5/p25 activity and restored insulin secretion. The same results were detected in co-infection of dominant negative Cdk5 (DNCdk5) with p25. CIP also reduced beta cells apoptosis induced by Cdk5/p25. These studies indicate that Cdk5/p25 hyperactivation deregulates insulin secretion and induces cell death in pancreatic beta cells and suggests that CIP may serve as a therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes.

  14. Cellular and molecular insight into the inhibition of primary root growth of Arabidopsis induced by peptaibols, a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-Ling; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wang, Li-Xia; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Shuyu; Li, Chun-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Mei; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well known biocontrol agents that produce a variety of antibiotics. Peptaibols are a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma Alamethicin, the most studied peptaibol, is reported as toxic to plants at certain concentrations, while the mechanisms involved are unclear. We illustrated the toxic mechanisms of peptaibols by studying the growth-inhibitory effect of Trichokonin VI (TK VI), a peptaibol from Trichoderma longibrachiatum SMF2, on Arabidopsis primary roots. TK VI inhibited root growth by suppressing cell division and cell elongation, and disrupting root stem cell niche maintenance. TK VI increased auxin content and disrupted auxin response gradients in root tips. Further, we screened the Arabidopsis TK VI-resistant mutant tkr1. tkr1 harbors a point mutation in GORK, which encodes gated outwardly rectifying K(+)channel proteins. This mutation alleviated TK VI-induced suppression of K(+)efflux in roots, thereby stabilizing the auxin gradient. The tkr1 mutant also resisted the phytotoxicity of alamethicin. Our results indicate that GORK channels play a key role in peptaibol-plant interaction and that there is an inter-relationship between GORK channels and maintenance of auxin homeostasis. The cellular and molecular insight into the peptaibol-induced inhibition of plant root growth advances our understanding of Trichoderma-plant interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Inhibition of CD26/DPP IV attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in orthotopic mouse lung transplants: the pivotal role of vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    PubMed

    Jungraithmayr, Wolfgang; De Meester, Ingrid; Matheeussen, Veerle; Inci, Ilhan; Augustyns, Koen; Scharpé, Simon; Weder, Walter; Korom, Stephan

    2010-04-01

    The T cell activation Ag CD26/dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV) combines co-stimulatory and enzymatic properties. Catalytically, it functions as an exopeptidase, modulating biological activity of key chemokines and peptides. Here we investigated the effect of organ-specific inhibition of DPP IV catalytic activity on ischemia/reperfusion injury after extended ischemia in the mouse model of orthotopic single lung transplantation. C57BL/6 mice were syngeneically, transplanted, grafts were perfused and stored in Perfadex with (treated) or without (control) a DPP IV enzymatic activity inhibitor (AB192). Transplantation was performed after 18h cold ischemia time; following 2-h reperfusion, grafts were analyzed for oxygenation, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, histomorphology, and immunohistochemistry was performed for leukocyte Ag 6, myeloperoxidase, hemoxygenase 1, vasoactive intestinal protein (VIP), and real-time PCR for VIP. Treatment with the DPP IV inhibitor AB192 resulted in significant improvement of gas exchange, less lipid oxidation, preservation of parenchymal ultrastructure, reduced neutrophil infiltration, reduced myeloperoxidase expression, increased hemoxygenase 1 expression, pronounced expression of VIP in alveolar macrophages and increased mRNA expression of VIP. Inhibition of intragraft DPP IV catalytic activity with AB192 strikingly ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion injury after extended ischemia. Furthermore, preservation of endogenous intragraft VIP levels correlate with maintaining lung function and structural integrity. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative homology model building and docking evaluation for RNA III inhibiting peptide of Multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain MRSA252.

    PubMed

    Mevada, Vishal; Patel, Rajesh; Patel, Bhoomi; Chaudhari, Rajesh

    2018-04-01

    Since last several years, infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus is challenging to cure using conventional antibiotics. The organism is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that can cause serious diseases not only in humans but also in animals, such as various skin infections, pneumonia, endocarditis and toxin shock syndrome. This bacterium causes such diseases by producing macromolecules such as hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1). This organism had developed the multidrug resistance by acquiring MEC-A gene. This account for made organism to come into the category of Superbug. Several studies showed that, the toxin production is induced by AIP and RAP via the phosphorylation of TRAP. TRAP is a 21 kDa protein and was believed to be associated with the membrane via SvrA Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that TRAP is histidine phosphorylated in a signal transduction pathway that is activated by RAP. The inhibition of TRAP could be done by RIP (RNAIII-inhibiting peptide). The structure for RIP is still undiscovered to be used as inhibitor. Present work has been carried out to get the structural insight with various online and offline homology modeling techniques such as SWISS-MODEL, MODBASE, GENO3D, CPHmodels and I-TASSER for getting unknown structural information target of RNAIII-activating protein from Staphylococcus aureus strain MRSA252 origin for their future exploration as a target in drug discovery process against MRSA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Powerful inhibition of in-vivo growth of experimental hepatic cancers by bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide antagonist RC-3940-II.

    PubMed

    Szepeshazi, Karoly; Schally, Andrew V; Rick, Ferenc G; Block, Norman L; Vidaurre, Irving; Halmos, Gabor; Szalontay, Luca

    2012-10-01

    Hepatic carcinoma is a major health problem worldwide. Its incidence is increasing in Western countries and there is currently no effective systemic therapy against it. Targeted treatment modalities developed in the past few years have provided very limited success. Development of new treatment strategies is therefore essential. We investigated the effects of bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (BN/GRP) antagonist RC-3940-II on experimental human liver cancers in nude mice. SK-Hep-1 and Hep-G2 cancers transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice were treated daily with 10 or 20 µg of RC-3940-II. Tumor growth was monitored for 50-184 days in five experiments. Tumor gene expression was analyzed with PCR array and protein expression by immunoblotting. Characteristics of BN/GRP receptors in the tumors were analyzed by binding assays. Effects of RC-3940-II on cell proliferation were investigated in vitro. RC-3940-II inhibited the growth of SK-Hep-1 cancers in nude mice by 65-98%, with total regression in 9 of 36 tumors in three experiments. The BN/GRP antagonist inhibited the growth of Hep-G2 cancers as well by 73-82% in two experiments, being effective even on originally large tumors. Gene expression analysis showed an increase in several angiogenesis inhibitors and decrease in proangiogenic genes after RC-3940-II treatment. Receptor assays demonstrated high-affinity binding sites for BN/GRP in both tumor lines. BN/GRP antagonist RC-3940-II powerfully inhibits growth of SK-Hep-1 and Hep-G2 cancers in nude mice. Its effect may be linked to changes in expression of those cancer genes important in angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. RC-3940-II may be considered for further investigations in treatment of liver cancers.

  18. Insights on the mechanism of thioredoxin reductase inhibition by gold N-heterocyclic carbene compounds using the synthetic linear selenocysteine containing C-terminal peptide hTrxR(488-499): an ESI-MS investigation.

    PubMed

    Pratesi, Alessandro; Gabbiani, Chiara; Michelucci, Elena; Ginanneschi, Mauro; Papini, Anna Maria; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Ott, Ingo; Messori, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    Gold-based drugs typically behave as strong inhibitors of the enzyme thioredoxin reductase (hTrxR), possibly as the consequence of direct Gold(I) coordination to its active site selenocysteine. To gain a deeper insight into the molecular basis of enzyme inhibition and prove gold-selenocysteine coordination, the reactions of three parent Gold(I) NHC compounds with the synthetic C-terminal dodecapeptide of hTrxR containing Selenocysteine at position 498, were investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Formation of 1:1 Gold-peptide adducts, though in highly different amounts, was demonstrated in all cases. In these adducts the same [Au-NHC](+) moiety is always associated to the intact peptide. Afterward, tandem MS experiments, conducted on a specific Gold-peptide complex, pointed out that Gold is coordinated to the selenolate group. The relatively large strength of the Gold-selenolate coordinative bond well accounts for potent enzyme inhibition typically afforded by these Gold(I) compounds. In a selected case, the time course of enzyme inhibition was explored. Interestingly, enzyme inhibition turned out to show up very quickly and reached its maximum just few minutes after mixing. Overall, the present results offer some clear insight into the process of thioredoxin reductase inhibition by Gold-based compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Drosophila male sex peptide inhibits siesta sleep and promotes locomotor activity in the post-mated female.

    PubMed

    Isaac, R Elwyn; Li, Chenxi; Leedale, Amy E; Shirras, Alan D

    2010-01-07

    Quiescence, or a sleep-like state, is a common and important feature of the daily lives of animals from both invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, suggesting that sleep appeared early in animal evolution. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to be a relevant and powerful model for the genetic analysis of sleep behaviour. The sleep architecture of D. melanogaster is sexually dimorphic, with females sleeping much less than males during day-time, presumably because reproductive success requires greater foraging activity by the female as well as the search for egg-laying sites. However, this loss of sleep and increase in locomotor activity will heighten the risk for the female from environmental and predator hazards. In this study, we show that virgin females can minimize this risk by behaving like males, with an extended afternoon 'siesta'. Copulation results in the female losing 70 per cent of day-time sleep and becoming more active. This behaviour lasts for at least 8 days after copulation and is abolished if the mating males lack sex peptide (SP), normally present in the seminal fluid. Our results suggest that SP is the molecular switch that promotes wakefulness in the post-mated female, a change of behaviour compatible with increased foraging and egg-laying activity. The stress resulting from SP-dependent sleep deprivation might be an important contribution to the toxic side-effects of male accessory gland products that are known to reduce lifespan in post-mated females.

  20. Design of a targeted peptide nucleic acid prodrug to inhibit hepatic human microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Biessen, Erik A L; Sliedregt-Bol, Karen; 'T Hoen, Peter A Chr; Prince, Perry; Van der Bilt, Erica; Valentijn, A Rob P M; Meeuwenoord, Nico J; Princen, Hans; Bijsterbosch, Martin K; Van der Marel, Gijs A; Van Boom, Jacques H; Van Berkel, Theo J C

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we present the design and synthesis of an antisense peptide nucleic acid (asPNA) prodrug, which displays an improved biodistribution profile and an equally improved capacity to reduce the levels of target mRNA. The prodrug, K(GalNAc)(2)-asPNA, comprised of a 14-mer sequence complementary to the human microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (huMTP) gene, conjugated to a high-affinity tag for the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor (K(GalNAc)(2)). The prodrug was avidly bound and rapidly internalized by HepG2s. After iv injection into mice, K(GalNAc)(2)-asPNA accumulated in the parenchymal liver cells to a much greater extent than nonconjugated PNA (46% +/- 1% vs 3.1% +/- 0.5% of the injected dose, respectively). The prodrug was able to reduce MTP mRNA levels in HepG2 cells by 35-40% (P < 0.02) at 100 nM in an asialoglycoprotein receptor- and sequence-dependent fashion. In conclusion, hepatocyte-targeted PNA prodrugs combine a greatly improved tropism with an enhanced local intracellular availability and activity, making them attractive therapeutics to lower the expression level of hepatic target genes such as MTP.

  1. Nebulization of Cyclic Arginine-Glycine-(D)-Aspartic Acid-Peptide Grafted and Drug Encapsulated Liposomes for Inhibition of Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Desu, Hari R; Thoma, Laura A; Wood, George C

    2018-03-13

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a fatal syndrome in critically ill patients. It is characterized by lung edema and inflammation. Numerous pro-inflammatory mediators are released into alveoli. Among them, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) causes an increase in solute permeability across the alveolar-capillary barrier leading to edema. It activates key effector cells (alveolar epithelial and endothelial cells) releasing inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate that nebulized liposomes inhibit ALI in vivo. In vivo ALI model was simulated through intra-tracheal instillation of IL-1β solution (100 μg/mL in PBS, pH 7.2, 200 μL) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Various formulations were tested in ALI induced rats. These formulations include plain liposomes (PL), methylprednisolone sodium succinate solution (MPS solution), cRGD-peptide grafted liposomes (L cRGD ) and methylprednisolone sodium succinate encapsulated and cRGD-peptide grafted liposomes (MPS-L cRGD ). Formulations were nebulized in vivo in rats using micro-pump nebulizer. Liposome formulations exhibited higher levels of drug concentration in lungs. The physicochemical parameters demonstrated that the liposome formulations were stable. On the basis of aerodynamic droplet-size, nebulized formulations were estimated to deposit in different regions of respiratory tract, especially alveolar region, Among the formulations, MPS-L cRGD caused significant reduction of edema, neutrophil infiltration and inflammation biochemical marker levels. From the results, it can be inferred that nebulization of targeted liposomes had facilitated spatial and temporal modulation of drug delivery resulting in alleviation of ALI.

  2. Latent Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity in Nonantifreeze Proteins: Ca2+-Activated Plant Lectins and Cation-Activated Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Organisms living in polar regions have evolved a series of antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AFGPs) to enable them to survive by modulating the structure of ice. These proteins have huge potential for use in cellular cryopreservation, ice-resistant surfaces, frozen food, and cryosurgery, but they are limited by their relatively low availability and questions regarding their mode of action. This has triggered the search for biomimetic materials capable of reproducing this function. The identification of new structures and sequences capable of inhibiting ice growth is crucial to aid our understanding of these proteins. Here, we show that plant c-type lectins, which have similar biological function to human c-type lectins (glycan recognition) but no sequence homology to AFPs, display calcium-dependent ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. This IRI activity can be switched on/off by changing the Ca2+ concentration. To show that more (nonantifreeze) proteins may exist with the potential to display IRI, a second motif was considered, amphipathicity. All known AFPs have defined hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains, rationalizing this choice. The cheap, and widely used, antimicrobial Nisin was found to have cation-dependent IRI activity, controlled by either acid or addition of histidine-binding ions such as zinc or nickel, which promote its amphipathic structure. These results demonstrate a new approach in the identification of antifreeze protein mimetic macromolecules and may help in the development of synthetic mimics of AFPs. PMID:26407233

  3. Latent Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity in Nonantifreeze Proteins: Ca2+-Activated Plant Lectins and Cation-Activated Antimicrobial Peptides.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Daniel E; Gibson, Matthew I

    2015-10-12

    Organisms living in polar regions have evolved a series of antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AFGPs) to enable them to survive by modulating the structure of ice. These proteins have huge potential for use in cellular cryopreservation, ice-resistant surfaces, frozen food, and cryosurgery, but they are limited by their relatively low availability and questions regarding their mode of action. This has triggered the search for biomimetic materials capable of reproducing this function. The identification of new structures and sequences capable of inhibiting ice growth is crucial to aid our understanding of these proteins. Here, we show that plant c-type lectins, which have similar biological function to human c-type lectins (glycan recognition) but no sequence homology to AFPs, display calcium-dependent ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. This IRI activity can be switched on/off by changing the Ca2+ concentration. To show that more (nonantifreeze) proteins may exist with the potential to display IRI, a second motif was considered, amphipathicity. All known AFPs have defined hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains, rationalizing this choice. The cheap, and widely used, antimicrobial Nisin was found to have cation-dependent IRI activity, controlled by either acid or addition of histidine-binding ions such as zinc or nickel, which promote its amphipathic structure. These results demonstrate a new approach in the identification of antifreeze protein mimetic macromolecules and may help in the development of synthetic mimics of AFPs.

  4. Glucocorticoids decrease body weight and food intake and inhibit appetite regulatory peptide expression in the hypothalamus of rats

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XIAO-YAN; SHI, JIAN-HUA; DU, WEN-HUA; FAN, YAN-PING; HU, XIAO-LEI; ZHANG, CHEN-CHEN; XU, HUAN-BAI; MIAO, YAN-JUN; ZHOU, HAI-YAN; XIANG, PING; CHEN, FENG-LING

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) on appetite and gene expression of the hypothalamic appetite regulatory peptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AGRP) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), in non-obese and obese rats. Both non-obese and obese rats were randomly assigned to three groups: normal saline, low- and high-dose GC groups (NSG, LDG and HDG, respectively), which received an intraperitoneal injection with normal saline (0.2 ml/100 g) or hydrocortisone sodium succinate at 5 and 15 mg/kg, respectively, for 20 days. The expression levels of NPY, AGRP and CART mRNA in the hypothalamus were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Non-obese and obese rats were found to undergo weight loss after GC injection, and a higher degree of weight loss was observed in the HDG rats. The average and cumulative food intakes in the obese and non-obese rats injected with high-dose GC were lower compared to that in the NSG (p<0.05). mRNA expression levels of the orexigenic neuropeptides, NPY and AGRP, and the anorexigenic neuropeptide, CART, were significantly lower in the HDG than levels in the NSG for both the obese and non-obese rats (p<0.05). GC treatment decreased appetite and body weight, induced apparent glucolipid metabolic disturbances and hyperinsulinemia, while down-regulated mRNA expression levels of the orexigenic neuropeptides, NPY and AGRP, and anorexigenic neuropeptide, CART, in the hypothalamus in the rats. The mechanism which induces this neuropeptide expression requires further study. PMID:22977608

  5. The soy-derived peptide Vglycin inhibits the growth of colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chang; Sun, Rui; Xie, Ya-Rong; Jiang, An-Li; Lin, Mei; Li, Min; Chen, Zheng-Wang; Zhang, Ping; Jin, Honglin; Feng, Jue-Ping

    2017-05-01

    Vglycin, a novel natural polypeptide isolated from pea seeds, possesses antidiabetic properties. Our previous studies have shown that Vglycin can induce the differentiation of human colon adenocarcinoma cells. We aimed to determine the anticancer activity of Vglycin against colon cancer cells and to elucidate related apoptosis-inducing mechanisms. Treatment with purified Vglycin significantly reduced growth, viability, and colony formation of CT-26, SW480, and NCL-H716 colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner while down-regulating the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Mouse xenograft studies showed a 38% inhibition of colon cancer growth in mice treated with Vglycin (20 mg/kg/day) at day 21. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms involved in Vglycin-induced cell apoptosis were examined using cell cycle studies, ultrastructural examination, as well as apoptosis-associated pathway analysis. The results showed that Vglycin significantly promoted apoptosis and G1/S phase cell cycle arrest. As revealed by Western blot, the expression of CDK2 and Cyclin D1 was down-regulated in all three Vglycin-treated colon cancer cells, indicating that the CDK2/Cyclin D1 cell cycle pathway involved in the initiation and progression of colon cancer. Moreover, the inhibition of Vglycin-induced cell proliferation in colon cancer cells was accompanied by alteration of the expression levels of the apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, and an increase of caspase-3 activity. Together, our results suggest that Vglycin may be another plant-derived peptide that suppresses colon cancer, supporting the continued investigation of Vglycin as therapeutic agent for colon cancer. Impact statement The antidiabetic properties and the capability of inducing differentiation of human colon adenocarcinoma cells of Vglycin have been reported in our previous studies. However, the anticancer potential of Vglycin on colon cancer cells and its possible related mechanisms were

  6. Inhibition of xyloglucanase from an alkalothermophilic Thermomonospora sp. by a peptidic aspartic protease inhibitor from Penicillium sp. VM24.

    PubMed

    Menon, Vishnu; Rao, Mala

    2012-11-01

    A bifunctional inhibitor from Penicillium sp VM24 causing inactivation of xyloglucanase from Thermomonospora sp and an aspartic protease from Aspergillus saitoi was identified. Steady state kinetics studies of xyloglucanase and the inhibitor revealed an irreversible, non-competitive, two-step inhibition mechanism with IC(50) and K(i) values of 780 and 500nM respectively. The interaction of o-phthalaldehyde (OPTA)-labeled xyloglucanase with the inhibitor revealed that the inhibitor binds to the active site of the enzyme. Far- and near-UV spectrophotometric analysis suggests that the conformational changes induced in xyloglucanase by the inhibitor may be due to irreversible denaturation of enzyme. The bifunctional inhibitor may have potential as a biocontrol agent for the protection of plants against phytopathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Potent neuroprotection after stroke afforded by a double-knot spider-venom peptide that inhibits acid-sensing ion channel 1a

    PubMed Central

    Chassagnon, Irène R.; McCarthy, Claudia A.; Chin, Yanni K.-Y.; Pineda, Sandy S.; Mobli, Mehdi; Pham, Vi; De Silva, T. Michael; Lynch, Joseph W.; Widdop, Robert E.; Rash, Lachlan D.

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is the second-leading cause of death worldwide, yet there are no drugs available to protect the brain from stroke-induced neuronal injury. Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is the primary acid sensor in mammalian brain and a key mediator of acidosis-induced neuronal damage following cerebral ischemia. Genetic ablation and selective pharmacologic inhibition of ASIC1a reduces neuronal death following ischemic stroke in rodents. Here, we demonstrate that Hi1a, a disulfide-rich spider venom peptide, is highly neuroprotective in a focal model of ischemic stroke. Nuclear magnetic resonance structural studies reveal that Hi1a comprises two homologous inhibitor cystine knot domains separated by a short, structurally well-defined linker. In contrast with known ASIC1a inhibitors, Hi1a incompletely inhibits ASIC1a activation in a pH-independent and slowly reversible manner. Whole-cell, macropatch, and single-channel electrophysiological recordings indicate that Hi1a binds to and stabilizes the closed state of the channel, thereby impeding the transition into a conducting state. Intracerebroventricular administration to rats of a single small dose of Hi1a (2 ng/kg) up to 8 h after stroke induction by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery markedly reduced infarct size, and this correlated with improved neurological and motor function, as well as with preservation of neuronal architecture. Thus, Hi1a is a powerful pharmacological tool for probing the role of ASIC1a in acid-mediated neuronal injury and various neurological disorders, and a promising lead for the development of therapeutics to protect the brain from ischemic injury. PMID:28320941

  8. Milk-derived peptide Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) inhibits obesity-induced adipose inflammation via an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) dependent cascade.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Yoko; Sakamoto, Yuri; Toh, Mariko; Ohara, Nozomi; Hatanaka, Yuiko; Naka, Ayano; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Kondo, Kazuo; Iida, Kaoruko

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of Val-Pro-Pro (VPP), a food-derived peptide with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory property, on obesity-linked insulin resistance, and adipose inflammation in vivo and in vitro. C57BL/6J mice were fed high-fat high-sucrose diet and VPP (0.1% in water) for 4 months. For in vitro analysis, coculture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes overexpressing either ACE (3T3-ACE) or green fluorescent protein (3T3-GFP) and RAW264 macrophages was conducted with VPP. In diet-induced obese mice, VPP improved insulin sensitivity, concomitant with a significant decrease in tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-1β expression in adipose tissue, with a tendency (p = 0.06) toward decreased CC chemokine ligand 5 expression. Additionally, VPP administration inhibited macrophage accumulation and activation in fat tissues. In vitro, VPP attenuated TNF-α mRNA induced by ACE overexpression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. TNF-α and IL-1β expression decreased following VPP treatment of RAW264 macrophage and 3T3-ACE adipocyte cocultures, but not in RAW264-3T3-GFP adipocyte cocultures. Our data suggest that VPP inhibits adipose inflammation in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, acting as an ACE inhibitor, thereby improving obesity-related insulin resistance. Thus, ingestion of VPP may be a viable protective and therapeutic strategy for insulin resistance and obesity-associated adipose inflammation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Inhibition of Grape Crown Gall by Agrobacterium vitis F2/5 Requires Two Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases and One Polyketide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Desen; Burr, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Agrobacterium vitis nontumorigenic strain F2/5 is able to inhibit crown gall disease on grapevines. The mechanism of grape tumor inhibition (GTI) by F2/5 has not been fully determined. In this study, we demonstrate that two nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes (F-avi3342 and F-avi5730) and one polyketide synthase gene (F-avi4330) are required for GTI. Knockout of any one of them resulted in F/25 losing GTI capacity. We previously reported that F-avi3342 and F-avi4330 but not F-avi5730 are required for induction of grape tissue necrosis and tobacco hypersensitive response. F-avi5730 is predicted to encode a single modular NRPS. It is located in a cluster that is homologous to the siderophore vicibactin biosynthesis locus in Rhizobium species. Individual disruption of F-avi5730 and two immediate downstream genes, F-avi5731 and F-avi5732, all resulted in reduced siderophore production; however, only F-avi5730 was found to be required for GTI. Complemented F-avi5730 mutant (ΔF-avi5730(+)) restored a wild-type level of GTI activity. It was determined that, over time, populations of ΔF-avi4330, ΔF-avi3342, and ΔF-avi5730 at inoculated wound sites on grapevine did not differ from those of ΔF-avi5730(+) indicating that loss of GTI was not due to reduced colonization of wound sites by mutants.

  10. Blueberry Opposes β-Amyloid Peptide-Induced Microglial Activation Via Inhibition of p44/42 Mitogen-Activation Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuyan; Bickford, Paula C.; Sanberg, Paul; Giunta, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common age-related dementia, with a current prevalence in excess of five million individuals in the United States. The aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) into fibrillar amyloid plaques is a key pathological event in the development of the disease. Microglial proinflammatory activation is widely known to cause neuronal and synaptic damage that correlates with cognitive impairment in AD. However, current pharmacological attempts at reducing neuroinflammation mediated via microglial activation have been largely negative in terms of slowing AD progression. Previously, we have shown that microglia express proinflammatory cytokines and a reduced capacity to phagocytose Aβ in the context of CD40, Aβ peptides and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, a phenomenon that can be opposed by attenuation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Other groups have found that blueberry (BB) extract both inhibits phosphorylation of this MAPK module and also improves cognitive deficits in AD model mice. Given these considerations and the lack of reduced Aβ quantities in behaviorally improved BB-fed mice, we wished to determine whether BB supplementation would alter the microglial proinflammatory activation state in response to Aβ. We found that BB significantly enhances microglial clearance of Aβ, inhibits aggregation of Aβ1–42, and suppresses microglial activation, all via suppression of the p44/42 MAPK module. Thus, these data may explain the previously observed behavioral recovery in PSAPP mice and suggest a means by which dietary supplementation could mitigate an undesirable microglial response toward fibrillar Aβ. PMID:18789000

  11. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration in vitro and neointimal hyperplasia in vivo by adenoviral-mediated atrial natriuretic peptide delivery.

    PubMed

    Larifla, Laurent; Déprez, Isabelle; Pham, Isabelle; Rideau, Dominique; Louzier, Vanessa; Adam, Micheline; Eloit, Marc; Foucan, Lydia; Adnot, Serge; Teiger, Emmanuel

    2012-07-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration are important components of the remodeling process in atherosclerosis or following angioplasty. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits the growth of VSMCs in vitro but this effect has not been proven in vivo. In the present study, we examined the effects of local overexpression of ANP following gene transfer on in vitro VSMC proliferation and migration and in vivo neointimal formation in a rat carotid artery model of vascular injury. ANP gene transfer was performed using a recombinant adenovirus containing the ANP cDNA controlled by the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) long terminal repeat (Ad-RSV-ANP). A recombinant adenovirus expressing the RSV-controlled β-galactosidase gene (Ad-RSV-β-gal) was used as the control. Rat VSMC culture was used for in vitro studies. In the in vivo experiments, carotid arteries were analyzed after balloon injury and local infusion of the viral solution. VSMCs transfected by Ad-RSV-ANP produced a significant amount of ANP detected by immunoreactive assay and accumulated about 6.5 times more cGMP than the viral control. VSMC proliferation stimulated with 10% fetal calf serum was reduced by 31% and migration by 25%. Fourteen days after injury, neointimal formation and the intima/media ratio were reduced by 25% and 28%, respectively, in the Ad-RSV-ANP-treated group compared to the control group. The present study demonstrates the efficacy of recombinant adenovirus Ad-RSV-ANP with respect to inhibiting rat VSMC proliferation and migration. Our findings also provide evidence that ANP is implicated in the modulation of vascular remodeling following endothelial injury. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Adrenomedullin (ADM) in the human forearm vascular bed: effect of neutral endopeptidase inhibition and comparison with proadrenomedullin NH2-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP)

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Ian B; McEniery, Carmel M; Bongaerts, Katherine H; MacCallum, Helen; Webb, David J; Cockcroft, John R

    2001-01-01

    Aims To compare the haemodynamic responses of proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) and adrenomedullin (ADM) in the forearm vascular bed of healthy male volunteers, and to investigate the role of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) in the metabolism of ADM. Methods On two separate occasions, ADM (1–30 pmol min−1) and PAMP (100–3000 pmol min−1) were infused into the brachial artery of eight male subjects, and forearm blood flow (FBF) assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography. In a second study, eight male subjects received the same doses of ADM, co-infused with either the NEP inhibitor thiorphan (30 nmol min−1) or the control vasoconstrictor noradrenaline (120 pmol min−1), on separate occasions. Both studies were conducted in a double-blind, randomized manner. Results ADM and PAMP produced a dose-dependent increase in FBF (P ≤ 0.002). Based on the dose producing a 50% increase in FBF, ADM was ∼60 times more potent than PAMP. Thiorphan and noradrenaline produced similar reductions in FBF of 14 ± 4% (mean ± s.e. mean) and 22 ± 6%, respectively (P = 0.4). However, the area under the dose–response curve was significantly greater during co-infusion of ADM with thiorphan than with noradrenaline (P = 0.028), as was the maximum increase in FBF ratio (2.1 ± 1.0 vs 1.2 ± 0.2; P = 0.030). Conclusions ADM and PAMP both produce a local dose-related vasodilatation in the human forearm, but PAMP is ∼60 times less potent than ADM. In addition, NEP inhibition potentiates the haemodynamic effects of ADM. These findings suggest that PAMP may not play a role in the physiological regulation of blood flow. However, in pathophysiological conditions such as hypertension and heart failure, NEP inhibition may exert a beneficial effect by increasing the biological activity of ADM. PMID:11488772

  13. cGMP inhibition of type 3 phosphodiesterase is the major mechanism by which C-type natriuretic peptide activates CFTR in the shark rectal gland

    PubMed Central

    De Jonge, Hugo R.; Tilly, Ben C.; Hogema, Boris M.; Pfau, Daniel J.; Kelley, Catherine A.; Kelley, Megan H.; Melita, August M.; Morris, Montana T.; Viola, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro perfused rectal gland of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and filter-grown monolayers of primary cultures of shark rectal gland (SRG) epithelial cells were used to analyze the signal transduction pathway by which C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) stimulates chloride secretion. CNP binds to natriuretic receptors in the basolateral membrane, elevates cellular cGMP, and opens cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels in the apical membrane. CNP-provoked chloride secretion was completely inhibitable by the nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine and the PKA inhibitor H89 but insensitive to H8, an inhibitor of type I and II isoforms of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKI and cGKII). CNP-induced secretion could not be mimicked by nonhydrolyzable cGMP analogs added alone or in combination with the protein kinase C activator phorbolester, arguing against a role for cGK or for cGMP-induced PKC signaling. We failed to detect a dogfish ortholog of cGKII by molecular cloning and affinity chromatography. However, inhibitors of the cGMP-inhibitable isoform of phosphodiesterase (PDE3) including milrinone, amrinone, and cilostamide but not inhibitors of other PDE isoenzymes mimicked the effect of CNP on chloride secretion in perfused glands and monolayers. CNP raised cGMP and cAMP levels in the SRG epithelial cells. This rise in cAMP as well as the CNP and amrinone-provoked chloride secretion, but not the rise in cGMP, was almost completely blocked by the Gαi-coupled adenylyl cyclase inhibitor somatostatin, arguing against a role for cGMP cross-activation of PKA in CNP action. These data provide molecular, functional, and pharmacological evidence for a CNP/cGMP/PDE3/cAMP/PKA signaling cascade coupled to CFTR in the SRG. PMID:24259420

  14. Tilapia Hepcidin 2-3 Peptide Modulates Lipopolysaccharide-induced Cytokines and Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor-α through Cyclooxygenase-2 and Phosphodiesterase 4D*

    PubMed Central

    Rajanbabu, Venugopal; Pan, Chieh-Yu; Lee, Shang-Chun; Lin, Wei-Ju; Lin, Ching-Chun; Li, Chung-Leung; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2010-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide, tilapia hepcidin (TH) 2-3, belongs to the hepcidin family, and its antibacterial function has been reported. Here, we examined the TH2-3-mediated regulation of proinflammatory cytokines in bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophages. The presence of TH2-3 in LPS-stimulated cells reduced the amount of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion. From a microarray, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and cytokine array studies, we showed down-regulation of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and the prostaglandin synthesis gene, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, by TH2-3. Studies with the COX-2-specific inhibitor, melaxicam, and with COX-2-overexpressing cells demonstrated the positive regulation of TNF-α and negative regulation of cAMP degradation-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4D by COX-2. In LPS-stimulated cells, TH2-3 acts like melaxicam and down-regulates COX-2 and up-regulates PDE4D. The reduction in intracellular cAMP by TH2-3 or melaxicam in LPS-stimulated cells supports the negative regulation of PDE4D by COX-2 and TH2-3. This demonstrates that the inhibition of COX-2 is among the mechanisms through which TH2-3 controls TNF-α release. At 1 h after treatment, the presence of TH2-3 in LPS-stimulated cells had suppressed the induction of pERK1/2 and prevented the LPS-stimulated nuclear accumulation of NF-κB family proteins of p65, NF-κB2, and c-Rel. In conclusion, TH2-3 inhibits TNF-α and other proinflammatory cytokines through COX-2-, PDE4D-, and pERK1/2-dependent mechanisms. PMID:20675368

  15. Folate-targeted amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticles incorporating a fusogenic peptide deliver therapeutic siRNA and inhibit the invasive capacity of 3D prostate cancer tumours.

    PubMed

    Evans, James C; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sweeney, Katrina; Darcy, Raphael; Nelson, Colleen C; Hollier, Brett G; O'Driscoll, Caitriona M

    2017-10-30

    The main barrier to the development of an effective RNA interference (RNAi) therapy is the lack of a suitable delivery vector. Modified cyclodextrins have emerged in recent years for the delivery of siRNA. In the present study, a folate-targeted amphiphilic cyclodextrin was formulated using DSPE-PEG 5000 -folate to target prostate cancer cells. The fusogenic peptide GALA was included in the formulation to aid in the endosomal release of siRNA. Targeted nanoparticles were less than 200nm in size with a neutral surface charge. The complexes were able to bind siRNA and protect it from serum nucleases. Incubation with excess free folate resulted in a significant decrease in the uptake of targeted nanoparticles in LNCaP and PC3 cells, both of which have been reported to have differing pathways of folate uptake. There was a significant reduction in the therapeutic targets, ZEB1 and NRP1 at mRNA and protein level following treatment with targeted complexes. In preliminary functional assays using 3D spheroids, treatment of PC3 tumours with targeted complexes with ZEB1 and NRP1 siRNA resulted in more compact colonies relative to the untargeted controls and inhibited infiltration into the Matrigel™ layer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-IFNγ and peptide-tolerization therapies inhibit acute lung injury induced by crossreactive influenza-A (IAV)-specific memory T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarczyk, Myriam F.; Kraft, Anke R.; Chen, Hong D.; Kenney, Laurie L.; Selin, Liisa K.

    2013-01-01

    Viral infections have variable outcomes with severe disease occurring in only few individuals. We hypothesized that this variable outcome could correlate with the nature of responses made to previous microbes. To test this, mice were infected initially with IAV and in memory-phase challenged with LCMV, which we show here to have relatively minor cross-reactivity with IAV. The outcome in genetically identical mice varied from mild pneumonitis to severe acute lung injury with extensive pneumonia and bronchiolization, similar to that observed in patients that died of the 1918 H1N1 pandemic. Lesion expression did not correlate with virus titers. Instead, disease severity directly correlated with and was predicted by the frequency of IAV-PB1703- and -PA224-specific responses, which crossreacted with LCMV-GP34 and -GP276, respectively. Eradication or functional ablation of these pathogenic memory T-cell populations, using mutant-viral strains, peptide-based tolerization strategies, or short-term anti-IFNγ treatment inhibited severe lesions such as bronchiolization from occurring. Heterologous immunity can shape outcome of infections and likely individual responses to vaccination, and can be manipulated to treat or prevent severe pathology. PMID:23408839

  17. NEMO-Binding Domain Peptide Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Inhibiting the NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianhua; Li, Li; Yuan, Weifeng; Zheng, Linxin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effects and relevant mechanisms exerted by NEMO-binding domain peptide (NBD) against lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. The ALI model was induced by intratracheally administered atomized LPS (5 mg/kg) to BABL/c mice. Half an hour before LPS administration, we treated the mice with increasing concentrations of intratracheally administered NBD or saline aerosol. Two hours after LPS administration, each group of mice was sacrificed. We observed that NBD pretreatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced lung histopathological injury in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting established that NBD pretreatment obviously attenuated LPS-induced IκB-α and NF-κBp65 activation and NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4 overexpression. Furthermore, NBD pretreatment increased SOD and T-AOC activity and decreased MDA levels in lung tissue. In addition, NBD also inhibited TNF-α and IL-1β secretion in BALF after LPS challenge. In conclusion, NBD protects against LPS-induced ALI in mice. PMID:27956761

  18. Inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta1-induced signaling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by the Smad-binding peptide aptamer Trx-SARA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bryan M; Hoffmann, F Michael

    2006-09-01

    Overexpression of the inhibitory Smad, Smad7, is used frequently to implicate the Smad pathway in cellular responses to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling; however, Smad7 regulates several other proteins, including Cdc42, p38MAPK, and beta-catenin. We report an alternative approach for more specifically disrupting Smad-dependent signaling using a peptide aptamer, Trx-SARA, which comprises a rigid scaffold, the Escherichia coli thioredoxin A protein (Trx), displaying a constrained 56-amino acid Smad-binding motif from the Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein. Trx-SARA bound specifically to Smad2 and Smad3 and inhibited both TGF-beta-induced reporter gene expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in NMuMG murine mammary epithelial cells. In contrast to Smad7, Trx-SARA had no effect on the Smad2 or 3 phosphorylation levels induced by TGF-beta1. Trx-SARA was primarily localized to the nucleus and perturbed the normal cytoplasmic localization of Smad2 and 3 to a nuclear localization in the absence of TGF-beta1, consistent with reduced Smad nuclear export. The key mode of action of Trx-SARA was to reduce the level of Smad2 and Smad3 in complex with Smad4 after TGF-beta1 stimulation, a mechanism of action consistent with the preferential binding of SARA to monomeric Smad protein and Trx-SARA-mediated disruption of active Smad complexes.

  19. Calcitonin gene-related peptide enhances substance P-induced behaviors via metabolic inhibition: in vivo evidence for a new mechanism of neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Mao, J; Coghill, R C; Kellstein, D E; Frenk, H; Mayer, D J

    1992-03-06

    The present study examined the effects of intrathecal (i.t.) injection of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on caudally directed biting and scratching induced by i.t. substance P (SP), bombesin (BBS), strychnine (STR), and kainic acid (KA). CGRP alone (5.25, 10.5 and 21 nmol) had no effect on these behaviors, but CGRP pretreatment produced a dose-related enhancement of behaviors induced by SP or BBS, but not by KA or STR. 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV, 25 nmol), a selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, did not block the CGRP potentiation of SP and BBS induced behaviors. CGRP, however, failed to enhance scratching and biting induced by a SP analogue [pGlu5-Mephe8-MeGly9]SP(5-11) (Dime-C7) that is resistant to enzymatic degradation by SP endopeptidase. These findings demonstrate that CGRP potentiates SP induced behavioral responses via inhibition of neuropeptide degradation and that this mechanism may serve as a physiological mechanism of SP modulation.

  20. Some Commonly Used Brominated Flame Retardants Cause Ca2+-ATPase Inhibition, Beta-Amyloid Peptide Release and Apoptosis in SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mousa, Fawaz; Michelangeli, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are chemicals commonly used to reduce the flammability of consumer products and are considered pollutants since they have become widely dispersed throughout the environment and have also been shown to bio-accumulate within animals and man. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of some of the most commonly used groups of BFRs on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The results showed that of the BFRs tested, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) and decabromodiphenyl ether (DBPE), all are cytotoxic at low micromolar concentrations (LC50 being 2.7±0.7µM, 15±4µM and 28±7µM, respectively). They induced cell death, at least in part, by apoptosis through activation of caspases. They also increased intracellular [Ca2+] levels and reactive-oxygen-species within these neuronal cells. Furthermore, these BFRs also caused rapid depolarization of the mitochondria and cytochrome c release in these neuronal cells. Elevated intracellular [Ca2+] levels appear to occur through a mechanism involving microsomal Ca2+-ATPase inhibition and this maybe responsible for Ca2+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, µM levels of these BFRs caused β-amyloid peptide (Aβ-42) processing and release from these cells with a few hours of exposure. These results therefore shows that these pollutants are both neurotoxic and amyloidogenic in-vitro. PMID:22485137

  1. Decoy peptide targeted to Toll-IL-1R domain inhibits LPS and TLR4-active metabolite morphine-3 glucuronide sensitization of sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Allette, Yohance M; Kim, Youngsook; Randolph, Aaron L; Smith, Jared A; Ripsch, Matthew S; White, Fletcher A

    2017-06-16

    Accumulating evidence indicates that Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling adapter protein interactions with Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor (TIR) domains present in sensory neurons may modulate neuropathic pain states. Following ligand interaction with TLRs, TIR serves to both initiate intracellular signaling and facilitate recruitment of signaling adapter proteins to the intracytoplasmic domain. Although TLR TIR is central to a number of TLR signaling cascades, its role in sensory neurons is poorly understood. In this study we investigated the degree to which TLR TIR decoy peptide modified to include a TAT sequence (Trans-Activator of Transcription gene in HIV; TAT-4BB) affected LPS-induced intracellular calcium flux and excitation in sensory neurons, and behavioral changes due to TLR4 active metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) exposure in vivo. TAT-4BB inhibited LPS-induced calcium changes in a majority of sensory neurons and decreased LPS-dependent neuronal excitability in small diameter neurons. Acute systemic administration of the TAT-4BB reversed M3G-induced tactile allodynia in a dose-dependent manner but did not affect motor activity, anxiety or responses to noxious thermal stimulus. These data suggest that targeting TLR TIR domains may provide novel pharmacological targets to reduce or reverse TLR4-dependent pain behavior in the rodent.

  2. SHP-1, a novel peptide isolated from seahorse inhibits collagen release through the suppression of collagenases 1 and 3, nitric oxide products regulated by NF-kappaB/p38 kinase.

    PubMed

    Ryu, BoMi; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been taken to identify natural peptides as potential bioactive substances. In this study, novel peptide (SHP-1) derived from seahorse (Hippocampus, Syngnathidae) hydrolysate was explored for its inhibitory effects on collagen release in arthritis with the investigation of its underlying mechanism of action. The efficacy of SHP-1 was determined on cartilage protective effects such as inhibition of collagen and GAG release. SHP-1 was able to suppress not only the expression of collagenases 1 and 3, but also the production of NO via down-regulation of iNOS. However, it presented an irrelevant effect on the level of GAG release in chondrocytic and osteoblastic cells. Inhibition of collagen release by SHP-1 is associated with restraining the phosphorylation of NF-kappaB and p38 kinase cascade. Therefore, it could be suggested that SHP-1 has a potential to be used in arthritis treatment.

  3. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    PubMed

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  4. Chimpanzee GB virus C and GB virus A E2 envelope glycoproteins contain a peptide motif that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in human CD4+ T-cells

    PubMed Central

    McLinden, James H.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Klinzman, Donna; Murthy, Krishna K.; Chang, Qing; Kaufman, Thomas M.; Bhattarai, Nirjal

    2013-01-01

    GB virus type C (GBV-C) is a lymphotropic virus that can cause persistent infection in humans. GBV-C is not associated with any disease, but is associated with reduced mortality in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. Related viruses have been isolated from chimpanzees (GBV-Ccpz) and from New World primates (GB virus type A, GBV-A). These viruses are also capable of establishing persistent infection. We determined the nucleotide sequence encoding the envelope glycoprotein (E2) of two GBV-Ccpz isolates obtained from the sera of captive chimpanzees. The deduced GBV-Ccpz E2 protein differed from human GBV-C by 31 % at the amino acid level. Similar to human GBV-C E2, expression of GBV-Ccpz E2 in a tet-off human CD4+ Jurkat T-cell line significantly inhibited the replication of diverse HIV-1 isolates. This anti-HIV-replication effect of GBV-Ccpz E2 protein was reversed by maintaining cells in doxycycline to reduce E2 expression. Previously, we found a 17 aa region within human GBV-C E2 that was sufficient to inhibit HIV-1. Although GBV-Ccpz E2 differed by 3 aa differences in this region, the chimpanzee GBV-C 17mer E2 peptide inhibited HIV-1 replication. Similarly, the GBV-A peptide that aligns with this GBV-C E2 region inhibited HIV-1 replication despite sharing only 5 aa with the human GBV-C E2 sequence. Thus, despite amino acid differences, the peptide region on both the GBV-Ccpz and the GBV-A E2 protein inhibit HIV-1 replication similar to human GBV-C. Consequently, GBV-Ccpz or GBV-A infection of non-human primates may provide an animal model to study GB virus–HIV interactions. PMID:23288422

  5. Inhibition of agouti-related peptide expression by glucose in a clonal hypothalamic neuronal cell line is mediated by glycolysis, not oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hui; Isoda, Fumiko; Belsham, Denise D; Mobbs, Charles V

    2008-02-01

    The regulation of neuroendocrine electrical activity and gene expression by glucose is mediated through several distinct metabolic pathways. Many studies have implicated AMP and ATP as key metabolites mediating neuroendocrine responses to glucose, especially through their effects on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but other studies have suggested that glycolysis, and in particular the cytoplasmic conversion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to reduced NAD (NADH), may play a more important role than oxidative phosphorylation for some effects of glucose. To address these molecular mechanisms further, we have examined the regulation of agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in a clonal hypothalamic cell line, N-38. AgRP expression was induced monotonically as glucose concentrations decreased from 10 to 0.5 mm glucose and with increasing concentrations of glycolytic inhibitors. However, neither pyruvate nor 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate mimicked the effect of glucose to reduce AgRP mRNA, but on the contrary, produced the opposite effect of glucose and actually increased AgRP mRNA. Nevertheless, 3beta-hydroxybutyrate mimicked the effect of glucose to increase ATP and to decrease AMPK phosphorylation. Similarly, inhibition of AMPK by RNA interference increased, and activation of AMPK decreased, AgRP mRNA. Additional studies demonstrated that neither the hexosamine nor the pentose/carbohydrate response element-binding protein pathways mediate the effects of glucose on AgRP expression. These studies do not support that either ATP or AMPK mediate effects of glucose on AgRP in this hypothalamic cell line but support a role for glycolysis and, in particular, NADH. These studies support that cytoplasmic or nuclear NADH, uniquely produced by glucose metabolism, mediates effects of glucose on AgRP expression.

  6. Polysaccharide peptides from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in the rat in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yeung, John H K; Chan, Siu-Lung; Or, Penelope M Y

    2006-08-01

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy in China. In this study, the effects of whole PSP extract and water extract of PSP on 4-hydroxylation of tolbutamide were investigated in rat liver microsomes in vitro and in vivo in the rat. Both the whole PSP extract and the water soluble fraction (0.5-20 microM) decreased the metabolism of tolbutamide to 4-hydroxytolbutamide in vitro. Enzyme kinetics studies showed that PSP inhibited tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase activity in a competitive, concentration-dependent manner. The whole PSP extract had a Ki value of 12.6 microM and IC50 at 18.4 microM, while the water extract had a Ki value of 6.9 microM and IC50 at 9.8 microM. Sulphaphenazole, a specific human CYP2C9 inhibitor, showed a Ki value of 30.8 microM and IC50 at 44.0 microM in the test system. In the pharmacokinetic studies in vivo, acute PSP (4 micromol/kg, i.p.) treatment did not produce significant changes in tolbutamide clearance, but produced a decrease in the Cinitial (7.4%) and an increase in the Vd (7.4%). Sub-chronic pre-treatment of PSP (1-2 micromol/kg/day, i.p.) for three days did not affect the clearance and AUC of tolbutamide, but the Cinitial was decreased, together with increases in the T1/2, and Vd. The formation of 4-hydroxytolbutamide in vivo was decreased in both acute and sub-chronic studies. Taken together, this study demonstrated the PSP can inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation both in vitro and in vivo. Despite the fact that CYP isoforms that metabolise tolbutamide are different between rat and human liver due to different catalytic characteristics, and rat studies may not be directly extrapolatable to man, the concomitant use of PSP with other CYP2C substrates should be carefully monitored.

  7. (99m)Tc-labeled gastrins of varying peptide chain length: Distinct impact of NEP/ACE-inhibition on stability and tumor uptake in mice.

    PubMed

    Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Nock, Berthold A; Lymperis, Emmanouil; Krenning, Eric P; de Jong, Marion; Maina, Theodosia

    2016-06-01

    In situ inhibition of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) has been recently shown to impressively increase the bioavailability and tumor uptake of biodegradable gastrin radioligands. Furthermore, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) has been previously shown to cleave gastrin analogs in vitro. In the present study, we have assessed the effects induced by single or dual NEP/ACE-inhibition on the pharmacokinetic profile of three (99m)Tc-labeled gastrins of varying peptide chain length: [(99m)Tc]SG6 ([(99m)Tc-N4-Gln(1)]gastrin(1-17)), [(99m)Tc]DG2 ([(99m)Tc-N4-Gly(4),DGlu(5)]gastrin(4-17)) and [(99m)Tc]DG4 ([(99m)Tc-N4-DGlu(10)]gastrin(10-17)). Mouse blood samples were collected 5min after injection of each of [(99m)Tc]SG6/DG2/DG4 together with: a) vehicle, b) the NEP-inhibitor phosphoramidon (PA), c) the ACE-inhibitor lisinopril (Lis), or d) PA plus Lis and were analyzed by RP-HPLC for radiometabolite detection. Biodistribution was studied in SCID mice bearing A431-CCK2R(+/-) xenografts at 4h postinjection (pi). [(99m)Tc]SG6 or [(99m)Tc]DG4 was coinjected with either vehicle or the above described NEP/ACE-inhibitor regimens; for [(99m)Tc]DG2 control and PA animal groups were only included. Treatment of mice with PA induced significant stabilization of (99m)Tc-radiotracers in peripheral blood, while treatment with Lis or Lis+PA affected the stability of des(Glu)5 [(99m)Tc]DG4 only. In line with these findings, PA coinjection led to notable amplification of tumor uptake of radiopeptides compared to controls (P<0.01). Only [(99m)Tc]DG4 profited by single Lis (2.06±0.39%ID/g vs 0.99±0.13%ID/g in controls) or combined Lis+PA coinjection (8.91±1.61%ID/g vs 4.89±1.33%ID/g in PA-group). Furthermore, kidney uptake remained favourably low and unaffected by PA and/or Lis coinjection only in the case of [(99m)Tc]DG4 (<1.9%ID/g) resulting in the most optimal tumor-to-kidney ratios. In situ NEP/ACE-inhibition diversely affected the in vivo profile of (99m)Tc-radioligands based on

  8. Atrial natriuretic peptide provokes a dramatic increase in cyclic GMP formation and markedly inhibits muscarinic-stimulated Ca2+ mobilisation in SV-40 transformed cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (SV-CISM-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, K H; Ali, N; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1999-02-01

    We investigated the effects of cGMP-elevating agents, including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), on cGMP accumulation and on carbachol (CCh)-stimulated intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) mobilisation in SV-40 transformed cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (SV-CISM-2) cells and in primary cultured cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells. The stimulatory effects of the natriuretic peptides on cGMP production correlated well with their inhibitory effects on CCh-induced [Ca+1]i mobilisation, and these effects were significantly more pronounced in the SV-CISM-2 cells than in the CISM cells. Thus, ANP (1 microM) increased cGMP production in the SV-CISM-2 cells and CISM cells by 487- and 1.7-fold, respectively, and inhibited CCh-induced [Ca2+]i mobilisation by 95 and 3%, respectively. In the SV-CISM-2 cells, ANP and CNP dose dependently inhibited CCh-induced [Ca2+]i mobilisation with IC50 values of 156 and 412 nM, respectively, and dose dependently stimulated cGMP formation with EC50 values of 24 and 88 nM, respectively, suggesting that the inhibitory actions of the peptides are mediated through cGMP. Both ANP and CNP stimulated cGMP accumulation in a time-dependent manner. The potency of the cGMP-elevating agents were in the following order: ANP>CNP>SNP; these agents had no effect on cAMP accumulation. The inhibitory effects of the natriuretic peptides were mimicked by 8-Br-cGMP, a selective activator of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. LY83583, a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, significantly inhibited SNP-induced cGMP formation but had no effect on those of ANP and CNP. The basal activities of the guanylyl cyclase and the dissociation constant (Kd) and total receptor density (Bmax) values of the natriuretic peptide receptor for [125I]ANP binding were not significantly different between the two cell types. The cGMP system, as with the cAMP system, has a major inhibitory influence on the muscarinic

  9. Rational design and synthesis of altered peptide ligands based on human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 epitope: inhibition of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Tselios, Theodore; Aggelidakis, Mihalis; Tapeinou, Anthi; Tseveleki, Vivian; Kanistras, Ioannis; Gatos, Dimitrios; Matsoukas, John

    2014-11-04

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the etiology of MS remains unclear, there is evidence T-cell recognition of immunodominant epitopes of myelin proteins, such as the 35-55 epitope of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), plays a pathogenic role in the induction of chronic EAE. Cyclization of peptides is of great interest since the limited stability of linear peptides restricts their potential use as therapeutic agents. Herein, we have designed and synthesized a number of linear and cyclic peptides by mutating crucial T cell receptor (TCR) contact residues of the human MOG35-55 epitope. In particular, we have designed and synthesized cyclic altered peptide ligands (APLs) by mutating Arg41 with Ala or Arg41 and Arg46 with Ala. The peptides were synthesized in solid phase on 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (CLTR-Cl) using the Fmoc/t-Bu methodology. The purity of final products was verified by RP-HPLC and their identification was achieved by ESI-MS. It was found that the substitutions of Arg at positions 41 and 46 with Ala results in peptide analogues that reduce the severity of MOG-induced EAE clinical symptoms in C57BL/6 mice when co-administered with mouse MOG35-55 peptide at the time of immunization.

  10. Wheat peptides reduce oxidative stress and inhibit NO production through modulating μ-opioid receptor in a rat NSAID-induced stomach damage model.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong; Cai, Hui-Zhen; Wang, Shao-Kang; Yang, Li-Gang; Sun, Gui-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce tissue damage and oxidative stress in animal models of stomach damage. In the present study, the protective effects of wheat peptides were evaluated in a NSAID-induced stomach damage model in rats. Different doses of wheat peptides or distilled water were administered daily by gavage for 30 days before the rat stomach damage model was established by administration of NSAIDs (aspirin and indomethacin) into the digestive tract twice. The treatment of wheat peptides decreased the NSAID-induced gastric epithelial cell degeneration and oxidative stress and NO levels in the rats. Wheat peptides significantly increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and decreased iNOS activity in stomach. The mRNA expression level of μ-opioid receptor was significantly decreased in wheat peptides-treated rats than that in in the control rats. The results suggest that NSAID drugs induced stomach damage in rats, wchih can be prevented by wheat peptides. The mechanisms for the protective effects were most likely through reducing NSAID-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation and Characterization of a Novel Peptide That Binds Monomeric and Aggregated β-Amyloid and Inhibits the Formation of Neurotoxic Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Barr, Renae K; Verdile, Giuseppe; Wijaya, Linda K; Morici, Michael; Taddei, Kevin; Gupta, Veer B; Pedrini, Steve; Jin, Liang; Nicolazzo, Joseph A; Knock, Erin; Fraser, Paul E; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-01-08

    Although the formation of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD), the soluble oligomers rather than the mature amyloid fibrils most likely contribute to Aβ toxicity and neurodegeneration. Thus, the discovery of agents targeting soluble Aβ oligomers is highly desirable for early diagnosis prior to the manifestation of a clinical AD phenotype and also more effective therapies. We have previously reported that a novel 15-amino acid peptide (15-mer), isolated via phage display screening, targeted Aβ and attenuated its neurotoxicity (Taddei, K., Laws, S. M., Verdile, G., Munns, S., D'Costa, K., Harvey, A. R., Martins, I. J., Hill, F., Levy, E., Shaw, J. E., and Martins, R. N. (2010) Neurobiol. Aging 31, 203-214). The aim of the current study was to generate and biochemically characterize analogues of this peptide with improved stability and therapeutic potential. We demonstrated that a stable analogue of the 15-amino acid peptide (15M S.A.) retained the activity and potency of the parent peptide and demonstrated improved proteolytic resistance in vitro (stable to t = 300 min, c.f. t = 30 min for the parent peptide). This candidate reduced the formation of soluble Aβ42 oligomers, with the concurrent generation of non-toxic, insoluble aggregates measuring up to 25-30 nm diameter as determined by atomic force microscopy. The 15M S.A. candidate directly interacted with oligomeric Aβ42, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance/Biacore analysis, with an affinity in the low micromolar range. Furthermore, this peptide bound fibrillar Aβ42 and also stained plaques ex vivo in brain tissue from AD model mice. Given its multifaceted ability to target monomeric and aggregated Aβ42 species, this candidate holds promise for novel preclinical AD imaging and therapeutic strategies. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Inhibition of hair follicle growth by a laminin-1 G-domain peptide, RKRLQVQLSIRT, in an organ culture of isolated vibrissa rudiment.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Mochizuki, Mayumi; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Uchinuma, Eijyu; Yamashina, Shohei; Kadoya, Yuichi

    2002-04-01

    We established a serum-free organ culture system of isolated single vibrissa rudiments taken from embryonic day 13 mice. This system allowed us to test more than 30 laminin-derived cell adhesive peptides to determine their roles on the growth and differentiation of vibrissa hair follicles. We found that the RKRLQVQLSIRT sequence (designated AG-73), which mapped to the LG-4 module of the laminin-alpha1 chain carboxyl-terminal G domain, perturbed the growth of hair follicles in vitro. AG-73 is one of the cell-binding peptides identified from more than 600 systematically synthesized 12 amino acid peptides covering the whole amino acid sequence of the laminin-alpha1, -beta1, and -gamma1 chains, by cell adhesion assay. Other cell-adhesive laminin peptides and a control scrambled peptide, LQQRRSVLRTKI, however, failed to show any significant effects on the growth of hair follicles. The AG-73 peptide binds to syndecan-1, a transmembrane heparan-sulfate proteoglycan. Syndecan-1 was expressed in both the mesenchymal condensation and the epithelial hair peg of developing vibrissa, suggesting that AG-73 binding to the cell surface syndecan-1 perturbed the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions of developing vibrissa. The formation of hair bulbs was aberrant in the explants treated with AG-73. In addition, impaired basement membrane formation, an abnormal cytoplasmic bleb formation, and an unusual basal formation of actin bundles were noted in the AG-73-treated-hair matrix epithelium, indicating that AG-73 binding perturbs various steps of epithelial morphogenesis, including the basement membrane remodeling. We also found a region-specific loss of the laminin-alpha1 chain in the basement membrane at the distal region of the invading hair follicle epithelium, indicating that laminins play a part in hair morphogenesis.

  13. Amyloid β-Peptide 25–35 Self-Assembly and Its Inhibition: A Model Undecapeptide System to Gain Atomistic and Secondary Structure Details of the Alzheimer’s Disease Process and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Combined results of theoretical molecular dynamic simulations and in vitro spectroscopic (circular dichroism and fluorescence) studies are presented, providing the atomistic and secondary structure details of the process by which a selected small molecule may destabilize the β-sheet ordered “amyloid” oligomers formed by the model undecapeptide of amyloid β-peptide 25–35 [Aβ(25–35)]. Aβ(25–35) was chosen because it is the shortest fragment capable of forming large β-sheet fibrils and retaining the toxicity of the full length Aβ(1–40/42) peptides. The conformational transition, that leads to the formation of β-sheet fibrils from soluble unordered structures, was found to depend on the environmental conditions, whereas the presence of myricetin destabilizes the self-assembly and antagonizes this conformational shift. In parallel, we analyzed several molecular dynamics trajectories describing the evolution of five monomer fragments, without inhibitor as well as in the presence of myricetin. Other well-known inhibitors (curcumin and (−)-tetracycline), found to be stronger and weaker Aβ(1–42) aggregation inhibitors, respectively, were also studied. The combined in vitro and theoretical studies of the Aβ(25–35) self-assembly and its inhibition contribute to understanding the mechanism of action of well-known inhibitors and the peptide amino acid residues involved in the interaction leading to a rational drug design of more potent new molecules able to antagonize the self-assembly process. PMID:23173074

  14. Rosuvastatin ameliorates cognitive impairment in rats fed with high-salt and cholesterol diet via inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity and amyloid beta peptide aggregation.

    PubMed

    Husain, I; Akhtar, M; Abdin, M Zainul; Islamuddin, M; Shaharyar, M; Najmi, A K

    2018-04-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide aggregation and cholinergic neurodegeneration are involved in the development of cognitive impairment. Therefore, in this article, we examined rosuvastatin (RSV), an oral hypolipidemic drug, to determine its potential as a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Aβ peptide aggregation for the treatment of cognitive impairment. Molecular docking study was done to examine the affinity of RSV with Aβ 1-42 and AChE in silico. We also employed neurobehavioral activity tests, biochemical estimation, and histopathology to study the anti-Aβ 1-42 aggregation capability of RSV in vivo. Molecular docking study provided evidence that RSV has the best binding conformer at its receptor site or active site of an enzyme. The cognitive impairment in female Wistar rats was induced by high-salt and cholesterol diet (HSCD) ad libitum for 8 weeks. RSV ameliorated serum cholesterol level, AChE activity, and Aβ 1-42 peptide aggregations in HSCD induced cognitive impairment. In addition, RSV-treated rats showed greater scores in the open field (locomotor activity) test. Moreover, the histopathological studies in the hippocampus and cortex of rat brain also supported that RSV markedly reduced the cognitive impairment and preserved the normal histoarchitectural pattern of the hippocampus and cortex. Taken together, these data indicate that RSV may act as a dual inhibitor of AChE and Aβ 1-42 peptide aggregation, therefore suggesting a therapeutic strategy for cognitive impairment treatment.

  15. Soluble γ-secretase modulators selectively inhibit the production of the 42-amino acid amyloid β peptide variant and augment the production of multiple carboxy-truncated amyloid β species.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Steven L; Zhang, Can; Cheng, Soan; Nguyen, Phuong; Zhang, Xulun; Rynearson, Kevin D; Wang, Rong; Li, Yueming; Sisodia, Sangram S; Mobley, William C; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2014-02-04

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized pathologically by an abundance of extracellular neuritic plaques composed primarily of the 42-amino acid amyloid β peptide variant (Aβ42). In the majority of familial AD (FAD) cases, e.g., those harboring mutations in presenilin 1 (PS1), there is a relative increase in the levels of Aβ42 compared to the levels of Aβ40. We previously reported the characterization of a series of aminothiazole-bridged aromates termed aryl aminothiazole γ-secretase modulators or AGSMs [Kounnas, M. Z., et al. (2010) Neuron 67, 769-780] and showed their potential for use in the treatment of FAD [Wagner, S. L., et al. (2012) Arch. Neurol. 69, 1255-1258]. Here we describe a series of GSMs with physicochemical properties improved compared to those of AGSMs. Specific heterocycle replacements of the phenyl rings in AGSMs provided potent molecules with improved aqueous solubilities. A number of these soluble γ-secretase modulators (SGSMs) potently lowered Aβ42 levels without inhibiting proteolysis of Notch or causing accumulation of amyloid precursor protein carboxy-terminal fragments, even at concentrations approximately 1000-fold greater than their IC50 values for reducing Aβ42 levels. The effects of one potent SGSM on Aβ peptide production were verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, showing enhanced production of a number of carboxy-truncated Aβ species. This SGSM also inhibited Aβ42 peptide production in a highly purified reconstituted γ-secretase in vitro assay system and retained the ability to modulate γ-secretase-mediated proteolysis in a stably transfected cell culture model overexpressing a human PS1 mutation validating the potential for use in FAD.

  16. [Role of p38MAPK/eNOS signaling pathway in the inhibition of AGEs-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by glucagon-like peptide-1].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hailong; Huang, Zhiqiu; Zhang, Yineng; Sun, Huilin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role of p38MAPK signaling pathway in the mechanism by which glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) inhibits endothelial cell damage induced by AGEs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were divided into control group, AGEs group, GLP-1 group, AGEs+GLP-1 group, AGEs+inhibitor group, and AGEs+GLP-1+inhibitor group. The expressions of p-p38MAPK/p38MAPK and p-eNOS/eNOS protein were examined by Western blotting, and the cell apoptosis rates were tested by flow cytometry. Compared with the control group, AGEs significantly enhanced the expression of p-p38 MAPK protein (P=0.001) while GLP-1 significantly inhibited its expression (P<0.001). AGEs significantly inhibited the expression of p-eNOS protein (P=0.007), which was enhanced by GLP-1 and p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) (P=0.004). Both SB203580 and GLP-1 treatment decreased the apoptosis rate of AGEs-treated cells (P<0.001). GLP-1 can protect human umbilical vein endothelial cells against AGEs-induced apoptosis partially by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38MAPK protein and promoting the expression of p-eNOS protein.

  17. Feedback suppression of meal-induced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion mediated through elevations in intact GLP-1 caused by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition: a randomized, prospective comparison of sitagliptin and vildagliptin treatment.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Oleg; Kahle, Melanie; Deacon, Carolyn F; Holst, Jens J; Nauck, Michael A

    2016-11-01

    To compare directly the clinical effects of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes, with a special emphasis on incretin hormones and L-cell feedback inhibition induced by dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP-4) inhibition. A total of 24 patients (12 on a diet/exercise regimen, 12 on metformin) were treated, in randomized order, for 7-9 days, with either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily = 100 mg/d), sitagliptin (100 mg once daily in those on diet, 50 mg twice daily in those on metformin treatment = 100 mg/d) or placebo (twice daily). A mixed-meal test was performed. Intact glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations were doubled by both DPP-4 inhibitors. Meal-related total GLP-1 responses were reduced by vildagliptin and sitagliptin treatment alike in the majority of patients (vildagliptin: p = 0.0005; sitagliptin: p = 0.019), but with substantial inter-individual variation. L-cell feedback appeared to be more pronounced in those whose intact GLP-1 relative to total GLP-1 increased more, and who had greater reductions in fasting plasma glucose after DPP-4 inhibition. K-cell feedback inhibition overall was not significant. There were no differences in any of the clinical variables (glycaemia, insulin and glucagon secretory responses) between vildagliptin and sitagliptin treatment. Vildagliptin and sitagliptin affected incretin hormones, glucose concentrations, insulin and glucagon secretion in a similar manner. Inter-individual variations in L-cell feedback inhibition may indicate heterogeneity in the clinical response to DPP-4 inhibition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Therapeutic peptides for cancer therapy. Part II - cell cycle inhibitory peptides and apoptosis-inducing peptides.

    PubMed

    Raucher, Drazen; Moktan, Shama; Massodi, Iqbal; Bidwell, Gene L

    2009-10-01

    Therapeutic peptides have great potential as anticancer agents owing to their ease of rational design and target specificity. However, their utility in vivo is limited by low stability and poor tumor penetration. The authors review the development of peptide inhibitors with potential for cancer therapy. Peptides that arrest the cell cycle by mimicking CDK inhibitors or induce apoptosis directly are discussed. The authors searched Medline for articles concerning the development of therapeutic peptides and their delivery. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation directly using peptides that arrest the cell cycle or induce apoptosis is a promising strategy. Peptides can be designed that interact very specifically with cyclins and/or cyclin-dependent kinases and with members of apoptotic cascades. Use of these peptides is not limited by their design, as a rational approach to peptide design is much less challenging than the design of small molecule inhibitors of specific protein-protein interactions. However, the limitations of peptide therapy lie in the poor pharmacokinetic properties of these large, often charged molecules. Therefore, overcoming the drug delivery hurdles could open the door for effective peptide therapy, thus making an entirely new class of molecules useful as anticancer drugs.

  19. Therapeutic peptides for cancer therapy. Part I - peptide inhibitors of signal transduction cascades.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, Gene L; Raucher, Drazen

    2009-10-01

    Therapeutic peptides have great potential as anticancer agents owing to their ease of rational design and target specificity. However, their utility in vivo is limited by low stability and poor tumor penetration. The authors review the development of peptide inhibitors with potential for cancer therapy. Peptides that inhibit signal transduction cascades are discussed. The authors searched Medline for articles concerning the development of therapeutic peptides and their delivery. Given our current knowledge of protein sequences, structures and interaction interfaces, therapeutic peptides that inhibit interactions of interest are easily designed. These peptides are advantageous because they are highly specific for the interaction of interest, and they are much more easily developed than small molecule inhibitors of the same interactions. The main hurdle to application of peptides for cancer therapy is their poor pharmacokinetic and biodistribution parameters. Therefore, successful development of peptide delivery vectors could potentially make possible the use of this new and very promising class of anticancer agents.

  20. The COOH-terminal peptide of platelet factor-4 variant (CXCL4L1/PF-4var47-70) strongly inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses B16 melanoma growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vandercappellen, Jo; Liekens, Sandra; Bronckaers, Annelies; Noppen, Samuel; Ronsse, Isabelle; Dillen, Chris; Belleri, Mirella; Mitola, Stefania; Proost, Paul; Presta, Marco; Struyf, Sofie; Van Damme, Jo

    2010-03-01

    Chemokines influence tumor growth directly or indirectly via both angiogenesis and tumor-leukocyte interactions. Platelet factor-4 (CXCL4/PF-4), which is released from alpha-granules of activated platelets, is the first described angiostatic chemokine. Recently, it was found that the variant of CXCL4/PF-4 (CXCL4L1/PF-4var) could exert a more pronounced angiostatic and antitumoral effect than CXCL4/PF-4. However, the molecular mechanisms of the angiostatic activities of the PF-4 forms remain partially elusive. Here, we studied the biological properties of the chemically synthesized COOH-terminal peptides of CXCL4/PF-4 (CXCL4/PF-4(47-70)) and CXCL4L1/PF-4var (CXCL4L1/PF-4var(47-70)). Both PF-4 peptides lacked monocyte and lymphocyte chemotactic activity but equally well inhibited (25 nmol/L) endothelial cell motility and proliferation in the presence of a single stimulus (i.e., exogenous recombinant fibroblast growth factor-2). In contrast, when assayed in more complex angiogenesis test systems characterized by the presence of multiple mediators, including in vitro wound-healing (2.5 nmol/L versus 12.5 nmol/L), Matrigel (60 nmol/L versus 300 nmol/L), and chorioallantoic membrane assays, CXCL4L1/PF-4var(47-70) was found to be significantly (5-fold) more angiostatic than CXCL4/PF-4(47-70). In addition, low (7 microg total) doses of intratumoral CXCL4L1/PF-4var(47-70) inhibited B16 melanoma growth in mice more extensively than CXCL4/PF-4(47-70). This antitumoral activity was predominantly mediated through inhibition of angiogenesis (without affecting blood vessel stability) and induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by immunohistochemical and fluorescent staining of B16 tumor tissue. In conclusion, CXCL4L1/PF-4var(47-70) is a potent antitumoral and antiangiogenic peptide. These results may represent the basis for the design of CXCL4L1/PF-4var COOH-terminal-derived peptidomimetic anticancer drugs.

  1. PEDF and PEDF-derived peptide 44mer inhibit oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced oxidative stress through upregulating PPARγ via PEDF-R in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Jiajun; Li, Zhimin; Wei, Tengteng; Cui, Huazhu; Liu, Zhiwei; Guan, Qiuhua; Dong, Hongyan; Zhang, Zhongming

    2016-04-08

    Pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein with broad biological activities including inhibiting oxygen-glucose deprivation(OGD)-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis through its anti-oxidative properties. PEDF derived peptide-44mer shows similar cytoprotective effect to PEDF. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating cardiomyocytes apoptosis have not been fully established. Here we found that PEDF and 44mer decreased the content of ROS. This content was abolished by either PEDF-R small interfering RNA (siRNA) or PPARγ antagonist. The level of Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was observed as drawn from the ELISA assays. PEDF and 44mer sequentially induced PPARγ expression was observed both in qPCR and Western blot assays. The level of LPA and PLA2 and PPARγ expression increased by PEDF and 44mer was significantly attenuated by PEDF-R siRNA. However, PEDF and 44mer inhibited the H9c2 cells and cultured neonatal rat myocardial cells apoptosis rate. On the other hand, TUNEL assay and cleavage of procaspase-3 showed that PEDF-R siRNA or PPARγ antagonist increased the apoptosis again. We conclude that under OGD condition, PEDF and 44mer reduce H9c2 cells apoptosis and inhibit OGD-induced oxidative stress via its receptor PEDF-R and the PPARγ signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reconstitution of a physical complex between the N-formyl chemotactic peptide receptor and G protein. Inhibition by pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Bommakanti, R K; Bokoch, G M; Tolley, J O; Schreiber, R E; Siemsen, D W; Klotz, K N; Jesaitis, A J

    1992-04-15

    Photoaffinity-labeled N-formyl chemotactic peptide receptors from human neutrophils solubilized in octyl glucoside exhibit two forms upon sucrose density gradient sedimentation, with apparent sedimentation coefficients of approximately 4 and 7 S. The 7 S form can be converted to the 4 S form by guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) with an EC50 of approximately 20 nM, suggesting that the 7 S form may represent a physical complex of the receptor with endogenous G protein (Jesaitis, A. J., Tolley, J. O., Bokoch, G. M., and Allen, R. A. (1989) J. Cell Biol. 109, 2783-2790). To probe the nature of the 7 S form, we reconstituted the 7 S form from the 4 S form by adding purified G protein. The 4 S form, obtained by solubilizing GTP gamma S-treated neutrophil plasma membranes, was incubated with purified (greater than 95%) Gi protein from bovine brain (containing both Gi alpha 1 and Gi alpha 2) or with neutrophil G protein (Gn), and formation of the 7 S complex was analyzed on sucrose density gradients. The EC50 of 7 S complex formation induced by the two G proteins was 70 +/- 25 and 170 +/- 40 nM for Gn and Gi, respectively. No complexation was measurable when bovine transducin (Gt) was used up to 30 times the EC50 for Gn. The EC50 for Gi was the same for receptors, obtained from formyl peptide-stimulated or unstimulated cells. The addition of 10 microM GTP gamma S to the reconstituted 7 S complex caused a complete revision of the receptor to the 4 S form, and anti-Gi peptide antisera immunosedimented the 7 S form. ADP-ribosylation of Gi prevented formation of the 7 S form even at 20 times the concentration of unribosylated Gi normally used to attain 50% conversion to the 7 S form. These observations suggest that the 7 S species is a physical complex containing N-formyl chemotactic peptide receptor and G protein.

  3. Phage selection of peptide "microantibodies".

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Daisuke; Fujii, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    A bioactive peptide capable of inhibiting protein-protein interactions has the potential to be a molecular tool for biological studies and a therapeutic by disrupting aberrant interactions involved in diseases. We have developed combinatorial libraries of peptides with helix-loop-helix structure, from which the isolated peptides have the constrained structure to reduce entropy costs in binding, resulting in high binding affinities for target molecules. Previously, we designed a de novo peptide of helix-loop-helix structure that we termed a "microantibody." Using the microantibody as a library scaffold, we have constructed a phage-display library to successfully isolate molecular-targeting peptides against a cytokine receptor (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor), a protein kinase (Aurora-A), and a ganglioside (GM1). Protocols in this article describe a general procedure for the library construction and the library screening.

  4. The Inhibition of Stat5 by a Peptide Aptamer Ligand Specific for the DNA Binding Domain Prevents Target Gene Transactivation and the Growth of Breast and Prostate Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Axel; Borghouts, Corina; Brendel, Christian; Moriggl, Richard; Delis, Natalia; Brill, Boris; Vafaizadeh, Vida; Groner, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription Stat5 is transiently activated by growth factor and cytokine signals in normal cells, but its persistent activation has been observed in a wide range of human tumors. Aberrant Stat5 activity was initially observed in leukemias, but subsequently also found in carcinomas. We investigated the importance of Stat5 in human tumor cell lines. shRNA mediated downregulation of Stat5 revealed the dependence of prostate and breast cancer cells on the expression of this transcription factor. We extended these inhibition studies and derived a peptide aptamer (PA) ligand, which directly interacts with the DNA-binding domain of Stat5 in a yeast-two-hybrid screen. The Stat5 specific PA sequence is embedded in a thioredoxin (hTRX) scaffold protein. The resulting recombinant protein S5-DBD-PA was expressed in bacteria, purified and introduced into tumor cells by protein transduction. Alternatively, S5-DBD-PA was expressed in the tumor cells after infection with a S5-DBD-PA encoding gene transfer vector. Both strategies impaired the DNA-binding ability of Stat5, suppressed Stat5 dependent transactivation and caused its intracellular degradation. Our experiments describe a peptide based inhibitor of Stat5 protein activity which can serve as a lead for the development of a clinically useful compound for cancer treatment. PMID:24276378

  5. Inhibition of intimal thickening after vascular injury with a cocktail of vascular endothelial growth factor and cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; McRobb, Lucinda S; Khachigian, Levon M

    2016-10-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention is widely used for the treatment of coronary artery disease; however, significant challenges such as restenosis remain. Key to solving these problems is to inhibit smooth muscle cell activation while enhancing re-endothelialization. Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) is a transcription factor that regulates vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration through its control of an array of downstream genes. A "cocktail" of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-D and cyclic RGD was tested for its ability to inhibit neointima formation and accelerate re-endothelialization following balloon injury to carotid arteries of rats. In vitro, the cocktail stimulated endothelial cell growth yet inhibited smooth muscle cell growth. In vivo, cocktail-treated injured arteries exhibited reduced intimal thickening by >50% (P<0.05). It increased both re-endothelialization and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression. Cocktail reduced Egr-1 expression, an effect blocked by the NOS inhibitor L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) that also prevented cocktail inhibition of neointima inhibition. This combination may potentially be useful for the treatment of restenosis with concomitant stimulation of revascularization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition by a peptide isolated from Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Haeckel (box jellyfish) venom hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    So, Pamela Berilyn T; Rubio, Peter; Lirio, Stephen; Macabeo, Allan Patrick; Huang, Hsi-Ya; Corpuz, Mary Jho-Anne T; Villaflores, Oliver B

    2016-09-01

    The anti-angiotensin I converting enzyme activity of box jellyfish, Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Haeckel venom hydrolysate was studied. The venom extract was obtained by centrifugation and ultrasonication. Protein concentration of 12.99 μg/mL was determined using Bradford assay. The pepsin and papain hydrolysate was tested for its toxicity by Limit test following the OECD Guideline 425 using 5 female Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed that the hydrolysate is nontoxic with an LD50 above 2000 mg/kg. In vitro angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was determined using ACE kit-WST. Isolation of ACE inhibitory peptides using column chromatography with SP-Sephadex G-25 yielded 8 pooled fractions with fraction 3 (86.5%) exhibiting the highest activity. This was followed by reverse phase - high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with an octadecyl silica column (Inertsil ODS-3) using methanol:water 15:85 at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Among the 13 fractions separated with the RP-HPLC, fraction 3.5 exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (84.1%). The peptide sequence ACPGPNPGRP (IC50 2.03 μM) from fraction 3.5 was identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight tandem mass spectroscopy analysis (MALDI-TOF/MS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. BAM 1 and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 constitute a signaling pathway and modulate CLE peptide-triggered growth inhibition in Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Noriko; Ishida, Takashi; Yamada, Masashi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Tabata, Ryo; Kinoshita, Atsuko; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Sawa, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    Ligand receptor-based signaling is a means of cell-to-cell communication for coordinating developmental and physiological processes in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell-producing meristems utilize this signaling to regulate their activities and ensure for proper development. Shoot and root systems share common requirements for carrying out this process; however, its molecular basis is largely unclear. It has been suggested that synthetic CLV3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptide shrinks the root meristem through the actions of CLAVATA2 (CLV2) and the RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 (RPK2) pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our genetic screening for mutations that resist CLE peptide signaling in roots determined that BAM1, which is a member of the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) family, is also involved in this pathway. BAM1 is preferentially expressed in the root tip, including the quiescent center and its surrounding stem cells. Our genetic analysis revealed that BAM1 functions together with RPK2. Using coimmunoprecipitation assay, we showed that BAM1 is capable of forming heteromeric complexes with RPK2. These findings suggest that the BAM1 and RPK2 receptors constitute a signaling pathway that modulates cell proliferation in the root meristem and that related molecules are employed in root and shoot meristems. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide attenuates trauma-/haemorrhagic shock-induced acute lung injury through inhibiting oxidative stress and the NF-κB-dependent inflammatory/MMP-9 pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi; Zhao, Xiu; Liu, Martin; Jin, Hongxu; Wang, Ling; Hou, Mingxiao; Gao, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the most serious complications in traumatic patients and is an important part of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) is a peptide with a wide range of biological activity. In this study, we investigated local changes in oxidative stress and the NF-κB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) pathway in rats with trauma/haemorrhagic shock (TH/S)-induced ALI and evaluated the effects of pretreatment with rhBNP. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation group, model group, low-dosage rhBNP group and high-dosage rhBNP group (n = 12 for each group). Oxidative stress and MPO activity were measured by ELISA kits. MMP-9 activity was detected by zymography analysis. NF-κB activity was determined using Western blot assay. With rhBNP pretreatment, TH/S-induced protein leakage, increased MPO activity, lipid peroxidation and metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity were inhibited. Activation of antioxidative enzymes was reversed. The phosphorylation of NF-κB and the degradation of its inhibitor IκB were suppressed. The results suggested that the protection mechanism of rhBNP is possibly mediated through upregulation of anti-oxidative enzymes and inhibition of NF-κB activation. More studies are needed to further evaluate whether rhBNP is a suitable candidate as an effective inhaling drug to reduce the incidence of TH/S-induced ALI. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  9. New APETx-like peptides from sea anemone Heteractis crispa modulate ASIC1a channels.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Rimma; Gladkikh, Irina; Dmitrenok, Pavel; Chernikov, Oleg; Koshelev, Sergey; Kvetkina, Aleksandra; Kozlov, Sergey; Kozlovskaya, Emma; Monastyrnaya, Margarita

    2018-06-01

    Sea anemones are an abundant source of various biologically active peptides. The hydrophobic 20% ethanol fraction of tropical sea anemone Heteractis crispa was shown to contain at least 159 peptide compounds including neurotoxins, proteinase and α-amylase inhibitors, as well as modulators of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). The three new peptides, π-AnmTX Hcr 1b-2, -3, and -4 (41 aa) (short names Hcr 1b-2, -3, -4), identified by a combination of reversed-phase liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were found to belong to the class 1b sea anemone neurotoxins. The amino acid sequences of these peptides were determined by Edman degradation and tandem mass spectrometry. The percent of identity of Hcr 1b-2, -3, and -4 with well-known ASIC3 inhibitors Hcr 1b-1 from H. crispa and APETx2 from Anthopleura elegantissima is 95-78% and 46-49%, respectively. Electrophysiological experiments on homomeric ASIC channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes establish that these peptides are the first inhibitors of ASIC1a derived from sea anemone venom. The major peptide, Hcr 1b-2, inhibited both rASIC1a (IC 50 4.8 ± 0.3 μM; nH 0.92 ± 0.05) and rASIC3 (IC 50 15.9 ± 1.1 μM; nH 1.0 ± 0.05). The maximum inhibition at saturating peptide concentrations reached 64% and 81%, respectively. In the model of acid-induced muscle pain Hcr 1b-2 was also shown to exhibit an antihyperalgesic effect, significantly reducing of the pain threshold of experimental animals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of a cheese rich in angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibiting peptides (Gamalost(®)) and a Gouda-type cheese on blood pressure: results of a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Rita; Pripp, Are H; Høstmark, Arne T; Haug, Anna; Skeie, Siv

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is the leading risk factor for global disease burden, contributing to 7% of global disability adjusted life years. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibiting bioactive peptides have the potential to reduce BP in humans. These peptides have been identified in many dairy products and have been associated with significant reductions in BP. The objective of this trial was to examine whether a cheese rich in ACE-inhibiting peptides (Gamalost(®)), or a standard Gouda-type cheese could lower BP. A total of 153 healthy participants were randomised to one of three parallel arms: Gamalost(®) (n=53, 50 g/day for 8 weeks), Gouda-type cheese (n=50, 80 g/day for 8 weeks), and control (n=50). BP and anthropometric measurements were taken at the baseline and at the end, with an additional BP measurement midway. Based on BP at baseline, participants were categorised as having optimal BP (<120/<80 mmHg), normal-high BP (120-139/80-89 mmHg), or being hypertensive (>140/>90 mmHg). Questionnaires about lifestyle, health, and dietary habits were completed at baseline, midway and end. In total, 148 participants (mean age 43, 52% female) completed the intervention. There were no differences among the three groups in relevant baseline characteristics. BP was reduced in the entire study population, but the cheese groups did not differ from control. However, in a subgroup of participants with slightly elevated BP, BP at 4 weeks of intervention seemed to be borderline significantly more reduced in the Gamalost(®) group compared with the control group (Dunnett test: diastolic BP -3.5 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -7.3, 0.4, systolic BP: -4.3 mmHg, 95% CI -9.8, 1.1). An intention-to-treat analysis of the data showed no cheese effect upon BP compared to control, but Gamalost(®) seemed to have a small, non-significant lowering effect on diastolic BP after 4 weeks in people with a normal-high BP.

  11. Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Inhibition Reduces Progression of Early Choroidal Neovascularization Lesions in Rats: P17 and P144 Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zarranz-Ventura, Javier; Fernández-Robredo, Patricia; Recalde, Sergio; Salinas-Alamán, Angel; Borrás-Cuesta, Francisco; Dotor, Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) inhibitor peptides (P17 & P144) on early laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (LI-CNV) lesions in rats, two weeks after laser CNV induction. Seventy-one Long Evans rats underwent diode laser application in an established LI-CNV model. Baseline fluorescein angiography (FA) was performed 14 days following laser procedure, and treatments were administered 16 days post-laser application via different administration routes. Intravenous groups included control (IV-Control), P17 (IV-17), and P144 (IV-144) groups, whereas intravitreal groups included P17 (IVT-17), P144 (IVT-144), and a mixture of both peptides (IVT-17+144) (with fellow eyes receiving vehicle alone). CNV evolution was assessed using FA performed weekly for four weeks after treatment. Following sacrifice, VEGF, TGF-β, COX-2, IGF-1, PAI-1, IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-9, and TNF-α gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR. VEGF and p-SMAD2 protein levels were also assessed by western-blot, while MMP-2 activity was assessed with gelatin zymography. Regarding the FA analysis, the mean CNV area was lower from the 3rd week in IVT-17 and IVT-144 groups, and also from the 2nd week in IVT-17+144. Biochemical analysis revealed that gene expression was lower for VEGF and COX-2 genes in IV-17 and IV-144 groups, VEGF gene in IVT-17+144 group and MMP-2 gene in IVT-17 and IVT-144 groups. VEGF protein expression was also decreased in IV-17, IV-144, IVT-17 and IVT-144, whereas pSMAD-2 levels were lower in IV-17, IV-144 and IVT-17+144 groups. Zymogram analysis revealed decreased MMP-2 activity in IV-17, IV-144, IVT-17 and IVT-144 groups. These data suggest that the use of TGF-β inhibitor peptides (P17 & P144) decrease the development of early CNV lesions by targeting different mediators than those typically affected using current anti-angiogenic therapies. Its potential role in the treatment of early CNV appears promising as a single

  12. Peptide identification

    DOEpatents

    Jarman, Kristin H [Richland, WA; Cannon, William R [Richland, WA; Jarman, Kenneth D [Richland, WA; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Richland, WA

    2011-07-12

    Peptides are identified from a list of candidates using collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry data. A probabilistic model for the occurrence of spectral peaks corresponding to frequently observed partial peptide fragment ions is applied. As part of the identification procedure, a probability score is produced that indicates the likelihood of any given candidate being the correct match. The statistical significance of the score is known without necessarily having reference to the actual identity of the peptide. In one form of the invention, a genetic algorithm is applied to candidate peptides using an objective function that takes into account the number of shifted peaks appearing in the candidate spectrum relative to the test spectrum.

  13. A novel chimeric peptide with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Alaybeyoglu, Begum; Akbulut, Berna Sariyar; Ozkirimli, Elif

    2015-04-01

    Beta-lactamase-mediated bacterial drug resistance exacerbates the prognosis of infectious diseases, which are sometimes treated with co-administration of beta-lactam type antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors. Antimicrobial peptides are promising broad-spectrum alternatives to conventional antibiotics in this era of evolving bacterial resistance. Peptides based on the Ala46-Tyr51 beta-hairpin loop of beta-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) have been previously shown to inhibit beta-lactamase. Here, our goal was to modify this peptide for improved beta-lactamase inhibition and cellular uptake. Motivated by the cell-penetrating pVEC sequence, which includes a hydrophobic stretch at its N-terminus, our approach involved the addition of LLIIL residues to the inhibitory peptide N-terminus to facilitate uptake. Activity measurements of the peptide based on the 45-53 loop of BLIP for enhanced inhibition verified that the peptide was a competitive beta-lactamase inhibitor with a K(i) value of 58 μM. Incubation of beta-lactam-resistant cells with peptide decreased the number of viable cells, while it had no effect on beta-lactamase-free cells, indicating that this peptide had antimicrobial activity via beta-lactamase inhibition. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which this peptide moves across the membrane, steered molecular dynamics simulations were carried out. We propose that addition of hydrophobic residues to the N-terminus of the peptide affords a promising strategy in the design of novel antimicrobial peptides not only against beta-lactamase but also for other intracellular targets. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The chromogranin A peptide vasostatin-I inhibits gap formation and signal transduction mediated by inflammatory agents in cultured bovine pulmonary and coronary arterial endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Blois, Anna; Srebro, Boleslaw; Mandalà, Maurizio; Corti, Angelo; Helle, Karen B; Serck-Hanssen, Guldborg

    2006-07-15

    The proinflammatory agent tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is one of several agents causing vascular leakage. The N-terminal domain of CgA, vasostatin-I (CgA1-76), has recently been reported to inhibit TNFalpha induced gap formation in human umbilical venous endothelial cells. Here we report on the effect of recombinant human CgA1-78, vasostatin-I, on TNFalpha induced gap formation in two model systems of vascular leakage in arterial endothelial cells of bovine pulmonary (BPAEC) and coronary (BCAEC) origin. Vasostatin-I inhibited the TNFalpha induced gap formation in both models, being inactive in the unstimulated cells. The phosphorylation of p38MAP kinase in TNFalpha activated BPAEC was markedly attenuated in the presence of vasostatin-I and the inhibitory effect corresponded to that of the specific p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Vasostatin-I also inhibited the phosphorylation of p38MAPK induced by both thrombin and pertussis toxin in these cells. The results demonstrate that vasostatin-I has inhibitory effects on TNFalpha-induced disruption of confluent layers of cultured pulmonary and coronary arterial endothelial cells. This suggests that vasostatin-I may affect endothelial barrier dysfunction also in arterial vascular beds. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of vasostatin-I may be associated with the p38MAPK signalling cascade via a pertussis toxin sensitive, presumably Galphai coupled mechanism.

  15. Dual-targeting Wnt and uPA receptors using peptide conjugated ultra-small nanoparticle drug carriers inhibited cancer stem-cell phenotype in chemo-resistant breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Miller-Kleinhenz, Jasmine; Guo, Xiangxue; Qian, Weiping; Zhou, Hongyu; Bozeman, Erica N; Zhu, Lei; Ji, Xin; Wang, Y Andrew; Styblo, Toncred; O'Regan, Ruth; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2018-01-01

    Heterogeneous tumor cells, high incidence of tumor recurrence, and decrease in overall survival are the major challenges for the treatment of chemo-resistant breast cancer. Results of our study showed differential chemotherapeutic responses among breast cancer patient derived xenograft (PDX) tumors established from the same patients. All doxorubicin (Dox)-resistant tumors expressed higher levels of cancer stem-like cell biomarkers, including CD44, Wnt and its receptor LRP5/6, relative to Dox-sensitive tumors. To effectively treat resistant tumors, we developed an ultra-small magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) drug carrier conjugated with peptides that are dually targeted to Wnt/LRP5/6 and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Our results showed that simultaneous binding to LRP5/6 and uPAR by the dual receptor targeted IONPs was required to inhibit breast cancer cell invasion. Molecular analysis revealed that the dual receptor targeted IONPs significantly inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling and cancer stem-like phenotype of tumor cells, with marked reduction of Wnt ligand, CD44 and uPAR. Systemic administration of the dual targeted IONPs led to nanoparticle-drug delivery into PDX tumors, resulting in stronger tumor growth inhibition compared to non-targeted or single-targeted IONP-Dox in a human breast cancer PDX model. Therefore, co-targeting Wnt/LRP and uPAR using IONP drug carriers is a promising therapeutic approach for effective drug delivery to chemo-resistant breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blunt the response of Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) glucose inhibited (GI) neurons to decreased glucose

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lihong; Sheng, Zhenyu; Potian, Joseph; Deak, Adam; Rohowsky-Kochan, Christine; Routh, Vanessa H.

    2016-01-01

    A population of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons which co-express Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) are inhibited at physiological levels of brain glucose and activated when glucose levels decline (e.g. glucose-inhibited or GI neurons). Fasting enhances the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by low glucose. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits the enhanced activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by low glucose following a fast. Mice which express green fluorescent protein (GFP) on their NPY promoter were used to identify NPY/AgRP neurons. Fasting for 24 hours and LPS injection decreased blood glucose levels. As we have found previously, fasting increased c-fos expression in NPY/AgRP neurons and increased the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by decreased glucose. As we predicted, LPS blunted these effects of fasting at the 24 hour time point. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blocked the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by decreased glucose. These data suggest that LPS and TNFα may alter glucose and energy homeostasis, in part, due to changes in the glucose sensitivity of NPY/AgRP neurons. Interestingly, our findings also suggest that NPY/AgRP-GI neurons use a distinct mechanism to sense changes in extracellular glucose as compared to our previous studies of GI neurons in the adjacent ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. PMID:27473896

  17. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blunt the response of Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) glucose inhibited (GI) neurons to decreased glucose.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lihong; Sheng, Zhenyu; Potian, Joseph; Deak, Adam; Rohowsky-Kochan, Christine; Routh, Vanessa H

    2016-10-01

    A population of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons which co-express Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) are inhibited at physiological levels of brain glucose and activated when glucose levels decline (e.g. glucose-inhibited or GI neurons). Fasting enhances the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by low glucose. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits the enhanced activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by low glucose following a fast. Mice which express green fluorescent protein (GFP) on their NPY promoter were used to identify NPY/AgRP neurons. Fasting for 24h and LPS injection decreased blood glucose levels. As we have found previously, fasting increased c-fos expression in NPY/AgRP neurons and increased the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by decreased glucose. As we predicted, LPS blunted these effects of fasting at the 24h time point. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blocked the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by decreased glucose. These data suggest that LPS and TNFα may alter glucose and energy homeostasis, in part, due to changes in the glucose sensitivity of NPY/AgRP neurons. Interestingly, our findings also suggest that NPY/AgRP-GI neurons use a distinct mechanism to sense changes in extracellular glucose as compared to our previous studies of GI neurons in the adjacent ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A mutant of the Buthus martensii Karsch antitumor-analgesic peptide exhibits reduced inhibition to hNav1.4 and hNav1.5 channels while retaining analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yijia; Meng, Xiangxue; Hou, Xue; Sun, Jianfang; Kong, Xiaohua; Sun, Yuqi; Liu, Zeyu; Ma, Yuanyuan; Niu, Ye; Song, Yongbo; Cui, Yong; Zhao, Mingyi; Zhang, Jinghai

    2017-11-03

    Scorpion toxins can kill other animals by inducing paralysis and arrhythmia, which limits the potential applications of these agents in the clinical management of diseases. Antitumor-analgesic peptide (AGAP), purified from Buthus martensii Karsch, has been proved to possess analgesic and antitumor activities. Trp 38 , a conserved aromatic residue of AGAP, might play an important role in mediating AGAP activities according to the sequence and homology-modeling analyses. Therefore, an AGAP mutant, W38G, was generated, and effects of both AGAP and the mutant W38G were examined by whole-cell patch clamp techniques on the sodium channels hNa v 1.4 and hNa v 1.5, which were closely associated with the biotoxicity of skeletal and cardiac muscles, respectively. The data showed that both W38G and AGAP inhibited the peak currents of hNa v 1.4 and hNa v 1.5; however, W38G induced a much weaker inhibition of both channels than AGAP. Accordingly, W38G exhibited much less toxic effect on both skeletal and cardiac muscles than AGAP in vivo The analgesic activity of W38G and AGAP were verified in vivo as well, and W38G retained analgesic activity similar to AGAP. Inhibition to both Na v 1.7 and Na v 1.8 was involved in the analgesic mechanism of AGAP and W38G. These findings indicated that Trp 38 was a key amino acid involved in the biotoxicity of AGAP, and the AGAP mutant W38G might be a safer alternative for clinical application because it retains the analgesic efficacy with less toxicity to skeletal and cardiac muscles. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Current scenario of peptide-based drugs: the key roles of cationic antitumor and antiviral peptides

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Kelly C. L.; Lima, Loiane A.; Miranda, Vivian J.; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2013-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and host defense peptides (HDPs) show vast potential as peptide-based drugs. Great effort has been made in order to exploit their mechanisms of action, aiming to identify their targets as well as to enhance their activity and bioavailability. In this review, we will focus on both naturally occurring and designed antiviral and antitumor cationic peptides, including those here called promiscuous, in which multiple targets are associated with a single peptide structure. Emphasis will be given to their biochemical features, selectivity against extra targets, and molecular mechanisms. Peptides which possess antitumor activity against different cancer cell lines will be discussed, as well as peptides which inhibit virus replication, focusing on their applications for human health, animal health and agriculture, and their potential as new therapeutic drugs. Moreover, the current scenario for production and the use of nanotechnology as delivery tool for both classes of cationic peptides, as well as the perspectives on improving them is considered. PMID:24198814

  20. A synthetic peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein inhibits the estradiol-induced proliferation of mammary tumor cells in culture through the modulation of p21.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, Walter D; Epuñan, María J; Reyes, José M; Valladares, Luis E; Pino, Ana M

    2008-01-01

    A stable cyclized 9-mer peptide (cP) containing the active site of alpha-alpha fetoprotein (alphaFP) has been shown to be effective for prevention of estrogen-stimulated tumor cell proliferation in culture or of xenographt growth in immunodeficient mice. cP does not block 17beta-estradiol (E2) binding to its receptors, but rather appears to interfere with intracellular processing of the signal that supports growth. To obtain insight on that mechanism we studied the effect of cP on the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in culture. Proliferation in the presence of 2 microM E2 is decreased up to 40% upon addition of 2 microg ml(-1) cP to the medium; the presence of cP did not increase cell death, cP reduced also the proliferation of estrogen-dependent ZR75-1 cells but had no effect on autonomous MDA-MB-231 cells, cP did not modify the number of binding sites for labeled E2 or affected cell death. We detected increased nuclear p21Cip1 immunoreactivity after cP treatment. Our results suggest that cP acts via p21Cip1 to slow the process of MCF-7 cells through the cycle.

  1. Catechins and procyanidins of Ginkgo biloba show potent activities towards the inhibition of β-amyloid peptide aggregation and destabilization of preformed fibrils.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haiyan; Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Liu, Yong; Liu, Liang; Han, Quan-Bin; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-04-22

    Catechins and procyanidins, together with flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones, are three important categories of components in the standard extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb761). In this research, catechins and proanthocyanidins were found to exist in both the extract of Ginkgo leaves and Ginkgo products. By comparing with reference compounds, six of them were identified as (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-gallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin and procyanidins B1 and B3. The activities of these polyphenols in the inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and the destabilization of preformed fibrils were evaluated using biochemical assays, which showed that all six of the polyphenols, as well as a fraction of the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb) containing catechins and procyanidins, exerted potent inhibitory activities towards Aβ42 aggregation and could also destabilize the performed fibrils. Catechins and procyanidins can therefore be regarded as the potent active constituents of EGb761 in terms of their inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and destabilization of the fibrils. Although quantitative mass spectroscopic analysis revealed that the catechins and procyanidins are only present in low concentrations in EGb761, these components should be studied in greater detail because of their potent inhibitory effects towards Aβ42 aggregation and their ability to destabilize preformed fibrils, especially during the quality control of Ginkgo leaves and the manufacture of Ginkgo products.

  2. A potent and selective calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, MK-8825, inhibits responses to nociceptive trigeminal activation: Role of CGRP in orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Romero-Reyes, Marcela; Pardi, Vanessa; Akerman, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are orofacial pains within the trigeminal distribution, which involve the masticatory musculature, the temporomandibular joint or both. Their pathophysiology remains unclear, as inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved, and clinically TMD presents pain and sometimes limitation of function, but often appears without gross indications of local inflammation, such as visible edema, redness and increase in temperature. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been implicated in other pain disorders with trigeminal distribution, such as migraine, of which TMD shares a significant co-morbidity. CGRP causes activation and sensitization of trigeminal primary afferent neurons, independent of any inflammatory mechanisms, and thus may also be involved in TMD. Here we used a small molecule, selective CGRP receptor antagonist, MK-8825, to dissect the role of CGRP in inducing spontaneous nociceptive facial grooming behaviors, neuronal activation in the trigeminal nucleus, and systemic release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in a mouse model of acute orofacial masseteric muscle pain that we have developed, as a surrogate of acute TMD. We show that CFA masseteric injection causes significant spontaneous orofacial pain behaviors, neuronal activation in the trigeminal nucleus, and release of interleukin-6 (IL-6). In mice pre-treated with MK-8825 there is a significant reduction in these spontaneous orofacial pain behaviors. Also, at 2 and 24h after CFA injection the level of Fos immunoreactivity in the trigeminal nucleus, used as a marker of neuronal activation, was much lower on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides after pre-treatment with MK-8825. There was no effect of MK-8825 on the release of IL-6. These data suggest that CGRP may be involved in TMD pathophysiology, but not via inflammatory mechanisms, at least in the acute stage. Furthermore, CGRP receptor antagonists may have therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of TMD, as they

  3. Calcitonin gene-related peptide cooperates with substance P to inhibit melanogenesis and induces apoptosis of B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia; Feng, Jun-Yi; Wang, Qian; Shang, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Skin is the largest organ in human body and works as biologically active barrier to provide critical preservation of body homeostasis. The skin is highly innervated by a plenitude of nerve fiber subpopulations, each carrying one or more neuronal mediators. Melanocyte itself also intimately contact with nerve fibers to form 'synaptic-like structure' and its functions may be directly regulated by the mediators contained in terminals of intra-epidermal nerve fibers. Clinical and biochemical studies have suggested that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is involved in vitiligo skin. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of CGRP on epidermal melanocytes. After treatment with CGRP ranging from 0 to 500 ng/mL for 48 h, tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis were with little changes compared to treatment with medium only in B16F10 cells. Treatment with 500 ng/mL of CGRP cooperates with substance P (SP) (0.1-10 nM) to decrease tyrosinase activity and decrease melanin biosynthesis in B16F10 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, CGRP (8-37) antagonizes the synergistic effect of CGRP. The effect of CGRP on the cell apoptosis was examined. Treatments with 0-500 ng/mL of CGRP for 24 h, the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, total caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and total caspase-9 were increased in a concentration-dependent manner. And 500 ng/mL of CGRP induced B16F10 cell apoptosis showed by TUNEL assay. In addition, Bax expression was up-regulated and Bcl-2 down-regulated in response to CGRP treatment. Hence, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly increased. These in vitro observations indicate the pro-apoptotic impact of CGRP on B16F10 cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A synthetic peptide derived from A1 module in CRD4 of human TNF receptor-1 inhibits binding and proinflammatory effect of human TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yingnan; Wang, Zhaohe; Bu, Xianzhang; Tang, Shu; Mei, Zhengrong; Liu, Peiqing

    2009-06-01

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which has been shown to be a causative factor in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and septic shock. Proinflammatory effect of TNF-alpha is activated mainly through human TNF receptor-1 (TNF-R1). However, the role of the fourth cystein-rich domain (CRD4) of TNF-R1 extracellular portion in the interaction of TNF-alpha with TNF-R1 is still unclear. In the present study, binding activity of TNF-alpha to TNF-R1 and protein levels of IkappaB-alpha and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) p65 subunit in HeLa cells were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western-blot analysis. Pep 3 (LRENECVS) which was derived from the hydrophilic region of A1 module in CRD4 remarkably inhibited the binding of TNF-alpha to TNF-R1, and also reversed TNF-alpha-induced degradation of IkappaB-alpha and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit in HeLa cells. Our results confirmed that the hydrophilic region of A1 module in CRD4 participated in the interaction of TNF-alpha with TNF-R1, and demonstrated the potential of small-molecule TNF-alpha extracellular inhibitors targeting at A1 module in CRD4 of TNF-R1 in suppressing proinflammatory effect of TNF-alpha.

  5. New peptide MY1340 revert the inhibition effect of VEGF on dendritic cells differentiation and maturation via blocking VEGF-NRP-1 axis and inhibit tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mo, Zheng; Yu, Fei; Han, Su; Yang, Songhua; Wu, Liangliang; Li, Peng; Jiao, Shunchang

    2018-05-03

    The development and clinical application of immunostimulatory therapy provides us a new and exciting strategy in cancer treatment of which the agents act on crucial receptors. Given the fact that Neuropilin-1(NRP-1) is essential for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to inhibit LPS-dependent maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), it may present a potentially meaningful target in cancer immunotherapy. To explore this hypothesis, we synthesized a novel polypeptide called MY1340 consist of 32 amino acids with the aim of targeting VEGF-NRP-1 axis. Pull-down assay coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) was firstly conducted to identify NRP-1 as a potential MY1340 interacting protein, and the interaction between them was further confirmed by western blot. The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results revealed that MY1340 was able to inhibit the binding between NRP-1 and VEGF with IC 50 7.42 ng/ml, better than that of Tuftsin, although a natural ligand reportedly specific for the NRP-1 receptor. The presence of VEGF significantly reduced the expression of human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR), CD86 and CD11C on DCs, and this effect was reverted by MY1340-augment p65 NF-κB and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. We also present evidence that MY1340 is remarkably efficacious in the treatment of mice bearing subcutaneous liver cancer and induced DC maturation in the tumor environment in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that MY1340 may represent a potential efficient immune therapeutic compound within disease that are rich in VEGF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Peptide chemistry toolbox - Transforming natural peptides into peptide therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Erak, Miloš; Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Els-Heindl, Sylvia; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2018-06-01

    The development of solid phase peptide synthesis has released tremendous opportunities for using synthetic peptides in medicinal applications. In the last decades, peptide therapeutics became an emerging market in pharmaceutical industry. The need for synthetic strategies in order to improve peptidic properties, such as longer half-life, higher bioavailability, increased potency and efficiency is accordingly rising. In this mini-review, we present a toolbox of modifications in peptide chemistry for overcoming the main drawbacks during the transition from natural peptides to peptide therapeutics. Modifications at the level of the peptide backbone, amino acid side chains and higher orders of structures are described. Furthermore, we are discussing the future of peptide therapeutics development and their impact on the pharmaceutical market. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Double quick, double click reversible peptide "stapling".

    PubMed

    Grison, Claire M; Burslem, George M; Miles, Jennifer A; Pilsl, Ludwig K A; Yeo, David J; Imani, Zeynab; Warriner, Stuart L; Webb, Michael E; Wilson, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    The development of constrained peptides for inhibition of protein-protein interactions is an emerging strategy in chemical biology and drug discovery. This manuscript introduces a versatile, rapid and reversible approach to constrain peptides in a bioactive helical conformation using BID and RNase S peptides as models. Dibromomaleimide is used to constrain BID and RNase S peptide sequence variants bearing cysteine (Cys) or homocysteine ( h Cys) amino acids spaced at i and i + 4 positions by double substitution. The constraint can be readily removed by displacement of the maleimide using excess thiol. This new constraining methodology results in enhanced α-helical conformation (BID and RNase S peptide) as demonstrated by circular dichroism and molecular dynamics simulations, resistance to proteolysis (BID) as demonstrated by trypsin proteolysis experiments and retained or enhanced potency of inhibition for Bcl-2 family protein-protein interactions (BID), or greater capability to restore the hydrolytic activity of the RNAse S protein (RNase S peptide). Finally, use of a dibromomaleimide functionalized with an alkyne permits further divergent functionalization through alkyne-azide cycloaddition chemistry on the constrained peptide with fluorescein, oligoethylene glycol or biotin groups to facilitate biophysical and cellular analyses. Hence this methodology may extend the scope and accessibility of peptide stapling.

  8. De-Novo Design of Antimicrobial Peptides for Plant Protection

    PubMed Central

    Zeitler, Benjamin; Herrera Diaz, Areli; Dangel, Alexandra; Thellmann, Martha; Meyer, Helge; Sattler, Michael; Lindermayr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the de-novo design of peptides that inhibit a broad range of plant pathogens. Four structurally different groups of peptides were developed that differ in size and position of their charged and hydrophobic clusters and were assayed for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and fungal spore germination. Several peptides are highly active at concentrations between 0,1 and 1 µg/ml against plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Importantly, no hemolytic activity could be detected for these peptides at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the peptides are also active after spraying on the plant surface demonstrating a possible way of application. In sum, our designed peptides represent new antimicrobial agents and with the increasing demand for antimicrobial compounds for production of “healthy” food, these peptides might serve as templates for novel antibacterial and antifungal agents. PMID:23951222

  9. De-novo design of antimicrobial peptides for plant protection.

    PubMed

    Zeitler, Benjamin; Herrera Diaz, Areli; Dangel, Alexandra; Thellmann, Martha; Meyer, Helge; Sattler, Michael; Lindermayr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the de-novo design of peptides that inhibit a broad range of plant pathogens. Four structurally different groups of peptides were developed that differ in size and position of their charged and hydrophobic clusters and were assayed for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and fungal spore germination. Several peptides are highly active at concentrations between 0,1 and 1 µg/ml against plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Importantly, no hemolytic activity could be detected for these peptides at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the peptides are also active after spraying on the plant surface demonstrating a possible way of application. In sum, our designed peptides represent new antimicrobial agents and with the increasing demand for antimicrobial compounds for production of "healthy" food, these peptides might serve as templates for novel antibacterial and antifungal agents.

  10. Inhibiting receptor for advanced glycation end product (AGE) and oxidative stress involved in the protective effect mediated by glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor on AGE induced neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Yin, Lei; Xu, Zheng; An, Feng-Mao; Liu, Ai-Ran; Wang, Ying; Yao, Wen-Bing; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2016-01-26

    Our previous study has demonstrated that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist could protect neurons from advanced glycation end products (AGEs) toxicity in vitro. However, further studies are still needed to clarify the molecular mechanism of this GLP-1 receptor -dependent action. The present study mainly focused on the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists against the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signal pathway and the mechanism underlying this effect of GLP-1. Firstly the data based on the SH-GLP-1R(+) and SH-SY5Y cells confirmed our previous finding that GLP-1 receptor could mediate the protective effect against AGEs. The assays of the protein activity and of the mRNA level revealed that apoptosis-related proteins such as caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax and Bcl-2 were involved. Additionally, we found that both GLP-1 and exendin-4 could reduce AGEs-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation by suppressing the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase. Interestingly, we also found that GLP-1 receptor activation could attenuate the abnormal expression of the RAGE in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, based on the analysis of the protein expression and translocation level of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and the use of GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) and NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, we found that the effect mediated by GLP-1 receptor could alleviate the over expression of RAGE induced by ligand via the suppression of NF-κB. In summary, the results indicated that inhibiting RAGE/oxidative stress was involved in the protective effect of GLP-1 on neuron cells against AGEs induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CART PEPTIDE IN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS REGULATES PSYCHOSTIMULANTS: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PSYCHOSTIMULANT AND CART PEPTIDE EFFECTS

    PubMed Central

    JOB, MARTIN O.; KUHAR, MICHAEL J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we reexamined the effect of CART peptide on psychostimulant (PS)-induced locomotor activity (LMA) in individual rats. The Methods utilized were as previously published. The PS-induced LMA was defined as the distance traveled after PS administration (intraperitoneal), and the CART peptide effect was defined as the change in the PS-induced activity after bilateral intra-NAc administration of CART peptide. The experiments included both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, and varying the CART peptide dose and the PS dose. While the average effect of CART peptide was to inhibit PS-induced LMA, the effect of CART peptide on individual PS treated animals was not always inhibitory and sometimes even produced an increase or no change in PS-induced LMA. Upon further analysis, we observed a linear correlation, reported for the first time, between the magnitude of PS-induced LMA and the CART peptide effect. Because CART peptide inhibits PS-induced LMA when it is large, and increases PS-induced LMA when it is small, the peptide can be considered a homeostatic regulator of dopamine (DA)-induced LMA, which supports our earlier homeostatic hypothesis. PMID:28215744

  12. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  13. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K [Castro Valley, CA

    2009-10-13

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  14. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K [Castro Valley, CA

    2008-10-21

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  15. Virtual screening of a milk peptide database for the identification of food-derived antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yufang; Eichler, Jutta; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2015-11-01

    Milk provides a wide range of bioactive substances, such as antimicrobial peptides and proteins. Our study aimed to identify novel antimicrobial peptides naturally present in milk. The components of an endogenous bovine milk peptide database were virtually screened for charge, amphipathy, and predicted secondary structure. Thus, 23 of 248 screened peptides were identified as candidates for antimicrobial effects. After commercial synthesis, their antimicrobial activities were determined against Escherichia coli NEB5α, E. coli ATCC25922, and Bacillus subtilis ATCC6051. In the tested concentration range (<2 mM), bacteriostatic activity of 14 peptides was detected including nine peptides inhibiting both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The most effective fragment was TKLTEEEKNRLNFLKKISQRYQKFΑLPQYLK corresponding to αS2 -casein151-181 , with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4.0 μM against B. subtilis ATCC6051, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of 16.2 μM against both E. coli strains. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed conformational changes of most active peptides in a membrane-mimic environment, transitioning from an unordered to α-helical structure. Screening of food peptide databases by prediction tools is an efficient method to identify novel antimicrobial food-derived peptides. Milk-derived antimicrobial peptides may have potential use as functional food ingredients and help to understand the molecular mechanisms of anti-infective milk effects. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The anti-obesity effects of a tuna peptide on 3T3-L1 adipocytes are mediated by the inhibition of the expression of lipogenic and adipogenic genes and by the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Kim, In-Hye; Choi, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Min-Kyeong; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2015-08-01

    The differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes involves the activation of an organized system of obesity-related genes, of which those encoding CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) and the Wnt-10b protein may play integral roles. In a previous study of ours, we found that a specific peptide found in tuna (sequence D-I-V-D-K-I-E-I; termed TP-D) inhibited 3T3-L1 cell differentiation. In the present study, we observed that the expression of expression of C/EBPs and Wnt-10b was associated with obesity. The initial step of 3T3-L1 cell differentiation involved the upregulation of C/EBP-α expression, which in turn activated various subfactors. An upstream effector of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibited Wnt-10b expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In a previous study of ours, we sequenced the tuna peptide via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) and confirmed the anti-obesity effects thereof in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the present study, we demonstrate that TP-D inhibits C/EBP and promotes Wnt-10b mRNA expression, thus activating the Wnt pathway. The inhibition of lipid accumulation was measured using a glucose and triglyceride (TG) assay. Our results confirmed that TP-D altered the expression levels of C/EBP-related genes in a dose-dependent manner and activated the Wnt signaling pathway. In addition, we confirmed that total adiponectin and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels were reduced by treatment with TP-D. These data indicate that TP-D inhibits adipocyte differentiation through the inhibition of C/EBP genes and the subsequent activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  17. Design, Synthesis, and Actions of a Novel Chimeric Natriuretic Peptide: CD-NP

    PubMed Central

    Lisy, Ondrej; Huntley, Brenda K.; McCormick, Daniel J.; Kurlansky, Paul A.; Burnett, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to design, synthesize and test in vivo and in vitro a new chimeric peptide that would combine the beneficial properties of 2 distinct natriuretic peptides with a biological profile that goes beyond native peptides. Background Studies have established the beneficial vascular and antiproliferative properties of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). While lacking renal actions, CNP is less hypotensive than the cardiac peptides atrial natriuretic peptide and B-type natriuretic peptide but unloads the heart due to venodilation. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide is a potent natriuretic and diuretic peptide that is markedly hypotensive and functions via a separate guanylyl cyclase receptor compared with CNP. Methods Here we engineered a novel chimeric peptide CD-NP that represents the fusion of the 22-amino acid peptide CNP together with the 15-amino acid linear C-terminus of Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide. We also determined in vitro in cardiac fibroblasts cyclic guanosine monophosphate-activating and antiproliferative properties of CD-NP. Results Our studies demonstrate in vivo that CD-NP is natriuretic and diuretic, glomerular filtration rate enhancing, cardiac unloading, and renin inhibiting. CD-NP also demonstrates less hypotensive properties when compared with B-type natriuretic peptide. In addition, CD-NP in vitro activates cyclic guanosine monophosphate and inhibits cardiac fibroblast proliferation. Conclusions The current findings advance an innovative design strategy in natriuretic peptide drug discovery and development to create therapeutic peptides with favorable properties that may be preferable to those associated with native natriuretic peptides. PMID:18582636

  18. Design, synthesis, and actions of a novel chimeric natriuretic peptide: CD-NP.

    PubMed

    Lisy, Ondrej; Huntley, Brenda K; McCormick, Daniel J; Kurlansky, Paul A; Burnett, John C

    2008-07-01

    Our aim was to design, synthesize and test in vivo and in vitro a new chimeric peptide that would combine the beneficial properties of 2 distinct natriuretic peptides with a biological profile that goes beyond native peptides. Studies have established the beneficial vascular and antiproliferative properties of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). While lacking renal actions, CNP is less hypotensive than the cardiac peptides atrial natriuretic peptide and B-type natriuretic peptide but unloads the heart due to venodilation. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide is a potent natriuretic and diuretic peptide that is markedly hypotensive and functions via a separate guanylyl cyclase receptor compared with CNP. Here we engineered a novel chimeric peptide CD-NP that represents the fusion of the 22-amino acid peptide CNP together with the 15-amino acid linear C-terminus of Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide. We also determined in vitro in cardiac fibroblasts cyclic guanosine monophosphate-activating and antiproliferative properties of CD-NP. Our studies demonstrate in vivo that CD-NP is natriuretic and diuretic, glomerular filtration rate enhancing, cardiac unloading, and renin inhibiting. CD-NP also demonstrates less hypotensive properties when compared with B-type natriuretic peptide. In addition, CD-NP in vitro activates cyclic guanosine monophosphate and inhibits cardiac fibroblast proliferation. The current findings advance an innovative design strategy in natriuretic peptide drug discovery and development to create therapeutic peptides with favorable properties that may be preferable to those associated with native natriuretic peptides.

  19. Seahorse-derived peptide suppresses invasive migration of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells by competing with intracellular α-enolase for plasminogen binding and inhibiting uPA-mediated activation of plasminogen.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Se-kwon; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Sun Joo

    2014-12-01

    α-Enolase is a glycolytic enzyme and a surface receptor for plasminogen. α-Enolase-bound plasminogen promotes tumor cell invasion and cancer metastasis by activating plasmin and consequently degrading the extracellular matrix degradation. Therefore, α-enolase and plasminogen are novel targets for cancer therapy. We found that the amino acid sequence of a peptide purified from enzymatic hydrolysates of seahorse has striking similarities to that of α-enolase. In this study, we report that this peptide competes with cellular α-enolase for plasminogen binding and suppresses urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-mediated activation of plasminogen, which results in decreased invasive migration of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. In addition, the peptide treatment decreased the expression levels of uPA compared to that of untreated controls. These results provide new insight into the mechanism by which the seahorse-derived peptide suppresses invasive properties of human cancer cells. Our findings suggest that this peptide could emerge as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer.

  20. Seahorse-derived peptide suppresses invasive migration of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells by competing with intracellular α-enolase for plasminogen binding and inhibiting uPA-mediated activation of plasminogen

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Se-kwon; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Sun Joo

    2014-01-01

    α-Enolase is a glycolytic enzyme and a surface receptor for plasminogen. α-Enolase-bound plasminogen promotes tumor cell invasion and cancer metastasis by activating plasmin and consequently degrading the extracellular matrix degradation. Therefore, α-enolase and plasminogen are novel targets for cancer therapy. We found that the amino acid sequence of a peptide purified from enzymatic hydrolysates of seahorse has striking similarities to that of α-enolase. In this study, we report that this peptide competes with cellular α-enolase for plasminogen binding and suppresses urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-mediated activation of plasminogen, which results in decreased invasive migration of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. In addition, the peptide treatment decreased the expression levels of uPA compared to that of untreated controls. These results provide new insight into the mechanism by which the seahorse-derived peptide suppresses invasive properties of human cancer cells. Our findings suggest that this peptide could emerge as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(12): 691-696] PMID:24602611

  1. Synthesis, molecular docking and anticancer studies of peptides and iso-peptides.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Farukh; Panda, Siva S; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Park, Eun-Jung; Pezzuto, John M; Ihsan-ul-Haq; Hall, C Dennis; Katritzky, Alan R

    2015-08-01

    Chiral peptides and iso-peptides were synthesized in excellent yield by using benzotriazole mediated solution phase synthesis. Benzotriazole acted both as activating and leaving group, eliminating frequent use of protection and subsequent deprotection. The procedure was based on the hypothesis that epimerization should be suppressed in solution due to a faster coupling rate than SPPS. All the synthesized peptides complied with Lipinski's Ro5 except for the rotatable bonds. Inhibition of cell proliferation of cancer cell lines is one of the most commonly used methods to study the effectiveness of any anticancer agents. Synthesized peptides and iso-peptides were tested against three cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB 231) to determine their anti-proliferative potential. NFkB was also determined. Molecular docking studies were also carried out to complement the experimental results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treating autoimmune disorders with venom-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bingzheng; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Wu, Yingliang

    2017-09-01

    The effective treatment of autoimmune diseases remains a challenge. Voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channels, which are expressed in lymphocytes, are a new therapeutic target for treating autoimmune disease. Consequently, Kv1.3 channel-inhibiting venom-derived peptides are a prospective resource for new drug discovery and clinical application. Area covered: Preclinical and clinical studies have produced a wealth of information on Kv1.3 channel-inhibiting venom-derived peptides, especially from venomous scorpions and sea anemones. This review highlights the advances in screening and design of these peptides with diverse structures and potencies. It focuses on representative strategies for improving peptide selectivity and discusses the preclinical research on those venom-derived peptides as well as their clinical developmental status. Expert opinion: Encouraging results indicate that peptides isolated from the venom of venomous animals are a large resource for discovering immunomodulators that act on Kv1.3 channels. Since the structural diversity of venom-derived peptides determines the variety of their pharmacological activities, the design and optimization of venom-peptides for improved Kv1.3 channel-specificity has been advanced through some representative strategies, such as peptide chemical modification, amino acid residue truncation and binding interface modulation. These advances should further accelerate research, development and the future clinical application of venom-derived peptides selectively targeting Kv1.3 channels.

  3. Regulatory Peptides in Plants.

    PubMed

    Vanyushin, B F; Ashapkin, V V; Aleksandrushkina, N I

    2017-02-01

    Many different peptides regulating cell differentiation, growth, and development are found in plants. Peptides participate in regulation of plant ontogenesis starting from pollination, pollen tube growth, and the very early stages of embryogenesis, including formation of embryo and endosperm. They direct differentiation of meristematic stem cells, formation of tissues and individual organs, take part in regulation of aging, fruit maturation, and abscission of plant parts associated with apoptosis. Biological activity of peptides is observed at very low concentrations, and it has mainly signal nature and hormonal character. "Mature" peptides appear mainly due to processing of protein precursors with (or without) additional enzymatic modifications. Plant peptides differ in origin, structure, and functional properties. Their specific action is due to binding with respective receptors and interactions with various proteins and other factors. Peptides can also regulate physiological functions by direct peptide-protein interactions. Peptide action is coordinated with the action of known phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins, and others); thus, peptides control phytohormonal signal pathways.

  4. Synthetic peptides that cause F-actin bundling and block actin depolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Sederoff, Heike [Raleigh, NC; Huber, Steven C [Savoy, IL; Larabell, Carolyn A [Berkeley, CA

    2011-10-18

    Synthetic peptides derived from sucrose synthase, and having homology to actin and actin-related proteins, sharing a common motif, useful for causing acting bundling and preventing actin depolymerization. Peptides exhibiting the common motif are described, as well as specific synthetic peptides which caused bundled actin and inhibit actin depolymerization. These peptides can be useful for treating a subject suffering from a disease characterized by cells having neoplastic growth, for anti-cancer therapeutics, delivered to subjects solely, or concomitantly or sequentially with other known cancer therapeutics. These peptides can also be used for stabilizing microfilaments in living cells and inhibiting growth of cells.

  5. A Cocoa Peptide Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Oxidative Stress and β-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Martorell, Patricia; Bataller, Esther; Llopis, Silvia; Gonzalez, Núria; Álvarez, Beatriz; Montón, Fernando; Ortiz, Pepa; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Background Cocoa and cocoa-based products contain different compounds with beneficial properties for human health. Polyphenols are the most frequently studied, and display antioxidant properties. Moreover, protein content is a very interesting source of antioxidant bioactive peptides, which can be used therapeutically for the prevention of age-related diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings A bioactive peptide, 13L (DNYDNSAGKWWVT), was obtained from a hydrolyzed cocoa by-product by chromatography. The in vitro inhibition of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) was used as screening method to select the suitable fraction for peptide identification. Functional analysis of 13L peptide was achieved using the transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain CL4176 expressing the human Aβ1–42 peptide as a pre-clinical in vivo model for Alzheimer's disease. Among the peptides isolated, peptide 13L (1 µg/mL) showed the highest antioxidant activity (P≤0.001) in the wild-type strain (N2). Furthermore, 13L produced a significant delay in body paralysis in strain CL4176, especially in the 24–47 h period after Aβ1–42 peptide induction (P≤0.0001). This observation is in accordance with the reduction of Aβ deposits in CL4176 by western blot. Finally, transcriptomic analysis in wild-type nematodes treated with 13L revealed modulation of the proteosomal and synaptic functions as the main metabolic targets of the peptide. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the cocoa 13L peptide has antioxidant activity and may reduce Aβ deposition in a C. elegans model of Alzheimer's disease; and therefore has a putative therapeutic potential for prevention of age-related diseases. Further studies in murine models and humans will be essential to analyze the effectiveness of the 13L peptide in higher animals. PMID:23675471

  6. Virtual screening using combinatorial cyclic peptide libraries reveals protein interfaces readily targetable by cyclic peptides.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Fergal J; O'Donovan, Darragh; Devocelle, Marc; Moran, Niamh; O'Connell, David J; Shields, Denis C

    2015-03-23

    Protein-protein and protein-peptide interactions are responsible for the vast majority of biological functions in vivo, but targeting these interactions with small molecules has historically been difficult. What is required are efficient combined computational and experimental screening methods to choose among a number of potential protein interfaces worthy of targeting lead macrocyclic compounds for further investigation. To achieve this, we have generated combinatorial 3D virtual libraries of short disulfide-bonded peptides and compared them to pharmacophore models of important protein-protein and protein-peptide structures, including short linear motifs (SLiMs), protein-binding peptides, and turn structures at protein-protein interfaces, built from 3D models available in the Protein Data Bank. We prepared a total of 372 reference pharmacophores, which were matched against 108,659 multiconformer cyclic peptides. After normalization to exclude nonspecific cyclic peptides, the top hits notably are enriched for mimetics of turn structures, including a turn at the interaction surface of human α thrombin, and also feature several protein-binding peptides. The top cyclic peptide hits also cover the critical "hot spot" interaction sites predicted from the interaction crystal structure. We have validated our method by testing cyclic peptides predicted to inhibit thrombin, a key protein in the blood coagulation pathway of important therapeutic interest, identifying a cyclic peptide inhibitor with lead-like activity. We conclude that protein interfaces most readily targetable by cyclic peptides and related macrocyclic drugs may be identified computationally among a set of candidate interfaces, accelerating the choice of interfaces against which lead compounds may be screened.

  7. Anti-dengue virus serotype 2 activity and mode of action of a novel peptide.

    PubMed

    Chew, M-F; Tham, H-W; Rajik, M; Sharifah, S H

    2015-10-01

    To identify a novel antiviral peptide against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) by screening a phage display peptide library and to evaluate its in vitro antiviral activity and mode of action. A phage display peptide library was biopanned against purified DENV-2 and resulted in the identification and selection of a peptide (peptide gg-ww) for further investigation. ELISA was performed, and peptide gg-ww was shown to possess the highest binding affinity against DENV-2. Thus, peptide gg-ww was synthesized for cytotoxicity and antiviral assays. Virus plaque reduction assay, real-time PCR and immunofluorescence assay were used to investigate the inhibitory effect of peptide gg-ww on DENV-2 infection in Vero cells. Three different assays (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatments assays) were performed to investigate the peptide's mode of action. Results indicated that peptide gg-ww possessed strong antiviral activity with a ~96% inhibition rate, which was achieved at 250 μmol l(-1) . Viral replication was inhibited during a simultaneous treatment assay, indicating that the entry of the virus was impeded by this peptide. Peptide gg-ww displayed antiviral action against DENV-2 by targeting an early stage of viral replication (i.e. during viral entry). Peptide gg-ww may represent a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of DENV infections and is a potential candidate to be developed as a peptide drug. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    DOEpatents

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  9. Structural basis for precursor protein-directed ribosomal peptide macrocyclization

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kunhua; Condurso, Heather L.; Li, Gengnan

    Macrocyclization is a common feature of natural product biosynthetic pathways including the diverse family of ribosomal peptides. Microviridins are architecturally complex cyanobacterial ribosomal peptides that target proteases with potent reversible inhibition. The product structure is constructed via three macrocyclizations catalyzed sequentially by two members of the ATP-grasp family, a unique strategy for ribosomal peptide macrocyclization. Here we describe in detail the structural basis for the enzyme-catalyzed macrocyclizations in the microviridin J pathway of Microcystis aeruginosa. The macrocyclases MdnC and MdnB interact with a conserved α-helix of the precursor peptide using a novel precursor-peptide recognition mechanism. The results provide insight intomore » the unique protein–protein interactions that are key to the chemistry, suggest an origin for the natural combinatorial synthesis of microviridin peptides, and provide a framework for future engineering efforts to generate designed compounds.« less

  10. Sacubitril/valsartan: beyond natriuretic peptides.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagdeep S S; Burrell, Louise M; Cherif, Myriam; Squire, Iain B; Clark, Andrew L; Lang, Chim C

    2017-10-01

    Natriuretic peptides, especially B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), have primarily been regarded as biomarkers in heart failure (HF). However, they are also possible therapeutic agents due to their potentially beneficial physiological effects. The angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril/valsartan, simultaneously augments the natriuretic peptide system (NPS) by inhibiting the enzyme neprilysin (NEP) and inhibits the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by blocking the angiotensin II receptor. It has been shown to improve mortality and hospitalisation outcomes in patients with HF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The key advantage of sacubitril/valsartan has been perceived to be its ability to augment BNP, while its other effects have largely been overlooked. This review highlights the important effects of sacubitril/valsartan, beyond just the augmentation of BNP. First we discuss how NPS physiology differs between healthy individuals and those with HF by looking at mechanisms like the overwhelming effects of RAAS on the NPS, natriuretic peptide receptor desensitisation and absolute natriuretic deficiency. Second, this review explores other hormones that are augmented by sacubitril/valsartan such as bradykinin, substance P and adrenomedullin that may contribute to the efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan in HF. We also discuss concerns that sacubitril/valsartan may interfere with amyloid-β homeostasis with potential implications on Alzheimer's disease and macular degeneration. Finally, we explore the concept of 'autoinhibition' which is a recently described observation that humans have innate NEP inhibitory capability when natriuretic peptide levels rise above a threshold. There is speculation that autoinhibition may provide a surge of natriuretic and other vasoactive peptides to rapidly reverse decompensation. We contend that by pre-emptively inhibiting NEP, sacubitril/valsartan is inducing this surge earlier during decompensation

  11. Encrypted Antimicrobial Peptides from Plant Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ramada, M H S; Brand, G D; Abrão, F Y; Oliveira, M; Filho, J L Cardozo; Galbieri, R; Gramacho, K P; Prates, M V; Bloch, C

    2017-10-16

    Examples of bioactive peptides derived from internal sequences of proteins are known for decades. The great majority of these findings appear to be fortuitous rather than the result of a deliberate and methodological-based enterprise. In the present work, we describe the identification and the biological activities of novel antimicrobial peptides unveiled as internal fragments of various plant proteins founded on our hypothesis-driven search strategy. All putative encrypted antimicrobial peptides were selected based upon their physicochemical properties that were iteratively selected by an in-house computer program named Kamal. The selected peptides were chemically synthesized and evaluated for their interaction with model membranes. Sixteen of these peptides showed antimicrobial activity against human and/or plant pathogens, some with a wide spectrum of activity presenting similar or superior inhibition efficacy when compared to classical antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These original and previously unforeseen molecules constitute a broader and undisputable set of evidences produced by our group that illustrate how the intragenic concept is a workable reality and should be carefully explored not only for microbicidal agents but also for many other biological functions.

  12. Soluble elastin peptides in cardiovascular homeostasis: Foe or ally.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhenyu

    2015-05-01

    Elastin peptides, also known as elastin-derived peptides or elastokines, are soluble polypeptides in blood and tissue. The blood levels of elastin peptides are usually low but can increase during cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysm and diabetes with vascular complications. Generally, elastin peptides are derived from the degradation of insoluble elastic polymers. The biological activities of elastin peptides are bidirectional, e.g., a pro-inflammatory effect on monocyte migration induction vs. a protective effect on vasodilation promotion. However, recent in vivo studies have demonstrated that elastin peptides promote the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in hypercholesterolemic mice and induce hyperglycemia and elevations in plasma lipid levels in fasted mice. More important, the detrimental effects induced by elastin peptides can be largely inhibited by genetic or pharmacological blockade of the elastin receptor complex or by neutralization of an antibody against elastin peptides. These studies indicate new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases by targeting elastin peptide metabolism. Therefore, the goal of this review is to summarize current knowledge about elastin peptides relevant to cardiovascular pathologies to further delineate their potential application in cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Activities of PR-39 Derived Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.; Schneider, Viktoria A. F.; Agustiandari, Herfita; van Dijk, Albert; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, Johanna L. M.; Bikker, Floris J.; Haagsman, Henk P.

    2014-01-01

    The porcine cathelicidin PR-39 is a host defence peptide that plays a pivotal role in the innate immune defence of the pig against infections. Besides direct antimicrobial activity, it is involved in immunomodulation, wound healing and several other biological processes. In this study, the antimicrobial- and immunomodulatory activity of PR-39, and N- and C-terminal derivatives of PR-39 were tested. PR-39 exhibited an unexpected broad antimicrobial spectrum including several Gram positive strains such as Bacillus globigii and Enterococcus faecalis. Of organisms tested, only Staphylococcus aureus was insensitive to PR-39. Truncation of PR-39 down to 15 (N-terminal) amino acids did not lead to major loss of activity, while peptides corresponding to the C-terminal part of PR-39 were hampered in their antimicrobial activity. However, shorter peptides were all much more sensitive to inhibition by salt. Active peptides induced ATP leakage and loss of membrane potential in Bacillus globigii and Escherichia coli, indicating a lytic mechanism of action for these peptides. Finally, only the mature peptide was able to induce IL-8 production in porcine macrophages, but some shorter peptides also had an effect on TNF-α production showing differential regulation of cytokine induction by PR-39 derived peptides. None of the active peptides showed high cytotoxicity highlighting the potential of these peptides for use as an alternative to antibiotics. PMID:24755622

  14. Surfactant-induced assembly of enzymatically-stable peptide hydrogels

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Brad H.; Martinez, Alina M.; Wheeler, Jill S.; ...

    2015-04-07

    The secondary structure of peptides in the presence of interacting additives is an important topic of study, having implications in the application of peptide science to a broad range of modern technologies. Surfactants constitute a class of biologically relevant compounds that are known to influence both peptide conformation and aggregation or assembly. In addition, we have characterized the secondary structure of a linear nonapeptide composed of a hydrophobic alanine/phenylalanine core flanked by hydrophilic acid/amine units. We show that the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induces the formation of β-sheets and macroscopic gelation in this otherwise unstructured peptide. Through comparisonmore » to related additives, we propose that SDS-induced secondary structure formation is the result of amphiphilicity created by electrostatic binding of SDS to the peptide. In addition, we demonstrate a novel utility of surfactants in manipulating and stabilizing peptide nanostructures. SDS is used to simultaneously induce secondary structure in a peptide and to inhibit the activity of a model enzyme, resulting in a peptide hydrogel that is impervious to enzymatic degradation. These results complement our understanding of the behavior of peptides in the presence of interacting secondary molecules and provide new potential pathways for programmable organization of peptides by the addition of such components.« less

  15. Surfactant-induced assembly of enzymatically-stable peptide hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Brad H.; Martinez, Alina M.; Wheeler, Jill S.

    The secondary structure of peptides in the presence of interacting additives is an important topic of study, having implications in the application of peptide science to a broad range of modern technologies. Surfactants constitute a class of biologically relevant compounds that are known to influence both peptide conformation and aggregation or assembly. In addition, we have characterized the secondary structure of a linear nonapeptide composed of a hydrophobic alanine/phenylalanine core flanked by hydrophilic acid/amine units. We show that the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induces the formation of β-sheets and macroscopic gelation in this otherwise unstructured peptide. Through comparisonmore » to related additives, we propose that SDS-induced secondary structure formation is the result of amphiphilicity created by electrostatic binding of SDS to the peptide. In addition, we demonstrate a novel utility of surfactants in manipulating and stabilizing peptide nanostructures. SDS is used to simultaneously induce secondary structure in a peptide and to inhibit the activity of a model enzyme, resulting in a peptide hydrogel that is impervious to enzymatic degradation. These results complement our understanding of the behavior of peptides in the presence of interacting secondary molecules and provide new potential pathways for programmable organization of peptides by the addition of such components.« less

  16. Interaction of antimicrobial peptides with bacterial polysaccharides from lung pathogens.

    PubMed

    Herasimenka, Yury; Benincasa, Monica; Mattiuzzo, Maura; Cescutti, Paola; Gennaro, Renato; Rizzo, Roberto

    2005-07-01

    The interaction of two cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides, LL-37 and SMAP-29, with three bacterial polysaccharides, respectively, produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia and Klebsiella pneumoniae, was investigated to identify possible mechanisms adopted by lung pathogens to escape the action of innate immunity effectors. In vitro assays indicated that the antibacterial activity of both peptides was inhibited to a variable extent by the three polysaccharides. Circular dichroism experiments showed that these induced an alpha-helical conformation in the two peptides, with the polysaccharides from K. pneumoniae and B. cepacia showing, respectively, the highest and the lowest effect. Fluorescence measurements also indicated the presence of peptide-polysaccharide interactions. A model is proposed in which the binding of peptides to the polysaccharide molecules induces, at low polysaccharide to peptide ratios, a higher order of aggregation, due to peptide-peptide interactions. Overall, these results suggest that binding of the peptides by the polysaccharides produced by lung pathogens can contribute to the impairment of peptide-based innate defenses of airway surface.

  17. Cell Penetrating Peptides and Cationic Antibacterial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Plaza, Jonathan G.; Morales-Nava, Rosmarbel; Diener, Christian; Schreiber, Gabriele; Gonzalez, Zyanya D.; Lara Ortiz, Maria Teresa; Ortega Blake, Ivan; Pantoja, Omar; Volkmer, Rudolf; Klipp, Edda; Herrmann, Andreas; Del Rio, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPP) and cationic antibacterial peptides (CAP) have similar physicochemical properties and yet it is not understood how such similar peptides display different activities. To address this question, we used Iztli peptide 1 (IP-1) because it has both CPP and CAP activities. Combining experimental and computational modeling of the internalization of IP-1, we show it is not internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis, yet it permeates into many different cell types, including fungi and human cells. We also show that IP-1 makes pores in the presence of high electrical potential at the membrane, such as those found in bacteria and mitochondria. These results provide the basis to understand the functional redundancy of CPPs and CAPs. PMID:24706763

  18. [Plant signaling peptides. Cysteine-rich peptides].

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Recent bioinformatic and genetic analyses of several model plant genomes have revealed the existence of a highly abundant group of signaling peptides that are defined as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs). CRPs are usually in size between 50 and 90 amino acid residues, they are positively charged, and they contain 4-16 cysteine residues that are important for the correct conformational folding. Despite the structural differences among CRP classes, members from each class have striking similarities in their molecular properties and function. The present review presents the recent progress in research on signaling peptides from several families including: EPF/EPFL, SP11/SCR, PrsS, RALF, LURE, and some other peptides belonging to CRP group. There is convincing evidence indicating multiple roles for these CRPs as signaling molecules during the plant life cycle, ranging from stomata development and patterning, self-incompatibility, pollen tube growth and guidance, reproductive processes, and nodule formation.

  19. Peptide stabilized amphotericin B nanodisks

    PubMed Central

    Tufteland, Megan; Pesavento, Joseph B.; Bermingham, Rachelle L.; Hoeprich, Paul D.; Ryan, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Nanometer scale apolipoprotein A-I stabilized phospholipid disk complexes (nanodisks; ND) have been formulated with the polyene antibiotic amphotericin B (AMB). The present studies were designed to evaluate if a peptide can substitute for the function of the apolipoprotein component of ND with respect to particle formation and stability. An 18-residue synthetic amphipathic α-helical peptide, termed 4F (Ac-D-W-F-K-A-F-Y-D-K-V-A-E-K-F-K-E-A-F-NH2), solubilized vesicles comprised of egg phosphatidylcholine (egg PC), dipentadecanoyl PC or dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) at rates greater than or equal to solubilization rates observed with human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I; 243 amino acids). Characterization studies revealed that interaction with DMPC induced a near doubling of 4F tryptophan fluorescence emission quantum yield (excitation 280 nm) and a ~7 nm blue shift in emission wavelength maximum. Inclusion of AMB in the vesicle substrate resulted in formation of 4F AMB-ND. Spectra of AMB containing particles revealed the antibiotic is a highly effective quencher of 4F tryptophan fluorescence emission, giving rise to a Ksv = 7.7 × 104. Negative stain electron microscopy revealed that AMB-ND prepared with 4F possessed a disk shaped morphology similar to ND prepared without AMB or prepared with apoA-I. In yeast and pathogenic fungi growth inhibition assays, 4F AMB-ND was as effective as apoA-I AMB-ND. The data indicate that AMB-ND generated using an amphipathic peptide in lieu of apoA-I form a discrete population of particles that possess potent biological activity. Given their intrinsic versatility, peptides may be preferred for scale up and clinical application of AMB-ND. PMID:17293004

  20. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  1. Cell-permeable, mitochondrial-targeted, peptide antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Hazel H

    2006-04-21

    Cellular oxidative injury has been implicated in aging and a wide array of clinical disorders including ischemia-reperfusion injury; neurodegenerative diseases; diabetes; inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, and hepatitis; and drug-induced toxicity. However, available antioxidants have not proven to be particularly effective against many of these disorders. A possibility is that some of the antioxidants do not reach the relevant sites of free radical generation, especially if mitochondria are the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The SS (Szeto-Schiller) peptide antioxidants represent a novel approach with targeted delivery of antioxidants to the inner mitochondrial membrane. The structural motif of these SS peptides centers on alternating aromatic residues and basic amino acids (aromatic-cationic peptides). These SS peptides can scavenge hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Their antioxidant action can be attributed to the tyrosine or dimethyltyrosine residue. By reducing mitochondrial ROS, these peptides inhibit mitochondrial permeability transition and cytochrome c release, thus preventing oxidant-induced cell death. Because these peptides concentrate >1000-fold in the inner mitochondrial membrane, they prevent oxidative cell death with EC50 in the nM range. Preclinical studies support their potential use for ischemia-reperfusion injury and neurodegenerative disorders. Although peptides have often been considered to be poor drug candidates, these small peptides have excellent "druggable" properties, making them promising agents for many diseases with unmet needs.

  2. Peptides as modifiers of Na+-induced pinocytosis in starved Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, J O; Johansson, P

    1985-01-01

    Low concentrations of six peptide hormones; glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, angiotensin II, lysine-vasopressin, arginine-vasopressin, and the chemotactic peptide fMet-Leu-Phe, activated the capacity for pinocytosis in starved Amoeba proteus. Competitive inhibitors of the chemotactic peptide in leucocytes inhibited activation by fMet-Leu-Phe, suggesting that its action in the amoeba is mediated by specific receptors. The opioid peptides, beta-endorphin, dynorphin (1-13) and leu-enkephalin abolished through a naloxone-sensitive mechanism activation by hormones and several other activating agents. Also, low concentrations of beef and pork insulin inhibited activation by peptide hormones. An insulin analogue of low potency in mammalian cells was inactive in the amoeba. These results support the hypothesis that besides opioid receptors, there may be insulin receptors and possibly receptors for several other peptide hormones in Amoeba proteus.

  3. A specific RAGE-binding peptide biopanning from phage display random peptide library that ameliorates symptoms in amyloid β peptide-mediated neuronal disorder.

    PubMed

    Cai, Cuizan; Dai, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Yujie; Lian, Mengyang; Xiao, Fei; Dong, Fangyuan; Zhang, Qihao; Huang, Yadong; Zheng, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder in which amyloid β (Aβ) peptide accumulates in the brain. The receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) is a cellular binding site for Aβ peptide and mediates amyloid β-induced perturbations in cerebral vessels, neurons, and microglia in AD. Here, we identified a specific high-affinity RAGE inhibitor (APDTKTQ named RP-1) from a phage display library. RP-1 bound to RAGE and inhibitedpeptide-induced cellular stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SYSY cells in vitro. Three amino acids in RP-1 are identical to those in the Aβ peptide. RP-1 shows high homology to the 16-23 (KLVFFAED) regions in Aβ peptide and high-affinity RAGE. Functional analyses indicated that RP-1 significantly reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS products and that it enhanced catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Furthermore, it inactivated caspase3 and caspase9 and inhibited the upregulation of RAGE, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) protein expression. In addition, RP-1 activated the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, inhibiting the interaction between Bax and Bcl-2. Our data suggest that RP-1 is a potent RAGE blocker that effectively controls the progression of Aβ peptide-mediated brain disorders and that it may have potential as a disease-modifying agent for AD.

  4. Melittin: a lytic peptide with anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2013-09-01

    Melittin (MEL) is a major peptide constituent of bee venom that has been proposed as one of the upcoming possibilities for anticancer therapy. Recent reports point to several mechanisms of MEL cytotoxicity in different types of cancer cells such as cell cycle alterations, effect on proliferation and/or growth inhibition, and induction of apoptotic and necrotic cell death trough several cancer cell death mechanisms, including the activation of caspases and matrix metalloproteinases. Although cytotoxic to a broad spectrum of tumour cells, the peptide is also toxic to normal cells. Therefore its therapeutic potential cannot be achieved without a proper delivery vehicle which could be overcome by MEL nanoparticles that possess the ability to safely deliver significant amount of MEL intravenously, and to target and kill tumours. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge and brings latest research findings on the anticancer potential of this lytic peptide with diverse functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    van Hoek, Monique L.

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development. PMID:24918867

  6. Peptides in melanoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Mocellin, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Peptides derived from tumor associated antigens can be utilized to elicit a therapeutically effective immune response against melanoma in experimental models. However, patient vaccination with peptides - although it is often followed by the induction of melanoma- specific T lymphocytes - is rarely associated with tumor response of clinical relevance. In this review I summarize the principles of peptide design as well as the results so far obtained in the clinical setting while treating cutaneous melanoma by means of this active immunotherapy strategy. I also discuss some immunological and methodological issues that might be helpful for the successful development of peptide-based vaccines.

  7. Frog secretions and hunting magic in the upper Amazon: identification of a peptide that interacts with an adenosine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Daly, J W; Caceres, J; Moni, R W; Gusovsky, F; Moos, M; Seamon, K B; Milton, K; Myers, C W

    1992-01-01

    A frog used for "hunting magic" by several groups of Panoan-speaking Indians in the borderline between Brazil and Peru is identified as Phyllomedusa bicolor. This frog's skin secretion, which the Indians introduce into the body through fresh burns, is rich in peptides. These include vasoactive peptides, opioid peptides, and a peptide that we have named adenoregulin, with the sequence GLWSKIKEVGKEAAKAAAKAAGKAALGAVSEAV as determined from mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. The natural peptide may contain a D amino acid residue, since it is not identical in chromatographic properties to the synthetic peptide. Adenoregulin enhances binding of agonists to A1 adenosine receptors; it is accompanied in the skin secretion by peptides that inhibit binding. The vasoactive peptide sauvagine, the opioid peptides, and adenoregulin and related peptides affect behavior in mice and presumably contribute to the behavioral sequelae observed in humans. Images PMID:1438301

  8. Frog secretions and hunting magic in the upper Amazon: identification of a peptide that interacts with an adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Daly, J W; Caceres, J; Moni, R W; Gusovsky, F; Moos, M; Seamon, K B; Milton, K; Myers, C W

    1992-11-15

    A frog used for "hunting magic" by several groups of Panoan-speaking Indians in the borderline between Brazil and Peru is identified as Phyllomedusa bicolor. This frog's skin secretion, which the Indians introduce into the body through fresh burns, is rich in peptides. These include vasoactive peptides, opioid peptides, and a peptide that we have named adenoregulin, with the sequence GLWSKIKEVGKEAAKAAAKAAGKAALGAVSEAV as determined from mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. The natural peptide may contain a D amino acid residue, since it is not identical in chromatographic properties to the synthetic peptide. Adenoregulin enhances binding of agonists to A1 adenosine receptors; it is accompanied in the skin secretion by peptides that inhibit binding. The vasoactive peptide sauvagine, the opioid peptides, and adenoregulin and related peptides affect behavior in mice and presumably contribute to the behavioral sequelae observed in humans.

  9. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and large conductance calcium-sensitive potassium channels inhibit the release of opioid peptides that induce mu-opioid receptor internalization in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Song, B; Marvizón, J C G

    2005-01-01

    Endogenous opioids in the spinal cord play an important role in nociception, but the mechanisms that control their release are poorly understood. To simultaneously detect all opioids able to activate the mu-opioid receptor, we measured mu-opioid receptor internalization in rat spinal cord slices stimulated electrically or chemically to evoke opioid release. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal horn in the presence of peptidase inhibitors produced mu-opioid receptor internalization in half of the mu-opioid receptor neurons. This internalization was rapidly abolished by N-methyl-D-aspartate (IC50=2 microM), and N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists prevented this effect. mu-Opioid receptor internalization evoked by high K+ or veratridine was also inhibited by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. N-methyl-D-aspartate did not affect mu-opioid receptor internalization induced by exogenous endomorphins, confirming that the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate was on opioid release. We hypothesized that this inhibition was mediated by large conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels BK(Ca2+). Indeed, inhibition by N-methyl-D-aspartate was prevented by tetraethylammonium and by the selective BK(Ca2+) blockers paxilline, penitrem A and verruculogen. Paxilline did not increase mu-opioid receptor internalization in the absence of N-methyl-D-aspartate, indicating that it does not produce an increase in opioid release unrelated to the inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate. The BK(Ca2+) involved appears to be a subtype with slow association kinetics for iberiotoxin, which was effective only with long incubations. The BK(Ca2+) opener NS-1619 also inhibited the evoked mu-opioid receptor internalization, and iberiotoxin prevented this effect. We concluded that Ca2+ influx through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors causes the opening of BK(Ca2+) and hyperpolarization in opioid-containing dorsal horn neurons, resulting in the inhibition of opioid release. Since mu-opioid receptors in the dorsal horn

  10. N-METHYL-d-ASPARTATE RECEPTORS AND LARGE CONDUCTANCE CALCIUM-SENSITIVE POTASSIUM CHANNELS INHIBIT THE RELEASE OF OPIOID PEPTIDES THAT INDUCE μ-OPIOID RECEPTOR INTERNALIZATION IN THE RAT SPINAL CORD

    PubMed Central

    SONG, B.; MARVIZÓN, J. C. G.

    2006-01-01

    Endogenous opioids in the spinal cord play an important role in nociception, but the mechanisms that control their release are poorly understood. To simultaneously detect all opioids able to activate the μ-opioid receptor, we measured μ-opioid receptor internalization in rat spinal cord slices stimulated electrically or chemically to evoke opioid release. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal horn in the presence of peptidase inhibitors produced μ-opioid receptor internalization in half of the μ-opioid receptor neurons. This internalization was rapidly abolished by N-methyl-d-aspartate (IC50=2 μM), and N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists prevented this effect. μ-Opioid receptor internalization evoked by high K+ or veratridine was also inhibited by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activation. N-methyl-d-aspartate did not affect μ-opioid receptor internalization induced by exogenous endomorphins, confirming that the effect of N-methyl-d-aspartate was on opioid release. We hypothesized that this inhibition was mediated by large conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels BK(Ca2+). Indeed, inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate was prevented by tetraethylammonium and by the selective BK(Ca2+) blockers paxilline, penitrem A and verruculogen. Paxilline did not increase μ-opioid receptor internalization in the absence of N-methyl-d-aspartate, indicating that it does not produce an increase in opioid release unrelated to the inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate. The BK(Ca2+) involved appears to be a subtype with slow association kinetics for iberiotoxin, which was effective only with long incubations. The BK(Ca2+) opener NS-1619 also inhibited the evoked μ-opioid receptor internalization, and iberiotoxin prevented this effect. We concluded that Ca2+ influx through N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors causes the opening of BK(Ca2+) and hyperpolarization in opioid-containing dorsal horn neurons, resulting in the inhibition of opioid release. Since μ-opioid receptors in the dorsal horn

  11. Insulin C-peptide test

    MedlinePlus

    C-peptide ... the test depends on the reason for the C-peptide measurement. Ask your health care provider if ... C-peptide is measured to tell the difference between insulin the body produces and insulin someone injects ...

  12. Dolastatin 15, a mollusk linear peptide, and Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, prevent preneoplastic colonic lesions and induce apoptosis through inhibition of the regulatory transcription factor NF-κB and an inflammatory protein, iNOS.

    PubMed

    Piplani, Honit; Vaish, Vivek; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2012-11-01

    The marine ecosystem is a unique and enormously rich source of natural products with potential chemopreventive applications in cancer. In the present study, we explored the chemopreventive role and the molecular mechanism of Dolastatin, a linear peptide from an Indian Ocean mollusk, and Celecoxib, a well-established cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor in an individual as well as in a combination regimen in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in a rat model. After a 6-week treatment with DMH, morphological analysis revealed a marked occurrence of preneoplastic features in the colonic mucosa, whereas histologically well-characterized dysplasia and hyperplasia were observed in DMH-treated animals. Simultaneous administration of Celecoxib and Dolastatin reduced these features significantly. DMH treatment affected the number of apoptotic cells in colonic enterocytes, which reverted to the normal level with the use of Celecoxib and Dolastatin. Inflammation remains the dominant molecular mechanism in the development of multiple plaque lesions, the carcinogenic lesions in a DMH-induced process that may be mediated by COX-2. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed a higher expression of COX-2 and nuclear factor-κB, the transcription factors responsible for proinflammatory proteins such as TNFα, and also the inducible nitric oxide synthase in the DMH group, which was further recovered significantly with the use of Celecoxib and Dolastatin. In-silico molecular docking analysis of Dolastatin as a ligand with various regulatory proteins suggests that although the peptide failed to dock to COX-2, it successfully did so with inducible nitric oxide synthase, thereby indicating the potential of this inflammatory protein as a molecular anticancer target in colon carcinogenesis.

  13. Peptide Vaccines for Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    De Brito, Rory C F; Cardoso, Jamille M De O; Reis, Levi E S; Vieira, Joao F; Mathias, Fernando A S; Roatt, Bruno M; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian D O; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; Resende, Daniela de M; Reis, Alexandre B

    2018-01-01

    Due to an increase in the incidence of leishmaniases worldwide, the development of new strategies such as prophylactic vaccines to prevent infection and decrease the disease have become a high priority. Classic vaccines against leishmaniases were based on live or attenuated parasites or their subunits. Nevertheless, the use of whole parasite or their subunits for vaccine production has numerous disadvantages. Therefore, the use of Leishmania peptides to design more specific vaccines against leishmaniases seems promising. Moreover, peptides have several benefits in comparison with other kinds of antigens, for instance, good stability, absence of potentially damaging materials, antigen low complexity, and low-cost to scale up. By contrast, peptides are poor immunogenic alone, and they need to be delivered correctly. In this context, several approaches described in this review are useful to solve these drawbacks. Approaches, such as, peptides in combination with potent adjuvants, cellular vaccinations, adenovirus, polyepitopes, or DNA vaccines have been used to develop peptide-based vaccines. Recent advancements in peptide vaccine design, chimeric, or polypeptide vaccines and nanovaccines based on particles attached or formulated with antigenic components or peptides have been increasingly employed to drive a specific immune response. In this review, we briefly summarize the old, current, and future stands on peptide-based vaccines, describing the disadvantages and benefits associated with them. We also propose possible approaches to overcome the related weaknesses of synthetic vaccines and suggest future guidelines for their development.

  14. Antimicrobial Peptides from Fish

    PubMed Central

    Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Diamond, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture. PMID:24594555

  15. Potent D-peptide inhibitors of HIV-1 entry

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Brett D.; VanDemark, Andrew P.; Heroux, Annie; Hill, Christopher P.; Kay, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    During HIV-1 entry, the highly conserved gp41 N-trimer pocket region becomes transiently exposed and vulnerable to inhibition. Using mirror-image phage display and structure-assisted design, we have discovered protease-resistant D-amino acid peptides (D-peptides) that bind the N-trimer pocket with high affinity and potently inhibit viral entry. We also report high-resolution crystal structures of two of these D-peptides in complex with a pocket mimic that suggest sources of their high potency. A trimeric version of one of these peptides is the most potent pocket-specific entry inhibitor yet reported by three orders of magnitude (IC50 = 250 pM). These results are the first demonstration that D-peptides can form specific and high-affinity interactions with natural protein targets and strengthen their promise as therapeutic agents. The D-peptides described here address limitations associated with current L-peptide entry inhibitors and are promising leads for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. PMID:17942675

  16. Identification and characterization of antimicrobial peptides from the skin of the endangered frog Odorrana ishikawae.

    PubMed

    Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Okimoto, Aiko; Soga, Miyuki; Okada, Genya; Sano, Naomi; Fujii, Tamotsu; Sugawara, Yoshiaki; Sumida, Masayuki

    2011-04-01

    The endangered anuran species, Odorrana ishikawae, is endemic to only two small Japanese Islands, Amami and Okinawa. To assess the innate immune system in this frog, we investigated antimicrobial peptides in the skin using artificially bred animals. Nine novel antimicrobial peptides containing the C-terminal cyclic heptapeptide domain were isolated on the basis of antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. The peptides were members of the esculentin-1 (two peptides), esculentin-2 (one peptide), palustrin-2 (one peptide), brevinin-2 (three peptides) and nigrocin-2 (two peptides) antimicrobial peptide families. They were named esculentin-1ISa, esculentin-1ISb, esculentin-2ISa, palustrin-2ISa, brevinin-2ISa, brevinin-2ISb, brevinin-2ISc, nigrocin-2ISa and nigrocin-2ISb. Peptide primary structures suggest a close relationship with the Asian odorous frogs, Odorrana grahami and Odorrana hosii. These antimicrobial peptides possessed a broad-spectrum of growth inhibition against five microorganisms (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans). Nine different cDNAs encoding the precursor proteins were also cloned and showed that the precursor proteins exhibited a signal peptide, an N-terminal acidic spacer domain, a Lys-Arg processing site and an antimicrobial peptide at the C-terminus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Peptide hormones and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Moody, T W

    2006-03-01

    Several peptide hormones have been identified which alter the proliferation of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which is a neuroendocrine cancer, produces and secretes gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), neurotensin (NT) and adrenomedullin (AM) as autocrine growth factors. GRP, NT and AM bind to G-protein coupled receptors causing phosphatidylinositol turnover or elevated cAMP in SCLC cells. Addition of GRP, NT or AM to SCLC cells causes altered expression of nuclear oncogenes, such as c-fos, and stimulation of growth. Antagonists have been developed for GRP, NT and AM receptors which function as cytostatic agents and inhibit SCLC growth. Growth factor antagonists, such as the NT1 receptor antagonist SR48692, facilitate the ability of chemotherapeutic drugs to kill lung cancer cells. It remains to be determined if GRP, NT and AM receptors will served as molecular targets, for development of new therapies for the treatment of SCLC patients. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells also have a high density of GRP, NT, AM and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. Several NSCLC patients with EGF receptor mutations respond to gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Gefitinib relieves NSCLC symptoms, maintaining stable disease in patients who are not eligible for systemic chemotherapy. It is important to develop new therapeutic approaches using translational research techniques for the treatment of lung cancer patients.

  18. Fish Scale Collagen Peptides Protect against CoCl2/TNF-α-Induced Cytotoxicity and Inflammation via Inhibition of ROS, MAPK, and NF-κB Pathways in HaCaT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Subhan, Fazli; Kang, Hae Yeong; Lim, Yeseon; Ikram, Muhammad; Baek, Sun-Yong; Jin, Songwan; Jeong, Young Hun; Kwak, Jong Young

    2017-01-01

    Skin diseases associated with inflammation or oxidative stress represent the most common problem in dermatology. The present study demonstrates that fish scale collagen peptides (FSCP) protect against CoCl2-induced cytotoxicity and TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses in human HaCaT keratinocyte cells. Our study is the first to report that FSCP increase cell viability and ameliorate oxidative injury in HaCaT cells through mechanisms mediated by the downregulation of key proinflammatory cytokines, namely, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and iNOS. FSCP also prevent cell apoptosis by repressing Bax expression, caspase-3 activity, and cytochrome c release and by upregulating Bcl-2 protein levels in CoCl2- or TNF-α-stimulated HaCaT cells. In addition, the inhibitory effects of FSCP on cytotoxicity and the induction of proinflammatory cytokine expression were found to be associated with suppression of the ROS, MAPK (p38/MAPK, ERK, and JNK), and NF-κB signaling pathways. Taken together, our data suggest that FSCP are useful as immunomodulatory agents in inflammatory or immune-mediated skin diseases. Furthermore, our results provide new insights into the potential therapeutic use of FSCP in the prevention and treatment of various oxidative- or inflammatory stress-related inflammation and injuries. PMID:28717410

  19. Non-disulfide-bridged peptides from Tityus serrulatus venom: Evidence for proline-free ACE-inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pucca, Manuela Berto; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro-Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Zoccal, Karina Furlani; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Peigneur, Steve; Vriens, Kim; Thevissen, Karin; Cammue, Bruno Philippe Angelo; Júnior, Ronaldo Bragança Martins; Arruda, Eurico; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Tytgat, Jan; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2016-08-01

    The present study purifies two T. serrulatus non-disulfide-bridged peptides (NDBPs), named venom peptides 7.2 (RLRSKG) and 8 (KIWRS) and details their synthesis and biological activity, comparing to the synthetic venom peptide 7.1 (RLRSKGKK), previously identified. The synthetic replicate peptides were subjected to a range of biological assays: hemolytic, antifungal, antiviral, electrophysiological, immunological and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activities. All venom peptides neither showed to be cytolytic nor demonstrated significant antifungal or antiviral activities. Interestingly, peptides were able to modulate macrophages' responses, increasing IL-6 production. The three venom peptides also demonstrated potential to inhibit ACE in the following order: 7.2>7.1>8. The ACE inhibition activity was unexpected, since peptides that display this function are usually proline-rich peptides. In attempt to understand the origin of such small peptides, we discovered that the isolated peptides 7.2 and 8 are fragments of the same molecule, named Pape peptide precursor. Furthermore, the study discusses that Pape fragments could be originated from a post-splitting mechanism resulting from metalloserrulases and other proteinases cleavage, which can be seen as a clever mechanism used by the scorpion to enlarge its repertoire of venom components. Scorpion venom remains as an interesting source of bioactive proteins and this study advances our knowledge about three NDBPs and their biological activities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Cloning of precursors for two MIH/VIH-related peptides in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Yang, W J; Rao, K R

    2001-11-30

    Two cDNA clones (634 and 1366 bp) encoding MIH/VIH (molt-inhibiting hormone/vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone)-related peptides were isolated and sequenced from a Macrobrachium rosenbergii eyestalk ganglia cDNA library. The clones contain a 360 and 339 bp open-reading frame, and their conceptually translated peptides consist of a 41 and 34 amino acid signal peptide, respectively, and a 78 amino acid residue mature peptide hormone. The amino acid sequences of the peptides exhibit higher identities with other known MIHs and VIH (44-69%) than with CHHs (28-33%). This is the first report describing the cloning and sequencing of two MIH/VIH-related peptides in a single crustacean species. Transcription of these mRNAs was detected in the eyestalk ganglia, but not in the thoracic ganglia, hepatopancreas, gut, gill, heart, or muscle.

  1. Tandem MS Analysis of Selenamide-Derivatized Peptide Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Hao; Cui, Weidong; Chen, Hao

    2011-09-01

    Our previous study showed that selenamide reagents such as ebselen and N-(phenylseleno)phthalimide (NPSP) can be used for selective and rapid derivatization of protein/peptide thiols in high conversion yield. This paper reports the systematic investigation of MS/MS dissociation behaviors of selenamide-derivatized peptide ions upon collision induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD). In the positive ion mode, derivatized peptide ions exhibit tag-dependent CID dissociation pathways. For instance, ebselen-derivatized peptide ions preferentially undergo Se-S bond cleavage upon CID to produce a characteristic fragment ion, the protonated ebselen ( m/z 276), which allows selective identification of thiol peptides from protein digest as well as selective detection of thiol proteins from protein mixture using precursor ion scan (PIS). In contrast, NPSP-derivatized peptide ions retain their phenylselenenyl tags during CID, which is useful in sequencing peptides and locating cysteine residues. In the negative ion CID mode, both types of tags are preferentially lost via the Se-S cleavage, analogous to the S-S bond cleavage during CID of disulfide-containing peptide anions. In consideration of the convenience in preparing selenamide-derivatized peptides and the similarity of Se-S of the tag to the S-S bond, we also examined ETD of the derivatized peptide ions to probe the mechanism for electron-based ion dissociation. Interestingly, facile cleavage of Se-S bond occurs to the peptide ions carrying either protons or alkali metal ions, while backbone cleavage to form c/z ions is severely inhibited. These results are in agreement with the Utah-Washington mechanism proposed for depicting electron-based ion dissociation processes.

  2. HSP70 peptide-bearing and peptide-negative preparations act as chaperokines

    PubMed Central

    Asea, Alexzander; Kabingu, Edith; Stevenson, Mary Ann; Calderwood, Stuart K.

    2000-01-01

    We recently elucidated a novel function for the 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) as a chaperone and a cytokine, a chaperokine in human monocytes. Here we show that peptide-bearing and peptide-negative HSP70 preparations isolated from EMT6 mammary adenocarcinoma cells (EMT6-HSP70) act as chaperokines when admixed with murine splenocytes. EMT6-HSP70 bound with high affinity to the surface of splenocytes recovered from naive BALB/c mice. The [Ca2+]i inhibitor BAPTA dose dependently inhibited HSP70- but not LPS-induced NF-κB activity and subsequent augmentation of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production. Taken together, these results suggest that presence of peptide in the HSP70 preparation is not required for spontaneous activation of cells of the innate immune system. PMID:11189447

  3. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Adhesin-Toxoid Multiepitope Fusion Antigen CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTaN12S-mnLTG192G/L211A-Derived Antibodies Inhibit Adherence of Seven Adhesins, Neutralize Enterotoxicity of LT and STa Toxins, and Protect Piglets against Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul; Ruan, Xiaosai; Lu, Ti; Duan, Qiangde; Sack, David; Zhang, Weiping

    2018-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a leading cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Vaccines inducing antibodies to broadly inhibit bacterial adherence and to neutralize toxin enterotoxicity are expected to be effective against ETEC-associated diarrhea. 6×His-tagged adhesin-toxoid fusion proteins were shown to induce neutralizing antibodies to several adhesins and LT and STa toxins (X. Ruan, D. A. Sack, W. Zhang, PLoS One 10:e0121623, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121623). However, antibodies derived from His-tagged CFA/I/II/IV-2xSTa A14Q -dmLT or CFA/I/II/IV-2xSTa N12S -dmLT protein were less effective in neutralizing STa enterotoxicity and were not evaluated in vivo for efficacy against ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, His-tagged proteins are considered less desirable for human vaccines. In this study, we produced a tagless adhesin-toxoid MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) protein, enhanced anti-STa immunogenicity by including a third copy of STa toxoid STa N12S , and examined antigen immunogenicity in a murine model. Moreover, we immunized pregnant pigs with the tagless adhesin-toxoid MEFA protein and evaluated passive antibody protection against STa + or LT + ETEC infection in a pig challenge model. Results showed that tagless adhesin-toxoid MEFA CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTa N12S -mnLT R192G/L211A induced broad antiadhesin and antitoxin antibody responses in the intraperitoneally immunized mice and the intramuscularly immunized pigs. Mouse and pig serum antibodies significantly inhibited adherence of seven colonization factor antigen (CFA) adhesins (CFA/I and CS1 to CS6) and effectively neutralized both toxins. More importantly, suckling piglets born to the immunized mothers acquired antibodies and were protected against STa + ETEC and LT + ETEC diarrhea. These results indicated that tagless CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTa N12S -mnLT R192G/L211A induced broadly protective antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies and demonstrate that this adhesin

  4. High Specific Selectivity and Membrane-Active Mechanism of Synthetic Cationic Hybrid Antimicrobial Peptides Based on the Peptide FV7

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tingting; Wu, Di; Li, Weizhong; Zheng, Xin; Li, Weifen; Shan, Anshan

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid peptides integrating different functional domains of peptides have many advantages, such as remarkable antimicrobial activity, lower hemolysis and ideal cell selectivity, compared with natural antimicrobial peptides. FV7 (FRIRVRV-NH2), a consensus amphiphilic sequence was identified as being analogous to host defense peptides. In this study, we designed a series of hybrid peptides FV7-LL-37 (17–29) (FV-LL), FV7-magainin 2 (9–21) (FV-MA) and FV7-cecropin A (1–8) (FV-CE) by combining the FV7 sequence with the small functional sequences LL-37 (17–29) (LL), magainin 2 (9–21) (MA) and cecropin A (1–8) (CE) which all come from well-described natural peptides. The results demonstrated that the synthetic hybrid peptides, in particular FV-LL, had potent antibacterial activities over a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with lower hemolytic activity than other peptides. Furthermore, fluorescent spectroscopy indicated that the hybrid peptide FV-LL exhibited marked membrane destruction by inducing outer and inner bacterial membrane permeabilization, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that FV-LL damaged membrane integrity by disrupting the bacterial membrane. Inhibiting biofilm formation assays also showed that FV-LL had similar anti-biofilm activity compared with the functional peptide sequence FV7. Synthetic cationic hybrid peptides based on FV7 could provide new models for combining different functional domains and demonstrate effective avenues to screen for novel antimicrobial agents. PMID:28178190

  5. Comprehensive Development Program of Hunter-Killer Peptides for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    hydrophobic, and had solubility problems. We then re-designed the peptide as ALLLAIRRR-KKK to increase solubility . Year Abbr. Peptide 3 HP-3 [CNGRC...cell culture experiments confirmed that HK-4 was now soluble , and that we had not lost anti- mitochondria swelling properties, and had in fact gained...the peptides would be expected to inhibit the metastasis of sarcoma and other APN-positive tumor cells. Indeed, the other APN inhibitors, curcumin

  6. CD4+/CD25+ regulatory cells inhibit activation of tumor-primed CD4+ T cells with IFN-gamma-dependent antiangiogenic activity, as well as long-lasting tumor immunity elicited by peptide vaccination.

    PubMed

    Casares, Noelia; Arribillaga, Laura; Sarobe, Pablo; Dotor, Javier; Lopez-Diaz de Cerio, Ascensión; Melero, Ignacio; Prieto, Jesús; Borrás-Cuesta, Francisco; Lasarte, Juan J

    2003-12-01

    CD25(+) regulatory T (T reg) cells suppress the activation/proliferation of other CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in vitro. Also, down-regulation of CD25(+) T reg cells enhance antitumor immune responses. In this study, we show that depletion of CD25(+) T reg cells allows the host to induce both CD4(+) and CD8(+) antitumoral responses following tumor challenge. Simultaneous depletion of CD25(+) and CD8(+) cells, as well as adoptive transfer experiments, revealed that tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells, which emerged in the absence of CD25(+) T reg cells, were able to reject CT26 colon cancer cells, a MHC class II-negative tumor. The antitumoral effect mediated by CD4(+) T cells was dependent on IFN-gamma production, which exerted a potent antiangiogenic activity. The capacity of the host to mount this antitumor response is lost once the number of CD25(+) T reg cells is restored over time. However, CD25(+) T reg cell depletion before immunization with AH1 (a cytotoxic T cell determinant from CT26 tumor cells) permits the induction of a long-lasting antitumoral immune response, not observed if immunization is conducted in the presence of regulatory cells. A study of the effect of different levels of depletion of CD25(+) T reg cells before immunization with the peptide AH1 alone, or in combination with a Th determinant, unraveled that Th cells play an important role in overcoming the suppressive effect of CD25(+) T reg on the induction of long-lasting cellular immune responses.

  7. Small lytic peptides escape the inhibitory effect of heparan sulfate on the surface of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs), including bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB), display promising anticancer activities. These peptides are unaffected by multidrug resistance mechanisms and have been shown to induce a protective immune response against solid tumors, thus making them interesting candidates for developing novel lead structures for anticancer treatment. Recently, we showed that the anticancer activity by LfcinB was inhibited by the presence of heparan sulfate (HS) on the surface of tumor cells. Based on extensive structure-activity relationship studies performed on LfcinB, shorter and more potent peptides have been constructed. In the present study, we have investigated the anticancer activity of three chemically modified 9-mer peptides and the influence of HS and chondroitin sulfate (CS) on their cytotoxic activity. Methods Various cell lines and red blood cells were used to investigate the anticancer activity and selectivity of the peptides. The cytotoxic effect of the peptides against the different cell lines was measured by use of a colorimetric MTT viability assay. The influence of HS and CS on their cytotoxic activity was evaluated by using HS/CS expressing and HS/CS deficient cell lines. The ability of soluble HS and CS to inhibit the cytotoxic activity of the peptides and the peptides' affinity for HS and CS were also investigated. Results The 9-mer peptides displayed selective anticancer activity. Cells expressing HS/CS were equally or more susceptible to the peptides than cells not expressing HS/CS. The peptides displayed a higher affinity for HS compared to CS, and exogenously added HS inhibited the cytotoxic effect of the peptides. Conclusions In contrast to the previously reported inhibitory effect of HS on LfcinB, the present study shows that the cytotoxic activity of small lytic peptides was increased or not affected by cell surface HS. PMID:21453492

  8. Decreasing the configurational entropy and the hydrophobicity of EBV-derived peptide 11389 increased its antigenicity, immunogenicity and its ability of inducing IL-6.

    PubMed

    Urquiza, Mauricio; Guevara, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Cristina; Melo-Cardenas, Johanna; Vanegas, Magnolia; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2012-06-01

    Peptide 11389 from CD21-binding region of EBV-gp350/220 protein binds to PBMCs inducing IL-6 expression and inhibiting EBV-binding to PBMCs. In addition, anti-peptide 11389 antibodies recognize EBV-infected cells and inhibit both EBV infection and IL-6 production in PBMCs. We have postulated that native structure stabilization of peptide 11389 sequence can increase its biological activity. The strategy was to modify its sequence to restrict the number of structures that peptide 11389 could acquire in solution (decreasing peptide's configurational entropy) and to weaken the non-relevant intermolecular interactions (decreasing its hydrophobicity), preserving CD21-interacting residues and structure as displayed in the native protein. Thirteen analog peptides were designed and synthesized; most of them were monomers containing an intra-chain disulfide bridge. Analog peptides 34058, 34060, 34061, 34296, 34298, 34299 and 34300 inhibited EBV invasion of PBMCs. Peptides 34059, 34060, 34295 and 34297 induced IL-6 levels in PBMCs (EC50=3.4, 3.3, 0.5, 0.5 μM, respectively) at higher potency than peptide 11389 (EC50=5.8 μM). Peptides 34057, 34059, 34060, 34301 and 34302 interacted with anti-EBV antibodies with affinities from 3 to 50 times higher than peptide 11389. Most of analog peptides were highly immunogenic and elicited antibodies that cross-react with EBV. In conclusion, we have designed peptides displaying higher biological activity than peptide 11389.

  9. Phage displayed peptide recognizing porcine aminopeptidase N is a potent small molecule inhibitor of PEDV entry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three phage-displayed peptides designated H, S and F that recognize porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN), the cellular receptor of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were able to inhibit cell infection by TGEV. These same peptides had no inhibitory effects on infection of Vero cells by po...

  10. Acetohydroxy acid synthase is a target for leucine containing peptide toxicity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gollop, N; Tavori, H; Barak, Z

    1982-01-01

    Acetohydroxy acid synthase from a mutant resistant to leucine-containing peptides was insensitive to leucine inhibition. It is concluded that acetohydroxy acid synthase is a target for the toxicity of the high concentrations of leucine brought into Escherichia coli K-12 by leucine-containing peptides. PMID:7033214

  11. Glycotriazole-peptides derived from the peptide HSP1: synergistic effect of triazole and saccharide rings on the antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Junior, Eduardo F C; Guimarães, Carlos F R C; Franco, Lucas L; Alves, Ricardo J; Kato, Kelly C; Martins, Helen R; de Souza Filho, José D; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Munhoz, Victor H O; Resende, Jarbas M; Verly, Rodrigo M

    2017-08-01

    This work proposes a strategy that uses solid-phase peptide synthesis associated with copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition reaction to promote the glycosylation of an antimicrobial peptide (HSP1) containing a carboxyamidated C-terminus (HSP1-NH 2 ). Two glycotriazole-peptides, namely [p-Glc-trz-G 1 ]HSP1-NH 2 and [p-GlcNAc-trz-G 1 ]HSP1-NH 2 , were prepared using per-O-acetylated azide derivatives of glucose and N-acetylglucosamine in the presence of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O) and sodium ascorbate as a reducing agent. In order to investigate the synergistic action of the carbohydrate motif linked to the triazole-peptide structure, a triazole derivative [trz-G 1 ]HSP1-NH 2 was also prepared. A set of biophysical approaches such as DLS, Zeta Potential, SPR and carboxyfluorescein leakage from phospholipid vesicles confirmed higher membrane disruption and lytic activities as well as stronger peptide-LUVs interactions for the glycotriazole-peptides when compared to HSP1-NH 2 and to its triazole derivative, which is in accordance with the performed biological assays: whereas HSP1-NH 2 presents relatively low and [trz-G 1 ]HSP1-NH 2 just moderate fungicidal activity, the glycotriazole-peptides are significantly more effective antifungal agents. In addition, the glycotriazole-peptides and the triazole derivative present strong inhibition effects on ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans, when compared to HSP1-NH 2 alone. In conclusion, the increased fungicidal activity of the glycotriazole-peptides seems to be the result of (A) more pronounced membrane-disruptive properties, which is related to the presence of a saccharide ring, together with (B) the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis, which seems to be related to the presence of both the monosaccharide and the triazole rings.

  12. Biological Applications of Designed Hairpin Peptides: As Antimicrobials and as Inhibitors of Amyloidogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanesam, Kalkena

    More than 40 diseases have been associated with the misfolding of peptides (or proteins) that form fibrils with a very specific morphology. These peptides classified as amyloidogenic peptides have been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Type II Diabetes, Hungtinton's Disease etc. To date, these diseases have no cure, only therapies that can ameliorate the symptoms to a degree. Inhibition of the amyloidogenesis of these peptides has been proposed as a possible treatment option. While small molecules have been heavily tested as inhibitors of amyloidogenesis, peptides have emerged as potential inhibitors. In this work, the ability of a set of designed hairpin peptides to inhibit the amyloidogenesis of two different systems, alpha-synuclein (implicated in Parkinson's Disease) and human amylin (implicated in Type II Diabetes) is tested. Using circular dichroism and thioflavin T fluorescence, the ability of these peptides to inhibit amyloidogenesis is tested. The binding loci of these inhibitors to alpha-synuclein are also explored. The use of peptides as antimicrobials on the other hand is not a novel concept. However, most antimicrobial peptides, both natural and designed, rely heavily on covalent stabilizations in order to maintain secondary structure. In this study, non-covalent stabilizations are applied to a couple of natural as well as designed antimicrobials in order to study the effects of secondary structure stabilization on biological activity.

  13. Effects of Different Concentrations of Collagenous Peptide from Fish Scales on Osteoblast Proliferation and Osteoclast Resorption.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chung-Hsuan; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Chan, Tzu-Min; Huang, Teng-Le; Sen, Yang; Huang, Chih-Yang; Ho, Chien-Yi

    2016-08-31

    The incidence of osteoporosis has increased among the elderly population. Establishing a model of bone remodeling for screening new drugs is critical to identify safe and effective treatments for osteoporosis. In this study, we established a platform to investigate the therapeutic effects of collagenous peptides extracted from scales of two kinds of fish, namely, sparidae and chanos. These peptides were prepared using seven concentrations of collagenous peptide: 100, 80, 60, 40, 20, 10 and 1 mg/ml. Experimental results indicated that collagenous peptides promoted the proliferation of osteoblasts and inhibited the proliferation of mature osteoclasts; the effective concentration of collagenous peptide-sparidae was 10 mg/ml and that of collagenous peptide-chanos was 40 mg/ml. These findings demonstrate that, to a certain extent, collagenous peptides extracted from fish scales can be used to prevent osteoporosis to assist bone remodeling.

  14. Modulation of Neutrophil Apoptosis by Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Isao; Suzuki, Kaori; Niyonsaba, François; Tamura, Hiroshi; Hirata, Michimasa

    2012-01-01

    Peptide antibiotics possess the potent antimicrobial activities against invading microorganisms and contribute to the innate host defense. Human antimicrobial peptides, α-defensins (human neutrophil peptides, HNPs), human β-defensins (hBDs), and cathelicidin (LL-37) not only exhibit potent bactericidal activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, but also function as immunomodulatory molecules by inducing cytokine and chemokine production, and inflammatory and immune cell activation. Neutrophil is a critical effector cell in host defense against microbial infection, and its lifespan is regulated by various pathogen- and host-derived substances. Here, we provided the evidence that HNP-1, hBD-3, and LL-37 cannot only destroy bacteria but also potently modulate (suppress) neutrophil apoptosis, accompanied with the phosphorylation of ERK-1/-2, the downregulation of tBid (an proapoptotic protein) and upregulation of Bcl-xL (an antiapoptotic protein), and the inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential change and caspase 3 activity, possibly via the actions on the distinct receptors, the P2Y6 nucleotide receptor, the chemokine receptor CCR6, and the low-affinity formyl-peptide receptor FPRL1/the nucleotide receptor P2X7, respectively. Suppression of neutrophil apoptosis results in the prolongation of their lifespan and may be advantageous for the host defense against bacterial invasion. PMID:23724322

  15. Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Malanovic, Nermina; Lohner, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have remarkably different structures as well as biological activity profiles, whereupon most of these peptides are supposed to kill bacteria via membrane damage. In order to understand their molecular mechanism and target cell specificity for Gram-positive bacteria, it is essential to consider the architecture of their cell envelopes. Before AMPs can interact with the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-positive bacteria, they have to traverse the cell wall composed of wall- and lipoteichoic acids and peptidoglycan. While interaction of AMPs with peptidoglycan might rather facilitate penetration, interaction with anionic teichoic acids may act as either a trap for AMPs or a ladder for a route to the cytoplasmic membrane. Interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane frequently leads to lipid segregation affecting membrane domain organization, which affects membrane permeability, inhibits cell division processes or leads to delocalization of essential peripheral membrane proteins. Further, precursors of cell wall components, especially the highly conserved lipid II, are directly targeted by AMPs. Thereby, the peptides do not inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis via binding to proteins like common antibiotics, but form a complex with the precursor molecule, which in addition can promote pore formation and membrane disruption. Thus, the multifaceted mode of actions will make AMPs superior to antibiotics that act only on one specific target. PMID:27657092

  16. Molecular mechanism and species specificity of TAP inhibition by herpes simplex virus ICP47.

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, K; Meyer, T H; Uebel, S; Sempé, P; Djaballah, H; Yang, Y; Peterson, P A; Früh, K; Tampé, R

    1996-01-01

    The immediate early protein ICP47 of herpes simplex virus (HSV) inhibits the transporter for antigen processing (TAP)-mediated translocation of antigen-derived peptides across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. This interference prevents assembly of peptides with class I MHC molecules in the ER and ultimately recognition of HSV-infected cells by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, potentially leading to immune evasion of the virus. Here, we demonstrate that recombinant, purified ICP47 containing a hexahistidine tag inhibits peptide import into microsomes of insect cells expressing human TAP, whereas inhibition of peptide transport by murine TAP was much less effective. This finding indicates an intrinsic species-specificity of ICP47 and suggests that no additional proteins interacting specifically with either ICP47 or TAP are required for inhibition of peptide transport. Since neither purified nor induced ICP47 inhibited photocrosslinking of 8-azido-ATP to TAP1 and TAP2 it seems that ICP47 does not prevent ATP from binding to TAP. By contrast, peptide binding was completely blocked by ICP47 as shown both by photoaffinity crosslinking of peptides to TAP and peptide binding to microsomes from TAP-transfected insect cells. Competition experiments indicated that ICP47 binds to human TAP with a higher affinity (50 nM) than peptides whereas the affinity to murine TAP was 100-fold lower. Our data suggest that ICP47 prevents peptides from being translocated by blocking their binding to the substrate-binding site of TAP. Images PMID:8670825

  17. Identification of peptides in human Hsp20 and Hsp27 that possess molecular chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities.

    PubMed

    Nahomi, Rooban B; DiMauro, Michael A; Wang, Benlian; Nagaraj, Ram H

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified peptides in the 'crystallin-domain' of the small heat-shock protein (sHSP) α-crystallin with chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. We found that peptides in heat-shock protein Hsp20 (G71HFSVLLDVKHFSPEEIAVK91) and Hsp27 (D93RWRVSLDVNHFAPDELTVK113) with sequence homology to α-crystallin also have robust chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. Both peptides inhibited hyperthermic and chemically induced aggregation of client proteins. The scrambled peptides of Hsp20 and Hsp27 showed no such effects. The chaperone activities of the peptides were better than those from αA- and αB-crystallin. HeLa cells took up the FITC-conjugated Hsp20 peptide and, when the cells were thermally stressed, the peptide was translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The two peptides inhibited apoptosis in HeLa cells by blocking cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and caspase-3 activation. We found that scrambling the last four amino acids in the two peptides (KAIV in Hsp20 and KTLV in Hsp27) made them unable to enter cells and ineffective against stress-induced apoptosis. Intraperitoneal injection of the peptides prevented sodium-selenite-induced cataract formation in rats by inhibiting protein aggregation and oxidative stress. Our study has identified peptides from Hsp20 and Hsp27 that may have therapeutic benefit in diseases where protein aggregation and apoptosis are contributing factors.

  18. [Ala12]MCD peptide: a lead peptide to inhibitors of immunoglobulin E binding to mast cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Buku, A; Condie, B A; Price, J A; Mezei, M

    2005-09-01

    An effort was made to discover mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide analogs that bind with high affinity to mast cell receptors without triggering secretion of histamine or other mediators of the allergic reaction initiated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) after mast cell activation. Such compounds could serve as inhibitors of IgE binding to mast cell receptors. An alanine scan of MCD peptide reported previously showed that the analog [Ala12]MCD was 120-fold less potent in histamine-releasing activity and fivefold more potent in binding affinity to mast cell receptors than the parent MCD peptide. Because this analog showed marginal intrinsic activity and good binding affinity it was subsequently tested in the present study as an IgE inhibitor. In contrast to MCD peptide, [Ala12]MCD showed a 50% inhibition of IgE binding to the Fc epsilon RI alpha mast cell receptor by using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells and fluorescence polarization. Furthermore, in a beta-hexosaminidase secretory assay, the peptide also showed a 50% inhibition of the secretion of this enzyme caused by IgE. An attempt was made to relate structural changes and biologic differences between the [Ala12]MCD analog and the parent MCD peptide. The present results show that [Ala12]MCD may provide a base for designing agents to prevent IgE/Fc epsilon RI alpha interactions and, consequently, allergic conditions.

  19. Peptide Integrated Optics.

    PubMed

    Handelman, Amir; Lapshina, Nadezda; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2018-02-01

    Bio-nanophotonics is a wide field in which advanced optical materials, biomedicine, fundamental optics, and nanotechnology are combined and result in the development of biomedical optical chips. Silk fibers or synthetic bioabsorbable polymers are the main light-guiding components. In this work, an advanced concept of integrated bio-optics is proposed, which is based on bioinspired peptide optical materials exhibiting wide optical transparency, nonlinear and electrooptical properties, and effective passive and active waveguiding. Developed new technology combining bottom-up controlled deposition of peptide planar wafers of a large area and top-down focus ion beam lithography provides direct fabrication of peptide optical integrated circuits. Finding a deep modification of peptide optical properties by reconformation of biological secondary structure from native phase to β-sheet architecture is followed by the appearance of visible fluorescence and unexpected transition from a native passive optical waveguiding to an active one. Original biocompatibility, switchable regimes of waveguiding, and multifunctional nonlinear optical properties make these new peptide planar optical materials attractive for application in emerging technology of lab-on-biochips, combining biomedical photonic and electronic circuits toward medical diagnosis, light-activated therapy, and health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tam, James P.; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H.; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  1. Peptide-Induced Antiviral Protection by Cytotoxic T Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Manfred; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Hengartner, Hans

    1991-02-01

    A specific antiviral cytotoxic immune response in vivo could be induced by the subcutaneous injection of the T-cell epitope of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) nucleoprotein as an unmodified free synthetic peptide (Arg-Pro-Gln-Ala-Ser-Gly-Val-Tyr-Met-Gly-Asn-Leu-Thr-Ala-Gln) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. This immunization rendered mice into a LCMV-specific protective state as shown by the inhibition of LCMV replication in spleens of such mice. The protection level of these mice correlated with the ability to respond to the peptide challenge by CD8^+ virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. This is a direct demonstration that peptide vaccines can be antivirally protective in vivo, thus encouraging further search for appropriate mixtures of stable peptides that may be used as T-cell vaccines.

  2. Antimicrobial peptides keep insect endosymbionts under control.

    PubMed

    Login, Frédéric H; Balmand, Séverine; Vallier, Agnès; Vincent-Monégat, Carole; Vigneron, Aurélien; Weiss-Gayet, Michèle; Rochat, Didier; Heddi, Abdelaziz

    2011-10-21

    Vertically transmitted endosymbionts persist for millions of years in invertebrates and play an important role in animal evolution. However, the functional basis underlying the maintenance of these long-term resident bacteria is unknown. We report that the weevil coleoptericin-A (ColA) antimicrobial peptide selectively targets endosymbionts within the bacteriocytes and regulates their growth through the inhibition of cell division. Silencing the colA gene with RNA interference resulted in a decrease in size of the giant filamentous endosymbionts, which escaped from the bacteriocytes and spread into insect tissues. Although this family of peptides is commonly linked with microbe clearance, this work shows that endosymbiosis benefits from ColA, suggesting that long-term host-symbiont coevolution might have shaped immune effectors for symbiont maintenance.

  3. Immunosuppressive peptides and their therapeutic applications☆

    PubMed Central

    Thell, Kathrin; Hellinger, Roland; Schabbauer, Gernot; Gruber, Christian W.

    2014-01-01

    The immune system is vital for detecting and evading endogenous and exogenous threats to the body. Failure to regulate this homeostasis leads to autoimmunity, which is often associated with malfunctioning T cell signaling. Several medications are available to suppress over-reactive T lymphocytes, but many of the currently marketed drugs produce severe and life-threatening side-effects. Ribosomally synthesized peptides are gaining recognition from the pharmaceutical industry for their enhanced selectivity and decreased toxicity compared with small molecules; in particular, circular peptides exhibit remarkable stability and increased oral administration properties. For example, plant cyclotides effectively inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation. They are composed of a head-to-tail cyclized backbone and a cystine-knot motif, which confers them with remarkable stability, thus making them attractive pharmaceutical tools. PMID:24333193

  4. Peptide Based Radiopharmaceuticals: Specific Construct Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P; Rhodes, B A; Sharma, S S

    1997-10-21

    The objective of this project was to develop receptor based peptides for dia