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Sample records for a-derived peptides induce

  1. Therapeutic peptides for cancer therapy. Part II - cell cycle inhibitory peptides and apoptosis-inducing peptides.

    PubMed

    Raucher, Drazen; Moktan, Shama; Massodi, Iqbal; Bidwell, Gene L

    2009-10-01

    Therapeutic peptides have great potential as anticancer agents owing to their ease of rational design and target specificity. However, their utility in vivo is limited by low stability and poor tumor penetration. The authors review the development of peptide inhibitors with potential for cancer therapy. Peptides that arrest the cell cycle by mimicking CDK inhibitors or induce apoptosis directly are discussed. The authors searched Medline for articles concerning the development of therapeutic peptides and their delivery. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation directly using peptides that arrest the cell cycle or induce apoptosis is a promising strategy. Peptides can be designed that interact very specifically with cyclins and/or cyclin-dependent kinases and with members of apoptotic cascades. Use of these peptides is not limited by their design, as a rational approach to peptide design is much less challenging than the design of small molecule inhibitors of specific protein-protein interactions. However, the limitations of peptide therapy lie in the poor pharmacokinetic properties of these large, often charged molecules. Therefore, overcoming the drug delivery hurdles could open the door for effective peptide therapy, thus making an entirely new class of molecules useful as anticancer drugs.

  2. An antimicrobial helix A-derived peptide of heparin cofactor II blocks endotoxin responses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Singh, Shalini; Mörgelin, Matthias; Schmidtchen, Artur; Malmsten, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Host defense peptides are key components of the innate immune system, providing multi-facetted responses to invading pathogens. Here, we describe that the peptide GKS26 (GKSRIQRLNILNAKFAFNLYRVLKDQ), corresponding to the A domain of heparin cofactor II (HCII), ameliorates experimental septic shock. The peptide displays antimicrobial effects through direct membrane disruption, also at physiological salt concentration and in the presence of plasma and serum. Biophysical investigations of model lipid membranes showed the antimicrobial action of GKS26 to be mirrored by peptide incorporation into, and disordering of, bacterial lipid membranes. GKS26 furthermore binds extensively to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as its endotoxic lipid A moiety, and displays potent anti-inflammatory effects, both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, for mice challenged with ip injection of LPS, GKS26 suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduces vascular leakage and infiltration in lung tissue, and normalizes coagulation. Together, these findings suggest that GKS26 may be of interest for further investigations as therapeutic against severe infections and septic shock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Membrane Perturbation Induced by Interfacially Adsorbed Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, Assaf; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam; May, Sylvio

    2004-01-01

    The structural and energetic characteristics of the interaction between interfacially adsorbed (partially inserted) α-helical, amphipathic peptides and the lipid bilayer substrate are studied using a molecular level theory of lipid chain packing in membranes. The peptides are modeled as “amphipathic cylinders” characterized by a well-defined polar angle. Assuming two-dimensional nematic order of the adsorbed peptides, the membrane perturbation free energy is evaluated using a cell-like model; the peptide axes are parallel to the membrane plane. The elastic and interfacial contributions to the perturbation free energy of the “peptide-dressed” membrane are evaluated as a function of: the peptide penetration depth into the bilayer's hydrophobic core, the membrane thickness, the polar angle, and the lipid/peptide ratio. The structural properties calculated include the shape and extent of the distorted (stretched and bent) lipid chains surrounding the adsorbed peptide, and their orientational (C-H) bond order parameter profiles. The changes in bond order parameters attendant upon peptide adsorption are in good agreement with magnetic resonance measurements. Also consistent with experiment, our model predicts that peptide adsorption results in membrane thinning. Our calculations reveal pronounced, membrane-mediated, attractive interactions between the adsorbed peptides, suggesting a possible mechanism for lateral aggregation of membrane-bound peptides. As a special case of interest, we have also investigated completely hydrophobic peptides, for which we find a strong energetic preference for the transmembrane (inserted) orientation over the horizontal (adsorbed) orientation. PMID:15189858

  4. Surfactant-induced assembly of enzymatically-stable peptide hydrogels

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Brad H.; Martinez, Alina M.; Wheeler, Jill S.; ...

    2015-04-07

    The secondary structure of peptides in the presence of interacting additives is an important topic of study, having implications in the application of peptide science to a broad range of modern technologies. Surfactants constitute a class of biologically relevant compounds that are known to influence both peptide conformation and aggregation or assembly. In addition, we have characterized the secondary structure of a linear nonapeptide composed of a hydrophobic alanine/phenylalanine core flanked by hydrophilic acid/amine units. We show that the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induces the formation of β-sheets and macroscopic gelation in this otherwise unstructured peptide. Through comparisonmore » to related additives, we propose that SDS-induced secondary structure formation is the result of amphiphilicity created by electrostatic binding of SDS to the peptide. In addition, we demonstrate a novel utility of surfactants in manipulating and stabilizing peptide nanostructures. SDS is used to simultaneously induce secondary structure in a peptide and to inhibit the activity of a model enzyme, resulting in a peptide hydrogel that is impervious to enzymatic degradation. These results complement our understanding of the behavior of peptides in the presence of interacting secondary molecules and provide new potential pathways for programmable organization of peptides by the addition of such components.« less

  5. Surfactant-induced assembly of enzymatically-stable peptide hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Brad H.; Martinez, Alina M.; Wheeler, Jill S.

    The secondary structure of peptides in the presence of interacting additives is an important topic of study, having implications in the application of peptide science to a broad range of modern technologies. Surfactants constitute a class of biologically relevant compounds that are known to influence both peptide conformation and aggregation or assembly. In addition, we have characterized the secondary structure of a linear nonapeptide composed of a hydrophobic alanine/phenylalanine core flanked by hydrophilic acid/amine units. We show that the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induces the formation of β-sheets and macroscopic gelation in this otherwise unstructured peptide. Through comparisonmore » to related additives, we propose that SDS-induced secondary structure formation is the result of amphiphilicity created by electrostatic binding of SDS to the peptide. In addition, we demonstrate a novel utility of surfactants in manipulating and stabilizing peptide nanostructures. SDS is used to simultaneously induce secondary structure in a peptide and to inhibit the activity of a model enzyme, resulting in a peptide hydrogel that is impervious to enzymatic degradation. These results complement our understanding of the behavior of peptides in the presence of interacting secondary molecules and provide new potential pathways for programmable organization of peptides by the addition of such components.« less

  6. Coarse Graining to Investigate Membrane Induced Peptide Folding of Anticancer Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Sai; Xu, Hongcheng; Matysiak, Silvina

    Information about membrane induced peptide folding mechanisms using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations is a challenge due to time and length scale issues.We recently developed a low resolution Water Explicit Polarizable PROtein coarse-grained Model by adding oppositely charged dummy particles inside protein backbone beads.These two dummy particles represent a fluctuating dipole,thus introducing structural polarization into the coarse-grained model.With this model,we were able to achieve significant α- β secondary structure content de novo,without any added bias.We extended the model to zwitterionic and anionic lipids,by adding oppositely charged dummy particles inside polar beads, to capture the ability of the head group region to form hydrogen bonds.We use zwitterionic POPC and anionic POPS as our model lipids, and a cationic anticancer peptide,SVS1,as our model peptide.We have characterized the driving forces for SVS1 folding on lipid bilayers with varying anionic and zwitterionic lipid compositions.Based on our results, dipolar interactions between peptide backbone and lipid head groups contribute to stabilize folded conformations.Cooperativity in folding is induced by both intra peptide and membrane-peptide interaction.

  7. Peptide and non-peptide opioid-induced hyperthermia in rabbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    The intracerebroventricular administration of prototype nonpeptide opioid receptor (mu, kappa, and sigma) agonists, morphine, ketocyclazocine, and N-allyl-normetazocine was found to induce hyperthermia in rabbits. The similar administration of peptide opioids like beta-endorphin (BE), methionine-enkephalin (ME), and its synthetic analogue D-ala2-methionine-enkephalinamide (DAME) was also found to cause hyperthermia. Results indicate that only the liver-like transport system is important to the ventricular inactivation of BE and DAME. Prostaglandins and norepinephrine were determined not to be involved in peptide and nonpeptide opioid-induced hyperthermia. In addition, cAMP was not required since a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, theophylline, did not accentuate the hyperthermia due to peptide and nonpeptide opioids. Naloxone-sensitive receptors were found to be involved in the induction of hyperthermia by morphine, BE, ME, and DAME since naloxone attenuated them. However, the hyperthermic response to ketocyclazocine and N-allyl-normetazocine was not antagonized by naloxone.

  8. Chiral Sulfoxide-Induced Single Turn Peptide α-Helicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Jiang, Fan; Zhao, Bingchuan; Lin, Huacan; Tian, Yuan; Xie, Mingsheng; Bai, Guoyun; Gilbert, Adam M.; Goetz, Gilles H.; Liras, Spiros; Mathiowetz, Alan A.; Price, David A.; Song, Kun; Tu, Meihua; Wu, Yujie; Wang, Tao; Flanagan, Mark E.; Wu, Yun-Dong; Li, Zigang

    2016-01-01

    Inducing α-helicity through side-chain cross-linking is a strategy that has been pursued to improve peptide conformational rigidity and bio-availability. Here we describe the preparation of small peptides tethered to chiral sulfoxide-containing macrocyclic rings. Furthermore, a study of structure-activity relationships (SARs) disclosed properties with respect to ring size, sulfur position, oxidation state, and stereochemistry that show a propensity to induce α-helicity. Supporting data include circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), NMR spectroscopy, and a single crystal X-ray structure for one such stabilized peptide. Finally, theoretical studies are presented to elucidate the effect of chiral sulfoxides in inducing backbone α-helicity. PMID:27934919

  9. Peptide-Induced Antiviral Protection by Cytotoxic T Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Manfred; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Hengartner, Hans

    1991-02-01

    A specific antiviral cytotoxic immune response in vivo could be induced by the subcutaneous injection of the T-cell epitope of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) nucleoprotein as an unmodified free synthetic peptide (Arg-Pro-Gln-Ala-Ser-Gly-Val-Tyr-Met-Gly-Asn-Leu-Thr-Ala-Gln) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. This immunization rendered mice into a LCMV-specific protective state as shown by the inhibition of LCMV replication in spleens of such mice. The protection level of these mice correlated with the ability to respond to the peptide challenge by CD8^+ virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. This is a direct demonstration that peptide vaccines can be antivirally protective in vivo, thus encouraging further search for appropriate mixtures of stable peptides that may be used as T-cell vaccines.

  10. Steric-electronic effects in malarial peptides inducing sterile immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno-Vranich, Armando; Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@mail.com; Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is it evident that the residues position are relevant regarding of {phi} angular value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The geometry considered for detailing the alterations undergone by HABPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inter planar interactions ruled by clashes between the atoms making them up. -- Abstract: Conserved Plasmodium falciparum high activity binding peptides' (HABPs) most relevant proteins involved in malaria parasite invasion are immunologically silent; critical binding residues must therefore be specifically replaced to render them highly immunogenic and protection-inducing. Such changes have a tremendous impact on these peptides' steric-electronic effects, such as modifications to peptide length peptide bonds and electronic orbitals' disposition,more » to allow a better fit into immune system MHCII molecules and better interaction with the TCR which might account for the final immunological outcome.« less

  11. [Chromogranin A derived peptide CGA47-66 inhibits hyper-permeability of blood brain barrier in mice with sepsis].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Dan; Jiang, Liping; Wei, Fu; Xu, Shan

    2016-02-01

    To explore the effect of chromofungin (CHR), a chromogranin A (CGA) derived peptide CGA47-66, on hyper-permeability of blood brain barrier in septic mice. 120 healthy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into groups, with 12 mice in each group. Seventy-two mice were used for dynamic observation of the contents of water and Evan blue (EB) in brain tissue after being treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Another 48 mice were divided into normal saline control group (NS group), LPS induced sepsis model group (LPS group), low-dose CHR pretreatment group (CL+LPS group), and high-dose CHR pretreatment group (CH+LPS group). The septic model was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg LPS 0.1 mL, and the mice in NS group was given equal volume of normal saline. The mice in CL+LPS group and CH+LPS group were intraperitoneally injected with 15.5 μg/kg and 77.5 μg/kg CHR 10 minutes before LPS injection. Six hours after LPS injection, 4 mL/kg of 2% EB was injected via caudal vein, the contents of water and EB in brain tissue were determined, and EB immune fluorescence in brain tissue was determined to assess the changes in permeability of blood brain barrier. Brain pathology was observed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. With the extension of time after LPS injection, the contents of water and EB in brain tissue were gradually increased, and the time of difference with statistical significance appeared earlier when compared with that of control group in the contents of water than that in EB contents (3 hours and 6 hours, respectively). The contents of water and EB in brain tissue in LPS group were significantly increased as compared with NS group [water content: (79.77±0.62)% vs. (78.28±0.44)%, P < 0.01; EB content (μg/g): 13.87±4.50 vs. 7.13±1.76, P < 0.05]. CHR pretreatment with either of two dosages could reverse the increase in water and EB contents in brain tissue induced by LPS, and the effect was more significant in CH+LPS group [water

  12. Peptide hydrogelation triggered by enzymatic induced pH switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei; Li, Ying

    2016-07-01

    It remains challenging to develop methods that can precisely control the self-assembling kinetics and thermodynamics of peptide hydrogelators to achieve hydrogels with optimal properties. Here we report the hydrogelation of peptide hydrogelators by an enzymatically induced pH switch, which involves the combination of glucose oxidase and catalase with D-glucose as the substrate, in which both the gelation kinetics and thermodynamics can be controlled by the concentrations of D-glucose. This novel hydrogelation method could result in hydrogels with higher mechanical stability and lower hydrogelation concentrations. We further illustrate the application of this hydrogelation method to differentiate different D-glucose levels.

  13. Lipopolysaccharide induces amyloid formation of antimicrobial peptide HAL-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiarong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; Chen, Wei; Sun, Hongbin; Wang, Junfeng

    2014-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the important component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contributes to the integrity of the outer membrane and protects the cell against bactericidal agents, including antimicrobial peptides. However, the mechanisms of interaction between antimicrobial peptides and LPS are not clearly understood. Halictines-2 (HAL-2), one of the novel antimicrobial peptides, was isolated from the venom of the eusocial bee Halictus sexcinctus. HAL-2 has exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and even against cancer cells. Here, we studied the interactions between HAL-2 and LPS to elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of HAL-2 in vitro. Our results show that HAL-2 adopts a significant degree of β-strand structure in the presence of LPS. LPS is capable of inducing HAL-2 amyloid formation, which may play a vital role in its antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-aging peptide bioregulators induce reactivation of chromatin.

    PubMed

    Lezhava, T; Monaselidze, J; Kadotani, T; Dvalishvili, N; Buadze, T

    2006-04-01

    The effect of synthetic peptide bioregulators (Epitalon, Livagen and Vilon) on structural and facultative heterochromatin of cultivated lymphocytes have been studied among old (75-88yr.) people. The data obtained indicate that epitalon, livagen and vilon: 1) activate synthetic processes, caused by reactivation of ribosomal genes as a result of deheterochromatinization (decondensation) of nucleolus organizer regions; 2) induce unrolling (deheterochromatinization) of total heterochromatin; 3) release genes repressed by heterochromatinization (condensation) of euchromatic regions forming facultative heterochromatin; 4) epitalon and livagen induce deheterochromatinization (decondensation) of pericentromeric structural heterochromatin of the chromosomes1 and 9. However, vilon does not induce deheterochromatinization of pericentromeric structural heterochromatin. These results indicate that peptide bioregulators Epitalon, Livagen and Vilon cause activation (deheterochromatinization) of chromatin in lymphocytes of old individuals.

  15. UV laser-induced cross-linking in peptides

    PubMed Central

    Leo, Gabriella; Altucci, Carlo; Bourgoin-Voillard, Sandrine; Gravagnuolo, Alfredo M.; Esposito, Rosario; Marino, Gennaro; Costello, Catherine E.; Velotta, Raffaele; Birolo, Leila

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE The aim of this study was to demonstrate, and to characterize by high resolution mass spectrometry, that it is possible to preferentially induce covalent cross-links in peptides by using high energy femtosecond UV laser pulses. The cross-link is readily formed only when aromatic amino acids are present in the peptide sequence. METHODS Three peptides, xenopsin, angiotensin I, interleukin, individually or in combination, were exposed to high energy femtosecond UV laser pulses, either alone or in the presence of spin trapping molecules, the reaction products being characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry. RESULTS High resolution mass spectrometry and spin trapping strategies showed that cross-linking occurs readily, proceeds via a radical mechanism, and is the highly dominant reaction, proceeding without causing significant photo-damage in the investigated range of experimental parameters. CONCLUSIONS High energy femtosecond UV laser pulses can be used to induce covalent cross-links between aromatic amino acids in peptides, overcoming photo-oxidation processes, that predominate as the mean laser pulse intensity approaches illumination conditions achievable with conventional UV light sources. PMID:23754800

  16. Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP): a still unresolved riddle.

    PubMed

    Kovalzon, Vladimir M; Strekalova, Tatyana V

    2006-04-01

    Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) was isolated from rabbit cerebral venous blood by Schoenenberger-Monnier group from Basel in 1977 and initially regarded as a candidate sleep-promoting factor. However, the link between DSIP and sleep has never been further characterized, in part because of the lack of isolation of the DSIP gene, protein and possible related receptor. Thus the hypothesis regarding DSIP as a sleep factor is extremely poorly documented and still weak. Although DSIP itself presented a focus of study for a number of researchers, its natural occurrence and biological activity still remains obscure. DSIP structure is different from any other known representative of the various peptide families. In this mini-review we hypothesize the existence of a DSIP-like peptide(s) that is responsible (at least partly) for DSIP-like immunoreactivity and DSIP biological activity. This assumption is based on: (i) a highly specific distribution of DSIP-like immunoreactivity in the neurosecretory hypothalamic nuclei of various vertebrate species that are not particularly relevant for sleep regulation, as revealed by the histochemical studies of the Geneva group (Charnay et al.); (ii) a large spectrum of DSIP biological activity revealed by biochemical and physiological studies in vitro; (iii) significant slow-wave sleep (SWS) promoting activity of certain artificial DSIP structural analogues (but not DSIP itself!) in rabbits and rats revealed by our early studies; and (iv) significant SWS-promoting activity of a naturally occurring dermorphin-decapeptide that is structurally similar to DSIP (in five of the nine positions) and the sleep-suppressing effect of its optical isomer, as revealed in rabbits. Potential future studies are outlined, including natural synthesis and release of this DSIP-like peptide and its role in neuroendocrine regulation.

  17. Huperzine A derivative M3 protects PC12 cells against sodium nitroprusside-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Na; Hu, Jin-feng; Yuan, Yu-he; Zhang, Xin-yuan; Dai, Jun-gui; Chen, Nai-hong

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of M3, a derivative of huperzine A, on the apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in PC12 cells. Methods: Cell viability was detected using MTT method. Apoptosis was examined with annexin V/prodium iodide (PI) stain. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using fluorophotometric quantitation. The amount of malonaldehyde (MDA) was determined with MDA detection kits. The expression of caspase-3 and Hsp70 were analyzed using Western blotting. Results: Exposure of PC12 cells to SNP (200 μmol/L) for 24 h decreased the cell viability to 69.0% of that in the control group. Pretreatment with M3 (10 μmol/L) or huperzine A (10 μmol/L) significantly protected the cells against SNP-induced injury and apoptosis; the ratio of apoptotic bodies in PC12 cells was decreased from 27.3% to 15.0%. Pretreatment with M3 (10 μmol/L) significantly decreased ROS and MDA levels, and increased the expression of Hsp70 in the cells. Quercetin (10 μmol/L) blocked the protective effect of M3, while did not influence on that of huperzine A. Conclusion: M3 protects PC12 cells against SNP-induced apoptosis, possible due to ROS scavenging and Hsp70 induction. PMID:22120967

  18. Atrial natriuretic peptide induces acrosomal exocytosis of human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Rotem, R; Zamir, N; Keynan, N; Barkan, D; Breitbart, H; Naor, Z

    1998-02-01

    Acrosomal exocytosis in mammalian spermatozoa is a process essential for fertilization. We report here that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) markedly stimulates acrosomal exocytosis of capacitated human spermatozoa. Typically, ANP exerts some of its actions via activation of the ANP receptor (ANPR-A), a particulate guanylyl cyclase-linked receptor, and subsequent formation of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). We found that ANP-stimulated acrosome reaction was inhibited by the competitive ANPR-A antagonist anantin, indicating a receptor-mediated process. A linear fragment of ANP, ANP-(13-28), and another ANP-like compound, brain natriuretic peptide, were inactive. The stimulatory effect of ANP on acrosome reaction was mimicked by the permeable cGMP analog, 8-bromo-cGMP (8-BrcGMP). Addition of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, staurosporine and GF-109203X, resulted in a dose-related inhibition of ANP-induced acrosome reaction. Also, downregulation of endogeneous PKC activity resulted in inhibition of ANP- but not 8-BrcGMP-induced acrosome reaction. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ abolished ANP-induced acrosome reaction. Thus ANP via Ca2+ influx, PKC activation, and stimulation of particulate guanylyl cyclase may play a role in the induction of acrosome reaction of human spermatozoa.

  19. Identification of a candidate therapeutic autophagy–inducing peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shoji-Kawata, Sanae; Sumpter, Rhea; Leveno, Matthew; Campbell, Grant R.; Zou, Zhongju; Kinch, Lisa; Wilkins, Angela D.; Sun, Qihua; Pallauf, Kathrin; MacDuff, Donna; Huerta, Carlos; Virgin, Herbert W.; Helms, J. Bernd; Eerland, Ruud; Tooze, Sharon A.; Xavier, Ramnik; Lenschow, Deborah J.; Yamamoto, Ai; King, David; Lichtarge, Olivier; Grishin, Nick V.; Spector, Stephen A.; Kaloyanova, Dora V.; Levine, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The lysosomal degradation pathway of autophagy has a crucial role in defence against infection, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer and ageing. Accordingly, agents that induce autophagy may have broad therapeutic applications. One approach to developing such agents is to exploit autophagy manipulation strategies used by microbial virulence factors. Here we show that a peptide, Tat–beclin 1—derived from a region of the autophagy protein, beclin 1, which binds human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Nef—is a potent inducer of autophagy, and interacts with a newly identified negative regulator of autophagy, GAPR-1 (also called GLIPR2). Tat–beclin 1 decreases the accumulation of polyglutamine expansion protein aggregates and the replication of several pathogens (including HIV-1) in vitro, and reduces mortality in mice infected with chikungunya or West Nile virus. Thus, through the characterization of a domain of beclin 1 that interacts with HIV-1 Nef, we have developed an autophagy-inducing peptide that has potential efficacy in the treatment of human diseases. PMID:23364696

  20. Induced resistance to the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Orjan; Haukland, Hanne H; Jenssen, Håvard; Krämer, Manuela; Sandvik, Kjersti; Ulvatne, Hilde; Vorland, Lars H

    2005-06-20

    This study was designed to investigate inducible intrinsic resistance against lactoferricin B in Staphylococcus aureus. Serial passage of seven S. aureus strains in medium with increasing concentrations of peptide resulted in an induced resistance at various levels in all strains. The induced resistance was unstable and decreased relatively rapidly during passages in peptide free medium but the minimum inhibitory concentration remained elevated after thirty passages. Cross-resistance to penicillin G and low-level cross-resistance to the antimicrobial peptides indolicidin and Ala(8,13,18)-magainin-II amide [corrected] was observed. No cross-resistance was observed to the human cathelicidin LL-37. In conclusion, this study shows that S. aureus has intrinsic resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial peptides that can be induced upon exposure, and that this may confer low-level cross-resistance to other antimicrobial peptides.

  1. Atrial natriuretic peptide induces acrosomal exocytosis in bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Zamir, N; Barkan, D; Keynan, N; Naor, Z; Breitbart, H

    1995-08-01

    The induction of acrosomal exocytosis in capacitated bull spermatozoa by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was studied in vitro. ANP markedly stimulated acrosomal exocytosis in a calcium-dependent manner. Typically, ANP exerts its action via activation of the ANP receptor (ANPR-A), a particulate guanylyl cyclase-linked receptor, and subsequent formation of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). We found that the ANP-induced acrosome reaction was inhibited by the competitive ANPR-A receptor antagonist-anantin, indicating a receptor-mediated effect. We could mimic the effect of ANP on the acrosome reaction by using 8-bromo-cGMP, suggesting that cGMP may serve as a signal transducer mediating the acrosome reaction. Indeed, the ANP-induced acrosome reaction was associated with elevation of cGMP levels. cGMP can also be formed by activation of the soluble form of guanylyl cyclase. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) stimulated cGMP accumulation and acrosome reaction of capacitated spermatozoa. Thus ANP and the nitric oxide-releasing compound SNP, via activation of guanylyl cyclase (the former activating the particulate and the latter activating the soluble form of the enzyme), may play a significant role in the induction of the acrosome reaction.

  2. Peptide Fragmentation by Corona Discharge Induced Electrochemical Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John R.; Hess, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental studies have greatly improved our understanding of electrospray, including the underlying electrochemical reactions. Generally regarded as disadvantageous, we have recently shown that corona discharge (CD) can be used as an effective method to create a radical cation species [M]+•, thus optimizing the electrochemical reactions that occur on the surface of the stainless steel (SS) electrospray capillary tip. This technique is known as CD initiated electrochemical ionization (CD-ECI). Here, we report on the fundamental studies using CD-ECI to induce analytically useful in-source fragmentation of a range of molecules that complex transition metals. Compounds that have been selectively fragmented using CD-ECI include enolate forming phenylglycine containing peptides, glycopeptides, nucleosides and phosphopeptides. Collision induced dissociation (CID) or other activation techniques were not necessary for CD-ECI fragmentation. A four step mechanism was proposed: 1. Complexation using either Fe in the SS capillary tip material or Cu(II) as an offline complexation reagent; 2. Electrochemical oxidation of the complexed metal and thus formation of a radical cation (e.g.; Fe - e− → Fe +•); 3. Radical fragmentation of the complexed compound. 4. Electrospray ionization of the fragmented neutrals. Fragmentation patterns resembling b- and y-type ions were observed and allowed the localization of the phosphorylation sites. PMID:20869880

  3. Effective modification of cell death-inducing intracellular peptides by means of a photo-cleavable peptide array-based screening system.

    PubMed

    Kozaki, Ikko; Shimizu, Kazunori; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    Intracellular functional peptides that play a significant role inside cells have been receiving a lot of attention as regulators of cellular activity. Previously, we proposed a novel screening system for intracellular functional peptides; it combined a photo-cleavable peptide array system with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). Various peptides can be delivered into cells and intracellular functions of the peptides can be assayed by means of our system. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that the proposed screening system can be used for assessing the intracellular activity of peptides. The cell death-inducing peptide (LNLISKLF) identified in a mitochondria-targeting domain (MTD) of the Noxa protein served as an original peptide sequence for screening of peptides with higher activity via modification of the peptide sequence. We obtained 4 peptides with higher activity, in which we substituted serine (S) at the fifth position with phenylalanine (F), valine (V), tryptophan (W), or tyrosine (Y). During analysis of the mechanism of action, the modified peptides induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration, which was caused by the treatment with the original peptide. Higher capacity for cell death induction by the modified peptides may be caused by increased hydrophobicity or an increased number of aromatic residues. Thus, the present work suggests that the intracellular activity of peptides can be assessed using the proposed screening system. It could be used for identifying intracellular functional peptides with higher activity through comprehensive screening. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Antimicrobial Peptide Lysozyme Is Induced after Multiple Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Klüter, Tim; Fitschen-Oestern, Stefanie; Lippross, Sebastian; Weuster, Matthias; Pufe, Thomas; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Beyer, Andreas; Seekamp, Andreas; Varoga, Deike

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide lysozyme is an important factor of innate immunity and exerts high potential of antibacterial activity. In the present study we evaluated the lysozyme expression in serum of multiple injured patients and subsequently analyzed their possible sources and signaling pathways. Expression of lysozyme was examined in blood samples of multiple trauma patients from the day of trauma until 14 days after trauma by ELISA. To investigate major sources of lysozyme, its expression and regulation in serum samples, different blood cells, and tissue samples were analysed by ELISA and real-time PCR. Neutrophils and hepatocytes were stimulated with cytokines and supernatant of Staphylococcus aureus. The present study demonstrates the induction and release of lysozyme in serum of multiple injured patients. The highest lysozyme expression of all tested cells and tissues was detected in neutrophils. Stimulation with trauma-related factors such as interleukin-6 and S. aureus induced lysozyme expression. Liver tissue samples of patients without trauma show little lysozyme expression compared to neutrophils. After stimulation with bacterial fragments, lysozyme expression of hepatocytes is upregulated significantly. Toll-like receptor 2, a classic receptor of Gram-positive bacterial protein, was detected as a possible target for lysozyme induction. PMID:25258475

  5. Peptide YY induces characteristic meal patterns of aged mice.

    PubMed

    Mogami, Sachiko; Yamada, Chihiro; Fujitsuka, Naoki; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-11-01

    Changes in eating behavior occur in the elderly due to oral and swallowing dysfunctions. We aimed to clarify the difference between basal meal patterns of young and aged mice in relation to appetite regulating hormones. Thirty two of young (7-week-old) and aged (23-25-month-old) C57BL/6 male mice were acclimated to a single housing and then transferred to a highly sensitive automated feeding monitoring device. Feeding behavior was monitored from the onset of the dark phase after habituation to the device. Plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels were assessed under the several feeding status or after treatment of PYY. PYY and its receptor (NPY Y2 receptor, Y2R) antagonist were intraperitoneally administered 30min before the monitoring. Although the basal 24-h meal amounts did not differ by age, the total meal time and frequency of minimum feeding activity (bout) were significantly increased and the average bout size and time per bout were significantly decreased in aged mice. PYY dynamics were abnormal and the temporal reduction in food intake by exogenous PYY was more prominent in aged mice than in young mice. PYY administration to young mice induced aged-like meal patterns, and Y2R antagonist administration to aged mice induced young-like meal patterns. Aged mice exhibited characteristic meal patterns probably due to PYY metabolism dysfunction and/or enhanced PYY-Y2R signaling, suggesting a novel method for assessing eating difficulties in aged animals and a potential target for the remedy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Computer-aided designing of immunosuppressive peptides based on IL-10 inducing potential

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Gandharva; Usmani, Salman Sadullah; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Sandeep; Sharma, Meenu; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2017-01-01

    In the past, numerous methods have been developed to predict MHC class II binders or T-helper epitopes for designing the epitope-based vaccines against pathogens. In contrast, limited attempts have been made to develop methods for predicting T-helper epitopes/peptides that can induce a specific type of cytokine. This paper describes a method, developed for predicting interleukin-10 (IL-10) inducing peptides, a cytokine responsible for suppressing the immune system. All models were trained and tested on experimentally validated 394 IL-10 inducing and 848 non-inducing peptides. It was observed that certain types of residues and motifs are more frequent in IL-10 inducing peptides than in non-inducing peptides. Based on this analysis, we developed composition-based models using various machine-learning techniques. Random Forest-based model achieved the maximum Matthews’s Correlation Coefficient (MCC) value of 0.59 with an accuracy of 81.24% developed using dipeptide composition. In order to facilitate the community, we developed a web server “IL-10pred”, standalone packages and a mobile app for designing IL-10 inducing peptides (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/IL-10pred/). PMID:28211521

  7. T cell priming versus T cell tolerance induced by synthetic peptides

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that synthetic peptides are able to both induce and tolerize T cells. We have examined the parameters leading either to priming or tolerance of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in vivo with a major histocompatibility complex class I (H-2 Db) binding peptide derived from the glycoprotein (GP aa33-41) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). By varying dose, route, and frequency of LCMV GP peptide application, we found that a single local subcutaneous injection of 50-500 micrograms peptide emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant protected mice against LCMV infection, whereas repetitive and systemic intraperitoneal application of the same dose caused tolerance of LCMV-specific CTL. The peptide-induced tolerance was transient in euthymic mice but permanent in thymectomized mice. These findings are relevant for a selective use of peptides as a therapeutic approach: peptide-induced priming of T cells for vaccination and peptide-mediated T cell tolerance for intervention in immunopathologies and autoimmune diseases. PMID:7540654

  8. Mutual amino acid catalysis in salt-induced peptide formation supports this mechanism's role in prebiotic peptide evolution.

    PubMed

    Suwannachot, Y; Rode, B M

    1999-10-01

    The presence of some amino acids and dipeptides under the conditions of the salt-induced peptide formation reaction (aqueous solution at 85 degrees C, Cu(II) and NaCl) has been found to catalyze the formation of homopeptides of other amino acids, which are otherwise produced only in traces or not at all by this reaction. The condensation of Val, Leu and Lys to form their homodipeptides can occur to a considerable extent due to catalytic effects of other amino acids and related compounds, among which glycine, histidine, diglycine and diketopiperazine exhibit the most remarkable activity. These findings also lead to a modification of the table of amino acid sequences preferentially formed by the salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction, previously used for a comparison with the sequence preferences in membrane proteins of primitive organisms.

  9. Mutual Amino Acid Catalysis in Salt-Induced Peptide Formation Supports this Mechanism's Role in Prebiotic Peptide Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannachot, Yuttana; Rode, Bernd M.

    1999-10-01

    The presence of some amino acids and dipeptides under the conditions of the salt-induced peptide formation reaction (aqueous solution at 85 °C, Cu(II) and NaCl) has been found to catalyze the formation of homopeptides of other amino acids, which are otherwise produced only in traces or not at all by this reaction. The condensation of Val, Leu and Lys to form their homodipeptides can occur to a considerable extent due to catalytic effects of other amino acids and related compounds, among which glycine, histidine, diglycine and diketopiperazine exhibit the most remarkable activity. These findings also lead to a modification of the table of amino acid sequences preferentially formed by the salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction, previously used for a comparison with the sequence preferences in membrane proteins of primitive organisms

  10. Stress-induced release of GUT peptides in young women classified as restrained or unrestrained eaters.

    PubMed

    Hilterscheid, Esther; Laessle, Reinhold

    2015-12-01

    Basal release of GUT peptides has been found to be altered in restrained eaters. Stress-induced secretion, however, has not yet been described, but could be a biological basis of overeating that exposes restrained eaters to a higher risk of becoming obese. The aim of the present study was to compare restrained and unrestrained eaters with respect to stress-induced release of the GUT peptides ghrelin and PYY. 46 young women were studied. Blood sampling for peptides was done before and after the Trier Social Stress Test. Ghrelin secretion after stress was significantly elevated in the restrained eaters, whereas no significant differences were detected for PYY. Stress-induced release of GUT peptides can be interpreted as a cause as well as a consequence of restrained eating.

  11. Trehalose induced conformational changes in the amyloid-β peptide.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shagufta H; Kumar, Raj

    2017-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible and progressive brain disorder featured by the accumulation of Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, which forms insoluble assemblies that builds up into plaques resulting in cognitive decline and memory loss. The formation of fibrillar amyloid deposits is accompanied by conformational changes of the soluble Aβ peptide into β-sheet structures. Strategies to prevent or reduce Aβ aggregation using small molecules such as trehalose have shown beneficial effects under in vitro cell- and in vivo mouse- models. However, the role of trehalose in reducing Aβ peptide aggregation is still not clear. In the present study, using circular dichroism- and fluorescence emission- spectroscopies, we demonstrated that in the presence of trehalose, Aβ peptide adopts more helical content and undergoes a disorder/order conformational transition. Based on our findings, we conclude that trehalose affects the conformation of Aβ peptide to form α-helical structure, which may inhibit the formation of β-sheets and thereby aggregation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Curcumin on the metal ion induced fibrillization of Amyloid-β peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rona

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Curcumin on Cu(II) and Zn(II) induced oligomerization and protofibrillization of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide has been studied by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Curcumin could significantly reduce the β-sheet content of the peptide in a time dependent manner. It also plays an antagonistic role in β-sheet formation that is promoted by metal ions like Cu(II) and Zn(II) as observed by Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) images show that spontaneous fibrillization of the peptide occurs in presence of Cu(II) and Zn(II) but is inhibited on incubation of the peptide with Curcumin indicating the beneficial role of Curcumin in preventing the aggregation of Aβ peptide.

  13. Neutrophil formyl-peptide receptors. Relationship to peptide-induced responses and emphysema.

    PubMed

    Stockley, R A; Grant, R A; Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Hill, S L; Burnett, D

    1994-02-01

    A reproducible assay was established to assess the number of formyl-peptide receptors expressed on the surface of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Using this assay the number of receptors was shown to demonstrate wide within- and between-subject variability. However, the receptor numbers were related to the chemotactic response (r = 0.572) and degranulation response (r = 0.512) to the peptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Subsequent studies showed increased receptor numbers on PMN from patients with emphysema (median, 459 x 10(3)/cell; range, 207 to 1,080) as compared with age-matched control subjects (median, 288; range, 168 to 519; p < 0.02), which may explain the increased chemotactic response of the PMN to formyl peptides. This difference was not observed in patients with bronchiectasis, suggesting that the increased receptor number is a feature of emphysema. Furthermore, the increase was largely a feature of smokers with emphysema (median, 463; range, 362 to 1,080), whereas age-matched smokers without emphysema had lower numbers of receptors (p < 0.001; median, 332; range, 243 to 411). This observation suggests a mechanism that may explain the susceptibility of some smokers to the development of emphysema.

  14. Osteogenic differentiation of 3D cultured mesenchymal stem cells induced by bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Lukasova, Vera; Buzgo, Matej; Sovkova, Vera; Dankova, Jana; Rampichova, Michala; Amler, Evzen

    2017-08-01

    Bioactive peptides derived from receptor binding motifs of native proteins are a potent source of bioactive molecules that can induce signalling pathways. These peptides could substitute for osteogenesis promoting supplements. The work presented here compares three kinds of bioactive peptides derived from collagen III, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) and BMP-2 with their potential osteogenic activity on the model of porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs). pMSCs were cultured on electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibrous scaffolds with different concentrations of the bioactive peptides without addition of any osteogenic supplement. Analysis of pMSCs cultures included measurement of the metabolic activity and proliferation, immunofluorescence staining and also qPCR. Results showed no detrimental effect of the bioactive peptides to cultured pMSCs. Based on qPCR analysis, the bioactive peptides are specific for osteogenic differentiation with no detectable expression of collagen II. Our results further indicate that peptide derived from BMP-2 protein promoted the expression of mRNA for osteocalcin (OCN) and collagen I significantly compared to control groups and also supported deposition of OCN as observed by immunostaining method. The data suggest that bioactive peptide with an amino acid sequence of KIPKASSVPTELSAISTLYL derived from BMP-2 protein was the most potent for triggering osteogenic differentiation of pMSCs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A Unified Conformational Selection and Induced Fit Approach to Protein-Peptide Docking

    PubMed Central

    Trellet, Mikael; Melquiond, Adrien S. J.; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Protein-peptide interactions are vital for the cell. They mediate, inhibit or serve as structural components in nearly 40% of all macromolecular interactions, and are often associated with diseases, making them interesting leads for protein drug design. In recent years, large-scale technologies have enabled exhaustive studies on the peptide recognition preferences for a number of peptide-binding domain families. Yet, the paucity of data regarding their molecular binding mechanisms together with their inherent flexibility makes the structural prediction of protein-peptide interactions very challenging. This leaves flexible docking as one of the few amenable computational techniques to model these complexes. We present here an ensemble, flexible protein-peptide docking protocol that combines conformational selection and induced fit mechanisms. Starting from an ensemble of three peptide conformations (extended, a-helix, polyproline-II), flexible docking with HADDOCK generates 79.4% of high quality models for bound/unbound and 69.4% for unbound/unbound docking when tested against the largest protein-peptide complexes benchmark dataset available to date. Conformational selection at the rigid-body docking stage successfully recovers the most relevant conformation for a given protein-peptide complex and the subsequent flexible refinement further improves the interface by up to 4.5 Å interface RMSD. Cluster-based scoring of the models results in a selection of near-native solutions in the top three for ∼75% of the successfully predicted cases. This unified conformational selection and induced fit approach to protein-peptide docking should open the route to the modeling of challenging systems such as disorder-order transitions taking place upon binding, significantly expanding the applicability limit of biomolecular interaction modeling by docking. PMID:23516555

  16. A unified conformational selection and induced fit approach to protein-peptide docking.

    PubMed

    Trellet, Mikael; Melquiond, Adrien S J; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J

    2013-01-01

    Protein-peptide interactions are vital for the cell. They mediate, inhibit or serve as structural components in nearly 40% of all macromolecular interactions, and are often associated with diseases, making them interesting leads for protein drug design. In recent years, large-scale technologies have enabled exhaustive studies on the peptide recognition preferences for a number of peptide-binding domain families. Yet, the paucity of data regarding their molecular binding mechanisms together with their inherent flexibility makes the structural prediction of protein-peptide interactions very challenging. This leaves flexible docking as one of the few amenable computational techniques to model these complexes. We present here an ensemble, flexible protein-peptide docking protocol that combines conformational selection and induced fit mechanisms. Starting from an ensemble of three peptide conformations (extended, a-helix, polyproline-II), flexible docking with HADDOCK generates 79.4% of high quality models for bound/unbound and 69.4% for unbound/unbound docking when tested against the largest protein-peptide complexes benchmark dataset available to date. Conformational selection at the rigid-body docking stage successfully recovers the most relevant conformation for a given protein-peptide complex and the subsequent flexible refinement further improves the interface by up to 4.5 Å interface RMSD. Cluster-based scoring of the models results in a selection of near-native solutions in the top three for ∼75% of the successfully predicted cases. This unified conformational selection and induced fit approach to protein-peptide docking should open the route to the modeling of challenging systems such as disorder-order transitions taking place upon binding, significantly expanding the applicability limit of biomolecular interaction modeling by docking.

  17. A Study into the Collision-induced Dissociation (CID) Behavior of Cross-Linked Peptides*

    PubMed Central

    Giese, Sven H.; Fischer, Lutz; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-01-01

    Cross-linking/mass spectrometry resolves protein–protein interactions or protein folds by help of distance constraints. Cross-linkers with specific properties such as isotope-labeled or collision-induced dissociation (CID)-cleavable cross-linkers are in frequent use to simplify the identification of cross-linked peptides. Here, we analyzed the mass spectrometric behavior of 910 unique cross-linked peptides in high-resolution MS1 and MS2 from published data and validate the observation by a ninefold larger set from currently unpublished data to explore if detailed understanding of their fragmentation behavior would allow computational delivery of information that otherwise would be obtained via isotope labels or CID cleavage of cross-linkers. Isotope-labeled cross-linkers reveal cross-linked and linear fragments in fragmentation spectra. We show that fragment mass and charge alone provide this information, alleviating the need for isotope-labeling for this purpose. Isotope-labeled cross-linkers also indicate cross-linker-containing, albeit not specifically cross-linked, peptides in MS1. We observed that acquisition can be guided to better than twofold enrich cross-linked peptides with minimal losses based on peptide mass and charge alone. By help of CID-cleavable cross-linkers, individual spectra with only linear fragments can be recorded for each peptide in a cross-link. We show that cross-linked fragments of ordinary cross-linked peptides can be linearized computationally and that a simplified subspectrum can be extracted that is enriched in information on one of the two linked peptides. This allows identifying candidates for this peptide in a simplified database search as we propose in a search strategy here. We conclude that the specific behavior of cross-linked peptides in mass spectrometers can be exploited to relax the requirements on cross-linkers. PMID:26719564

  18. Role of chirality in peptide-induced formation of cholesterol-rich domains

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The chiral specificity of the interactions of peptides that induce the formation of cholesterol-rich domains has not been extensively investigated. Both the peptide and most lipids are chiral, so there is a possibility that interactions between peptide and lipid could require chiral recognition. On the other hand, in our models with small peptides, the extent of folding of the peptide to form a specific binding pocket is limited. We have determined that replacing cholesterol with its enantiomer, ent-cholesterol, alters the modulation of lipid organization by peptides. The phase-transition properties of SOPC (1-stearoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine):cholesterol [in a 6:4 ratio with 0.2 mol% PtdIns(4,5)P2] are not significantly altered when ent-cholesterol replaces cholesterol. However, in the presence of 10 mol% of a 19-amino-acid, N-terminally myristoylated fragment (myristoyl-GGKLSKKKKGYNVNDEKAK-amide) of the protein NAP-22 (neuronal axonal membrane protein), the lipid mixture containing cholesterol undergoes separation into cholesterol-rich and cholesterol-depleted domains. This does not occur when ent-cholesterol replaces cholesterol. In another example, when N-acetyl-Leu-Trp-Tyr-Ile-Lys-amide (N-acetyl-LWYIK-amide) is added to SOPC:cholesterol (7:3 ratio), there is a marked increase in the transition enthalpy of the phospholipid, indicating separation of a cholesterol-depleted domain of SOPC. This phenomenon completely disappears when ent-cholesterol replaces cholesterol. The all-D-isomer of N-acetyl-LWYIK-amide also induces the formation of cholesterol-rich domains with natural cholesterol, but does so to a lesser extent with ent-cholesterol. Thus specific peptide chirality is not required for interaction with cholesterol-containing membranes. However, a specific chirality of membrane lipids is required for peptide-induced formation of cholesterol-rich domains. PMID:15929726

  19. Angiotensin peptides attenuate platelet-activating factor-induced inflammatory activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Yokoyama, Izumi; Ebina, Keiichi

    2015-11-01

    Angiotensin (Ang)--a peptide that is part of the renin-angiotensin system-induces vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure; Ang peptides, especially AngII, can also act as potent pro-inflammatory mediators. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent phospholipid mediator that is implicated in many inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ang peptides (AngII, AngIII, and AngIV) on PAF-induced inflammatory activity. In experiments using a rat hind-paw oedema model, AngII markedly and dose-dependently attenuated the paw oedema induced by PAF. The inhibitory effects of AngIII and AngIV on PAF-induced paw oedema were lower than that of AngII. Two Ang receptors, the AT1 and AT2 receptors, did not affect the AngII-mediated attenuation of PAF-induced paw oedema. Moreover, intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence studies demonstrated that AngII, AngIII, and AngIV interact with PAF, and that their affinities were closely correlated with their inhibitory effects on PAF-induced rat paw oedema. Also, AngII interacted with metabolite/precursor of PAF (lyso-PAF), and an oxidized phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxo-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC), which bears a marked structural resemblance to PAF. Furthermore, POVPC dose-dependently inhibited AngII-mediated attenuation of PAF-induced paw oedema. These results suggest that Ang peptides can attenuate PAF-induced inflammatory activity through binding to PAF and lyso-PAF in rats. Therefore, Ang peptides may be closely involved in the regulation of many inflammatory diseases caused by PAF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin,more » respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the {beta}1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong

  1. Peptide Fragmentation Induced by Radicals at Atmospheric Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Vilkov, Andrey N.; Laiko, Victor V.; Doroshenko, Vladimir M.

    2009-01-01

    A novel ion dissociation technique, which is capable of providing an efficient fragmentation of peptides at essentially atmospheric pressure conditions, is developed. The fragmentation patterns observed often contain c-type fragments that are specific to ECD/ETD, along with the y-/b- fragments that are specific to CAD. In the presented experimental setup, ion fragmentation takes place within a flow reactor located in the atmospheric pressure region between the ion source and the mass spectrometer. According to a proposed mechanism, the fragmentation results from the interaction of ESI-generated analyte ions with the gas-phase radical species produced by a corona discharge source. PMID:19034885

  2. Duck-billed platypus venom peptides induce Ca2+ influx in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kita, Masaki; Black, David StC; Ohno, Osamu; Yamada, Kaoru; Kigoshi, Hideo; Uemura, Daisuke

    2009-12-23

    The duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is one of the few venomous Australian mammals. We previously found that its crude venom potently induces Ca(2+) influx in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. Guided by this bioassay, we identified 11 novel peptides, including the heptapeptide H-His-Asp-His-Pro-Asn-Pro-Arg-OH (1). Compounds 1-4 and 5-11 coincided with the 6-9 N-terminal residues of Ornithorhynchus venom C-type natriuretic peptide (OvCNP) and the 132-150 part of OvCNP precursor peptide, respectively. Heptapeptide 1, which is one of the primary components of the venom fluid (approximately 200 ng/microL), induced a significant increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in IMR-32 cells at 75 microM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of the isolation of the N-terminal linear fragments of CNPs in any mammal.

  3. Alterations in circadian and meal-induced gut peptide levels in lean and obese rats.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Alexander A; Moran, Timothy H; Dailey, Megan J

    2017-12-01

    Alterations in gut hormone signaling are a likely contributing factor to the metabolic disturbances associated with overweight/obesity as they coordinate the timing of feeding behavior, absorption, and utilization of nutrients. These hormones are released in response to food intake, or follow a circadian or anticipatory pattern of secretion that is independent of nutrient stimulation. The aim of this study was to identify the degree to which high-fat diet-induced obesity would alter the daily rhythm of gut peptide plasma levels (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], peptide YY [PYY], insulin or amylin [AMY]) or meal-induced levels in the middle of the light or dark cycle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (OBESE) or chow (LEAN), implanted with jugular catheters, and blood samples were taken every 2 h throughout the light/dark cycle while freely feeding or after an Ensure liquid meal. We found that even when OBESE and LEAN animals ate the same kcals and have a similar pattern of food intake, there is a difference in both the levels and rhythm of plasma gut peptides. GLP-1 and PYY are higher during the light cycle in LEAN animals and AMY is higher in the OBESE group throughout the light/dark cycle. There was also a differential response of plasma gut signals after the Ensure meal, even though the composition and amount of intake of the meal were the same in both groups. These changes occur prior to the high-fat diet induced loss of glycemic control and may be a target for early intervention. Impact statement The aim of this study was to test if obesity would alter the daily rhythm of gut peptides or meal-induced levels in the middle of the light or dark cycle. We found that even when animals are eating the same amount (in kcal) of food that the obese animals have altered daily rhythms and meal-induced gut peptide levels. In particular, we are the first to show that obesity induces increases in peptide YY levels during the light cycle and amylin remains

  4. Lipoproteins/peptides are sepsis-inducing toxins from bacteria that can be neutralized by synthetic anti-endotoxin peptides

    PubMed Central

    de Tejada, Guillermo Martinez; Heinbockel, Lena; Ferrer-Espada, Raquel; Heine, Holger; Alexander, Christian; Bárcena-Varela, Sergio; Goldmann, Torsten; Correa, Wilmar; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Gisch, Nicolas; Sánchez-Gómez, Susana; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Schürholz, Tobias; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis, a life-threatening syndrome with increasing incidence worldwide, is triggered by an overwhelming inflammation induced by microbial toxins released into the bloodstream during infection. A well-known sepsis-inducing factor is the membrane constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), signalling via Toll-like receptor-4. Although sepsis is caused in more than 50% cases by Gram-positive and mycoplasma cells, the causative compounds are still poorly described. In contradicting investigations lipoproteins/-peptides (LP), lipoteichoic acids (LTA), and peptidoglycans (PGN), were made responsible for eliciting this pathology. Here, we used human mononuclear cells from healthy donors to determine the cytokine-inducing activity of various LPs from different bacterial origin, synthetic and natural, and compared their activity with that of natural LTA and PGN. We demonstrate that LP are the most potent non-LPS pro-inflammatory toxins of the bacterial cell walls, signalling via Toll-like receptor-2, not only in vitro, but also when inoculated into mice: A synthetic LP caused sepsis-related pathological symptoms in a dose-response manner. Additionally, these mice produced pro-inflammatory cytokines characteristic of a septic reaction. Importantly, the recently designed polypeptide Aspidasept® which has been proven to efficiently neutralize LPS in vivo, inhibited cytokines induced by the various non-LPS compounds protecting animals from the pro-inflammatory activity of synthetic LP. PMID:26390973

  5. Epithalon peptide induces telomerase activity and telomere elongation in human somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Bondarev, I E; Butyugov, A A

    2003-06-01

    Addition of Epithalon peptide in telomerase-negative human fetal fibroblast culture induced expression of the catalytical subunit, enzymatic activity of telomerase, and telomere elongation, which can be due to reactivation of telomerase gene in somatic cells and indicates the possibility of prolonging life span of a cell population and of the whole organism.

  6. Selective collision-induced fragmentation of ortho-hydroxybenzyl-aminated lysyl-containing tryptic peptides.

    PubMed

    Simon, E S; Papoulias, P G; Andrews, P C

    2013-07-30

    In protein studies that employ tandem mass spectrometry the manipulation of protonated peptide fragmentation through exclusive dissociation pathways may be preferred in some applications over the comprehensive amide backbone fragmentation that is typically observed. In this study, we characterized the selective cleavage of the side-chain Cζ-Nε bond of peptides with ortho-hydroxybenzyl-aminated lysine residues. Internal lysyl residues of representative peptides were derivatized via reductive amination with ortho-hydroxybenzaldehyde. The modified peptides were analyzed using collision-induced dissociation (CID) on an Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometer. Theoretical calculations using computational methods (density functional theory) were performed to investigate the potential dissociation mechanisms for the Cζ-Nε bond of the derivatized lysyl residue resulting in the formation of the observed product ions. Tandem mass spectra of the derivatized peptide ions exhibit product peaks corresponding to selective cleavage of the side-chain Cζ-Nε bond that links the derivative to lysine. The ortho-hydroxybenzyl derivative is released either as a neutral moiety [C7H6O1] or as a carbocation [C7H7O1](+) through competing pathways (retro-Michael versus Carbocation Elimination (CCE), respectively). The calculated transition state activation barriers indicate that the retro-Michael pathway is kinetically favored over CCE and both are favored over amide cleavage. The application of ortho-hydroxybenzyl amination is a promising peptide derivatization scheme for promoting selective dissociation pathways in the tandem mass spectrometry of protonated peptides. This can be implemented in the rational development of peptide reactive reagents for applications that may benefit from selective fragmentation paths (including crosslinking or MRM reagents). Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Role of Episodic Postprandial Peptides in Exercise-Induced Compensatory Eating.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Catherine; Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellström, Per M; Näslund, Erik; Finlayson, Graham

    2017-11-01

    Prolonged physical activity gives rise to variable degrees of body weight and fat loss, and is associated with variability in appetite control. Whether these effects are modulated by postprandial, peptides is unclear. We examined the role of postprandial peptide response in compensatory eating during 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and in response to high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) and low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC) meals. Of the 32 overweight/obese individuals, 16 completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 16 nonexercising control subjects were matched for age and body mass index. Exercisers were classified as responders or nonresponders depending on net energy balance from observed compared with expected body composition changes from measured energy expenditure. Plasma samples were collected before and after meals to compare profiles of total and acylated ghrelin, insulin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and total peptide YY (PYY) between HFLC and LFHC meals, pre- and postexercise, and between groups. No differences between pre- and postintervention peptide release. Responders had greater suppression of acylated ghrelin (P < 0.05) than nonresponders, as well as higher postprandial levels of GLP-1 (P < 0.001) and total PYY (P < 0.001) compared with nonresponders and control subjects. No impact on postprandial peptide release was found after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. Responders to exercise-induced weight loss showed greater suppression of acylated ghrelin and greater release of GLP-1 and total PYY at baseline. Therefore, episodic postprandial peptide profiles appear to form part of the pre-existing physiology of exercise responders and suggest differences in satiety potential may underlie exercise-induced compensatory eating. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  8. Protective effect of C-peptide on experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy and the possible link between C-peptide and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Elbassuoni, Eman A; Aziz, Neven M; El-Tahawy, Nashwa F

    2018-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy one of the major microvascular diabetic complications. Besides hyperglycemia, other factors contribute to the development of diabetic complications as the proinsulin connecting peptide, C-peptide. We described the role of C-peptide replacement therapy on experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy, and its potential mechanisms of action by studying the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a mediator of C-peptide effects by in vivo modulating its production by N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Renal injury markers measured were serum urea, creatinine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and angiotensin II, and malondialdehyde, total antioxidant, Bcl-2, and NO in renal tissue. In conclusion, diabetic induction resulted in islet degenerations and decreased insulin secretion with its metabolic consequences and subsequent renal complications. C-Peptide deficiencies in diabetes might have contributed to the metabolic and renal error, since C-peptide treatment to the diabetic rats completely corrected these errors. The beneficial effects of C-peptide are partially antagonized by L-NAME coadministration, indicating that NO partially mediates C-peptide effects.

  9. Light-induced propulsion of a giant liposome driven by peptide nanofibre growth.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Hiroshi; Uemura, Akihito; Morishita, Kazushi; Kohiki, Taiki; Shigenaga, Akira; Otaka, Akira; Matsuura, Kazunori

    2018-04-19

    Light-driven nano/micromotors are attracting much attention, not only as molecular devices but also as components of bioinspired robots. In nature, several pathogens such as Listeria use actin polymerisation machinery for their propulsion. Despite the development of various motors, it remains challenging to mimic natural systems to create artificial motors propelled by fibre formation. Herein, we report the propulsion of giant liposomes driven by light-induced peptide nanofibre growth on their surface. Peptide-DNA conjugates connected by a photocleavage unit were asymmetrically introduced onto phase-separated giant liposomes. Ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation cleaved the conjugates and released peptide units, which self-assembled into nanofibres, driving the translational movement of the liposomes. The velocity of the liposomes reflected the rates of the photocleavage reaction and subsequent fibre formation of the peptide-DNA conjugates. These results showed that chemical design of the light-induced peptide nanofibre formation is a useful approach to fabricating bioinspired motors with controllable motility.

  10. Treatment with grass allergen peptides improves symptoms of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  11. Formation of active inclusion bodies induced by hydrophobic self-assembling peptide GFIL8.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Zhou, Bihong; Hu, Weike; Zhao, Qing; Lin, Zhanglin

    2015-06-16

    In the last few decades, several groups have observed that proteins expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs) in bacteria could still be biologically active when terminally fused to an appropriate aggregation-prone partner such as pyruvate oxidase from Paenibacillus polymyxa (PoxB). More recently, we have demonstrated that three amphipathic self-assembling peptides, an alpha helical peptide 18A, a beta-strand peptide ELK16, and a surfactant-like peptide L6KD, have properties that induce target proteins into active IBs. We have developed an efficient protein expression and purification approach for these active IBs by introducing a self-cleavable intein molecule. In this study, the self-assembling peptide GFIL8 (GFILGFIL) with only hydrophobic residues was analyzed, and this peptide effectively induced the formation of cytoplasmic IBs in Escherichia coli when terminally attached to lipase A and amadoriase II. The protein aggregates in cells were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis and retained ~50% of their specific activities relative to the native counterparts. We constructed an expression and separation coupled tag (ESCT) by incorporating an intein molecule, the Mxe GyrA intein. Soluble target proteins were successfully released from active IBs upon cleavage of the intein between the GFIL8 tag and the target protein, which was mediated by dithiothreitol. A variant of GFIL8, GFIL16 (GFILGFILGFILGFIL), improved the ESCT scheme by efficiently eliminating interference from the soluble intein-GFIL8 molecule. The yields of target proteins at the laboratory scale were 3.0-7.5 μg/mg wet cell pellet, which is comparable to the yields from similar ESCT constructs using 18A, ELK16, or the elastin-like peptide tag scheme. The all-hydrophobic self-assembling peptide GFIL8 induced the formation of active IBs in E. coli when terminally attached to target proteins. GFIL8 and its variant GFIL16 can act as a "pull-down" tag to produce purified soluble proteins with

  12. Isoflavone-deprived soy peptide suppresses mammary tumorigenesis by inducing apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoungsook; Choi, Kyusam; Kim, Hyemee; Kim, Kwangbae; Lee, Mi Hee; Kim Rim, Jean Chinock

    2009-01-01

    During carcinogenesis, NF-κB mediates processes associated with deregulation of the normal control of proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Thus, suppression of NF-κB has been linked with chemoprevention of cancer. Accumulating findings reveal that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone and a component of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex that plays a central role in NF-κB activation. HSP90 also stabilizes key proteins involved in cell cycle control and apoptosis signaling. We have determined whether the exogenous administration of isoflavone-deprived soy peptide prevents 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis and investigated the mechanism of action. Dietary administration of soy peptide (3.3 g/rat/day) significantly reduced the incidence of ductal carcinomas (50%), the number of tumors per multiple tumor-bearing rats (49%; P < 0.05), and extended the latency period of tumor development (8.07 ± 0.92 weeks) compared to control diet animals (10.80 ± 1.30; P < 0.05). Our results have further demonstrated that soy peptide (1) dramatically inhibits the expression of HSP90, thereby suppressing signaling pathway leading to NF-κB activation; (2) induces expression of p21, p53, and caspase-3 proteins; and (3) inhibits expression of VEGF. In agreement with our in vivo data, soy peptide treatment inhibited the growth of human breast MCF-7 tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our in vivo and in vitro results suggest chemopreventive and tumor suppressive functions of isoflavone-deprived soy peptide by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis. PMID:19322027

  13. A synthetic peptide blocking TRPV1 activation inhibits UV-induced skin responses.

    PubMed

    Kang, So Min; Han, Sangbum; Oh, Jang-Hee; Lee, Young Mee; Park, Chi-Hyun; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Transient receptor potential type 1 (TRPV1) can be activated by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and mediates UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and proinflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes. Various chemicals and compounds targeting TRPV1 activation have been developed, but are not in clinical use mostly due to their safety issues. We aimed to develop a novel TRPV1-targeting peptide to inhibit UV-induced responses in human skin. We designed and generated a novel TRPV1 inhibitory peptide (TIP) which mimics the specific site in TRPV1 (aa 701-709: Gln-Arg-Ala-Ile-Thr-Ile-Leu-Asp-Thr, QRAITILDT), Thr 705 , and tested its efficacy of blocking UV-induced responses in HaCaT, mouse, and human skin. TIP effectively inhibited capsaicin-induced calcium influx and TRPV1 activation. Treatment of HaCaT with TIP prevented UV-induced increases of MMP-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In mouse skin in vivo, TIP inhibited UV-induced skin thickening and prevented UV-induced expression of MMP-13 and MMP-9. Moreover, TIP attenuated UV-induced erythema and the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, IL-6, and IL-8 in human skin in vivo. The novel synthetic peptide targeting TRPV1 can ameliorate UV-induced skin responses in vitro and in vivo, providing a promising therapeutic approach against UV-induced inflammation and photoaging. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Peptide-induced emesis in dogs: possible relevance to radiation-induced emesis. Final report Oct 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.O.

    1982-09-01

    Results of earlier investigators indicate that radioemesis is mediated by some humoral agent(s). Peptides are likely candiates since they exert a number of biological effects and are released from storage sites by various stimuli, including radiation. Peptides at various concentrations were injected singly intravenously into conscious dogs, and the dog's emetic response was observed. Of the peptides tested, neurotensin, angiotensin II, vasopressin, oxytocin, and TRH produced consistent emetic responses. Inhibition of drug-induced emesis was studied both centrally (chlorpromazine) and peripherally (domperidone) acting dopamine antagonists. Results indicate inhibition by chlorpromazine, which crosses the blood brain barrier, but only partial blockade bymore » domperidone, which does not cross the blood brain barrier. Preliminary studies were conducted attempting to characterize types of receptors on area postrema neurons. Single-cell recordings from these neurons, challenged by iontophoretic administration of various neurotransmitters, show stimulation by glutamic acid and serotonin and inhibiiton by norepinephrine.« less

  15. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides induce cardiovascular collapse and sepsis-like syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Cameron G.; Szasz, Theodora; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Webb, R. Clinton

    2015-01-01

    Fifty percent of trauma patients who present sepsis-like syndrome do not have bacterial infections. This condition is known as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A unifying factor of SIRS and sepsis is cardiovascular collapse. Trauma and severe blood loss cause the release of endogenous molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MIT) are damage-associated molecular patterns that share similarities with bacterial N-formylated peptides and are potent immune system activators. The goal of this study was to investigate whether F-MIT trigger SIRS, including hypotension and vascular collapse via formyl peptide receptor (FPR) activation. We evaluated cardiovascular parameters in Wistar rats treated with FPR or histamine receptor antagonists and inhibitors of the nitric oxide pathway before and after F-MIT infusion. F-MIT, but not nonformylated peptides or mitochondrial DNA, induced severe hypotension via FPR activation and nitric oxide and histamine release. Moreover, F-MIT infusion induced hyperthermia, blood clotting, and increased vascular permeability. To evaluate the role of leukocytes in F-MIT-induced hypotension, neutrophil, basophil, or mast cells were depleted. Depletion of basophils, but not neutrophils or mast cells, abolished F-MIT-induced hypotension. Rats that underwent hemorrhagic shock increased plasma levels of mitochondrial formylated proteins associated with lung damage and antagonism of FPR ameliorated hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury. Finally, F-MIT induced vasodilatation in isolated resistance arteries via FPR activation; however, F-MIT impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in the presence of blood. These data suggest that F-MIT may be the link among trauma, SIRS, and cardiovascular collapse. PMID:25637548

  16. Natriuretic Peptide Receptor Guanylyl Cyclase-A Protects Podocytes from Aldosterone-Induced Glomerular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Yoshihisa; Yokoi, Hideki; Kasahara, Masato; Mori, Kiyoshi; Kato, Yukiko; Kuwabara, Takashige; Imamaki, Hirotaka; Kawanishi, Tomoko; Koga, Kenichi; Ishii, Akira; Tokudome, Takeshi; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Sugawara, Akira; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2012-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides produced by the heart in response to cardiac overload exert cardioprotective and renoprotective effects by eliciting natriuresis, reducing BP, and inhibiting cell proliferation and fibrosis. These peptides also antagonize the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, but whether this mechanism contributes to their renoprotective effect is unknown. Here, we examined the kidneys of mice lacking the guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor for natriuretic peptides under conditions of high aldosterone and high dietary salt. After 4 weeks of administering aldosterone and a high-salt diet, GC-A knockout mice, but not wild-type mice, exhibited accelerated hypertension with massive proteinuria. Aldosterone-infused GC-A knockout mice had marked mesangial expansion, segmental sclerosis, severe podocyte injury, and increased oxidative stress. Reducing the BP with hydralazine failed to lessen such changes; in contrast, blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system markedly reduced albuminuria, ameliorated podocyte injury, and reduced oxidative stress. Furthermore, treatment with the antioxidant tempol significantly reduced albuminuria and abrogated the histologic changes. In cultured podocytes, natriuretic peptides inhibited aldosterone-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that renoprotective properties of the endogenous natriuretic peptide/GC-A system may result from the local inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and oxidative stress in podocytes. PMID:22652704

  17. The VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21 contributes to inflammatory and nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, Carolyn A; Peterson, Cristina D; Speltz, Rebecca H; Riedl, Maureen S; Kitto, Kelley F; Dykstra, Jaclyn A; Braun, Patrick D; Sadahiro, Masato; Salton, Stephen R; Vulchanova, Lucy

    2014-07-01

    VGF (nonacronymic) is a granin-like protein that is packaged and proteolytically processed within the regulated secretory pathway. VGF and peptides derived from its processing have been implicated in neuroplasticity associated with learning, memory, depression, and chronic pain. In sensory neurons, VGF is rapidly increased following peripheral nerve injury and inflammation. Several bioactive peptides generated from the C-terminus of VGF have pronociceptive spinal effects. The goal of the present study was to examine the spinal effects of the peptide TLQP-21 and determine whether it participates in spinal mechanisms of persistent pain. Application of exogenous TLQP-21 induced dose-dependent thermal hyperalgesia in the warm-water immersion tail-withdrawal test. This hyperalgesia was inhibited by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, as well as inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. We used immunoneutralization of TLQP-21 to determine the function of the endogenous peptide in mechanisms underlying persistent pain. In mice injected intradermally with complete Freund adjuvant, intrathecal treatment with anti-TLQP-21 immediately prior to or 5hours after induction of inflammation dose-dependently inhibited tactile hypersensitivity and thermal hyperalgesia. Intrathecal anti-TL21 administration also attenuated the development and maintenance of tactile hypersensitivity in the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. These results provide evidence that endogenous TLQP-21 peptide contributes to the mechanisms of spinal neuroplasticity after inflammation and nerve injury. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Insulin secretion from isolated rat islets induced by the novel hypoglycemic agent A-4166, a derivative of D-phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Tsukuda, K; Sakurada, M; Niki, I; Oka, Y; Kikuchi, M

    1998-01-01

    A derivative of D-phenylalanine, A-4166, reportedly evokes a more rapid and short-lived hypoglycemic action in vivo than any of the currently available sulfonylureas. This novel oral hypoglycemic agent is structurally different from sulfonylureas. Therefore, studies were designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which A-4166 stimulates insulin secretion. Insulin release from incubated or perifused rat islets was dose-dependently stimulated by 10 to 200 mumol/l A-4166, in the presence of 2.8 mmol/l glucose. Both A-4166 and tolbutamide evoke a prompt rise in insulin secretion followed by a sustained gradually decreasing release from perfused islets in the presence of low glucose, although A-4166 appeared to be more sensitive than tolbutamide to subthreshold glucose concentration. Diazoxide abolished the initial release and blunted sustained release. Removing calcium from the perifusate abolished insulin release within 15 minutes. A-4166 inhibited [3H]-glibenclamide binding to HIT cell membranes and 86Rb efflux from ATP-depleted or diazoxide-treated cells. These results suggest that the insulin release induced by A-4166 is relevant to this agent occupying the tolbutamide binding sites. Therefore, one possible mechanism accounting for the more rapid and short-lived hypoglycemic action of A-4166 in vivo, as compared with tolbutamide, may involve the reported differences in the bioavailability of A-4166.

  19. Designing peptide inhibitor of insulin receptor to induce diabetes mellitus type 2 in animal model Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Permatasari, Galuh W; Utomo, Didik H; Widodo

    2016-10-01

    A designing peptide as agent for inducing diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) in an animal model is challenging. The computational approach provides a sophisticated tool to design a functional peptide that may block the insulin receptor activity. The peptide that able to inhibit the binding between insulin and insulin receptor is a warrant for inducing T2DM. Therefore, we designed a potential peptide inhibitor of insulin receptor as an agent to generate T2DM animal model by bioinformatics approach. The peptide has been developed based on the structure of insulin receptor binding site of insulin and then modified it to obtain the best properties of half life, hydrophobicity, antigenicity, and stability binding into insulin receptor. The results showed that the modified peptide has characteristics 100h half-life, high-affinity -95.1±20, and high stability 28.17 in complex with the insulin receptor. Moreover, the modified peptide has molecular weight 4420.8g/Mol and has no antigenic regions. Based on the molecular dynamic simulation, the complex of modified peptide-insulin receptor is more stable than the commercial insulin receptor blocker. This study suggested that the modified peptide has the promising performance to block the insulin receptor activity that potentially induce diabetes mellitus type 2 in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Amyloid-β Peptide Induces Prion Protein Amyloid Formation: Evidence for Its Widespread Amyloidogenic Effect.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ryo

    2018-04-12

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy is associated with misfolding of prion protein (PrP) into an amyloid β-rich aggregate. Previous studies have indicated that PrP interacts with Alzheimer's disease amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), but it remains elusive how this interaction impacts on the misfolding of PrP. This study presents the first in vitro evidence that Aβ induces PrP-amyloid formation at submicromolar concentrations. Interestingly, systematic mutagenesis of PrP revealed that Aβ requires no specific amino acid sequences in PrP, and induces the misfolding of other unrelated proteins (insulin and lysozyme) into amyloid fibrils in a manner analogous to PrP. This unanticipated nonspecific amyloidogenic effect of Aβ indicates that this peptide might be involved in widespread protein aggregation, regardless of the amino acid sequences of target proteins, and exacerbate the pathology of many neurodegenerative diseases. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Site-Specific Pyrolysis Induced Cleavage at Aspartic Acid Residue in Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaofeng; Basile, Franco

    2011-01-01

    A simple and site-specific non-enzymatic method based on pyrolysis has been developed to cleave peptides and proteins. Pyrolytic cleavage was found to be specific and rapid as it induced a cleavage at the C-terminal side of aspartic acid in the temperature range of 220–250 °C in 10 seconds. Electrospray Ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem-MS (MS/MS) were used to characterize and identify pyrolysis cleavage products, confirming that sequence information is conserved after the pyrolysis process in both peptides and protein tested. This suggests that pyrolysis-induced cleavage at aspartyl residues can be used as a rapid protein digestion procedure for the generation of sequence specific protein biomarkers. PMID:17388620

  2. Active protein aggregates induced by terminally attached self-assembling peptide ELK16 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, it has been gradually realized that bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) could be biologically active. In particular, several proteins including green fluorescent protein, β-galactosidase, β-lactamase, alkaline phosphatase, D-amino acid oxidase, polyphosphate kinase 3, maltodextrin phosphorylase, and sialic acid aldolase have been successfully produced as active IBs when fused to an appropriate partner such as the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protein VP1, or the human β-amyloid peptide Aβ42(F19D). As active IBs may have many attractive advantages in enzyme production and industrial applications, it is of considerable interest to explore them further. Results In this paper, we report that an ionic self-assembling peptide ELK16 (LELELKLK)2 was able to effectively induce the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli (E. coli) when attached to the carboxyl termini of four model proteins including lipase A, amadoriase II, β-xylosidase, and green fluorescent protein. These aggregates had a general appearance similar to the usually reported cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs) under transmission electron microscopy or fluorescence confocal microscopy. Except for lipase A-ELK16 fusion, the three other fusion protein aggregates retained comparable specific activities with the native counterparts. Conformational analyses by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the existence of newly formed antiparallel beta-sheet structures in these ELK16 peptide-induced inclusion bodies, which is consistent with the reported assembly of the ELK16 peptide. Conclusions This has been the first report where a terminally attached self-assembling β peptide ELK16 can promote the formation of active inclusion bodies or active protein aggregates in E. coli. It has the potential to render E. coli and other recombinant hosts more efficient as microbial cell factories for protein production. Our observation might also provide hints for

  3. Transferrin-derived synthetic peptide induces highly conserved pro-inflammatory responses of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Haddad, George; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2009-02-01

    We examined the induction of macrophage pro-inflammatory responses by transferrin-derived synthetic peptide originally identified following digestion of transferrin from different species (murine, bovine, human N-lobe and goldfish) using elastase. The mass spectrometry analysis of elastase-digested murine transferrin identified a 31 amino acid peptide located in the N2 sub-domain of the transferrin N-lobe, that we named TMAP. TMAP was synthetically produced and shown to induce a number of pro-inflammatory genes by quantitative PCR. TMAP induced chemotaxis, a potent nitric oxide response, and TNF-alpha secretion in different macrophage populations; P338D1 macrophage-like cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and goldfish macrophages. The treatment of BMDM cultures with TMAP stimulated the production of nine cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, MCP-5, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 gamma, MIP-2, GCSF, KC, VEGF, and RANTES) that was measured using cytokine antibody array and confirmed by Western blot. Our results indicate that transferrin-derived peptide, TMAP, is an immunomodulating molecule capable of inducing pro-inflammatory responses in lower and higher vertebrates.

  4. A 31-residue peptide induces aggregation of tau’s microtubule-binding region in cells

    PubMed Central

    Stöhr, Jan; Wu, Haifan; Nick, Mimi; Wu, Yibing; Bhate, Manasi; Condello, Carlo; Johnson, Noah; Rodgers, Jeffrey; Lemmin, Thomas; Achyraya, Srabasti; Becker, Julia; Robinson, Kathleen; Kelly, Mark J.S.; Gai, Feng; Stubbs, Gerald; Prusiner, Stanley B.; DeGrado, William F.

    2018-01-01

    The self-propagation of misfolded conformations of tau underlies neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. There is considerable interest in discovering the minimal sequence and active conformational nucleus that defines this self-propagating event. The microtubule-binding region, spanning residues 244-372, reproduces much of the aggregation behavior of tau in cells and animal models. Further dissection of the amyloid-forming region to a hexapeptide from the third microtubule-binding repeat resulted in a peptide that rapidly forms fibrils in vitro. We show here that this peptide lacks the ability to seed aggregation of tau244-372 in cells. However, as the hexapeptide is gradually extended to 31 residues, the peptides aggregate more slowly and gain potent activity to induce aggregation of tau244-372 in cells. X-ray fiber diffraction, hydrogen-deuterium exchange and solids NMR studies map the beta-forming region to a 25-residue sequence. Thus, the nucleus for self-propagating aggregation of tau244-372 in cells is packaged in a remarkably small peptide. PMID:28837163

  5. A 31-residue peptide induces aggregation of tau's microtubule-binding region in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöhr, Jan; Wu, Haifan; Nick, Mimi; Wu, Yibing; Bhate, Manasi; Condello, Carlo; Johnson, Noah; Rodgers, Jeffrey; Lemmin, Thomas; Acharya, Srabasti; Becker, Julia; Robinson, Kathleen; Kelly, Mark J. S.; Gai, Feng; Stubbs, Gerald; Prusiner, Stanley B.; Degrado, William F.

    2017-09-01

    The self-propagation of misfolded conformations of tau underlies neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's. There is considerable interest in discovering the minimal sequence and active conformational nucleus that defines this self-propagating event. The microtubule-binding region, spanning residues 244-372, reproduces much of the aggregation behaviour of tau in cells and animal models. Further dissection of the amyloid-forming region to a hexapeptide from the third microtubule-binding repeat resulted in a peptide that rapidly forms fibrils in vitro. We show that this peptide lacks the ability to seed aggregation of tau244-372 in cells. However, as the hexapeptide is gradually extended to 31 residues, the peptides aggregate more slowly and gain potent activity to induce aggregation of tau244-372 in cells. X-ray fibre diffraction, hydrogen-deuterium exchange and solid-state NMR studies map the beta-forming region to a 25-residue sequence. Thus, the nucleus for self-propagating aggregation of tau244-372 in cells is packaged in a remarkably small peptide.

  6. Anticancer β-hairpin peptides: membrane-induced folding triggers activity

    PubMed Central

    Sinthuvanich, Chomdao; Veiga, Ana Salomé; Gupta, Kshitij; Gaspar, Diana; Blumenthal, Robert; Schneider, Joel P.

    2012-01-01

    Several cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently been shown to display anticancer activity via a mechanism that usually entails the disruption of cancer cell membranes. In this work, we designed an 18-residue anticancer peptide, SVS-1, whose mechanism of action is designed to take advantage of the aberrant lipid composition presented on the outer leaflet of cancer cell membranes, which makes the surface of these cells relatively electronegative relative to non-cancerous cells. SVS-1 is designed to remain unfolded and inactive in aqueous solution but preferentially fold at the surface of cancer cells, adopting an amphiphilic β-hairpin structure capable of membrane disruption. Membrane-induced folding is driven by electrostatic interaction between the peptide and the negatively charge membrane surface of cancer cells. SVS-1 is active against a variety of cancer cell lines such as A549 (lung carcinoma), KB (epidermal carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and MDA-MB-436 (breast carcinoma). However, the cytotoxicity towards non-cancerous cells having typical membrane compositions, such as HUVEC and erythrocytes, is low. CD spectroscopy, appropriately designed peptide controls, cell-based studies, liposome leakage assays and electron microscopy support the intended mechanism of action, which leads to preferential killing of cancerous cells. PMID:22413859

  7. LIGR, a protease-activated receptor-2-derived peptide, enhances skin pigmentation without inducing inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Connie B; Chen, Nannan; Scarpa, Richard; Guan, Fei; Babiarz-Magee, Laura; Liebel, Frank; Li, Wen-Hwa; Kizoulis, Menas; Shapiro, Stanley; Seiberg, Miri

    2008-04-01

    The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor that could be activated by serine protease cleavage or by synthetic peptide agonists. We showed earlier that activation of PAR-2 with Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH(2) (SLIGRL), a known PAR-2 activating peptide, induces keratinocyte phagocytosis and increases skin pigmentation, indicating that PAR-2 regulates pigmentation by controlling phagocytosis of melanosomes. Here, we show that Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-NH(2) (LIGR) can also induce skin pigmentation. Both SLIGRL and LIGR increased melanin deposition in vitro and in vivo, and visibly darkened human skins grafted onto severe combined immuno-deficient (SCID) mice. Both SLIGRL and LIGR stimulated Rho-GTP activation resulting in keratinocyte phagocytosis. Interestingly, LIGR activates only a subset of the PAR-2 signaling pathways, and unlike SLIGRL, it does not induce inflammatory processes. LIGR did not affect many PAR-2 signaling pathways, including [Ca(2+)] mobilization, cAMP induction, the induction of cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) expression and the secretion of prostaglandin E2, interleukin-6 and -8. PAR-2 siRNA inhibited LIGR-induced phagocytosis, indicating that LIGR signals via PAR-2. Our data suggest that LIGR is a more specific regulator of PAR-2-induced pigmentation relative to SLIGRL. Therefore, enhancing skin pigmentation by topical applications of LIGR may result in a desired tanned-like skin color, without enhancing inflammatory processes, and without the need of UV exposure.

  8. Bax-inhibiting peptide protects glutamate-induced cerebellar granule cell death by blocking Bax translocation.

    PubMed

    Iriyama, Takayuki; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Kozuma, Shiro; Taketani, Yuji

    2009-02-13

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurological damages and disorders. In the brain damage of immature animals such as neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, the excitotoxicity appears to be more intimately involved through apoptosis. Bax, a member of the Bcl-2 family proteins, plays a key role in the promotion of apoptosis by translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria and the release of apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c. Recently, Bax-inhibiting peptide (BIP), a novel membrane-permeable peptide which can bind Bax in the cytosol and inhibit its translocation to the mitochondria, was developed. To investigate the possibility of a new neuroprotection strategy targeting Bax translocation in glutamate-induced neuronal cell death, cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were exposed to glutamate with or without BIP. Pretreatment of CGNs with BIP elicited a dose-dependent reduction of glutamate-induced neuronal cell death as measured by MTT assay. BIP significantly suppressed both the number of TUNEL-positive cells and the increase in caspases 3 and 9 activities induced by glutamate. In addition, immunoblotting after subcellular fractionation revealed that BIP prevented the glutamate-induced Bax translocation to the mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. These results suggest that agents capable of inhibiting Bax activity such as BIP might lead to new drugs for glutamate-related diseases in the future.

  9. Representing environment-induced helix-coil transitions in a coarse grained peptide model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgicdir, Cahit; Globisch, Christoph; Sayar, Mehmet; Peter, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Coarse grained (CG) models are widely used in studying peptide self-assembly and nanostructure formation. One of the recurrent challenges in CG modeling is the problem of limited transferability, for example to different thermodynamic state points and system compositions. Understanding transferability is generally a prerequisite to knowing for which problems a model can be reliably used and predictive. For peptides, one crucial transferability question is whether a model reproduces the molecule's conformational response to a change in its molecular environment. This is of particular importance since CG peptide models often have to resort to auxiliary interactions that aid secondary structure formation. Such interactions take care of properties of the real system that are per se lost in the coarse graining process such as dihedral-angle correlations along the backbone or backbone hydrogen bonding. These auxiliary interactions may then easily overstabilize certain conformational propensities and therefore destroy the ability of the model to respond to stimuli and environment changes, i.e. they impede transferability. In the present paper we have investigated a short peptide with amphiphilic EALA repeats which undergoes conformational transitions between a disordered and a helical state upon a change in pH value or due to the presence of a soft apolar/polar interface. We designed a base CG peptide model that does not carry a specific (backbone) bias towards a secondary structure. This base model was combined with two typical approaches of ensuring secondary structure formation, namely a C α -C α -C α -C α pseudodihedral angle potential or a virtual site interaction that mimics hydrogen bonding. We have investigated the ability of the two resulting CG models to represent the environment-induced conformational changes in the helix-coil equilibrium of EALA. We show that with both approaches a CG peptide model can be obtained that is environment-transferable and that

  10. Natriuretic peptide type C induces sperm attraction for fertilization in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Nana; Xu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yakun; Hao, Xiaoqiong; Zhao, Yu; Qiao, Jie; Xia, Guoliang; Zhang, Meijia

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa undergo selective movement along the isthmus of the oviduct to the ampulla during ovulation, which is a prerequisite for fertilization. The factor(s) that involves in selective spermatozoa movement is still unknown. In this study, we found that the oviductal epithelium in mouse ampulla expressed high levels of natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC) in the presence of ovulated oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCCs). Spermatozoa expressed NPPC receptor natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2, a guanylyl cyclase) on the midpiece of flagellum. NPPC increased intracellular levels of cGMP and Ca2+ of spermatozoa, and induced sperm accumulation in the capillary by attraction. Importantly, spermatozoa from Npr2 mutant mice were not attracted by NPPC, preventing fertilization in vivo. Oocyte-derived paracrine factors promoted the expression of Nppc mRNA in the ampulla. Therefore, NPPC secreted by oviductal ampulla attracts spermatozoa towards oocytes, which is essential for fertilization. PMID:28054671

  11. CecropinXJ, a silkworm antimicrobial peptide, induces cytoskeleton disruption in esophageal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lijie; Wu, Yanling; Kang, Su; Ma, Ji; Yang, Jianhua; Zhang, Fuchun

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides exist in the non-specific immune system of organism and participate in the innate host defense of each species. CecropinXJ, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, possesses potent anticancer activity and acts preferentially on cancer cells instead of normal cells, but the mechanism of cancer cell death induced by cecropinXJ remains largely unknown. This study was performed to investigate the cytoskeleton-disrupting effects of cecropinXJ on human esophageal carcinoma cell line Eca109 using scanning electron microscopy observation, fluorescence imaging, cell migration and invasion assays, western blotting, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. The electronic microscope and fluorescence imaging observation suggested that cecropinXJ could result in morphological changes and induce damage to microtubules and actin of Eca109 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The cell migration and invasion assays demonstrated that cecropinXJ could inhibit migration and invasion of tumor cells. Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis showed that there was obvious correlation between microtubule depolymerization and actin polymerization induced by cecropinXJ. Moreover, cecropinXJ might also cause decreased expression of α-actin, β-actin, γ-actin, α-tubulin, and β-tubulin genes in concentration- and time-dependent manners. In summary, this study indicates that cecropinXJ triggers cytotoxicity in Eca109 cells through inducing the cytoskeleton destruction and regulating the expression of cytoskeleton proteins. This cecropinXJ-mediated cytoskeleton-destruction effect is instrumental in our understanding of the detailed action of antimicrobial peptides in human cancer cells and cecropinXJ might be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer in the future. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology

  12. Milk bioactive peptides and beta-casomorphins induce mucus release in rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Trompette, Aurélien; Claustre, Jean; Caillon, Fabienne; Jourdan, Gérard; Chayvialle, Jean Alain; Plaisancié, Pascale

    2003-11-01

    Intestinal mucus is critically involved in the protection of the mucosa. An enzymatic casein hydrolysate and beta-casomorphin-7, a mu-opioid peptide generated in the intestine during bovine casein digestion, markedly induce mucus discharge. Because shorter mu-opioid peptides have been described, the effects of the opioid peptides in casein, beta-casomorphin-7, -6, -4, -4NH2 and -3, and of opioid neuropeptides met-enkephalin, dynorphin A and (D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,glycinol5)enkephalin (DAMGO) on intestinal mucus secretion were investigated. The experiments were conducted with isolated perfused rat jejunum. Mucus secretion under the influence of beta-casomorphins and opioid neuropeptides administered intraluminally or intra-arterially was evaluated using an ELISA for rat intestinal mucus. Luminal administration of beta-casomorphin-7 (1.2 x 10(-4) mol/L) provoked a mucus discharge (500% of controls) that was inhibited by naloxone, a specific opiate receptor antagonist. Luminal beta-casomorphin-6, -4 and -4NH2 did not modify basal mucus secretion, whereas intra-arterial administration of beta-casomorphin-4 (1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L) induced a mucus discharge. In contrast, intra-arterial administration of the nonopioid peptide beta-casomorphin-3 did not release mucus. Among the opioid neuropeptides, intra-arterial infusion of Met-enkephalin or dynorphin-A did not provoke mucus secretion. In contrast, beta-endorphin (1.2 x 10(-8) to 1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L) induced a dose-dependent release of mucus (maximal response at 500% of controls). DAMGO (1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L), a mu-receptor agonist, also evoked a potent mucus discharge. Our findings suggest that mu-opioid neuropeptides, as well as beta-casomorphins after absorption, modulate intestinal mucus discharge. Milk opioid-derived peptides may thus be involved in defense against noxious agents and could have dietary and health applications.

  13. Aging increases amyloid beta-peptide-induced 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha release from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Luigi; Michelotto, Barbara; Orlando, Giustino; Recinella, Lucia; Di Nisio, Chiara; Ciabattoni, Giovanni; Vacca, Michele

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate whether amyloid beta-peptide-induced oxidative damage in the brain could be related to aging, we studied the release of 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F2alpha, a stable marker of cellular oxidative stress, in brain synaptosomes from Wistar rats of different ages (3, 6, 12, 18 months old), both basally and after amyloid beta-peptide (1-40) perfusion. We found that basal release of 8-iso-PGF2alpha was not significantly different among all age groups of rats. Either phospholipase A2 activation induced by calcium ionophore A23187 (10 nM) or amyloid beta-peptide (5 microM) did not modify isoprostane release, when these substances were used alone. In contrast, amyloid beta-peptide (1-5 microM) preincubation caused a dose-dependent increase of A23187-stimulated 8-iso-PGF2alpha release in each age group, which was also strikingly correlated to aging of rats. Furthermore, ferric ammonium sulfate stimulates isoprostane production to levels comparable to those induced by amyloid beta-peptide. In conclusion, although 8-iso-PGF2alpha production from rat brain synaptosomes is independent from aging in the basal state, aging renders neurons more vulnerable to amyloid beta-peptide-induced oxidative toxicity.

  14. Spermicidal efficacy of VRP, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, inducing apoptosis and membrane disruption.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prasanta; Bhoumik, Arpita; Saha, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Sandipan; Azmi, Sarfuddin; Ghosh, Jimut K; Dungdung, Sandhya R

    2018-02-01

    Presently available contraceptives are mostly hormonal or detergent in nature with numerous side effects like irritation, lesion, inflammation in vagina, alteration of body homeostasis, etc. Antimicrobial peptides with spermicidal activity but without adverse effects may be suitable alternatives. In the present study, spermicidal activity of a cationic antimicrobial peptide VRP on human spermatozoa has been elucidated. Progressive forward motility of human spermatozoa was instantly stopped after 100 μM VRP treatment and at 350 μM, all kinds of sperm motility ceased within 20 s as assessed by the Sander-Cramer assay. The spermicidal effect was confirmed by eosin-nigrosin assay and HOS test. VRP treatment (100 μM) in human spermatozoa induced both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. TUNEL assay showed VRP treatment significantly disrupted the DNA integrity and changed the mitochondrial membrane permeability as evident from MPTP assay. AFM and SEM results depicted ultra structural changes including disruption of the acrosomal cap and plasma membrane of the head and midpiece region after treatment with 350 μM VRP. MTT assay showed after treatments with 100 and 350 μM of VRP for 24 hr, a substantial amount of Lactobacillus acidophilus (about 90% and 75%, respectively) remained viable. Hence, VRP being a small synthetic peptide with antimicrobial and spermicidal activity but tolerable to normal vaginal microflora, may be a suitable target for elucidating its contraceptive potentiality. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cold denaturation induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto P.; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2016-02-01

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity is a recently-discovered effect, which results in spin selectivity for electrons transmitted through chiral peptide monolayers. Here, we use this spin selectivity to probe the organization of self-assembled α-helix peptide monolayers and examine the relation between structural and spin transfer phenomena. We show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear one upon cooling. This process is similar to the known cold denaturation in peptides, but here the self-assembled monolayer plays the role of the solvent. The structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by a concomitant change in the spin that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules, observed via a new solid-state hybrid organic-inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material.

  16. Production of phytotoxic cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides in plant cells using inducible promoters.

    PubMed

    Company, Nuri; Nadal, Anna; Ruiz, Cristina; Pla, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, have potent and specific activities against economically important plant pathogenic bacteria. They are also recognized as valuable therapeutics and preservatives. However, highly active BP100 derivatives are often phytotoxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants. Here we demonstrate that production of recombinant phytotoxic peptides in transgenic plants is possible by strictly limiting transgene expression to certain tissues and conditions, and specifically that minimization of this expression during transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants is essential to obtain viable plant biofactories. On the basis of whole-genome transcriptomic data available online, we identified the Os.hsp82 promoter that fulfilled this requirement and was highly induced in response to heat shock. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing moderate yields of severely phytotoxic BP100 derivatives on exposure to high temperature. In addition, a threshold for gene expression in selected tissues and stages was experimentally established, below which the corresponding promoters should be suitable for driving the expression of recombinant phytotoxic proteins in genetically modified plants. In view of the growing transcriptomics data available, this approach is of interest to assist promoter selection for specific purposes.

  17. Production of Phytotoxic Cationic α-Helical Antimicrobial Peptides in Plant Cells Using Inducible Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Company, Nuri; Nadal, Anna; Ruiz, Cristina; Pla, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, have potent and specific activities against economically important plant pathogenic bacteria. They are also recognized as valuable therapeutics and preservatives. However, highly active BP100 derivatives are often phytotoxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants. Here we demonstrate that production of recombinant phytotoxic peptides in transgenic plants is possible by strictly limiting transgene expression to certain tissues and conditions, and specifically that minimization of this expression during transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants is essential to obtain viable plant biofactories. On the basis of whole-genome transcriptomic data available online, we identified the Os.hsp82 promoter that fulfilled this requirement and was highly induced in response to heat shock. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing moderate yields of severely phytotoxic BP100 derivatives on exposure to high temperature. In addition, a threshold for gene expression in selected tissues and stages was experimentally established, below which the corresponding promoters should be suitable for driving the expression of recombinant phytotoxic proteins in genetically modified plants. In view of the growing transcriptomics data available, this approach is of interest to assist promoter selection for specific purposes. PMID:25387106

  18. Cold denaturation induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto P.; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity is a recently-discovered effect, which results in spin selectivity for electrons transmitted through chiral peptide monolayers. Here, we use this spin selectivity to probe the organization of self-assembled α-helix peptide monolayers and examine the relation between structural and spin transfer phenomena. We show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear one upon cooling. This process is similar to the known cold denaturation in peptides, but here the self-assembled monolayer plays the role of the solvent. The structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by a concomitant change in the spin that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules, observed via a new solid-state hybrid organic–inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material. PMID:26916536

  19. The Neuroendocrine Peptide Catestatin Is a Cutaneous Antimicrobial and Induced in the Skin after Injury

    PubMed Central

    Radek, Katherine A.; Lopez-Garcia, Belen; Hupe, Melanie; Niesman, Ingrid R.; Elias, Peter M.; Taupenot, Laurent; Mahata, Sushil K.; O’Connor, Daniel T.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Epithelia establish a microbial barrier against infection through the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In this study, we investigated whether catestatin (Cst), a peptide derived from the neuroendocrine protein chromogranin A (CHGA), is a functional AMP and is present in the epidermis. We show that Cst is antimicrobial against relevant skin microbes, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, and fungi. The antimicrobial mechanism of Cst was found to be similar to other AMPs, as it was dependent on bacterial charge and growth conditions, and induced membrane disruption. The potential relevance of Cst against skin pathogens was supported by the observation that CHGA was expressed in keratinocytes. In human skin, CHGA was found to be proteolytically processed into the antimicrobial fragment Cst, thus enabling its AMP function. Furthermore, Cst expression in murine skin increased in response to injury and infection, providing potential for increased protection against infection. These data demonstrate that a neuroendocrine peptide has antimicrobial function against a wide assortment of skin pathogens and is upregulated upon injury, thus demonstrating a direct link between the neuroendocrine and cutaneous immune systems. PMID:18185531

  20. Unusual Fragmentation of Pro-Ser/Thr-Containing Peptides Detected in Collision-Induced Dissociation Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Trinidad, Jonathan C.

    2012-04-01

    During collision-induced dissociation (CID)-, phosphoserine- and phosphothreonine-containing peptides frequently undergo neutral loss of phosphoric acid. Subsequent amide bond cleavage N-terminal to the site of phosphorylation results in a y ion with a mass 18 Da lower than the corresponding unmodified y fragment. We report here that when the phosphoserine or phosphothreonine is directly preceded by a proline, an unusual fragment with a mass 10 Da higher than the corresponding unmodified y ion is frequently observed. Accurate mass measurements are consistent with elimination of the phosphoric acid followed by fragmentation between the α carbon and the carbonyl group of the proline residue. We propose a cyclic oxazoline structure for this fragment. Our observation may be explained by the charge-directed SN2 neighboring group participation reaction proposed for the phosphoric acid elimination by Palumbo et al. [Palumbo, A. M., Tepe, J. J., Reid, G. E. Mechanistic Insights into the Multistage Gas-Phase Fragmentation Behavior of Phosphoserine- and Phosphothreonine-Containing Peptides. J. Protein Res. 7(2), 771-779 (2008)]. Considering such specific fragment ions for confirmation purposes after regular database searches may boost the confidence of peptide identifications as well as phosphorylation site assignments.

  1. NPYFa, A Chimeric Peptide of Met-Enkephalin, and NPFF Induces Tolerance-Free Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, Annu; Kumar, Krishan; Mollereau, Catherine; Pasha, Santosh

    2016-06-01

    Methionine-enkephalin-Arg-Phe is an endogenous amphiactive analgesic peptide. Neuropeptide FF, on the other hand, is reported for its role in opioid modulation and tolerance development. Based on these reports, in the present study we designed a chimeric peptide NPYFa (YGGFMKKKPQRFamide), having the Met-enkephalin (opioid) and PQRFamide sequence of neuropeptide FF, which can then target both the opioid and neuropeptide FF receptors. We hypothesized that the chimeric peptide so designed would have both analgesic properties and further aid in understanding of the role of neuropeptide FF in the development of opiate tolerance. Our studies indicated that NPYFa induced an early onset, potent, dose-dependent and prolonged antinociception. Additionally, antagonists (MOR, KOR, and DOR) pretreatment studies determined a KOR-mediated antinociception activity of the ligand. Further, in vitro binding studies using the Eu-GTP-γS binding assay on cell lines expressing opioid and NPFF receptors showed binding to both the opioid and neuropeptide FF receptors suggesting a multiple receptor binding character of NPYFa. Moreover, chronic (6 days) treatment with NPYFa exhibited an absence of tolerance development subsequent to its analgesia. The current study proposes NPYFa as a potent, long-acting antinociceptor lacking tolerance development as well as a probe to study opioid analgesia and the associated complex mechanisms of tolerance development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Cafestol, a coffee-specific diterpene, induces peripheral antinociception mediated by endogenous opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Luciana S; Perez, Andrea C; Romero, Thiago Rl; Azevedo, Adolfo O; Duarte, Igor Dg

    2012-05-01

    The opioid peptides have been implicated in peripheral antinociception induced by non-opioidergic compounds, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and α(2) -adrenoceptor agonists. The aims of the present study were to investigate the possible peripheral antinociceptive effect of cafestol, a diterpene present in the oil derived from coffee beans, and to evaluate the involvement of opioid peptides in its effect. The rat paw pressure test was used to assess antinocipeptive effects. Hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E(2) (2 μg/paw). All drugs were locally administered into the hind-paws of male Wistar rats. Intraplantar injection of cafestol (20, 40 and 80 μg) induced peripheral antinociception. The antinociceptive effect of cafestol was due to a local action because the higher dose (80 μg/paw) did not produce any effect in the contralateral paw. The opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (25, 50 and 100 μg/paw) prevented the action of cafestol (80 μg/paw), whereas the aminopeptidase inhibitor bestatin (400 μg/paw) potentiated the antinociceptive effect of cafestol (40 μg/paw). The results of the present study provide evidence that cafestol treatment has a peripheral antinociceptive effect and suggest that this effect is mediated by the release of endogenous opioids. © 2012 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Catalysis of Dialanine Formation by Glycine in the Salt-Induced Peptide Formation Reaction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannachot, Yuttana; Rode, Bernd M.

    1998-02-01

    Mutual catalysis of amino acids in the salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction is demonstrated for the case of glycine/alanine. The presence of glycine enhances dialanine formation by a factor up to 50 and enables dialanine formation at much lower alanine concentrations. The actual amounts of glycine play an important role for this catalytic effect, the optimal glycine concentration is 1/8 of the alanine concentration. The mechanism appears to be based on the formation of the intermediate Gly-Ala-Ala tripeptide, connected to one coordination site of copper(II) ion, and subsequent hydrolysis to dialanine and glycine.

  4. Catalysis of dialanine formation by glycine in the salt-induced peptide formation reaction.

    PubMed

    Suwannachot, Y; Rode, B M

    1998-02-01

    Mutual catalysis of amino acids in the salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction is demonstrated for the case of glycine/alanine. The presence of glycine enhances dialanine formation by a factor up to 50 and enables dialanine formation at much lower alanine concentrations. The actual amounts of glycine play an important role for this catalytic effect, the optimal glycine concentration is 1/8 of the alanine concentration. The mechanism appears to be based on the formation of the intermediate Gly-Ala-Ala tripeptide, connected to one coordination site of copper(II) ion, and subsequent hydrolysis to dialanine and glycine.

  5. F5-peptide induces aspermatogenesis by disrupting organization of actin- and microtubule-based cytoskeletons in the testis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Mruk, Dolores D.; Lui, Wing-yee; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-01-01

    During the release of sperm at spermiation, a biologically active F5-peptide, which can disrupt the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ) permeability barrier, is produced at the site of the degenerating apical ES (ectoplasmic specialization). This peptide coordinates the events of spermiation and blood-testis barrier (BTB) remodeling at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle, creating a local apical ES-BTB axis to coordinate cellular events across the epithelium. The mechanism(s) by which F5-peptide perturbs BTB restructuring, and its involvement in apical ES dynamics remain unknown. F5-peptide, besides perturbing BTB integrity, was shown to induce germ cell release from the epithelium following its efficient in vivo overexpression in the testis. Overexpression of F5-peptide caused disorganization of actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons, mediated by altering the spatiotemporal expression of actin binding/regulatory proteins in the seminiferous epithelium. F5-peptide perturbed the ability of actin microfilaments and/or MTs from converting between their bundled and unbundled/defragmented configuration, thereby perturbing adhesion between spermatids and Sertoli cells. Since apical ES and basal ES/BTB are interconnected through the underlying cytoskeletal networks, this thus provides an efficient and novel mechanism to coordinate different cellular events across the epithelium during spermatogenesis through changes in the organization of actin microfilaments and MTs. These findings also illustrate the potential of F5-peptide being a male contraceptive peptide for men. PMID:27611949

  6. Selective determination of arginine-containing and tyrosine-containing peptides using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Cobb, K A; Novotny, M V

    1992-01-01

    The use of two different amino acid-selective fluorogenic reagents for the derivatization of peptides is investigated. One such scheme utilizes a selective reaction of benzoin with the guanidine moiety to derivatize arginine residues occurring in a peptide. The second scheme involves the formylation of tyrosine, followed by reaction with 4-methoxy-1,2-phenylenediamine. The use of capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection allows enhanced efficiencies and sensitivities to be obtained for the separations of either arginine- or tyrosine-containing peptides. A helium-cadmium laser (325 nm) is ideally suited for the laser-based detection system due to a close match of the excitation maxima of derivatized peptides from both reactions. A detection limit of 270 amol is achieved for model arginine-containing peptides, while the detection limit for model tyrosine-containing peptides is measured at 390 amol. Both derivatization reactions are found to be useful for high-sensitivity peptide mapping applications in which only the peptides containing the derivatized amino acids are detected.

  7. A Peptidic Unconjugated GRP78/BiP Ligand Modulates the Unfolded Protein Response and Induces Prostate Cancer Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Maddalo, Danilo; Neeb, Antje; Jehle, Katja; Schmitz, Katja; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Shatkina, Liubov; Walther, Tamara Vanessa; Bruchmann, Anja; Gopal, Srinivasa M.; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Anne S.; Cato, Andrew C. B.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular chaperone GRP78/BiP is a key regulator of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum, and it plays a pivotal role in cancer cell survival and chemoresistance. Inhibition of its function has therefore been an important strategy for inhibiting tumor cell growth in cancer therapy. Previous efforts to achieve this goal have used peptides that bind to GRP78/BiP conjugated to pro-drugs or cell-death-inducing sequences. Here, we describe a peptide that induces prostate tumor cell death without the need of any conjugating sequences. This peptide is a sequence derived from the cochaperone Bag-1. We have shown that this sequence interacts with and inhibits the refolding activity of GRP78/BiP. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that it modulates the unfolded protein response in ER stress resulting in PARP and caspase-4 cleavage. Prostate cancer cells stably expressing this peptide showed reduced growth and increased apoptosis in in vivo xenograft tumor models. Amino acid substitutions that destroyed binding of the Bag-1 peptide to GRP78/BiP or downregulation of the expression of GRP78 compromised the inhibitory effect of this peptide. This sequence therefore represents a candidate lead peptide for anti-tumor therapy. PMID:23049684

  8. Kefir Peptides Prevent Hyperlipidemia and Obesity in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats via Lipid Metabolism Modulation.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yu-Tang; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Wu, Hsin-Shan; Ho, Mei-Hsuan; Chong, Kowit-Yu; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2018-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Obesity is a complex metabolic disorder that is linked to numerous serious health complications with high morbidity. The present study evaluated the effects of kefir peptides on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in rats. Kefir peptides markedly improved obesity, including body weight gain, inflammatory reactions and the formation of adipose tissue fat deposits around the epididymis and kidney, and adipocyte size. Treating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats with kefir peptides significantly reduced the fatty acid synthase protein and increased the p-acetyl-CoA carboxylase protein to block lipogenesis in the livers. Kefir peptides also increased fatty acid oxidation by increasing the protein expressions of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, and hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in the livers. In addition, administration of kefir peptides significantly decreased the inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-1β, and TGF-β) to modulate oxidative damage. These results demonstrate that kefir peptides treatment improves obesity via inhibition of lipogenesis, modulation of oxidative damage, and stimulation of lipid oxidation. Therefore, kefir peptides may act as an anti-obesity agent to prevent body fat accumulation and obesity-related metabolic diseases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. HLA Class I Binding 9mer Peptides from Influenza A Virus Induce CD4+ T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingjun; Larsen, Mette V.; Nielsen, Morten; Harndahl, Mikkel; Justesen, Sune; Dziegiel, Morten H.; Buus, Søren; Tang, Sheila T.; Lund, Ole; Claesson, Mogens H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Identification of human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) restricted cytotoxic T cell (CTL) epitopes from influenza virus is of importance for the development of new effective peptide-based vaccines. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present work, bioinformatics was used to predict 9mer peptides derived from available influenza A viral proteins with binding affinity for at least one of the 12 HLA-I supertypes. The predicted peptides were then selected in a way that ensured maximal coverage of the available influenza A strains. One hundred and thirty one peptides were synthesized and their binding affinities for the HLA-I supertypes were measured in a biochemical assay. Influenza-specific T cell responses towards the peptides were quantified using IFNγ ELISPOT assays with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from adult healthy HLA-I typed donors as responder cells. Of the 131 peptides, 21 were found to induce T cell responses in 19 donors. In the ELISPOT assay, five peptides induced responses that could be totally blocked by the pan-specific anti-HLA-I antibody W6/32, whereas 15 peptides induced responses that could be completely blocked in the presence of the pan-specific anti-HLA class II (HLA-II) antibody IVA12. Blocking of HLA-II subtype reactivity revealed that 8 and 6 peptide responses were blocked by anti-HLA-DR and -DP antibodies, respectively. Peptide reactivity of PBMC depleted of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells prior to the ELISPOT culture revealed that effectors are either CD4+ (the majority of reactivities) or CD8+ T cells, never a mixture of these subsets. Three of the peptides, recognized by CD4+ T cells showed binding to recombinant DRA1*0101/DRB1*0401 or DRA1*0101/DRB5*0101 molecules in a recently developed biochemical assay. Conclusions/Significance HLA-I binding 9mer influenza virus-derived peptides induce in many cases CD4+ T cell responses restricted by HLA-II molecules. PMID:20479886

  10. Stereoselective differentiation in the Salt-induced Peptide Formation reaction and its relevance for the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Plankensteiner, Kristof; Reiner, Hannes; Rode, Bernd M

    2005-04-01

    All living organisms on earth are almost totally made up of biomolecules of only one chiral form. For example, proteins are built almost exclusively of L-amino acids, and sugars are composed of D-saccharides, a fact that is usually referred to as biohomochirality. Its origin is the center of numerous investigations and theories but is not really elucidated yet. The results of experimental investigations of peptide formation in a prebiotically relevant scenario, as described in this paper, give indications on a possible pathway for the synthesis of homochiral L-peptides in the course of the Salt-induced Peptide Formation (SIPF) reaction.

  11. Decreasing the configurational entropy and the hydrophobicity of EBV-derived peptide 11389 increased its antigenicity, immunogenicity and its ability of inducing IL-6.

    PubMed

    Urquiza, Mauricio; Guevara, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Cristina; Melo-Cardenas, Johanna; Vanegas, Magnolia; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2012-06-01

    Peptide 11389 from CD21-binding region of EBV-gp350/220 protein binds to PBMCs inducing IL-6 expression and inhibiting EBV-binding to PBMCs. In addition, anti-peptide 11389 antibodies recognize EBV-infected cells and inhibit both EBV infection and IL-6 production in PBMCs. We have postulated that native structure stabilization of peptide 11389 sequence can increase its biological activity. The strategy was to modify its sequence to restrict the number of structures that peptide 11389 could acquire in solution (decreasing peptide's configurational entropy) and to weaken the non-relevant intermolecular interactions (decreasing its hydrophobicity), preserving CD21-interacting residues and structure as displayed in the native protein. Thirteen analog peptides were designed and synthesized; most of them were monomers containing an intra-chain disulfide bridge. Analog peptides 34058, 34060, 34061, 34296, 34298, 34299 and 34300 inhibited EBV invasion of PBMCs. Peptides 34059, 34060, 34295 and 34297 induced IL-6 levels in PBMCs (EC50=3.4, 3.3, 0.5, 0.5 μM, respectively) at higher potency than peptide 11389 (EC50=5.8 μM). Peptides 34057, 34059, 34060, 34301 and 34302 interacted with anti-EBV antibodies with affinities from 3 to 50 times higher than peptide 11389. Most of analog peptides were highly immunogenic and elicited antibodies that cross-react with EBV. In conclusion, we have designed peptides displaying higher biological activity than peptide 11389.

  12. An immunoproteomic approach revealing peptides from Sporothrix brasiliensis that induce a cellular immune response in subcutaneous sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, José Roberto Fogaça; Jannuzzi, Grasielle Pereira; Kaihami, Gilberto Hideo; Breda, Leandro Carvalho Dantas; Ferreira, Karen Spadari; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério

    2018-03-08

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent fungus of the Sporothrix complex and is the main species recovered in the sporotrichosis zoonotic hyperendemic area in Rio de Janeiro. A vaccine against S. brasiliensis could improve the current sporotrichosis situation. Here, we show 3 peptides from S. brasiliensis immunogenic proteins that have a higher likelihood for engaging MHC-class II molecules. We investigated the efficiency of the peptides as vaccines for preventing subcutaneous sporotrichosis. In this study, we observed a decrease in lesion diameters in peptide-immunized mice, showing that the peptides could induce a protective immune response against subcutaneous sporotrichosis. ZR8 peptide is from the GP70 protein, the main antigen of the Sporothrix complex, and was the best potential vaccine candidate by increasing CD4 + T cells and higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-1β characterizing a strong cellular immune response. This immune environment induced a higher number of neutrophils in lesions that are associated with fungus clearance. These results indicated that the ZR8 peptide induces a protective immune response against subcutaneous sporotrichosis and is a vaccine candidate against S. brasiliensis infection.

  13. Human lactoferricin derived di-peptides deploying loop structures induce apoptosis specifically in cancer cells through targeting membranous phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Sabrina; Leber, Regina; Rinner, Beate; Schaider, Helmut; Lohner, Karl; Zweytick, Dagmar

    2015-11-01

    Host defense-derived peptides have emerged as a novel strategy for the development of alternative anticancer therapies. In this study we report on characteristic features of human lactoferricin (hLFcin) derivatives which facilitate specific killing of cancer cells of melanoma, glioblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma compared with non-specific derivatives and the synthetic peptide RW-AH. Changes in amino acid sequence of hLFcin providing 9-11 amino acids stretched derivatives LF11-316, -318 and -322 only yielded low antitumor activity. However, the addition of the repeat (di-peptide) and the retro-repeat (di-retro-peptide) sequences highly improved cancer cell toxicity up to 100% at 20 μM peptide concentration. Compared to the complete parent sequence hLFcin the derivatives showed toxicity on the melanoma cell line A375 increased by 10-fold and on the glioblastoma cell line U-87mg by 2-3-fold. Reduced killing velocity, apoptotic blebbing, activation of caspase 3/7 and formation of apoptotic DNA fragments proved that the active and cancer selective peptides, e.g. R-DIM-P-LF11-322, trigger apoptosis, whereas highly active, though non-selective peptides, such as DIM-LF11-318 and RW-AH seem to kill rapidly via necrosis inducing membrane lyses. Structural studies revealed specific toxicity on cancer cells by peptide derivatives with loop structures, whereas non-specific peptides comprised α-helical structures without loop. Model studies with the cancer membrane mimic phosphatidylserine (PS) gave strong evidence that PS only exposed by cancer cells is an important target for specific hLFcin derivatives. Other negatively charged membrane exposed molecules as sialic acid, heparan and chondroitin sulfate were shown to have minor impact on peptide activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Oxidative stress induced in E. coli by the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are thought to kill bacterial cells by permeabilizing their membranes. However, some antimicrobial peptides inhibit E. coli growth more efficiently in aerobic than in anaerobic conditions. In the attack of the human cathelicidin LL-37 on E. coli, real-time, single-cell fluorescence imaging reveals the timing of membrane permeabilization and the onset of oxidative stress. For cells growing aerobically, a CellROX Green assay indicates that LL-37 induces rapid formation of oxidative species after entry into the periplasm, but before permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane (CM). A cytoplasmic Amplex Red assay signals a subsequent burst of oxidative species, most likely hydrogen peroxide, shortly after permeabilization of the CM. These signals are much stronger in the presence of oxygen, a functional electron transport chain, and a large proton motive force (PMF). They are much weaker in cells growing anaerobically, by either fermentation or anaerobic respiration. In aerobic growth, the oxidative signals are attenuated in a cytochrome oxidase–bd deletion mutant, but not in a –bo3 deletion mutant, suggesting a specific effect of LL-37 on the electron transport chain. The AMPs melittin and LL-37 induce strong oxidative signals and exhibit O2-sensitive MICs, while the AMPs indolicidin and cecropin A do not. These results suggest that AMP activity in different tissues may be tuned according to the local oxygen level. This may be significant for control of opportunistic pathogens while enabling growth of commensal bacteria. PMID:28665988

  15. A newly identified tomato peptide induces cytosolic calcium and may correspond to pathogen defense-related endogenous peptides in Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants recognize a variety of stimuli that invoke defenses against attacking pathogens and herbivores. This recognition primes the plant to mount defenses against herbivory and disease. These stimuli include molecules called damage-associated molecular patterns or DAMPs, among them signaling peptide...

  16. Mitochondria related peptide MOTS-c suppresses ovariectomy-induced bone loss via AMPK activation

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Wei, E-mail: weiming@xiyi.edu.cn; Department of Pharmacology, Xi’an Medical University, Xi’an 710021; Lu, Gan, E-mail: leonming99@163.com

    Therapeutic targeting bone loss has been the focus of the study in osteoporosis. The present study is intended to evaluate whether MOTS-c, a novel mitochondria related 16 aa peptide, can protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. After ovary removal, the mice were injected with MOTS-c at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks. Our results showed that MOTS-c treatment significantly alleviated bone loss, as determined by micro-CT examination. Mechanistically, we found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclast differentiation was remarkably inhibited by MOTS-c. Moreover, MOTS-c increased phosphorylated AMPK levels, and compound C, anmore » AMPK inhibitor, could partially abrogate the effects of the MOTS-c on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, our findings provide evidence that MOTS-c may exert as an inhibitor of osteoporosis via AMPK dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. -- Highlights: •MOTS-c decreases OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast-specific gene expression. •MOTS-c represses osteoclast differentiation via the activation of AMPK.« less

  17. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs against antipsychotic-induced weight gain: potential physiological benefits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Antipsychotic-induced weight gain constitutes a major unresolved clinical problem which may ultimately be associated with reducing life expectancy by 25 years. Overweight is associated with brain deterioration, cognitive decline and poor quality of life, factors which are already compromised in normal weight patients with schizophrenia. Here we outline the current strategies against antipsychotic-induced weight gain, and we describe peripheral and cerebral effects of the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Moreover, we account for similarities in brain changes between schizophrenia and overweight patients. Discussion Current interventions against antipsychotic-induced weight gain do not facilitate a substantial and lasting weight loss. GLP-1 analogs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes are associated with significant and sustained weight loss in overweight patients. Potential effects of treating schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain with GLP-1 analogs are discussed. Conclusions We propose that adjunctive treatment with GLP-1 analogs may constitute a new avenue to treat and prevent metabolic and cerebral deficiencies in schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Clinical research to support this idea is highly warranted. PMID:22891821

  18. Non-fibrillar amyloid-{beta} peptide reduces NMDA-induced neurotoxicity, but not AMPA-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Niidome, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: tniidome@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Goto, Yasuaki; Kato, Masaru

    2009-09-04

    Amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) is thought to be linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies suggest that A{beta} has important physiological roles in addition to its pathological roles. We recently demonstrated that A{beta}42 protects hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, but the relationship between A{beta}42 assemblies and their neuroprotective effects remains largely unknown. In this study, we prepared non-fibrillar and fibrillar A{beta}42 based on the results of the thioflavin T assay, Western blot analysis, and atomic force microscopy, and examined the effects of non-fibrillar and fibrillar A{beta}42 on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Non-fibrillar A{beta}42, but not fibrillar A{beta}42, protected hippocampal neurons frommore » glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, non-fibrillar A{beta}42 decreased both neurotoxicity and increases in the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), but not by {alpha}-amino-3-hydrozy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA). Our results suggest that non-fibrillar A{beta}42 protects hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity through regulation of the NMDA receptor.« less

  19. Chemotactic peptide fMetLeuPhe induces translocation of the TRPV2 channel in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Yuko; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Kojima, Itaru

    2007-03-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the regulation and function of TRPV2 in macrophages. Among six members of the TRPV family channels, only the expression of TRPV2 was detected in macrophages. We then determined localization of TRPV2 using TtT/M87 macrophages transfected with TRPV2-EGFP. In serum-free condition, most of the TRPV2 signal was located in the cytoplasm and colocalized with the endoplasmic reticulum marker. Treatment with serum induced translocation of some of the TRPV2-EGFP to the plasma membrane. Serum-induced translocation was blocked by transfection of short-form TRPV2 (s-TRPV2) lacking a pore-forming region and the sixth transmembrane domain. Addition of a chemotactic peptide formyl Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) also induced translocation of TRPV2-EGFP to the plasma membrane. The fMLP-induced translocation was blocked by an inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, LY294002, and pertussis toxin. Whole-cell patch clamp analysis showed a Cs+ current in the TtT/M87 cell, which was blocked by an addition of ruthenium red and transfection of either s-TRPV2 or siRNA for TRPV2. fMLP increased the Cs+ current. fMLP induced a rapid and sustained elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]C), the sustained phase of which was abolished by removal of extracellular calcium. The sustained elevation of [Ca2+]C was also blocked by ruthenium red, and transfection of either s-TRPV2 or siRNA. Finally, fMLP-induced migration of macrophage was blocked by ruthenium red or transfection of s-TRPV2. These results suggest that fMLP induces translocation of TRPV2 from intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane, and this translocation is critical for fMLP-induced calcium entry. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. FV peptide induces apoptosis in HEp 2 and HeLa cells: an insight into the mechanism of induction

    PubMed Central

    Sri Balasubashini, M; Karthigayan, S; Somasundaram, ST; Balasubramanian, T; Rukkumani, R; Menon, Venugopal P

    2006-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to evaluate the antiproliferative potential of peptide (7.6 kDa) from lionfish (Pterios volitans) venom on cultured HEp2 and HeLa cells. Different dose of purified peptide (1, 2 and 4 μg/ml) at different time points (12, 24 and 36 hrs) were tested for antiproliferative index of the peptide. Among them, 2 μg/ml at 24 hrs was found to effectively inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro and did not cause any adverse effect on normal human lymphocytes. Apoptosis was examined by propidium iodide staining, confirmed by the expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3, down regulation of Bcl-2 expression and DNA fragmentation in treated cells, when compared to untreated HEp2 and HeLa cells. Thus fish venom peptide was found to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cell. PMID:17137521

  1. Phosphorylation-induced conformational changes in short peptides probed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in the 10A domain.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Harekrushna; Nau, Werner M

    2007-03-26

    Phosphorylation-induced conformational changes in short polypeptides were probed by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method by employing a short-distance FRET pair (R(0) approximately 10 A) based on tryptophan as natural donor and a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) as synthetic acceptor. Two substrates for kinases, LeuArgArgTrpSerLeuGly-Dbo (peptide I) and TrpLysArgThrLeuArgArg-Dbo (peptide II), were investigated, with serine and threonine, respectively, as phosphorylation sites. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence experiments in H(2)O revealed a decrease in FRET efficiency for peptide I and an increase for peptide II; this suggested that the effective distances between donor and acceptor increased and decreased, respectively. The same trends and similar absolute variations in effective donor-acceptor distances were observed in propylene glycol, a less polar and highly viscous solvent; this suggested that the variations are due to intrinsic structural preferences. Fitting of the time-resolved decay traces according to a distribution function model (Gaussian distribution) provided the mean donor-acceptor distances, which showed an increase upon phosphorylation for peptide I (from 9.7 to 10.5 A) and a decrease for peptide II (from 10.9 to 9.3 A) in H(2)O. The broadness (half-width) of the distributions, which provides a measure of the rigidity of the peptides, remained similar upon phosphorylation of peptide I (3.0 versus 3.1 A), but decreased for peptide II (from 3.1 to 0.73 A in H(2)O); this suggests a more compact, structured conformation upon phosphorylation of the latter peptide. The elongation of the peptide backbone (by ca. 0.7 A) for peptide I is attributed to an increase in steric demand upon phosphorylation, which favors an extended conformation. The contraction (by ca. 1.4 A) and structural rigidification of peptide II is attributed to attractive Coulombic interactions and hydrogen bonding between the

  2. Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors ameliorate cognitive dysfunction induced by amyloid-β peptide in mice

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Alkam, Tursun; Nitta, Atsumi; Matsuyama, Akihiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Moussaoui, Saliha; Yu, Qian-Sheng; Greig, Nigel H.; Nagai, Taku; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2016-01-01

    The cholinesterase inhibitor, rivastigmine, ameliorates cognitive dysfunction and is approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Rivastigmine is a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE); however, the impact of BuChE inhibition on cognitive dysfunction remains to be determined. We compared the effects of a selective BuChE inhibitor, N1-phenethylnorcymserine (PEC), rivastigmine and donepezil (an AChE-selective inhibitor) on cognitive dysfunction induced by amyloid-β peptide (Aβ1–40) in mice. Five-week-old imprinting control region (ICR) mice were injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with either Aβ1–40 or the control peptide Aβ40–1 on Day 0, and their recognition memory was analyzed by a novel object recognition test. Treatment with donepezil (1.0 mg/kg), rivastigmine (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 mg/kg) or PEC (1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) 20 min prior to, or immediately after the acquisition session (Day 4) ameliorated the Aβ1–40 induced memory impairment, indicating a beneficial effect on memory acquisition and consolidation. In contrast, none of the investigated drugs proved effective when administrated before the retention session (Day 5). Repeated daily administration of donepezil, rivastigmine or PEC, on Days 0–3 inclusively, ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction in Aβ1–40 challenged mice. Consistent with the reversal of memory impairments, donepezil, rivastigmine or PEC treatment significantly reduced Aβ1–40 induced tyrosine nitration of hippocampal proteins, a marker of oxidative damage. These results indicate that BuChE inhibition, as well as AChE inhibition, is a viable therapeutic strategy for cognitive dysfunction in AD. PMID:21820013

  3. Entropic Anomaly Observed in Lipid Polymorphisms Induced by Surfactant Peptide SP-B(1-25).

    PubMed

    Tran, Nhi; Kurian, Justin; Bhatt, Avni; McKenna, Robert; Long, Joanna R

    2017-10-05

    The N-terminal 25 amino-acid residues of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B 1-25 ) induces unusual lipid polymorphisms in a model lipid system, 4:1 DPPC/POPG, mirroring the lipid composition of native pulmonary surfactant. It is widely suggested that SP-B 1-25 -induced lipid polymorphisms within the alveolar aqueous subphase provide a structural platform for rapid lipid adsorption to the air-water interface. Here, we characterize in detail the phase behavior of DPPC and POPG in hydrated lipid assemblies containing therapeutic levels of SP-B 1-25 using 2 H and 31 P solid state NMR spectroscopy. The appearance of a previously observed isotropic lipid phase is found to be highly dependent on the thermal cycling of the samples. Slow heating of frozen samples leads to phase separation of DPPC into a lamellar phase whereas POPG lipids interact with the peptide to form an isotropic phase at physiologic temperature. Rapid heating of frozen samples to room temperature leads to strongly isotropic phase behavior for both DPPC and POPG lipids, with DPPC in exchange between isotropic and interdigitated phases. 31 P T 2 relaxation times confirm the isotropic phase to be consistent with a lipid cubic phase. The observed phases exhibit thermal stability up to physiologic temperature (37 °C) and are consistent with the formation of a ripple phase containing a large number of peptide-induced membrane structural defects enabling rapid transit of lipids between lipid lamellae. The coexistance of a lipid cubic phase with interdigitated lipids suggests a specific role for the highly conserved N-terminus of SP-B in stabilizing this unusual lipid polymorphism.

  4. Gap junction blockage promotes cadmium-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A derived from Buffalo rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Di; Zou, Hui; Han, Tao; Xie, Junze; Dai, Nannan; Zhuo, Liling; Gu, Jianhong; Bian, Jianchun; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Xuezhong; Liu, Zongping

    2016-03-01

    Gap junctions mediate direct communication between cells; however, toxicological cascade triggered by nonessential metals can abrogate cellular signaling mediated by gap junctions. Although cadmium (Cd) is known to induce apoptosis in organs and tissues, the mechanisms that underlie gap junction activity in Cd-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A rat liver cells has yet to be established. In this study, we showed that Cd treatment decreased the cell index (a measure of cellular electrical impedance) in BRL 3A cells. Mechanistically, we found that Cd exposure decreased expression of connexin 43 (Cx43), increased expression of p-Cx43 and elevated intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration, corresponding to a decrease in gap junctional intercellular communication. Gap junction blockage pretreatment with 18β-glycyrrhizic acid (GA) promoted Cd-induced apoptosis, involving changes in expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and the mitochondrial transmembrane electrical potential (Δψm). Additionally, GA was found to enhance ERK and p38 activation during Cd-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, but had no significant effect on JNK activation. Our results indicated the apoptosis-related proteins and the ERK and p38 signaling pathways may participate in gap junction blockage promoting Cd-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A cells.

  5. Nutrient-induced glucagon like peptide-1 release is modulated by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Ripken, Dina; van der Wielen, Nikkie; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Meijerink, Jocelijn; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2016-06-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin are both involved in food intake regulation. GLP-1 release is stimulated upon nutrient interaction with G-protein coupled receptors by enteroendocrine cells (EEC), whereas serotonin is released from enterochromaffin cells (ECC). The central hypothesis for the current study was that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release from EECs is modulated by serotonin through a process involving serotonin receptor interaction. This was studied by assessing the effects of serotonin reuptake inhibition by fluoxetine on nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release from isolated pig intestinal segments. Next, serotonin-induced GLP-1 release was studied in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells, where effects of serotonin receptor inhibition were studied using specific and non-specific antagonists. Casein (1% w/v), safflower oil (3.35% w/v), sucrose (50mM) and rebaudioside A (12.5mM) stimulated GLP-1 release from intestinal segments, whereas casein only stimulated PYY and CCK release. Combining nutrients with fluoxetine further increased nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release. Serotonin release from intestinal tissue segments was stimulated by casein and safflower oil while sucrose and rebaudioside A had no effect. The combination with fluoxetine (0.155μM) further enhanced casein and safflower oil induced-serotonin release. Exposure of ileal tissue segments to serotonin (30μM) stimulated GLP-1 release whereas it did not induce PYY and CCK release. Serotonin (30 and 100μM) also stimulated GLP-1 release from STC-1 cells, which was inhibited by the non-specific 5HT receptor antagonist asenapine (1 and 10μM). These data suggest that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release is modulated by serotonin through a receptor mediated process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A TNF receptor loop peptide mimic blocks RANK ligand–induced signaling, bone resorption, and bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Kazuhiro; Saito, Hiroaki; Itzstein, Cecile; Ishiguro, Masaji; Shibata, Tatsuya; Blanque, Roland; Mian, Anower Hussain; Takahashi, Mariko; Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Yoshimatsu, Masako; Yamaguchi, Akira; Deprez, Pierre; Mollat, Patrick; Murali, Ramachandran; Ohya, Keiichi; Horne, William C.; Baron, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Activating receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and TNF receptor (TNFR) promote osteoclast differentiation. A critical ligand contact site on the TNFR is partly conserved in RANK. Surface plasmon resonance studies showed that a peptide (WP9QY) that mimics this TNFR contact site and inhibits TNF-α–induced activity bound to RANK ligand (RANKL). Changing a single residue predicted to play an important role in the interaction reduced the binding significantly. WP9QY, but not the altered control peptide, inhibited the RANKL-induced activation of RANK-dependent signaling in RAW 264.7 cells but had no effect on M-CSF–induced activation of some of the same signaling events. WP9QY but not the control peptide also prevented RANKL-induced bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis, even when TNFRs were absent or blocked. In vivo, where both RANKL and TNF-α promote osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast activity, and bone loss, WP9QY prevented the increased osteoclastogenesis and bone loss induced in mice by ovariectomy or low dietary calcium, in the latter case in both wild-type and TNFR double-knockout mice. These results suggest that a peptide that mimics a TNFR ligand contact site blocks bone resorption by interfering with recruitment and activation of osteoclasts by both RANKL and TNF. PMID:16680194

  7. Corn peptides protect against thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jie; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Zhang, Jiu-Liang; Liu, Feng-Yan; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Ma, Zhi-Li; He, Hui

    2013-10-01

    Certain bioactive peptides are reported to be able to alleviate hepatic fibrosis. Our previous work has confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of corn peptides (CPs) that are prepared from a high protein by-product, corn gluten meal, on acute liver injury in an animal model. However, the antifibrotic activity of CPs remained to be elucidated. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of CPs on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis was tested. Results showed that CPs (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly decreased the levels of alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase, laminin, type IV collagen, and type III collagen in serum and increased the serum albumin levels and total antioxidant capacity. Additionally, with CP treatment (100 mg/kg body weight), a significant decrease was observed in the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, hydroxyproline, transforming growth factor β1, and lactate dehydrogenase activity as well as the liver index, while the activity of superoxidedismutase was significantly increased in livers. The histological and morphological analysis showed that the hepatocyte structure in CP-treated rats was superior to that of TAA-injured rats, and inflammation and fibrosis were also ameliorated. Therefore, CPs can be used as an option for prevention and adjuvant therapy of liver fibrosis.

  8. Antimicrobial peptides and induced membrane curvature: geometry, coordination chemistry, and molecular engineering

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Nathan W.; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Short cationic, amphipathic antimicrobial peptides are multi-functional molecules that have roles in host defense as direct microbicides and modulators of the immune response. While a general mechanism of microbicidal activity involves the selective disruption and permeabilization of cell membranes, the relationships between peptide sequence and membrane activity are still under investigation. Here, we review the diverse functions that AMPs collectively have in host defense, and show that these functions can be multiplexed with a membrane mechanism of activity derived from the generation of negative Gaussian membrane curvature. As AMPs preferentially generate this curvature in model bacterial cell membranes, the selective generation of negative Gaussian curvature provides AMPs with a broad mechanism to target microbial membranes. The amino acid constraints placed on AMPs by the geometric requirement to induce negative Gaussian curvature are consistent with known AMP sequences. This ‘saddle-splay curvature selection rule’ is not strongly restrictive so AMPs have significant compositional freedom to multiplex membrane activity with other useful functions. The observation that certain proteins involved in cellular processes which require negative Gaussian curvature contain domains with similar motifs as AMPs, suggests this rule may be applicable to other curvature-generating proteins. Since our saddle-splay curvature design rule is based upon both a mechanism of activity and the existing motifs of natural AMPs, we believe it will assist the development of synthetic antimicrobials. PMID:24778573

  9. The antimicrobial peptide nisin Z induces selective toxicity and apoptotic cell death in cultured melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lewies, Angélique; Wentzel, Johannes Frederik; Miller, Hayley Christy; Du Plessis, Lissinda Hester

    2018-01-01

    Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is now considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Most malignant cells present with altered energy metabolism which is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This is also evident for melanoma, the leading cause of skin cancer related deaths. Altered mechanisms affecting mitochondrial bioenergetics pose attractive targets for novel anticancer therapies. Antimicrobial peptides have been shown to exhibit selective anticancer activities. In this study, the anti-melanoma potential of the antimicrobial peptide, nisin Z, was evaluated in vitro. Nisin Z was shown to induce selective toxicity in melanoma cells compared to non-malignant keratinocytes. Furthermore, nisin Z was shown to negatively affect the energy metabolism (glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration) of melanoma cells, increase reactive oxygen species generation and cause apoptosis. Results also indicate that nisin Z can decrease the invasion and proliferation of melanoma cells demonstrating its potential use against metastasis associated with melanoma. As nisin Z seems to place a considerable extra burden on the energy metabolism of melanoma cells, combination therapies with known anti-melanoma agents may be effective treatment options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  10. Spider peptide toxin lycosin-I induces apoptosis and inhibits migration of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongwei; Xie, Yuan; Ye, Senlin; He, Kancheng; Yi, Lu; Cui, Rongrong

    2018-05-01

    Spider toxins are molecularly diverse and some display not only a strong antibacterial effect but also exhibit significant inhibition of tumor growth and promote tumor cell apoptosis. The aim of the present investigation was to explore different antitumor effects of the spider peptide toxin lycosin-I through different pathways at different concentrations. It was found that by inactivating STAT3 pathway, high concentrations of lycosin-I induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and low concentrations of lycosin-I inhibit the migration of prostate cancer cells. This finding provides favorable evidence for further study of the molecular diversity of spider toxins. Impact statement The spider peptide toxin has become an important research topic. These toxins are molecularly diverse and some display not only a strong antibacterial effect but also exhibit significant inhibition of tumor growth and promote tumor cell apoptosis. Inspired by previous studies, the present study aims to investigate the effects of different concentrations of lycosin-I on the invasiveness and apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells. The findings provide favorable evidence for further study of the molecular diversity of spider toxins.

  11. A novel transferrin receptor-targeted hybrid peptide disintegrates cancer cell membrane to induce rapid killing of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transferrin receptor (TfR) is a cell membrane-associated glycoprotein involved in the cellular uptake of iron and the regulation of cell growth. Recent studies have shown the elevated expression levels of TfR on cancer cells compared with normal cells. The elevated expression levels of this receptor in malignancies, which is the accessible extracellular protein, can be a fascinating target for the treatment of cancer. We have recently designed novel type of immunotoxin, termed "hybrid peptide", which is chemically synthesized and is composed of target-binding peptide and lytic peptide containing cationic-rich amino acids components that disintegrates the cell membrane for the cancer cell killing. The lytic peptide is newly designed to induce rapid killing of cancer cells due to conformational change. In this study, we designed TfR binding peptide connected with this novel lytic peptide and assessed the cytotoxic activity in vitro and in vivo. Methods In vitro: We assessed the cytotoxicity of TfR-lytic hybrid peptide for 12 cancer and 2 normal cell lines. The specificity for TfR is demonstrated by competitive assay using TfR antibody and siRNA. In addition, we performed analysis of confocal fluorescence microscopy and apoptosis assay by Annexin-V binding, caspase activity, and JC-1 staining to assess the change in mitochondria membrane potential. In vivo: TfR-lytic was administered intravenously in an athymic mice model with MDA-MB-231 cells. After three weeks tumor sections were histologically analyzed. Results The TfR-lytic hybrid peptide showed cytotoxic activity in 12 cancer cell lines, with IC50 values as low as 4.0-9.3 μM. Normal cells were less sensitive to this molecule, with IC50 values > 50 μM. Competition assay using TfR antibody and knockdown of this receptor by siRNA confirmed the specificity of the TfR-lytic hybrid peptide. In addition, it was revealed that this molecule can disintegrate the cell membrane of T47D cancer cells just in 10

  12. Transport and metabolism of delta sleep-inducing peptide in cultured human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Augustijns, P F; Borchardt, R T

    1995-12-01

    A cultured human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cell monolayer was used to study the transport and metabolism of delta sleep-inducing peptide [DSIP (Trp-Ala-Gly-Gly-Asp-Ala-Ser-Gly-Glu)]. DSIP is of interest because it has been reported to be capable of permeating biological barriers (e.g. blood-brain barrier), and this property has been related to its solution conformation. When applied to the apical (AP) side of Caco-2 cell monolayers, DSIP was rapidly metabolized (8.2 +/- 1.1% remaining after a 2-hr incubation), affording Trp as the major metabolite and Trp-Ala as a minor metabolite. When DSIP was added to the basolateral (BL) side of the monolayer, the same metabolites were detected, but the peptide was more stable (70.6 +/- 3.0% remaining after a 2-hr incubation). Inclusion of bestatin, an inhibitor of aminopeptidases, at concentrations up to 0.29 mM with DSIP on the AP side of the Caco-2 cell monolayer increased the stability of the peptide only slightly but dramatically altered the distribution of the metabolites (Trp-Ala became the major metabolite, and Trp became the minor metabolite). Inclusion of other aminopeptidase inhibitors (e.g. amastatin, puromycin) alone, dipeptidylpeptidase IV inhibitors (e.g. diprotin A, Gly-Pro) alone, inhibitors of proteases that require heavy metals for proper activity (e.g. EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline) alone, or cysteine protease inhibitors (e.g. leupeptin) alone did not lead to significant stabilization of the peptide. However, inclusion of a combination of 0.29 mM bestatin and 1 mM diprotin A with DSIP on the AP side of the monolayers resulted in a substantial increase in the stability of the peptide (83.2 +/- 3.7% remaining after a 2-hr incubation). However, under these conditions, a new metabolite (Trp-Ala-Gly-Gly-Asp-Ala-Ser) was observed with a formation that could be inhibited by inclusion of 1 mM captopril, an inhibitor of peptidyl dipeptidase A. Therefore, the stability of DSIP could be further increased (95.1 +/- 1

  13. Plant natriuretic peptides induce proteins diagnostic for an adaptive response to stress.

    PubMed

    Turek, Ilona; Marondedze, Claudius; Wheeler, Janet I; Gehring, Chris; Irving, Helen R

    2014-01-01

    In plants, structural and physiological evidence has suggested the presence of biologically active natriuretic peptides (PNPs). PNPs are secreted into the apoplast, are systemically mobile and elicit a range of responses signaling via cGMP. The PNP-dependent responses include tissue specific modifications of cation transport and changes in stomatal conductance and the photosynthetic rate. PNP also has a critical role in host defense responses. Surprisingly, PNP-homologs are produced by several plant pathogens during host colonization suppressing host defense responses. Here we show that a synthetic peptide representing the biologically active fragment of the Arabidopsis thaliana PNP (AtPNP-A) induces the production of reactive oxygen species in suspension-cultured A. thaliana (Col-0) cells. To identify proteins whose expression changes in an AtPNP-A dependent manner, we undertook a quantitative proteomic approach, employing tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling, to reveal temporal responses of suspension-cultured cells to 1 nM and 10 pM PNP at two different time-points post-treatment. Both concentrations yield a distinct differential proteome signature. Since only the higher (1 nM) concentration induces a ROS response, we conclude that the proteome response at the lower concentration reflects a ROS independent response. Furthermore, treatment with 1 nM PNP results in an over-representation of the gene ontology (GO) terms "oxidation-reduction process," "translation" and "response to salt stress" and this is consistent with a role of AtPNP-A in the adaptation to environmental stress conditions.

  14. Plant natriuretic peptides induce proteins diagnostic for an adaptive response to stress

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Ilona; Marondedze, Claudius; Wheeler, Janet I.; Gehring, Chris; Irving, Helen R.

    2014-01-01

    In plants, structural and physiological evidence has suggested the presence of biologically active natriuretic peptides (PNPs). PNPs are secreted into the apoplast, are systemically mobile and elicit a range of responses signaling via cGMP. The PNP-dependent responses include tissue specific modifications of cation transport and changes in stomatal conductance and the photosynthetic rate. PNP also has a critical role in host defense responses. Surprisingly, PNP-homologs are produced by several plant pathogens during host colonization suppressing host defense responses. Here we show that a synthetic peptide representing the biologically active fragment of the Arabidopsis thaliana PNP (AtPNP-A) induces the production of reactive oxygen species in suspension-cultured A. thaliana (Col-0) cells. To identify proteins whose expression changes in an AtPNP-A dependent manner, we undertook a quantitative proteomic approach, employing tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling, to reveal temporal responses of suspension-cultured cells to 1 nM and 10 pM PNP at two different time-points post-treatment. Both concentrations yield a distinct differential proteome signature. Since only the higher (1 nM) concentration induces a ROS response, we conclude that the proteome response at the lower concentration reflects a ROS independent response. Furthermore, treatment with 1 nM PNP results in an over-representation of the gene ontology (GO) terms “oxidation-reduction process,” “translation” and “response to salt stress” and this is consistent with a role of AtPNP-A in the adaptation to environmental stress conditions. PMID:25505478

  15. The gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-regulating peptides in cisplatin-induced anorexic rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuura, Takanori; Ohkubo, Junichi; Ohno, Motoko; Maruyama, Takashi; Ishikura, Toru; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Terawaki, Kiyoshi; Uezono, Yasuhito; Ueta, Yoichi

    2013-08-01

    Cisplatin has been widely used; however, various disadvantageous side effects afflict patients. Rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, has been widely prescribed in Japan to improve anorexia; but the mechanisms are unknown. Here we studied whether RKT could improve anorexia induced by cisplatin and changes in feeding-regulating peptides in the hypothalamus in rats. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups: water+saline (WS), water+cisplatin (WC), RKT+saline (RS), and RKT+cisplatin (RC) groups. Water or RKT (1g/kg) was intragastrically administered for 4 days, from day -1 to day 2, and saline or cisplatin (6mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered at day 0. After i.p. administration, cumulative food intake, water intake, urine volume and body weight were measured. The rats were then decapitated, followed by removal of the brain, and feeding-regulating peptides in the hypothalamus were measured by in situ hybridization histochemistry. In the three-day measurements, there were no significant changes in cumulative water intake and urine volume. The body weight and cumulative food intake in WC significantly decreased compared to WS, whereas these were not observed in RC. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in WC significantly increased, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the ARC decreased compared to WS, whereas those in RS and RC were comparable to WS. These results suggest that RKT may have therapeutic potential for anorexia induced by cisplatin. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption/Electron Ionization of Amino Acids and Small Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrell, Tiffany M.; Owen, Benjamin C.; Riedeman, James S.; Prentice, Boone M.; Pulliam, Chris J.; Max, Joann; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) allows for desorption of neutral nonvolatile compounds independent of their volatility or thermal stability. Many different ionization methods have been coupled with LIAD. Hence, this setup provides a better control over the types of ions formed than other mass spectrometry evaporation/ionization methods commonly used to characterize biomolecules, such as ESI or MALDI. In this study, the utility of LIAD coupled with electron ionization (EI) was tested for the analysis of common amino acids with no derivatization. The results compared favorably with previously reported EI mass spectra obtained using thermal desorption/EI. Further, LIAD/EI mass spectra collected for hydrochloride salts of two amino acids were found to be similar to those measured for the neutral amino acids with the exception of the appearance of an HCl+● ion. However, the hydrochloride salt of arginine showed a distinctly different LIAD/EI mass spectrum than the previously published literature EI mass spectrum, likely due to its highly basic side chain that makes a specific zwitterionic form particularly favorable. Finally, EI mass spectra were measured for seven small peptides, including di-, tri-, and tetrapeptides. These mass spectra show a variety of ion types. However, an type ions are prevalent. Also, electron-induced dissociation (EID) of protonated peptides has been reported to form primarily an type ions. In addition, the loss of small neutral molecules and side-chain cleavages were observed that are reminiscent of other high-energy fragmentation methods, such as EID. Finally, the isomeric dipeptides LG and IG were found to produce drastically different EI mass spectra, thus allowing differentiation of the leucine and isoleucine amino acids in these dipeptides. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Effects on in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis induced by small peptides carrying adhesion sequences.

    PubMed

    Conconi, Maria Teresa; Ghezzo, Francesca; Dettin, Monica; Urbani, Luca; Grandi, Claudio; Guidolin, Diego; Nico, Beatrice; Di Bello, Carlo; Ribatti, Domenico; Parnigotto, Pier Paolo

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that tumor growth is strictly dependent on neo-vessel formation inside the tumor mass and that cell adhesion is required to allow EC proliferation and migration inside the tumor. In this work, we have evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects on angiogenesis of some peptides, originally designed to promote cell adhesion on biomaterials, containing RGD motif mediating cell adhesion via integrin receptors [RGD, GRGDSPK, and (GRGDSP)(4)K] or the heparin-binding sequence of human vitronectin that interacts with HSPGs [HVP(351-359)]. Cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation in Matrigel were determined on HUVECs, whereas the effects on in vivo angiogenesis were evaluated using the CAM assay. (GRGDSP)(4)K linear sequence inhibited cell adhesion, decreased cell proliferation, migration and morphogenesis in Matrigel, and induced anti-angiogenic responses on CAM at higher degree than that determined after incubation with RGD or GRGDSPK. Moreover, it counteracted both in vitro and in vivo the pro-angiogenic effects induced by the Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). On the other hand, HVP was not able to affect cell adhesion and appeared less effective than (GRGDSP)(4)K. Our data indicate that the activity of RGD-containing peptides is related to their adhesive properties, and their effects are modulated by the number of cell adhesion motifs and the aminoacidic residues next to these sequences. The anti-angiogenic properties of (GRGDSP)(4)K seem to depend on its interaction with integrins, whereas the effects of HVP may be partially due to an impairment of HSPGs/FGF-2.

  18. Induced polymersome formation from a diblock PS-b-PAA polymer via encapsulation of positively charged proteins and peptides.

    PubMed

    Hvasanov, David; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Braet, Filip; Thordarson, Pall

    2011-06-14

    In contrast to simple salts or negatively charged macromolecules, positively charged proteins and peptides including cytochrome c (yeast) and poly-L-lysine are efficiently encapsulated while inducing the formation of polymersomes from polystyrene(140)-b-poly(acrylic acid)(48) (PS(140)-b-PAA(48)). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  19. Vinpocetine and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Attenuate Manganese-Induced Toxicity in NE-4C Cells.

    PubMed

    Bora, Saylav; Erdogan, Mumin Alper; Armagan, Güliz; Sevgili, Elvin; Dagcı, Taner

    2016-12-01

    Increased concentration of manganese (Mn) in the brain is known to be associated with excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation. Vinpocetine, an alkaloid derived from the plant Vinca minor L., basically shows its effect via phosphodiesterase inhibition and voltage-dependent Na + channels. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has gastrointestinal, vasomotor, muscular, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to examine the potential protective effects of vinpocetine and VIP against Mn toxicity in NE-4C neural stem cells (NSCs). VIP treatment at 1 μM and vinpocetine treatment at 2 μM concentrations were sufficient to yield maximum protection, and these concentrations were adopted in the following experiments. In this study, Mn treatment significantly increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and triggered cell death in NE-4C cultures. However, significant reduction in LDH release was observed following vinpocetine or VIP treatments when compared with control. Similar to these findings, vinpocetine or VIP treatments significantly reduced membrane degradation induced by Mn (p < 0.001). Moreover, vinpocetine attenuated Mn-induced decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. Similarly, proapoptotic protein bax and ROS production significantly decreased in cells after incubation with vinpocetine (p = 0.01) or VIP in the presence of Mn (p < 0.001). Our study provides the evidence that both vinpocetine and VIP may exert protective effects via modulating oxidative stress and apoptosis in Mn-induced neurodegeneration in NE-4C cells.

  20. HLA-DR allele reading register shifting is associated with immunity induced by SERA peptide analogues.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Luz Mary; Bermúdez, Adriana; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2008-07-18

    SERA protein is a leading candidate molecule to be included in an antimalarial vaccine. Conserved high activity binding peptides (HABP) binding to red blood cells (RBC) have been identified in this protein. One of them (6762) localising in the 18-kDa C-terminal fragment was used to induce protective immunity with negative result. Critical RBC binding residues (assessed by glycine-analogue scanning) were replaced by others having the same mass, volume and surface but different polarity, rendering some of them immunogenic as assessed by antibody production against the parasite or its proteins and protection-inducing against challenge with a highly infectious Aotus monkey-adapted Plasmodium falciparum strain. A shift in binding to purified HLA-DR allelic molecules from the same haplotype and in their reading register was found, suggesting that modified molecules had adopted a different (1)H NMR 3D structure allowing a better fit into the MHCII-pept-TCR complex, thereby representing a new mechanism for inducing immune protection.

  1. Butyrate Enhances Disease Resistance of Chickens by Inducing Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptide Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sunkara, Lakshmi T.; Achanta, Mallika; Schreiber, Nicole B.; Bommineni, Yugendar R.; Dai, Gan; Jiang, Weiyu; Lamont, Susan; Lillehoj, Hyun S.; Beker, Ali; Teeter, Robert G.; Zhang, Guolong

    2011-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) constitute a large group of natural broad-spectrum antimicrobials and an important first line of immunity in virtually all forms of life. Specific augmentation of synthesis of endogenous HDPs may represent a promising antibiotic-alternative approach to disease control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous administration of butyrate, a major type of short-chain fatty acids derived from bacterial fermentation of undigested dietary fiber, is capable of inducing HDPs and enhancing disease resistance in chickens. We have found that butyrate is a potent inducer of several, but not all, chicken HDPs in HD11 macrophages as well as in primary monocytes, bone marrow cells, and jejuna and cecal explants. In addition, butyrate treatment enhanced the antibacterial activity of chicken monocytes against Salmonella enteritidis, with a minimum impact on inflammatory cytokine production, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst capacities of the cells. Furthermore, feed supplementation with 0.1% butyrate led to a significant increase in HDP gene expression in the intestinal tract of chickens. More importantly, such a feeding strategy resulted in a nearly 10-fold reduction in the bacterial titer in the cecum following experimental infections with S. enteritidis. Collectively, the results indicated that butyrate-induced synthesis of endogenous HDPs is a phylogenetically conserved mechanism of innate host defense shared by mammals and aves, and that dietary supplementation of butyrate has potential for further development as a convenient antibiotic-alternative strategy to enhance host innate immunity and disease resistance. PMID:22073293

  2. Chlorella 11-Peptide Inhibits the Production of Macrophage-Induced Adhesion Molecules and Reduces Endothelin-1 Expression and Endothelial Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Mei Fen; Chen, Lih Chi; Cherng, Jong Yuh

    2013-01-01

    The inflammation process in large vessels involves the up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) which are also known as the markers of atherosclerosis. We have reported that Chlorella 11-peptide exhibited effective anti-inflammatory effects. This peptide with an amino sequence Val-Glu-Cys-Tyr-Gly-Pro-Asn-Arg-Pro-Gln-Phe was further examined for its potential in preventing atherosclerosis in this study. In particular, the roles of Chlorella 11-peptide in lowering the production of vascular adhesion molecules, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) from endothelia (SVEC4-10 cells) were studied. The production of E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in SVEC4-10 cells was measured with ELISA. The mRNA expression of ET-1 was analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. Results showed that Chlorella 11-peptide significantly suppressed the levels of E-selectin, ICAM, VCAM, MCP-1 as well as ET-1 gene expression. The inhibition of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 production by Chlorella 11-peptide was reversed in the presence of protein kinase A inhibitor (H89) which suggests that the cAMP pathway was involved in the inhibitory cause of the peptide. In addition, this peptide was shown to reduce the extent of increased intercellular permeability induced by combination of 50% of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells medium and 50% normal SEVC cell culture medium (referred to as 50% RAW-conditioned medium). These data demonstrate that Chlorella 11-peptide is a promising biomolecule in preventing chronic inflammatory-related vascular diseases. PMID:24129228

  3. A rationally designed peptide IA-2-P2 against type 1 diabetes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lili; Lu, Shiping; Huang, Dongcheng; Li, Guoliang; Liu, Kunfeng; Cao, Rongyue; Zong, Li; Jin, Liang; Wu, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have investigated the potential of type 1 diabetes mellitus-related autoantigens, such as heat shock protein 60, to induce immunological tolerance or to suppress the immune response. A functional 24-residue peptide derived from heat shock protein 60 (P277) has shown anti-type 1 diabetes mellitus potential in experimental animals and in clinical studies, but it also carries a potential atherogenic effect. In this study, we have modified P277 to retain an anti-type 1 diabetes mellitus effect and minimize the atherogenic potential by replacing the P277 B epitope with another diabetes-associated autoantigen, insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2), to create the fusion peptide IA-2-P2. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice, the IA-2-P2 peptide displayed similar anti-diabetic effects to the control P277 peptide. Also, the IA-2-P2 peptide did not show atherogenic activity in a rabbit model. Our findings indicate the potential of IA-2-P2 as a promising vaccine against type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  4. HER-3 peptide vaccines/mimics: Combined therapy with IGF-1R, HER-2, and HER-1 peptides induces synergistic antitumor effects against breast and pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, Megan Jo; Foy, Kevin C; Overholser, Jay P; Nahta, Rita; Kaumaya, Pravin Tp

    2014-11-01

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER-3/ErbB3) is a unique member of the human epidermal growth factor family of receptors, because it lacks intrinsic kinase activity and ability to heterodimerize with other members. HER-3 is frequently upregulated in cancers with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER-1/ErbB1) or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/ErBB2) overexpression, and targeting HER-3 may provide a route for overcoming resistance to agents that target EGFR or HER-2. We have previously developed vaccines and peptide mimics for HER-1, HER-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, we extend our studies by identifying and evaluating novel HER-3 peptide epitopes encompassing residues 99-122, 140-162, 237-269 and 461-479 of the HER-3 extracellular domain as putative B-cell epitopes for active immunotherapy against HER-3 positive cancers. We show that the HER-3 vaccine antibodies and HER-3 peptide mimics induced antitumor responses: inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, inhibition of receptor phosphorylation, induction of apoptosis and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Two of the HER-3 epitopes 237-269 (domain II) and 461-479 (domain III) significantly inhibited growth of xenografts originating from both pancreatic (BxPC3) and breast (JIMT-1) cancers. Combined therapy of HER-3 (461-471) epitope with HER-2 (266-296), HER-2 (597-626), HER-1 (418-435) and insulin-like growth factor receptor type I (IGF-1R) (56-81) vaccine antibodies and peptide mimics show enhanced antitumor effects in breast and pancreatic cancer cells. This study establishes the hypothesis that combination immunotherapy targeting different signal transduction pathways can provide effective antitumor immunity and long-term control of HER-1 and HER-2 overexpressing cancers.

  5. The Suppressive Activity of Fucofuroeckol-A Derived from Brown Algal Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura on UVB-Induced Mast Cell Degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Thanh Sang; Kim, Se-Kwon; Ngo, Dai Hung; Yoon, Na-Young; Bach, Long Giang; Hang, Nguyen Thi Nhat; Ngo, Dai Nghiep

    2018-01-01

    UV light, especially UVB, is known as a trigger of allergic reaction, leading to mast cell degranulation and histamine release. In this study, phlorotannin Fucofuroeckol-A (F-A) derived from brown algal Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura was evaluated for its protective capability against UVB-induced allergic reaction in RBL-2H3 mast cells. It was revealed that F-A significantly suppress mast cell degranulation via decreasing histamine release as well as intracellular Ca2+ elevation at the concentration of 50 μM. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of F-A on IL-1β and TNF-α productions was also evidenced. Notably, the protective activity of F-A against mast cell degranulation was found due to scavenging ROS production. Accordingly, F-A from brown algal E. stolonifera was suggested to be promising candidate for its protective capability against UVB-induced allergic reaction. PMID:29300311

  6. The effects of the phyllolitorin analogue [desTrp3,Leu8]phyllolitorin on scratching induced by bombesin and related peptides in rats

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark D.; Ko, Mei-Chuan; Choo, Kevin S.; Traynor, John R.; Mosberg, Henry I.; Naughton, Norah N.; Woods, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Bombesin along with several closely related neuropeptides elicit scratching behavior when administered centrally. The first part of the study was designed to determine the antagonistic effects of a novel phyllolitorin analogue wdesTrp3,Leu8]phyllolitorin (DTP) on scratching induced by three peptides (bombesin, neuromedin-C, and [Leu8]phyllolitorin). In addition, the binding affinity of each peptide for the bombesin receptor site was determined. DTP (30 μg) inhibited scratching induced by these peptides, but unlike the peptides, DTP had no affinity for the bombesin site, thereby suggesting that DTP is displaying physiological antagonism through an unknown mechanism. PMID:10482814

  7. The Peptide Vaccine Combined with Prior Immunization of a Conventional Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Induced Amyloid β Binding Antibodies on Cynomolgus Monkeys and Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Akira; Ito, Kaori; Miwa, Yoshikatsu; Kanazawa, Yoshito; Chiba, Akiko; Iigo, Yutaka; Kashimoto, Yoshinori; Kanda, Akira; Murata, Shinji; Makino, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of brain amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides by anti-Aβ antibodies is one of the possible therapies for Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported that the Aβ peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT) induced anti-Aβ antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. Cynomolgus monkeys were given the peptide vaccine subcutaneously in combination with the prior DT vaccination. Vaccination with a similar regimen was also performed on guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine induced anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. Those antibodies could preferentially recognize Aβ 40, and Aβ 42 compared to Aβ fibrils. The levels of serum anti-Aβ antibodies and plasma Aβ peptides increased in both animals and decreased the brain Aβ 40 level of guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. The peptide vaccination could be expected to reduce the brain Aβ peptides and their toxic effects via clearance of Aβ peptides by generated antibodies. PMID:26539559

  8. The Peptide Vaccine Combined with Prior Immunization of a Conventional Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Induced Amyloid β Binding Antibodies on Cynomolgus Monkeys and Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Yano, Akira; Ito, Kaori; Miwa, Yoshikatsu; Kanazawa, Yoshito; Chiba, Akiko; Iigo, Yutaka; Kashimoto, Yoshinori; Kanda, Akira; Murata, Shinji; Makino, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of brain amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides by anti-Aβ antibodies is one of the possible therapies for Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported that the Aβ peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT) induced anti-Aβ antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. Cynomolgus monkeys were given the peptide vaccine subcutaneously in combination with the prior DT vaccination. Vaccination with a similar regimen was also performed on guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine induced anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. Those antibodies could preferentially recognize Aβ 40, and Aβ 42 compared to Aβ fibrils. The levels of serum anti-Aβ antibodies and plasma Aβ peptides increased in both animals and decreased the brain Aβ 40 level of guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. The peptide vaccination could be expected to reduce the brain Aβ peptides and their toxic effects via clearance of Aβ peptides by generated antibodies.

  9. Calcitonin-gene related peptide is a potent inducer of oedema in rat orofacial tissue.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Bárbara F G de; Almeida, Marcella P A de; Bakhle, Y S; Francischi, Janetti N

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential of calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide released from sensory nerves, to induce oedema in orofacial tissue. Wistar rats (150-200 g) anesthetized with isoflurane were injected intraorally with CGRP (100 μl; 8-33 pmol) in the right side of the mouth. The contralateral side was injected with the same volume of physiological saline. Increased cheek thickness (in mm), as a measure of oedema formation, was assayed bilaterally with a digital caliper before (T = 0) and up to 24 h following injection of CGRP. Pretreatment with antagonists (CGRP 8-37, 10 nmol; pizotifen, 2 mg/kg) was given by intra-oral or subcutaneous injection, 10 or 30 min, respectively, before the inflammatory stimulus. CGRP and CGRP 8-37 were also injected into the rat hind paw to induce oedema. Data are presented as the mean (±SEM) difference in thickness between the right and the left sides at each time. Following intra-oral injection, CGRP induced a rapidly developing (5-15 min) and long-lasting (6 h), dose-dependent oedema in the rat cheek, blocked by pre-treatment with CGRP 8-37 or pizotifen. CGRP induced a smaller oedematogenic effect in the rat hind paw also blocked by the CGRP antagonist. CGRP (16 pmol) potentiated the oedema induced by co-injected substance P (3.7 nmol) and contributed to the oedema following intraoral injection of carrageenan (100 μg). Injection of CGRP 8-37 alone induced an early but short-lasting oedema. Local injection of CGRP potently induced oedema in the orofacial tissue of rats which was blocked by a CGRP receptor antagonist. The overall inhibition of carrageenan-induced oedema by CGRP 8-37 suggests that endogenous CGRP contributes to an oedematogenic response in orofacial tissues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial Peptide Lactoferricin B-Induced Rapid Leakage of Internal Contents from Single Giant Unilamellar Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Alam, Jahangir Md; Dohra, Hideo; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-09-29

    Enzymatic digestion of bovine lactoferrin generates lactoferricin B (Lfcin B), a 25-mer peptide with strong antimicrobial activity of unknown mechanism. To elucidate the mechanistic basis of Lfcin B bactericidal activity, we investigated the interaction of Lfcin B with Escherichia coli and liposomes of lipid membranes. Lfcin B induced the influx of a membrane-impermeant fluorescent probe, SYTOX green, from the outside of E. coli into its cytoplasm. Lfcin B induced gradual leakage of calcein from large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG)/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) membranes. To clarify the cause of Lfcin B-induced leakage of calcein from the LUVs, we used the single giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) method to investigate the interaction of Lfcin B with calcein-containing DOPG/DOPC-GUVs. We observed that a rapid leakage of calcein from a GUV started stochastically; statistical analysis provided a rate constant for Lfcin B-induced pore formation, kp. On the other hand, phase-contrast microscopic images revealed that Lfcin B induced a rapid leakage of sucrose from the single GUVs with concomitant appearance of a spherical GUV of smaller diameter. Because of the very fast leakage, and at the present time resolution of the experiments (33 ms), we could not follow the evolution of pore nor the process of the structural changes of the GUV. Here we used the term "local rupture" to express the rapid leakage of sucrose and determined the rate constant of local rupture, kL. On the basis of the comparison between kp and kL, we concluded that the leakage of calcein from single GUVs occurred as a result of a local rupture in the GUVs and that smaller pores inducing leakage of calcein were not formed before the local rupture. The results of the effect of the surface charge density of lipid membranes and that of salt concentration in buffer on kp clearly show that kp increases with an increase in the extent of electrostatic interactions due to

  11. Peptides as modifiers of Na+-induced pinocytosis in starved Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, J O; Johansson, P

    1985-01-01

    Low concentrations of six peptide hormones; glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, angiotensin II, lysine-vasopressin, arginine-vasopressin, and the chemotactic peptide fMet-Leu-Phe, activated the capacity for pinocytosis in starved Amoeba proteus. Competitive inhibitors of the chemotactic peptide in leucocytes inhibited activation by fMet-Leu-Phe, suggesting that its action in the amoeba is mediated by specific receptors. The opioid peptides, beta-endorphin, dynorphin (1-13) and leu-enkephalin abolished through a naloxone-sensitive mechanism activation by hormones and several other activating agents. Also, low concentrations of beef and pork insulin inhibited activation by peptide hormones. An insulin analogue of low potency in mammalian cells was inactive in the amoeba. These results support the hypothesis that besides opioid receptors, there may be insulin receptors and possibly receptors for several other peptide hormones in Amoeba proteus.

  12. Mucosal tolerance induced by an immunodominant peptide from rat alpha3(IV)NC1 in established experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, John; Abbott, Danielle S; Karegli, Julieta; Evans, David J; Pusey, Charles D

    2009-06-01

    Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis (EAG), an animal model of Goodpasture's disease, can be induced in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats by immunization with the noncollagenous domain of the alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen, alpha3(IV)NC1. Recent studies have identified an immunodominant peptide, pCol (24-38), from the N-terminus of rat alpha3(IV)NC1; this peptide contains the major B- and T-cell epitopes in EAG and can induce crescentic nephritis. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of mucosal tolerance in EAG by examining the effects of the nasal administration of this peptide after the onset of disease. A dose-dependent effect was observed: a dose of 300 microg had no effect, a dose of 1000 microg resulted in a moderate reduction in EAG severity, and a dose of 3000 microg produced a marked reduction in EAG severity accompanied by diminished antigen-specific, T-cell proliferative responses. These results demonstrate that mucosal tolerance in EAG can be induced by nasal administration of an immunodominant peptide from the N-terminus of alpha3(IV)NC1 and should be of value in designing new therapeutic strategies for patients with Goodpasture's disease and other autoimmune disorders.

  13. Effect of Tyr-MIF-1 peptides on blood ACTH and corticosterone concentration induced by three experimental models of stress.

    PubMed

    Bocheva, A; Dzambazova, E; Hadjiolova, R; Traikov, L; Mincheva, R; Bivolarski, I

    2008-10-01

    1. Studies, using a wide variety of stressors, have clearly indicated that the pattern of neuroendocrine response is dependent upon the stress stimulus applied. 2. The Tyr-MIF-1 family of peptides (Tyr-MIF-1s) includes MIF-1, Tyr-MIF-1, Tyr-W-MIF-1 and Tyr-K-MIF-1. These neuropeptides, neuromodulators are able to inhibit the expression of some forms of stress-induced analgesia. 3. The aim of this study was to compare changes in ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) concentration after various stressors (immobilization, cold and heat), as well as after injection of investigated Tyr-MIF-1s peptides. 4. According to our results, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system was activated by all the stressors applied. Heat and immobilization are stronger stressors, as the exposure of animals to a high ambient temperature and immobilization resulted in the highest rise of plasma ACTH and CORT concentration when compared with cold stress. Moreover, all the investigated peptides from Tyr-MIF-1 family, administered after application of stressors, inhibited the elevations in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) plasma concentrations significantly. 5. In conclusion, the various stressors applied seem to induce a different response of the HPA system as judged by quantitative changes in ACTH and CORT release. We suggest that Tyr-MIF-1 peptides may possess anti-stressor effects, as they inhibited stress-induced rising in two hormones that were investigated.

  14. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase aggregation inhibitor peptide: A potential therapeutic strategy against oxidative stress-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Itakura, Masanori; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Semi, Yuko; Higashida, Shusaku; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2015-11-13

    The glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has multiple functions, including mediating oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death. This process is associated with disulfide-bonded GAPDH aggregation. Some reports suggest a link between GAPDH and the pathogenesis of several oxidative stress-related diseases. However, the pathological significance of GAPDH aggregation in disease pathogenesis remains unclear due to the lack of an effective GAPDH aggregation inhibitor. In this study, we identified a GAPDH aggregation inhibitor (GAI) peptide and evaluated its biological profile. The decapeptide GAI specifically inhibited GAPDH aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, the GAI peptide did not affect GAPDH glycolytic activity or cell viability. The GAI peptide also exerted a protective effect against oxidative stress-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. This peptide could potentially serve as a tool to investigate GAPDH aggregation-related neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders and as a possible therapy for diseases associated with oxidative stress-induced cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Structure-activity relationships in the fusion of small unilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles induced by a model peptide.

    PubMed

    da Costa, M H; Chaimovich, H

    1997-09-01

    Limited proteolysis of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin by pepsin yields several well characterized peptides, one of which (P9, M(r) 9,000), induces fusion of small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) of phosphatidylcholine at pH 3.6. Circular dichroism (CD) of P9 solutions confirmed that the peptide undergoes a reversible transition between pH 7 and pH 3.6. The spectral changes observed with CD suggest that in the low pH conformation there is a decrease in the alpha-helical contents and an exposure of hydrophobic residues. CD and differential ultraviolet spectroscopy demonstrated that P9 binds to micelles of hexadecylphosphorylcholine and the binding produces changes in the tertiary structure of the peptide. Reduction and carboxymethylation of the two disulfide bridges of P9 produced loss of the ability to induce fusion of SUV, although the reduced peptide binds to vesicles, induces loss of entrapped marker and produces vesicle disruption. In the active form P9 exposes hydrophobic groups, one amphiphilic alpha-helix and requires the integrity of the disulfide bridge-stabilized tertiary structure.

  16. Amyloid precursor protein-induced axonopathies are independent of amyloid-beta peptides.

    PubMed

    Stokin, Gorazd B; Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Gunawardena, Shermali; Rodrigues, Elizabeth M; Falzone, Tomás; Kim, Jungsu; Lillo, Concepción; Mount, Stephanie L; Roberts, Elizabeth A; McGowan, Eileen; Williams, David S; Goldstein, Lawrence S B

    2008-11-15

    Overexpression of amyloid precursor protein (APP), as well as mutations in the APP and presenilin genes, causes rare forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These genetic changes have been proposed to cause AD by elevating levels of amyloid-beta peptides (Abeta), which are thought to be neurotoxic. Since overexpression of APP also causes defects in axonal transport, we tested whether defects in axonal transport were the result of Abeta poisoning of the axonal transport machinery. Because directly varying APP levels also alters APP domains in addition to Abeta, we perturbed Abeta generation selectively by combining APP transgenes in Drosophila and mice with presenilin-1 (PS1) transgenes harboring mutations that cause familial AD (FAD). We found that combining FAD mutant PS1 with FAD mutant APP increased Abeta42/Abeta40 ratios and enhanced amyloid deposition as previously reported. Surprisingly, however, this combination suppressed rather than increased APP-induced axonal transport defects in both Drosophila and mice. In addition, neuronal apoptosis induced by expression of FAD mutant human APP in Drosophila was suppressed by co-expressing FAD mutant PS1. We also observed that directly elevating Abeta with fusions to the Familial British and Danish Dementia-related BRI protein did not enhance axonal transport phenotypes in APP transgenic mice. Finally, we observed that perturbing Abeta ratios in the mouse by combining FAD mutant PS1 with FAD mutant APP did not enhance APP-induced behavioral defects. A potential mechanism to explain these findings was suggested by direct analysis of axonal transport in the mouse, which revealed that axonal transport or entry of APP into axons is reduced by FAD mutant PS1. Thus, we suggest that APP-induced axonal defects are not caused by Abeta.

  17. Polysaccharide peptide induces a tumor necrosis factor-α-dependent drop of body temperature in rats.

    PubMed

    Jedrzejewski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Jakub; Wrotek, Sylwia; Kozak, Wieslaw

    2014-08-01

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) extracted from the Coriolus versicolor mushroom is frequently suggested as an adjunct to the chemo- or radiotherapy in cancer patients. It improves quality of the patients' life by decreasing pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. However, the effect of PSP on body temperature has not thus far been studied, although it is well known that treatment with other polysaccharide adjuvants, such as lipopolysaccharides, may induce fever. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the influence of PSP on temperature regulation in rats. We report that intraperitoneal injection of PSP provoked a dose-dependent decrease of temperature in male Wistar rats equipped with biotelemetry devices to monitor deep body temperature (Tb). The response was rapid (i.e., with latency of 15-20min), transient (lasting up to 5h post-injection), and accompanied by a significant elevation of the blood tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level. Pretreatment of the rats with anti-TNF-α antibody prevented the PSP-induced drop in Tb. Based on these data, we conclude that rats may develop an anapyrexia-like response to the injection of peptidopolysaccharide rather than fever, and the response was TNF-α-dependent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Loss of proteostasis induced by amyloid beta peptide in brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Oliveira, Catarina R; Pereira, Cláudia F; Cardoso, Sandra M

    2014-06-01

    Abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to neurotoxic effects, Aβ also damages brain endothelial cells (ECs) and may thus contribute to the degeneration of cerebral vasculature, which has been proposed as an early pathogenic event in the course of AD and is able to trigger and/or potentiate the neurodegenerative process and cognitive decline. However, the mechanisms underlying Aβ-induced endothelial dysfunction are not completely understood. Here we hypothesized that Aβ impairs protein quality control mechanisms both in the secretory pathway and in the cytosol in brain ECs, leading cells to death. In rat brain RBE4 cells, we demonstrated that Aβ1-40 induces the failure of the ER stress-adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), deregulates the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) decreasing overall proteasome activity with accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and impairs the autophagic protein degradation pathway due to failure in the autophagic flux, which culminates in cell demise. In conclusion, Aβ deregulates proteostasis in brain ECs and, as a consequence, these cells die by apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gastrin-releasing peptide induces monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium by upregulating endothelial adhesion molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Park, Hyun-Joo; Department of Dental Pharmacology, BK21 PLUS Project, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-870

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a neuropeptide that plays roles in various pathophysiological conditions including inflammatory diseases in peripheral tissues; however, little is known about whether GRP can directly regulate endothelial inflammatory processes. In this study, we showed that GRP promotes the adhesion of leukocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the aortic endothelium. GRP increased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in endothelial cells. In addition, GRP activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38MAPK, and AKT, and the inhibition of these signaling pathways significantly reduced GRP-inducedmore » monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. Overall, our results suggested that GRP may cause endothelial dysfunction, which could be of particular relevance in the development of vascular inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • GRP induces adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelium. • GRP increases the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules through the activation of NF-κB. • ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and Akt pathways are involved in the GRP-induced leukocyte adhesiveness to endothelium.« less

  20. Small-molecule inducers of Aβ-42 peptide production share a common mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Bettayeb, Karima; Oumata, Nassima; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wenjie; Bustos, Victor; Galons, Hervé; Greengard, Paul; Meijer, Laurent; Flajolet, Marc

    2012-12-01

    The pathways leading specifically to the toxic Aβ42 peptide production, a key event in Alzheimer's disease (AD), are unknown. While searching for pathways that mediate pathological increases of Aβ42, we identified Aftin-4, a new compound that selectively and potently increases Aβ42 compared to DMSO (N2a cells: 7-fold; primary neurons: 4-fold; brain lysates: 2-fold) with an EC(50) of 30 μM. These results were confirmed by ELISA and IP-WB. Using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified 3 proteins (VDAC1, prohibitin, and mitofilin) relevant to AD that interact with Aftin-4, but not with a structurally similar but inactive molecule. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Aftin-4 induces a reversible mitochondrial phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in AD brains. Sucrose gradient fractionation showed that Aftin-4 perturbs the subcellular localization of γ-secretase components and could, therefore, modify γ-secretase specificity by locally altering its membrane environment. Remarkably, Aftin-4 shares all these properties with two other "AD accelerator" compounds. In summary, treatment with three Aβ42 raising agents induced similar biochemical alterations that lead to comparable cellular phenotypes in vitro, suggesting a common mechanism of action involving three structural cellular targets.

  1. α-Santalol, a derivative of sandalwood oil, induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by causing caspase-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Bommareddy, Ajay; Rule, Brittny; VanWert, Adam L; Santha, Sreevidya; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2012-06-15

    The anticancer effects of α-santalol, a major component of sandalwood oil, have been reported against the development of certain cancers such as skin cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The primary objectives of the current study were to investigate the cancer preventive properties of α-santalol on human prostate cancer cells PC-3 (androgen independent and P-53 null) and LNCaP (androgen dependent and P-53 wild-type), and determine the possible mechanisms of its action. The effect of α-santalol on cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Apoptosis induction was confirmed by analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation using both an apoptotic ELISA kit and a DAPI fluorescence assay. Caspase-3 activity was determined using caspase-3 (active) ELISA kit. PARP cleavage was analyzed using immunoblotting. α-Santalol at 25-75 μM decreased cell viability in both cell lines in a concentration and time dependent manner. Treatment of prostate cancer cells with α-santalol resulted in induction of apoptosis as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and nuclear staining of apoptotic cells by DAPI. α-Santalol treatment also resulted in activation of caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage. The α-santalol-induced apoptotic cell death and activation of caspase-3 was significantly attenuated in the presence of pharmacological inhibitors of caspase-8 and caspase-9. In conclusion, the present study reveals the apoptotic effects of α-santalol in inhibiting the growth of human prostate cancer cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Heat hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity induced by calcitonin gene-related peptide in a mouse model of neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    White, Stephanie; Marquez de Prado, Blanca; Russo, Andrew F; Hammond, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether mice with a deficiency of neurofibromin, a Ras GTPase activating protein, exhibit a nociceptive phenotype and probed a possible contribution by calcitonin gene-related peptide. In the absence of inflammation, Nf1+/- mice (B6.129S6 Nf1/J) and wild type littermates responded comparably to heat or mechanical stimuli, except for a subtle enhanced mechanical sensitivity in female Nf1+/- mice. Nociceptive phenotype was also examined after inflammation induced by capsaicin and formalin, which release endogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide. Intraplantar injection of capsaicin evoked comparable heat hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity in Nf1+/- and wild type mice of both genders. Formalin injection caused a similar duration of licking in male Nf1+/- and wild type mice. Female Nf1+/- mice licked less than wild type mice, but displayed other nociceptive behaviors. In contrast, intraplantar injection of CGRP caused greater heat hyperalgesia in Nf1+/- mice of both genders compared to wild type mice. Male Nf1+/- mice also exhibited greater mechanical hypersensitivity; however, female Nf1+/- mice exhibited less mechanical hypersensitivity than their wild type littermates. Transcripts for calcitonin gene-related peptide were similar in the dorsal root ganglia of both genotypes and genders. Transcripts for receptor activity-modifying protein-1, which is rate-limiting for the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, in the spinal cord were comparable for both genotypes and genders. The increased responsiveness to intraplantar calcitonin gene-related peptide suggests that the peripheral actions of calcitonin gene-related peptide are enhanced as a result of the neurofibromin deficit. The analgesic efficacy of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists may therefore merit investigation in neurofibromatosis patients.

  3. Hydrogen Bonded Squaramide-Based Foldable Module Induces Both β- and α-Turns in Hairpin Structures of α-Peptides in Water.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Luís; Martorell, Gabriel; Sampedro, Ángel; Ballester, Pablo; Costa, Antoni; Rotger, Carmen

    2015-06-19

    A novel tertiary squaramido-based reverse-turn module SQ is reported, and its conformational properties are evaluated. This module is easily incorporated into a α-peptide sequence by conventional solid-phase peptide synthesis. The structure characterization of the hybrid squaramido-peptide 4 is described, showing that the turn segment induces the formation of hairpin structures in water through the formation of both αSQ- and βSQ-turns.

  4. SARS Coronavirus Fusion Peptide-Derived Sequence Suppresses Collagen-Induced Arthritis in DBA/1J Mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zu T; Sigalov, Alexander B

    2016-06-28

    During the co-evolution of viruses and their hosts, the viruses have evolved numerous strategies to counter and evade host antiviral immune responses in order to establish a successful infection, replicate and persist in the host. Recently, based on our model of immune signaling, the Signaling Chain HOmoOLigomerization (SCHOOL) model, we suggested specific molecular mechanisms used by different viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) to modulate the host immune response mediated by members of the family of multichain immune recognition receptors (MIRRs). This family includes T cell receptor (TCR) that is critically involved in immune diseases such as autoimmune arthritis. In the present study, we provide compelling experimental in vivo evidence in support of our hypothesis. Using the SCHOOL approach and the SARS-CoV fusion peptide sequence, we rationally designed a novel immunomodulatory peptide that targets TCR. We showed that this peptide ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice and protects against bone and cartilage damage. Incorporation of the peptide into self-assembling lipopeptide nanoparticles that mimic native human high density lipoproteins significantly increases peptide dosage efficacy. Together, our data further confirm that viral immune evasion strategies that target MIRRs can be transferred to therapeutic strategies that require similar functionalities.

  5. The peptide NDP-MSH induces phenotype changes in the heart that resemble ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Catania, Anna; Lonati, Caterina; Sordi, Andrea; Leonardi, Patrizia; Carlin, Andrea; Gatti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptide that exerts multiple protective effects on host cells. Previous investigations showed that treatment with alpha-MSH or synthetic melanocortin agonists reduces heart damage in reperfusion injury and transplantation. The aim of this preclinical research was to determine whether melanocortin treatment induces preconditioning-like cardioprotection. In particular, the plan was to assess whether melanocortin administration causes phenotype changes similar to those induced by repetitive ischemic events. The idea was conceived because both ischemic preconditioning and melanocortin signaling largely depend on cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Rats received single i.v. injections of 750microg/kg of the alpha-MSH analogue Nle(4),DPhe(7)-alpha-MSH (NDP-MSH) or saline and were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, or 5h. Western blot analysis showed that rat hearts expressed melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) protein. Treatment with NDP-MSH was associated with early and marked increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA. This was followed by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). There were no changes in expression of other cytokines of the IL-6 family. Expression of IL-10, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha was likewise unaltered. In hearts of rats treated with NDP-MSH there was increased expression of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77. The data indicate that NDP-MSH induces phenotype changes that closely resemble ischemic preconditioning and likely contribute to its established protection against reperfusion injury. In addition, the increased expression of Nur77 and SOCS3 could be part of a broader anti-inflammatory effect.

  6. Polysaccharide peptide from Coriolus versicolor induces interleukin 6-related extension of endotoxin fever in rats.

    PubMed

    Jedrzejewski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Jakub; Kowalczewska, Malgorzata; Wrotek, Sylwia; Kozak, Wieslaw

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) extracted from the Coriolus versicolor mushroom is frequently suggested as an adjunct to the chemo- or radiotherapy in cancer patients. In a previous study we showed that PSP induced a tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-dependent anapyrexia-like response in rats. Thus, PSP appears to be a factor which modifies a number of pathophysiological responses. Because of this, PSP is suggested as a potential adjuvant for cancer therapy during which cancer patients frequently contract microbial infections accompanied by fever. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not PSP can modulate the course of the fever in response to an antigen such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Body temperature (Tb) of male Wistar rats was measured by biotelemetry. PSP was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at a dose of 100 mg kg(-1), 2 h before LPS administration (50 µg kg(-1), i.p.). The levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and TNF-α in the plasma of rats were estimated 3 h and 14 h post-injection of PSP using a standard sandwich ELISA kit. We report that i.p. pre-injection of PSP 2 h before LPS administration expanded the duration of endotoxin fever in rats. This phenomenon was accompanied by a significant elevation of the blood IL-6 level of rats both 3 h and 14 h post-injection of PSP. Pre-treatment i.p. of the rats with anti-IL-6 antibody (30 µg/rat) prevented the PSP-induced prolongation of endotoxin fever. Based on these data, we conclude that PSP modifies the LPS-induced fever in IL-6-related fashion.

  7. Tomato Juice Consumption Modifies the Urinary Peptide Profile in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Induced Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Pozuelo, Gala; González-Barrio, Rocío; Barberá, Gonzalo G.; Albalat, Amaya; García-Alonso, Javier; Mullen, William; Mischak, Harald; Periago, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in Western countries, with a high prevalence, and has been shown to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), etc. Tomato products contain several natural antioxidants, including lycopene—which has displayed a preventive effect on the development of steatosis and CVD. Accordingly, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of tomato juice consumption on the urinary peptide profile in rats with NAFLD induced by an atherogenic diet and to identify potential peptide biomarkers for diagnosis. Urine samples, collected weekly for four weeks, were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS). A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was carried out to explore the association between differential peptides and treatments. Among the 888 peptides initially identified, a total of 55 were obtained as potential biomarkers. Rats with steatosis after tomato juice intake showed a profile intermediate between that of healthy rats and that of rats with induced hepatic steatosis. Accordingly, tomato products could be considered as a dietary strategy for the impairment of NAFLD, although further research should be carried out to develop a specific biomarkers panel for NAFLD. PMID:27792191

  8. Experimental myositis inducible with transfer of dendritic cells presenting a skeletal muscle C protein-derived CD8 epitope peptide.

    PubMed

    Okiyama, Naoko; Hasegawa, Hisanori; Oida, Takatoku; Hirata, Shinya; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Fujimoto, Manabu; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Kohsaka, Hitoshi

    2015-07-01

    It is suggested that polymyositis, an autoimmune inflammatory myopathy, is mediated by autoaggressive CD8 T cells. Skeletal muscle C protein is a self-antigen that induces C protein-induced myositis, a murine model of polymyositis. To establish a new murine model of myositis inducible with a single CD8 T-cell epitope peptide that derives from the C protein, three internet-based prediction systems were employed to identify 24 candidate peptides of the immunogenic fragment of the C protein and bind theoretically to major histocompatibility complex class I molecules of C57BL/6 (B6) mice. RMA-S cell assay revealed that a HILIYSDV peptide, amino acid position 399-406 of the C protein, had the highest affinity to the H2-K(b) molecules. Transfer of mature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells pulsed with HILIYSDV induced myositis in naive B6 mice. This myositis was suppressed by anti-CD8-depleting antibodies but not by anti-CD4-depleting antibodies. Because this myositis model is mediated by CD8 T cells independently of CD4 T cells, it should be a useful tool to investigate pathology of polymyositis and develop therapies targeting CD8 T cells. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Pimecrolimus enhances TLR2/6-induced expression of antimicrobial peptides in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Büchau, Amanda S; Schauber, Jürgen; Hultsch, Thomas; Stuetz, Anton; Gallo, Richard L

    2008-11-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors are potent inhibitors of T-cell-receptor mediated activation of the adaptive immune system. The effects of this class of drug on the innate immune response system are not known. Keratinocytes are essential to innate immunity in skin and rely on toll-like receptors (TLRs) and antimicrobial peptides to appropriately recognize and respond to injury or microbes. In this study we examined the response of cultured human keratinocytes to pimecrolimus. We observed that pimecrolimus enhances distinct expression of cathelicidin, CD14, and human beta-defensin-2 and beta-defensin-3 in response to TLR2/6 ligands. Some of these responses were further enhanced by 1,25 vitamin D3. Pimecrolimus also increased the functional capacity of keratinocytes to inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus and decreased TLR2/6-induced expression of IL-10 and IL-1beta. Furthermore, pimecrolimus inhibited nuclear translocation of NFAT and NF-kappaB in keratinocytes. These observations uncover a previously unreported function for pimecrolimus in cutaneous innate host defense.

  10. Pimecrolimus Enhances TLR2/6-Induced Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Büchau, Amanda S.; Schauber, Jürgen; Hultsch, Thomas; Stuetz, Anton; Gallo, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors are potent inhibitors of T-cell-receptor mediated activation of the adaptive immune system. The effects of this class of drug on the innate immune response system are not known. Keratinocytes are essential to innate immunity in skin and rely on toll-like receptors (TLRs) and antimicrobial peptides to appropriately recognize and respond to injury or microbes. In this study we examined the response of cultured human keratinocytes to pimecrolimus. We observed that pimecrolimus enhances distinct expression of cathelicidin, CD14, and human β-defensin-2 and β-defensin-3 in response to TLR2/6 ligands. Some of these responses were further enhanced by 1,25 vitamin D3. Pimecrolimus also increased the functional capacity of keratinocytes to inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureusand decreased TLR2/6-induced expression of IL-10 and IL-1β. Furthermore, pimecrolimus inhibited nuclear translocation of NFAT and NF-κB in keratinocytes. These observations uncover a previously unreported function for pimecrolimus in cutaneous innate host defense. PMID:18496569

  11. Fusion protein of CDR mimetic peptide with Fc inhibit TNF-alpha induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Weisong; Feng, Jiannan; Li, Yan; Lin, Zhou; Shen, Beifen

    2006-02-01

    The variable regions of antibodies play central roles in the binding with antigens. Based on the model of a tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) neutralizing monoclonal antibody (named as Z12) with TNF-alpha, heavy chain CDR2 (HCDR2) and light chain CDR3 (LCDR3) of Z12 were found to be the most responsible to bind with TNF-alpha. A mimetic peptide (PT) was designed based on the sequence derived from HCDR2 and LCDR3. Fusion protein PT-Fc was constructed by linking PT with Fc of human IgG1 through a flexible linker (GGGGGS). The primary structural characteristics of Fc and PT-Fc were analyzed, including the flexibility, hydrophilicity and epitopes. It was demonstrated that PT and Fc in the fusion protein possessed bio-function properly and non-interfering with each other. Furthermore, PT-Fc was expressed in Escherichia coli by fusion with thioredoxin (Trx). After trx-PT-Fc was cleaved with recombinant enterokinase, PT-Fc was obtained. The results of in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that both PT and PT-Fc could efficiently inhibit TNF-alpha induced apoptosis on L929 cells. At the same micromole concentration, the inhibition activity of PT-Fc was significantly higher than PT.

  12. Development of a peptide conjugate vaccine for inducing therapeutic anti-IgE antibodies.

    PubMed

    Licari, Amelia; Castagnoli, Riccardo; De Sando, Elisabetta; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2017-04-01

    Given the multifaceted effector functions of IgE in immediate hypersensitivity, late-phase reactions, regulation of IgE receptor expression and immune modulation, IgE antibodies have long represented an attractive target for therapeutic agents in asthma and other allergic diseases. Effective pharmacologic blockade of the binding of IgE to its receptors has become one of most innovative therapeutic strategies in the field of allergic diseases in the last 10 years. Areas covered: The latest strategies targeting IgE include the development of a therapeutic vaccine, able to trigger our own immune systems to produce therapeutic anti-IgE antibodies, potentially providing a further step forward in the treatment of allergic diseases. The aim of this review is to discuss the discovery strategy, preclinical and early clinical development of a peptide conjugate vaccine for inducing therapeutic anti-IgE antibodies. Expert opinion: Outside the area of development of humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, the research field of therapeutic IgE-targeted vaccines holds potential benefits for the treatment of allergic diseases. However, most of the experimental observations in animal models have not yet been translated into new treatments and evidence of human efficacy and safety of this new therapeutic strategy are still lacking.

  13. Extracellular DNA-induced antimicrobial peptide resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lewenza, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is in the environment, bodily fluids, in the matrix of biofilms, and accumulates at infection sites. eDNA can function as a nutrient source, a universal biofilm matrix component, and an innate immune effector in eDNA traps. In biofilms, eDNA is required for attachment, aggregation, and stabilization of microcolonies. We have recently shown that eDNA can sequester divalent metal cations, which has interesting implications on antibiotic resistance. eDNA binds metal cations and thus activates the Mg2+-responsive PhoPQ and PmrAB two-component systems. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa and many other Gram-negative bacteria, the PhoPQ/PmrAB systems control various genes required for virulence and resisting killing by antimicrobial peptides (APs), including the pmr genes (PA3552–PA3559) that are responsible for the addition of aminoarabinose to lipid A. The PA4773–PA4775 genes are a second DNA-induced cluster and are required for the production of spermidine on the outer surface, which protects the outer membrane from AP treatment. Both modifications mask the negative surface charges and limit membrane damage by APs. DNA-enriched biofilms or planktonic cultures have increased antibiotic resistance phenotypes to APs and aminoglycosides. These dual antibiotic resistance and immune evasion strategies may be expressed in DNA-rich environments and contribute to long-term survival. PMID:23419933

  14. RGDC Peptide-Induced Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coating Formed on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lin; Wang, Lina; Fan, Lingying; Xiao, Wenjun; Lin, Bingpeng; Xu, Yimeng; Liang, Jun; Cao, Baocheng

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium alloys as biodegradable metal implants have received a lot of interest in biomedical applications. However, magnesium alloys have extremely high corrosion rates a in physiological environment, which have limited their application in the orthopedic field. In this study, calcium phosphate compounds (Ca–P) coating was prepared by arginine–glycine–aspartic acid–cysteine (RGDC) peptide-induced mineralization in 1.5 simulated body fluid (SBF) to improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the AZ31 magnesium alloys. The adhesion of Ca–P coating to the AZ31 substrates was evaluated by a scratch test. Corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of the Ca–P coating were investigated. The results showed that the RGDC could effectively promote the nucleation and crystallization of the Ca–P coating and the Ca–P coating had poor adhesion to the AZ31 substrates. The corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the biomimetic Ca–P coating Mg alloys were greatly improved compared with that of the uncoated sample. PMID:28772717

  15. Peptide identification

    DOEpatents

    Jarman, Kristin H [Richland, WA; Cannon, William R [Richland, WA; Jarman, Kenneth D [Richland, WA; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Richland, WA

    2011-07-12

    Peptides are identified from a list of candidates using collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry data. A probabilistic model for the occurrence of spectral peaks corresponding to frequently observed partial peptide fragment ions is applied. As part of the identification procedure, a probability score is produced that indicates the likelihood of any given candidate being the correct match. The statistical significance of the score is known without necessarily having reference to the actual identity of the peptide. In one form of the invention, a genetic algorithm is applied to candidate peptides using an objective function that takes into account the number of shifted peaks appearing in the candidate spectrum relative to the test spectrum.

  16. Abacavir induces loading of novel self-peptides into HLA-B*57:01: an autoimmune model for HLA-associated drug hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Norcross, Michael A.; Luo, Shen; Lu, Li; Boyne, Michael T.; Gomarteli, Mary; Rennels, Aaron D.; Woodcock, Janet; Margulies, David H.; McMurtrey, Curtis; Vernon, Stephen; Hildebrand, William H.; Buchli, Rico

    2014-01-01

    Background Abacavir drug hypersensitivity in HIV-treated patients is associated with HLA-B*57:01 expression. To understand the immunochemistry of abacavir drug reactions, we investigated the effects of abacavir on HLA-B*57:01 epitope-binding in vitro and the quality and quantity of self-peptides presented by HLA-B*57:01 from abacavir-treated cells. Design and methods An HLA-B*57:01-specific epitope-binding assay was developed to test for effects of abacavir, didanosine or flucloxacillin on self-peptide binding. To examine whether abacavir alters the peptide repertoire in HLA-B*57:01, a B-cell line secreting soluble human leucocyte antigen (sHLA) was cultured in the presence or absence of abacavir, peptides were eluted from purified human leucocyte antigen (HLA), and the peptide epitopes comparatively mapped by mass spectroscopy to identify drug-unique peptides. Results Abacavir, but not didansosine or flucloxacillin, enhanced binding of the FITC-labeled self-peptide LF9 to HLA-B*57:01 in a dose-dependent manner. Endogenous peptides isolated from abacavir-treated HLA-B*57:01 B cells showed amino acid sequence differences compared with peptides from untreated cells. Novel drug-induced peptides lacked typical carboxyl (C) terminal amino acids characteristic of the HLA-B*57:01 peptide motif and instead contained predominantly isoleucine or leucine residues. Drug-induced peptides bind to soluble HLA-B*57:01 with high affinity that was not altered by abacavir addition. Conclusion Our results support a model of drug-induced autoimmunity in which abacavir alters the quantity and quality of self-peptide loading into HLA-B*57:01. Drug-induced loading of novel self-peptides into HLA, possibly by abacavir either altering the binding cleft or modifying the peptide-loading complex, generates an array of neo-antigen peptides that drive polyclonal T-cell autoimmune responses and multiorgan systemic toxicity. PMID:22617051

  17. Abacavir induces loading of novel self-peptides into HLA-B*57: 01: an autoimmune model for HLA-associated drug hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Norcross, Michael A; Luo, Shen; Lu, Li; Boyne, Michael T; Gomarteli, Mary; Rennels, Aaron D; Woodcock, Janet; Margulies, David H; McMurtrey, Curtis; Vernon, Stephen; Hildebrand, William H; Buchli, Rico

    2012-07-17

    Abacavir drug hypersensitivity in HIV-treated patients is associated with HLA-B57:01 expression. To understand the immunochemistry of abacavir drug reactions, we investigated the effects of abacavir on HLA-B57:01 epitope-binding in vitro and the quality and quantity of self-peptides presented by HLA-B57:01 from abacavir-treated cells. An HLA-B57:01-specific epitope-binding assay was developed to test for effects of abacavir, didanosine or flucloxacillin on self-peptide binding. To examine whether abacavir alters the peptide repertoire in HLA-B57:01, a B-cell line secreting soluble human leucocyte antigen (sHLA) was cultured in the presence or absence of abacavir, peptides were eluted from purified human leucocyte antigen (HLA), and the peptide epitopes comparatively mapped by mass spectroscopy to identify drug-unique peptides. Abacavir, but not didansosine or flucloxacillin, enhanced binding of the FITC-labeled self-peptide LF9 to HLA-B57:01 in a dose-dependent manner. Endogenous peptides isolated from abacavir-treated HLA-B57:01 B cells showed amino acid sequence differences compared with peptides from untreated cells. Novel drug-induced peptides lacked typical carboxyl (C) terminal amino acids characteristic of the HLA-B57:01 peptide motif and instead contained predominantly isoleucine or leucine residues. Drug-induced peptides bind to soluble HLA-B57:01 with high affinity that was not altered by abacavir addition. Our results support a model of drug-induced autoimmunity in which abacavir alters the quantity and quality of self-peptide loading into HLA-B57:01. Drug-induced loading of novel self-peptides into HLA, possibly by abacavir either altering the binding cleft or modifying the peptide-loading complex, generates an array of neo-antigen peptides that drive polyclonal T-cell autoimmune responses and multiorgan systemic toxicity.

  18. Apoptotic death of Listeria monocytogenes-infected human macrophages induced by lactoferricin B, a bovine lactoferrin-derived peptide.

    PubMed

    Longhi, C; Conte, M P; Ranaldi, S; Penta, M; Valenti, P; Tinari, A; Superti, F; Seganti, L

    2005-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular facultative food-borne pathogen, was reported to induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in a variety of cell types with the exception of murine macrophages. These cells represent the predominant compartment of bacterial multiplication and die as a result of necrosis. In this study we showed that human non-activated and IFN-gamma-activated macrophagic-like (THP-1) cells infected with L. monocytogenes, mainly die by necrosis rather than by an apoptotic process. Two natural products derived from bovine milk, lactoferrin and its derivative peptide lactoferricin B, are capable of regulating the fate of infected human macrophages. Bovine lactoferrin treatment of macrophages protects them from L. monocytogenes-induced death whereas lactoferricin B, its derivative peptide, determines a shifting of the equilibrium from necrosis to apoptosis.

  19. Septal Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Expression Determines Suppression of Cocaine-Induced Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harasta, Anne E; Power, John M; von Jonquieres, Georg; Karl, Tim; Drucker, Daniel J; Housley, Gary D; Schneider, Miriam; Klugmann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and its receptor GLP-1R are a key component of the satiety signaling system, and long-acting GLP-1 analogs have been approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Previous reports demonstrate that GLP-1 regulates glucose homeostasis alongside the rewarding effects of food. Both palatable food and illicit drugs activate brain reward circuitries, and pharmacological studies suggest that central nervous system GLP-1 signaling holds potential for the treatment of addiction. However, the role of endogenous GLP-1 in the attenuation of reward-oriented behavior, and the essential domains of the mesolimbic system mediating these beneficial effects, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the central regions of highest Glp-1r gene activity are essential in mediating responses to drugs of abuse. Here, we show that Glp-1r-deficient (Glp-1r−/−) mice have greatly augmented cocaine-induced locomotor responses and enhanced conditional place preference compared with wild-type (Glp-1r+/+) controls. Employing mRNA in situ hybridization we located peak Glp-1r mRNA expression in GABAergic neurons of the dorsal lateral septum, an anatomical site with a crucial function in reward perception. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of dorsal lateral septum neurons revealed that genetic Glp-1r ablation leads to increased excitability of these cells. Viral vector-mediated Glp-1r gene delivery to the dorsal lateral septum of Glp-1r−/− animals reduced cocaine-induced locomotion and conditional place preference to wild-type levels. This site-specific genetic complementation did not affect the anxiogenic phenotype observed in Glp-1r−/− controls. These data reveal a novel role of GLP-1R in dorsal lateral septum function driving behavioral responses to cocaine. PMID:25669605

  20. Cadherin juxtamembrane region derived peptides inhibit TGFβ1 induced gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Stavropoulos, Ilias; Golla, Kalyan; Moran, Niamh; Martin, Finian; Shields, Denis C

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive peptides in the juxtamembrane regions of proteins are involved in many signaling events. The juxtamembrane regions of cadherins were examined for the identification of bioactive regions. Several peptides spanning the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane regions of E- and N-cadherin were synthesized and assessed for the ability to influence TGFβ responses in epithelial cells at the gene expression and protein levels. Peptides from regions closer to the membrane appeared more potent inhibitors of TGFβ signaling, blocking Smad3 phosphorylation. Thus inhibiting nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad complexes and subsequent transcriptional activation of TGFβ signal propagating genes. The peptides demonstrated a peptide-specific potential to inhibit other TGFβ superfamily members, such as BMP4. PMID:25108297

  1. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Induces HIV-1 Proteasomal Degradation in Mucosal Langerhans Cells.

    PubMed

    Bomsel, Morgane; Ganor, Yonatan

    2017-12-01

    The neuroimmune dialogue between peripheral neurons and Langerhans cells (LCs) within mucosal epithelia protects against incoming pathogens. LCs rapidly internalize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) upon its sexual transmission and then trans -infect CD4 + T cells. We recently found that the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), secreted mucosally from peripheral neurons, inhibits LC-mediated HIV-1 trans -infection. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of CGRP-induced inhibition, focusing on HIV-1 degradation in LCs and its interplay with trans -infection. We first show that HIV-1 degradation occurs in endolysosomes in untreated LCs, and functionally blocking such degradation with lysosomotropic agents results in increased trans -infection. We demonstrate that CGRP acts via its cognate receptor and at a viral postentry step to induce faster HIV-1 degradation, but without affecting the kinetics of endolysosomal degradation. We reveal that unexpectedly, CGRP shifts HIV-1 degradation from endolysosomes toward the proteasome, providing the first evidence for functional HIV-1 proteasomal degradation in LCs. Such efficient proteasomal degradation significantly inhibits the first phase of trans -infection, and proteasomal, but not endolysosomal, inhibitors abrogate CGRP-induced inhibition. Together, our results establish that CGRP controls the HIV-1 degradation mode in LCs. The presence of endogenous CGRP within innervated mucosal tissues, especially during the sexual response, to which CGRP contributes, suggests that HIV-1 proteasomal degradation predominates in vivo Hence, proteasomal, rather than endolysosomal, HIV-1 degradation in LCs should be enhanced clinically to effectively restrict HIV-1 trans -infection. IMPORTANCE During sexual transmission, HIV-1 is internalized and degraded in LCs, the resident antigen-presenting cells in mucosal epithelia. Yet during trans -infection, infectious virions escaping degradation are transferred

  2. Alcohol-Induced Changes in Opioid Peptide Levels in Adolescent Rats Are Dependent on Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Sara; Nylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous opioids are implicated in the mechanism of action of alcohol and alcohol affects opioids in a number of brain areas, although little is known about alcohol's effects on opioids in the adolescent brain. One concern, in particular when studying young animals, is that alcohol intake models often are based on single housing that may result in alcohol effects confounded by the lack of social interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate short- and long-term alcohol effects on opioids and the influence of housing conditions on these effects. Methods In the first part, opioid peptide levels were measured after one 24-hour session of single housing and 2-hour voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent and adult rats. In the second part, a model with a cage divider inserted during 2-hour drinking sessions was tested and the effects on opioids were examined after 6 weeks of adolescent voluntary intake in single-and pair-housed rats, respectively. Results The effects of single housing were age specific and affected Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) in particular. In adolescent rats, it was difficult to distinguish between effects induced by alcohol and single housing, whereas alcohol-specific effects were seen in dynorphin B (DYNB), beta-endorphin (BEND), and MEAP levels in adults. Voluntary drinking affected several brain areas and the majority of alcohol-induced effects were not dependent on housing. However, alcohol effects on DYNB and BEND in the amygdala were dependent on housing. Housing alone affected MEAP in the cingulate cortex. Conclusions Age-specific housing- and alcohol-induced effects on opioids were found. In addition, prolonged voluntary alcohol intake under different housing conditions produced several alcohol-induced effects independent of housing. However, housing-dependent effects were found in areas implicated in stress, emotionality, and alcohol use disorder. Housing condition and age may therefore affect the reasons and

  3. Alcohol-induced changes in opioid peptide levels in adolescent rats are dependent on housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Palm, Sara; Nylander, Ingrid

    2014-12-01

    Endogenous opioids are implicated in the mechanism of action of alcohol and alcohol affects opioids in a number of brain areas, although little is known about alcohol's effects on opioids in the adolescent brain. One concern, in particular when studying young animals, is that alcohol intake models often are based on single housing that may result in alcohol effects confounded by the lack of social interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate short- and long-term alcohol effects on opioids and the influence of housing conditions on these effects. In the first part, opioid peptide levels were measured after one 24-hour session of single housing and 2-hour voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent and adult rats. In the second part, a model with a cage divider inserted during 2-hour drinking sessions was tested and the effects on opioids were examined after 6 weeks of adolescent voluntary intake in single-and pair-housed rats, respectively. The effects of single housing were age specific and affected Met-enkephalin-Arg(6) Phe(7) (MEAP) in particular. In adolescent rats, it was difficult to distinguish between effects induced by alcohol and single housing, whereas alcohol-specific effects were seen in dynorphin B (DYNB), beta-endorphin (BEND), and MEAP levels in adults. Voluntary drinking affected several brain areas and the majority of alcohol-induced effects were not dependent on housing. However, alcohol effects on DYNB and BEND in the amygdala were dependent on housing. Housing alone affected MEAP in the cingulate cortex. Age-specific housing- and alcohol-induced effects on opioids were found. In addition, prolonged voluntary alcohol intake under different housing conditions produced several alcohol-induced effects independent of housing. However, housing-dependent effects were found in areas implicated in stress, emotionality, and alcohol use disorder. Housing condition and age may therefore affect the reasons and underlying mechanisms for drinking and

  4. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Induces HIV-1 Proteasomal Degradation in Mucosal Langerhans Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bomsel, Morgane

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The neuroimmune dialogue between peripheral neurons and Langerhans cells (LCs) within mucosal epithelia protects against incoming pathogens. LCs rapidly internalize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) upon its sexual transmission and then trans-infect CD4+ T cells. We recently found that the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), secreted mucosally from peripheral neurons, inhibits LC-mediated HIV-1 trans-infection. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of CGRP-induced inhibition, focusing on HIV-1 degradation in LCs and its interplay with trans-infection. We first show that HIV-1 degradation occurs in endolysosomes in untreated LCs, and functionally blocking such degradation with lysosomotropic agents results in increased trans-infection. We demonstrate that CGRP acts via its cognate receptor and at a viral postentry step to induce faster HIV-1 degradation, but without affecting the kinetics of endolysosomal degradation. We reveal that unexpectedly, CGRP shifts HIV-1 degradation from endolysosomes toward the proteasome, providing the first evidence for functional HIV-1 proteasomal degradation in LCs. Such efficient proteasomal degradation significantly inhibits the first phase of trans-infection, and proteasomal, but not endolysosomal, inhibitors abrogate CGRP-induced inhibition. Together, our results establish that CGRP controls the HIV-1 degradation mode in LCs. The presence of endogenous CGRP within innervated mucosal tissues, especially during the sexual response, to which CGRP contributes, suggests that HIV-1 proteasomal degradation predominates in vivo. Hence, proteasomal, rather than endolysosomal, HIV-1 degradation in LCs should be enhanced clinically to effectively restrict HIV-1 trans-infection. IMPORTANCE During sexual transmission, HIV-1 is internalized and degraded in LCs, the resident antigen-presenting cells in mucosal epithelia. Yet during trans-infection, infectious virions escaping degradation are transferred

  5. Topoisomerase I peptide-loaded dendritic cells induce autoantibody response as well as skin and lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Heena; Goulet, Philippe-Olivier; Nguyen, Vinh; Pérez, Gemma; Koenig, Martial; Senécal, Jean-Luc; Sarfati, Marika

    2016-12-01

    DNA Topoisomerase I (TopoI) is a candidate autoantigen for diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) associated with fatal lung disease. Dendritic cells (DCs) contribute to bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. However, the possibility that TopoI-loaded DCs are involved in the initiation and/or perpetuation of dcSSc has not been explored. Here, we show that immunization with TopoI peptide-loaded DCs induces anti-TopoI autoantibody response and long-term fibrosis. Mice were repeatedly immunized with unpulsed DCs or DCs loaded with either TOPOIA or TOPOIB peptides, selected from different regions of TopoI. At week 12 after initial DC immunization, TOPOIA DCs but not TOPOIB DCs immunization induced mixed inflammation and fibrosis in lungs and skin. At a late time point (week 18), both TOPOIA DCs and TOPOIB DCs groups displayed increased alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in lungs and dermis along with skin fibrosis distal from the site of injection when compared with unpulsed DCs. Both TopoI peptide-DC-immunized groups developed IgG2a anti-TopoI autoantibody response. At week 10, signs of perivascular, peribronchial, and parenchymal pulmonary inflammation were already observed in the TOPOIA DCs group, together with transient elevation in bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts, IL-17A expression, and CXCL4 production, a biomarker of early human dcSSc. Collectively, TopoI peptide DCs induce progressive autoantibody response as well as development of protracted skin and lung dcSSc-like disease. Pronounced lung inflammation, transient IL-17A, and CXCL4 expression precede fibrosis development. Our immunization strategy, that uses self immune system and autoantigen, will help to further investigate the pathogenesis of this complex autoimmune disorder with unmet medical needs.

  6. Mechanisms underlying chemoreceptor inhibition induced by atrial natriuretic peptide in rabbit carotid body.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W J; He, L; Chen, J; Dinger, B; Fidone, S

    1993-01-01

    1. Previous studies in our laboratory revealed the presence of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in preneural chemosensory type I cells of the cat carotid body, and demonstrated that submicromolar concentrations of the peptide inhibited carotid sinus nerve (CSN) activity evoked by hypoxia. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of the cyclic nucleotide second messenger, cyclic GMP (cGMP), and the involvement of type I cells in rabbit chemosensory inhibition. 2. Submicromolar concentrations of the potent ANP analogue, APIII, greatly elevated both the content and release of cGMP from the carotid body. Denervation experiments confirmed earlier immunocytochemical studies which suggested that APIII-induced cGMP production occurs almost exclusively in type I cells; these experiments also indicate that both the sympathetic and sensory innervation to the carotid body exert a trophic influence on the metabolism of this second messenger. 3. Submicromolar concentrations of APIII inhibited the CSN activity evoked by hypoxia (79.8 +/- 3.2% (mean +/- S.E.M.) inhibition with 100 nM APIII) and nicotine (74.5 +/- 3.6% inhibition with 100 nM APIII), but did not affect basal CSN activity established in 100% O2-equilibrated superfusion solutions. 4. The biologically inactive analogue of ANP, C-ANP, failed to produce CSN inhibition; however, the inhibitory effects of APIII were mimicked by cell-permeant analogues of cGMP (dibutyryl-cGMP and 8-bromo-cGMP, 2 mM), which likewise did not alter basal CSN activity. Because we found that unmodified cGMP was an ineffective inhibitor of CSN activity, our data suggest that APIII inhibition is mediated intracellularly by cGMP produced within the type I cells. 5. APIII does not inhibit the CSN activity produced by 20 mM K+ (in zero Ca2+ media), which very probably results from direct depolarization of the sensory nerve terminals. 6. Catecholamine release from the carotid body evoked by hypoxia is likewise not altered by APIII (100 nM). 7

  7. Potential Biomarker Peptides Associated with Acute Alcohol-Induced Reduction of Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Marumo, Mikio; Nonaka, Daisuke; Shimomura, Tomoko; Eguchi, Ryoji; Lee, Lyang-Ja; Tanaka, Kenji; Hatake, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the peptides that are related to acute reduction of blood pressure after alcohol drinking. Venous blood was collected from male healthy volunteers before and after drinking white wine (3 ml/kg weight) containing 13% of ethanol. Peptidome analysis for serum samples was performed using a new target plate, BLOTCHIP®. Alcohol caused significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min. The peptidome analysis showed that the levels of three peptides of m/z 1467, 2380 and 2662 changed significantly after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2662 peptides were identified to be fragments of fibrinogen alpha chain, and the m/z 2380 peptide was identified to be a fragment of complement C4. The intensities of the m/z 2380 and m/z 1467 peptides before drinking were associated with % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min after drinking compared with the levels before drinking, while there were no significant correlations between the intensity of the m/z 2662 peptide and % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2380 peptides are suggested to be markers for acute reduction of blood pressure after drinking alcohol. PMID:26815288

  8. Identification of a hepatoprotective peptide in wheat gluten hydrolysate against D-galactosamine-induced acute hepatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kenji; Egashira, Yukari; Ono, Shin; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Shimmura, Yuki; Suzuki, Yoshio; Nagata, Megumi; Hashimoto, Kaori; Kiyono, Tamami; Park, Eun Young; Nakamura, Yasushi; Itabashi, Mariko; Sakata, Yuka; Furuta, Seigo; Sanada, Hiroo

    2013-07-03

    A hepatoprotective peptide, pyroglutamyl leucine (pyroGlu-Leu), was identified in wheat gluten hydrolysate through an in vivo activity-guided fractionation approach based on D-galactosamine-induced acute hepatitis in rats and fractionation of peptides with large-scale preparative ampholine-free isoelectric focusing. The active acidic fraction predominantly consisted of pyroglutamyl peptides and free pyroglutamic acid. Pyroglutamyl peptides were derivatized with phenyl isothiocyanate after removal of a pyroglutamyl residue by pyroglutamate aminopeptidase. The derivatives were purified by reversed-phase HPLC and subjected to sequence analysis. The active fraction contained pyroGlu-Ile, pyroGlu-Leu, pyroGlu-Gln, pyroGlu-Gln-Gln, and free pyroGlu. Ingestion of pyroGlu-Leu at 20 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferases to approximately 30% and 20% of those values of the vehicle group, respectively, which were near the normal levels. Thirty minutes after ingestion of pyroGlu-Leu at 20 mg/kg, the concentration of pyroGlu-Leu in portal blood plasma increased to approximately 2 μM.

  9. The lactoferricin B-derived peptide, LfB17-34, induces melanogenesis in B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Chin; Lin, Hsuan; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Lactoferricin B (LfcinB), a peptide of bovine lactoferrin (LfB), exhibits multiple biological functions, including antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. However, the role of LfcinB-related peptides in melanogenesis remains unclear. In this study, a set of five LfcinB-related peptides was examined. We found that LfB17‑34, an 18-mer LfcinB-derived peptide, increased melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells without significantly affecting cell viability. LfB17‑34 increased in vitro tyrosinase activity and melanin content in a dose-dependent manner. The results of RT-qPCR and western blot analyses showed that LfB17‑34 increased the mRNA and protein expression of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Trp1). Moreover, LfB17‑34 inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPK/Erk, but not p38 and Akt, and constitutively active MEK was able to reverse the LfB17-34-enhanced pigmentation, melanin content, and tyrosinase activity, suggesting a role of Erk signaling in the process of LfB17‑34-mediated pigmentation. Taken together, these results suggest that LfB17‑34 induces melanogenesis in B16F10 cells primarily through increased tyrosinase expression and activity and that LfB17‑34 could be further developed for the treatment of hypopigmentation disorders.

  10. The lactoferricin B-derived peptide, LfB17-34, induces melanogenesis in B16F10 cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsiu-Chin; Lin, Hsuan; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferricin B (LfcinB), a peptide of bovine lactoferrin (LfB), exhibits multiple biological functions, including antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant and immuno-modulatory activities. However, the role of LfcinB-related peptides in melanogenesis remains unclear. In this study, a set of five LfcinB-related peptides was examined. We found that LfB17-34, an 18-mer LfcinB-derived peptide, increased melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells without significantly affecting cell viability. LfB17-34 increased in vitro tyrosinase activity and melanin content in a dose-dependent manner. The results of RT-qPCR and western blot analyses showed that LfB17-34 increased the mRNA and protein expression of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Trp1). Moreover, LfB17-34 inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPK/Erk, but not p38 and Akt, and constitutively active MEK was able to reverse the LfB17-34-enhanced pigmentation, melanin content, and tyrosinase activity, suggesting a role of Erk signaling in the process of LfB17-34-mediated pigmentation. Taken together, these results suggest that LfB17-34 induces melanogenesis in B16F10 cells primarily through increased tyrosinase expression and activity and that LfB17-34 could be further developed for the treatment of hypopigmentation disorders. PMID:28204812

  11. Triflavin, an Arg‐Gly‐Asp‐containing Peptide, Inhibits Tumor Cell‐induced Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Joen R.; Lin, Chao H.; Peng, Hui C.; Teng, Che M.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of triflavin, an Arg‐Gly‐Asp (RGD)‐containing snake venom peptide, on human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell‐ and B16‐F10 mouse melanoma cell‐induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) in heparinized platelet‐rich plasma. TCIPA appears to play an important role in the development of certain experimental tumor metastases. Two ADP‐scavenging agents, apyrase (10 U/ml) and creatine phosphate (CP) (5 mM)/creatine phosphokinase (CPK) (5 U/ml) completely inhibited B16‐F10 TCIPA, but hirudin (5 U/ml) had no effect. In contrast, apyrase and CP/CPK did not inhibit HeLa TCIPA while hirudin completely inhibited it. Furthermore, HeLa cells initially induced platelet aggregation and then blood coagulation at a later stage. In addition, HeLa cells shortened, in a concentration‐dependent manner, the recalcification time of normal as well as factor VIII‐ and IX‐deficient human plasma, but did not affect the recalciflcation time of factor VII‐deficient plasma. This suggests that HeLa TCIPA occurs via activation of the extrinsic pathway, probably owing to tumor cell expression of tissue factor‐like activity. HeLa cell‐induced thrombin generation was confirmed by detection of amidolytic activity towards a chromogenic substrate, S‐2238 (H‐D‐Phe‐Pip‐Arg‐p‐NA). Triflavin and GRGDS inhibited, in a dose‐dependent manner, TCIPA caused by either cell line. On a molar basis, triflavin was 10,000–30,000 times more potent than GRGDS in this regard. Moreover, monoclonal antibodies raised against glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa complex (i.e., 7E3 and AP2) and against GP Ib (i.e., AP1) completely inhibited HeLa TCIPA. 7E3 and AP2 inhibited B16‐F10 TCIPA by up to 80% whereas AP1 showed only 30% inhibition of B16‐F10 TCIPA. In conclusion, the inhibitory effect of triflavin on HeLa and B16‐F10 TCIPA may be mediated principally by the binding of triflavin to the fibrinogen receptor associated with GP IIb/IIIa complex on the

  12. Brown adipose tissue and its modulation by a mitochondria-targeted peptide in rat burn injury-induced hypermetabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yo, Kikuo; Yu, Yong-Ming; Zhao, Gaofeng; Bonab, Ali A.; Aikawa, Naoki; Tompkins, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    Hypermetabolism is a prominent feature of burn injury, and altered mitochondria function is presumed to contribute to this state. Recently, brown adipose tissue (BAT) was found to be present not only in rodents but also in humans, and its activity is associated with resting metabolic rate. In this report, we elucidate the relationship between burn injury-induced hypermetabolism and BAT activity and the possible role of the mitochondria-targeted peptide SS31 in attenuating burn injury-induced hypermetabolism by using a rat burn injury model. We demonstrate that burn injury induces morphological changes in interscapular BAT (iBAT). Burn injury was associated with iBAT activation, and this effect was positively correlated with increased energy expenditure. BAT activation was associated with augmentation of mitochondria biogenesis, and UCP1 expression in the isolated iBAT mitochondria. In addition, the mitochondria-targeted peptide SS31 attenuated burn injury-induced hypermetabolism, which was accompanied by suppression of UCP1 expression in isolated mitochondria. Our results suggest that BAT plays an important role in burn injury-induced hypermetabolism through its morphological changes and expression of UCP1. PMID:23169784

  13. Brown adipose tissue and its modulation by a mitochondria-targeted peptide in rat burn injury-induced hypermetabolism.

    PubMed

    Yo, Kikuo; Yu, Yong-Ming; Zhao, Gaofeng; Bonab, Ali A; Aikawa, Naoki; Tompkins, Ronald G; Fischman, Alan J

    2013-02-15

    Hypermetabolism is a prominent feature of burn injury, and altered mitochondria function is presumed to contribute to this state. Recently, brown adipose tissue (BAT) was found to be present not only in rodents but also in humans, and its activity is associated with resting metabolic rate. In this report, we elucidate the relationship between burn injury-induced hypermetabolism and BAT activity and the possible role of the mitochondria-targeted peptide SS31 in attenuating burn injury-induced hypermetabolism by using a rat burn injury model. We demonstrate that burn injury induces morphological changes in interscapular BAT (iBAT). Burn injury was associated with iBAT activation, and this effect was positively correlated with increased energy expenditure. BAT activation was associated with augmentation of mitochondria biogenesis, and UCP1 expression in the isolated iBAT mitochondria. In addition, the mitochondria-targeted peptide SS31 attenuated burn injury-induced hypermetabolism, which was accompanied by suppression of UCP1 expression in isolated mitochondria. Our results suggest that BAT plays an important role in burn injury-induced hypermetabolism through its morphological changes and expression of UCP1.

  14. Apelin-APJ system is responsible for stress-induced increase in atrial natriuretic peptide expression in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Izgut-Uysal, Vecihe Nimet; Acar, Nuray; Birsen, Ilknur; Ozcan, Filiz; Ozbey, Ozlem; Soylu, Hakan; Avci, Sema; Tepekoy, Filiz; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Yucel, Gultekin; Ustunel, Ismail

    2018-04-01

    The cardiovascular system is a primary target of stress and stress is the most important etiologic factor in cardiovascular diseases. Stressors increase expressions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and apelin in cardiac tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether stress-induced apelin has an effect on the expression of ANP in the right atrium of rat heart. The rats were divided into the control, stress and F13A+stress groups. In the stress and F13A+stress groups, the rats were subjected to water immersion and restraint stress (WIRS) for 6h. In the F13A+stress group, apelin receptor antagonist F13A, was injected intravenously immediately before application of WIRS. The plasma samples were obtained for the measurement of corticosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide. The atrial samples were used for immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. F13A administration prevented the rise of plasma corticosterone and ANP levels induced by WIRS. While WIRS application increased the expressions of apelin, HIF-1α and ANP in atrial tissue, while F13A prevented the stress-induced increase in the expression of HIF-1α and ANP. Stress-induced apelin induces ANP expression in atrial tissue and may play a role in cardiovascular homeostasis by increasing ANP expression under WIRS conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Histone H2A Derived Antimicrobial Peptides, Harriottins, from Sicklefin Chimaera Neoharriotta pinnata (Schnakenbeck, 1931) and Its Evolutionary Divergence with respect to CO1 and Histone H2A.

    PubMed

    Sathyan, Naveen; Philip, Rosamma; Chaithanya, E R; Anil Kumar, P R; Sanjeevan, V N; Singh, I S Bright

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are humoral innate immune components of fishes that provide protection against pathogenic infections. Histone derived antimicrobial peptides are reported to actively participate in the immune defenses of fishes. Present study deals with identification of putative antimicrobial sequences from the histone H2A of sicklefin chimaera, Neoharriotta pinnata. A 52 amino acid residue termed Harriottin-1, a 40 amino acid Harriottin-2, and a 21 mer Harriottin-3 were identified to possess antimicrobial sequence motif. Physicochemical properties and molecular structure of Harriottins are in agreement with the characteristic features of antimicrobial peptides, indicating its potential role in innate immunity of sicklefin chimaera. The histone H2A sequence of sicklefin chimera was found to differ from previously reported histone H2A sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on histone H2A and cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (CO1) gene revealed N. pinnata to occupy an intermediate position with respect to invertebrates and vertebrates.

  16. Characterization of Histone H2A Derived Antimicrobial Peptides, Harriottins, from Sicklefin Chimaera Neoharriotta pinnata (Schnakenbeck, 1931) and Its Evolutionary Divergence with respect to CO1 and Histone H2A

    PubMed Central

    Sathyan, Naveen; Philip, Rosamma; Chaithanya, E. R.; Anil Kumar, P. R.; Sanjeevan, V. N.; Singh, I. S. Bright

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are humoral innate immune components of fishes that provide protection against pathogenic infections. Histone derived antimicrobial peptides are reported to actively participate in the immune defenses of fishes. Present study deals with identification of putative antimicrobial sequences from the histone H2A of sicklefin chimaera, Neoharriotta pinnata. A 52 amino acid residue termed Harriottin-1, a 40 amino acid Harriottin-2, and a 21 mer Harriottin-3 were identified to possess antimicrobial sequence motif. Physicochemical properties and molecular structure of Harriottins are in agreement with the characteristic features of antimicrobial peptides, indicating its potential role in innate immunity of sicklefin chimaera. The histone H2A sequence of sicklefin chimera was found to differ from previously reported histone H2A sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on histone H2A and cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (CO1) gene revealed N. pinnata to occupy an intermediate position with respect to invertebrates and vertebrates. PMID:27398241

  17. Inhibitory effect of peptide Epitalon on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Khavinson, Vladimir Kh; Popovich, I G; Zabezhinski, Mark A

    2002-09-08

    The effect of synthetic pineal peptide Epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) on colon carcinogenesis was firstly studied in rats. Eighty 2-month-old outbred male LIO rats were subdivided into four groups and were weekly exposed to five subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a single dose of 21 mg/kg body weight. Additionally, 5 days a week, some of the rats were given subcutaneous injections of saline at a dose of 0.1 ml during the whole experiment (group 1, control) or Epitalon at a single dose of 1 microg during the whole experiment (group 2), Epitalon after termination of carcinogen injections (group 3) or during the period of DMH exposure (group 4). Colon carcinomas developed in 90-100% of DMH-treated rats. The number of total colon tumors per rat was 4.1; 2.7; 3.7; 2.9 in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively (the difference in groups 2 and 4 compared with group 1 is significant). In rats from group 2, colon tumors were smaller than in control animals. In group 2, the incidence, as well the multiplicity of tumors in ascending and descending colon, were significantly decreased in comparison with group 1. In group 4, the mean number of tumors per rat was significantly decreased, too. A trend to decrease the number of tumors in the rectum in rats from groups 2, 3 and 4, treated with Epitalon was found. Epitalon inhibited also the development of tumors in jejunum and ileum. Thus, our results demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Epitalon on chemically induced bowel carcinogenesis in rats.

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-2 induces rapid digestive adaptation following intestinal resection in preterm neonates

    PubMed Central

    Vegge, Andreas; Thymann, Thomas; Lund, Pernille; Stoll, Barbara; Bering, Stine B.; Hartmann, Bolette; Jelsing, Jacob; Qvist, Niels; Burrin, Douglas G.; Jeppesen, Palle B.; Holst, Jens J.

    2013-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a frequent complication after intestinal resection in infants suffering from intestinal disease. We tested whether treatment with the intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases intestinal volume and function in the period immediately following intestinal resection in preterm pigs. Preterm pigs were fed enterally for 48 h before undergoing resection of 50% of the small intestine and establishment of a jejunostomy. Following resection, pigs were maintained on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) without (SBS, n = 8) or with GLP-2 treatment (3.5 μg/kg body wt per h, SBS+GLP-2, n = 7) and compared with a group of unresected preterm pigs (control, n = 5). After 5 days of TPN, all piglets were fed enterally for 24 h, and a nutrient balance study was performed. Intestinal resection was associated with markedly reduced endogenous GLP-2 levels. GLP-2 increased the relative absorption of wet weight (46 vs. 22%), energy (79 vs. 64%), and all macronutrients (all parameters P < 0.05). These findings were supported by a 200% increase in sucrase and maltase activities, a 50% increase in small intestinal epithelial volume (P < 0.05), as well as increased DNA and protein contents and increased total protein synthesis rate in SBS+GLP-2 vs. SBS pigs (+100%, P < 0.05). Following intestinal resection in preterm pigs, GLP-2 induced structural and functional adaptation, resulting in a higher relative absorption of fluid and macronutrients. GLP-2 treatment may be a promising therapy to enhance intestinal adaptation and improve digestive function in preterm infants with jejunostomy following intestinal resection. PMID:23764891

  19. The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 induces cell death and DAMP release by mitochondria distortion in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Eike, Liv-Marie; Yang, Nannan; Rekdal, Øystein; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2015-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are naturally occurring molecules found in most species, in which they play a significant role in the first line defense against intruding pathogens, and several HDPs have been shown to possess anticancer activity. Structure-activity relationship studies on the HDP bovine lactoferricin revealed a de novo design of a nonamer peptide LTX-315, with oncolytic properties. In the present study, we investigated the oncolytic activity of LTX-315 in human melanoma cells (A375). LTX-315 induced a rapid plasma membrane disruption and cell death within 2 hours. At a low concentration, fluorescence-labeled LTX-315 was internalized and accumulated in cytoplasmic vacuoles in close proximity to the mitochondria. The mitochondrial membrane potential was shown to depolarize as a consequence of LTX-315 treatment and at ultrastructural level, the mitochondria morphology was significantly altered. Release of danger signals (DAMPs) such as ATP, Cytochrome C and HMGB1 into the cell supernatant of cultured cells was evident minutes after peptide treatment. The oncolytic effect of LTX-315 involving perturbation of both the cell membrane and the mitochondria with subsequent release of DAMPs may highlight the ability of LTX-315 to induce complete regression and long-term protective immune responses as previously reported in experimental animal models. PMID:26472184

  20. Characterizing Peptide Neutral Losses Induced by Negative Electron-Transfer Dissociation (NETD)

    PubMed Central

    Rumachik, Neil G.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Russell, Jason D.; Bailey, Derek J.; Wenger, Craig D.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    We implemented negative electron-transfer dissociation (NETD) on a hybrid ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer to conduct ion/ion reactions using peptide anions and radical reagent cations. In addition to sequence-informative ladders of a•- and x-type fragment ions, NETD generated intense neutral loss peaks corresponding to the entire or partial side-chain cleavage from amino acids constituting a given peptide. Thus, a critical step towards the characterization of this recently introduced fragmentation technique is a systematic study of synthetic peptides to identify common neutral losses and preferential fragmentation pathways. Examining 46 synthetic peptides with high mass accuracy and high resolution analysis permitted facile determination of the chemical composition of each neutral loss. We identified 19 unique neutral losses from 14 amino acids and three modified amino acids, and assessed the specificity and sensitivity of each neutral loss using a database of 1542 confidently identified peptides generated from NETD shotgun experiments employing high-pH separations and negative electrospray ionization. As residue-specific neutral losses indicate the presence of certain amino acids, we determined that many neutral losses have potential diagnostic utility. We envision this catalogue of neutral losses being incorporated into database search algorithms to improve peptide identification specificity and to further advance characterization of the acidic proteome. PMID:22290482

  1. Outcome prediction in pneumonia induced ALI/ARDS by clinical features and peptide patterns of BALF determined by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Jochen; Gessner, Christian; Sandvoss, Torsten; Hammerschmidt, Stefan; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Sack, Ulrich; Eschrich, Klaus; Wirtz, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Peptide patterns of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were assumed to reflect the complex pathology of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) better than clinical and inflammatory parameters and may be superior for outcome prediction. A training group of patients suffering from ALI/ARDS was compiled from equal numbers of survivors and nonsurvivors. Clinical history, ventilation parameters, Murray's lung injury severity score (Murray's LISS) and interleukins in BALF were gathered. In addition, samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed by means of hydrophobic chromatography and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for each clinical and cytokine parameter revealed interleukin-6>interleukin-8>diabetes mellitus>Murray's LISS as the best outcome predictors. Outcome predicted on the basis of BALF levels of interleukin-6 resulted in 79.4% accuracy, 82.7% sensitivity and 76.1% specificity (area under the ROC curve, AUC, 0.853). Both clinical parameters and cytokines as well as peptide patterns determined by MALDI-ToF MS were analyzed by classification and regression tree (CART) analysis and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms. CART analysis including Murray's LISS, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in combination was correct in 78.0%. MALDI-ToF MS of BALF peptides did not reveal a single identifiable biomarker for ARDS. However, classification of patients was successfully achieved based on the entire peptide pattern analyzed using SVM. This method resulted in 90% accuracy, 93.3% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity following a 10-fold cross validation (AUC = 0.953). Subsequent validation of the optimized SVM algorithm with a test group of patients with unknown prognosis yielded 87.5% accuracy, 83.3% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity. MALDI-ToF MS peptide patterns of BALF, evaluated by appropriate mathematical methods can be of value in predicting outcome in pneumonia induced

  2. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, protects against amyloid-β peptide-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao-Tao; Ye-Tian; Yuan-Li; Zhang, Ge-Juan; Liu, Zhi-Qin; Di, Zheng-Li; Ying, Xiao-Ping; Fang, Yan; Song, Er-Fei; Qi, Jin-Shun; Pan, Yan-Fang

    2016-05-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share specific molecular mechanisms, and agents with proven efficacy in one may be useful against the other. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist exendin-4 has similar properties to GLP-1 and is currently in clinical use for T2DM treatment. Thus, this study was designed to characterize the effects of exendin-4 on the impairment of learning and memory induced by amyloid protein (Aβ) and its probable molecular underlying mechanisms. The results showed that (1) intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ1-42 resulted in a significant decline of spatial learning and memory of rats in water maze tests; (2) pretreatment with exendin-4 effectively and dose-dependently protected against the Aβ1-42-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory; (3) exendin-4 treatment significantly decreased the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl2 in Aβ1-42-induced Alzheimer's rats. The vision and swimming speed of the rats among all groups in the visible platform tests did not show any difference. These findings indicate that systemic pretreatment with exendin-4 can effectively prevent the behavioral impairment induced by neurotoxic Aβ1-42, and the underlying protective mechanism of exendin-4 may be involved in the Bcl2, Bax and caspase-3 pathways. Thus, the application of exendin-4 or the activation of its signaling pathways may be a promising strategy to ameliorate the degenerative processes observed in AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The interplay of T1- and T2-relaxation on T1-weighted MRI of hMSCs induced by Gd-DOTA-peptides.

    PubMed

    Cao, Limin; Li, Binbin; Yi, Peiwei; Zhang, Hailu; Dai, Jianwu; Tan, Bo; Deng, Zongwu

    2014-04-01

    Three Gd-DOTA-peptide complexes with different peptide sequence are synthesized and used as T1 contrast agent to label human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for magnetic resonance imaging study. The peptides include a universal cell penetrating peptide TAT, a linear MSC-specific peptide EM7, and a cyclic MSC-specific peptide CC9. A significant difference in labeling efficacy is observed between the Gd-DOTA-peptides as well as a control Dotarem. All Gd-DOTA-peptides as well as Dotarem induce significant increase in T1 relaxation rate which is in favor of T1-weighted MR imaging. Gd-DOTA-CC9 yields the maximum labeling efficacy but poor T1 contrast enhancement. Gd-DOTA-EM7 yields the minimum labeling efficacy but better T1 contrast enhancement. Gd-DOTA-TAT yields a similar labeling efficacy as Gd-DOTA-CC9 and similar T1 contrast enhancement as Gd-DOTA-EM7. The underlying mechanism that governs T1 contrast enhancement effect is discussed. Our results suggest that T1 contrast enhancement induced by Gd-DOTA-peptides depends not only on the introduced cellular Gd content, but more importantly on the effect that Gd-DOTA-peptides exert on the T1-relaxation and T2-relaxation processes/rates. Both T1 and particularly T2 relaxation rate have to be taken into account to interpret T1 contrast enhancement. In addition, the interpretation has to be based on cellular instead of aqueous longitudinal and transverse relaxivities of Gd-DOTA-peptides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Leu-enkephalin and delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) on endogenous noradrenaline release by rat brain synaptosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Lozhanets, V.V.; Anosov, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nonapeptide delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) causes specific changes in the encephalogram of recipient animals: It prolongs the phase of long-wave or delta sleep. The cellular mechanism of action of DSIP has not yet been explained. To test the hyporhesis that this peptide or its degradation product may be presynaptic regulators of catecholamine release, the action of Leu-enkephaline, DSIP, and amino acids composing DSIP on release of endogenous noradrenalin (NA) from synaptosomes during depolarization was compared. Subcellular fractions from cerebral hemisphere of noninbred male albino rats were isolated. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was determined in the suspension of synaptosomes before andmore » after addition of 0.5% Triton X-100. The results were subjected to statistical analysis, using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney nonparametric test.« less

  5. Tuning the autophagy-inducing activity of lanthanide-based nanocrystals through specific surface-coating peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunjiao; Zheng, Fang; Yang, Tianlong; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Yun; Man, Na; Zhang, Li; Jin, Nan; Dou, Qingqing; Zhang, Yong; Li, Zhengquan; Wen, Long-Ping

    2012-09-01

    The induction of autophagy on exposure of cells to a variety of nanoparticles represents both a safety concern and an application niche for engineered nanomaterials. Here, we show that a short synthetic peptide, RE-1, identified by means of phage display, binds to lanthanide (LN) oxide and upconversion nanocrystals (UCN), forms a stable coating layer on the nanoparticles’ surface, and effectively abrogates their autophagy-inducing activity. Furthermore, RE-1 peptide variants exhibit a differentially reduced binding capability, and correspondingly, a varied ability to reduce the autophagic response. We also show that the addition of an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif to RE-1 enhances autophagy for LN UCN through the interaction with integrins. RE-1 and its variants provide a versatile tool for tuning material-cell interactions to achieve the desired level of autophagy, and may prove useful for the various diagnostic and therapeutic applications of LN-based nanomaterials and nanodevices.

  6. The cell aggregating propensity of probiotic actinobacterial isolates: isolation and characterization of the aggregation inducing peptide pheromone.

    PubMed

    Muthu Selvam, Ramu; Vinothini, Gopal; Palliyarai Thaiyammal, Sethuramalingam; Latha, Selvanathan; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Ali Alharbi, Sulaiman; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2016-01-01

    The auto-aggregating ability of a probiotic is a prerequisite for colonization and protection of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas co-aggregation provides a close interaction with pathogenic bacteria. Peptide pheromone mediated signaling has been studied in several systems. However, it has not yet been explored in prokaryotes, especially actinobacteria. Hence, in the present study, the diffusible aggregation promoting factor was purified from the culture supernatant of a potent actinobacterial probiont and characterized using 20 different actinobacterial cultures isolated from the gut region of chicken and goat. The results showed that the pheromone-like compound induces the aggregation propensity of treated isolates. The factor was found to be a heat stable, acidic pH resistant, low molecular weight peptide which enhances the biofilm forming ability of other actinobacterial isolates. The aggregation promoting factor represents a bacterial sex factor (pheromone) and its characterization confirms its usage in the probiotic formulation.

  7. Active suppression rather than ignorance: tolerance to abacavir-induced HLA-B*57:01 peptide repertoire alteration.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Elizabeth J; Mallal, Simon A

    2018-05-21

    The discovery of HLA-B*57:01-associated abacavir hypersensitivity is a translational success story that eliminated adverse reactions to abacavir through pretreatment screening and defined a mechanistic model of an altered peptide repertoire. In this issue of the JCI, Cardone et al. have developed an HLA-B*57:01-transgenic mouse model and demonstrated that CD4+ T cells play a key role in mediating tolerance to the dramatically altered endogenous peptide repertoire induced by abacavir and postulate a known mechanism by which CD4+ T cells suppress DC maturation. This report potentially explains why 45% of HLA-B*57:01 carriers tolerate abacavir and provides a framework for future studies of HLA-restricted, T cell-mediated drug tolerance and hypersensitivity.

  8. Wheat peptides reduce oxidative stress and inhibit NO production through modulating μ-opioid receptor in a rat NSAID-induced stomach damage model.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong; Cai, Hui-Zhen; Wang, Shao-Kang; Yang, Li-Gang; Sun, Gui-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce tissue damage and oxidative stress in animal models of stomach damage. In the present study, the protective effects of wheat peptides were evaluated in a NSAID-induced stomach damage model in rats. Different doses of wheat peptides or distilled water were administered daily by gavage for 30 days before the rat stomach damage model was established by administration of NSAIDs (aspirin and indomethacin) into the digestive tract twice. The treatment of wheat peptides decreased the NSAID-induced gastric epithelial cell degeneration and oxidative stress and NO levels in the rats. Wheat peptides significantly increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and decreased iNOS activity in stomach. The mRNA expression level of μ-opioid receptor was significantly decreased in wheat peptides-treated rats than that in in the control rats. The results suggest that NSAID drugs induced stomach damage in rats, wchih can be prevented by wheat peptides. The mechanisms for the protective effects were most likely through reducing NSAID-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A peptide that blocks the interaction of NF-κB p65 subunit with Smad4 enhances BMP2-induced osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Urata, Mariko; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Matsubara, Takuma; Sugiyama, Goro; Nakatomi, Chihiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Hirata-Tsuchiya, Shizu; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Tamura, Yukihiko; Moriyama, Yasuko; Ayukawa, Yasunori; Matsuda, Miho; Zhang, Min; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Kitamura, Chiaki; Jimi, Eijiro

    2018-09-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) potentiates bone formation through the Smad signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. The transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) suppresses BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation. Recently, we identified that the transactivation (TA) 2 domain of p65, a main subunit of NF-κB, interacts with the mad homology (MH) 1 domain of Smad4 to inhibit BMP signaling. Therefore, we further attempted to identify the interacting regions of these two molecules at the amino acid level. We identified a region that we term the Smad4-binding domain (SBD), an amino-terminal region of TA2 that associates with the MH1 domain of Smad4. Cell-permeable SBD peptide blocked the association of p65 with Smad4 and enhanced BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation and mineralization without affecting the phosphorylation of Smad1/5 or the activation of NF-κB signaling. SBD peptide enhanced the binding of the BMP2-inudced phosphorylated Smad1/5 on the promoter region of inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id-1) compared with control peptide. Although SBD peptide did not affect BMP2-induced chondrogenesis during ectopic bone formation, the peptide enhanced BMP2-induced ectopic bone formation in subcortical bone. Thus, the SBD peptide is useful for enabling BMP2-induced bone regeneration without inhibiting NF-κB activity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The effects of exercise-induced weight loss on appetite-related peptides and motivation to eat.

    PubMed

    Martins, C; Kulseng, B; King, N A; Holst, J J; Blundell, J E

    2010-04-01

    The magnitude of exercise-induced weight loss depends on the extent of compensatory responses. An increase in energy intake is likely to result from changes in the appetite control system toward an orexigenic environment; however, few studies have measured how exercise impacts on both orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of medium-term exercise on fasting/postprandial levels of appetite-related hormones and subjective appetite sensations in overweight/obese individuals. We conducted a longitudinal study in a university research center. Twenty-two sedentary overweight/obese individuals (age, 36.9 +/- 8.3 yr; body mass index, 31.3 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2)) took part in a 12-wk supervised exercise programme (five times per week, 75% maximal heart rate) and were requested not to change their food intake during the study. We measured changes in body weight and fasting/postprandial plasma levels of glucose, insulin, total ghrelin, acylated ghrelin (AG), peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1 and feelings of appetite. Exercise resulted in a significant reduction in body weight and fasting insulin and an increase in AG plasma levels and fasting hunger sensations. A significant reduction in postprandial insulin plasma levels and a tendency toward an increase in the delayed release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (90-180 min) were also observed after exercise, as well as a significant increase (127%) in the suppression of AG postprandially. Exercise-induced weight loss is associated with physiological and biopsychological changes toward an increased drive to eat in the fasting state. However, this seems to be balanced by an improved satiety response to a meal and improved sensitivity of the appetite control system.

  11. The Peptide Near the C Terminus Regulates Receptor CAR Nuclear Translocation Induced by Xenochemicals in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zelko, Igor; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2001-01-01

    In response to phenobarbital (PB) and other PB-type inducers, the nuclear receptor CAR translocates to the mouse liver nucleus (T. Kawamoto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 19:6318–6322, 1999). To define the translocation mechanism, fluorescent protein-tagged human CAR (hCAR) was expressed in the mouse livers using the in situ DNA injection and gene delivery systems. As in the wild-type hCAR, the truncated receptor lacking the C-terminal 10 residues (i.e., AF2 domain) translocated to the nucleus, indicating that the PB-inducible translocation is AF2 independent. Deletion of the 30 C-terminal residues abolished the receptor translocation, and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis delineated the PB-inducible translocation activity of the receptor to the peptide L313GLL316AEL319. Ala mutations of Leu313, Leu316, or Leu319 abrogated the translocation of CAR in the livers, while those of Leu312 or Leu315 did not affect the nuclear translocation. The leucine-rich peptide dictates the nuclear translocation of hCAR in response to various PB-type inducers and appears to be conserved in the mouse and rat receptors. PMID:11283262

  12. Alzheimer's and Danish dementia peptides induce cataract and perturb retinal architecture in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Reddy, P Yadagiri; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2017-03-01

    Familial Danish dementias (FDDs) are autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with visual defects. In some aspects, FDD is similar to Alzheimer's disease (AD)- the amyloid deposits in FDD and AD are made of short peptides: amyloid β (Aβ) in AD and ADan in FDD. Previously, we demonstrated an interaction between the dementia peptides and α-crystallin leading to lens opacification in organ culture due to impaired chaperone activity of α-crystallin. Herein, we report the in vivo effects of ADan and Aβ on the eye. ADan [reduced (ADan-red) and oxidized (ADan-oxi)] and Aβ (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42) were injected intravitreally in rats. The onset of cataract was seen after injection of all the peptides, but the cataract matured by 2 weeks in the case of ADan-red, 5 weeks for ADan-oxi and 6 weeks for Aβ1-40, while Aβ1-42 had minimal effect on cataract progression. The severity of cataract is associated with insolubilization and alterations in crystallins and loss of chaperone activity of α-crystallin. Further, disruption of the architecture of the retina was evident from a loss of rhodopsin, increased gliosis, and the thinning of the retina. These results provide a basis for the dominant heredo-otoophthalmo-encephalopathy (HOOE)/FDD syndrome and indicate that ADan peptides are more potent than Aβpeptides in inflicting visual impairment.

  13. Development of a multi-epitope peptide vaccine inducing robust T cell responses against brucellosis using immunoinformatics based approaches.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Mahdiye; Karkhah, Ahmad; Nouri, Hamid Reza

    2017-07-01

    Current investigations have demonstrated that a multi-epitope peptide vaccine targeting multiple antigens could be considered as an ideal approach for prevention and treatment of brucellosis. According to the latest findings, the most effective immunogenic antigens of brucella to induce immune responses are included Omp31, BP26, BLS, DnaK and L7-L12. Therefore, in the present study, an in silico approach was used to design a novel multi-epitope vaccine to elicit a desirable immune response against brucellosis. First, five novel T-cell epitopes were selected from Omp31, BP26, BLS, DnaK and L7-L12 proteins using different servers. In addition, helper epitopes selected from Tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFrC) were applied to induce CD4+ helper T lymphocytes (HTLs) responses. Selected epitopes were fused together by GPGPG linkers to facilitate the immune processing and epitope presentation. Moreover, cholera toxin B (CTB) was linked to N terminal of vaccine construct as an adjuvant by using EAAAK linker. A multi-epitope vaccine was designed based on predicted epitopes which was 377 amino acid residues in length. Then, the physico-chemical properties, secondary and tertiary structures, stability, intrinsic protein disorder, solubility and allergenicity of this multi-epitope vaccine were assessed using immunoinformatics tools and servers. Based on obtained results, a soluble, and non-allergic protein with 40.59kDa molecular weight was constructed. Expasy ProtParam classified this chimeric protein as a stable protein and also 89.8% residues of constructed vaccine were located in favored regions of the Ramachandran plot. Furthermore, this multi-epitope peptide vaccine was able to strongly induce T cell and B-cell mediated immune responses. In conclusion, immunoinformatics analysis indicated that this multi-epitope peptide vaccine can be effectively expressed and potentially be used for prophylactic or therapeutic usages against brucellosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. EWS/FLI-l peptide-pulsed dendritic cells induces the antitumor immunity in a murine Ewing's sarcoma cell model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Huang, Xunwu; Yang, Dazhi

    2014-08-01

    An increasing number of T-cell epitopes derived from various tumor-associated antigens have been reported, and they proved to play significant roles for tumor rejection both in vivo and in vitro. Over 85% of Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs) express tumor-specific chimeric protein EWS/FLI-1, making it an attractive target for therapeutic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Here, we identified a novel peptide epitope derived from the EWS/FLI-1 protein and demonstrated that effectors induced by the peptide could specifically secrete IFN-γ and lyse the tumor cell line of EWS/FLI-1-positive and HLA-matched cells. In addition, mice treated with dendritic cells pulsed with the EWS/FLI-1 epitope were able to reject a lethal tumor inoculation of the Ewing's sarcoma A673 cells. Therefore, these data provide evidence for the use of the EWS/FLI-l peptide epitope in T cell-based immunotherapeutic concepts against Ewing's sarcoma cell in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Alnus peptides modify membrane porosity and induce the release of nitrogen-rich metabolites from nitrogen-fixing Frankia.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Pujic, Petar; Alloisio, Nicole; Fournier, Pascale; Boubakri, Hasna; Hay, Anne E; Poly, Franck; François, Philippe; Hocher, Valerie; Mergaert, Peter; Balmand, Severine; Rey, Marjolaine; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Normand, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Actinorhizal plant growth in pioneer ecosystems depends on the symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia cells that are housed in special root organs called nodules. Nitrogen fixation occurs in differentiated Frankia cells known as vesicles. Vesicles lack a pathway for assimilating ammonia beyond the glutamine stage and are supposed to transfer reduced nitrogen to the plant host cells. However, a mechanism for the transfer of nitrogen-fixation products to the plant cells remains elusive. Here, new elements for this metabolic exchange are described. We show that Alnus glutinosa nodules express defensin-like peptides, and one of these, Ag5, was found to target Frankia vesicles. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that Ag5 induces drastic physiological changes in Frankia, including an increased permeability of vesicle membranes. A significant release of nitrogen-containing metabolites, mainly glutamine and glutamate, was found in N2-fixing cultures treated with Ag5. This work demonstrates that the Ag5 peptide is central for Frankia physiology in nodules and uncovers a novel cellular function for this large and widespread defensin peptide family.

  16. Cationic cell-penetrating peptide binds to planar lipid bilayers containing negatively charged lipids but does not induce conductive pores.

    PubMed

    Gurnev, Philip A; Yang, Sung-Tae; Melikov, Kamran C; Chernomordik, Leonid V; Bezrukov, Sergey M

    2013-05-07

    Using a cation-selective gramicidin A channel as a sensor of the membrane surface charge, we studied interactions of oligoarginine peptide R9C, a prototype cationic cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), with planar lipid membranes. We have found that R9C sorption to the membrane depends strongly on its lipid composition from virtually nonexistent for membranes made of uncharged lipids to very pronounced for membranes containing negatively charged lipids, with charge overcompensation at R9C concentrations exceeding 1 μM. The sorption was reversible as it was removed by addition of polyanionic dextran sulfate to the membrane bathing solution. No membrane poration activity of R9C (as would be manifested by increased bilayer conductance) was detected in the charged or neutral membranes, including those with asymmetric negative/neutral and negative/positive lipid leaflets. We conclude that interaction of R9C with planar lipid bilayers does not involve pore formation in all studied lipid combinations up to 20 μM peptide concentration. However, R9C induces leakage of negatively charged but not neutral liposomes in a process that involves lipid mixing between liposomes. Our findings suggest that direct traversing of CPPs through the uncharged outer leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer is unlikely and that permeabilization necessarily involves both anionic lipids and CPP-dependent fusion between opposing membranes. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. H2-M polymorphism in mice susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis involves the peptide binding groove

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.; Loos, M.; Maeurer, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    The ability to develop type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice is associated with the major histocompatibility I-A gene and with as yet poorly defined regulatory molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen processing and presentation pathway. H2-M molecules are thought to be involved in the loading of antigenic peptides into the MHC class II binding cleft. We sequenced H2-Ma, H2-Mb1, and H2-Mb2 genes from CIA-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains and identified four different Ma and Mb2 alleles, and three different Mb1 alleles defined by polymorphic residues within the predicted peptide binding groove. Most CIA-resistant mousemore » strains share common Ma, Mb1, and Mb2 alleles. In contrast, H2-M alleles designated Ma-III, Ma-IV, Mb1-III, and Mb2-IV could be exclusively identified in the CIA-susceptible H2{sup r} and H2{sup q} haplotypes, suggesting that allelic H2-M molecules may modulate the composition of different CII peptides loaded onto MHC class II molecules, presumably presenting {open_quotes}arthritogenic{close_quotes} epitopes to T lymphocytes. 42 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  18. Down-regulation of poison ivy/oak-induced contact sensitivity by treatment with a class II MHC binding peptide:hapten conjugate.

    PubMed

    Gelber, C; Gemmell, L; McAteer, D; Homola, M; Swain, P; Liu, A; Wilson, K J; Gefter, M

    1997-03-01

    Immune regulation of contact sensitivity to the poison ivy/oak catechol was studied at the level of class II MHC-restricted T cell recognition of hapten:peptide conjugates. In this study we have shown that 1) T cells from C3H/HeN (H-2k) mice, immunized with a synthetic I-Ak binding peptide coupled to 3-pentadecyl-catechol (PDC; a representative catechol in urushiol), recognized peptides derived from syngeneic cells linked to the same catechol; 2) T cells from draining lymph nodes of C3H/HeN mice skin-painted with PDC proliferated in response to a peptide carrier:PDC conjugate only when it was linked at the 7th, but not the 4th or the 10th, position on the peptide carrier; and 3) tolerization studies confirmed down-regulation of PDC-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity following treatment with a single I-Ak binding peptide carrying PDC covalently bound to a lysine residue at the middle (7th) TCR contact position. Tolerization with peptide:PDC conjugate resulted in abrogation of hapten-specific T cell proliferative responses that correlated with diminished IL-2 secretion. On the basis of these data we propose that it may be sufficient to couple the hapten at a single, well-chosen position on a carrier peptide to target a relevant population of T cells involved in contact sensitivity.

  19. Protective Effect of a Mitochondria-Targeted Peptide against the Development of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Satoshi; Shimoyama, Naohito; Szeto, Hazel H; Schiller, Peter W; Shimoyama, Megumi

    2018-04-18

    Several chemotherapeutic agents used for cancer treatment induce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy that compromises patients' quality of life and limits cancer treatment. Recently, mitochondrial dysfunction has been shown to be involved in the mechanism of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. SS-20 is a mitochondria-targeted peptide that promotes mitochondrial respiration and restores mitochondrial bioenergetics. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of SS-20 against the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy utilizing a murine model of peripheral neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin, a first-line chemotherapy agent for colon cancer. Weekly administrations of oxaliplatin induced peripheral neuropathy as demonstrated by the development of neuropathic pain and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in the hind paw. Continuous administration of SS-20 protected against the development of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain and mitigated the loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers to normal levels. Our findings suggest that SS-20 may be a drug candidate for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  20. Hypothalamic Agouti-Related Peptide mRNA is Elevated During Natural and Stress-Induced Anorexia.

    PubMed

    Dunn, I C; Wilson, P W; D'Eath, R B; Boswell, T

    2015-09-01

    As part of their natural lives, animals can undergo periods of voluntarily reduced food intake and body weight (i.e. animal anorexias) that are beneficial for survival or breeding, such as during territorial behaviour, hibernation, migration and incubation of eggs. For incubation, a change in the defended level of body weight or 'sliding set point' appears to be involved, although the neural mechanisms reponsible for this are unknown. We investigated how neuropeptide gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the domestic chicken responded to a 60-70% voluntary reduction in food intake measured both after incubation and after an environmental stressor involving transfer to unfamiliar housing. We hypothesised that gene expression would not change in these circumstances because the reduced food intake and body weight represented a defended level in birds with free access to food. Unexpectedly, we observed increased gene expression of the orexigenic peptide agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in both incubating and transferred animals compared to controls. Also pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA was higher in incubating hens and significantly increased 6 days after exposure to the stressor. Conversely expression of neuropeptide Y and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript gene was unchanged in both experimental situations. We conclude that AgRP expression remains sensitive to the level of energy stores during natural anorexias, which is of adaptive advantage, although its normal orexigenic effects are over-ridden by inhibitory signals. In the case of stress-induced anorexia, increased POMC may contribute to this inhibitory role, whereas, for incubation, reduced feeding may also be associated with increased expression in the hypothalamus of the anorexigenic peptide vasoactive intestinal peptide. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  1. Mutation Induced Conformational Change In CaMKII Peptide Alters Binding Affinity to CaM Through Alternate Binding Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezerski, Jacob; Cheung, Margaret

    CaM forms distinct conformation states through modifications in its charge distribution upon binding to Ca2+ ions. The occurrence of protein structural change resulting from an altered charge distribution is paramount in the scheme of cellular signaling. Not only is charge induced structural change observed in CaM, it is also seen in an essential binding target: calmodulin-depended protein kinase II (CaMKII). In order to investigate the mechanism of selectivity in relation to changes in secondary structure, the CaM binding domain of CaMKII is isolated. Experimentally, charged residues of the CaMKII peptide are systematically mutated to alanine, resulting in altered binding kinetics between the peptide and the Ca2+ saturated state of CaM. We perform an all atom simulation of the wildtype (RRK) and mutated (AAA) CaMKII peptides and generate structures from the trajectory. We analyze RRK and AAA using DSSP and find significant structural differences due to the mutation. Structures from the RRK and AAA ensembles are then selected and docked onto the crystal structure of Ca2+ saturated CaM. We observe that RRK binds to CaM at the C-terminus, whereas the 3-residue mutation, AAA, shows increased patterns of binding to the N-terminus and linker regions of CaM. Due to the conformational change of the peptide ensemble from charged residue mutation, a distinct change in the binding site can be seen, which offers an explanation to experimentally observed changes in kinetic binding rates

  2. Synthetic. cap alpha. subunit peptide 125-147 of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces antibodies to native receptor

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, D.J.; Griesmann, G.E.; Huang, Z.

    1986-03-05

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 125-147 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) ..cap alpha.. subunit proved to be a major antigenic region of the AChR. Rats inoculated with 50 ..mu..g of peptide (T ..cap alpha.. 125-147) developed T cell immunity and antibodies to native AChR and signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. They report the synthesis and preliminary testing of a disulfide-looped peptide comprising residues 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit. Peptide H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 differs from T ..cap alpha.. 125-147 at residues 139 (Glu for Gln) and 143 (Ser for Thr). In immunoprecipitation assays, antibodiesmore » to Torpedo AChR bound /sup 125/I-labelled H..cap alpha.. 125-147 antibody bound H..cap alpha.. 125-147, but monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant region of native AChR bound neither H..cap alpha.. 125-147 nor T ..cap alpha.. 125-147. Rats immunized with H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 produced anti-mammalian muscle AChR antibodies that induced modulation of AChRs from cultured human myotubes. Thus, region 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit is extracellular in muscle, and is both antigenic and immunogenic. It remains to be determined whether or not autoantibodies to this region may in part cause the weakness or myasthenia gravis in man.« less

  3. Collision-Induced Dissociation of Deprotonated Peptides. Relative Abundance of Side-Chain Neutral Losses, Residue-Specific Product Ions, and Comparison with Protonated Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuxue; Neta, Pedatsur; Yang, Xiaoyu; Stein, Stephen E.

    2018-03-01

    High-accuracy MS/MS spectra of deprotonated ions of 390 dipeptides and 137 peptides with three to six residues are studied. Many amino acid residues undergo neutral losses from their side chains. The most abundant is the loss of acetaldehyde from threonine. The abundance of losses from the side chains of other amino acids is estimated relative to that of threonine. While some amino acids lose the whole side chain, others lose only part of it, and some exhibit two or more different losses. Side-chain neutral losses are less abundant in the spectra of protonated peptides, being significant mainly for methionine and arginine. In addition to the neutral losses, many amino acid residues in deprotonated peptides produce specific negative ions after peptide bond cleavage. An expanded list of fragment ions from protonated peptides is also presented and compared with those of deprotonated peptides. Fragment ions are mostly different for these two cases. These lists of fragments are used to annotate peptide mass spectral libraries and to aid in the confirmation of specific amino acids in peptides. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Collision-Induced Dissociation of Deprotonated Peptides. Relative Abundance of Side-Chain Neutral Losses, Residue-Specific Product Ions, and Comparison with Protonated Peptides.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuxue; Neta, Pedatsur; Yang, Xiaoyu; Stein, Stephen E

    2018-03-01

    High-accuracy MS/MS spectra of deprotonated ions of 390 dipeptides and 137 peptides with three to six residues are studied. Many amino acid residues undergo neutral losses from their side chains. The most abundant is the loss of acetaldehyde from threonine. The abundance of losses from the side chains of other amino acids is estimated relative to that of threonine. While some amino acids lose the whole side chain, others lose only part of it, and some exhibit two or more different losses. Side-chain neutral losses are less abundant in the spectra of protonated peptides, being significant mainly for methionine and arginine. In addition to the neutral losses, many amino acid residues in deprotonated peptides produce specific negative ions after peptide bond cleavage. An expanded list of fragment ions from protonated peptides is also presented and compared with those of deprotonated peptides. Fragment ions are mostly different for these two cases. These lists of fragments are used to annotate peptide mass spectral libraries and to aid in the confirmation of specific amino acids in peptides. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  5. SARS-CoV fusion peptides induce membrane surface ordering and curvature.

    PubMed

    Basso, Luis G M; Vicente, Eduardo F; Crusca, Edson; Cilli, Eduardo M; Costa-Filho, Antonio J

    2016-11-28

    Viral membrane fusion is an orchestrated process triggered by membrane-anchored viral fusion glycoproteins. The S2 subunit of the spike glycoprotein from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) contains internal domains called fusion peptides (FP) that play essential roles in virus entry. Although membrane fusion has been broadly studied, there are still major gaps in the molecular details of lipid rearrangements in the bilayer during fusion peptide-membrane interactions. Here we employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron spin resonance (ESR) to gather information on the membrane fusion mechanism promoted by two putative SARS FPs. DSC data showed the peptides strongly perturb the structural integrity of anionic vesicles and support the hypothesis that the peptides generate opposing curvature stresses on phosphatidylethanolamine membranes. ESR showed that both FPs increase lipid packing and head group ordering as well as reduce the intramembrane water content for anionic membranes. Therefore, bending moment in the bilayer could be generated, promoting negative curvature. The significance of the ordering effect, membrane dehydration, changes in the curvature properties and the possible role of negatively charged phospholipids in helping to overcome the high kinetic barrier involved in the different stages of the SARS-CoV-mediated membrane fusion are discussed.

  6. Butyrate enhances disease resistance of chickens by inducing antimicrobial host defense peptide gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) constitute a large group of natural broad-spectrum antimicrobials and an important first line of immunity in virtually all forms of life. Specific augmentation of synthesis of endogenous HDPs may represent a promising antibiotic-alternative approach to disease control. I...

  7. Glucagon-like peptide-2 induces rapid digestive adaptation following intestinal resection in preterm neonates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a frequent complication after intestinal resection in infants suffering from intestinal disease. We tested whether treatment with the intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases intestinal volume and function in the period immediately following in...

  8. SARS-CoV fusion peptides induce membrane surface ordering and curvature

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Luis G. M.; Vicente, Eduardo F.; Crusca Jr., Edson; Cilli, Eduardo M.; Costa-Filho, Antonio J.

    2016-01-01

    Viral membrane fusion is an orchestrated process triggered by membrane-anchored viral fusion glycoproteins. The S2 subunit of the spike glycoprotein from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) contains internal domains called fusion peptides (FP) that play essential roles in virus entry. Although membrane fusion has been broadly studied, there are still major gaps in the molecular details of lipid rearrangements in the bilayer during fusion peptide-membrane interactions. Here we employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron spin resonance (ESR) to gather information on the membrane fusion mechanism promoted by two putative SARS FPs. DSC data showed the peptides strongly perturb the structural integrity of anionic vesicles and support the hypothesis that the peptides generate opposing curvature stresses on phosphatidylethanolamine membranes. ESR showed that both FPs increase lipid packing and head group ordering as well as reduce the intramembrane water content for anionic membranes. Therefore, bending moment in the bilayer could be generated, promoting negative curvature. The significance of the ordering effect, membrane dehydration, changes in the curvature properties and the possible role of negatively charged phospholipids in helping to overcome the high kinetic barrier involved in the different stages of the SARS-CoV-mediated membrane fusion are discussed. PMID:27892522

  9. Nucleation in mesoscopic systems under transient conditions: Peptide-induced pore formation in vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.; Höök, Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    Attachment of lytic peptides to the lipid membrane of virions or bacteria is often accompanied by their aggregation and pore formation, resulting eventually in membrane rupture and pathogen neutralization. The membrane rupture may occur gradually via formation of many pores or abruptly after the formation of the first pore. In academic studies, this process is observed during interaction of peptides with lipid vesicles. We present an analytical model and the corresponding Monte Carlo simulations focused on the pore formation in such situations. Specifically, we calculate the time of the first nucleation-limited pore-formation event and show the distribution of this time in the regime when the fluctuations of the number of peptides attached to a vesicle are appreciable. The results obtained are used to clarify the mechanism of the pore formation and membrane destabilization observed recently during interaction of highly active α-helical peptide with sub-100-nm lipid vesicles that mimic enveloped viruses with nanoscale membrane curvature. The model proposed and the analysis presented are generic and may be applicable to other meso- and nanosystems.

  10. Immunologically active peptides capable of inducing immunization against malaria and genes encoding therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Dame, J.B.; Williams, J.L.; McCutchan, T.F.

    An antimalarial immunogenic stimulant is described comprising an immunogenic carrier and a peptide sequence of between 2 and 1000 consecutive repeats of a sequence Asn-X-Y-Pro, wherein X is Ala or Val and Y is Asn or Asp.

  11. Consumption of peptide-included and free tryptophan induced by peroxyl radicals: A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, E; López-Alarcón, C

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that tryptophan residues are efficiently oxidized by peroxyl radicals, generating kynurenine, and N-formyl kynurenine as well as hydroperoxide derivatives as products. In the present work we studied the kinetic of such reaction employing free and peptide-included tryptophan. Two azocompounds were used to produce peroxyl radicals: AAPH (2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) and ABCVA (4,4'-Azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid)), which generate cationic and anionic peroxyl radicals, respectively. Tryptophan consumption was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy and the reactions were carried out in phosphate buffer (75mM, pH 7.4) at 45°C. Only a slight effect of the peroxyl radical charge was evidenced on the consumption of free tryptophan and the dipeptide Gly-Trp. Employing AAPH as peroxyl radical source, at low free tryptophan concentrations (1-10µM) near 0.3 mol of tryptophan were consumed per each mol of peroxyl radicals introduced into the system. However, at high free tryptophan concentrations (100µM-1mM) such stoichiometry increased in a tryptophan concentration-way. At 1mM three moles of tryptophan were consumed per mol of AAPH-derived peroxyl radicals, evidencing the presence of chain reactions. A similar behavior was observed when di and tri-peptides (Gly-Trp, Trp-Gly, Gly-Trp-Gly, Trp-Ala, Ala-Trp-Ala) were studied. Nonetheless, at low initial concentration (5µM), the initial consumption rate of tryptophan included in the peptides was two times higher than free tryptophan. In contrast, at high concentration (1mM) free and peptide-included tryptophan showed similar initial consumption rates. These results could be explained considering a disproportionation process of tryptophanyl radicals at low free tryptophan concentrations, a process that would be inhibited when tryptophan is included in peptides. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. A Japanese Encephalitis Virus Peptide Present on Johnson Grass Mosaic Virus-Like Particles Induces Virus-Neutralizing Antibodies and Protects Mice against Lethal Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Manisha; Vrati, Sudhanshu

    2003-01-01

    Protection against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is antibody dependent, and neutralizing antibodies alone are sufficient to impart protection. Thus, we are aiming to develop a peptide-based vaccine against JEV by identifying JEV peptide sequences that could induce virus-neutralizing antibodies. Previously, we have synthesized large amounts of Johnson grass mosaic virus (JGMV) coat protein (CP) in Escherichia coli and have shown that it autoassembled to form virus-like particles (VLPs). The envelope (E) protein of JEV contains the virus-neutralization epitopes. Four peptides from different locations within JEV E protein were chosen, and these were fused to JGMV CP by recombinant DNA methods. The fusion protein autoassembled to form VLPs that could be purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Immunization of mice with the recombinant VLPs containing JEV peptide sequences induced anti-peptide and anti-JEV antibodies. A 27-amino-acid peptide containing amino acids 373 to 399 from JEV E protein, present on JGMV VLPs, induced virus-neutralizing antibodies. Importantly, these antibodies were obtained without the use of an adjuvant. The immunized mice showed significant protection against a lethal JEV challenge. PMID:12610124

  13. Polysaccharide peptides from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor induce hyperalgesia via inflammatory mediator release in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Chan, Siu-Lung; Yeung, John H K

    2006-04-18

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from Coriolus versicolor COV-1, has been widely used as an adjunct to cancer chemotherapy and as an immuno-stimulator in China. In this study, the anti-nociceptive effects of PSP were investigated in two different pain models in the mouse. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, initial studies showed that PSP decreased the number of acetic acid-induced writhing by 92.9%, which, by definition, would constitute an analgesic effect. However, further studies showed that PSP itself induced a dose-dependent writhing response. Studies on inflammatory mediator release showed that PSP increased the release of prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and histamine in mouse peritoneal macrophages and mast cells both in vitro and in vivo. The role of inflammatory mediator release in PSP-induced writhing was confirmed when diclofenac and dexamethasone decreased the number of writhing responses by 54% and 58.5%, respectively. Diphenhydramine totally inhibited the PSP-induced writhing. In the hot-plate test, PSP dose-dependently shortened the hind paw withdrawal latency, indicative of a hyperalgesic effect. The hyperalgesic effect was reduced by pretreatment with the anti-inflammatory drugs. In conclusion, the PSP-induced hyperalgesia was related to activation of peritoneal resident cells and an increase in the release of inflammatory mediators.

  14. Peptide-Conjugated Nanoparticles Reduce Positive Co-stimulatory Expression and T Cell Activity to Induce Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Robert; Saito, Eiji; Miller, Stephen D; Shea, Lonnie D

    2017-07-05

    Targeted approaches to treat autoimmune diseases would improve upon current therapies that broadly suppress the immune system and lead to detrimental side effects. Antigen-specific tolerance was induced using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles conjugated with disease-relevant antigen to treat a model of multiple sclerosis. Increasing the nanoparticle dose and amount of conjugated antigen both resulted in more durable immune tolerance. To identify active tolerance mechanisms, we investigated downstream cellular and molecular events following nanoparticle internalization by antigen-presenting cells. The initial cell response to nanoparticles indicated suppression of inflammatory signaling pathways. Direct and functional measurement of surface MHC-restricted antigen showed positive correlation with both increasing particle dose from 1 to 100 μg/mL and increasing peptide conjugation by 2-fold. Co-stimulatory analysis of cells expressing MHC-restricted antigen revealed most significant decreases in positive co-stimulatory molecules (CD86, CD80, and CD40) following high doses of nanoparticles with higher peptide conjugation, whereas expression of a negative co-stimulatory molecule (PD-L1) remained high. T cells isolated from mice immunized against myelin proteolipid protein (PLP 139-151 ) were co-cultured with antigen-presenting cells administered PLP 139-151 -conjugated nanoparticles, which resulted in reduced T cell proliferation, increased T cell apoptosis, and a stronger anti-inflammatory response. These findings indicate several potential mechanisms used by peptide-conjugated nanoparticles to induce antigen-specific tolerance. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The natural insect peptide Neb-colloostatin induces ovarian atresia and apoptosis in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Czarniewska, Elżbieta; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Gabała, Elżbieta; Kuczer, Mariola

    2014-01-30

    The injection of Neb-colloostatin into T. molitor females causes gonadoinhibitory effects on ovarian development. This peptide inhibits intercellular space formation (patency) in follicular epithelium and results in slowed vitellogenesis, delayed ovulation, reduced number of eggs laid and presumably cell death in the terminal follicles. However, as does the form of cell death in the terminal follicle, the mode of action of Neb-colloostatin remains unknown. We tested Neb-colloostatin for a sterilizing effect on females of Tenebrio molitor. We report that injection of nanomolar doses of Neb-colloostatin induce ovarian follicle atresia in 4-day old females during their first gonadotropic cycle. Light microscope observations revealed morphological changes in the ovary: after Neb-colloostatin injection the terminal oocytes are significantly smaller and elicit massive follicle resorption, but the control terminal follicles possess translucent ooplasm in oocytes at different stages of vitellogenesis. A patency is visible in follicular epithelium of the control vitellogenic oocytes, whereas peptide injection inhibits intercellular space formation and, in consequence, inhibits vitellogenesis. Confocal and electron microscope examination showed that peptide injection causes changes in the morphology indicating death of follicular cells. We observed F-actin cytoskeleton disorganization, induction of caspase activity, changes in chromatin organization and autophagic vacuole formation. Moreover, the apical cytoplasm of follicular cells is filled with numerous free ribosomes, probably indicating a higher demand for protein biosynthesis, especially in preparation for autophagic vacuole formation. On the other hand, the process of polyribosomes formation is inhibited, indicating the contributing effect of this hormone. Neb-colloostatin induces atresia in the mealworm ovary. Degeneration of T. molitor follicles includes changes in morphology and viability of follicular cells, and

  16. The natural insect peptide Neb-colloostatin induces ovarian atresia and apoptosis in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The injection of Neb-colloostatin into T. molitor females causes gonadoinhibitory effects on ovarian development. This peptide inhibits intercellular space formation (patency) in follicular epithelium and results in slowed vitellogenesis, delayed ovulation, reduced number of eggs laid and presumably cell death in the terminal follicles. However, as does the form of cell death in the terminal follicle, the mode of action of Neb-colloostatin remains unknown. Results We tested Neb-colloostatin for a sterilizing effect on females of Tenebrio molitor. We report that injection of nanomolar doses of Neb-colloostatin induce ovarian follicle atresia in 4-day old females during their first gonadotropic cycle. Light microscope observations revealed morphological changes in the ovary: after Neb-colloostatin injection the terminal oocytes are significantly smaller and elicit massive follicle resorption, but the control terminal follicles possess translucent ooplasm in oocytes at different stages of vitellogenesis. A patency is visible in follicular epithelium of the control vitellogenic oocytes, whereas peptide injection inhibits intercellular space formation and, in consequence, inhibits vitellogenesis. Confocal and electron microscope examination showed that peptide injection causes changes in the morphology indicating death of follicular cells. We observed F-actin cytoskeleton disorganization, induction of caspase activity, changes in chromatin organization and autophagic vacuole formation. Moreover, the apical cytoplasm of follicular cells is filled with numerous free ribosomes, probably indicating a higher demand for protein biosynthesis, especially in preparation for autophagic vacuole formation. On the other hand, the process of polyribosomes formation is inhibited, indicating the contributing effect of this hormone. Conclusion Neb-colloostatin induces atresia in the mealworm ovary. Degeneration of T. molitor follicles includes changes in morphology and

  17. S4(13)-PV cell-penetrating peptide induces physical and morphological changes in membrane-mimetic lipid systems and cell membranes: implications for cell internalization.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana M S; Trabulo, Sara; Cardoso, Ana L; Lorents, Annely; Morais, Catarina M; Gomes, Paula; Nunes, Cláudia; Lúcio, Marlene; Reis, Salette; Padari, Kärt; Pooga, Margus; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C; Jurado, Amália S

    2012-03-01

    The present work aims to gain insights into the role of peptide-lipid interactions in the mechanisms of cellular internalization and endosomal escape of the S4(13)-PV cell-penetrating peptide, which has been successfully used in our laboratory as a nucleic acid delivery system. A S4(13)-PV analogue, S4(13)-PVscr, displaying a scrambled amino acid sequence, deficient cell internalization and drug delivery inability, was used in this study for comparative purposes. Differential scanning calorimetry, fluorescence polarization and X-ray diffraction at small and wide angles techniques showed that both peptides interacted with anionic membranes composed of phosphatidylglycerol or a mixture of this lipid with phosphatidylethanolamine, increasing the lipid order, shifting the phase transition to higher temperatures and raising the correlation length between the bilayers. However, S4(13)-PVscr, in contrast to the wild-type peptide, did not promote lipid domain segregation and induced the formation of an inverted hexagonal lipid phase instead of a cubic phase in the lipid systems assayed. Electron microscopy showed that, as opposed to S4(13)-PVscr, the wild-type peptide induced the formation of a non-lamellar organization in membranes of HeLa cells. We concluded that lateral phase separation and destabilization of membrane lamellar structure without compromising membrane integrity are on the basis of the lipid-driven and receptor-independent mechanism of cell entry of S4(13)-PV peptide. Overall, our results can contribute to a better understanding of the role of peptide-lipid interactions in the mechanisms of cell-penetrating peptide membrane translocation, helping in the future design of more efficient cell-penetrating peptide-based drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Outcome Prediction in Pneumonia Induced ALI/ARDS by Clinical Features and Peptide Patterns of BALF Determined by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Jochen; Gessner, Christian; Sandvoss, Torsten; Hammerschmidt, Stefan; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Sack, Ulrich; Eschrich, Klaus; Wirtz, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Background Peptide patterns of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were assumed to reflect the complex pathology of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) better than clinical and inflammatory parameters and may be superior for outcome prediction. Methodology/Principal Findings A training group of patients suffering from ALI/ARDS was compiled from equal numbers of survivors and nonsurvivors. Clinical history, ventilation parameters, Murray's lung injury severity score (Murray's LISS) and interleukins in BALF were gathered. In addition, samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed by means of hydrophobic chromatography and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for each clinical and cytokine parameter revealed interleukin-6>interleukin-8>diabetes mellitus>Murray's LISS as the best outcome predictors. Outcome predicted on the basis of BALF levels of interleukin-6 resulted in 79.4% accuracy, 82.7% sensitivity and 76.1% specificity (area under the ROC curve, AUC, 0.853). Both clinical parameters and cytokines as well as peptide patterns determined by MALDI-ToF MS were analyzed by classification and regression tree (CART) analysis and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms. CART analysis including Murray's LISS, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in combination was correct in 78.0%. MALDI-ToF MS of BALF peptides did not reveal a single identifiable biomarker for ARDS. However, classification of patients was successfully achieved based on the entire peptide pattern analyzed using SVM. This method resulted in 90% accuracy, 93.3% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity following a 10-fold cross validation (AUC = 0.953). Subsequent validation of the optimized SVM algorithm with a test group of patients with unknown prognosis yielded 87.5% accuracy, 83.3% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity. Conclusions/Significance MALDI-ToF MS peptide patterns of BALF, evaluated by appropriate mathematical

  19. Para-hydrogen induced polarization of amino acids, peptides and deuterium-hydrogen gas.

    PubMed

    Glöggler, Stefan; Müller, Rafael; Colell, Johannes; Emondts, Meike; Dabrowski, Martin; Blümich, Bernhard; Appelt, Stephan

    2011-08-14

    Signal Amplification by Reversible-Exchange (SABRE) is a method of hyperpolarizing substrates by polarization transfer from para-hydrogen without hydrogenation. Here, we demonstrate that this method can be applied to hyperpolarize small amounts of all proteinogenic amino acids and some chosen peptides down to the nanomole regime and can be detected in a single scan in low-magnetic fields down to 0.25 mT (10 kHz proton frequency). An outstanding feature is that depending on the chemical state of the used catalyst and the investigated amino acid or peptide, hyperpolarized hydrogen-deuterium gas is formed, which was detected with (1)H and (2)H NMR spectroscopy at low magnetic fields of B(0) = 3.9 mT (166 kHz proton frequency) and 3.2 mT (20 kHz deuterium frequency).

  20. Whey peptides prevent chronic ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin aging in melanin-possessing male hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kobayashi, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Whey proteins or peptides exhibit various actions, including an antioxidant action, an anticancer action, and a protective action against childhood asthma and atopic syndrome. The effects of orally administered whey peptides (WPs) on chronic ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced cutaneous changes, including changes in cutaneous thickness, elasticity, wrinkle formation, etc., have not been examined. In this study, we studied the preventive effects of WPs on cutaneous aging induced by chronic UVB irradiation in melanin-possessing male hairless mice (HRM). UVB (36-180 mJ/cm(2)) was irradiated to the dorsal area for 17 wk in HRM, and the measurements of cutaneous thickness and elasticity in UVB irradiated mice were performed every week. WPs (200 and 400 mg/kg, twice daily) were administered orally for 17 wk. WPs inhibited the increase in cutaneous thickness, wrinkle formation, and melanin granules and the reduction in cutaneous elasticity associated with photoaging. Furthermore, it has been reported that UVB irradiation-induced skin aging is closely associated with the increase in expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Ki-67-, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)-positive cells. WPs also prevented increases in the expression of MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9, VEGF, and Ki-67- and 8-OHdG-positive cells induced by chronic UVB irradiation. It was found that WPs prevent type IV collagen degradation, angiogenesis, proliferation, and DNA damage caused by UVB irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrate the considerable benefit of WPs for protection against solar UV-irradiated skin aging as a supplemental nutrient.

  1. Modulation of ceramide metabolism in T-leukemia cell lines potentiates apoptosis induced by the cationic antimicrobial peptide bovine lactoferricin.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Suzanne J; Ridgway, Neale D; Hoskin, David W

    2008-03-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide that selectively induces apoptosis in several different types of human cancer cells. However, the potential use of LfcinB as an anticancer agent is presently limited by the need for relatively high concentrations of the peptide to trigger apoptosis. Ceramide is a membrane sphingolipid that is believed to function as a second messenger during apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the role of ceramide in LfcinB-induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM and Jurkat T-leukemia cell lines. Exposure to LfcinB caused nuclear condensation and fragmentation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and DNA fragmentation in CCRF-CEM and Jurkat T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines. Treatment with C6 ceramide, a cell-permeable, short-chain ceramide analog, also induced apoptotic nuclear morphology, PARP cleavage, and DNA fragmentation in T-leukemia cells. Although LfcinB treatment did not cause ceramide to accumulate in CCRF-CEM or Jurkat cells, the addition of C6 ceramide to LfcinB-treated T-leukemia cells resulted in increased DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, modulation of cellular ceramide metabolism either by inhibiting ceramidases with D-erythro-2-(N-myristoylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanol or N-oleoylethanolamine, or by blocking glucosylceramide synthase activity with 1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol, enhanced the ability of LfcinB to trigger apoptosis in both Jurkat and CCRF-CEM cells. In addition, LfcinB-induced apoptosis of T-leukemia cells was enhanced in the presence of the antiestrogen tamoxifen, which has multiple effects on cancer cells, including inhibition of glucosylceramide synthase activity. We conclude that manipulation of cellular ceramide levels in combination with LfcinB therapy warrants further investigation as a novel strategy for the treatment of T cell-derived leukemias.

  2. Passage of delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Zlokovic, B.V.; Segal, M.B.; Davson, H.

    1988-05-01

    Unidirectional flux of /sup 125/I-labeled DSIP at the blood-tissue interface of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier was studied in the perfused in situ choroid plexuses of the lateral ventricles of the sheep. Arterio-venous loss of /sup 125/I-radioactivity suggested a low-to-moderate permeability of the choroid epithelium to the intact peptide from the blood side. A saturable mechanism with Michaelis-Menten type kinetics with high affinity and very low capacity (approximate values: Kt = 5.0 +/- 0.4 nM; Vmax = 272 +/- 10 fmol.min-1) was demonstrated at the blood-tissue interface of the choroid plexus. The clearance of DSIP from the ventricles during ventriculo-cisternalmore » perfusion in the rabbit indicated no significant flux of the intact peptide out of the CSF. The results suggest that DSIP crosses the blood-CSF barrier, while the system lacks the specific mechanisms for removal from the CSF found with most, if not all, amino acids and several peptides.« less

  3. Secreted Trypanosome Cyclophilin Inactivates Lytic Insect Defense Peptides and Induces Parasite Calcineurin Activation and Infectivity*

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Manjusha M.; Karafova, Anna; Kamysz, Wojciech; Schenkman, Sergio; Pelle, Roger; McGwire, Bradford S.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Trypanosoma cruzi survives antimicrobial peptides and differentiates during its transit through the gastrointestinal tract of the reduviid vector are unknown. We show that cyclophilin, a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase secreted from T. cruzi epimastigotes, binds to and neutralizes the reduviid antimicrobial peptide trialysin promoting parasite survival. This is dependent on a singular proline residue in trialysin and is inhibited by the cyclophilin inhibitor cyclosporine A. In addition, cyclophilin-trialysin complexes enhance the production of ATP and reductase responses of parasites, which are inhibited by both calcineurin-specific inhibitors cyclosporine A and FK506. Calcineurin phosphatase activity of cyclophilin-trialysin-treated parasites was higher than in controls and was inhibited by preincubation by either inhibitor. Parasites exposed to cyclophilin-trialysin have enhanced binding and invasion of host cells leading to higher infectivity. Leishmanial cyclophilin also mediates trialysin protection and metabolic stimulation by T. cruzi, indicating that extracellular cyclophilin may be critical to adaptation in other insect-borne protozoa. This work demonstrates that cyclophilin serves as molecular sensor leading to the evasion and adaptive metabolic response to insect defense peptides. PMID:23386612

  4. Proximity-Induced Covalent Labeling of Proteins with a Reactive Fluorophore-Binding Peptide Tag.

    PubMed

    Sunbul, Murat; Nacheva, Lora; Jäschke, Andres

    2015-08-19

    Labeling of proteins with fluorescent dyes in live cells enables the investigation of their roles in biological systems by fluorescence microscopy. Because the labeling procedure should not disturb the native function of the protein of interest, it is of high importance to find the optimum labeling method for the problem to be studied. Here, we developed a rapid one-step method to covalently and site-specifically label proteins with a TexasRed fluorophore in vitro and in live bacteria. To this end, a genetically encodable TexasRed fluorophore-binding peptide (TR512) was converted into a reactive tag (ReacTR) by adjoining a cysteine residue which rapidly reacts with N-α-chloroacetamide-conjugated TexasRed fluorophore owing to the proximity effect; ReacTR tag first binds to the TexasRed fluorophore and this interaction brings the nucleophilic cysteine and the electrophilic N-α-chloroacetamide groups in close proximity. Our method has several advantages over existing methods: (i) it utilizes a peptide tag much smaller than fluorescent proteins, the SNAP, CLIP, or HaLo tags; (ii) it allows for labeling of proteins with a small, photostable, red-emitting TexasRed fluorophore; (iii) the probe used is very easy to synthesize; (iv) no enzyme is required to transfer the fluorophore to the peptide tag; and (v) labeling yields a stable covalent product in a very fast reaction.

  5. A Pleiotrophin C-terminus peptide induces anti-cancer effects through RPTPβ/ζ.

    PubMed

    Diamantopoulou, Zoi; Bermek, Oya; Polykratis, Apostolos; Hamma-Kourbali, Yamina; Delbé, Jean; Courty, José; Katsoris, Panagiotis

    2010-08-25

    Pleiotrophin, also known as HARP (Heparin Affin Regulatory Peptide) is a growth factor expressed in various tissues and cell lines. Pleiotrophin participates in multiple biological actions including the induction of cellular proliferation, migration and angiogenesis, and is involved in carcinogenesis. Recently, we identified and characterized several pleiotrophin proteolytic fragments with biological activities similar or opposite to that of pleiotrophin. Here, we investigated the biological actions of P(122-131), a synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxy terminal region of this growth factor. Our results show that P(122-131) inhibits in vitro adhesion, anchorage-independent proliferation, and migration of DU145 and LNCaP cells, which express pleiotrophin and its receptor RPTPβ/ζ. In addition, P(122-131) inhibits angiogenesis in vivo, as determined by the chicken embryo CAM assay. Investigation of the transduction mechanisms revealed that P(122-131) reduces the phosphorylation levels of Src, Pten, Fak, and Erk1/2. Finally, P(122-131) not only interacts with RPTPβ/ζ, but also interferes with other pleiotrophin receptors, as demonstrated by selective knockdown of pleiotrophin or RPTPβ/ζ expression with the RNAi technology. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that P(122-131) inhibits biological activities that are related to the induction of a transformed phenotype in PCa cells, by interacing with RPTPβ/ζ and interfering with other pleiotrophin receptors. Cumulatively, these results indicate that P(122-131) may be a potential anticancer agent, and they warrant further study of this peptide.

  6. Administration of antioxidant peptide SS-31 attenuates transverse aortic constriction-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hung-I; Huang, Tien-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Chen, Yung-Lung; Chua, Sarah; Chai, Han-Yan; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Liu, Chu-Feng; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Lee, Fan-Yen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-05-01

    Antioxidant peptide SS-31 is a class of cell-permeable small peptides, which selectively resides on the inner mitochondrial membrane and possesses intrinsic mitochondrial protective capacities. In this study we investigated the therapeutic effects of antioxidant peptide SS-31 on transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a murine model. Adult male mice were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated mice, TAC mice, and TAC+SS-31 mice that underwent TAC surgery and received SS-31 (2 mg/d, ip) for 60 d. The right ventricular systolic blood pressure (RVSBP) was measured on d 60 prior to sacrificing the mice; then their right heart and lung tissues were collected for histological and biochemical examinations. Lung injury scores were defined by the increased crowded area and decreased number of alveolar sacs. TAC mice showed significantly higher RVSBP compared with sham-operated mice, the elevation was substantially suppressed in TAC+SS-31 mice. The same pattern of changes was found in pulmonary levels of oxidative stress proteins (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized proteins), cytosolic cytochrome c, biomarkers related to inflammation (MMP-9/TNF-α/iNOS), calcium overload index (TRPC1, 2, 4, 6), apoptosis (mitochondrial BAX, cleaved caspase 3/PARP), fibrosis (Smad3/TGF-β), hypoxic (HIF-1α), DNA damage (γ-H2AX) and endothelial function (eNOS/ET-1R), as well as in lung injury score, number of muscularized vessels in lungs, number of TRPC1(+) and HIF-1α(+) cells in pulmonary artery, and number of γ-H2AX(+) and Ki-67(+) cells in lung parenchyma. An opposite pattern of changes was observed in pulmonary anti-fibrotic markers (Smad1/5, BMP-2), number of small vessels, and number of alveolar sacs. In contrast, the levels of antioxidant proteins (HO-1/NQO-1/GR/GPx) in lung parenchyma were progressively and significantly increased from sham-operated mice, TAC mice to TAC+SS-31 mice. Antioxidant peptide SS-31 administration effectively attenuates TAC-induced

  7. Progesterone up-regulates vasodilator effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide in N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gangula, P R; Wimalawansa, S J; Yallampalli, C

    1997-04-01

    period, and these effects were lost when progesterone treatment was stopped. Again, at these doses calcitonin gene-related peptide and progesterone were each ineffective alone. Calcitonin gene-related peptide reverses the N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension during pregnancy, when progesterone levels are elevated, but not post partum or in ovariectomized nonpregnant rats. The blood pressure-lowering effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide were restored in both postpartum and ovariectomized rats with progesterone treatment. Therefore we conclude that progesterone modulates vasodilator effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide in hypertensive rats.

  8. Rapid Tachyphylaxis of the Glucagon-Like Peptide 1–Induced Deceleration of Gastric Emptying in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nauck, Michael A.; Kemmeries, Guido; Holst, Jens J.; Meier, Juris J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 lowers postprandial glycemia primarily through inhibition of gastric emptying. We addressed whether the GLP-1–induced deceleration of gastric emptying is subject to rapid tachyphylaxis and if so, how this would alter postprandial glucose control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Nine healthy volunteers (25 ± 4 years old, BMI: 24.6 ± 4.7 kg/m2) were examined with intravenous infusion of GLP-1 (0.8 pmol · kg−1 . min−1) or placebo over 8.5 h. Two liquid mixed meals were administered at a 4-h interval. Gastric emptying was determined, and blood samples were drawn frequently. RESULTS GLP-1 decelerated gastric emptying significantly more after the first meal compared with the second meal (P = 0.01). This was associated with reductions in pancreatic polypeptide levels (marker of vagal activation) after the first but not the second meal (P < 0.05). With GLP-1, glucose concentrations declined after the first meal but increased after the second meal (P < 0.05). The GLP-1–induced reductions in postprandial insulin and C-peptide levels were stronger during the first meal course (P < 0.05). Likewise, glucagon levels were lowered by GLP-1 after the first meal but increased after the second test meal (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The GLP-1–induced delay in gastric emptying is subject to rapid tachyphylaxis at the level of vagal nervous activation. As a consequence, postprandial glucose control by GLP-1 is attenuated after its chronic administration. PMID:21430088

  9. Peptide drugs accelerate BMP‐2‐induced calvarial bone regeneration and stimulate osteoblast differentiation through mTORC1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sugamori, Yasutaka; Mise‐Omata, Setsuko; Maeda, Chizuko; Aoki, Shigeki; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Murali, Ramachandran; Yasuda, Hisataka; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Honma, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Both W9 and OP3‐4 were known to bind the receptor activator of NF‐κB ligand (RANKL), inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Recently, both peptides were shown to stimulate osteoblast differentiation; however, the mechanism underlying the activity of these peptides remains to be clarified. A primary osteoblast culture showed that rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, which was recently demonstrated to be an important serine/threonine kinase for bone formation, inhibited the peptide‐induced alkaline phosphatase activity. Furthermore, both peptides promoted the phosphorylation of Akt and S6K1, an upstream molecule of mTORC1 and the effector molecule of mTORC1, respectively. In the in vivo calvarial defect model, W9 and OP3‐4 accelerated BMP‐2‐induced bone formation to a similar extent, which was confirmed by histomorphometric analyses using fluorescence images of undecalcified sections. Our data suggest that these RANKL‐binding peptides could stimulate the mTORC1 activity, which might play a role in the acceleration of BMP‐2‐induced bone regeneration by the RANKL‐binding peptides. PMID:27345003

  10. A Pleiotrophin C-terminus peptide induces anti-cancer effects through RPTPβ/ζ

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pleiotrophin, also known as HARP (Heparin Affin Regulatory Peptide) is a growth factor expressed in various tissues and cell lines. Pleiotrophin participates in multiple biological actions including the induction of cellular proliferation, migration and angiogenesis, and is involved in carcinogenesis. Recently, we identified and characterized several pleiotrophin proteolytic fragments with biological activities similar or opposite to that of pleiotrophin. Here, we investigated the biological actions of P(122-131), a synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxy terminal region of this growth factor. Results Our results show that P(122-131) inhibits in vitro adhesion, anchorage-independent proliferation, and migration of DU145 and LNCaP cells, which express pleiotrophin and its receptor RPTPβ/ζ. In addition, P(122-131) inhibits angiogenesis in vivo, as determined by the chicken embryo CAM assay. Investigation of the transduction mechanisms revealed that P(122-131) reduces the phosphorylation levels of Src, Pten, Fak, and Erk1/2. Finally, P(122-131) not only interacts with RPTPβ/ζ, but also interferes with other pleiotrophin receptors, as demonstrated by selective knockdown of pleiotrophin or RPTPβ/ζ expression with the RNAi technology. Conclusions In conclusion, our results demonstrate that P(122-131) inhibits biological activities that are related to the induction of a transformed phenotype in PCa cells, by interacing with RPTPβ/ζ and interfering with other pleiotrophin receptors. Cumulatively, these results indicate that P(122-131) may be a potential anticancer agent, and they warrant further study of this peptide. PMID:20738847

  11. The metabolic enhancer piracetam ameliorates the impairment of mitochondrial function and neurite outgrowth induced by beta-amyloid peptide.

    PubMed

    Kurz, C; Ungerer, I; Lipka, U; Kirr, S; Schütt, T; Eckert, A; Leuner, K; Müller, W E

    2010-05-01

    beta-Amyloid peptide (Abeta) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease by initiating a cascade of events from mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death. The metabolic enhancer piracetam has been shown to improve mitochondrial dysfunction following brain aging and experimentally induced oxidative stress. We used cell lines (PC12 and HEK cells) and murine dissociated brain cells. The protective effects of piracetam in vitro and ex vivo on Abeta-induced impairment of mitochondrial function (as mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production), on secretion of soluble Abeta and on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells were investigated. Piracetam improves mitochondrial function of PC12 cells and acutely dissociated brain cells from young NMRI mice following exposure to extracellular Abeta(1-42). Similar protective effects against Abeta(1-42) were observed in dissociated brain cells from aged NMRI mice, or mice transgenic for mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) treated with piracetam for 14 days. Soluble Abeta load was markedly diminished in the brain of those animals after treatment with piracetam. Abeta production by HEK cells stably transfected with mutant human APP was elevated by oxidative stress and this was reduced by piracetam. Impairment of neuritogenesis is an important consequence of Abeta-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and Abeta-induced reduction of neurite growth in PC12 cells was substantially improved by piracetam. Our findings strongly support the concept of improving mitochondrial function as an approach to ameliorate the detrimental effects of Abeta on brain function.

  12. The chalcone derivative Chana 1 protects against amyloid β peptide-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jieun; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Choi, Hyo-Kyung; Jun, Woojin; Park, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Yoon, Ho-Geun

    2012-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease to cause dementia in the elderly. Amyloid β (Aβ)-peptide induced oxidative stress causes the initiation and progression of AD. Recently, new chalcone derivatives termed the Chana series were synthesized. Among them, Chana 1 showed high free radical scavenging activity (72.5%), as measured by a DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay. In this study, we investigated the effect of Chana 1 against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and cognitive deficits. Additionally, we sought to estimate the lethal dose, 50% (LD50) of Chana 1 in mice using an acute oral toxicity test. We found that Chana 1 significantly protected against Aβ-induced neuronal cell death in PC12 cells. Oral administration of Chana 1 at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight/day significantly improved Aβ-induced learning and memory impairment in mice, as measured in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. In acute toxicity tests, the LD50 in mice was determined to be 520.44 mg/kg body weight. The data are valuable for future studies and suggest that Chana 1 has therapeutic potential for the management of neurodegenerative disease.

  13. A chimeric cyclic interferon-α2b peptide induces apoptosis by sequential activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase Cδ and p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Blank, V C; Bertucci, L; Furmento, V A; Peña, C; Marino, V J; Roguin, L P

    2013-06-10

    We have previously demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1/3 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activation are involved in the apoptotic response triggered by a chimeric cyclic peptide of the interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) in WISH cells. Since the peptide also induced serine phosphorylation of STAT proteins, in the present study we examined the kinase involved in serine STAT1 phosphorylation and the signaling effectors acting upstream such activation. We first found that p38 MAPK is involved in serine STAT1 phosphorylation, since a reduction of phophoserine-STAT1 levels was evident after incubating WISH cells with cyclic peptide in the presence of a p38 pharmacological inhibitor or a dominant-negative p38 mutant. Next, we demonstrated that the peptide induced activation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ). Based on this finding, the role of this kinase was then evaluated. After incubating WISH cells with a PKCδ inhibitor or after decreasing PKCδ expression levels by RNA interference, both peptide-induced serine STAT1 and p38 phosphorylation levels were significantly decreased, indicating that PKCδ functions as an upstream regulator of p38. We also showed that PKCδ and p38 activation stimulated by the peptide was inhibited by a specific pharmacological inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or by a dominant-negative p85 PI3K-regulatory subunit, suggesting that PI3K is upstream in the signaling cascade. In addition, the role of PI3K and PKCδ in cyclic peptide-induced apoptosis was examined. Both signaling effectors were found to regulate the antiproliferative activity and the apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells. In conclusion, we herein demonstrated that STAT1 serine phosphorylation is mediated by the sequential activation of PI3K, PKCδ and p38 MAPK. This signaling cascade contributes to the antitumor effect induced by the chimeric IFN-α2b cyclic peptide in WISH cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc

  14. Sera from Children with Autism Induce Autistic Features Which Can Be Rescued with a CNTF Small Peptide Mimetic in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism. PMID:25769033

  15. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    PubMed

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria Del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  16. Arginine in the salt-induced peptide formation reaction: enantioselectivity facilitated by glycine, L- and D-histidine.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Fitz, Daniel; Fraser, Donald G; Rode, Bernd M

    2010-07-01

    The salt-induced peptide formation reaction has been proposed as a conceivable preliminary to the prebiotic evolution of peptides. In the present paper, the behaviour of arginine is reported for this reaction together with a discussion of the catalytic effects of glycine, and L- and D-histidine. Importantly, the behaviour of the two histidine enantiomers is different. Both histidine enantiomers perform better than glycine in enhancing the yields of arginine dipeptide with L-histidine being more effective than D-histidine. Yields in the presence of histidine are up to 70 times greater than for arginine solutions alone. This compares with 4.2 times higher in the presence of glycine. This difference is most pronounced in the most concentrated (containing 80 mM arginine) reaction solution where arginine has the lowest reactivity. A distinct preference for dimerisation of L-arginine also appears in the 80 mM cases for catalyses of other amino acids. This phenomenon is different from the behaviour of aliphatic amino acids, which display obvious inherent enantioselectivity for the L-stereomers in the SIPF reaction on their own rather than when catalysed by glycine or histidine.

  17. Protective Effects Induced by Microwave-Assisted Aqueous Harpagophytum Extract on Rat Cortex Synaptosomes Challenged with Amyloid β-Peptide.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Claudio; Recinella, Lucia; Locatelli, Marcello; Guglielmi, Paolo; Secci, Daniela; Leporini, Lidia; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Leone, Sheila; Martinotti, Sara; Brunetti, Luigi; Vacca, Michele; Menghini, Luigi; Orlando, Giustino

    2017-08-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens is a plant species that displays anti-inflammatory properties in multiple tissues. The iridoid glycosides arpagoside, harpagide, and procumbide appear to be the most therapeutically important constituents. In addition, harpagoside treatment exerted neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. Considering these findings, the aim of the present work is to explore the possible protective role of the previously described microwave-assisted aqueous extract of H. procumbens on rat hypothalamic (Hypo-E22) cells, and in rat cortex challenged with amyloid β-peptide (1-40). In this context, we assayed the protective effects induced by H. procumbens by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and tumor necrosis factor-α, 3-HK. Finally, we evaluated the effects of H. procumbens treatment on cortex levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. H. procumbens extract was well tolerated by Hypo-E22 cells and upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression but down-regulated tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression. In addition, the extract reduced amyloid β-peptide stimulation of malondialdehyde and 3-HK and blunted the decrease of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, in the cortex. In this context, our work supports further studies for the evaluation and confirmation of Harpagophytum in the management of the clinical symptoms related to Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Promiscuous survivin peptide induces robust CD4+ T-cell responses in the majority of vaccinated cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Widenmeyer, Melanie; Griesemann, Heinrich; Stevanović, Stefan; Feyerabend, Susan; Klein, Reinhild; Attig, Sebastian; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Wernet, Dorothee; Kuprash, Dmitri V; Sazykin, Alexei Y; Pascolo, Steve; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Rammensee, Hans-Georg

    2012-07-01

    CD4(+) T cells have been shown to be crucial for the induction and maintenance of cytotoxic T cell responses and to be also capable of mediating direct tumor rejection. Therefore, the anticancer therapeutic efficacy of peptide-based vaccines may be improved by addition of HLA class II epitopes to stimulate T helper cells. Survivin is an apoptosis inhibiting protein frequently overexpressed in tumors. Here we describe the first immunological evaluation of a survivin-derived CD4(+) T cell epitope in a multipeptide immunotherapy trial for prostate carcinoma patients. The survivin peptide is promiscuously presented by several human HLA-DRB1 molecules and, most importantly, is naturally processed by dendritic cells. In vaccinated patients, it was able to induce frequent, robust and multifunctional CD4(+) T cell responses, as monitored by IFN-γ ELISPOT and intracellular cytokine staining. Thus, this HLA-DR restricted epitope is broadly immunogenic and should be valuable for stimulating T helper cells in patients suffering from a wide range of tumors. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  19. Human chorionic gonadotropin but not the calcitonin gene-related peptide induces postnatal testicular descent in mice.

    PubMed

    Houle, A M; Gagné, D

    1995-01-01

    The androgen-regulated paracrine factor, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), has been proposed as a possible mediator of testicular descent. This peptide has been found to increase rhythmic contractions of gubernaculae and is known to be released by the genitofemoral nerve. We have investigated the ability of CGRP to induce premature testicular descent. CGRP was administered alone, or in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to C57BL/6 male mice postnatally. The extent of testicular descent at 18 days postpartum was then ascertained. The potential relationship between testicular weight and descent was also examined. Our results show that testes of mice treated with either hCG alone, or in combination with 500 ng CGRP, were at a significantly lower position than those of controls by 16% and 17%, respectively. In contrast, mice treated with 500 ng of CGRP alone had testes at a higher position when compared to those of controls, by 19%. In mice treated with 50 ng of CGRP alone or in combination with hCG, testes were at a position similar to those in controls. Furthermore, testicular descent was analyzed in relation to testicular weight, and we found that significantly smaller testes per gram of body weight than those of controls were at a significantly lower position compared to those of controls. Our data demonstrate that CGRP had no effect on postnatal testicular descent and that there is no relationship between postnatal descent and testicular weight.

  20. Inhibition of the Electrostatic Interaction between β -amyloid Peptide and Membranes Prevents β -amyloid-induced Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, C.; Terzi, E.; Hauser, N.; Jakob-Rotne, R.; Seelig, J.; Kemp, J. A.

    1997-08-01

    The accumulation of β -amyloid peptides (Aβ ) into senile plaques is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease. Aggregated Aβ is toxic to cells in culture and this has been considered to be the cause of neurodegeneration that occurs in the Alzheimer disease brain. The discovery of compounds that prevent Aβ toxicity may lead to a better understanding of the processes involved and ultimately to possible therapeutic drugs. Low nanomolar concentrations of Aβ 1-42 and the toxic fragment Aβ 25-35 have been demonstrated to render cells more sensitive to subsequent insults as manifested by an increased sensitivity to formazan crystals following MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction. Formation of the toxic β -sheet conformation by Aβ peptides is increased by negatively charged membranes. Here we demonstrate that phloretin and exifone, dipolar compounds that decrease the effective negative charge of membranes, prevent association of Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 25-35 to negatively charged lipid vesicles and Aβ induced cell toxicity. These results suggest that Aβ toxicity is mediated through a nonspecific physicochemical interaction with cell membranes.

  1. Peptide-matrix-mediated gene transfer of an oxygen-insensitive hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha variant for local induction of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Trentin, Diana; Hall, Heike; Wechsler, Sandra; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2006-02-21

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) constitutes a target in therapeutic angiogenesis. HIF-1alpha functions as a sensor of hypoxia and induces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which then induces angiogenesis. To explore the potential of HIF-1alpha gene therapy in stimulating wound healing, we delivered a gene encoding a stabilized form of HIF-1alpha, lacking the oxygen-sensitive degradation domain, namely HIF-1alpha deltaODD, by using a previously characterized peptide-based gene delivery vector in fibrin as a surgical matrix. The peptide vector consisted of multiple domains: (i) A cysteine-flanked lysine hexamer provided DNA interactions that were stable extracellularly but destabilized intracellularly after reduction of the formed disulfide bonds. This DNA-binding domain was fused to either (ii) a fibrin-binding peptide for entrapment within the matrix or (iii) a nuclear localization sequence for efficient nuclear targeting. The HIF-1alpha deltaODD gene was expressed and translocated to the nucleus under normoxic conditions, leading to up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A165 mRNA and protein levels in vitro. When the peptide-DNA nanoparticles entrapped in fibrin matrices were applied to full-thickness dermal wounds in the mouse (10 microg per wound in 30 microl of fibrin), angiogenesis was increased comparably strongly to that induced by VEGF-A165 protein (1.25 microg per wound in 30 microl of fibrin). However, the maturity of the vessels induced by HIF-1alpha deltaODD was significantly higher than that induced by VEGF-A165 protein, as shown by stabilization of the neovessels with smooth muscle. Nonviral, local administration of this potent angiogenesis-inducing gene by using this peptide vector represents a powerful approach in tissue engineering and therapeutic angiogenesis.

  2. Superior Cervical Ganglia Neurons Induce Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells via Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide.

    PubMed

    Szklany, Kirsten; Ruiter, Evelyn; Mian, Firoz; Kunze, Wolfgang; Bienenstock, John; Forsythe, Paul; Karimi, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    The nervous and immune systems communicate bidirectionally, utilizing diverse molecular signals including cytokines and neurotransmitters to provide an integrated response to changes in the body's internal and external environment. Although, neuro-immune interactions are becoming better understood under inflammatory circumstances and it has been evidenced that interaction between neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to T regulatory cells, relatively little is known about the communication between neurons and naïve T cells. Here, we demonstrate that following co-culture of naïve CD4+ T cells with superior cervical ganglion neurons, the percentage of Foxp3 expressing CD4+CD25+ cells significantly increased. This was mediated in part by immune-regulatory cytokines TGF-β and IL-10, as well as the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide while vasoactive intestinal peptide was shown to play no role in generation of T regulatory cells. Additionally, T cells co-cultured with neurons showed a decrease in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ released upon in vitro stimulation. These findings suggest that the generation of Tregs may be promoted by naïve CD4+ T cell: neuron interaction through the release of neuropeptide CGRP.

  3. Radiation-induced reductive modifications of sulfur-containing amino acids within peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Ferreri, Carla; Torreggiani, Armida; Salzano, Anna Maria; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea

    2011-10-19

    The complex scenario of radical stress reactions affecting peptides/proteins can be better elucidated through the design of biomimetic studies simulating the consequences of the different free radicals attacking amino acids. In this context, ionizing radiations allowed to examine the specific damages caused by H-atoms and electrons coupled with protons, thus establishing the molecular basis of reductive radical stress. This is an innovative concept that complements the well-known oxidative stress also in view of a complete understanding of the global consequences of radical species reactivities on living systems. This review summarizes the knowledge of the chemical changes present in sulfur-containing amino acids occurring in polypeptides under reductive radical conditions, in particular the transformation of Met and Cys residues into α-amino butyric acid and alanine, respectively. Reductive radical stress causing a desulfurization process, is therefore coupled with the formation of S-centered radicals, which in turn can diffuse apart and become responsible of the damage transfer from proteins to lipids. These reductive modifications assayed in different peptide/protein sequences constitute an integration of the molecular inventories that up to now take into account only oxidative transformations. They can be useful to achieve an integrated vision of the free radical reactivities in a multifunctional system and, overall, for wider applications in the redox proteomics field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Testing the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in the topical treatment of induced osteomyelitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Melicherčík, Pavel; Čeřovský, Václav; Nešuta, Ondřej; Jahoda, David; Landor, Ivan; Ballay, Rastislav; Fulín, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Joint replacement infections and osteomyelitis are among the most serious complications in orthopaedics and traumatology. The risk factors for these infections are often bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. One of the few solutions available to control bacterial resistance involves antimicrobials, which have a different mechanism of action from traditional antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) appear to be highly promising candidates in the treatment of resistant infections. We have identified several AMP in the venom of various wild bees and designed analogues that show potent antimicrobial activity and low toxicity against eukaryotic cells. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of one of those synthetic peptide analogues for the treatment of acute osteomyelitis invoked in laboratory rats. Femoral cavities of 20 laboratory Wistar rats were infected with Staphylococcus aureus. After 1 week, eight rats received an injectable calcium phosphate carrier alone, another eight rats were treated with a calcium phosphate mixed with AMP, and four rats were left without any further treatment. After another week, all rats were euthanized and radiographs were made of both the operated and healthy limbs. The animals with the carrier alone exhibited more severe acute osteomyelitis on radiographs in comparison to the recipients of the calcium phosphate carrier loaded AMP and untreated infected individuals. Based on the results of the above mentioned experiment, it was concluded that when injected directly into the site of femoral acute osteomyelitis, the calcium phosphate carrier mixed with AMP reduced osteomyelitis signs visible on radiographs.

  5. Designer Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Scaffolds Containing Link Protein N-Terminal Peptide Induce Chondrogenesis of Rabbit Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baichuan; Sun, Caixia; Shao, Zengwu; Yang, Shuhua; Che, Biao; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Jianxiang

    2014-01-01

    Designer self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel scaffolds have been considered as promising biomaterials for tissue engineering because of their excellent biocompatibility and biofunctionality. Our previous studies have shown that a novel designer functionalized self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel scaffold (RLN/RADA16, LN-NS) containing N-terminal peptide sequence of link protein (link N) can promote nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) adhesion and three-dimensional (3D) migration and stimulate biosynthesis of type II collagen and aggrecan by NPCs in vitro. The present study has extended these investigations to determine the effects of this functionalized LN-NS on bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), a potential cell source for NP regeneration. Although the functionalized LN-NS cannot promote BMSCs proliferation, it significantly promotes BMSCs adhesion compared with that of the pure RADA16 hydrogel scaffold. Moreover, the functionalized LN-NS remarkably stimulates biosynthesis and deposition of type II collagen and aggrecan. These data demonstrate that the functionalized peptide nanofiber hydrogel scaffold containing link N peptide as a potential matrix substrate will be very useful in the NP tissue regeneration. PMID:25243141

  6. Cell-Penetrating Peptide as a Means of Directing the Differentiation of Induced-Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kaitsuka, Taku; Tomizawa, Kazuhito

    2015-11-06

    Protein transduction using cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) is useful for the delivery of large protein molecules, including some transcription factors. This method is safer than gene transfection methods with a viral vector because there is no risk of genomic integration of the exogenous DNA. Recently, this method was reported as a means for the induction of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, directing the differentiation into specific cell types and supporting gene editing/correction. Furthermore, we developed a direct differentiation method to obtain a pancreatic lineage from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells via the protein transduction of three transcription factors, Pdx1, NeuroD, and MafA. Here, we discuss the possibility of using CPPs as a means of directing the differentiation of iPS cells and other stem cell technologies.

  7. [Effect of delta-sleep inducing peptide preparation Deltaran on longevity, physiological functions, and carcinogenesis in mice].

    PubMed

    Voĭtenkov, V B; Popovich, I G; Zabezhinskiĭ, M A; Iurova, M A; Piskunova, T A; Mikhaleva, I I

    2009-01-01

    Female SHR mice received 5-days long monthly courses of delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) preparation "Deltaran" subcutaneously in dose 5 mkg/kg during all their lives. It was demonstrated, that last 10% (most aged) of mice which received Deltaran lived for 16% longer than the controls. They had significantly higher amount of vertical activity in the "open field" test, than the controls, starting from time when they were 6 months old and until their natural death. Mice of Deltaran group spent 73% more time in the open arms of elevated plus maze, and 9 times more often explored the extremities of this maze, than controls. Also Deltaran slowed the spontaneous carcinogenesis parameters. It's assumed that DSIP preparation "Deltaran" have geroprotective, anxiolytic and antitumor activity.

  8. Energetic rationale for an unexpected and abrupt reversal of guanidinium chloride-induced unfolding of peptide deformylase.

    PubMed

    Berg, Alexander K; Manokaran, Sumathra; Eiler, Daniel; Kooren, Joel; Mallik, Sanku; Srivastava, D K

    2008-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the removal of formyl group from the N-terminal methionine residues of nascent proteins in prokaryotes, and this enzyme is a high priority target for antibiotic design. In pursuit of delineating the structural-functional features of Escherichia coli PDF (EcPDF), we investigated the mechanistic pathway for the guanidinium chloride (GdmCl)-induced unfolding of the enzyme by monitoring the secondary structural changes via CD spectroscopy. The experimental data revealed that EcPDF is a highly stable enzyme, and it undergoes slow denaturation in the presence of varying concentrations of GdmCl. The most interesting aspect of these studies has been the abrupt reversal of the unfolding pathway at low to moderate concentrations of the denaturant, but not at high concentration. An energetic rationale for such an unprecedented feature in protein chemistry is offered.

  9. Brain natriuretic peptide suppresses pain induced by BmK I, a sodium channel-specific modulator, in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Wei; Wu, Bin; Ye, Pin; Tan, Zhi-Yong; Ji, Yong-Hua

    2016-12-01

    A previous study found that brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) inhibited inflammatory pain via activating its receptor natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) in nociceptive sensory neurons. A recent study found that functional NPRA is expressed in almost all the trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons at membrane level suggesting a potentially important role for BNP in migraine pathophysiology. An inflammatory pain model was produced by subcutaneous injection of BmK I, a sodium channel-specific modulator from venom of Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch. Quantitative PCR, Western Blot, and immunohistochemistry were used to detect mRNA and protein expression of BNP and NPRA in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and dorsal horn of spinal cord. Whole-cell patch clamping experiments were conducted to record large-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (BK Ca ) currents of membrane excitability of DRG neurons. Spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors were examined. The mRNA and protein expression of BNP and NPRA was up-regulated in DRG and dorsal horn of spinal cord after BmK I injection. The BNP and NPRA was preferentially expressed in small-sized DRG neurons among which BNP was expressed in both CGRP-positive and IB4-positive neurons while NPRA was preferentially expressed in CGRP-positive neurons. BNP increased the open probability of BK Ca channels and suppressed the membrane excitability of small-sized DRG neurons. Intrathecal injection of BNP significantly inhibited BmK-induced pain behaviors including both spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors. These results suggested that BNP might play an important role as an endogenous pain reliever in BmK I-induced inflammatory pain condition. It is also suggested that BNP might play a similar role in other pathophysiological pain conditions including migraine.

  10. A novel fully synthetic and self-assembled peptide solution for endoscopic submucosal dissection-induced ulcer in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Uraoka, Toshio; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Fujimoto, Ai; Goto, Osamu; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Kobayashi, Naoya; Kanai, Takanori; Matsuda, Sachiko; Kitagawa, Yuko; Yahagi, Naohisa

    2016-06-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) can remove early stage GI tumors of various sizes en bloc; however, success requires reducing the relatively high postprocedure bleeding rate. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a novel, fully synthetic, and self-assembled peptide solution that functions as an extracellular matrix scaffold material to facilitate reconstruction of normal tissues in ESD-induced ulcers. Consecutive patients who underwent gastric ESD were prospectively enrolled. Immediately after the resection, the solution was applied to the site with a catheter. Gastric ulcers were evaluated by endoscopy and classified as active, healing, or scarring stages at weeks 1, 4, and 8 after ESD. Forty-seven patients with 53 lesions, including 14 (29.8%) previously on antithrombotic therapy and 2 (4.3%) requiring heparin bridge therapy, were analyzed; 2 patients were excluded, 1 with perforations and 1 with persistent coagulopathy. The mean size of the en bloc resected specimens was 36.5 ± 11.3 mm. The rate of post-ESD bleeding was 2.0% (1/51; 95% CI, 0.03-10.3). Transitional rate to the healing stage of ESD-induced ulcers at week 1 was 96% (49/51). Subsequent endoscopies demonstrated the scarring stage in 19% (9/48) and 98% (41/42) at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. No adverse effects related to this solution occurred. The use of this novel peptide solution may potentially aid in reducing the delayed bleeding rate by promoting mucosal regeneration and speed of ulcer healing after large endoscopic resections in the stomach. Further studies, particularly randomized controlled studies, are needed to fully evaluate its efficacy. ( 000011548.). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High level of C-type natriuretic peptide induced by hyperandrogen-mediated anovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Huarong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yanhao; Zhang, Wenqiang; Chen, Zijiang; Xia, Guoliang; Wang, Chao

    2018-04-16

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by hyperandrogenism, is a complex endocrinopathy that affects the fertility of 9-18% of reproductive-aged women. However, the exact mechanism of PCOS, especially hyperandrogen-induced anovulation, is largely unknown to date. Physiologically, the natriuretic peptide type C/natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (CNP/NPR2) system is essential for sustaining oocyte meiotic arrest until the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. We therefore hypothesized that the CNP/NPR2 system is also involved in PCOS and contributes to arresting oocyte meiosis and ovulation. Here, based on a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS-like mouse model, persistent high levels of CNP/NPR2 were detected in anovulation ovaries. Meanwhile, oocytes arrested at the germinal vesicle stage correlated with persistent high levels of androgen and estrogen. We further showed that ovulation failure in these mice could be a result of elevated Nppc/Npr2 gene transcription that was directly increased by androgen (AR) and estrogen (ER) receptor signaling. Consistent with this, anovulation was alleviated by administration of either exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or inhibitors of AR or ER to reduce the level of CNP/NPR2. Additionally, the CNP/NPR2 expression pattern in the anovulated follicles was, to some extent, consistent with the clinical expression in PCOS patients. Therefore, our study highlights the important role an overactive CNP/NPR2 system caused by hyperandrogenism in preventing oocytes from maturation and ovulation in PCOS mice. Our findings provide insight into potential mechanisms responsible for infertility in women with PCOS. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Amyloid-β Peptide Is Needed for cGMP-Induced Long-Term Potentiation and Memory.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Agostino; Ricciarelli, Roberta; Gulisano, Walter; Rivera, Daniela; Rebosio, Claudia; Calcagno, Elisa; Tropea, Maria Rosaria; Conti, Silvia; Das, Utpal; Roy, Subhojit; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Arancio, Ottavio; Fedele, Ernesto; Puzzo, Daniela

    2017-07-19

    High levels of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) have been related to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. However, in the healthy brain, low physiologically relevant concentrations of Aβ are necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. Because cGMP plays a key role in these processes, here we investigated whether the cyclic nucleotide cGMP influences Aβ levels and function during LTP and memory. We demonstrate that the increase of cGMP levels by the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors sildenafil and vardenafil induces a parallel release of Aβ due to a change in the approximation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1. Moreover, electrophysiological and behavioral studies performed on animals of both sexes showed that blocking Aβ function, by using anti-murine Aβ antibodies or APP knock-out mice, prevents the cGMP-dependent enhancement of LTP and memory. Our data suggest that cGMP positively regulates Aβ levels in the healthy brain which, in turn, boosts synaptic plasticity and memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a key pathogenetic factor in Alzheimer's disease. However, low concentrations of endogenous Aβ, mimicking levels of the peptide in the healthy brain, enhance hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. Because the second messenger cGMP exerts a central role in LTP mechanisms, here we studied whether cGMP affects Aβ levels and function during LTP. We show that cGMP enhances Aβ production by increasing the APP/BACE-1 convergence in endolysosomal compartments. Moreover, the cGMP-induced enhancement of LTP and memory was disrupted by blockade of Aβ, suggesting that the physiological effect of the cyclic nucleotide on LTP and memory is dependent upon Aβ. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376926-12$15.00/0.

  13. Anti-tumorigenic effect of nano formulated peptide pACC1 by diminishing de novo lipogenisis in DMBA induced mammary carcinoma rat model.

    PubMed

    Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Padarthi, Pavankumar; Elangovan, Namasivayam; Hari, Natarajan

    2014-07-01

    At present, the majority of established treatments for breast cancer are based on clinical manifestations, some fundamental of molecular and cellular biology of cancer. In recent times, the therapy is moving towards personalized medicines. Nevertheless, both the methodologies have own demerits. In the present study, we proposed a novel idea of targeted therapy with twin pharmacological potential by a peptide pACC1. The peptide was formulated with chitosan and evaluated with DMBA induced mammary carcinoma. Results suggest that the peptide holds great control on tumor cell multiplication, fatty acid synthesis and lactate levels. In addition, peptide also brings normal metabolic signs in glycolytic and glycogenic pathways. Histological studies confirm the dual pharmacological actions. Further, it is also proven that the peptide controls membrane receptor levels of HER2 and EGFR. In conclusion, that the peptide pACC1 could be employed as greater therapeutic adjuvant with currently established drugs without considering the stage of the cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Immune response induced by Epstein-Barr virus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis peptides in current and past infectious mononucleosis: a risk for multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Mameli, G; Madeddu, G; Cossu, D; Galleri, G; Manetti, R; Babudieri, S; Mura, M Stella; Sechi, L A

    2016-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the mechanism linking these pathologies is unclear. Different reports indicate the association of EBV, and recently Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), with MS. For a better understanding of the role of these pathogens, the host response induced by selected antigenic peptides in subjects with a history of IM that significantly increases the risk of MS was investigated. Both humoral and cell-mediated response against peptides able to induce a specific immune activation in MS patients deriving from lytic and latent EBV antigens BOLF1(305-320), EBNA1(400-413), from MAP MAP_4027(18-32), MAP_0106c(121-132) and from human proteins IRF5(424-434) and MBP(85-98) in subjects with current and past IM were examined. EBNA1 and MAP_0106c peptides were able to induce a humoral immune response in subjects with a history of clinical IM in an independent manner. Moreover, these peptides were capable of inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon γ by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and interleukin 6 and tumour necrosis factor α by CD14+ monocyte cells. Our results highlight that EBV and MAP may be involved independently in the same causal process leading to MS in subjects with a history of IM. © 2015 EAN.

  15. Targeting of CXXC5 by a Competing Peptide Stimulates Hair Regrowth and Wound-Induced Hair Neogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soung-Hoon; Seo, Seol Hwa; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Pi, Long-Quan; Lee, Won-Soo; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2017-11-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated in hair follicle development and hair regeneration in adults. We discovered that CXXC-type zinc finger protein 5 (CXXC5) is a negative regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway involved in hair regrowth and wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis via an interaction with Dishevelled. CXXC5 was upregulated in miniaturized hair follicles and arrector pili muscles in human balding scalps. The inhibitory effects of CXXC5 on alkaline phosphatase activity and cell proliferation were demonstrated using human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Moreover, CXXC5 -/- mice displayed accelerated hair regrowth, and treatment with valproic acid, a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, further induced hair regrowth in the CXXC5 -/- mice. Disrupting the CXXC5-Dishevelled interaction with a competitor peptide activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and accelerated hair regrowth and wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis. Overall, these findings suggest that the CXXC5-Dishevelled interaction is a potential target for the treatment of hair loss. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alzheimer Abeta peptide induces chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy, including trisomy 21: requirement for tau and APP.

    PubMed

    Granic, Antoneta; Padmanabhan, Jaya; Norden, Michelle; Potter, Huntington

    2010-02-15

    Both sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients exhibit increased chromosome aneuploidy, particularly trisomy 21, in neurons and other cells. Significantly, trisomy 21/Down syndrome patients develop early onset AD pathology. We investigated the mechanism underlying mosaic chromosome aneuploidy in AD and report that FAD mutations in the Alzheimer Amyloid Precursor Protein gene, APP, induce chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy in transgenic mice and in transfected cells. Furthermore, adding synthetic Abeta peptide, the pathogenic product of APP, to cultured cells causes rapid and robust chromosome mis-segregation leading to aneuploid, including trisomy 21, daughters, which is prevented by LiCl addition or Ca(2+) chelation and is replicated in tau KO cells, implicating GSK-3beta, calpain, and Tau-dependent microtubule transport in the aneugenic activity of Abeta. Furthermore, APP KO cells are resistant to the aneugenic activity of Abeta, as they have been shown previously to be resistant to Abeta-induced tau phosphorylation and cell toxicity. These results indicate that Abeta-induced microtubule dysfunction leads to aneuploid neurons and may thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

  17. Protective Effect of Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) Skin Collagen Peptides on Acetic Acid-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Huina; Wang, Zhicong; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Bafang

    2016-07-01

    This research was performed to explore the protective effect of cod skin collagen peptides (CCP) on gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid. The CCP were fractionated into low molecular CCP (LMCCP, Mw < 3 kDa) and high molecular CCP (HMCCP, Mw > 3 kDa). In HMCCP and LMCCP, glycine of accounted for about one-third of the total amino acids without cysteine and tryptophan, and hydrophobic amino acids accounted for about 50%. After 21 d CCP treatment (60 or 300 mg/kg, p.o./daily), the healing effects on acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers were evaluated by macroscopic measure, microscopic measure, and immune histochemistry. Moreover, the expression levels of the growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), and the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was detected. The results showed that both LMCCP and HMCCP could significantly decrease the ulcer areas and promote the healing of the lesions. They also could improve the levels of hexosamine, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, and reduce the content of malondialdehyde and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, the expression level of TGFβ1 gene and HSP70 mRNA was significantly improved by the treatment. It suggested that CCP could be able to improve symptoms of gastric ulcer and probably be used in the treatment of gastric ulcer. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Peptide bioregulators inhibit apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V K; Kvetnoii, I M

    2000-12-01

    The effects of peptide bioregulators epithalon and vilon on the dynamics of irradiation-induced apoptotic death of spleen lymphocytes in rats indicate that these agents inhibit physiologically programmed cell death. The antiapoptotic effect of vilon was more pronounced, which corroborates the concept on tissue-specific effect of peptide bioregulators.

  19. Electron beam-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid and immobilization of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing peptide onto nanopatterned polycaprolactone.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Wirsén, Anders; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam- (EB-) induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid and the subsequent immobilization of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide onto nanopatterned polycaprolactone with parallel grooves is reported. A high concentration of carboxylic groups was introduced onto the polymer substrate by EB-induced polymerization of acrylic acid. In the coupling of the RGD peptide to the carboxylated polymer surface, a three-step peptide immobilization process was used. This process included the activation of surface carboxylic acid into an active ester intermediate by use of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), the introduction of disulfide groups by use of 2-(2-pyridinyldithio)ethanamine hydrochloride (PDEA), and final immobilization of the peptide via a thiol-disulfide exchange reaction. The extent of coupling was measured by UV spectroscopy. A preliminary study of the in vitro behavior of keratinocytes (NCTC 2544) cultured on the acrylic acid-grafted and RGD peptide-coupled surface showed that most cells grown on the coupled samples had a spread-rounded appearance, while the majority of cells tended to be elongated along the grooves on uncoupled substrates.

  20. 2-Aminobenzamide and 2-Aminobenzoic Acid as New MALDI Matrices Inducing Radical Mediated In-Source Decay of Peptides and Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smargiasso, Nicolas; Quinton, Loic; de Pauw, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    One of the mechanisms leading to MALDI in-source decay (MALDI ISD) is the transfer of hydrogen radicals to analytes upon laser irradiation. Analytes such as peptides or proteins may undergo ISD and this method can therefore be exploited for top-down sequencing. When performed on peptides, radical-induced ISD results in production of c- and z-ions, as also found in ETD and ECD activation. Here, we describe two new compounds which, when used as MALDI matrices, are able to efficiently induce ISD of peptides and proteins: 2-aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid. In-source reduction of the disulfide bridge containing peptide Calcitonin further confirmed the radicalar mechanism of the ISD process. ISD of peptides led, in addition to c- and z-ions, to the generation of a-, x-, and y-ions both in positive and in negative ion modes. Finally, good sequence coverage was obtained for the sequencing of myoglobin (17 kDa protein), confirming the effectiveness of both 2-aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid as MALDI ISD matrices.

  1. 2-Aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid as new MALDI matrices inducing radical mediated in-source decay of peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Smargiasso, Nicolas; Quinton, Loic; De Pauw, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    One of the mechanisms leading to MALDI in-source decay (MALDI ISD) is the transfer of hydrogen radicals to analytes upon laser irradiation. Analytes such as peptides or proteins may undergo ISD and this method can therefore be exploited for top-down sequencing. When performed on peptides, radical-induced ISD results in production of c- and z-ions, as also found in ETD and ECD activation. Here, we describe two new compounds which, when used as MALDI matrices, are able to efficiently induce ISD of peptides and proteins: 2-aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid. In-source reduction of the disulfide bridge containing peptide Calcitonin further confirmed the radicalar mechanism of the ISD process. ISD of peptides led, in addition to c- and z-ions, to the generation of a-, x-, and y-ions both in positive and in negative ion modes. Finally, good sequence coverage was obtained for the sequencing of myoglobin (17 kDa protein), confirming the effectiveness of both 2-aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid as MALDI ISD matrices.

  2. Brain RVD-haemopressin, a haemoglobin-derived peptide, inhibits bombesin-induced central activation of adrenomedullary outflow in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenjiro; Shimizu, Takahiro; Yanagita, Toshihiko; Nemoto, Takayuki; Nakamura, Kumiko; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Dimitriadis, Fotios; Yokotani, Kunihiko; Saito, Motoaki

    2014-01-01

    Haemopressin and RVD-haemopressin, derived from the haemoglobin α-chain, are bioactive peptides found in brain and are ligands for cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Activation of brain CB1 receptors inhibited the secretion of adrenal catecholamines (noradrenaline and adrenaline) induced by i.c.v. bombesin in the rat. Here, we investigated the effects of two haemoglobin-derived peptides on this bombesin-induced response Anaesthetised male Wistar rats were pretreated with either haemoglobin-derived peptide, given i.c.v., 30 min before i.c.v. bombesin and plasma catecholamines were subsequently measured electrochemically after HPLC. Direct effects of bombesin on secretion of adrenal catecholamines were examined using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Furthermore, activation of haemoglobin α-positive spinally projecting neurons in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, a regulatory centre of central adrenomedullary outflow) after i.c.v. bombesin was assessed by immunohistochemical techniques. Bombesin given i.c.v. dose-dependently elevated plasma catecholamines whereas incubation with bombesin had no effect on spontaneous and nicotine-induced secretion of catecholamines from chromaffin cells. The bombesin-induced increase in catecholamines was inhibited by pretreatment with i.c.v. RVD-haemopressin (CB1 receptor agonist) but not after pretreatment with haemopressin (CB1 receptor inverse agonist). Bombesin activated haemoglobin α-positive spinally projecting neurons in the PVN. The haemoglobin-derived peptide RVD-haemopressin in the brain plays an inhibitory role in bombesin-induced activation of central adrenomedullary outflow via brain CB1 receptors in the rat. These findings provide basic information for the therapeutic use of haemoglobin-derived peptides in the modulation of central adrenomedullary outflow. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Impairment of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic cycle induced by angiotensin peptides.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Victor Barbosa; de Souza Silva, Leandro; Ferreira-DaSilva, Claudio Teixeira; da Silva-Filho, João Luiz; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Perales, Jonas; Souza, Mariana Conceição; Henriques, Maria das Graças; Caruso-Neves, Celso; de Sá Pinheiro, Ana Acacia

    2011-02-18

    Plasmodium falciparum causes the most serious complications of malaria and is a public health problem worldwide with over 2 million deaths each year. The erythrocyte invasion mechanisms by Plasmodium sp. have been well described, however the physiological aspects involving host components in this process are still poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence for the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components in reducing erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum. Angiotensin II (Ang II) reduced erythrocyte invasion in an enriched schizont culture of P. falciparum in a dose-dependent manner. Using mass spectroscopy, we showed that Ang II was metabolized by erythrocytes to Ang IV and Ang-(1-7). Parasite infection decreased Ang-(1-7) and completely abolished Ang IV formation. Similar to Ang II, Ang-(1-7) decreased the level of infection in an A779 (specific antagonist of Ang-(1-7) receptor, MAS)-sensitive manner. 10(-7) M PD123319, an AT(2) receptor antagonist, partially reversed the effects of Ang-(1-7) and Ang II. However, 10(-6) M losartan, an antagonist of the AT(1) receptor, had no effect. Gs protein is a crucial player in the Plasmodium falciparum blood cycle and angiotensin peptides can modulate protein kinase A (PKA) activity; 10(-8) M Ang II or 10(-8) M Ang-(1-7) inhibited this activity in erythrocytes by 60% and this effect was reversed by 10(-7) M A779. 10(-6) M dibutyryl-cAMP increased the level of infection and 10(-7) M PKA inhibitor decreased the level of infection by 30%. These results indicate that the effect of Ang-(1-7) on P. falciparum blood stage involves a MAS-mediated PKA inhibition. Our results indicate a crucial role for Ang II conversion into Ang-(1-7) in controlling the erythrocytic cycle of the malaria parasite, adding new functions to peptides initially described to be involved in the regulation of vascular tonus.

  4. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Human Telomerase-Derived Peptide on P. gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Its Mechanism in Human Dental Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yoo-Jin; Kwon, Kil-Young; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Lee, Woo-Cheol; Baek, Seung-Ho; Kang, Mo K.; Shon, Won-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered with inducing pulpal inflammation and has lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an inflammatory stimulator. GV1001 peptide has anticancer and anti-inflammation activity due to inhibiting activation of signaling molecules after penetration into the various types of cells. Therefore, this study examined inhibitory effect of GV1001 on dental pulp cells (hDPCs) stimulated by P. gingivalis LPS. The intracellular distribution of GV1001 was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines. The role of signaling by MAP kinases (ERK and p38) was explored using Western blot analysis. The effect of GV1001 peptide on hDPCs viability was measured by MTT assay. GV1001 was predominantly located in hDPC cytoplasm. The peptide inhibited P. gingivalis LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in hDPCs without significant cytotoxicity. Furthermore, GV1001 treatment markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of MAP kinases (ERK and p38) in LPS-stimulated hDPCs. GV1001 may prevent P. gingivalis LPS-induced inflammation of apical tissue. Also, these findings provide mechanistic insight into how GV1001 peptide causes anti-inflammatory actions in LPS-stimulated pulpitis without significantly affecting cell viability. PMID:26604431

  5. Purification and characterization of multiple bacteriocins and an inducing peptide produced by Enterococcus faecium NKR-5-3 from Thai fermented fish.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Naoki; Himeno, Kohei; Fujita, Koji; Masuda, Yoshimitsu; Perez, Rodney Honrada; Zendo, Takeshi; Wilaipun, Pongtep; Leelawatcharamas, Vichien; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Enterocins NKR-5-3A, B, C, and D were purified from the culture supernatant of Enterococcus faecium NKR-5-3 and characterized. Among the four purified peptides, enterocin NKR-5-3A (5242.3 Da) was identical to brochocin A, produced by Brochothrix campestris ATCC 43754, in mature peptides, and its putative synergistic peptide, enterocin NKR-5-3Z, was found to be encoded in ent53Z downstream of ent53A, encoding enterocin NKR-5-3A. Enterocin NKR-5-3B (6316.4 Da) showed a broad antimicrobial spectrum, and enterocin NKR-5-3C (4512.8 Da) showed high activity against Listeria. Enterocin NKR-5-3D (2843.5 Da), showing high homology to an inducing peptide produced by Lactobacillus sakei 5, induced the production of the enterocins. The enterocins showed different antimicrobial spectra and intensities. E. faecium NKR-5-3 concomitantly produced enterocins NKR-5-3A, B, C, and D which probably belong to different classes of bacteriocins. Furthermore, NKR-5-3 production was induced by enterocin NKR-5-3D.

  6. Structural Characterization and Absolute Quantification of Microcystin Peptides Using Collision-Induced and Ultraviolet Photo-Dissociation Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Troy J.; Carter, Melissa D.; Fang, Mengxuan; Johnson, Rudolph C.; Reid, Gavin E.

    2018-05-01

    Microcystin (MC) peptides produced by cyanobacteria pose a hepatotoxic threat to human health upon ingestion from contaminated drinking water. While rapid MC identification and quantification in contaminated body fluids or tissue samples is important for patient treatment and outcomes, conventional immunoassay-based measurement strategies typically lack the specificity required for unambiguous determination of specific MC variants, whose toxicity can significantly vary depending on their structures. Furthermore, the unambiguous identification and accurate quantitation of MC variants using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based methods can be limited due to a current lack of appropriate stable isotope-labeled internal standards. To address these limitations, we have systematically examined here the sequence and charge state dependence to the formation and absolute abundance of both "global" and "variant-specific" product ions from representative MC-LR, MC-YR, MC-RR, and MC-LA peptides, using higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD)-MS/MS, ion-trap collision-induced dissociation (CID)-MS/MS and CID-MS3, and 193 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UPVD)-MS/MS. HCD-MS/MS was found to provide the greatest detection sensitivity for both global and variant-specific product ions in each of the MC variants, except for MC-YR where a variant-specific product uniquely formed via UPVD-MS/MS was observed with the greatest absolute abundance. A simple methodology for the preparation and characterization of 18O-stable isotope-labeled MC reference materials for use as internal standards was also developed. Finally, we have demonstrated the applicability of the methods developed herein for absolute quantification of MC-LR present in human urine samples, using capillary scale liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high resolution / accurate mass spectrometry and HCD-MS/MS.

  7. Effects of epithelium removal on relaxation of airway smooth muscle induced by vasoactive intestinal peptide and electrical field stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, S. G.; Togo, J.

    1990-01-01

    1. We have studied the effect of epithelium removal on relaxation of guinea-pig isolated tracheal smooth muscle induced by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) or stimulation of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) inhibitory nerves. Also examined were the effects of inhibitors of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). 2. Epithelium removal produced a 3.6 +/- 0.4 fold leftward shift in the VIP concentration-response curve. The supersensitivity to VIP, following epithelium removal was abolished by phosphoramidon or thiorphan (NEP inhibitors), but unaffected by captopril (an ACE inhibitor). In intact trachea, the NEP inhibitors produced leftward shifts in the VIP curves similar to those produced by epithelium removal. 3. In contrast to responses to exogenous VIP, neurogenic NANC inhibitory responses to electrical field stimulation were affected neither by epithelial denudation nor by the peptidase inhibitors. 4. As in previous studies, epithelium removal increased tracheal sensitivity to isoprenaline. This was not altered by pretreatment with a cocktail of peptidase inhibitors. Thus, the effect of the NEP inhibitors on responses to VIP appears to be relatively specific. 5. These data indicate that exogenous VIP is a substrate for airway NEP, since inhibition of the enzyme potentiates the peptide. This is further evidence that the airway epithelium provides a source for the metabolism of mediators. 6. In guinea-pig trachea the NEP responsible for cleaving VIP may be located largely in the epithelial layer, since NEP inhibition was without effect on sensitivity to VIP in epithelium-denuded preparations. If VIP is a NANC inhibitory neurotransmitter in this tissue its degradation endogenously does not appear to involve epithelial NEP. PMID:2196967

  8. Inducible Alkylation of DNA by a Quinone Methide-Peptide Nucleic Acid Conjugate†

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Rokita, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    The reversibility of alkylation by a quinone methide intermediate (QM) avoids the irreversible consumption that plagues most reagents based on covalent chemistry and allows for site specific reaction that is controlled by the thermodynamics rather than kinetics of target association. This characteristic was originally examined with an oligonucleotide QM conjugate but broad application depends on alternative derivatives that are compatible with a cellular environment. Now, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) derivative has been constructed and shown to exhibit an equivalent ability to delivery the reactive QM in a controlled manner. This new conjugate demonstrates high selectivity for a complementary sequence of DNA even when challenged with an alternative sequence containing a single T/T mismatch. Alkylation of non-complementary sequences is only possible when a template strand is present to co-localize the conjugate and its target. For efficient alkylation in this example, a single-stranded region of the target is required adjacent to the QM conjugate. Most importantly, the intrastrand self adducts formed between the PNA and its attached QM remained active and reversible over more than eight days in aqueous solution prior to reaction with a chosen target added subsequently. PMID:22243337

  9. The Antimicrobial Peptide Human Beta-Defensin-3 Is Induced by Platelet-Released Growth Factors in Primary Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lammel, Justus; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Lippross, Sebastian; Behrendt, Peter; Klüter, Tim; Pufe, Thomas; Cremer, Jochen; Jahr, Holger; Rademacher, Franziska; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF®)) contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting activities suggests that hBD-3 may play a crucial role in wound healing. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of PRGF on hBD-3 expression in human primary keratinocytes in vitro. In addition, we investigated the influence of Vivostat PRF on hBD-3 expression in artificially generated human skin wounds in vivo. PRGF treatment of primary keratinocytes induced a significant, concentration- and time-dependent increase in hBD-3 gene expression which was partially mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In line with these cell culture data, in vivo experiments revealed an enhanced hBD-3 expression in experimentally produced human wounds after the treatment with Vivostat PRF. Thus, the induction of hBD-3 may contribute to the beneficial effects of thrombocyte concentrate lysates in the treatment of chronic or infected wounds. PMID:28811680

  10. Protective effects of poly (butyl) cyanoacrylate nanoparticles containing vasoactive intestinal peptide against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Ran; Wang, Wu-Fang; Liang, Xin-Fang; Liu, Ze-Hua; Liu, Yu; Lin, Liang; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated brain delivery system of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) adsorbed on poly (butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles coated with polysorbate 80 (P80-poly (butyl) cyanoacrylate (PBCA)-nanoparticles (NPs)) and the neuroprotective effects on the formulation in the model of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinsonian dysfunction in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Drug-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion polymerization method using VIP and PBCA and then stirring with polysorbate 80. The resulting nanoparticles possessed high entrapment efficiency and favorable stability against CaCl2 or fetal bovine serum (FBS)-induced aggregation. Use of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated polysorbate 80-PBCA nanoparticles in confocal microscopy revealed that nanoparticles are located inside, while the FITC solution could not penetrate into the cells. The blank nanoparticles showed no significant effects on cell viability, indicating that they had no role in protection; however, polysorbate 80-modified VIP-loading PBCA nanoparticles showed enhanced cell viability compared to free VIP in 6-OHDA-mimic cellular model of Parkinson's disease. In addition, the nanoparticles strikingly increased the anti-apoptosis activity and restored the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) significantly after the treatment of 6-OHDA. These results demonstrated that the activity of VIP was enhanced by polysorbate 80-PBCA nanoparticles compared to control solutions, suggesting that PBCA nanoparticles coated with polysorbate 80 could be an effective carrier system for VIP.

  11. Single-cell, real-time detection of oxidative stress induced in Escherichia coli by the antimicrobial peptide CM15.

    PubMed

    Choi, Heejun; Yang, Zhilin; Weisshaar, James C

    2015-01-20

    Antibiotics target specific biochemical mechanisms in bacteria. In response to new drugs, pathogenic bacteria rapidly develop resistance. In contrast, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have retained broad spectrum antibacterial potency over millions of years. We present single-cell fluorescence assays that detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm in real time. Within 30 s of permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane by the cationic AMP CM15 [combining residues 1-7 of cecropin A (from moth) with residues 2-9 of melittin (bee venom)], three fluorescence signals report oxidative stress in the cytoplasm, apparently involving O2 (-), H2O2, and •OH. Mechanistic studies indicate that active respiration is a prerequisite to the CM15-induced oxidative damage. In anaerobic conditions, signals from ROS are greatly diminished and the minimum inhibitory concentration increases 20-fold. Evidently the natural human AMP LL-37 also induces a burst of ROS. Oxidative stress may prove a significant bacteriostatic mechanism for a variety of cationic AMPs. If so, host organisms may use the local oxygen level to modulate AMP potency.

  12. Single-cell, real-time detection of oxidative stress induced in Escherichia coli by the antimicrobial peptide CM15

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhilin; Weisshaar, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics target specific biochemical mechanisms in bacteria. In response to new drugs, pathogenic bacteria rapidly develop resistance. In contrast, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have retained broad spectrum antibacterial potency over millions of years. We present single-cell fluorescence assays that detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm in real time. Within 30 s of permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane by the cationic AMP CM15 [combining residues 1–7 of cecropin A (from moth) with residues 2–9 of melittin (bee venom)], three fluorescence signals report oxidative stress in the cytoplasm, apparently involving O2−, H2O2, and •OH. Mechanistic studies indicate that active respiration is a prerequisite to the CM15-induced oxidative damage. In anaerobic conditions, signals from ROS are greatly diminished and the minimum inhibitory concentration increases 20-fold. Evidently the natural human AMP LL-37 also induces a burst of ROS. Oxidative stress may prove a significant bacteriostatic mechanism for a variety of cationic AMPs. If so, host organisms may use the local oxygen level to modulate AMP potency. PMID:25561551

  13. The antibacterial peptide from Bombyx mori cecropinXJ induced growth arrest and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lijie; Wu, Yanling; Ma, J I; Yang, Jianhua; Zhang, Fuchun

    2016-07-01

    CecropinXJ is a cationic antimicrobial peptide originally isolated from the larvae of Bombyx mori . The anticancer effect of cecropinXJ has been reported in various tumor cells, including leukemia, gastric and esophageal cancer cells. However, the activity of cecropinXJ on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its underlying mechanism have not been investigated to date. Therefore, the present study investigated the efficacy and associated mechanism of cecropinXJ in Huh-7 cells. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to determine the presence of cell cycle arrested and apoptotic cells. CecropinXJ significantly inhibited the growth of Huh-7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. CecropinXJ treatment for 24 h induced S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, in addition to loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, in hepatoma cells. CecropinXJ induced HCC cell apoptosis by activating caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, cecropinXJ downregulated the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), while upregulated the expression of Bcl-2-associated death promoter and Bcl-2-associated X protein. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that cecropinXJ may be an active anti-HCC agent and provide novel insights into the mechanism of cecropinXJ.

  14. Functional self-assembled peptide scaffold inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced inflammation and apoptosis in nucleus pulposus cells by suppressing nuclear factor-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochuan; Cheng, Shi; Wu, Yaohong; Ying, Jingwei; Wang, Chaofeng; Wen, Tianyong; Bai, Xuedong; Ji, Wei; Wang, Deli; Ruan, Dike

    2018-04-01

    Although nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue engineering has achieved tremendous success, researches still face the huge obstacles in maintaining cell survival and function. A novel functional self-assembled peptide RADA-KPSS was constructed by conjugating BMP-7 short active fragment (KPSS) to the C-terminus of RADA16-I that displays anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects. However, whether this functional self-assembled RADA-KPSS peptide can alleviate inflammation and NPC apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has not been studied. Therefore, we cultured NPCs treated with TNF-α for 48 h with the RADA-KPSS peptide, and compared the results to those with RADA16-I peptide. The cell apoptosis rate, inflammatory mediator secretion, expression of matrix-degrading enzymes, and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein levels were evaluated. The expression of nuclear factor-κB-p65 (NF-κB-p65) protein was also tested. TNF-α-treated NPCs cultured with the RADA16-I peptide showed up-regulated gene expression for matrix-degrading enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3), MMP-9, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS-4), and down-regulated gene expression for ECM proteins such as aggrecan, collagen II, and Sox-9. The RADA-KPSS peptide could attenuate the expression of MMP-3, MMP-9, and ADAMTS-4, promote accumulation of ECM proteins, and increase secretion of glycosaminoglycan as compared with the RADA16-I peptide. Moreover, the TNF-α-damaged NPCs was further demonstrated to inhibit NF-κB-p65, IL-1, IL-6, and prostaglandin E-2 proteins and decrease cell apoptosis in RADA-KPSS peptide. In conclusion, the functional self-assembled RADA-KPSS peptides have anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects by promoting anabolic processes and inhibiting catabolic processes in intervertebral disk degeneration. These peptides may be feasible for clinical applications in NP tissue engineering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J

  15. Purification of a peptide from seahorse, that inhibits TPA-induced MMP, iNOS and COX-2 expression through MAPK and NF-kappaB activation, and induces human osteoblastic and chondrocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ryu, BoMi; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-03-30

    Ongoing efforts to search for naturally occurring, bioactive substances for the amelioration of arthritis have led to the discovery of natural products with substantial bioactive properties. The seahorse (Hippocampus kuda Bleeler), a telelost fish, is one source of known beneficial products, yet has not been utilized for arthritis research. In the present work, we have purified and characterized a bioactive peptide from seahorse hydrolysis. Among the hydrolysates tested, pronase E-derived hydrolysate exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a phenotype marker of osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation. After its separation from the hydrolysate by several purification steps, the peptide responsible for the ALP activity was isolated and its sequence was identified as LEDPFDKDDWDNWK (1821Da). We have shown that the isolated peptide induces differentiation of osteoblastic MG-63 and chondrocytic SW-1353 cells by measuring ALP activity, mineralization and collagen synthesis. Our results indicate that the peptide acts during early to late stages of differentiation in MG-63 and SW-1353 cells. We also assessed the concentration dependence of the peptide's inhibition of MMP (-1, -3 and -13), iNOS and COX-2 expression after treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a common form of phorbol ester. The peptide also inhibited NO production in MG-63 and SW-1353 cells. To elucidate the mechanisms by which the peptide acted, we examined its effects on TPA-induced MAPKs/NF-kappaB activation and determined that the peptide treatment significantly reduced p38 kinase/NF-kappaB in MG-63 cells and MAPKs/NF-kappaB in SW-1353 cells.

  16. Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor Peptide Protects Murine Hepatocytes from Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Shou-Chuan; Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chen, Show-Li; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Fibrogenesis is induced by repeated injury to the liver and reactive regeneration and leads eventually to liver cirrhosis. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) has been shown to prevent liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). A 44 amino acid domain of PEDF (44-mer) was found to have a protective effect against various insults to several cell types. In this study, we investigated the capability of synthetic 44-mer to protect against liver injury in mice and in primary cultured hepatocytes. Acute liver injury, induced by CCl4, was evident from histological changes, such as cell necrosis, inflammation and apoptosis, and a concomitant reduction of glutathione (GSH) and GSH redox enzyme activities in the liver. Intraperitoneal injection of the 44-mer into CCl4-treated mice abolished the induction of AST and ALT and markedly reduced histological signs of liver injury. The 44-mer treatment can reduce hepatic oxidative stress as evident from lower levels of lipid hydroperoxide, and higher levels of GSH. CCl4 caused a reduction of Bcl-xL, PEDF and PPARγ, which was markedly restored by the 44-mer treatment. Consequently, the 44-mer suppressed liver fibrosis induced by repeated CCl4 injury. Furthermore, our observations in primary culture of rat hepatocytes showed that PEDF and the 44-mer protected primary rat hepatocytes against apoptosis induced by serum deprivation and TGF-β1. PEDF/44-mer induced cell protective STAT3 phosphorylation. Pharmacological STAT3 inhibition prevented the antiapoptotic action of PEDF/44-mer. Among several PEDF receptor candidates that may be responsible for hepatocyte protection, we demonstrated that PNPLA2 was essential for PEDF/44-mer-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation and antiapoptotic activity by using siRNA to selectively knockdown PNPLA2. In conclusion, the PEDF 44-mer protects hepatocytes from single and repeated CCl4 injury. This protective effect may stem from strengthening the counter oxidative stress capacity and

  17. Cardiac natriuretic peptides in plasma increase after dietary induced weight loss in obesity.

    PubMed

    Kistorp, Caroline; Bliddal, Henning; Goetze, Jens P; Christensen, Robin; Faber, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac natriuretic peptides are established biomarkers in heart disease, but are also affected by body mass index (BMI). The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of weight loss and changes in body composition following dietary intervention on plasma concentrations of the prohormones to A- and B-type natriuretic peptides (proANP and proBNP) and adrenomedullin (proADM). A total of 52 healthy obese subjects, 47 women and 5 men (BMI 36.5 ± 5.6 kg/m(2)) were randomised to either an intensive weight reduction programme using a combination of very low calorie diet (810 kcal/day) and conventional hypo-energetic diet (1200 kcal/day) for 52 weeks, or to a control group that was offered diet-related counselling. N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), mid-regional proANP (MR-proANP) and proADM (MR-proADM) and body composition using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning were determined at baseline and after 52 weeks. Comparisons between groups were analysed using t-tests. Changes from the baseline within the groups were analysed with paired tests. Changes in the variables, delta (∆), were calculated as 52 weeks minus the baseline. In the intervention group, BMI decreased by almost 20% (31.6 ± 6.2 vs. 37.1 ± 6.1 kg/m(2); P <0.001) with a loss of body fat of 23.5 ± 15.5% (P < 0.001). Plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP and MR-proANP increased (from 55 ± 31 to 97 ± 55 pg/ml; P < 0.001, and from 59 ± 21 to 74 ± 26 pmol/L; P < 0.001), whereas MR-proADM decreased (from 573 ± 153 to 534 ± 173 pmol/L; P <0.001). Changes (Δ) in MR-proANP correlated with Δfat mass (r = -0.359; P = 0.011) and Δglucose (r = -0.495; P <0.001), while increases in NT-proBNP were primarily associated with reduced plasma glucose (r = -0.462; P <0.001). A modest but significant weight loss of 6% (P < 0.001) was found in the control group with no changes in plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP or MR-proANP, and a minor change in MR-proADM. Plasma NT-proBNP and MR

  18. Release of atrial natriuretic peptide from rat myocardium in vitro: effect of minoxidil-induced hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, P.; Taskinen, T.; Leppäluoto, J.; Ruskoaho, H.

    1990-01-01

    1. Ventricular hypertrophy is characterized by stimulation of ventricular synthesis of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). To examine the role of ventricular ANP levels in the secretion of ANP into the circulation, atrial and ventricular levels of immunoreactive-ANP (IR-ANP) as well as ANP messenger RNA (mRNA), and the release of IR-ANP from isolated perfused hearts, both before and after atrialectomy, were measured simultaneously in control and minoxidil-treated Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. 2. IR-ANP levels in the ventricles of untreated, 12 month-old SHR with severe ventricular hypertrophy were increased when compared to age-matched WKY rats. Minoxidil treatment for 8 weeks in both strains resulted in a decrease in mean arterial pressure and increases in ventricular weight to body weight ratios, plasma IR-ANP concentrations (in WKY from 133 +/- 20 to 281 +/- 34 pg ml-1, P less than 0.01; in SHR from 184 +/- 38 to 339 +/- 61 pg ml-1, P less than 0.05), and in ventricular IR-ANP contents (in WKY: 53%; in SHR: 41%). A highly significant correlation was found between ventricular IR-ANP content and ventricular weight to body weight ratio (r = 0.59, P less than 0.001, n = 26). 3. When studied in vitro, in isolated perfused heart preparations, the hypertrophied ventricular tissue after atrialectomy secreted more ANP into the perfusate than ventricles of the control hearts; ventricles contributed 28%, 22%, 18% and 15% of the total ANP release to perfusate in the minoxidil-treated SHR, control SHR, minoxidil-treated WKY and control WKY, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2141796

  19. Antimicrobial Peptides and Complement in Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia Induced Brain Damage

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Hristova, Mariya

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a clinical condition in the neonate, resulting from oxygen deprivation around the time of birth. HIE affects 1–5/1000 live births worldwide and is associated with the development of neurological deficits, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and cognitive disabilities. Even though the brain is considered as an immune-privileged site, it has innate and adaptive immune response and can produce complement (C) components and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Dysregulation of cerebral expression of AMPs and C can exacerbate or ameliorate the inflammatory response within the brain. Brain ischemia triggers a prolonged inflammatory response affecting the progression of injury and secondary energy failure and involves both innate and adaptive immune systems, including immune-competent and non-competent cells. Following injury to the central nervous system (CNS), including neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI), resident microglia, and astroglia are the main cells providing immune defense to the brain in a stimulus-dependent manner. They can express and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and therefore trigger prolonged inflammation, resulting in neurodegeneration. Microglial cells express and release a wide range of inflammation-associated molecules including several components of the complement system. Complement activation following neonatal HI injury has been reported to contribute to neurodegeneration. Astrocytes can significantly affect the immune response of the CNS under pathological conditions through production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and immunomodulatory AMPs. Astrocytes express β-defensins, which can chemoattract and promote maturation of dendritic cells (DC), and can also limit inflammation by controlling the viability of these same DC. This review will focus on the balance of complement components and AMPs within the CNS following neonatal HI injury and the effect of that balance on the subsequent brain damage

  20. Interactive effect of body posture on exercise-induced atrial natriuretic peptide release.

    PubMed

    Ray, C A; Delp, M D; Hartle, D K

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that supine exercise elicits a greater atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) response than upright exercise because of higher atrial filling pressure attained in the supine posture. Plasma ANP concentration ([ANP]) was measured during continuous graded supine and upright exercise in eight healthy men at rest after 4 min of cycling exercise at 31, 51, and 79% of posture-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), after 2 min of cycling at posture-specific VO2 peak, and 5 and 15 min postexercise. [ANP] was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) above rest by 64, 140, and 228% during supine cycling at 51 and 79% and VO2 peak, respectively. During upright cycling, [ANP] was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) at 79% (60%) and VO2 peak (125%). After 15 min of postexercise rest, [ANP] remained elevated (P less than 0.05) only in the supine subjects. [ANP] was 63, 79, and 75% higher (P less than 0.05) in the supine than in the upright position during cycling at 51 and 79% and VO2 peak. Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures were not significantly (P greater than 0.05) different between positions in all measurement periods. Heart rates were lower (P less than 0.05) in the supine position compared with the upright position. In conclusion, these results suggest that supine exercise elicits greater ANP release independent of blood pressure and heart rate but presumably caused by greater venous return, central blood volume, and concomitant atrial filling pressure and stretch.

  1. Inhibition of choline acetyltransferase as a mechanism for cholinergic dysfunction induced by amyloid-β peptide oligomers.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Tavares, Nilson; Santos, Luís Eduardo; Stutz, Bernardo; Brito-Moreira, Jordano; Klein, William L; Ferreira, Sérgio T; de Mello, Fernando G

    2012-06-01

    Dysregulated cholinergic signaling is an early hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD), usually ascribed to degeneration of cholinergic neurons induced by the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). It is now generally accepted that neuronal dysfunction and memory deficits in the early stages of AD are caused by the neuronal impact of soluble Aβ oligomers (AβOs). AβOs build up in AD brain and specifically attach to excitatory synapses, leading to synapse dysfunction. Here, we have investigated the possibility that AβOs could impact cholinergic signaling. The activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the enzyme that carries out ACh production) was inhibited by ~50% in cultured cholinergic neurons exposed to low nanomolar concentrations of AβOs. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction, lactate dehydrogenase release, and [(3)H]choline uptake assays showed no evidence of neuronal damage or loss of viability that could account for reduced ChAT activity under these conditions. Glutamate receptor antagonists fully blocked ChAT inhibition and oxidative stress induced by AβOs. Antioxidant polyunsaturated fatty acids had similar effects, indicating that oxidative damage may be involved in ChAT inhibition. Treatment with insulin, previously shown to down-regulate neuronal AβO binding sites, fully prevented AβO-induced inhibition of ChAT. Interestingly, we found that AβOs selectively bind to ~50% of cultured cholinergic neurons, suggesting that ChAT is fully inhibited in AβO-targeted neurons. Reduction in ChAT activity instigated by AβOs may thus be a relevant event in early stage AD pathology, preceding the loss of cholinergic neurons commonly observed in AD brains.

  2. Mechanisms underlying metformin-induced secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 from the intestinal L cell.

    PubMed

    Mulherin, Andrew J; Oh, Amy H; Kim, Helena; Grieco, Anthony; Lauffer, Lina M; Brubaker, Patricia L

    2011-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36NH2) (GLP-1) is secreted by the intestinal L cell in response to both nutrient and neural stimulation, resulting in enhanced glucose-dependent insulin secretion. GLP-1 is therefore an attractive therapeutic for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The antidiabetic drug, metformin, is known to increase circulating GLP-1 levels, although its mechanism of action is unknown. Direct effects of metformin (5-2000 μm) or another AMP kinase activator, aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (100-1000 μm) on GLP-1 secretion were assessed in murine human NCI-H716, and rat FRIC L cells. Neither agent stimulated GLP-1 secretion in any model, despite increasing AMP kinase phosphorylation (P < 0.05-0.01). Treatment of rats with metformin (300 mg/kg, per os) or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (250 mg/kg, sc) increased plasma total GLP-1 over 2 h, reaching 37 ± 9 and 29 ± 9 pg/ml (P < 0.001), respectively, compared with basal (7 ± 1 pg/ml). Plasma activity of the GLP-1-degrading enzyme, dipeptidylpeptidase-IV, was not affected by metformin treatment. Pretreatment with the nonspecific muscarinic antagonist, atropine (1 mg/kg, iv), decreased metformin-induced GLP-1 secretion by 55 ± 11% (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with the muscarinic (M) 3 receptor antagonist, 1-1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide (500 μg/kg, iv), also decreased the GLP-1 area under curve, by 48 ± 8% (P < 0.05), whereas the antagonists pirenzepine (M1) and gallamine (M2) had no effect. Furthermore, chronic bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy decreased basal secretion compared with sham-operated animals (7 ± 1 vs. 13 ± 1 pg/ml, P < 0.001) but did not alter the GLP-1 response to metformin. In contrast, pretreatment with the gastrin-releasing peptide antagonist, RC-3095 (100 μg/kg, sc), reduced the GLP-1 response to metformin, by 55 ± 6% (P < 0.01) at 30 min. These studies elucidate the mechanism underlying metformin-induced GLP-1 secretion and highlight the

  3. Identification of sixteen peptides reflecting heat and/or storage induced processes by profiling of commercial milk samples.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Jennifer; Baum, Florian; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-09-16

    Peptide profiles of different drinking milk samples were examined to study how the peptide fingerprint of milk reflects processing conditions. The combination of a simple and fast method for peptide extraction using stage tips and MALDI-TOF-MS enabled the fast and easy generation and relative quantification of peptide fingerprints for high-temperature short-time (HTST), extended shelf life (ESL) and ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk of the same dairies. The relative quantity of 16 peptides changed as a function of increasing heat load. Additional heating experiments showed that among those, the intensity of peptide β-casein 196-209 (m/z 1460.9Da) was most heavily influenced by heat treatment indicating a putative marker peptide for milk processing conditions. Storage experiments with HTST- and UHT milk revealed that the differences between different types of milk samples were not only caused by the heating process. Relevant was also the proteolytic activity of enzymes during storage, which were differently influenced by the heat treatment. These results indicate that the peptide profile may be suitable to monitor processing as well as storage conditions of milk. In the present study, peptide profiling of different types of milk was carried out by MALDI-TOF-MS after stage-tip extraction and relative quantification using an internal reference peptide. Although MALDI-TOF-MS covers only part of the peptidome, the method is easy and quick and is, therefore, suited for routine analysis to address several aspects of food authenticity. Using this method, 16 native peptides were detected in milk that could be modulated by different industrial processes. Subsequent heating and storage experiments with pasteurized and UHT milk confirmed that these peptides are indeed related to the production or storage conditions of the respective products. Furthermore, the heating experiments revealed one peptide, namely the β-casein-derived sequence β-casein 196-209, which underwent

  4. An ecdysteroid-inducible insulin-like growth factor-like peptide regulates adult development of the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Naoki; Yamanaka, Naoki; Satake, Honoo; Saegusa, Hironao; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2009-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play essential roles in fetal and postnatal growth and development of mammals. They are secreted by a wide variety of tissues, with the liver being the major source of circulating IGFs, and regulate cell growth, differentiation and survival. IGFs share some biological activities with insulin but are secreted in distinct physiological and developmental contexts, having specific functions. Although recent analyses of invertebrate genomes have revealed the presence of multiple insulin family peptide genes in each genome, little is known about functional diversification of the gene products. Here we show that a novel insulin family peptide of the silkmoth Bombyx mori, which was purified and sequenced from the hemolymph, is more like IGFs than like insulin, in contrast to bombyxins, which are previously identified insulin-like peptides in B. mori. Expression analysis reveals that this IGF-like peptide is predominantly produced by the fat body, a functional equivalent of the vertebrate liver and adipocytes, and is massively released during pupa-adult development. Studies using in vitro tissue culture systems show that secretion of the peptide is stimulated by ecdysteroid and that the secreted peptide promotes the growth of adult-specific tissues. These observations suggest that this peptide is a Bombyx counterpart of vertebrate IGFs and that functionally IGF-like peptides may be more ubiquitous in the animal kingdom than previously thought. Our results also suggest that the known effects of ecdysteroid on insect adult development may be in part mediated by IGF-like peptides.

  5. Fundamental study of hydrogen-attachment-induced peptide fragmentation occurring in the gas phase and during the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization process.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Daiki; Takahashi, Hidenori; Iwamoto, Shinichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2018-05-09

    Mass spectrometry with hydrogen-radical-mediated fragmentation techniques has been used for the sequencing of proteins/peptides. The two methods, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in-source decay (MALDI-ISD) and hydrogen attachment/abstraction dissociation (HAD) are known as hydrogen-radical-mediated fragmentation techniques. MALDI-ISD occurs during laser induced desorption processes, whereas HAD utilizes the association of hydrogen with peptide ions in the gas phase. In this study, the general mechanisms of MALDI-ISD and HAD of peptides were investigated. We demonstrated the fragmentation of four model peptides and investigated the fragment formation pathways using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The current experimental and computational joint study indicated that MALDI-ISD and HAD produce aminoketyl radical intermediates, which immediately undergo radical-induced cleavage at the N-Cα bond located on the C-terminal side of the radical site, leading to the c'/z˙ fragment pair. In the case of MALDI-ISD, the z˙ fragments undergo a subsequent reaction with the matrix to give z' and matrix adducts of the z fragments. In contrast, the c' and z˙ fragments react with hydrogen atoms during the HAD processes, and various fragment species, such as c˙, c', z˙ and z', were observed in the HAD-MS/MS mass spectra.

  6. Early modulation by the dopamine D4 receptor of morphine-induced changes in the opioid peptide systems in the rat caudate putamen.

    PubMed

    Gago, Belén; Fuxe, Kjell; Brené, Stefan; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Reina-Sánchez, María Dolores; Suárez-Boomgaard, Diana; Roales-Buján, Ruth; Valderrama-Carvajal, Alejandra; de la Calle, Adelaida; Rivera, Alicia

    2013-12-01

    The peptides dynorphin and enkephalin modulate many physiological processes, such as motor activity and the control of mood and motivation. Their expression in the caudate putamen (CPu) is regulated by dopamine and opioid receptors. The current work was designed to explore the early effects of the acute activation of D4 and/or μ opioid receptors by the agonists PD168,077 and morphine, respectively, on the regulation of the expression of these opioid peptides in the rat CPu, on transcription factors linked to them, and on the expression of μ opioid receptors. In situ hybridization experiments showed that acute treatment with morphine (10 mg/kg) decreased both enkephalin and dynorphin mRNA levels in the CPu after 30 min, but PD168,077 (1 mg/kg) did not modify their expression. Coadministration of the two agonists demonstrated that PD168,077 counteracted the morphine-induced changes and even increased enkephalin mRNA levels. The immunohistochemistry studies showed that morphine administration also increased striatal μ opioid receptor immunoreactivity but reduced P-CREB expression, effects that were blocked by the PD168,077-induced activation of D4 receptors. The current results present evidence of functional D4 -μ opioid receptor interactions, with consequences for the opioid peptide mRNA levels in the rat CPu, contributing to the integration of DA and opioid peptide signaling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The detailed analysis of the changes of murine dendritic cells (DCs) induced by thymic peptide

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaofang; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Lu; Wan, Nan; Wang, Bing; Li, Weiwei; Hua, Hui; Hu, Xu; Shan, Fengping

    2012-01-01

    The aim of present research is to analyze the detailed changes of dendritic cells (DCs) induced by pidotimod(PTD). These impacts on DCs of both bone marrow derived DCs and established DC2.4 cell line were assessed with use of conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), flow cytometry (FCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytochemistry assay FITC-dextran, bio-assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We demonstrated the ability of PTD to induce DC phynotypic and functional maturation as evidenced by higher expression of key surface molecules such as MHC II, CD80 and CD86. The functional tests proved the downregulation of ACP inside the DCs, occurred when phagocytosis of DCs decreased, with simultaneously antigen presentation increased toward maturation. Finally, PTD also stimulated production of more cytokine IL-12 and less TNF-α. Therefore it is concluded that PTD can markedly exert positive induction to murine DCs. PMID:22863756

  8. Estrogen receptors regulate the estrous behavior induced by progestins, peptides, and prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Lima-Hernández, F J; Gómora-Arrati, P; García-Juárez, M; Blaustein, J D; Etgen, A M; Beyer, C; González-Flores, O

    2014-07-01

    The role of classical estrogen receptors (ERs) in priming female reproductive behavior has been studied previously; however, the participation of this receptor during activation of estrous behavior has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this work was to test the possibility that the facilitation of lordosis behavior in estrogen-primed rats by progesterone (P) and its 5α- and 5β-reduced metabolites, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), leptin, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and vagino-cervical stimulation (VCS) involves interactions with classical ERs by using the selective ER modulator, tamoxifen. To further assess the role of ERs, we also explored the effects of the pure ER antagonist, ICI182780 (ICI), on estrous behavior induced by P and GnRH. Ovariectomized, estrogen-primed rats (5μg estradiol benzoate 40h earlier) were injected intraventricularly with the above-mentioned compounds, or they received VCS. All compounds and VCS effectively facilitated estrous behavior when tested at 60, 120 or 240min after infusion or application of VCS. Intraventricular infusion of tamoxifen (5μg), 30min before, significantly attenuated estrous behaviors induced in estradiol-primed rats by P, most of its 5α- and 5β-reduced metabolites, GnRH, and PGE2, but not by VCS. Although there was a trend for reduction, tamoxifen did not significantly decrease lordosis in females treated with 5β-pregnan-3,20-dione. ICI also inhibited lordosis behavior induced by P and GnRH at some testing intervals. These results suggest that activation of classical ERs participates in the triggering effects on estrous behavior induced by agents with different chemical structures that do not bind directly to ERs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A bradykinin-potentiating peptide (BPP-10c) from Bothrops jararaca induces changes in seminiferous tubules.

    PubMed

    Gilio, Joyce M; Portaro, Fernanda Cv; Borella, Maria I; Lameu, Claudiana; Camargo, Antonio Cm; Alberto-Silva, Carlos

    2013-11-06

    The testis-specific isoform of angiotensin-converting enzyme (tACE) is exclusively expressed in germ cells during spermatogenesis. Although the exact role of tACE in male fertility is unknown, it clearly plays a critical function in spermatogenesis. The dipeptidase domain of tACE is identical to the C-terminal catalytic domain of somatic ACE (sACE). Bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPPs) from snake venoms are the first natural sACE inhibitors described and their structure-activity relationship studies were the basis for the development of antihypertensive drugs such as captopril. In recent years, it has been showed that a number of BPPs - including BPP-10c - are able to distinguish between the N- and C-active sites of sACE, what is not applicable to captopril. Considering the similarity between tACE and sACE (and since BPPs are able to distinguish between the two active sites of sACE), the effects of the BPP-10c and captopril on the structure and function of the seminiferous epithelium were characterized in the present study. BPP-10c and captopril were administered in male Swiss mice by intraperitoneal injection (4.7 μmol/kg for 15 days) and histological sections of testes were analyzed. Classification of seminiferous tubules and stage analysis were carried out for quantitative evaluation of germ cells of the seminiferous epithelium. The blood-testis barrier (BTB) permeability and distribution of claudin-1 in the seminiferous epithelium were analyzed by hypertonic fixative method and immunohistochemical analyses of testes, respectively. The morphology of seminiferous tubules from animals treated with BPP-10c showed an intense disruption of the epithelium, presence of atypical multinucleated cells in the lumen and degenerated germ cells in the adluminal compartment. BPP-10c led to an increase in the number of round spermatids and total support capacity of Sertoli cell in stages I, V, VII/VIII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, without affecting BTB permeability

  10. A bradykinin-potentiating peptide (BPP-10c) from Bothrops jararaca induces changes in seminiferous tubules

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The testis-specific isoform of angiotensin-converting enzyme (tACE) is exclusively expressed in germ cells during spermatogenesis. Although the exact role of tACE in male fertility is unknown, it clearly plays a critical function in spermatogenesis. The dipeptidase domain of tACE is identical to the C-terminal catalytic domain of somatic ACE (sACE). Bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPPs) from snake venoms are the first natural sACE inhibitors described and their structure–activity relationship studies were the basis for the development of antihypertensive drugs such as captopril. In recent years, it has been showed that a number of BPPs – including BPP-10c – are able to distinguish between the N- and C-active sites of sACE, what is not applicable to captopril. Considering the similarity between tACE and sACE (and since BPPs are able to distinguish between the two active sites of sACE), the effects of the BPP-10c and captopril on the structure and function of the seminiferous epithelium were characterized in the present study. BPP-10c and captopril were administered in male Swiss mice by intraperitoneal injection (4.7 μmol/kg for 15 days) and histological sections of testes were analyzed. Classification of seminiferous tubules and stage analysis were carried out for quantitative evaluation of germ cells of the seminiferous epithelium. The blood-testis barrier (BTB) permeability and distribution of claudin-1 in the seminiferous epithelium were analyzed by hypertonic fixative method and immunohistochemical analyses of testes, respectively. Results The morphology of seminiferous tubules from animals treated with BPP-10c showed an intense disruption of the epithelium, presence of atypical multinucleated cells in the lumen and degenerated germ cells in the adluminal compartment. BPP-10c led to an increase in the number of round spermatids and total support capacity of Sertoli cell in stages I, V, VII/VIII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, without

  11. Involvement of TRPV1 in the expression and release of calcitonin gene-related peptide induced by rutaecarpine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongmei; Chen, Qingquan; Jia, Sujie; He, Limei; Wang, Aiping; Li, Dai; Li, Yuanjian; Li, Xiaohui

    2018-04-01

    The traditional Chinese herb Wu-Chu-Yu has been used to treat hypertension for hundreds of years. A previous study indicated that rutaecarpine was the effective component of Wu‑Chu‑Yu, which lowered blood pressure by elevating the expression level of calcitonin gene‑related peptide (CGRP). The present study was performed to investigate the role of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in CGRP expression and release induced by rutaecarpine. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) obtained from Sprague‑Dawley rats were cultured to analyze the mRNA expression and release of CGRP. Calcium influx, as an indicator of TRPV1 activation, was measured in 293 cells with stable overexpression of TRPV1. The results demonstrated that the amount of CGRP in the cell culture supernatant and the mRNA expression of CGRPα and CGRPβ in DRG was upregulated by rutaecarpine in a concentration‑dependent manner, and was inhibited by the TRPV1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. In addition, intracellular Ca2+ levels were increased by Rut in the aforementioned 293 cell line, indicating the activation of TRPV1 by Rut. Therefore, it was concluded that TRPV1 was involved in the expression and release of CGRP stimulated by rutaecarpine, which provided novel mechanistic understanding of the treatment of hypertension using the Chinese herb Wu-Chu-Yu.

  12. Degradation and aggregation of delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) and two analogs in plasma and serum

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, M.V.; Saegesser, B.; Schoenenberger, G.A.

    1987-07-01

    The biostability of DSIP (delta sleep-inducing peptide) and two analogs in blood was investigated in order to determine if rates of inactivation contribute to variable effects in vivo. Incubation of DSIP in human or rat blood led to release of products having retention times on a gel filtration column equivalent to Trp. Formation of products was dependent on temperature, time, and species. Incubation of /sup 125/I-N-Tyr-DSIP and /sup 125/I-N-Tyr-P-DSIP, a phosphorylated analog, revealed slower degradation and, in contrast to DSIP, produced complex formation. An excess of unlabeled material did not displace the radioactivity supporting the assumption of non-specific binding/aggregation. Itmore » was concluded that the rapid disappearance of injected DSIP in blood was due to degradation, whereas complex formation together with slower degradation resulted in longer persistence of apparently intact analogs. Whether this could explain the sometimes stronger and more consistent effects of DSIP-analogs remains to be examined.« less

  13. Interplay of histidine residues of the Alzheimer’s disease Aβ peptide governs its Zn-induced oligomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istrate, Andrey N.; Kozin, Sergey A.; Zhokhov, Sergey S.; Mantsyzov, Alexey B.; Kechko, Olga I.; Pastore, Annalisa; Makarov, Alexander A.; Polshakov, Vladimir I.

    2016-02-01

    Conformational changes of Aβ peptide result in its transformation from native monomeric state to the toxic soluble dimers, oligomers and insoluble aggregates that are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Interactions of zinc ions with Aβ are mediated by the N-terminal Aβ1-16 domain and appear to play a key role in AD progression. There is a range of results indicating that these interactions trigger the Aβ plaque formation. We have determined structure and functional characteristics of the metal binding domains derived from several Aβ variants and found that their zinc-induced oligomerization is governed by conformational changes in the minimal zinc binding site 6HDSGYEVHH14. The residue H6 and segment 11EVHH14, which are part of this site are crucial for formation of the two zinc-mediated interaction interfaces in Aβ. These structural determinants can be considered as promising targets for rational design of the AD-modifying drugs aimed at blocking pathological Aβ aggregation.

  14. Structural studies of the natriuretic peptide receptor: a novel hormone-induced rotation mechanism for transmembrane signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Misono, Kunio S; Ogawa, Haruo; Qiu, Yue; Ogata, Craig M

    2005-06-01

    The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptor is a single-span transmembrane receptor that is coupled to its intrinsic intracellular guanylate cyclase (GCase) catalytic activity. To investigate the mechanisms of hormone binding and signal transduction, we have expressed the extracellular hormone-binding domain of the ANP receptor (ANPR) and characterized its structure and function. The disulfide-bond structure, state of glycosylation, binding-site residues, chloride-dependence of ANP binding, dimerization, and binding stoichiometry have been determined. More recently, the crystal structures of both the apoANPR dimer and ANP-bound complex have been determined. The structural comparison between the two has shown that, upon ANP binding, two ANPR molecules in the dimer undergo an inter-molecular twist with little intra-molecular conformational change. This motion produces a Ferris wheel-like translocation of two juxtamembrane domains with essentially no change in the inter-domain distance. This movement alters the relative orientation of the two domains equivalent to counter-clockwise rotation of each by 24 degrees . These results suggest that transmembrane signaling by the ANP receptor is mediated by a novel hormone-induced rotation mechanism.

  15. Grape-seed procyanidins prevent the cafeteria-diet-induced decrease of glucagon-like peptide-1 production.

    PubMed

    González-Abuín, Noemi; Martínez-Micaelo, Neus; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2014-02-05

    Grape-seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to improve insulin resistance in cafeteria rats. Because glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is involved in glucose homeostasis, the preventive effects of GSPE on GLP-1 production, secretion, and elimination were evaluated in a model of diet-induced insulin resistance. Rats were fed a cafeteria diet for 12 weeks, and 25 mg of GSPE/kg of body weight was administered concomitantly. Vehicle-treated cafeteria-fed rats and chow-fed rats were used as controls. The cafeteria diet decreased active GLP-1 plasma levels, which is attributed to a decreased intestinal GLP-1 production, linked to reduced colonic enteroendocrine cell populations. Such effects were prevented by GSPE. In the same context, GSPE avoided the decrease on intestinal dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) activity and modulated the gene expression of GLP-1 and its receptor in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, the preventive treatment with GSPE abrogates the effects of the cafeteria diet on intestinal GLP-1 production and DPP4 activity.

  16. Phosphorylation of TNF-alpha converting enzyme by gastrin-releasing peptide induces amphiregulin release and EGF receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Thomas, Sufi M; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan; Xi, Sichuan; Siegfried, Jill M; Fan, Huizhou; Smithgall, Thomas E; Mills, Gordon B; Grandis, Jennifer Rubin

    2006-05-02

    G protein-coupled receptors induce EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling, leading to the proliferation and invasion of cancer cells. Elucidation of the mechanism of EGFR activation by G protein-coupled receptors may identify new signaling paradigms. A gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)/GRP receptor-mediated autocrine pathway was previously described in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. In the present study, we demonstrate that TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE), a disintegrin and metalloproteinse-17, undergoes a Src-dependent phosphorylation that regulates release of the EGFR ligand amphiregulin upon GRP treatment. Further investigation reveals the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) as the intermediate of c-Src and TACE, contributing to their association and TACE phosphorylation. Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), a downstream target of PI3-K, has been identified as the previously undescribed kinase to directly phosphorylate TACE upon GRP treatment. These findings suggest a signaling cascade of GRP-Src-PI3-K-PDK1-TACE-amphiregulin-EGFR with multiple points of interaction, translocation, and phosphorylation. Furthermore, knockdown of PDK1 augmented the antitumor effects of the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib, indicating PDK1 as a therapeutic target to improve the clinical response to EGFR inhibitors.

  17. Central administration of the anorexigenic peptide neuromedin U decreases alcohol intake and attenuates alcohol-induced reward in rodents.

    PubMed

    Vallöf, Daniel; Ulenius, Lisa; Egecioglu, Emil; Engel, Jörgen A; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2017-05-01

    By investigating the neurochemical mechanisms through which alcohol activates the brain reward systems, novel treatment strategies for alcohol use disorder (AUD), a chronic relapsing disease, can be developed. In contrast to the common view of the function of gut-brain peptides, such as neuromedin U (NMU), to regulate food intake and appetite, a novel role in reinforcement mediation has been implied. The anorexigenic effects of NMU are mediated via NMU2 receptors, preferably in the arcuate nucleus and paraventricular nucleus. The expression of NMU2 receptors is also expressed in several reward-related areas in the brain, suggesting a role in reward regulation. The present experiments were therefore set up to investigate the effect of intracerebroventricular administration of NMU on alcohol-mediated behaviors in rodents. We found that central administration of NMU attenuated alcohol-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release and the expression of conditioned place preference in mice. In addition, NMU dose dependently decreased alcohol intake in high, but not in low, alcohol-consuming rats. Central NMU administration did not alter the blood alcohol concentrations nor change the corticosterone levels in rodents. Given that AUD is a major health-care challenge causing an enormous cost to society and novel treatment strategies are warranted, our data suggest that NMU analogues deserve to be evaluated as novel treatment of AUD in humans. © 2016 The Authors Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Egg white-derived peptides prevent male reproductive dysfunction induced by mercury in rats.

    PubMed

    Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Martinez, Caroline Silveira; Escobar, Alyne Goulart; da Silva, Taiz Martins; Uranga-Ocio, José Antonio; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Castro, Marta Miguel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress in known to contribute to the male reproductive dysfunction induced by mercury (Hg). Our study tested the hypothesis that the egg white hydrolysate (EWH), a potent antioxidant in vitro, is able to prevent the effects of prolonged Hg exposure on male reproductive system in rats. For this, rats were treated for 60 days with: a) Untreated - saline solution (i.m.); b) Hydrolysate - EWH (1 g/kg/day, gavage); c) Mercury - HgCl 2 (1st dose 4.6 μg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07 μg/kg/day, i.m.); d) Hydrolysate-Mercury. At the end of the treatment, sperm motility, count and morphological studies were performed; Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity, histological and immunohistochemical assays on testis and epididymis were also carried out. As results, HgCl 2 -treatment decreased sperm number, increased sperm transit time in epididymis and impaired sperm morphology. However, these harmful effects were prevented by EWH. HgCl 2 -treatment also increased ROS levels, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in testis and epididymis as well as promoted testicular inflammation and histological changes in epididymis. EWH improved histological and immunohistochemical alterations, probably due to its antioxidant property. In conclusion, the EWH could represent a powerful natural alternative to protect the male reproductive system against Hg-induced sperm toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Antifungal Plant Defensin HsAFP1 Is a Phosphatidic Acid-Interacting Peptide Inducing Membrane Permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Tanne L.; Vriens, Kim; Struyfs, Caroline; Verbandt, Sara; Ramada, Marcelo H. S.; Brand, Guilherme D.; Bloch, Carlos; Koch, Barbara; Traven, Ana; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Demuyser, Liesbeth; Kucharíková, Soňa; Van Dijck, Patrick; Spasic, Dragana; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; Thevissen, Karin

    2017-01-01

    HsAFP1, a plant defensin isolated from coral bells (Heuchera sanguinea), is characterized by broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Previous studies indicated that HsAFP1 binds to specific fungal membrane components, which had hitherto not been identified, and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell membrane permeabilization. In this study, we show that HsAFP1 reversibly interacts with the membrane phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA), which is a precursor for the biosynthesis of other phospholipids, and to a lesser extent with various phosphatidyl inositol phosphates (PtdInsP’s). Moreover, via reverse ELISA assays we identified two basic amino acids in HsAFP1, namely histidine at position 32 and arginine at position 52, as well as the phosphate group in PA as important features enabling this interaction. Using a HsAFP1 variant, lacking both amino acids (HsAFP1[H32A][R52A]), we showed that, as compared to the native peptide, the ability of this variant to bind to PA and PtdInsP’s is reduced (≥74%) and the antifungal activity of the variant is reduced (≥2-fold), highlighting the link between PA/PtdInsP binding and antifungal activity. Using fluorescently labelled HsAFP1 in confocal microscopy and flow cytometry assays, we showed that HsAFP1 accumulates at the cell surface of yeast cells with intact membranes, most notably at the buds and septa. The resulting HsAFP1-induced membrane permeabilization is likely to occur after HsAFP1’s internalization. These data provide novel mechanistic insights in the mode of action of the HsAFP1 plant defensin. PMID:29209301

  20. Novel Regenerative Peptide TP508 Mitigates Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Damage By Activating Stem Cells and Preserving Crypt Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kantara, Carla; Moya, Stephanie M.; Houchen, Courtney W.; Umar, Shahid; Ullrich, Robert L.; Singh, Pomila; Carney, Darrell H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing threats of radiation exposure and nuclear disasters have become a significant concern for the United States and countries worldwide. Exposure to high doses of radiation triggers a number of potentially lethal effects. Among the most severe is the gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity syndrome caused by the destruction of the intestinal barrier, resulting in bacterial translocation, systemic bacteremia, sepsis and death. The lack of effective radioprotective agents capable of mitigating radiation-induced damage has prompted a search for novel countermeasures that can mitigate the effects of radiation post-exposure, accelerate tissue repair in radiation-exposed individuals, and prevent mortality. We report that a single injection of regenerative peptide TP508 (rusalatide acetate, Chrysalin®) 24h after lethal radiation exposure (9Gy, LD100/15) appears to significantly increase survival and delay mortality by mitigating radiation-induced intestinal and colonic toxicity. TP508 treatment post-exposure prevents the disintegration of gastrointestinal crypts, stimulates the expression of adherens junction protein E-cadherin, activates crypt cell proliferation, and decreases apoptosis. TP508 post-exposure treatment also up-regulates the expression of DCLK1 and LGR5 markers of stem cells that have been shown to be responsible for maintaining and regenerating intestinal crypts. Thus, TP508 appears to mitigate the effects of GI toxicity by activating radioresistant stem cells and increasing the stemness potential of crypts to maintain and restore intestinal integrity. These results suggest that TP508 may be an effective emergency nuclear countermeasure that could be delivered within 24h post-exposure to increase survival and delay mortality, giving victims time to reach clinical sites for advanced medical treatment. PMID:26280221

  1. Lipid Raft-dependent Glucagon-like Peptide-2 Receptor Trafficking Occurs Independently of Agonist-induced Desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Estall, Jennifer L.; Yusta, Bernardo; Drucker, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The intestinotrophic and cytoprotective actions of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) are mediated by the GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R), a member of the class II glucagon-secretin G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Although native GLP-2 exhibits a short circulating half-life, long-acting degradation-resistant GLP-2 analogues are being evaluated for therapeutic use in human subjects. Accordingly, we examined the mechanisms regulating signaling, internalization, and trafficking of the GLP-2R to identify determinants of receptor activation and desensitization. Heterologous cells expressing the transfected rat or human GLP-2R exhibited a rapid, dose-dependent, and prolonged desensitization of the GLP-2–stimulated cAMP response and a sustained GLP-2–induced decrease in levels of cell surface receptor. Surprisingly, inhibitors of clathrin-dependent endocytosis failed to significantly decrease GLP-2R internalization, whereas cholesterol sequestration inhibited ligand-induced receptor internalization and potentiated homologous desensitization. The hGLP-2R localized to both Triton X-100–soluble and –insoluble (lipid raft) cellular fractions and colocalized transiently with the lipid raft marker caveolin-1. Although GLP-2R endocytosis was dependent on lipid raft integrity, the receptor transiently associated with green fluorescent protein tagged-early endosome antigen 1–positive vesicles and inhibitors of endosomal acidification attenuated the reappearance of the GLP-2R on the cell surface. Our data demonstrate that GLP-2R desensitization and raft-dependent trafficking represent distinct and independent cellular mechanisms and provide new evidence implicating the importance of a clathrin- and dynamin-independent, lipid raft-dependent pathway for homologous G protein-coupled receptor internalization. PMID:15169869

  2. Hyperphagia induced by sucrose: relation to circulating and CSF glucose and corticosterone and orexigenic peptides in the arcuate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Gaysinskaya, V A; Karatayev, O; Shuluk, J; Leibowitz, S F

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose-rich diets compared to starch-rich diets are known to stimulate overeating under chronic conditions. The present study in normal-weight rats established an acute "preload-to-test meal" paradigm for demonstrating sucrose-induced hyperphagia and investigating possible mechanisms that mediate this behavioral phenomenon. In this acute paradigm, the rats were first given a small (15 kcal) sucrose preload (30% sucrose) for 30 min compared to an equicaloric, starch preload (25% starch with 5% sucrose) and then allowed to freely consume a subsequent test meal of lab chow. The sucrose preload, when compared to a starch preload equal in energy density and palatability, consistently increased food intake in the subsequent test meal occurring between 60 and 120 min after the end of the preload. Measurements of hormones, metabolites and hypothalamic peptides immediately preceding this hyperphagia revealed marked differences between the sucrose vs starch groups that could contribute to the increase in food intake. Whereas the sucrose group compared to the starch group immediately after the preload (at 10 min) had elevated levels of glucose in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) along with reduced expressions of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the subsequent effects (at 30-60 min) just preceding the test meal hyperphagia were the reverse. Along with lower levels of glucose, they included markedly elevated serum and CSF levels of corticosterone and mRNA levels of NPY and AgRP in the ARC. In addition to establishing an animal model for sucrose-induced hyperphagia, these results demonstrate peripheral and central mechanisms that may mediate this behavioral phenomenon. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. HYPERPHAGIA INDUCED BY SUCROSE: RELATION TO CIRCULATING AND CSF GLUCOSE AND CORTICOSTERONE AND OREXIGENIC PEPTIDES IN THE ARCUATE NUCLEUS

    PubMed Central

    Gaysinskaya, V. A.; Karatayev, O.; Shuluk, J.; Leibowitz, S. F.

    2010-01-01

    Sucrose-rich diets compared to starch-rich diets are known to stimulate overeating under chronic conditions. The present study in normal-weight rats established an acute “preload-to-test meal” paradigm for demonstrating sucrose-induced hyperphagia and investigating possible mechanisms that mediate this behavioral phenomenon. In this acute paradigm, the rats were first given a small (15 kcals) sucrose preload (30% sucrose) for 30 min compared to an equicaloric, starch preload (25% starch with 5% sucrose) and then allowed to freely consume a subsequent test meal of lab chow. The sucrose preload, when compared to a starch preload equal in energy density and palatability, consistently increased food intake in the subsequent test meal occurring between 60–120 min after the end of the preload. Measurements of hormones, metabolites and hypothalamic peptides immediately preceding this hyperphagia revealed marked differences between the sucrose vs starch groups that could contribute to the increase in food intake. Whereas the sucrose group compared to starch group immediately after the preload (at 10 min) had elevated levels of glucose in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) along with reduced expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the subsequent effects (at 30–60 min) just preceding the test meal hyperphagia were the reverse. Along with lower levels of glucose, they included markedly elevated serum and CSF levels of corticosterone and mRNA levels of NPY and AgRP in the ARC. In addition to establishing an animal model for sucrose-induced hyperphagia, these results demonstrate peripheral and central mechanisms that may mediate this behavioral phenomenon. PMID:21036188

  4. Protective effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide against LPS-Induced acute lung injury in dogs.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi; Cui, Yan; Ding, Mu-Zi; Jin, Hong-Xu; Gao, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common component of systemic inflammatory disease without more effective treatments. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) has anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we found that rhBNP could prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in a dog model. Dogs were injected with LPS and subjected to continuous intravenous infusion (CIV) of saline solution or rhBNP. We detected the protective effects of rhBNP by histological examination and determination of serum cytokine levels and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity. Histological examination indicated marked inflammation, edema and hemorrhage in lung tissue taken 12h after rhBNP treatment compared with tissue from dogs which received saline treatment after LPS injection. LPS injection induced cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) secretion and lung MPO and MDA activities, which were also attenuated by rhBNP treatment. Inductions of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly attenuated in the L-rhBNP and the H-rhBNP groups. The ratios of the L-rhBNP group and H-rhBNP group were lower than that in the lung injury group. Furthermore, MPO and MDA activities were significantly lower in the H-rhBNP group compared to those in the LI group. Our data indicate that rhBNP treatment may exert protective effects and may be associated with adjusting endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Thus, rhBNP may be considered as a therapeutic agent for various clinical conditions involving lung injury by sepsis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of synthetic derivatives of peptide hormones by capillary zone electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography with ultraviolet-absorption and laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Solínová, Veronika; Kasicka, Václav; Koval, Dusan; Barth, Tomislav; Ciencialová, Alice; Záková, Lenka

    2004-08-25

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) were used for the analysis of new synthetic derivatives of hypophysis neurohormones--vasopressin and oxytocin, and pancreatic hormone--human insulin (HI) and its octapeptide fragment, derivatized by fluorescent probe, 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo[1,2,5]oxadiazol (NBD). The suitable composition of background electrolytes (BGEs) was selected on the basis of calculated pH dependence of effective charge of analyzed peptides. Basic ionogenic peptides were analyzed by CZE in the acidic BGE composed of 100 mM H3PO4, 50 mM Tris, pH 2.25. The ionogenic peptides with fluorescent label, NBD, were analyzed in 0.5 M acetic acid, pH 2.5. The best MEKC separation of non-ionogenic peptides was achieved in alkaline BGE, 20 mM Tris, 5 mM H3PO4, with micellar pseudophase formed by 50 mM sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), pH 8.8. Selected characteristics (noise, detectability of substance, sensitivity of detector) of the UV-absorption detectors (single wavelength detector, multiple-wavelength photodiode array detector (PDA), both of them operating at constant wavelength 206 nm) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detector (excitation/emission wavelength 488/520 nm) were determined. The detectability of peptides in the single wavelength detector was 1.3-6.0 micromol dm(-3) and in the PDA detector 1.6-3.1 micromol dm(-3). The LIF detection was more sensitive, the applied concentration of NBD derivative of insulin fragment in CZE analysis with LIF detection was three orders lower than in CZE with UV-absorption detector, and the detectability of this peptide was improved to 15.8 nmol dm(-3).

  6. Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptide Ghrelin Inhibits Homocysteine-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in Porcine Coronary Arteries and Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Nasim; Annambhotla, Suman; Jiang, Jun; Wang, Xinwen; Chai, Hong; Lin, Peter H.; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2009-01-01

    Objective Ghrelin, a novel growth-hormone releasing peptide, is implicated to play a protective role in cardiovascular tissues. However, it is not clear whether ghrelin protects vascular tissues from injury secondary to risk factors such as homocysteine (Hcy). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and potential mechanisms of ghrelin on Hcy-induced endothelial dysfunction. Methods Porcine coronary artery rings were incubated for 24 hours with ghrelin (100 ng/mL), Hcy (50 μM), or ghrelin plus Hcy. Endothelial vasomotor function was evaluated using the myograph tension model. The response to thromboxane A2 analog U466419, bradykinin, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was analyzed. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was determined using real time PCR and immunohistochemistry staining, and superoxide anion production by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence analysis. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated with different concentrations of Hcy, ghrelin, and/or anti-ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) antibody for 24 hours, eNOS protein levels were determined by western blot analysis. Results Maximal contraction with U466419 and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation with SNP were not different among the four groups. However, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation with bradykinin (10-6M) was significantly reduced by 34% with Hcy compared with controls (P<0.05). Addition of ghrelin to Hcy had a protective effect, with 61.6% relaxation, similar to controls (64.7%). Hcy significantly reduced eNOS expression, while ghrelin co-treatment effectively restored eNOS expression to the control levels. Superoxide anion levels, which were increased by 100% with Hcy, returned to control levels with ghrelin co-treatment. Ghrelin also effectively blocked Hcy-induced decrease of eNOS protein levels in HCAECs in a concentration dependent manner. Anti-ghrelin receptor antibody effectively inhibited ghrelin’s effect. Conclusions Ghrelin has a

  7. The metabolic enhancer piracetam ameliorates the impairment of mitochondrial function and neurite outgrowth induced by ß-amyloid peptide

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, C; Ungerer, I; Lipka, U; Kirr, S; Schütt, T; Eckert, A; Leuner, K; Müller, WE

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease by initiating a cascade of events from mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death. The metabolic enhancer piracetam has been shown to improve mitochondrial dysfunction following brain aging and experimentally induced oxidative stress. Experimental approach: We used cell lines (PC12 and HEK cells) and murine dissociated brain cells. The protective effects of piracetam in vitro and ex vivo on Aβ-induced impairment of mitochondrial function (as mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production), on secretion of soluble Aβ and on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells were investigated. Key results: Piracetam improves mitochondrial function of PC12 cells and acutely dissociated brain cells from young NMRI mice following exposure to extracellular Aβ1-42. Similar protective effects against Aβ1-42 were observed in dissociated brain cells from aged NMRI mice, or mice transgenic for mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) treated with piracetam for 14 days. Soluble Aβ load was markedly diminished in the brain of those animals after treatment with piracetam. Aβ production by HEK cells stably transfected with mutant human APP was elevated by oxidative stress and this was reduced by piracetam. Impairment of neuritogenesis is an important consequence of Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and Aβ-induced reduction of neurite growth in PC12 cells was substantially improved by piracetam. Conclusion and implications: Our findings strongly support the concept of improving mitochondrial function as an approach to ameliorate the detrimental effects of Aβ on brain function. This article is commented on by Moncada, pp. 217–219 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00706.x and to view related papers by Pravdic et al. and Puerta et al. visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00698.x and http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j

  8. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-induced internalization, down-regulation, desensitization, and growth: possible role for cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Benya, R V; Fathi, Z; Kusui, T; Pradhan, T; Battey, J F; Jensen, R T

    1994-08-01

    Stimulation of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) in Swiss 3T3 cells resembles that of a number of other recently described G protein-coupled receptors, insofar as both the phospholipase C and adenylyl cyclase signal transduction pathways are activated. GRP-R activation induces numerous alterations in both the cell and the receptor, but because two signal transduction pathways are activated it is difficult to determine the specific contributions of either pathway. We have found that BALB/3T3 fibroblasts transfected with the coding sequence for the GRP-R are pharmacologically indistinguishable from native receptor-expressing cells and activate phospholipase C in a manner similar to that of the native receptor but fail to increase cAMP in response to bombesin; thus, they may be useful cells to explore the role of activation of each pathway in altering cell and receptor function. Swiss 3T3 cells and GRP-R-transfected BALB/3T3 cells expressed identically glycosylated receptors that bound various agonists and antagonists similarly. G protein activation, as determined by evaluation of agonist-induced activation of phospholipase C and by analysis of the effect of guanosine-5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate on GRP-R binding affinity, was indistinguishable. Agonist stimulation of GRP-R caused similar receptor changes (internalization and down-regulation) and homologous desensitization in both cell types. Bombesin stimulation of Swiss 3T3 cells that had been preincubated with forskolin increased cAMP levels 9-fold, but no bombesin-specific increase in cAMP levels was detected in transfected cells, even though forskolin and cholera toxin increased cAMP levels in these cells. Quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells treated with bombesin rapidly increased c-fos mRNA levels and [3H]thymidine incorporation, whereas both effects were potentiated by forskolin. The specific protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 blocked increases in c-fos levels and [3H]thymidine incorporation induced by low

  9. Effect of delta sleep-inducing peptide on the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in the brain and blood of rats during physiological aging.

    PubMed

    Kutilin, D S; Bondarenko, T I; Kornienko, I V; Mikhaleva, I I

    2014-09-01

    Subcutaneous injections of exogenous delta sleep-inducing peptide in a dose of 100 μg/kg (monthly, 5-day courses) to rats of various age groups (2-24 months) were followed by an increase in the expression of genes for SOD 1 (Sod1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) in the brain and nucleated blood cells. The expression of these genes was shown to decrease during physiological aging of the body.

  10. [Influence of delta-sleep inducing peptide on the state of lysosomal membranes and intensity of lysosomal proteolysis in different rat tissues during physiological aging of the organism].

    PubMed

    Kutilin, D S; Bondarenko, T I; Mikhaleva, I I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that subcutaneous injection of exogenous delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) to rats aged 2-24 months in a dose of 100 μg/kg animal body weight by courses of 5 consecutive days per month has a stabilizing effect on the state of lysosomal membranes in rat tissues (brain, heart muscle and liver) at different ontogenetic stages, and this effect is accompanied by increasing intensity of lysosomal proteolysis in these tissues.

  11. Corn Silk Extract and Its Bioactive Peptide Ameliorated Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Mice via the Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tin-Yun; Li, Chia-Cheng; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Feng-Yuan; Hsiang, Chien-Yun

    2017-02-01

    Bioactive peptides derived from foods have shown beneficial anti-inflammatory potential. Inhibitory κB kinase-β (IKKβ) plays a crucial role in the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a transcription factor involved in inflammation. Here we applied proteomic and bioinformatics approaches to identify anti-inflammatory peptides that target IKKβ from corn silk. Corn silk extract significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-κB activities [(1.7 ± 0.2)-fold vs (3.0 ± 0.6)-fold, p < 0.05] in cells. Trypsin hydrolysate of corn silk also suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activities [(1.1 ± 0.3)-fold vs 3.3 ± 0.5 fold, p < 0.01]. In addition, both corn silk extract and trypsin hydrolysate significantly inhibited LPS-induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by 58.3 ± 4.5 and 55.1 ± 7.4%, respectively. A novel peptide, FK2, docked into the ATP-binding pocket of IKKβ, was further identified from trypsin hydrolysis of corn silk. FK2 inhibited IKKβ activities, IκB phosphorylation, and subsequent NF-κB activation [(2.3 ± 0.4)-fold vs (5.5 ± 0.4)-fold, p < 0.001]. Moreover, FK2 significantly reduced NF-κB-driven luminescent signals in organs by 5-11-fold and suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activities and IL-β production in tissues. In conclusion, our findings indicated that corn silk displayed anti-inflammatory abilities. In addition, we first identified an anti-inflammatory peptide FK2 from corn silk. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect of FK2 might be through IKKβ-NF-κB signaling pathways.

  12. Analgesia induced by localized injection of opiate peptides into the brain of infant rats.

    PubMed

    Barr, G A; Wang, S

    2013-05-01

    Stimulation of a variety of brain sites electrically or by opiates activates descending inhibitory pathways to attenuate noxious input to the spinal cord dorsal horn and produce analgesia. Analgesia induced by electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal grey (PAG) of the midbrain or medial rostral ventral medulla (RVM) matures late, towards the end or past the pre-weaning period. Descending facilitation takes precedence over inhibition. Yet opiates injected intracerebroventricularly or directly into the PAG induce analgesia relatively early in development. Our goal was to re-examine the role of opiates specific to individual receptor types in analgesia at several supraspinal sites. Antinociception was tested following microinjection of DAMGO (μ-opiate agonist), DPDPE (∂-opiate agonist) or U50,488 (κ-opiate agonist) into the PAG, RVM or dorsal lateral pons (DLP) in 3-, 10- and 14-day-old rats. DAMGO produced analgesia at 3 days of age at each brain area; the RVM was the most effective and the dorsal PAG was the least effective site. DPDPE produced modest analgesia at 10 and 14 days of age at the ventral PAG, RVM or DLP, but not the dorsal PAG. U50,488H was ineffective at all sites and all ages. Antinociception could be elicited at all three sites by DAMGO as early as 3 days of age and DPDPE at 10 and 14 days of age. The degree of analgesia increased gradually during the first 2 weeks of life, and likely reflects the maturation of connections within the brain and of descending inhibitory paths from these sites. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  13. Small Molecular Weight Soybean Protein-Derived Peptides Nutriment Attenuates Rat Burn Injury-Induced Muscle Atrophy by Modulation of Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Autophagy Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fen; Yu, Yonghui; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Xinqi; Liu, Lingying; Yin, Huinan

    2018-03-21

    This article describes results of the effect of dietary supplementation with small molecular weight soybean protein-derived peptides on major rat burn injury-induced muscle atrophy. As protein nutrients have been previously implicated to play an important role in improving burn injury outcomes, optimized more readily absorbed small molecular weight soybean protein-derived peptides were evaluated. Thus, the quantity, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis patterns, molecular weight distribution, and composition of amino acids of the prepared peptides were analyzed, and a major full-thickness 30% total body surface area burn-injury rat model was utilized to assess the impact of supplementation with soybean protein-derived peptides on initial systemic inflammatory responses as measured by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2, also known as MCP-1), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7, also known as MCP-3), and generation of muscle atrophy as measured by tibialis anterior muscle (TAM) weight relative to total body weight. Induction of burn injury-induced muscle atrophy ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) signaling pathways in effected muscle tissues was determined by Western blot protein expression measurements of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM-63 (TRIM63, also known as MuRF1) and F-box only protein 32 (FBXO32, also known as atrogin-1 or MAFbx). In addition, induction of burn injury-induced autophagy signaling pathways associated with muscle atrophy in effected muscle tissues was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis as measured by microtubule-associated proteins 1 light chain 3 (MAP1LC3, or commonly abbreviated as LC3) and beclin-1 (BECN1) expression, as well as relative induction of cytoplasmic-liberated form of MAP1LC3 (LC3-I) and phagophore and autophagosome membrane-bound form of MAP1LC3 (LC3-II), and BECN1 protein expression by Western blot analysis. Nutrient supplementation with small molecular weight soybean

  14. Zoledronic acid induces dose-dependent increase of antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses in combination with peptide/poly-IC vaccine.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Mi; Cho, Hyun-Il; Shin, Chang-Ae; Shon, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Tai-Gyu

    2016-03-04

    Zoledronic acid (ZA) is used for treating osteoporosis and for preventing skeletal fractures in cancer patients suffering from myeloma and prostate cancer. It is also reported to directly induce cancer cell apoptosis and indirectly modulate T-cell immune response as an antitumor agent. In this study, the effect of ZA following peptide/polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly-IC) vaccination was investigated in a murine tumor model. The combination of ZA with peptide/poly-IC vaccine showed a synergistic effect on the induction of antigen-specific CD8 T-cell response. Three consecutive intravenous administrations of ZA was defined to induce the highest CD8 T-cell response. Further, total splenocyte counts and antigen-specific CD8 T-cell response gradually increased depending on the dose of ZA. In tumor-bearing mice, ZA showed a dose-dependent decrease of growth and prolonged survival. Treatment with ZA only decreased the number of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells in blood. Our results demonstrate that the use of ZA could improve antitumor immune responses induced by the peptide/poly-IC vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Attenuation of LPS-induced inflammation by ICT, a derivate of icariin, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinfeng; Zhou, Junmin; Chen, Xianghong; Fortenbery, Nicole; Eksioglu, Erika A; Wei, Sheng; Dong, Jingcheng

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of ICT in LPS stimulated human innate immune cells. 3, 5, 7-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-(3-hydroxy-3- methylbutyl)-flavone (ICT) is a novel derivative of icariin, the major active ingredient of Herba Epimedii, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine. We previously demonstrated its anti-inflammatory potential in a murine macrophage cell line as well as in mouse models. We measured TNF-α production by ELISA, TLR4/CD14 expression by flow cytometry, and NF-κB and MAPK activation by western blot all in LPS-stimulated PBMC, human monocytes, or THP-1 cells after treatment with ICT. ICT inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α production in THP-1 cells, PBMCs and human monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. ICT treatment resulted in down-regulation of the expression of CD14/TLR4 and attenuated NF-κB and MAPK activation induced by LPS. We illustrate the anti-inflammatory property of ICT in human immune cells, especially in monocytes. These effects were mediated, at least partially, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Autophagy-inducing peptides from mammalian VSV and fish VHSV rhabdoviral G glycoproteins (G) as models for the development of new therapeutic molecules

    PubMed Central

    García-Valtanen, Pablo; Ortega-Villaizán, María del Mar; Martínez-López, Alicia; Medina-Gali, Regla; Pérez, Luis; Mackenzie, Simon; Figueras, Antonio; Coll, Julio M; Estepa, Amparo

    2014-01-01

    It has not been elucidated whether or not autophagy is induced by rhabdoviral G glycoproteins (G) in vertebrate organisms for which rhabdovirus infection is lethal. Our work provides the first evidence that both mammalian (vesicular stomatitis virus, VSV) and fish (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, VHSV, and spring viremia carp virus, SVCV) rhabdoviral Gs induce an autophagic antiviral program in vertebrate cell lines. The transcriptomic profiles obtained from zebrafish genetically immunized with either Gsvcv or Gvhsv suggest that autophagy is induced shortly after immunization and therefore, it may be an important component of the strong antiviral immune responses elicited by these viral proteins. Pepscan mapping of autophagy-inducing linear determinants of Gvhsv and Gvsv showed that peptides located in their fusion domains induce autophagy. Altogether these results suggest that strategies aimed at modulating autophagy could be used for the prevention and treatment of rhabdoviral infections such as rabies, which causes thousands of human deaths every year. PMID:25046110

  17. Serum reactome induced by Bordetella pertussis infection and Pertussis vaccines: qualitative differences in serum antibody recognition patterns revealed by peptide microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Davide; Ferrara, Giovanni; Advani, Reza; Hallander, Hans O; Maeurer, Markus J

    2015-07-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough) remains a public health problem despite extensive vaccination strategies. Better understanding of the host-pathogen interaction and the detailed B. pertussis (Bp) target recognition pattern will help in guided vaccine design. We characterized the specific epitope antigen recognition profiles of serum antibodies ('the reactome') induced by whooping cough and B. pertussis (Bp) vaccines from a case-control study conducted in 1996 in infants enrolled in a Bp vaccine trial in Sweden (Gustafsson, NEJM, 1996, 334, 349-355). Sera from children with whooping cough, vaccinated with Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (DTP) whole-cell (wc), acellular 5 (DPTa5), or with the 2 component (a2) vaccines and from infants receiving only DT (n=10 for each group) were tested with high-content peptide microarrays containing 17 Bp proteins displayed as linear (n=3175) peptide stretches. Slides were incubated with serum and peptide-IgG complexes detected with Cy5-labeled goat anti-human IgG and analyzed using a GenePix 4000B microarray scanner, followed by statistical analysis, using PAM (Prediction Analysis for Microarrays) and the identification of uniquely recognized peptide epitopes. 367/3,085 (11.9%) peptides were recognized in 10/10 sera from children with whooping cough, 239 (7.7%) in DTPwc, 259 (8.4%) in DTPa5, 105 (3.4%) DTPa2, 179 (5.8%) in the DT groups. Recognition of strongly recognized peptides was similar between whooping cough and DPTwc, but statistically different between whooping cough vs. DTPa5 (p<0.05), DTPa2 and DT (p<0.001 vs. both) vaccines. 6/3,085 and 2/3,085 peptides were exclusively recognized in (10/10) sera from children with whooping cough and DTPa2 vaccination, respectively. DTPwc resembles more closely the whooping cough reactome as compared to acellular vaccines. We could identify a unique recognition signature common for each vaccination group (10/10 children). Peptide microarray technology allows detection of subtle differences in

  18. CD47 Agonist Peptides Induce Programmed Cell Death in Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells via PLCγ1 Activation: Evidence from Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Attout, Tarik; Boullet, Heloïse; Herbi, Linda; Vela, Laura; Barbier, Sandrine; Chateau, Danielle; Chapiro, Elise; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Davi, Frédéric; Le Garff-Tavernier, Magali; Moumné, Roba; Sarfati, Marika; Karoyan, Philippe; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Launay, Pierre; Susin, Santos A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common adulthood leukemia, is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal CD5+ B lymphocytes, which results in a progressive failure of the immune system. Despite intense research efforts, drug resistance remains a major cause of treatment failure in CLL, particularly in patients with dysfunctional TP53. The objective of our work was to identify potential approaches that might overcome CLL drug refractoriness by examining the pro-apoptotic potential of targeting the cell surface receptor CD47 with serum-stable agonist peptides. Methods and Findings In peripheral blood samples collected from 80 patients with CLL with positive and adverse prognostic features, we performed in vitro genetic and molecular analyses that demonstrate that the targeting of CD47 with peptides derived from the C-terminal domain of thrombospondin-1 efficiently kills the malignant CLL B cells, including those from high-risk individuals with a dysfunctional TP53 gene, while sparing the normal T and B lymphocytes from the CLL patients. Further studies reveal that the differential response of normal B lymphocytes, collected from 20 healthy donors, and leukemic B cells to CD47 peptide targeting results from the sustained activation in CLL B cells of phospholipase C gamma-1 (PLCγ1), a protein that is significantly over-expressed in CLL. Once phosphorylated at tyrosine 783, PLCγ1 enables a Ca2+-mediated, caspase-independent programmed cell death (PCD) pathway that is not down-modulated by the lymphocyte microenvironment. Accordingly, down-regulation of PLCγ1 or pharmacological inhibition of PLCγ1 phosphorylation abolishes CD47-mediated killing. Additionally, in a CLL-xenograft model developed in NOD/scid gamma mice, we demonstrate that the injection of CD47 agonist peptides reduces tumor burden without inducing anemia or toxicity in blood, liver, or kidney. The limitations of our study are mainly linked to the affinity of the peptides

  19. Calcineurin Regulates Homologous Desensitization of Natriuretic Peptide Receptor-A and Inhibits ANP-Induced Testosterone Production in MA-10 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Henesy, Michelle B.; Britain, Andrea L.; Zhu, Bing; Amable, Lauren; Honkanen, Richard E.; Corbin, Jackie D.; Francis, Sharron H.; Rich, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Receptor desensitization is a ubiquitous regulatory mechanism that defines the activatable pool of receptors, and thus, the ability of cells to respond to environmental stimuli. In recent years, the molecular mechanisms controlling the desensitization of a variety of receptors have been established. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie desensitization of natriuretic peptide receptors, including natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A). Here we report that calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B, PP2B, PPP3C) regulates homologous desensitization of NPR-A in murine Leydig tumor (MA-10) cells. We demonstrate that both pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin activity and siRNA-mediated suppression of calcineurin expression potentiate atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-induced cGMP synthesis. Treatment of MA-10 cells with inhibitors of other phosphoprotein phosphatases had little or no effect on ANP-induced cGMP accumulation. In addition, overexpression of calcineurin blunts ANP-induced cGMP synthesis. We also present data indicating that the inhibition of calcineurin potentiates ANP-induced testosterone production. To better understand the contribution of calcineurin in the regulation of NPR-A activity, we examined the kinetics of ANP-induced cGMP signals. We observed transient ANP-induced cGMP signals, even in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Inhibition of both calcineurin and phosphodiesterase dramatically slowed the decay in the response. These observations are consistent with a model in which calcineurin mediated dephosphorylation and desensitization of NPR-A is associated with significant inhibition of cGMP synthesis. PDE activity hydrolyzes cGMP, thus lowering intracellular cGMP toward the basal level. Taken together, these data suggest that calcineurin plays a previously unrecognized role in the desensitization of NPR-A and, thereby, inhibits ANP-mediated increases in testosterone production. PMID:22876290

  20. Gastro-Resistant Insulin Receptor-Binding Peptide from Momordica charantia Improved the Glucose Tolerance in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice via Insulin Receptor Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Feng-Yuan; Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2017-10-25

    Momordica charantia is a commonly used food and has been used for the management of diabetes. Our previous study has identified an insulin receptor (IR)-binding protein (mcIRBP) from Momordica charantia. Here we identified the gastro-resistant hypoglycemic bioactive peptides from protease-digested mcIRBP. By in vitro digestion and IR kinase activity assay, we found that a 9-amino-acid-residue peptide, mcIRBP-9, was a gastro-resistant peptide that enhanced IR kinase activities. mcIRBP-9 activated IR signaling transduction pathway, which resulted in the phosphorylation of IR, the translocation of glucose transporter 4, and the uptake of glucose in cells. Intraperitoneal and oral administration of mcIRBP-9 stimulated the glucose clearance by 30.91 ± 0.39% and 32.09 ± 0.38%, respectively, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Moreover, a pilot study showed that daily ingestion of mcIRBP-9 for 30 days decreased the fasting blood glucose levels and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels by 23.62 ± 6.14% and 24.06 ± 1.53%, respectively. In conclusion, mcIRBP-9 is a unique gastro-resistant bioactive peptide generated after the digestion of mcIRBP. Furthermore, oral administration of mcIRBP-9 improves both the glucose tolerance and the HbA1c levels in diabetic mice via targeting IR signaling transduction pathway.

  1. A derivative of epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces apoptosis via SHP-1-mediated suppression of BCR-ABL and STAT3 signalling in chronic myelogenous leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji Hoon; Yun, Miyong; Choo, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Sun-Hee; Jeong, Myoung-Seok; Jung, Deok-Beom; Lee, Hyemin; Kim, Eun-Ok; Kato, Nobuo; Kim, Bonglee; Srivastava, Sanjay K; Kaihatsu, Kunihiro; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a component of green tea known to have chemo-preventative effects on several cancers. However, EGCG has limited clinical application, which necessitates the development of a more effective EGCG prodrug as an anticancer agent. Experimental Approach Derivatives of EGCG were evaluated for their stability and anti-tumour activity in human chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) K562 and KBM5 cells. Key Results EGCG-mono-palmitate (EGCG-MP) showed most prolonged stability compared with other EGCG derivatives. EGCG-MP exerted greater cytotoxicity and apoptosis in K562 and KBM5 cells than the other EGCG derivatives. EGCG-MP induced Src-homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) leading decreased oncogenic protein BCR-ABL and STAT3 phosphorylation in CML cells, compared with treatment with EGCG. Furthermore, EGCG-MP reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 and survival genes in K562 cells, compared with EGCG. Conversely, depletion of SHP-1 or application of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate blocked the ability of EGCG-MP to suppress phosphorylation of BCR-ABL and STAT3, and the expression of survival genes downstream of STAT3. In addition, EGCG-MP treatment more effectively suppressed tumour growth in BALB/c athymic nude mice compared with untreated controls or EGCG treatment. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased caspase 3 and SHP-1 activity and decreased phosphorylation of BCR-ABL in the EGCG-MP-treated group relative to that in the EGCG-treated group. Conclusions and Implications EGCG-MP induced SHP-1-mediated inhibition of BCR-ABL and STAT3 signalling in vitro and in vivo more effectively than EGCG. This derivative may be a potent chemotherapeutic agent for CML treatment. PMID:25825203

  2. Chemerin C9 peptide induces receptor internalization through a clathrin-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun-xian; Liao, Dan; Zhang, Shuo; Cheng, Ni; He, Hui-qiong; Ye, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The chemerin receptor CMKLR1 is one type of G protein-coupled receptors abundant in monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages, which plays a key role in the entry of a subset of immunodeficiency viruses including HIV/SIV into lymphocytes and macrophages. The aim of this work was to investigate how CMKLR1 was internalized and whether its internalization affected cell signaling in vitro. Methods: Rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells, HEK 293 cells, and HeLa cells were used. CMKLR1 internalization was visualized by confocal microscopy imaging or using a FACScan flow cytometer. Six potential phosphorylation sites (Ser337, Ser343, Thr352, Ser344, Ser347, and Ser350) in CMKLR1 were substituted with alanine using site-directed mutagenesis. Heterologous expression of wild type and mutant CMKLR1 allowed for functional characterization of endocytosis, Ca2+ flux and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Results: Chemerin and the chemerin-derived nonapeptide (C9) induced dose-dependent loss of cell surface CMKLR1-GFP fusion protein and increased its intracellular accumulation in HEK 293 cells and RBL-2H3 cells stably expressing CMKLR1. Up to 90% of CMKLR1 was internalized after treatment with C9 (1 μmol/L). By using different agents, it was demonstrated that clathrin-independent mechanism was involved in CMKLR1 internalization. Mutations in Ser343 for G protein-coupled receptor kinase phosphorylation and in Ser347 for PKC phosphorylation abrogated CMKLR1 internalization. Loss of CMKLR1 internalization partially enhanced the receptor signaling, as shown by increased Ca2+ flux and a shorter latency to peak level of ERK phosphorylation. Conclusion: CMKLR1 internalization occurs in a clathrin-independent manner, which negatively regulated the receptor-mediated Ca2+ flux and ERK phosphorylation. PMID:24658352

  3. Discovery of non-peptidic small molecule inhibitors of cyclophilin D as neuroprotective agents in Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Insun; Londhe, Ashwini M.; Lim, Ji Woong; Park, Beoung-Geon; Jung, Seo Yun; Lee, Jae Yeol; Lim, Sang Min; No, Kyoung Tai; Lee, Jiyoun; Pae, Ae Nim

    2017-10-01

    Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a mitochondria-specific cyclophilin that is known to play a pivotal role in the formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP).The formation and opening of the mPTP disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis, cause mitochondrial dysfunction and eventually lead to cell death. Several recent studies have found that CypD promotes the formation of the mPTP upon binding to β amyloid (Aβ) peptides inside brain mitochondria, suggesting that neuronal CypD has a potential to be a promising therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we generated an energy-based pharmacophore model by using the crystal structure of CypD—cyclosporine A (CsA) complex and performed virtual screening of ChemDiv database, which yielded forty-five potential hit compounds with novel scaffolds. We further tested those compounds using mitochondrial functional assays in neuronal cells and identified fifteen compounds with excellent protective effects against Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. To validate whether these effects derived from binding to CypD, we performed surface plasmon resonance (SPR)—based direct binding assays with selected compounds and discovered compound 29 was found to have the equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) value of 88.2 nM. This binding affinity value and biological activity correspond well with our predicted binding mode. We believe that this study offers new insights into the rational design of small molecule CypD inhibitors, and provides a promising lead for future therapeutic development.

  4. Atypical behavior in the electron capture induced dissociation of biologically relevant transition metal ion complexes of the peptide hormone oxytocin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Anne J.; Mihalca, Romulus; Heeren, Ron M. A.; Heck, Albert J. R.

    2006-07-01

    Doubly protonated ions of the disulfide bond containing nonapeptide hormone oxytocin and oxytocin complexes with different transition metal ions, that have biological relevance under physiological conditions, were subjected to electron capture dissociation (ECD) to probe their structural features in the gas phase. Although, all the ECD spectra were strikingly different, typical ECD behavior was observed for complexes of the nonapeptide hormone oxytocin with Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+, i.e., abundant c/z' and a'/y backbone cleavages and ECD characteristic S-S and S-C bond cleavages were observed. We propose that, although in the oxytocin-transition metal ion complexes the metal ions serve as the main initial capture site, the captured electron is transferred to other sites in the complex to form a hydrogen radical, which drives the subsequent typical ECD fragmentations. The complex of oxytocin with Cu2+ displayed noticeably different ECD behavior. The fragment ions were similar to fragment ions typically observed with low-energy collision induced dissociation (CID). We propose that the electrons captured by the oxytocin-Cu2+ complex might be favorably involved in reducing the Cu2+ metal ion to Cu+. Subsequent energy redistribution would explain the observed low-energy CID-type fragmentations. Electron capture resulted also in quite different specific cleavage sites for the complexes of oxytocin with Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+. This is an indication for structural differences in these complexes possibly linked to their significantly different biological effects on oxytocin-receptor binding, and suggests that ECD may be used to study subtle structural differences in transition metal ion-peptide complexes.

  5. Impact of novel palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide analogs on metabolic changes in mice with diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pelantová, Helena; Bugáňová, Martina; Pirník, Zdenko; Mikulášková, Barbora; Popelová, Andrea; Blechová, Miroslava; Haluzík, Martin; Železná, Blanka; Kuzma, Marek; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Maletínská, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Analogs of anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), have a potential as new anti-obesity drugs. In our previous study, palmitic acid attached to the N-terminus of PrRP enabled its central anorexigenic effects after peripheral administration. In this study, two linkers, γ-glutamic acid at Lys11 and a short, modified polyethylene glycol at the N-terminal Ser and/or Lys11, were applied for the palmitoylation of PrRP31 to improve its bioavailability. These analogs had a high affinity and activation ability to the PrRP receptor GPR10 and the neuropeptide FF2 receptor, as well as short-term anorexigenic effect similar to PrRP palmitoylated at the N-terminus. Two-week treatment with analogs that were palmitoylated through linkers to Lys11 (analogs 1 and 2), but not with analog modified both at the N-terminus and Lys11 (analog 3) decreased body and liver weights, insulin, leptin, triglyceride, cholesterol and free fatty acid plasma levels in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Moreover, the expression of uncoupling protein-1 was increased in brown fat suggesting an increase in energy expenditure. In addition, treatment with analogs 1 and 2 but not analog 3 significantly decreased urinary concentrations of 1-methylnicotinamide and its oxidation products N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide and N-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, as shown by NMR-based metabolomics. This observation confirmed the previously reported increase in nicotinamide derivatives in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the effectiveness of analogs 1 and 2 in the treatment of these disorders. PMID:28820912

  6. Biocompatible Materials Based on Self-Assembling Peptides on Ti25Nb10Zr Alloy: Molecular Structure and Organization Investigated by Synchrotron Radiation Induced Techniques.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Valeria; Franchi, Stefano; Santi, Marta; Vladescu, Alina; Braic, Mariana; Skála, Tomáš; Nováková, Jaroslava; Dettin, Monica; Zamuner, Annj; Iucci, Giovanna; Battocchio, Chiara

    2018-03-07

    In this work, we applied advanced Synchrotron Radiation (SR) induced techniques to the study of the chemisorption of the Self Assembling Peptide EAbuK16, i.e., H-Abu-Glu-Abu-Glu-Abu-Lys-Abu-Lys-Abu-Glu-Abu-Glu-Abu-Lys-Abu-Lys-NH₂ that is able to spontaneously aggregate in anti-parallel β-sheet conformation, onto annealed Ti25Nb10Zr alloy surfaces. This synthetic amphiphilic oligopeptide is a good candidate to mimic extracellular matrix for bone prosthesis, since its β-sheets stack onto each other in a multilayer oriented nanostructure with internal pores of 5-200 nm size. To prepare the biomimetic material, Ti25Nb10Zr discs were treated with aqueous solutions of EAbuK16 at different pH values. Here we present the results achieved by performing SR-induced X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SR-XPS), angle-dependent Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, FESEM and AFM imaging on Ti25Nb10Zr discs after incubation with self-assembling peptide solution at five different pH values, selected deliberately to investigate the best conditions for peptide immobilization.

  7. Biocompatible Materials Based on Self-Assembling Peptides on Ti25Nb10Zr Alloy: Molecular Structure and Organization Investigated by Synchrotron Radiation Induced Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Stefano; Braic, Mariana; Skála, Tomáš; Nováková, Jaroslava; Zamuner, Annj

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we applied advanced Synchrotron Radiation (SR) induced techniques to the study of the chemisorption of the Self Assembling Peptide EAbuK16, i.e., H-Abu-Glu-Abu-Glu-Abu-Lys-Abu-Lys-Abu-Glu-Abu-Glu-Abu-Lys-Abu-Lys-NH2 that is able to spontaneously aggregate in anti-parallel β-sheet conformation, onto annealed Ti25Nb10Zr alloy surfaces. This synthetic amphiphilic oligopeptide is a good candidate to mimic extracellular matrix for bone prosthesis, since its β-sheets stack onto each other in a multilayer oriented nanostructure with internal pores of 5–200 nm size. To prepare the biomimetic material, Ti25Nb10Zr discs were treated with aqueous solutions of EAbuK16 at different pH values. Here we present the results achieved by performing SR-induced X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SR-XPS), angle-dependent Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, FESEM and AFM imaging on Ti25Nb10Zr discs after incubation with self-assembling peptide solution at five different pH values, selected deliberately to investigate the best conditions for peptide immobilization. PMID:29518968

  8. Antibody-Mediated and Cellular Immune Responses Induced in Naive Volunteers by Vaccination with Long Synthetic Peptides Derived from the Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Soto, Liliana; Perlaza, Blanca Liliana; Céspedes, Nora; Vera, Omaira; Lenis, Ana Milena; Bonelo, Anilza; Corradin, Giampietro; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a leading malaria vaccine candidate. We describe the characterization of specific immune responses induced in 21 malaria-naive volunteers vaccinated with long synthetic peptides derived from the CS protein formulated in Montanide ISA 720. Both antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses were analyzed. Antibodies were predominantly of IgG1 and IgG3 isotypes, recognized parasite proteins on the immunofluorescent antibody test, and partially blocked sporozoite invasion of hepatoma cell lines in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from most volunteers (94%) showed IFN-γ production in vitro upon stimulation with both long signal peptide and short peptides containing CD8+ T-cell epitopes. The relatively limited sample size did not allow conclusions about HLA associations with the immune responses observed. In summary, the inherent safety and tolerability together with strong antibody responses, invasion blocking activity, and the IFN-γ production induced by these vaccine candidates warrants further testing in a phase II clinical trial. PMID:21292876

  9. Quantitative measurement of a candidate serum biomarker peptide derived from α2-HS-glycoprotein, and a preliminary trial of multidimensional peptide analysis in females with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Kensuke; Yanagida, Mitsuaki; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Banzai, Michio; Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Daisuke; Tanaka, Kenji; Sakuraba, Mayumi; Miyakuni, Yasuka; Takamori, Kenji; Nojima, Michio; Yoshida, Koyo; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Takeda, Satoru; Araki, Yoshihiko

    2018-03-01

    Purpose We previously attempted to develop quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems for the PDA039/044/071 peptides, potential serum disease biomarkers (DBMs) of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), primarily identified by a peptidomic approach (BLOTCHIP®-mass spectrometry (MS)). However, our methodology did not extend to PDA071 (cysteinyl α2-HS-glycoprotein 341-367 ), due to difficulty to produce a specific antibody against the peptide. The aim of the present study was to establish an alternative PDA071 quantitation system using liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MRM)/MS, to explore the potential utility of PDA071 as a DBM for PIH. Methods We tested heat/acid denaturation methods in efforts to purify serum PDA071 and developed an LC-MRM/MS method allowing for specific quantitation thereof. We measured serum PDA071 concentrations, and these results were validated including by three-dimensional (3D) plotting against PDA039 (kininogen-1 439-456 )/044 (kininogen-1 438-456 ) concentrations, followed by discriminant analysis. Results PDA071 was successfully extracted from serum using a heat denaturation method. Optimum conditions for quantitation via LC-MRM/MS were developed; the assayed serum PDA071 correlated well with the BLOTCHIP® assay values. Although the PDA071 alone did not significantly differ between patients and controls, 3D plotting of PDA039/044/071 peptide concentrations and construction of a Jackknife classification matrix were satisfactory in terms of PIH diagnostic precision. Conclusions Combination analysis using both PDA071 and PDA039/044 concentrations allowed PIH diagnostic accuracy to be attained, and our method will be valuable in future pathophysiological studies of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

  10. A virosomal formulated Her-2/neu multi-peptide vaccine induces Her-2/neu-specific immune responses in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a phase I study.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, Ursula; Wiltschke, C; Jasinska, J; Kundi, M; Zurbriggen, R; Garner-Spitzer, E; Bartsch, R; Steger, G; Pehamberger, H; Scheiner, O; Zielinski, C C

    2010-02-01

    We have previously shown in mice that vaccination with three Her-2-peptides representing B-cell epitopes of the extracellular domain of Her-2/neu induces Her-2/neu-specific IgG antibodies with strong anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. We have now finalized a phase I clinical trial with an anti-Her-2/neu vaccine-construct of immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virosomes with the three peptides in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Ten MBC patients with low protein overexpression of Her-2/neu of MBC (+ or ++ upon immunohistochemistry, FISH negative) and positive hormone receptor status were enrolled in a single center phase I study. The virosomal formulated vaccine, consisting of 10 microg/peptide, was intramuscularly applied three times on days 1, 28, and 56. The primary endpoint of the study, which lasted 12 weeks, was safety, the secondary endpoint immunogenicity. Local erythema at the injection site was the only vaccine-related side effect occurring in four patients. In 8 of 10 patients an increase in peptide-specific antibody titer measured by ELISA was found. Importantly, the induced antibodies were also directed against the native Her-2/neu protein. Cellular immune responses, as measured by in vitro production of IL-2, IFN-c, and TNF-a of PBMCs showed a marked increase after vaccination in the majority of vaccinees. Notably, the number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T regulatory cells, which were significantly increased compared to healthy controls prior to vaccination, was markedly reduced following vaccination. In all, the immunological responses after vaccination indicated that the patients in stage IV of disease were immunocompetent and susceptible to vaccination. The Her-2/neu multipeptide vaccine was safe, well tolerated and effective in overcoming immunological tolerance to Her-2/neu. The induction of anti-Her-2-specific antibodies could result in clinical benefit comparable to passive anti-Her-2 antibody therapy.

  11. A Novel Combination of Wheat Peptides and Fucoidan Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage through Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Pro-Survival Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Juntao; Hood, Molly; Burns, Charlie; Scholten, Jeff; Chuang, Jennifer; Tian, Feng; Pan, Xingchang; Du, Jun; Gui, Min

    2017-01-01

    Gastritis or peptic ulcer is believed to affect about half of people worldwide. Traditional medications can lead to adverse effects, therefore, alternative nutritional strategies are needed to prevent the development of gastric mucosal damage. A novel combination of two food-grade ingredients, wheat peptides and fucoidan (WPF), was prepared to treat male Sprague Dawley rats for 30 days before gastric mucosal damage was induced by oral administration of ethanol. The serum levels of biomarkers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Biomarkers in stomach tissue were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. In addition, human gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) was used to investigate protein expression by Western blot. WPF could attenuate ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in an inverse dose-dependent manner, with both ulcer index and pathological index improved. WPF increased superoxide dismutase level and decreased malondialdehyde level. WPF also decreased the levels of interleukin-8, platelet-activating factor, and Caspase 3, while increasing the levels of prostaglandin E-2, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and EGF receptor (EGFR). Furthermore, phosphorylation of EGFR and extracellular signal–regulated kinases was induced by WPF in GES-1 cells. In conclusion, the novel combination of wheat peptides and fucoidan attenuated ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-survival mechanisms. PMID:28878183

  12. A Novel Combination of Wheat Peptides and Fucoidan Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage through Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Pro-Survival Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kan, Juntao; Hood, Molly; Burns, Charlie; Scholten, Jeff; Chuang, Jennifer; Tian, Feng; Pan, Xingchang; Du, Jun; Gui, Min

    2017-09-06

    Gastritis or peptic ulcer is believed to affect about half of people worldwide. Traditional medications can lead to adverse effects, therefore, alternative nutritional strategies are needed to prevent the development of gastric mucosal damage. A novel combination of two food-grade ingredients, wheat peptides and fucoidan (WPF), was prepared to treat male Sprague Dawley rats for 30 days before gastric mucosal damage was induced by oral administration of ethanol. The serum levels of biomarkers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Biomarkers in stomach tissue were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. In addition, human gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) was used to investigate protein expression by Western blot. WPF could attenuate ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in an inverse dose-dependent manner, with both ulcer index and pathological index improved. WPF increased superoxide dismutase level and decreased malondialdehyde level. WPF also decreased the levels of interleukin-8, platelet-activating factor, and Caspase 3, while increasing the levels of prostaglandin E-2, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and EGF receptor (EGFR). Furthermore, phosphorylation of EGFR and extracellular signal-regulated kinases was induced by WPF in GES-1 cells. In conclusion, the novel combination of wheat peptides and fucoidan attenuated ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-survival mechanisms.

  13. Escherichia coli Cell Surface Perturbation and Disruption Induced by Antimicrobial Peptides BP100 and pepR*

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Carla S.; Melo, Manuel N.; Franquelim, Henri G.; Ferre, Rafael; Planas, Marta; Feliu, Lidia; Bardají, Eduard; Kowalczyk, Wioleta; Andreu, David; Santos, Nuno C.; Fernandes, Miguel X.; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.

    2010-01-01

    The potential of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as an alternative to conventional therapies is well recognized. Insights into the biological and biophysical properties of AMPs are thus key to understanding their mode of action. In this study, the mechanisms adopted by two AMPs in disrupting the Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacterial envelope were explored. BP100 is a short cecropin A-melittin hybrid peptide known to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. pepR, on the other hand, is a novel AMP derived from the dengue virus capsid protein. Both BP100 and pepR were found to inhibit the growth of E. coli at micromolar concentrations. Zeta potential measurements of E. coli incubated with increasing peptide concentrations allowed for the establishment of a correlation between the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each AMP and membrane surface charge neutralization. While a neutralization-mediated killing mechanism adopted by either AMP is not necessarily implied, the hypothesis that surface neutralization occurs close to MIC values was confirmed. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was then employed to visualize the structural effect of the interaction of each AMP with the E. coli cell envelope. At their MICs, BP100 and pepR progressively destroyed the bacterial envelope, with extensive damage already occurring 2 h after peptide addition to the bacteria. A similar effect was observed for each AMP in the concentration-dependent studies. At peptide concentrations below MIC values, only minor disruptions of the bacterial surface occurred. PMID:20566635

  14. Can an ammonium-based room temperature ionic liquid counteract the urea-induced denaturation of a small peptide?

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumadwip; Dey, Souvik; Patel, Mahendra; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi

    2017-03-15

    The folding/unfolding equilibrium of proteins in aqueous medium can be altered by adding small organic molecules generally termed as co-solvents. Denaturants such as urea are instrumental in the unfolding of proteins while protecting osmolytes favour the folded ensemble. Recently, room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have been shown to counteract the deleterious effect of urea on proteins. In this paper, using atomistic molecular dynamics we show that a ternary mixture containing a particular ammonium-based IL, triethylammonium acetate (TEAA), and urea (in 1 : 5 molar ratio) helps a small 15-residue S-peptide analogue regain most of its native structure, whereas a binary aqueous mixture containing a large amount of urea alone completely distorts it. Our simulations show that the denaturant urea directly interacts with the peptide backbone in the binary mixture while for the ternary mixture both urea as well as the IL are preferentially excluded from the peptide surface.

  15. Design of a dual-function peptide probe as a binder of angiotensin II and an inducer of silver nanoparticle aggregation for use in label-free colorimetric assays.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Mina; Kuboyama, Masashi; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Label-free colorimetric assays using metallic nanoparticles have received much recent attention, for their application in simple and sensitive methods for detection of biomolecules. Short peptide probes that can bind to analyte biomolecules are attractive ligands in molecular nanotechnology; however, identification of biological recognition motifs is usually based on trial-and-error experiments. Herein, a peptide probe was screened for colorimetric detection of angiotensin II (Ang II) using a mechanism for non-crosslinking aggregation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The dual-function peptides, which bind to the analyte and induce AgNP aggregation, were identified using a two-step strategy: (1) screening of an Ang II-binding peptide from an Ang II receptor sequence library, using SPOT technology, which enable peptides synthesis on cellulose membranes via an Fmoc method and (2) selection of peptide probes that effectively induce aggregation of AgNPs using a photolinker modified peptide array. Using the identified peptide probe, KGKNKRRR, aggregation of AgNPs was detected by observation of a pink color in the absence of Ang II, whereas AgNPs remained dispersed in the presence of Ang II (yellow). The color changes were not observed in the presence of other hormone molecules. Ang II could be detected within 15 min, with a detection limit of 10 µM, by measuring the ratio of absorbance at 400 nm and 568 nm; the signal could also be observed with the naked eye. These data suggest that the peptide identified here could be used as a probe for simple and rapid colorimetric detection of Ang II. This strategy for the identification of functional peptides shows promise for the development of colorimetric detection of various diagnostically important biomolecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Local oral immunization with synthetic peptides induces a dual mucosal IgG and salivary IgA antibody response and prevents colonization of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, T; Haron, J; Bergmeier, L A; Mehlert, A; Beard, R; Dodd, M; Mielnik, B; Moore, S

    1989-01-01

    A small cell surface antigen of Streptococcus mutans was partially sequenced and the amino terminal peptides of 11, 15 and 20 amino acid residues and a dimer of the 15 and 20 residues peptides were synthesized. The synthetic peptides (SP) were used in topical oral immunization of the gingivomucosal epithelium of macaque monkeys. Sequential examination for antibodies over a period of up to 30 weeks revealed that six applications of the linear or cyclized SP11 and a random SP11 induced negligible or very low antibody levels. In contrast, the SP17 (SP15 with added cysteine at each terminus), SP21 (SP20 with one cysteine) and the dimer (SP35) induced significant anti-SP as well as anti-native streptococcal antibodies in the gingival fluid and in saliva. The functional significance of this immune response was examined by studying its effect on oral colonization of S. mutans following feeding of a carbohydrate-rich diet. Whereas control animals, sham-immunized with a random SP of 11 residues, showed increased colonization of the teeth by S. mutans, there was no colonization or a significant reduction in colonization of animals immunized with the cyclized SP17, linear SP21 or dimerized SP35. These experiments suggest that local immunization with SP derived from the sequences of a streptococcal cell surface antigen induce a dual local immune response of gingival IgG and salivary IgA antibodies against the SP and native SA. These antibodies may be involved in preventing colonization of S. mutans, which is the principal agent in the development of dental caries. PMID:2759661

  17. Peptides of a major histocompatibility complex class I (Kb) molecule cause prolongation of skin graft survival and induce specific down-regulatory T cells demonstrable in the mixed lymphocyte reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Brondz, B D; Kazansky, D B; Chernyshova, A D; Ivanov, V S

    1995-01-01

    Six individual peptides of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule H-2Kb were synthesized. Intravenous injection of peptide 6 into mice prolonged the survival of Kb (BL/6 or B10.MBR) skin grafts on allogeneic R101 and B10.AKM mice, respectively. This was specific, as control skin grafts from Kk (B10.BR) or Kd (DBA/2) donors, respectively, were rejected at the same time in both control and peptide-treated mice. The optimal doses for peptide 6, which is from the alpha 2 domain, were defined. The test system was the inhibition of proliferation in vitro of naive lymph node cells by syngeneic mitomycin c-treated spleen cells from R101 mice preimmunized with irradiated stimulator splenocytes of Kb (BL/6) origin. Down-regulation was specific, as proliferation in response to third-party allogeneic stimulator Kk (B10.BR) splenocytes was not inhibited. Of the six peptides of H-2Kb tested, potent down-regulatory cells were induced by peptides 2 (alpha 1 domain) and 5 and 6 (alpha 2 domain). The greatest down-regulatory activity was obtained by giving peptide 2 to mice that had already been immunized against H-2Kb by injecting EL4 cells. Under the same conditions, injecting peptide 2 did not induce any cytotoxic T cells. In contrast, specific cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) were induced when cells from primed mice were incubated for 4 days with heated stimulator cells from BL/6 mice. The data suggest that peptides from MHC class I molecules activate precursors of down-regulatory T cells, but not of CTL, and this may explain their ability to prolong skin allograft survival. PMID:7490121

  18. Exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 reduces body weight and cholecystokinin-8 enhances this reduction in diet-induced obese male rats.

    PubMed

    Mhalhal, Thaer R; Washington, Martha C; Newman, Kayla; Heath, John C; Sayegh, Ayman I

    2017-10-01

    The sites of action regulating meal size (MS) and intermeal interval (IMI) length by glucagon like peptide-1 (7-36) (GLP-1 (7-36)) and cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) reside in the areas supplied by the two major branches of the abdominal aorta, celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries. We hypothesized that infusing GLP-1 near those sites reduces body weight (BW) and adding CCK-8 to this infusion enhances the reduction. Here, we measured BW in diet-induced obese (DIO) male rats maintained and tested on normal rat chow and infused with saline, GLP-1 (0.5nmol/kg) and GLP-1+CCK-8 (0.5nmol/kg each) in the aorta once daily for 21days. We found that GLP-1 and GLP-1+CCK-8 decrease BW relative to saline vehicle and GLP-1+CCK-8 reduced it more than GLP-1 alone. Reduction of BW by GLP-1 alone was accompanied by decreased 24-h food intake, first MS, duration of first meal and number of meals, and an increase in latency to first meal. Reduction of BW by the combination of the peptides was accompanied by decrease 24-h food intake, first MS, duration of first meal and number of meals, and increase in the IMI length, satiety ratio and latency to first meal. In conclusion, GLP-1 reduces BW and CCK-8 enhances this reduction if the peptides are given near their sites of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunization against an IL-6 peptide induces anti-IL-6 antibodies and modulates the Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity reaction in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Desallais, Lucille; Bouchez, Caroline; Mouhsine, Hadley; Moreau, Gabriel; Ratsimandresy, Rojo; Montes, Matthieu; Do, Hervé; Quintin-Colonna, Françoise; Zagury, Jean-François

    2016-01-19

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) overproduction has been involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases and the administration of an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody has been proven clinically efficient to treat them. However, the drawbacks of monoclonal antibodies have led our group to develop an innovative anti-IL-6 strategy using a peptide-based active immunization. This approach has previously shown its efficacy in a mouse model of systemic sclerosis. Here the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of this strategy was assessed in non human primates. No unscheduled death and clinical signs of toxicity was observed during the study. Furthermore, the cynomolgus monkeys immunized against the IL-6 peptide produced high levels of anti-IL-6 antibodies as well as neutralizing antibodies compared to control groups. They also showed an important decrease of the cumulative inflammatory score following a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by the Tetanus vaccine compared to control groups (minus 57,9%, P = 0.014). These findings are highly significant because the immunizing IL-6 peptide used in this study is identical in humans and in monkeys and this novel anti-IL-6 strategy could thus represent a promising alternative to monoclonal antibodies.

  20. PD-1 signalling in CD4+ T cells restrains their clonal expansion to an immunogenic stimulus, but is not critically required for peptide-induced tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Konkel, Joanne E; Frommer, Friederike; Leech, Melanie D; Yagita, Hideo; Waisman, Ari; Anderton, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate outcome of T-cell recognition of peptide–major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complexes is determined by the molecular context in which antigen presentation is provided. The paradigm is that, after exposure to peptides presented by steady-state dendritic cells (DCs), inhibitory signals dominate, leading to the deletion and/or functional inactivation of antigen-reactive T cells. This has been utilized in a variety of models providing peptide antigen in soluble form in the absence of adjuvant. A co-inhibitory molecule of considerable current interest is PD-1. Here we show that there is the opportunity for the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction to function in inhibiting the T-cell response during tolerance induction. Using traceable CD4+ T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic cells, together with a blocking antibody to disrupt PD-1 signalling, we explored the roles of PD-1 in the induction of tolerance versus a productive immune response. Intact PD-1 signalling played a role in limiting the extent of CD4+ T-cell accumulation in response to an immunogenic stimulus. However, PD-1 signalling was not required for either the induction, or the maintenance, of peptide-induced tolerance; a conclusion underlined by successful tolerance induction in TCR transgenic cells genetically deficient for PD-1. These observations contrast with the reported requirement for PD-1 signals in CD8+ T-cell tolerance. PMID:20113370

  1. 3D in vitro co-culture models based on normal cells and tumor spheroids formed by cyclic RGD-peptide induced cell self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Akasov, Roman; Gileva, Anastasia; Zaytseva-Zotova, Daria; Burov, Sergey; Chevalot, Isabelle; Guedon, Emmanuel; Markvicheva, Elena

    2017-01-01

    To design novel 3D in vitro co-culture models based on the RGD-peptide-induced cell self-assembly technique. Multicellular spheroids from M-3 murine melanoma cells and L-929 murine fibroblasts were obtained directly from monolayer culture by addition of culture medium containing cyclic RGD-peptide. To reach reproducible architecture of co-culture spheroids, two novel 3D in vitro models with well pronounced core-shell structure from tumor spheroids and single mouse fibroblasts were developed based on this approach. The first was a combination of a RGD-peptide platform with the liquid overlay technique with further co-cultivation for 1-2 days. The second allowed co-culture spheroids to generate within polyelectrolyte microcapsules by cultivation for 2 weeks. M-3 cells (a core) and L-929 fibroblasts (a shell) were easily distinguished by confocal microscopy due to cell staining with DiO and DiI dyes, respectively. The 3D co-culture spheroids are proposed as a tool in tumor biology to study cell-cell interactions as well as for testing novel anticancer drugs and drug delivery vehicles.

  2. Homooligomeric β3 (R)-valine peptides: Transformation between C14 and C12 helical structures induced by a guest Aib residue.

    PubMed

    Vasantha, Basavalingappa; George, Gijo; Raghothama, Srinivasarao; Balaram, Padmanabhan

    2017-01-01

    Novel helical, structures unprecedented in the chemistry of α-polypeptides, may be found in polypeptides containing β and γ amino acids. The structural characterization of C 12 and C 14 -helices in oligo β-peptides was originally achieved using conformationally constrained cyclic β-residues. This study explores the conformational characteristics of proteinogenic β 3 residues in homooligomeric sequences and addresses the issue of inducing a transition between C 14 and C 12 helices by the introduction of a guest α-residue. Folded C 14 -helical structures are demonstrated for the nonapeptide Boc-[β 3 (R)Val] 9 -OMe by NMR methods in CDCl 3 -DMSO mixtures, while the peptide was found to be aggregated in CDCl 3 . The insertion of a guest Aib residue into an oligo-β-valine sequence in the octapeptide model Boc-[(β 3 (R)Val) 3 -Aib-(β 3 (R)Val] 4 -OMe results in well dispersed NH region in the NMR spectrum indicating folded structures in CDCl 3 . Structure calculations for both the peptides using NOE distance constraints support a C 14 helical structure in the homooligomer which transform into a C 12 helix on introduction of the guest Aib residue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Energetics and dynamics of the fragmentation reactions of protonated peptides containing methionine sulfoxide or aspartic acid via energy- and time-resolved surface induced dissociation.

    PubMed

    Lioe, Hadi; Laskin, Julia; Reid, Gavin E; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2007-10-25

    The surface-induced dissociation (SID) of six model peptides containing either methionine sulfoxide or aspartic acid (GAILM(O)GAILR, GAILM(O)GAILK, GAILM(O)GAILA, GAILDGAILR, GAILDGAILK, and GAILDGAILA) have been studied using a specially configured Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS). In particular, we have investigated the energetics and dynamics associated with (i) preferential cleavage of the methionine sulfoxide side chain via the loss of CH3SOH (64 Da), and (ii) preferential cleavage of the amide bond C-terminal to aspartic acid. The role of proton mobility in these selective bond cleavage reactions was examined by changing the C-terminal residue of the peptide from arginine (nonmobile proton conditions) to lysine (partially mobile proton conditions) to alanine (mobile proton conditions). Time- and energy-resolved fragmentation efficiency curves (TFECs) reveal that selective cleavages due to the methionine sulfoxide and aspartic acid residues are characterized by slow fragmentation kinetics. RRKM modeling of the experimental data suggests that the slow kinetics is associated with large negative entropy effects and these may be due to the presence of rearrangements prior to fragmentation. It was found that the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor (A) for peptide fragmentations occurring via selective bond cleavages are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than nonselective peptide fragmentation reactions, while the dissociation threshold (E0) is relatively invariant. This means that selective bond cleavage is kinetically disfavored compared to nonselective amide bond cleavage. It was also found that the energetics and dynamics for the preferential loss of CH3SOH from peptide ions containing methionine sulfoxide are very similar to selective C-terminal amide bond cleavage at the aspartic acid residue. These results suggest that while preferential cleavage can compete with amide bond cleavage energetically, dynamically, these processes

  4. Interactions among DIV voltage-sensor movement, fast inactivation, and resurgent Na current induced by the NaVβ4 open-channel blocking peptide

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Amanda H.

    2013-01-01

    Resurgent Na current flows as voltage-gated Na channels recover through open states from block by an endogenous open-channel blocking protein, such as the NaVβ4 subunit. The open-channel blocker and fast-inactivation gate apparently compete directly, as slowing the onset of fast inactivation increases resurgent currents by favoring binding of the blocker. Here, we tested whether open-channel block is also sensitive to deployment of the DIV voltage sensor, which facilitates fast inactivation. We expressed NaV1.4 channels in HEK293t cells and assessed block by a free peptide replicating the cytoplasmic tail of NaVβ4 (the “β4 peptide”). Macroscopic fast inactivation was disrupted by mutations of DIS6 (L443C/A444W; “CW” channels), which reduce fast-inactivation gate binding, and/or by the site-3 toxin ATX-II, which interferes with DIV movement. In wild-type channels, the β4 peptide competed poorly with fast inactivation, but block was enhanced by ATX. With the CW mutation, large peptide-induced resurgent currents were present even without ATX, consistent with increased open-channel block upon depolarization and slower deactivation after blocker unbinding upon repolarization. The addition of ATX greatly increased transient current amplitudes and further enlarged resurgent currents, suggesting that pore access by the blocker is actually decreased by full deployment of the DIV voltage sensor. ATX accelerated recovery from block at hyperpolarized potentials, however, suggesting that the peptide unbinds more readily when DIV voltage-sensor deployment is disrupted. These results are consistent with two open states in Na channels, dependent on the DIV voltage-sensor position, which differ in affinity for the blocking protein. PMID:23940261

  5. Dendritic cells induce specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes against prostate cancer TRAMP-C2 cells loaded with freeze- thaw antigen and PEP-3 peptide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Qi; Jiang, Rong; Li, Si-Qi; Wang, Jing; Yi, Fa-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. In this study, we investigated immune responses of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer cells after activation by dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with TRAMP-C2 freeze-thaw antigen and/or PEP-3 peptide in vitro. Bone marrow-derived DC from the bone marrow of the C57BL/6 were induced to mature by using the cytokine of rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4, and loaded with either the freeze-thaw antigen or PEP-3 peptide or both of them. Maturation of DCs was detected by flow cytometry. The killing efficiency of the CTLs on TRAMP-C2 cells were detected by flow cytometry, CCK8, colony formation, transwell migration, and wound-healing assay. The levels of the IFN-γ, TNF-β and IL-12 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with the unloaded DCs, the loaded DCs had significantly increased expression of several phenotypes related to DC maturation. CTLs activated by DCs loaded with freeze-thaw antigen and PEP-3 peptide had more evident cytotoxicity against TRAMP-C2 cells in vitro. The secretion levels of IFN-γ, TNF-β and IL-12, secreted by DCs loaded with antigen and PEP-3 and interaction with T cells, were higher than in the other groups. Our results suggest that the CTLs activated by DCs loaded with TRAMP-C2 freeze-thaw antigen and PEP-3 peptide exert a remarkable killing efficiency against TRAMP-C2 cells in vitro.

  6. Dendritic cells pulsed with a tumor-specific peptide induce long-lasting immunity and are effective against murine intracerebral melanoma.

    PubMed

    Heimberger, Amy B; Archer, Gary E; Crotty, Laura E; McLendon, Roger E; Friedman, Allan H; Friedman, Henry S; Bigner, Darell D; Sampson, John H

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized cells of the immune system that are capable of generating potent immune responses that are active even within the "immunologically privileged" central nervous system. However, immune responses generated by DCs have also been demonstrated to produce clinically significant autoimmunity. Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII), which is a mutation specific to tumor tissue, could eliminate this risk. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that DC-based immunizations directed solely against this tumor-specific antigen, which is commonly found on tumors that originate within or metastasize to the brain, could be efficacious. C3H mice were vaccinated with DCs mixed with a keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate of the tumor-specific peptide, PEP-3, which spans the EGFRvIII mutation, or the random-sequence peptide, PEP-1, and were intracerebrally challenged with a syngeneic melanoma expressing a murine homologue of EGFRvIII. Systemic immunization with DCs mixed with PEP-3-keyhole limpet hemocyanin generated antigen-specific immunity. Among mice challenged with intracerebral tumors, this resulted in an approximately 600% increase in the median survival time (>300 d, P < 0.0016), relative to control values. Sixty-three percent of mice treated with DCs mixed with the tumor-specific peptide survived in the long term and 100% survived rechallenge with tumor, indicating that antitumor immunological memory was also induced. In a murine melanoma model, immunization with DCs mixed with tumor-specific peptide results in an antigen-specific immunological response that recognizes the EGFRvIII mutation, has potent antitumor efficacy against intracerebral tumors that express EGFRvIII, and results in long-lasting antitumor immunity.

  7. BG-4, a novel bioactive peptide from Momordica charantia, inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in THP-1 human macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a commonly used food crop for management of a variety of diseases most notably for control of diabetes, a disease associated with aberrant inflammation. Purpose: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of BG-4, a novel bioactive peptide isolated f...

  8. Spontaneous Buckling of Lipid Bilayer and Vesicle Budding Induced by Antimicrobial Peptide Magainin 2: A Coarse-Grained Simulation Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-30

    were added to neutralize each system. The GROMACS software package39 was used for simulations. The molecules in this paper refer to the CGMARTINI...accelerated.19 Most of the peptides on the surfaces ended up in clusters containing transmembrane pores, which appeared to perturb the bilayers significantly

  9. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in the nucleus accumbens shell inhibits cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization to transient over-expression of α-Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lixia; Meng, Qing; Sun, Xi; Lu, Xiangtong; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Qinghua; Yang, Jianhua; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hu, Zhenzhen

    2018-01-04

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is a widely distributed neurotransmitter that attenuates cocaine-induced locomotor activity when injected into the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Our previous work first confirmed that the inhibitory mechanism of the CART peptide on cocaine-induced locomotor activity is related to a reduction in cocaine-enhanced phosphorylated Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIα (pCaMKIIα) and the enhancement of cocaine-induced D3R function. This study investigated whether CART peptide inhibited cocaine-induced locomotor activity via inhibition of interactions between pCaMKIIα and the D3 dopamine receptor (D3R). We demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated gene transfer transiently increased pCaMKIIα expression, which peaked at 10 days after microinjection into the rat NAc shell, and induced a significant increase in Ca 2+ influx along with greater behavioral sensitivity in the open field test after intraperitoneal injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg). However, western blot analysis and coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that CART peptide treatment in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing NAc rat tissues or cells prior to cocaine administration inhibited the cocaine-induced Ca 2+ influx and attenuated the cocaine-increased pCaMKIIα expression in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing cells. CART peptide decreased the cocaine-enhanced phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) expression via inhibition of the pCaMKIIα-D3R interaction, which may account for the prolonged locomotor sensitization induced by repeated cocaine treatment in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing cells. These results provide strong evidence for the inhibitory modulation of CART peptide in cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. © 2018 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Sequence-specific, nanomolar peptide binding via cucurbit[8]uril-induced folding and inclusion of neighboring side chains.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lauren C; Leach, David G; Blaylock, Brittney E; Ali, Omar A; Urbach, Adam R

    2015-03-18

    This paper describes the molecular recognition of the tripeptide Tyr-Leu-Ala by the synthetic receptor cucurbit[8]uril (Q8) in aqueous buffer with nanomolar affinity and exceptional specificity. This combination of characteristics, which also applies to antibodies, is desirable for applications in biochemistry and biotechnology but has eluded supramolecular chemists for decades. Building on prior knowledge that Q8 binds to peptides with N-terminal aromatic residues, a library screen of 105 peptides was designed to test the effects of residues adjacent to N-terminal Trp, Phe, or Tyr. The screen used tetramethylbenzobis(imidazolium) (MBBI) as a fluorescent indicator and resulted in the unexpected discovery that MBBI can serve not only as a turn-off sensor via the simultaneous inclusion of a Trp residue but also as a turn-on sensor via the competitive displacement of MBBI upon binding of Phe- or Tyr-terminated peptides. The unusual fluorescence response of the Tyr series prompted further investigation by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and isothermal titration calorimetry. From these studies, a novel binding motif was discovered in which only 1 equiv of peptide binds to Q8, and the side chains of both the N-terminal Tyr residue and its immediate neighbor bind within the Q8 cavity. For the peptide Tyr-Leu-Ala, the equilibrium dissociation constant value is 7.2 nM, whereas that of its sequence isomer Tyr-Ala-Leu is 34 μM. The high stability, recyclability, and low cost of Q8 combined with the straightforward incorporation of Tyr-Leu-Ala into recombinant proteins should make this system attractive for the development of biological applications.

  11. Ligand-induced adhesion to activated endothelium and to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in lymphocytes transfected with the N-formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Honda, S; Campbell, J J; Andrew, D P; Engelhardt, B; Butcher, B A; Warnock, R A; Ye, R D; Butcher, E C

    1994-04-15

    Binding of FMLP to the neutrophil N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) transmits signals through pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins triggering Ca2+ flux, superoxide production, granule exocytosis, and neutrophil aggregation and adhesion involving the beta 2 (CD18) integrins. Expression of the FPR in mouse fibroblasts or human kidney cells has been shown to confer an N-formyl peptide-inducible Ca2+ flux in transfectants. Here we demonstrate that the transfected receptor can also support ligand-induced alterations in cellular adhesion. We established stable transfectants of mouse L1-2 pre-B cells with cDNA for human FPR (L1-2 FPR cells). The transfectants bind N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein with 1.4 x 10(5) sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 3.3 nM. Stimulation with FMLP induces a transient Ca2+ flux. FMLP also triggers adhesion of L1-2 FPR cells to TNF-alpha- or LPS-activated bEnd3 cells (mouse brain-derived endothelial cells) and to purified mouse VCAM-1. Binding is inhibited by Abs to VCAM-1 and to the alpha-chain of its lymphocyte receptor (the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, VLA-4). Stimulation with FMLP does not induce a change in cell surface expression of alpha 4. Induced adhesion to VCAM-1 is rapid, detectable at the earliest times measurable (30 to 60 s after FMLP addition), and is inhibited by pertussis toxin. We conclude that FPR can mediate integrin activation not only in neutrophils but also in lymphocytes, and can trigger rapid adhesion via lymphocyte alpha 4 beta 1. The adhesion of lymphocytes is critical to their migration and targeting; our results suggest the possibility of manipulating adhesive responses through expression of chemoattractant receptors in lymphoid cells engineered for cellular therapy, allowing targeted adhesion and potentially migration in response to locally administered ligands.

  12. Use of human cancer cell lines mitochondria to explore the mechanisms of BH3 peptides and ABT-737-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Buron, Nelly; Porceddu, Mathieu; Brabant, Magali; Desgué, Diana; Racoeur, Cindy; Lassalle, Myriam; Péchoux, Christine; Rustin, Pierre; Jacotot, Etienne; Borgne-Sanchez, Annie

    2010-03-31

    Current limitations of chemotherapy include toxicity on healthy tissues and multidrug resistance of malignant cells. A number of recent anti-cancer strategies aim at targeting the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery to induce tumor cell death. In this study, we set up protocols to purify functional mitochondria from various human cell lines to analyze the effect of peptidic and xenobiotic compounds described to harbour either Bcl-2 inhibition properties or toxic effects related to mitochondria. Mitochondrial inner and outer membrane permeabilization were systematically investigated in cancer cell mitochondria versus non-cancerous mitochondria. The truncated (t-) Bid protein, synthetic BH3 peptides from Bim and Bak, and the small molecule ABT-737 induced a tumor-specific and OMP-restricted mitochondrio-toxicity, while compounds like HA-14.1, YC-137, Chelerythrine, Gossypol, TW-37 or EM20-25 did not. We found that ABT-737 can induce the Bax-dependent release of apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c, Smac/Diablo and Omi/HtrA2 but not AIF) from various but not all cancer cell mitochondria. Furthermore, ABT-737 addition to isolated cancer cell mitochondria induced oligomerization of Bax and/or Bak monomers already inserted in the mitochondrial membrane. Finally immunoprecipatations indicated that ABT-737 induces Bax, Bak and Bim desequestration from Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL but not from Mcl-1L. This study investigates for the first time the mechanism of action of ABT-737 as a single agent on isolated cancer cell mitochondria. Hence, this method based on MOMP (mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization) is an interesting screening tool, tailored for identifying Bcl-2 antagonists with selective toxicity profile against cancer cell mitochondria but devoid of toxicity against healthy mitochondria.

  13. AAV-Mediated Administration of Myostatin Pro-Peptide Mutant in Adult Ldlr Null Mice Reduces Diet-Induced Hepatosteatosis and Arteriosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen; Wong, Siu; Bhasin, Shalender

    2013-01-01

    Genetic disruption of myostatin or its related signaling is known to cause strong protection against diet-induced metabolic disorders. The translational value of these prior findings, however, is dependent on whether such metabolically favorable phenotype can be reproduced when myostatin blockade begins at an adult age. Here, we reported that AAV-mediated delivery of a myostatin pro-peptide D76A mutant in adult mice attenuates the development of hepatic steatosis and arteriosclerosis, two common diet-induced metabolic diseases. A single dose of AAV-D76A in adult Ldlr null mice resulted in sustained expression of myostatin pro-peptide in the liver. Compared to vehicle-treated mice, D76A-treated mice gained similar amount of lean and fat mass when fed a high fat diet. However, D76A-treated mice displayed significantly reduced aortic lesions and liver fat, in association with a reduction in hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and improvement in liver insulin sensitivity. This suggests that muscle and fat may not be the primary targets of treatment under our experimental condition. In support to this argument, we show that myostatin directly up-regulated lipogenic genes and increased fat accumulation in cultured liver cells. We also show that both myostatin and its receptor were abundantly expressed in mouse aorta. Cultured aortic endothelial cells responded to myostatin with a reduction in eNOS phosphorylation and an increase in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Conclusions: AAV-mediated expression of myostatin pro-peptide D76A mutant in adult Ldlr null mice sustained metabolic protection without remarkable impacts on body lean and fat mass. Further investigations are needed to determine whether direct impact of myostatin on liver and aortic endothelium may contribute to the related metabolic phenotypes. PMID:23936482

  14. A silk peptide fraction restores cognitive function in AF64A-induced Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing expression of choline acetyltransferase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Yeseul

    This study investigated the effects of a silk peptide fraction obtained by incubating silk proteins with Protease N and Neutrase (SP-NN) on cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer disease model rats. In order to elucidate underlying mechanisms, the effect of SP-NN on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA was assessed in F3.ChAT neural stem cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells; active amino acid sequence was identified using HPLC-MS. The expression of ChAT mRNA in F3.ChAT cells increased by 3.79-fold of the control level by treatment with SP-NN fraction. The active peptide in SP-NN was identified as tyrosine-glycine with 238.1 of molecular weight.more » Male rats were orally administered with SP-NN (50 or 300 mg/kg) and challenged with a cholinotoxin AF64A. As a result of brain injury and decreased brain acetylcholine level, AF64A induced astrocytic activation, resulting in impairment of learning and memory function. Treatment with SP-NN exerted recovering activities on acetylcholine depletion and brain injury, as well as cognitive deficit induced by AF64A. The results indicate that, in addition to a neuroprotective activity, the SP-NN preparation restores cognitive function of Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing the release of acetylcholine. - Highlights: • Cognition-enhancing effects of SP-NN, a silk peptide preparation, were investigated. • SP-NN enhanced ChAT mRNA expression in F3.ChAT neural stem cells and Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells. • Active molecule was identified as a dipeptide composed of tyrosine-glycine. • SP-NN reversed cognitive dysfunction elicited by AF64A. • Neuroprotection followed by increased acetylcholine level was achieved with SP-NN.« less

  15. Insect peptide CopA3-induced protein degradation of p27Kip1 stimulates proliferation and protects neuronal cells from apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Min Bum

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •CopA3 peptide isolated from the Korean dung beetle has antimicrobial activity. •Our study reported that CopA3 has anticancer and immunosuppressive effects. •We here demonstrated that CopA3 has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. •CopA3 degrades p27Kip1 protein and this mediates effects of CopA3 on neuronal cells. -- Abstract: We recently demonstrated that the antibacterial peptide, CopA3 (a D-type disulfide dimer peptide, LLCIALRKK), inhibits LPS-induced macrophage activation and also has anticancer activity in leukemia cells. Here, we examined whether CopA3 could affect neuronal cell proliferation. We found that CopA3 time-dependently increased cell proliferation by up to 31 ± 2% in human neuroblastomamore » SH-SY5Y cells, and up to 29 ± 2% in neural stem cells isolated from neonatal mouse brains. In both cell types, CopA3 also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and viability losses caused by 6-hydroxy dopamine (a Parkinson disease-mimicking agent) and okadaic acid (an Alzheimer’s disease-mimicking agent). Immunoblotting revealed that the p27Kip1 protein (a negative regulator of cell cycle progression) was markedly degraded in CopA3-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, an adenovirus expressing p27Kip1 significantly inhibited the antiapoptotic effects of CopA3 against 6-hydroxy dopamine- and okadaic acid-induced apoptosis, and decreased the neurotropic effects of CopA3. These results collectively suggest that CopA3-mediated protein degradation of p27Kip1 may be the main mechanism through which CopA3 exerts neuroprotective and neurotropic effects.« less

  16. CRMP-2 peptide mediated decrease of high and low voltage-activated calcium channels, attenuation of nociceptor excitability, and anti-nociception in a model of AIDS therapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ubiquity of protein-protein interactions in biological signaling offers ample opportunities for therapeutic intervention. We previously identified a peptide, designated CBD3, that suppressed inflammatory and neuropathic behavioral hypersensitivity in rodents by inhibiting the ability of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) to bind to N-type voltage-activated calcium channels (CaV2.2) [Brittain et al. Nature Medicine 17:822–829 (2011)]. Results and discussion Here, we utilized SPOTScan analysis to identify an optimized variation of the CBD3 peptide (CBD3A6K) that bound with greater affinity to Ca2+ channels. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that the CBD3A6K peptide was more stable and less prone to the unfolding observed with the parent CBD3 peptide. This mutant peptide, conjugated to the cell penetrating motif of the HIV transduction domain protein TAT, exhibited greater anti-nociception in a rodent model of AIDS therapy-induced peripheral neuropathy when compared to the parent TAT-CBD3 peptide. Remarkably, intraperitoneal administration of TAT-CBD3A6K produced none of the minor side effects (i.e. tail kinking, body contortion) observed with the parent peptide. Interestingly, excitability of dissociated small diameter sensory neurons isolated from rats was also reduced by TAT-CBD3A6K peptide suggesting that suppression of excitability may be due to inhibition of T- and R-type Ca2+ channels. TAT-CBD3A6K had no effect on depolarization-evoked calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release compared to vehicle control. Conclusions Collectively, these results establish TAT-CBD3A6K as a peptide therapeutic with greater efficacy in an AIDS therapy-induced model of peripheral neuropathy than its parent peptide, TAT-CBD3. Structural modifications of the CBD3 scaffold peptide may result in peptides with selectivity against a particular subset of voltage-gated calcium channels resulting in a multipharmacology of action on the target. PMID

  17. Identification of the IGF-1 processing product human Ec/rodent Eb peptide in various tissues: Evidence for its differential regulation after exercise-induced muscle damage in humans.

    PubMed

    Vassilakos, George; Philippou, Anastassios; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a pleiotropic factor expressed in various tissues and plays a critical role in skeletal muscle physiology. Alternative splicing of the IGF-1 gene gives rise to different precursor polypeptides (isoforms) which could undergo post-translational cleavage, generating the common mature IGF-1 peptide and different carboxyl terminal extension (E-) peptides, with the fate of the latter being, so far, unknown. The objective if this study was to identify the IGF-1Ec forms or processing product(s), other than mature IGF-1, generated in different human and rodent tissues and particularly in human skeletal muscle after exercise-induced damage. Protein lysates from a wide range of human and rodent tissues were immunoblotted with a rabbit anti-human Ec polyclonal antibody raised against the last 24 amino acids of the C-terminal of the Ec peptide. This antibody can recognize the Ec peptide, both as part of IGF-1Ec and alone, and also the corresponding rodent forms, due to the high homology that the human Ec shares with the rodent Eb. We were able to confirm, for the first time, that the human Ec peptide and its rodent homologous Eb peptide are produced simultaneously with their precursor protein (pro-IGF-1Ec/Eb) in vivo, in a wide range of tissues (e.g. muscle, liver, heart). Proprotein convertase furin digestion of human muscle and liver protein lysates confirmed that the higher molecular form, pro-IGF-1Ec, can be cleaved to produce the free Ec peptide. Furthermore, initial evidence is provided that Ec peptide is differentially regulated during the process of muscle regeneration after exercise-induced damage in humans. The findings of this study possibly imply that the post-translational modification of the IGF-1Ec pro-peptide may regulate the bioavailability and activity of the processing product(s). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A silk peptide fraction restores cognitive function in AF64A-induced Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing expression of choline acetyltransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Cha, Yeseul; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Su Kil; Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Park, Dongsun; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Yeon, Sungho; Lee, Jeong-Yong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Joo, Seong Soo; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a silk peptide fraction obtained by incubating silk proteins with Protease N and Neutrase (SP-NN) on cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer disease model rats. In order to elucidate underlying mechanisms, the effect of SP-NN on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA was assessed in F3.ChAT neural stem cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells; active amino acid sequence was identified using HPLC-MS. The expression of ChAT mRNA in F3.ChAT cells increased by 3.79-fold of the control level by treatment with SP-NN fraction. The active peptide in SP-NN was identified as tyrosine-glycine with 238.1 of molecular weight. Male rats were orally administered with SP-NN (50 or 300mg/kg) and challenged with a cholinotoxin AF64A. As a result of brain injury and decreased brain acetylcholine level, AF64A induced astrocytic activation, resulting in impairment of learning and memory function. Treatment with SP-NN exerted recovering activities on acetylcholine depletion and brain injury, as well as cognitive deficit induced by AF64A. The results indicate that, in addition to a neuroprotective activity, the SP-NN preparation restores cognitive function of Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing the release of acetylcholine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Down-regulation of histamine-induced endothelial cell activation as potential anti-atherosclerotic activity of peptides from Spirulina maxima.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-10-09

    Histamine, a potent inflammatory mediator, has been known to cause the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this sense, two bioactive peptides P1 (LDAVNR; 686Da) and P2 (MMLDF; 655Da) purified from gastric enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina maxima were examined for their protective effects against early atherosclerotic responses induced by histamine in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Interestingly, both P1 and P2 exhibited inhibitory activities on the production and expression of IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, P1 and P2 inhibited the production of adhesion molecules including P-selectin and E-selectin, and thus reducing in vitro cell adhesion of monocyte onto endothelial cells. In addition, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed to reduce in the presence of P1 or P2. Notably, the inhibitory activities of P1 and P2 were found due to down-regulating Egr-1 expression via histamine receptor and PKCδ-dependent MAPKs activation pathway. These results suggest that peptides P1 and P2 from S. maxima are effective to suppress histamine-induced endothelial cell activation that may contribute to the prevention of early atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Do Lactation-Induced Changes in Ghrelin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, and Peptide YY Influence Appetite and Body Weight Regulation during the First Postpartum Year?

    PubMed Central

    Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Schueler, Jessica; Kyle, Erin; Austin, Kathleen J.; Hart, Ann Marie; Alexander, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether fasting and meal-induced appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with body weight retention after childbearing, we studied 24 exclusively breastfeeding women (BMI = 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2) at 4-5 weeks postpartum and 20 never-pregnant controls (BMI = 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m2). Ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and appetite ratings were measured before/and 150 minutes after a standardized breakfast and 60 minutes after an ad libitum lunch. Body weight/composition were measured at 6 and 12 months. Fasting and area under-the-curve responses for appetite-regulating hormones did not differ between lactating and control groups; ghrelinacyl, however, tended to track higher after the standardized breakfast in lactating women and was higher (p < 0.05) after the ad libitum lunch despite a 24% higher energy intake (p < 0.05). By 12 months, lactating women lost 5.3 ± 2.2 kg (n = 18), whereas control women (n = 15) remained weight stable (p = 0.019); fifteen of the lactating women returned to within ±2.0 kg of prepregnancy weight but three retained >6.0 kg. The retainers had greater (p < 0.05) postmeal ghrelin rebound responses following breakfast. Overall these studies do not support the hypothesis that appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with postpartum weight retention. Altered ghrelin responses, however, deserve further exploration. PMID:27313876

  1. Entropy-driven binding of opioid peptides induces a large domain motion in human dipeptidyl peptidase III

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Gustavo A.; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Viertlmayr, Roland; Dong, Aiping; Binter, Alexandra; Abramić, Marija; Macheroux, Peter; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Gruber, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Opioid peptides are involved in various essential physiological processes, most notably nociception. Dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) is one of the most important enkephalin-degrading enzymes associated with the mammalian pain modulatory system. Here we describe the X-ray structures of human DPP III and its complex with the opioid peptide tynorphin, which rationalize the enzyme's substrate specificity and reveal an exceptionally large domain motion upon ligand binding. Microcalorimetric analyses point at an entropy-dominated process, with the release of water molecules from the binding cleft (“entropy reservoir”) as the major thermodynamic driving force. Our results provide the basis for the design of specific inhibitors that enable the elucidation of the exact role of DPP III and the exploration of its potential as a target of pain intervention strategies. PMID:22493238

  2. The Development of Carriers and Adjuvants for Use with Peptides to Induce Mucosal and Systemic Immunity against Biologic Toxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    nature causes them to raturally form multimolecular, membranous vesicles (or vesicle fragments) (16-19). Like E. coli and salmonella outer membrane...to the varied nature of the peptides to be used, the optimal immunopotentiating regimen or carrier-adjuvant system may not be identical for each toxin...The carriers and adjuvants to be used will include natural proteins (proteosomes or other proteins). We further hypothesize that certain constructo

  3. Inhibition by calcitonin gene-related peptide of agonist-induced bronchoconstriction in various mammals including man.

    PubMed

    Cadieux, A; Lanoue, C

    1990-01-01

    The effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on the smooth muscle of mammalian airways has been investigated in vitro. CGRP itself lacked contractile activity but reduced responses evoked by bronchoconstrictor agents via a post-junctional action. The inhibitory effect of CGRP was concentration-related and greatest in distal airways. The results suggest that CGRP may contribute to regulating muscular tone in the tracheobronchial tree.

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Tau Peptides for the Investigation of Conformational Changes Induced by Specific Phosphorylation Patterns.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Neha S; Kukic, Predrag; Lippens, Guy; Mancera, Ricardo L

    2017-01-01

    The Tau protein plays an important role due to its biomolecular interactions in neurodegenerative diseases. The lack of stable structure and various posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation at various sites in the Tau protein pose a challenge for many experimental methods that are traditionally used to study protein folding and aggregation. Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can help around deciphering relationship between phosphorylation and various intermediate and stable conformations of the Tau protein which occur on longer timescales. This chapter outlines protocols for the preparation, execution, and analysis of all-atom MD simulations of a 21-amino acid-long phosphorylated Tau peptide with the aim of generating biologically relevant structural and dynamic information. The simulations are done in explicit solvent and starting from nearly extended configurations of the peptide. The scaled MD method implemented in AMBER14 was chosen to achieve enhanced conformational sampling in addition to a conventional MD approach, thereby allowing the characterization of folding for such an intrinsically disordered peptide at 293 K. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the simulation trajectories to establish correlations with NMR data (i.e., chemical shifts and NOEs). Finally, in-depth discussions are provided for commonly encountered problems.

  5. Trace Water as Prominent Factor to Induce Peptide Self-Assembly: Dynamic Evolution and Governing Interactions in Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Yuan, Chengqian; Han, Yuchun; Wang, Yilin; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Suojiang; Yan, Xuehai

    2017-11-01

    The interaction between water and biomolecules including peptides is of critical importance for forming high-level architectures and triggering life's functions. However, the bulk aqueous environment has limitations in detecting the kinetics and mechanisms of peptide self-assembly, especially relating to interactions of trace water. With ionic liquids (ILs) as a nonconventional medium, herein, it is discovered that trace amounts of water play a decisive role in triggering self-assembly of a biologically derived dipeptide. ILs provide a suitable nonaqueous environment, enabling us to mediate water content and follow the dynamic evolution of peptide self-assembly. The trace water is found to be involved in the assembly process of dipeptide, especially leading to the formation of stable noncovalent dipeptide oligomers in the early stage of nucleation, as evident by both experimental studies and theoretical simulations. The thermodynamics of the growth process is mainly governed by a synergistic effect of hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds. Each step of assembly presents a different trend in thermodynamic energy. The dynamic evolution of assembly process can be efficiently mediated by changing trace water content. The decisive role of trace water in triggering and mediating self-assembly of biomolecules provides a new perspective in understanding supramolecular chemistry and molecular self-organization in biology. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. HPV16 synthetic long peptide (HPV16-SLP) vaccination therapy of patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma, a phase II trial.

    PubMed

    van Poelgeest, Mariette I E; Welters, Marij J P; van Esch, Edith M G; Stynenbosch, Linda F M; Kerpershoek, Gijs; van Persijn van Meerten, Els L; van den Hende, Muriel; Löwik, Margriet J G; Berends-van der Meer, Dorien M A; Fathers, Lorraine M; Valentijn, A Rob P M; Oostendorp, Jaap; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Melief, Cornelis J M; Kenter, Gemma G; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2013-04-04

    Human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16)-induced gynecological cancers, in particular cervical cancers, are found in many women worldwide. The HPV16 encoded oncoproteins E6 and E7 are tumor-specific targets for the adaptive immune system permitting the development of an HPV16-synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccine with an excellent treatment profile in animal models. Here, we determined the toxicity, safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the HPV16 SLP vaccine in patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma. Patients with HPV16-positive advanced or recurrent gynecological carcinoma (n = 20) were subcutaneously vaccinated with an HPV16-SLP vaccine consisting of a mix of 13 HPV16 E6 and HPV16 E7 overlapping long peptides in Montanide ISA-51 adjuvant. The primary endpoints were safety, toxicity and tumor regression as determined by RECIST. In addition, the vaccine-induced T-cell response was assessed by proliferation and associated cytokine production as well as IFNγ-ELISPOT. No systemic toxicity beyond CTCAE grade II was observed. In a few patients transient flu-like symptoms were observed. In 9 out of 16 tested patients vaccine-induced HPV16-specific proliferative responses were detected which were associated with the production of IFNγ, TNFα, IL-5 and/or IL-10. ELISPOT analysis revealed a vaccine-induced immune response in 11 of the 13 tested patients. The capacity to respond to the vaccine was positively correlated to the patient's immune status as reflected by their response to common recall antigens at the start of the trial. Median survival was 12.6 ± 9.1 months. No regression of tumors was observed among the 12 evaluable patients. Nineteen patients died of progressive disease. The HPV16-SLP vaccine was well tolerated and induced a broad IFNγ-associated T-cell response in patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma but neither induced tumor regression nor prevented progressive disease. We, therefore

  7. NEMO-Binding Domain Peptide Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Inhibiting the NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianhua; Li, Li; Yuan, Weifeng; Zheng, Linxin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effects and relevant mechanisms exerted by NEMO-binding domain peptide (NBD) against lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. The ALI model was induced by intratracheally administered atomized LPS (5 mg/kg) to BABL/c mice. Half an hour before LPS administration, we treated the mice with increasing concentrations of intratracheally administered NBD or saline aerosol. Two hours after LPS administration, each group of mice was sacrificed. We observed that NBD pretreatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced lung histopathological injury in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting established that NBD pretreatment obviously attenuated LPS-induced IκB-α and NF-κBp65 activation and NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4 overexpression. Furthermore, NBD pretreatment increased SOD and T-AOC activity and decreased MDA levels in lung tissue. In addition, NBD also inhibited TNF-α and IL-1β secretion in BALF after LPS challenge. In conclusion, NBD protects against LPS-induced ALI in mice. PMID:27956761

  8. Calcitonin gene-related peptide enhances substance P-induced behaviors via metabolic inhibition: in vivo evidence for a new mechanism of neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Mao, J; Coghill, R C; Kellstein, D E; Frenk, H; Mayer, D J

    1992-03-06

    The present study examined the effects of intrathecal (i.t.) injection of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on caudally directed biting and scratching induced by i.t. substance P (SP), bombesin (BBS), strychnine (STR), and kainic acid (KA). CGRP alone (5.25, 10.5 and 21 nmol) had no effect on these behaviors, but CGRP pretreatment produced a dose-related enhancement of behaviors induced by SP or BBS, but not by KA or STR. 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV, 25 nmol), a selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, did not block the CGRP potentiation of SP and BBS induced behaviors. CGRP, however, failed to enhance scratching and biting induced by a SP analogue [pGlu5-Mephe8-MeGly9]SP(5-11) (Dime-C7) that is resistant to enzymatic degradation by SP endopeptidase. These findings demonstrate that CGRP potentiates SP induced behavioral responses via inhibition of neuropeptide degradation and that this mechanism may serve as a physiological mechanism of SP modulation.

  9. ML1419c peptide immunization induces Mycobacterium leprae-specific HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL in vivo with potential to kill live mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Geluk, Annemieke; van den Eeden, Susan J F; Dijkman, Karin; Wilson, Louis; Kim, Hee Jin; Franken, Kees L M C; Spencer, John S; Pessolani, Maria C V; Pereira, Geraldo M B; Ottenhoff, Tom H M

    2011-08-01

    MHC class I-restricted CD8(+) T cells play an important role in protective immunity against mycobacteria. Previously, we showed that p113-121, derived from Mycobacterium leprae protein ML1419c, induced significant IFN-γ production by CD8(+) T cells in 90% of paucibacillary leprosy patients and in 80% of multibacillary patients' contacts, demonstrating induction of M. leprae-specific CD8(+) T cell immunity. In this work, we studied the in vivo role and functional profile of ML1419c p113-121-induced T cells in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. Immunization with 9mer or 30mer covering the p113-121 sequence combined with TLR9 agonist CpG induced HLA-A*0201-restricted, M. leprae-specific CD8(+) T cells as visualized by p113-121/HLA-A*0201 tetramers. Most CD8(+) T cells produced IFN-γ, but distinct IFN-γ(+)/TNF-α(+) populations were detected simultaneously with significant secretion of CXCL10/IFN-γ-induced protein 10, CXCL9/MIG, and VEGF. Strikingly, peptide immunization also induced high ML1419c-specific IgG levels, strongly suggesting that peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells provide help to B cells in vivo, as CD4(+) T cells were undetectable. An additional important characteristic of p113-121-specific CD8(+) T cells was their capacity for in vivo killing of p113-121-labeled, HLA-A*0201(+) splenocytes. The cytotoxic function of p113-121/HLA-A*0201-specific CD8(+) T cells extended into direct killing of splenocytes infected with live Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing ML1419c: both 9mer and 30mer induced CD8(+) T cells that reduced the number of ML1419c-expressing mycobacteria by 95%, whereas no reduction occurred using wild-type M. smegmatis. These data, combined with previous observations in Brazilian cohorts, show that ML1419c p113-121 induces potent CD8(+) T cells that provide protective immunity against M. leprae and B cell help for induction of specific IgG, suggesting its potential use in diagnostics and as a subunit (vaccine) for M. leprae infection.

  10. Inhibition of cytokine response to TLR stimulation and alleviation of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by Schistosoma japonicum peptide SJMHE1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Li; Wang, Jun; Dong, Liyang; Shu, Yang; Liang, Yong; Shi, Liang; Xu, Chengcheng; Zhou, Yuepeng; Wang, Yi; Chen, Deyu; Mao, Chaoming

    2017-03-01

    Helminth-derived products have recently been shown to prevent the development of inflammatory diseases in mouse models. However, most identified immunomodulators from helminthes are mixtures or macromolecules with potentially immunogenic side effects. We previously identified an immunomodulatory peptide called SJMHE1 from the HSP60 protein of Schistosoma japonicum. In this study, we assessed the ability of SJMHE1 to affect murine splenocytes and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated by toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in vitro and its treatment effect on mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We show that SJMHE1 not only modulates the cytokine production of murine macrophage (MΦ) and dendritic cell but also affects cytokine production upon coculturing with allogeneic CD4 + T cell. SJMHE1 potently inhibits the cytokine response to TLR ligands lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) or resiquimod (R848) from mouse splenocytes, and human PBMCs stimulated by LPS. Furthermore, SJMHE1 suppressed clinical signs of CIA in mice and blocked joint erosion progression. This effect was mediated by downregulation of key cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of CIA, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and IL-22 and up-regulation of the inhibitory cytokine IL-10, Tgf-β1 mRNA, and CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Tregs. This study provides new evidence that the peptide from S. japonicum, which is the 'safe' selective generation of small molecule peptide that has evolved during host-parasite interactions, is of great value in the search for novel anti-inflammatory agents and therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  11. Development of a peptide ELISA to discriminate vaccine-induced immunity from natural infection of hepatitis A virus in a phase IV study.

    PubMed

    Ye, C; Luo, J; Wang, X; Xi, J; Pan, Y; Chen, J; Yang, X; Li, G; Sun, Q; Yang, J

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a highly infectious agent that causes acute liver disease. The infection can trigger the production of antibodies against the structural and non-structural proteins of HAV. Nonetheless, vaccination with an HAV vaccine leads to the production of a primary antibody against the structural proteins. Because the non-structural proteins are only produced during active virus replication, there is no or very little antibody production against the non-structural proteins. However, the current commercial immunoassay cannot distinguish between antibodies produced during natural infection and those from vaccination against HAV. In our study, six immune-dominant epitopes from the non-structural proteins were designed, synthesized, linked together and cloned into pGEX-5X-1 plasmid. The recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli and purified by Ni 2+ -coated magnetic agarose beads. Then the purified recombinant protein was used as an ELISA antigen to detect antibodies for HAV non-structural proteins in serum samples. Seventy-seven attenuated and 89 inactivated vaccinated samples collected from our previous phase IV study of HAV vaccines were detected by peptide ELISA developed in this study. The mean OD 450 value for the vaccination samples and acute infection samples were 0.529 (0.486 for the attenuated group and 0.567 for the inactivated group) and 1.187, respectively. According to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the sensitivity and specificity of the peptide ELISA were 93.80% and 91.00%, respectively. This peptide ELISA was confirmed to discriminate vaccine-induced immunity from natural infection of HAV in a phase IV study with high sensitivity and specificity.

  12. A novel murine model of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) induced by immunization with a spermine binding protein (p25) peptide

    PubMed Central

    Altuntas, Cengiz Z.; Veizi, Elias; Izgi, Kenan; Bicer, Fuat; Ozer, Ahmet; Grimberg, Kerry O.; Bakhautdin, Bakytzhan; Sakalar, Cagri; Tasdemir, Cemal; Tuohy, Vincent K.

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is poorly understood. Inflammatory and autoimmune mechanisms may play a role. We developed a murine model of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) that mimics the human phenotype of CP/CPPS. Eight-week-old mice were immunized subcutaneously with prostate-specific peptides in an emulsion of complete Freund's adjuvant. Mice were euthanized 10 days after immunization, and lymph node cells were isolated and assessed for recall proliferation to each peptide. P25 99–118 was the most immunogenic peptide. T-cell and B-cell immunity and serum levels of C-reactive protein and nitrate/nitrite levels were evaluated over a 9-wk period. Morphometric studies of prostate, 24-h micturition frequencies, and urine volume per void were evaluated. Tactile referred hyperalgesia was measured using von Frey filaments to the pelvic region. The unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze differences between EAP and control groups. Prostates from p25 99–118-immunized mice demonstrated elevated gene expression levels of TNF-α, IL-17A, IFN-γ, and IL-1β, not observed in control mice. Compared with controls, p25 99–118-immunized mice had significantly higher micturition frequency and decreased urine output per void, and they demonstrated elevated pelvic pain response. p25 99–118 immunization of male SWXJ mice induced prostate-specific autoimmunity characterized by prostate-confined inflammation, increased micturition frequency, and pelvic pain. This autoimmune prostatitis model provides a useful tool for exploring the pathophysiology and new treatments. PMID:23344231

  13. Bradykinin-potentiating PEPTIDE-10C, an argininosuccinate synthetase activator, protects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Querobino, Samyr Machado; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Alberto-Silva, Carlos

    2018-05-01

    Bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs - 5a, 7a, 9a, 10c, 11e, and 12b) of Bothrops jararaca (Bj) were described as argininosuccinate synthase (AsS) activators, improving l-arginine availability. Agmatine and polyamines, which are l-arginine metabolism products, have neuroprotective properties. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of low molecular mass fraction from Bj venom (LMMF) and two synthetic BPPs (BPP-10c, induced oxidative stress. The neuroprotective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced were analyzed by reactive oxygen species (ROS - DCFH) production; lipid peroxidation (TBARS); intracellular GSH; AsS, iNOS, and NF-kB expressions; nitrite levels (Griess); mitochondrial membrane potential (TMRM); and antioxidant activity (DPPH). Analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post hoc test were calculated for statistical comparisons. Pre-treatment with both BPPs significantly reduced cell death induced by H 2 O 2 , but BPP-10c showed higher protective capacity than BPP-12b. LMMF pretreatment was unable to prevent the reduction of cell viability caused by H 2 O 2 . The neuroprotective mechanism of BPP-10c against oxidative stress was investigated. BPP-10c reduced ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in relation to cells treated only with H 2 O 2 . BBP-10c increased AsS expression and was not neuroprotective in the presence of MDLA, a specific inhibitor of AsS. BPP-10c reduced iNOS expression and nitrate levels but decreased NF-kB expression. Furthermore, BPP-10c protected the mitochondrial membrane against oxidation. Overall, we demonstrated for the first time neuroprotective mechanisms of BPPs against oxidative stress, opening new perspectives to the study and application of these peptides for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rescue of Amyloid-Beta-Induced Inhibition of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by a Peptide Homologous to the Nicotine Binding Domain of the Alpha 7 Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Cleber A.; Sathler, Luciana B.; Juliano, Maria A.; Juliano, Luiz; Ulrich, Henning; Ferreira, Sergio T.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by brain accumulation of the neurotoxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and by loss of cholinergic neurons and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent evidence indicates that memory loss and cognitive decline in AD correlate better with the amount of soluble Aβ than with the extent of amyloid plaque deposits in affected brains. Inhibition of nAChRs by soluble Aβ40 is suggested to contribute to early cholinergic dysfunction in AD. Using phage display screening, we have previously identified a heptapeptide, termed IQ, homologous to most nAChR subtypes, binding with nanomolar affinity to soluble Aβ40 and blocking Aβ-induced inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced currents in PC12 cells expressing α7 nAChRs. Using alanine scanning mutagenesis and whole-cell current recording, we have now defined the amino acids in IQ essential for reversal of Aβ40 inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced responses in PC12 cells, mediated by α7 subtypes and other endogenously expressed nAChRs. We further investigated the effects of soluble Aβ, IQ and analogues of IQ on α3β4 nAChRs recombinantly expressed in HEK293 cells. Results show that nanomolar concentrations of soluble Aβ40 potently inhibit the function of α3β4 nAChRs, and that subsequent addition of IQ or its analogues does not reverse this effect. However, co-application of IQ makes the inhibition of α3β4 nAChRs by Aβ40 reversible. These findings indicate that Aβ40 inhibits different subtypes of nAChRs by interacting with specific receptor domains homologous to the IQ peptide, suggesting that IQ may be a lead for novel drugs to block the inhibition of cholinergic function in AD. PMID:23894286

  15. Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide ameliorates trauma-induced acute lung injury via inhibiting JAK/STAT signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi; Zhao, Xiu; Gao, Yan; Liu, Martin; Hou, Mingxiao; Jin, Hongxu; Cui, Yan

    2015-05-01

    JAK/STAT signal pathway plays an important role in the inflammation process of acute lung injury (ALI). This study aimed to investigate the correlation between recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and to explore the protective mechanism of rhBNP against trauma-induced ALI. The arterial partial pressure in oxygen, lung wet-dry weight ratios, protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the histopathologic of the lung, as well as the protein expressions of STAT1, JAK2, and STAT3 were detected. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: a control group, a sham-operated group, an ALI group, an ALI + rhBNP group, and an ALI + AG490 group. At 4 hours, 12 hours, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days after injury, injured lung specimens were harvested. rhBNP pretreatment significantly ameliorated hypoxemia and histopathologic changes and alleviated pulmonary edema in trauma-induced ALI rats. rhBNP pretreatment reduced the phosphorylated protein and total protein level of STAT1. Similarly to JAK-specific inhibitor AG490, rhBNP was shown to significantly inhibit the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in rats with trauma-induced ALI. Our experimental findings indicated that rhBNP can protect rats against trauma-induced ALI and that its underlying mechanism may be related to the inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling pathway activation.

  16. Cdk5 inhibitory peptide (CIP) inhibits Cdk5/p25 activity induced by high glucose in pancreatic beta cells and recovers insulin secretion from p25 damage.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya-Li; Li, Congyu; Hu, Ya-Fang; Cao, Li; Wang, Hui; Li, Bo; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Bao, Li; Luo, Hong-Yan; Shukla, Varsha; Amin, Niranjana D; Pant, Harish C

    2013-01-01

    Cdk5/p25 hyperactivity has been demonstrated to lead to neuron apoptosis and degenerations. Chronic exposure to high glucose (HG) results in hyperactivity of Cdk5 and reduced insulin secretion. Here, we set out to determine whether abnormal upregulation of Cdk5/p25 activity may be induced in a pancreatic beta cell line, Min6 cells. We first confirmed that p25 were induced in overexpressed p35 cells treated with HG and increased time course dependence. Next, we showed that no p25 was detected under short time HG stimulation (4-12 hrs), however was detectable in the long exposure in HG cells (24 hrs and 48 hrs). Cdk5 activity in the above cells was much higher than low glucose treated cells and resulted in more than 50% inhibition of insulin secretion. We confirmed these results by overexpression of p25 in Min6 cells. As in cortical neurons, CIP, a small peptide, inhibited Cdk5/p25 activity and restored insulin secretion. The same results were detected in co-infection of dominant negative Cdk5 (DNCdk5) with p25. CIP also reduced beta cells apoptosis induced by Cdk5/p25. These studies indicate that Cdk5/p25 hyperactivation deregulates insulin secretion and induces cell death in pancreatic beta cells and suggests that CIP may serve as a therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes.

  17. Glucagon-like peptide-1 reduces pancreatic β-cell mass through hypothalamic neural pathways in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hisae; Gotoh, Koro; Fujiwara, Kansuke; Anai, Manabu; Chiba, Seiichi; Masaki, Takayuki; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2017-07-17

    We examined whether glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) affects β-cell mass and proliferation through neural pathways, from hepatic afferent nerves to pancreatic efferent nerves via the central nervous system, in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The effects of chronic administration of GLP-1 (7-36) and liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, on pancreatic morphological alterations, c-fos expression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content in the hypothalamus, and glucose metabolism were investigated in HFD-induced obese rats that underwent hepatic afferent vagotomy (VgX) and/or pancreatic efferent sympathectomy (SpX). Chronic GLP-1 (7-36) administration to HFD-induced obese rats elevated c-fos expression and BDNF content in the hypothalamus, followed by a reduction in pancreatic β-cell hyperplasia and insulin content, thus resulting in improved glucose tolerance. These responses were abolished by VgX and SpX. Moreover, administration of liraglutide similarly activated the hypothalamic neural pathways, thus resulting in a more profound amelioration of glucose tolerance than native GLP-1 (7-36). These data suggest that GLP-1 normalizes the obesity-induced compensatory increase in β-cell mass and glucose intolerance through a neuronal relay system consisting of hepatic afferent nerves, the hypothalamus, and pancreatic efferent nerves.

  18. Kefir peptides prevent high-fructose corn syrup-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a murine model by modulation of inflammation and the JAK2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, H L; Tsai, T C; Tsai, Y C; Liao, J W; Yen, C C; Chen, C M

    2016-12-12

    In recent years, people have changed their eating habits, and high-fructose-containing bubble tea has become very popular. High-fructose intake has been suggested to be a key factor that induces non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Kefir, a fermented milk product composed of microbial symbionts, has demonstrated numerous biological activities, including antibacterial, antioxidant and immunostimulating effects. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of kefir peptides on high-fructose-induced hepatic steatosis and the possible molecular mechanism. An animal model of 30% high-fructose-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice was established. The experiment is divided into the following six groups: (1) normal: H 2 O drinking water; (2) mock: H 2 O+30% fructose; (3) KL: low-dose kefir peptides (50 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; (4) KM: medium-dose kefir peptides (100 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; (5) KH: high-dose kefir peptides (150 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; and (6) CFM: commercial fermented milk (100 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose. The results show that kefir peptides improve fatty liver syndrome by decreasing body weight, serum alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, insulin and hepatic triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids as well as the inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) that had been elevated in fructose-induced NAFLD mice. In addition, kefir peptides markedly increased phosphorylation of AMPK to downregulate its targeted enzymes, ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1), and inhibited de novo lipogenesis. Furthermore, kefir peptides activated JAK2 to stimulate STAT3 phosphorylation, which can translocate to the nucleus, and upregulated several genes, including the CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) involved in fatty acid oxidation. Our data have demonstrated that kefir peptides can improve the symptoms of NAFLD, including body weight, energy intake, inflammatory reaction and the

  19. Kefir peptides prevent high-fructose corn syrup-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a murine model by modulation of inflammation and the JAK2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H L; Tsai, T C; Tsai, Y C; Liao, J W; Yen, C C; Chen, C M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In recent years, people have changed their eating habits, and high-fructose-containing bubble tea has become very popular. High-fructose intake has been suggested to be a key factor that induces non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Kefir, a fermented milk product composed of microbial symbionts, has demonstrated numerous biological activities, including antibacterial, antioxidant and immunostimulating effects. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of kefir peptides on high-fructose-induced hepatic steatosis and the possible molecular mechanism. Results: An animal model of 30% high-fructose-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice was established. The experiment is divided into the following six groups: (1) normal: H2O drinking water; (2) mock: H2O+30% fructose; (3) KL: low-dose kefir peptides (50 mg kg−1)+30% fructose; (4) KM: medium-dose kefir peptides (100 mg kg−1)+30% fructose; (5) KH: high-dose kefir peptides (150 mg kg−1)+30% fructose; and (6) CFM: commercial fermented milk (100 mg kg−1)+30% fructose. The results show that kefir peptides improve fatty liver syndrome by decreasing body weight, serum alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, insulin and hepatic triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids as well as the inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) that had been elevated in fructose-induced NAFLD mice. In addition, kefir peptides markedly increased phosphorylation of AMPK to downregulate its targeted enzymes, ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1), and inhibited de novo lipogenesis. Furthermore, kefir peptides activated JAK2 to stimulate STAT3 phosphorylation, which can translocate to the nucleus, and upregulated several genes, including the CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) involved in fatty acid oxidation. Conclusion: Our data have demonstrated that kefir peptides can improve the symptoms of NAFLD, including body weight, energy intake

  20. Catalytic effects of histidine enantiomers and glycine on the formation of dileucine and dimethionine in the salt-induced peptide formation reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Fitz, Daniel; Fraser, Donald G; Rode, Bernd M

    2010-01-01

    The salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction takes place readily under mild reaction conditions and proceeds via a copper complex. Its ease of reaction and the universality for prebiotic scenarios add weights to the arguments in favour of the importance of peptide and proteins in the tug of war with the RNA world hypothesis. In addition, the SIPF reaction has a preference for L-form amino acids in dipeptide formation, casting light on the puzzle of biohomochirality, especially for the amino acids with aliphatic side chains. A detailed investigation on the behaviour of aliphatic leucine in the SIPF reaction is presented in this paper, including the catalytic effects of glycine, L- and D-histidine as well as the stereoselectivity under all the reaction conditions above. The results show a relatively low reactivity and stereoselectivity of leucine in the SIPF reaction, while both glycine and histidine enantiomers remarkably increase the yields of dileucine by factors up to 40. Moreover, a comparative study of the effectiveness of L- and D-histidine in catalysing the formation of dimethionine was also carried out and extends the scope of mutual catalysis by amino acid enantiomers in the SIPF reaction.

  1. Polysaccharide peptide isolated from grass-cultured Ganoderma lucidum induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in the human U251 glioma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunhua; Lin, Dongmei; Chen, Quan; Lin, Shuqian; Shi, Songsheng; Chen, Chunmei

    2018-01-01

    The Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) mushroom is one of the most extensively studied functional foods, known for its numerous health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. The present study assessed the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of a novel G. lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GL-PP) in human glioma U251 cells, which was purified from grass-cultured G. lucidum. GL-PP is a glycopeptide with an average molecular weight of 42,635 Da and a polysaccharide-to-peptide ratio of 88.70:11.30. The polysaccharides were composed of l-arabinose, d-mannose and d-glucose at a molar ratio of 1.329:0.372:2.953 and a total of 17 amino acids were detected. The results of the current study demonstrated that GL-PP significantly inhibited U251 cellular proliferation. The proportion of G0/G1 phase cells and sub-G1 phase cells significantly increased as the concentration of GL-PP increased, as did the activity of caspase-3. These results indicate that GL-PP directly inhibited human glioma U251 proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and promoting apoptosis. PMID:29541200

  2. Polysaccharide peptide isolated from grass-cultured Ganoderma lucidum induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in the human U251 glioma cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhua; Lin, Dongmei; Chen, Quan; Lin, Shuqian; Shi, Songsheng; Chen, Chunmei

    2018-04-01

    The Ganoderma lucidum ( G. lucidum ) mushroom is one of the most extensively studied functional foods, known for its numerous health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. The present study assessed the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of a novel G. lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GL-PP) in human glioma U251 cells, which was purified from grass-cultured G. lucidum . GL-PP is a glycopeptide with an average molecular weight of 42,635 Da and a polysaccharide-to-peptide ratio of 88.70:11.30. The polysaccharides were composed of l-arabinose, d-mannose and d-glucose at a molar ratio of 1.329:0.372:2.953 and a total of 17 amino acids were detected. The results of the current study demonstrated that GL-PP significantly inhibited U251 cellular proliferation. The proportion of G 0 /G 1 phase cells and sub-G 1 phase cells significantly increased as the concentration of GL-PP increased, as did the activity of caspase-3. These results indicate that GL-PP directly inhibited human glioma U251 proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and promoting apoptosis.

  3. Essential role of protein kinase C zeta in transducing a motility signal induced by superoxide and a chemotactic peptide, fMLP.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Nakamura, Kiminori; Tanaka, Maki; Sato, Tsutomu; Kato, Junji; Sasaki, Katsunori; Takimoto, Rishu; Kogawa, Katsuhisa; Terui, Takeshi; Takayama, Tetsuji; Onuma, Takayuki; Matsunaga, Takuya; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    2007-03-26

    Under various pathological conditions, including infection, malignancy, and autoimmune diseases, tissues are incessantly exposed to reactive oxygen species produced by infiltrating inflammatory cells. We show augmentation of motility associated with morphological changes of human squamous carcinoma SASH1 cells, human peripheral monocytes (hPMs), and murine macrophage-like cell line J774.1 by superoxide stimulation. We also disclose that motility of hPMs and J774.1 induced by a chemotactic peptide (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine [fMLP]) was inhibited by superoxide dismutase or N-acetylcystein, indicating stimulation of motility by superoxide generated by fMLP stimulation. In these cells, protein kinase C (PKC) zeta was activated to phosphorylate RhoGDI-1, which liberated RhoGTPases, leading to their activation. These events were inhibited by dominant-negative PKCzeta in SASH1 cells, myristoylated PKCzeta peptides in hPMs and J774.1, or a specific inhibitor of RhoGTPase in SASH1, hPMs, and J774.1. These results suggest a new approach for manipulation of inflammation as well as tumor cell invasion by targeting this novel signaling pathway.

  4. Essential role of protein kinase C ζ in transducing a motility signal induced by superoxide and a chemotactic peptide, fMLP

    PubMed Central

    Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Nakamura, Kiminori; Tanaka, Maki; Sato, Tsutomu; Kato, Junji; Sasaki, Katsunori; Takimoto, Rishu; Kogawa, Katsuhisa; Terui, Takeshi; Takayama, Tetsuji; Onuma, Takayuki; Matsunaga, Takuya; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    2007-01-01

    Under various pathological conditions, including infection, malignancy, and autoimmune diseases, tissues are incessantly exposed to reactive oxygen species produced by infiltrating inflammatory cells. We show augmentation of motility associated with morphological changes of human squamous carcinoma SASH1 cells, human peripheral monocytes (hPMs), and murine macrophage-like cell line J774.1 by superoxide stimulation. We also disclose that motility of hPMs and J774.1 induced by a chemotactic peptide (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine [fMLP]) was inhibited by superoxide dismutase or N-acetylcystein, indicating stimulation of motility by superoxide generated by fMLP stimulation. In these cells, protein kinase C (PKC) ζ was activated to phosphorylate RhoGDI-1, which liberated RhoGTPases, leading to their activation. These events were inhibited by dominant-negative PKCζ in SASH1 cells, myristoylated PKCζ peptides in hPMs and J774.1, or a specific inhibitor of RhoGTPase in SASH1, hPMs, and J774.1. These results suggest a new approach for manipulation of inflammation as well as tumor cell invasion by targeting this novel signaling pathway. PMID:17389234

  5. A novel family of cyclic oligopeptides derived from ribosomal peptide synthesis of an in planta-induced gene, gigA, in Epichloë endophytes of grasses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard D; Lane, Geoffrey A; Koulman, Albert; Cao, Mingshu; Fraser, Karl; Fleetwood, Damien J; Voisey, Christine R; Dyer, Jolon M; Pratt, Jennifer; Christensen, Michael; Simpson, Wayne R; Bryan, Gregory T; Johnson, Linda J

    2015-12-01

    Fungal endophytes belonging to the genus Epichloë form associations with temperate grasses belonging to the sub-family Poöideae that range from mutualistic through to pathogenic. We previously identified a novel endophyte gene (designated gigA for grass induced gene) that is one of the most abundantly expressed fungal transcripts in endophyte-infected grasses and which is distributed and highly expressed in a wide range of Epichloë grass associations. Molecular and biochemical analyses indicate that gigA encodes a small secreted protein containing an imperfect 27 amino acid repeat that includes a kexin protease cleavage site. Kexin processing of GigA liberates within the plant multiple related products, named here as epichloëcyclins, which we have demonstrated by MS/MS to be cyclic peptidic in nature. Gene deletion of gigA leads to the elimination of all epichloëcyclins with no conspicuous phenotypic impact on the host grass, suggesting a possible bioactive role. This is a further example of a ribosomal peptide synthetic (RiPS) pathway operating within the Ascomycetes, and is the first description of such a pathway from a mutualistic symbiotic fungus from this Phylum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. β N-O turns and helices induced by β2-aminoxy peptides: synthesis and conformational studies.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Zhi-Gang; Chang, Xiao-Wei; Ding, Wei; Liu, Guo-Jun; Song, Ke-Sheng; Zhu, Nian-Yong; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Yang, Dan

    2011-07-04

    Herein, we report an efficient route for the asymmetric synthesis of β(2)-aminoxy acids as well as experimental and theoretical studies of conformations of peptides composed of β(2)-aminoxy acids. The nine-membered-ring intramolecular hydrogen bonds, namely, β N-O turns, are generated between adjacent residues in those peptides, in accordance with our computational results. The presence of two consecutive homochiral β N-O turns leads to the formation of β N-O helical structures in solution, although both helical (composed of two β N-O turns of the same handedness) and reverse-turn (composed of two β N-O turns with opposite handedness) structures are of similar stability, as suggested by theoretical studies. Nevertheless, two slightly different conformations, with the same handedness, of β(2)-aminoxy monomers have been observed in the solid state and in solution according to our X-ray and 2D NOESY studies. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Lysophosphatidylinositol-induced activation of the cation channel TRPV2 triggers glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion in enteroendocrine L cells.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Kamiya, Taichi; Aung, Kyaw Htet; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Ohta, Kunihiro; Tsuboi, Takashi

    2017-06-30

    The lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) has crucial roles in multiple physiological processes, including insulin exocytosis from pancreatic islets. However, the role of LPI in secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a hormone that enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion, is unclear. Here, we used the murine enteroendocrine L cell line GLUTag and primary murine small intestinal cells to elucidate the mechanism of LPI-induced GLP-1 secretion. Exogenous LPI addition increased intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in GLUTag cells and induced GLP-1 secretion from both GLUTag and acutely prepared primary intestinal cells. The [Ca 2+ ] i increase was suppressed by an antagonist for G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) and by silencing of GPR55 expression, indicating involvement of G q and G 12/13 signaling pathways in the LPI-induced increased [Ca 2+ ] i levels and GLP-1 secretion. However, GPR55 agonists did not mimic many of the effects of LPI. We also found that phospholipase C inhibitor and Rho-associated kinase inhibitor suppressed the [Ca 2+ ] i increase and that LPI increased the number of focal adhesions, indicating actin reorganization. Of note, blockage or silencing of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2 (TRPV2) channels suppressed both the LPI-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increase and GLP-1 secretion. Furthermore, LPI accelerated TRPV2 translocation to the plasma membrane, which was significantly suppressed by a GPR55 antagonist. These findings suggest that TRPV2 activation via actin reorganization induced by G q and G 12/13 signaling is involved in LPI-stimulated GLP-1 secretion in enteroendocrine L cells. Because GPR55 agonists largely failed to mimic the effects of LPI, its actions on L cells are at least partially independent of GPR55 activation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. A short peptide eluted from the H-2Kb molecule of a polyomavirus-positive tumor corresponds to polyomavirus large T antigen peptide at amino acids 578 to 585 and induces polyomavirus-specific immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Berke, Z; Palmer, S; Bergman, T; Wester, D; Svedmyr, J; Linder, S; Jornvall, H; Dalianis, T

    1996-01-01

    A short peptide in complex with the H-2Kb molecule on PyRMA, a polyomavirus transfectant of the mouse lymphoma cell line RMA, was identified as a polyomavirus tumor-specific transplantation antigen. The peptide was obtained by affinity chromatography, acidic extraction, and reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). In one HPLC fraction, a peptide sequence in which 5 of 8 amino acids, GKxGLxxA, corresponded to residues 578 to 585 of polyomavirus large T antigen was identified. In tumor rejection assays, we therefore tested three related synthetic peptides, corresponding to the octapeptide LT 578-585, GKTGLAAA; the nonapeptide LT 578-586, GKTGLAAAL; and the decapeptide LT 578-587, GKTGLAAALI. The octapeptide was found to give the most effective immunization against the outgrowth of the polyomavirus DNA-positive PyRMA tumor. However, none of the three peptides immunized against the original polyoma-virus-negative RMA line. PMID:8627788

  9. Strategy to improve the quantitative LC-MS analysis of molecular ions resistant to gas-phase collision induced dissociation: application to disulfide-rich cyclic peptides.

    PubMed

    Ciccimaro, Eugene; Ranasinghe, Asoka; D'Arienzo, Celia; Xu, Carrie; Onorato, Joelle; Drexler, Dieter M; Josephs, Jonathan L; Poss, Michael; Olah, Timothy

    2014-12-02

    Due to observed collision induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation inefficiency, developing sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays for CID resistant compounds is especially challenging. As an alternative to traditional LC-MS/MS, we present here a methodology that preserves the intact analyte ion for quantification by selectively filtering ions while reducing chemical noise. Utilizing a quadrupole-Orbitrap MS, the target ion is selectively isolated while interfering matrix components undergo MS/MS fragmentation by CID, allowing noise-free detection of the analyte's surviving molecular ion. In this manner, CID affords additional selectivity during high resolution accurate mass analysis by elimination of isobaric interferences, a fundamentally different concept than the traditional approach of monitoring a target analyte's unique fragment following CID. This survivor-selected ion monitoring (survivor-SIM) approach has allowed sensitive and specific detection of disulfide-rich cyclic peptides extracted from plasma.

  10. Infusion of exogenous cholecystokinin-8, gastrin releasing peptide-29 and their combination reduce body weight in diet-induced obese male rats.

    PubMed

    Mhalhal, Thaer R; Washington, Martha C; Newman, Kayla; Heath, John C; Sayegh, Ayman I

    2017-02-01

    We hypothesized that exogenous gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) and their combination reduce body weight (BW). To test this hypothesis, BW was measured in four groups of diet-induced obese (DIO) male rats infused in the aorta (close to the junctions of the celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries) with saline, CCK-8 (0.5 nmol/kg), GRP-29 (0.5 nmol/kg) and CCK-8+GRP-29 (0.5 nmol/kg each) once daily for a total of 23 days. We found that CCK-8, GRP-29 and CCK-8+GRP-29 reduce BW relative to saline control. In conclusion, CCK-8, GRP-29 and their combination reduce BW in the DIO rat model. If infused near their gastrointestinal sites of action CCK-8, GRP-29 and their combination may have a role in regulating BW. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Recent Advances in the Gastric Mucosal Protection Against Stress-induced Gastric Lesions. Importance of Renin-angiotensin Vasoactive Metabolites, Gaseous Mediators and Appetite Peptides.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Olszanecki, Rafal; Korbut, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Stress is known to cause severe adverse effects in the human gastrointestinal tract including mucosal microbleedings and erosions or even gastric ulceration but the mechanism of these complications has not been fully elucidated. The pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage involves the fall in Gastric Blood Flow (GBF), an increase in gastric acid secretion and gastric motility, enhanced adrenergic and cholinergic nerve activity and the rise in gastric mucosal generation of reactive oxygen species. The gastric mucosal defense mechanisms against the deleterious effect of stress include the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which has been linked with glucocorticoids release capable of counteracting of stress-induced gastric lesions. Here we summarize the novel gastroprotective mechanisms against stress damage exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the newly discovered metabolite of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), the gaseous mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or Carbon Monoxide (CO), and the food intake controlling peptides ghrelin, nesfatin- 1 and apelin possibly acting via brain-gut axis. These bioactive molecules such as RAS vasoactive metabolite angiotensin-(1-7) and appetite peptides have been shown to afford gastroprotective effect against stressinduced gastric lesions mainly mediated by an increase in gastric microcirculation. Gaseous mediators protect the gastric mucosa against stress lesions by mechanism involving the activation of PG/COX and CO/HO-1 biosynthetic pathways, and their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidizing properties. Thus, these new components add new mechanistic aspects to the common cooperation of NO/NO-synthase, PG/COX systems and vasoactive sensory neuropeptides including CGRP but their gastroprotective efficacy against experimental stress ulcerogenesis requires the confirmation in human clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Compensation for obesity-induced insulin resistance in dogs: assessment of the effects of leptin, adiponectin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 using path analysis.

    PubMed

    Verkest, K R; Fleeman, L M; Morton, J M; Ishioka, K; Rand, J S

    2011-07-01

    The hormonal mediators of obesity-induced insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia in dogs have not been identified. Plasma samples were obtained after a 24-h fast from 104 client-owned lean, overweight, and obese dogs. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were used to calculate insulin sensitivity and β-cell function with the use of the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA(insulin sensitivity) and HOMA(β-cell function), respectively). Path analysis with multivariable linear regression was used to identify whether fasting plasma leptin, adiponectin, or glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations were associated with adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and basal insulin secretion. None of the dogs were hyperglycemic. In the final path model, adiposity was positively associated with leptin (P < 0.01) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (P = 0.04) concentrations. No significant total effect of adiposity on adiponectin in dogs (P = 0.24) was observed. If there is a direct effect of leptin on adiponectin, then our results indicate that this is a positive relationship, which at least partly counters a negative direct relationship between adiposity and adiponectin. Fasting plasma leptin concentration was directly negatively associated with fasting insulin sensitivity (P = 0.01) and positively associated with β-cell function (P < 0.01), but no direct association was observed between adiponectin concentration and either insulin sensitivity or β-cell function (P = 0.42 and 0.11, respectively). We conclude that dogs compensate effectively for obesity-induced insulin resistance. Fasting plasma leptin concentrations appear to be associated with obesity-associated changes in insulin sensitivity and compensatory hyperinsulinemia in naturally occurring obese dogs. Adiponectin does not appear to be involved in the pathophysiology of obesity-associated changes in insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The scorpion venom peptide BmKn2 induces apoptosis in cancerous but not in normal human oral cells.

    PubMed

    Satitmanwiwat, Saranya; Changsangfa, Chinarat; Khanuengthong, Anuson; Promthep, Kornkanok; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Arpornsuwan, Teerakul; Saikhun, Kulnasan; Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the induction of apoptosis of human oral cancer cells by the scorpion venom peptide BmKn2. Human oral squamous carcinoma cells (HSC4), mouth epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB), human normal gingival cells (HGC) and dental pulp cells (DPC) were treated with BmKn-2 peptide for 24h. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed using phase contrast microscopy, by propidium iodide (PI) staining to assess nuclear morphology and by Annexin V staining. Apoptotic signaling pathways were investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting. BmKn-2 showed potent cytotoxic effects towards both HSC4 and KB cells with the associated induction of apoptosis. The cells showed distinct morphological changes, nuclear disintegration and an increase in the number of Annexin V-positive cells. Interestingly, at concentrations which kill cancerous cells, BmKn-2 did not affect cell viability or mediate the induction of apoptosis in normal HGC or DPC. Induction of apoptosis by BmKn-2 in HSC4 and KB cells was associated with the activation of tumor suppress p53. Pro-apoptotic BAX expression was increased, whereas antiapoptotic BCL-2 expression was decreased in BmKn-2 exposed HSC4 and KB cells. BmKn-2 treated-oral cancer cells showed distinct upregulation of initiator caspase-9, with no effect on caspase-8 expression. Increased expression levels of executor caspases-3 and -7 were also found in treated cells for both oral cancers. This study has suggested for the first time that BmKn-2 exerts selective cytotoxic effects on human oral cancer cells by inducting apoptosis via a p53-dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway. BmKn-2 peptide originally derived from a natural source shows great promise as a candidate treatment for oral cancer, with minimal effects on healthy tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutral endopeptidase: variable expression in human lung, inactivation in lung cancer, and modulation of peptide-induced calcium flux.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A J; Bunn, P A; Franklin, W; Magill-Solc, C; Hartmann, C; Helfrich, B; Gilman, L; Folkvord, J; Helm, K; Miller, Y E

    1996-02-15

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP; CALLA, CD10, EC 3.4.24.11) is a cell surface endopeptidase that hydrolyses bioactive peptides, including the bombesin-like peptides, as well as other neuropeptides. Bombesin-like peptides and other neuropeptides are autocrine growth factors for both small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Low expression of NEP has been reported in SCLC and NSCLC cell lines. NEP inhibition has been shown to increase proliferation in one cell line. To date, NEP expression has not been quantitatively evaluated in normal adult lung, SCLC or NSCLC tumors, paired uninvolved lung from the same patient, or in other pulmonary neoplasms such as mesotheliomas and carcinoids. We examined the expression of NEP in these tissues and human cell lines using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, enzyme activity, ELISA, Western blot, and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Uninvolved lung tissue from different individuals displayed considerable variation in NEP activity and protein. By immunohistochemistry, NEP expression was detectable in alveolar and airway epithelium, fibroblasts of normal lung, and in mesotheliomas, whereas it was undetectable in most SCLC, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and carcinoid tumors of the lung. NEP activity and protein levels were lower in all SCLC and adenocarcinoma tumors when compared to adjacent uninvolved lung, often at levels consistent with expression derived from contaminating stroma. NEP expression and activity were reduced or undetectable in most SCLC and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. NEP mRNA by RT-PCR was not expressed or was in low abundance in the majority of lung cancer cell lines. The majority of lung tumors did not express NEP by RT-PCR as compared with normal adjacent lung. In addition, recombinant NEP abolished, whereas an NEP inhibitor potentiated, the calcium flux generated by neuropeptides in some lung cancer cell lines, demonstrating potential physiological significance for low NEP

  15. The Breadth of Synthetic Long Peptide Vaccine-Induced CD8+ T Cell Responses Determines the Efficacy against Mouse Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Panagioti, Eleni; Redeker, Anke; van Duikeren, Suzanne; Franken, Kees LMC; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2016-01-01

    There is an ultimate need for efficacious vaccines against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), which causes severe morbidity and mortality among neonates and immunocompromised individuals. In this study we explored synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccination as a platform modality to protect against mouse CMV (MCMV) infection in preclinical mouse models. In both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mouse strains, prime-booster vaccination with SLPs containing MHC class I restricted epitopes of MCMV resulted in the induction of strong and polyfunctional (i.e., IFN-γ+, TNF+, IL-2+) CD8+ T cell responses, equivalent in magnitude to those induced by the virus itself. SLP vaccination initially led to the formation of effector CD8+ T cells (KLRG1hi, CD44hi, CD127lo, CD62Llo), which eventually converted to a mixed central and effector-memory T cell phenotype. Markedly, the magnitude of the SLP vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell response was unrelated to the T cell functional avidity but correlated to the naive CD8+ T cell precursor frequency of each epitope. Vaccination with single SLPs displayed various levels of long-term protection against acute MCMV infection, but superior protection occurred after vaccination with a combination of SLPs. This finding underlines the importance of the breadth of the vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell response. Thus, SLP-based vaccines could be a potential strategy to prevent CMV-associated disease. PMID:27637068

  16. Triflavin, an Arg‐Gly‐Asp‐containing Antiplatelet Peptide Inhibits Cell‐substratum Adhesion and Melanoma Cell‐induced Lung Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Joen R.; Lin, Chao H.; Chung, Jih L.; Teng, Che M.

    1992-01-01

    Triflavin, an Arg‐Gly‐Asp (RGD) containing peptide purified from Trimeresurus flavoviridis snake venom, inhibits human platelet aggregation by blocking fibrinogen binding to fibrinogen receptors associated with glycoprotein Ilb/IIIa complex. In this study, we show that triflavin (1‐30 μg/mouse) inhibits B16‐F10 melanoma cell‐induced lung colonization in C57BL/6 mice in a dose‐dependent manner. In vitro, triflavin dose‐dependently inhibits adhesion of B16‐F10 melanoma cells to extracellular matrices (ECMs; i.e., fibronectin, fibrinogen, vitronectin, and collagen type I). Triflavin is approximately 600‐800 times more potent than GRGDS at inhibiting cell adhesion. In addition, triflavin dose‐dependently inhibits B16‐F10 cell‐induced platelet aggregation. These results imply that the inhibitory effect of triflavin on the adhesion of tumor cells to ECMs (e.g., fibronectin, vitronectin and collagen type I) and/or tumor cell‐induced platelet aggregation may be partially responsible for its antimetastatic activity in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:1399825

  17. Polysaccharide Peptide-Induced Virus Resistance Depends on Ca2+ Influx by Increasing the Salicylic Acid Content and Upregulating the Leucine-Rich Repeat Gene in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Chen, Yujia; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Yuanle; Chen, Wenbao; Feng, Chaohong; Wang, Qaochun; Wu, Yunfeng

    2018-05-01

    Plant viral diseases cause severe economic losses in agricultural production. The development of biosource-derived antiviral agents provides an alternative strategy to efficiently control plant viral diseases. We previously reported that the exogenous application of polysaccharide peptide (PSP) exerts significant inhibitive effects on Tobacco mosaic virus infection in Nicotiana tabacum. In this study, we studied in additional detail the mechanism by which PSP can induce virus resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that PSP significantly induced Ca 2+ influx and increased the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid (SA) in the A. thaliana cells. A gene with a toll interleukin 1 receptor-nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat domain (LRR) was obtained by RNA sequencing in combination with the screening of the gene-deletion mutants of A. thaliana. The LRR gene was deleted, and the inductive response of A. thaliana to PSP was significantly attenuated after mutation. After the heterologous overexpression of the LRR gene in N. benthamiana, the SA content and PR1 gene expression in N. benthamiana were significantly increased. Through analyses of the LRR gene expression and the ability of A. thaliana to resist Cucumber mosaic virus following the treatments of PSP and PSP + ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid, it was shown that PSP enhanced the virus resistance of A. thaliana by inducing Ca 2+ influx and subsequently improving expression of the LRR gene, which further increased the SA content.

  18. CART PEPTIDE IN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS REGULATES PSYCHOSTIMULANTS: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PSYCHOSTIMULANT AND CART PEPTIDE EFFECTS

    PubMed Central

    JOB, MARTIN O.; KUHAR, MICHAEL J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we reexamined the effect of CART peptide on psychostimulant (PS)-induced locomotor activity (LMA) in individual rats. The Methods utilized were as previously published. The PS-induced LMA was defined as the distance traveled after PS administration (intraperitoneal), and the CART peptide effect was defined as the change in the PS-induced activity after bilateral intra-NAc administration of CART peptide. The experiments included both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, and varying the CART peptide dose and the PS dose. While the average effect of CART peptide was to inhibit PS-induced LMA, the effect of CART peptide on individual PS treated animals was not always inhibitory and sometimes even produced an increase or no change in PS-induced LMA. Upon further analysis, we observed a linear correlation, reported for the first time, between the magnitude of PS-induced LMA and the CART peptide effect. Because CART peptide inhibits PS-induced LMA when it is large, and increases PS-induced LMA when it is small, the peptide can be considered a homeostatic regulator of dopamine (DA)-induced LMA, which supports our earlier homeostatic hypothesis. PMID:28215744

  19. Intrinsic excitability changes induced by acute treatment of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons with exogenous amyloid β peptide

    PubMed Central

    Scullion, Sarah; Brown, Jon T.; Randall, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulation of beta‐amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the human brain is a canonical pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent work in Aβ‐overexpressing transgenic mice indicates that increased brain Aβ levels can be associated with aberrant epileptiform activity. In line with this, such mice can also exhibit altered intrinsic excitability (IE) of cortical and hippocampal neurons: these observations may relate to the increased prevalence of seizures in AD patients. In this study, we examined what changes in IE are produced in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells after 2–5 h treatment with an oligomeric preparation of synthetic human Aβ 1–42 peptide. Whole cell current clamp recordings were compared between Aβ‐(500 nM) and vehicle‐(DMSO 0.05%) treated hippocampal slices obtained from mice. The soluble Aβ treatment did not produce alterations in sub‐threshold intrinsic properties, including membrane potential, input resistance, and hyperpolarization activated “sag”. Similarly, no changes were noted in the firing profile evoked by 500 ms square current supra‐threshold stimuli. However, Aβ 500 nM treatment resulted in the hyperpolarization of the action potential (AP) threshold. In addition, treatment with Aβ at 500 nM depressed the after‐hyperpolarization that followed both a single AP or 50 Hz trains of a number of APs between 5 and 25. These data suggest that acute exposure to soluble Aβ oligomers affects IE properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons differently from outcomes seen in transgenic models of amyloidopathy. However, in both chronic and acute models, the IE changes are toward hyperexcitability, reinforcing the idea that amyloidopathy and increased incidence in seizures might be causally related in AD patients. © 2014 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25515596

  20. Characterization of Heat-Stable (STa) Toxoids of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Fused to Double Mutant Heat-Labile Toxin Peptide in Inducing Neutralizing Anti-STa Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Robertson, Donald C.; Nataro, James P.; Clements, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing challenge in developing vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in children of developing countries and travelers to these countries, is to protect against heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa). STa and heat-labile toxin (LT) are virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. LT antigens are often used in vaccine development, but STa has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity and potent toxicity. Toxic STa is not safe for vaccines, but only STa possessing toxicity is believed to be able to induce neutralizing antibodies. However, recent studies demonstrated that nontoxic STa derivatives (toxoids), after being fused to an LT protein, induced neutralizing antibodies and suggested that different STa toxoids fused to an LT protein might exhibit different STa antigenic propensity. In this study, we selected 14 STa toxoids from a mini-STa toxoid library based on toxicity reduction and reactivity to anti-native STa antibodies, and genetically fused each toxoid to a monomeric double mutant LT (dmLT) peptide for 14 STa-toxoid-dmLT toxoid fusions. These toxoid fusions were used to immunize mice and were characterized for induction of anti-STa antibody response. The results showed that different STa toxoids (in fusions) varied greatly in anti-STa antigenicity. Among them, STaN12S, STaN12T, and STaA14H were the top toxoids in inducing anti-STa antibodies. In vitro neutralization assays indicated that antibodies induced by the 3×STaN12S-dmLT fusion antigen exhibited the greatest neutralizing activity against STa toxin. These results suggested 3×STaN12S-dmLT is a preferred fusion antigen to induce an anti-STa antibody response and provided long-awaited information for effective ETEC vaccine development. PMID:24549325

  1. Endogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) mediates adrenergic-dependent vasodilation induced by nicotine in mesenteric resistance arteries of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Shiraki, Hinako; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Tezuka, Satoko; Nakatsuma, Akira; Kurosaki, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying vasodilator effect of nicotine on mesenteric resistance blood vessels and the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing (CGRPergic) vasodilator nerves were studied in the rat. Mesenteric vascular beds isolated from Wistar rats were perfused with Krebs solution, and perfusion pressure was measured with a pressure transducer. In preparations with intact endothelium and contracted by perfusion with Krebs solution containing methoxamine, perfusion of nicotine (1–100 μM) for 1 min caused a concentration-dependent vasodilator response without vasoconstriction. The nicotine-induced vasodilation was markedly inhibited by hexamethonium (nicotinic cholinoceptor antagonist, 10 μM) and blocked by guanethidine (adrenergic neuron blocker, 5 μM). Either denervation by cold storage (4°C for 72 h) or adrenergic denervation by 6-hydroxydopamine (toxin for adrenergic neurons, 2 mM for 20 min incubation, twice) blocked the nicotine-induced vasodilation. Neither endothelium removal with perfusion of sodium deoxycholate (1.80 mg ml−1, for 30 s) nor treatment with Nω-nitro-L-arginine (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 100 μM), atropine (muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonist, 10 nM) or propranolol (β-adrenoceptor antagonist, 100 nM) affected the nicotine-induced vasodilation. In preparations without endothelium, treatment with capsaicin (depleting CGRP-containing sensory nerves, 1 μM) or human CGRP[8–37] (CGRP receptor antagonist, 0.5 μM) markedly inhibited the nicotine-induced vasodilation. These results suggest that, in the mesenteric resistance artery of the rat, nicotine induces vasodilation, which is independent of the function of the endothelium and is involved in activation of CGRPergic nerves. It is also suggested that nicotine stimulates presynaptic nicotinic cholinoceptors on adrenergic nerves to release adrenergic neurotransmitters, which then act on CGRPergic nerves to release endogenous CGRP

  2. A novel peptide, colivelin, prevents alcohol-induced apoptosis in fetal brain of C57BL/6 mice: signaling pathway investigations

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Youssef; Chiba, Tomohiro; Yamada, Marina; Rebec, George V.; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2009-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure is known to induce cell death through apoptosis. We found that colivelin (CLN), a novel peptide with the sequence SALLRSIPAPAGASRLLLLTGEIDLP, prevents this apoptosis. Our initial experiment revealed that CLN enhanced the viability of primary cortical neurons exposed to alcohol. We then used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to identify the intracellular mechanisms underlying these neuroprotective effects. On embryonic day 7 (E7), weight-matched pregnant females were assigned to the following groups: (1) ethanol liquid diet (ALC) 25% (4.49%, v/v) ethanol derived calories; (2) pair-fed control; (3) normal chow; (4) ALC combined with administration (i.p.) of CLN (20 μg/20 g body weight); and (5) pair-fed combined with administration (i.p.) of CLN (20 μg/20 g body weight). On E13, fetal brains were collected and assayed for TUNEL staining, caspase-3 colorimetric assay, ELISA, and MSD electrochemiluminescence. CLN blocked the alcohol-induced decline in brain weight and prevented alcohol-induced: apoptosis, activation of caspase-3 and increases of cytosolic cytochrome c, and decreases of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Analysis of proteins in the upstream signaling pathway revealed that CLN down-regulated the phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Moreover, CLN prevented alcohol-induced reduction in phosphorylation of BAD protein. Thus, CLN appears to act directly on upstream signaling proteins to prevent alcohol-induced apoptosis. Further assessment of these proteins and their signaling mechanisms is likely to enhance development of neuroprotective therapies. PMID:19782727

  3. Potentiation of capsaicin-induced neurogenic inflammation by 5-HT7 receptors in the rat hind paw: Involvement of calcitonin gen-related peptide.

    PubMed

    Arreola-Peralta, Luis D; Altamirano-Reyna, Frida; Galindo-González, Deni M; Solis-Anguiano, Jessica G; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Terrón, José A

    2018-05-03

    A decrease in the activation threshold of primary sensory neurons to transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) stimulation by serotonin 5-HT7 receptors has been reported but no confirmation if this might translate into facilitation of neurogenic inflammation has been provided. We analysed the modulation of capsaicin (CAP)-induced neurogenic inflammation in the rat hind paw by the selective 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-44, and the involvement of calcitonin gen-related peptide (CGRP) in this effect. Animals received intra-plantar injections (30 μL) of vehicle, CAP (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2%), LP-44 (7.5 and 15 nmol) and the combination of LP-44 + CAP; then, the time course of the inflammatory responses was measured. The effect of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-269970 (3 mg/kg, s.c.), on responses produced by LP-44 alone and combined with CAP was tested. As expected, CAP produced concentration- and time-dependent inflammatory responses in the hind paw. Interestingly, LP-44 by itself also produced inflammation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and magnified CAP-induced responses. Systemic pre-treatment with SB-269970 significantly blunted LP-44 (15 nmol)-induced inflammation as well as magnified inflammatory responses produced by the combination of LP-44 (7.5 and 15 nmol) + CAP (0.1%) thus confirming the involvement of 5-HT7 receptors. Finally, the non-peptide CGRP receptor antagonist, BIBN4096 (3 mg/kg, s.c.), strongly inhibited the potentiated inflammatory responses induced by LP-44 (7.5 and 15 nmol) + CAP (0.1%) thus substantiating their neurogenic nature. Thus, sensitization of CAP-sensitive primary sensory neurons by 5-HT7 receptors may result in facilitation of neurogenic inflammation involving CGRP in the rat hind paw. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The mechanism of gentisic acid-induced relaxation of the guinea pig isolated trachea: the role of potassium channels and vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors.

    PubMed

    Cunha, J F; Campestrini, F D; Calixto, J B; Scremin, A; Paulino, N

    2001-03-01

    We examined some of the mechanisms by which the aspirin metabolite and the naturally occurring metabolite gentisic acid induced relaxation of the guinea pig trachea in vitro. In preparations with or without epithelium and contracted by histamine, gentisic acid caused concentration-dependent and reproducible relaxation, with mean EC(50) values of 18 microM and E(max) of 100% (N = 10) or 20 microM and E(max) of 92% (N = 10), respectively. The relaxation caused by gentisic acid was of slow onset in comparison to that caused by norepinephrine, theophylline or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The relative rank order of potency was: salbutamol 7.9 > VIP 7.0 > gentisic acid 4.7 > theophylline 3.7. Gentisic acid-induced relaxation was markedly reduced (24 +/- 7.0, 43 +/- 3.9 and 78 +/- 5.6%) in preparations with elevated potassium concentration in the medium (20, 40 or 80 mM, respectively). Tetraethylammonium (100 microM), a nonselective blocker of the potassium channels, partially inhibited the relaxation response to gentisic acid, while 4-AP (10 microM), a blocker of the voltage potassium channel, inhibited gentisic acid-induced relaxation by 41 +/- 12%. Glibenclamide (1 or 3 microM), at a concentration which markedly inhibited the relaxation induced by the opener of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, levcromakalim, had no effect on the relaxation induced by gentisic acid. Charybdotoxin (0.1 or 0.3 microM), a selective blocker of the large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, caused rightward shifts (6- and 7-fold) of the gentisic acid concentration-relaxation curve. L-N(G)-nitroarginine (100 microM), a NO synthase inhibitor, had no effect on the relaxant effect of gentisic acid, and caused a slight displacement to the right in the relaxant effect of the gentisic acid curve at 300 microM, while methylene blue (10 or 30 microM) or ODQ (1 microM), the inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase, all failed to affect gentisic acid-induced relaxation. D-(P)-Cl-Phe(6),Leu(17

  5. A Murine Model of Inflammatory Bladder Disease: Cathelicidin Peptide Induced Bladder Inflammation and Treatment With Sulfated Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Oottamasathien, Siam; Jia, Wanjian; McCoard, Lindsi; Slack, Sean; Zhang, Jianxing; Skardal, Aleksander; Job, Kathleen; Kennedy, Thomas P.; Dull, Randal O.; Prestwich, Glenn D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Studies show that LL-37 is a naturally occurring urinary defensin peptide that is up-regulated during urinary tract infections. Although normal urinary LL-37 levels are antimicrobial, we propose that increased LL-37 may trigger bladder inflammation. We further suggest that anti-inflammatory sulfated polysaccharides known as semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether compounds can treat/prevent LL-37 mediated bladder inflammation. Materials and Methods C57BL/6 mice were catheterized/instilled with LL-37 (320 μM at 150 μl) for 45 minutes. Animals were sacrificed at 12 and 24 hours, and tissues were examined using hematoxylin and eosin. Separate experiments were performed for myeloperoxidase to quantify inflammation. GM-1111 semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether treatments involved instillation of 10 mg/ml for 45 minutes directly before or after LL-37. Tissues were harvested at 24 hours. To compare semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether efficacy experiments were performed using 10 mg/ml heparin. Finally, tissue localization of semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether was examined using a fluorescent GM-1111-Alexa Fluor® 633 conjugate. Results Profound bladder inflammation developed after LL-37. Greater tissue inflammation occurred after 24 hours compared to that at 12 hours. Myeloperoxidase assays revealed a 21 and 61-fold increase at 12 and 24 hours, respectively. Semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether treatment after LL-37 showed mild attenuation of inflammation with myeloperoxidase 2.5-fold below that of untreated bladders. Semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether treatment before LL-37 demonstrated almost complete attenuation of inflammation. Myeloperoxidase results mirrored those in controls. In heparin treated bladders minimal attenuation of inflammation occurred. Finally, instillation of GM-1111-Alexa Fluor 633 revealed urothelial coating, significant tissue penetration and binding to endovasculature. Conclusions We developed what is to our knowledge a new

  6. RF313, an orally bioavailable neuropeptide FF receptor antagonist, opposes effects of RF-amide-related peptide-3 and opioid-induced hyperalgesia in rodents.

    PubMed

    Elhabazi, Khadija; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Quillet, Raphaelle; Utard, Valérie; Schneider, Séverine; Schmitt, Martine; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Laboureyras, Emilie; Ben Boujema, Meric; Simonnet, Guy; Ancel, Caroline; Simonneaux, Valérie; Beltramo, Massimiliano; Bucher, Bernard; Sorg, Tania; Meziane, Hamid; Schneider, Elodie; Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Ilien, Brigitte; Bihel, Frédéric; Simonin, Frédéric

    2017-05-15

    Although opiates represent the most effective analgesics, their use in chronic treatments is associated with numerous side effects including the development of pain hypersensitivity and analgesic tolerance. We recently identified a novel orally active neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptor antagonist, RF313, which efficiently prevents the development of fentanyl-induced hyperalgesia in rats. In this study, we investigated the properties of this compound into more details. We show that RF313 exhibited a pronounced selectivity for NPFF receptors, antagonist activity at NPFF1 receptor (NPFF1R) subtype both in vitro and in vivo and no major side effects when administered in mice up to 30 mg/kg. When co-administered with opiates in rats and mice, it improved their analgesic efficacy and prevented the development of long lasting opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Moreover, and in marked contrast with the dipeptidic NPFF receptor antagonist RF9, RF313 displayed negligible affinity and no agonist activity (up to 100 μM) toward the kisspeptin receptor. Finally, in male hamster, RF313 had no effect when administered alone but fully blocked the increase in LH induced by RFRP-3, while RF9 per se induced a significant increase in LH levels which is consistent with its ability to activate kisspeptin receptors. Altogether, our data indicate that RF313 represents an interesting compound for the development of therapeutic tools aiming at improving analgesic action of opiates and reducing adverse side effects associated with their chronic administration. Moreover, its lack of agonist activity at the kisspeptin receptor indicates that RF313 might be considered a better pharmacological tool, when compared to RF9, to examine the regulatory roles of RF-amide-related peptides and NPFF1R in reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide, FGL, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in glia in a CD200-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Cox, F F; Berezin, V; Bock, E; Lynch, M A

    2013-04-03

    Fibroblast growth loop (FGL) is a neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-mimetic peptide that mimics the interaction of NCAM with fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). FGL increases neurite outgrowth and promotes neuronal survival in vitro, and it has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects in vivo. More recent evidence has indicated that FGL has anti-inflammatory effects, decreasing age-related changes in microglial activation and production of inflammatory cytokines. These changes have been associated with an FGL-induced increase in expression of the glycoprotein, CD200, which interacts with its receptor to help maintain microglia in a quiescent state. However whether the FGL-induced anti-inflammatory effects are CD200-dependent has not been examined. The objective of this study was to address this question. Mixed glia were prepared from brain tissue of neonatal wildtype and CD200-deficient mice and preincubated with FGL prior to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cells were assessed for mRNA expression of markers of microglial activation, CD11b, CD40 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and also the inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, while supernatant concentrations of these cytokine were also assessed. LPS significantly increased all these parameters and the effect was greater in cells prepared from CD200-deficient mice. Whereas FGL attenuated the LPS-induced changes in cells from wildtype mice, it did not do so in cells from CD200-deficient mice. We conclude that the FGL-induced changes in microglial activation are CD200-dependent and demonstrate that the interaction of astrocytes with microglia is critically important for modulating microglial activation. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Natriuretic peptide receptor-C activation attenuates angiotensin II-induced enhanced oxidative stress and hyperproliferation of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Madiraju, Padma; Hossain, Ekhtear; Anand-Srivastava, Madhu B

    2018-02-07

    We showed previously that natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C) agonist, C-ANP 4-23 , attenuated the enhanced expression of Giα proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) through the inhibition of enhanced oxidative stress. Since the enhanced levels of endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) contribute to the overexpression of Giα proteins and augmented oxidative stress in VSMC from SHR, the present study was undertaken to investigate if C-ANP 4-23 could also attenuate angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced oxidative stress and associated signaling. Ang II treatment of aortic VSMC augmented the levels of superoxide anion (O 2 - ), NADPH oxidase activity, and the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits and C-ANP 4-23 treatment attenuated all these to control levels. In addition, Ang II-induced enhanced levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl content were also attenuated toward control levels by C-ANP 4-23 treatment. On the other hand, Ang II inhibited the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and augmented the levels of peroxynitrite (OONO - ) in VSMC which were restored to control levels by C-ANP 4-23 treatment. Furthermore, C-ANP 4-23 treatment attenuated Ang II-induced enhanced expression of Giα proteins, phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK 1,2 as well as hyperproliferation of VSMC as determined by DNA synthesis, and metabolic activity. These results indicate that C-ANP 4-23 , via the activation of NPR-C, attenuates Ang II-induced enhanced nitroxidative stress, overexpression of Giα proteins, increased activation of the p38/JNK/ERK 1,2 signaling pathways, and hyperproliferation of VSMC. It may be suggested that C-ANP 4-23 could be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of vascular remodeling associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  9. Transgenic tomatoes expressing the 6F peptide and ezetimibe prevent diet-induced increases of IFN-β and cholesterol 25-hydroxylase in jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Pallavi; Hough, Greg; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Hannah R.; Meriwether, David; Williams, Kevin; Bensinger, Steven; Moller, Travis; Faull, Kym F.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa; Bostrom, Kristina I.; Tontonoz, Peter; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Fogelman, Alan M.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding LDL receptor (LDLR)-null mice a Western diet (WD) increased the expression of IFN-β in jejunum as determined by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and ELISA (all P < 0.0001). WD also increased the expression of cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) as measured by RT-qPCR (P < 0.0001), IHC (P = 0.0019), and ELISA (P < 0.0001), resulting in increased levels of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC) in jejunum as determined by LC-MS/MS (P < 0.0001). Adding ezetimibe at 10 mg/kg/day or adding a concentrate of transgenic tomatoes expressing the 6F peptide (Tg6F) at 0.06% by weight of diet substantially ameliorated these changes. Adding either ezetimibe or Tg6F to WD also ameliorated WD-induced changes in plasma lipids, serum amyloid A, and HDL cholesterol. Adding the same doses of ezetimibe and Tg6F together to WD (combined formulation) was generally more efficacious compared with adding either agent alone. Surprisingly, adding ezetimibe during the preparation of Tg6F, but before addition to WD, was more effective than the combined formulation for all parameters measured in jejunum (P = 0.0329 to P < 0.0001). We conclude the following: i) WD induces IFN-β, CH25H, and 25-OHC in jejunum; and ii) Tg6F and ezetimibe partially ameliorate WD-induced inflammation by preventing WD-induced increases in IFN-β, CH25H, and 25-OHC. PMID:28592401

  10. Transgenic tomatoes expressing the 6F peptide and ezetimibe prevent diet-induced increases of IFN-β and cholesterol 25-hydroxylase in jejunum.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pallavi; Hough, Greg; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Hannah R; Meriwether, David; Williams, Kevin; Bensinger, Steven; Moller, Travis; Faull, Kym F; Lusis, Aldons J; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa; Bostrom, Kristina I; Tontonoz, Peter; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Fogelman, Alan M

    2017-08-01

    Feeding LDL receptor (LDLR)-null mice a Western diet (WD) increased the expression of IFN-β in jejunum as determined by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and ELISA (all P < 0.0001). WD also increased the expression of cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) as measured by RT-qPCR ( P < 0.0001), IHC ( P = 0.0019), and ELISA ( P < 0.0001), resulting in increased levels of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC) in jejunum as determined by LC-MS/MS ( P < 0.0001). Adding ezetimibe at 10 mg/kg/day or adding a concentrate of transgenic tomatoes expressing the 6F peptide (Tg6F) at 0.06% by weight of diet substantially ameliorated these changes. Adding either ezetimibe or Tg6F to WD also ameliorated WD-induced changes in plasma lipids, serum amyloid A, and HDL cholesterol. Adding the same doses of ezetimibe and Tg6F together to WD (combined formulation) was generally more efficacious compared with adding either agent alone. Surprisingly, adding ezetimibe during the preparation of Tg6F, but before addition to WD, was more effective than the combined formulation for all parameters measured in jejunum ( P = 0.0329 to P < 0.0001). We conclude the following: i ) WD induces IFN-β, CH25H, and 25-OHC in jejunum; and ii ) Tg6F and ezetimibe partially ameliorate WD-induced inflammation by preventing WD-induced increases in IFN-β, CH25H, and 25-OHC. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Postnatal weight gain induced by overfeeding pups and maternal high-fat diet during the lactation period modulates glucose metabolism and the production of pancreatic and gastrointestinal peptides.

    PubMed

    Du, Qinwen; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Umekawa, Takashi; Kinouchi, Toshi; Ito, Natsuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2015-08-01

    The impact of rapid weight gain on glucose metabolism during the early postnatal period remains unclear. We investigated the influence of rapid weight gain under different nutritional conditions on glucose metabolism, focusing on the production of pancreatic and gastric peptides. On postnatal day (PND) 2, C57BL/6N pups were divided into three groups: control (C) pups whose dams were fed a control diet (10%kcal fat) and nursed 10 pups each; maternal high-fat diet (HFD) pups whose dams were fed an HFD (45%kcal fat) and nursed 10 pups each; and overfeeding (OF) pups whose dams were fed the control diet and nursed 4 pups each. Data were collected on PND 7, 14 and 21. The body weight gains of the HFD and OF pups were 1.2 times higher than that of the C pups. On PND 14, the HFD pups had higher blood glucose levels, but there were no significant differences in serum insulin levels between the HFD and C pups. The OF pups had higher blood glucose and serum insulin levels than that of the C pups. Insulin resistance was found in the HFD and OF pups. On PND 14, the content of incretins in the jejunum was increased in the OF pups, and acyl ghrelin in the stomach was upregulated in the HFD and OF pups. These results suggest that neonatal weight gain induced by overfeeding pups and maternal high-fat diet during the early postnatal period modulates the insulin sensitivity and the production of pancreatic and gastrointestinal peptides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Establishment of a rat model of chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) induced by immunization with a novel peptide T2.

    PubMed

    Ihsan, Awais Ullah; Khan, Farhan Ullah; Nawaz, Waqas; Khan, Muhammad Zahid; Yang, Mengqi; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2017-07-01

    The exact etiological mechanism of Chronic Prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is still unclear however autoimmunity is the most valid theory. We developed a rat model of Chronic Prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome by using a novel peptide (T2) isolated from TRPM8. This model might be beneficial in elucidating mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS). 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats with an average weight of 180-220g were equally distributed into five groups. The normal control group was injected with normal saline (.9% NACL), the CFA group with CFA, AL(OH)3 group was given AL(OH)3 injection, T2 group using a novel peptide T2 and T2+AL(OH)3+CFA group was injected with T2+AL(OH)3+CFA. Dosing to all rat groups were injected subcutaneously. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Immunohistochemistry were used to investigate inflammatory cell infiltration and IL-1β in the prostate tissue respectively. ELISA technique was used to measure the serum level of CRP and TNF-α. T-test was used to analyze the results. Maximum infiltration of inflammatory cells and the highest level of IL-1β in the prostate tissue was observed in T2+AL(OH)3+CFA group as revealed by histopathology and Immunohistochemistry, respectively. Furthermore, T2+AL(OH)3+CFA group attained the peak value of serum TNF-α and CRP as determined by ELISA technique. Our results demonstrated that T2 in combination with AL(OH)3 and CFA induced severe Prostatitis in rats. We believe that our present model will be highly beneficial for investigation of the pathophysiology of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. A Multiepitope of XBP1, CD138 and CS1 Peptides Induces Myeloma-Specific Cytotoxic T lymphocytes in T cells of Smoldering Myeloma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jooeun; Prabhala, Rao; Voskertchian, Annie; Brown, Andrew; Maguire, Craig; Richardson, Paul; Dranoff, Glen; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Munshi, Nikhil C.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated a cocktail of HLA-A2-specific peptides including heteroclitic XBP1 US184-192 (YISPWILAV), heteroclitic XBP1 SP367-375 (YLFPQLISV), native CD138260-268 (GLVGLIFAV) and native CS1239-247 (SLFVLGLFL), for their ability to elicit multipeptide specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (MP-CTL) using T cells from smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) patients. Our results demonstrate that MP-CTL generated from SMM patients’ T cells show effective anti-MM responses including CD137 (4-1BB) upregulation, CTL proliferation, IFN-γ production, and degranulation (CD107a) in an HLA-A2-restricted and peptide-specific manner. Phenotypically, we observed increased total CD3+CD8+ T cells (>80%) and cellular activation (CD69+) within the memory SMM MP-CTL (CD45RO+/CD3+CD8+) subset after repeated multipeptide stimulation. Importantly, SMM patients could be categorized into distinct groups by their level of MP-CTL expansion and anti-tumor activity. In high responders, the effector memory (CCR7-CD45RO+/CD3+CD8+) T cell subset was enriched, while the remaining responders’ CTL contained a higher frequency of the terminal effector (CCR7-CD45RO-/CD3+CD8+) subset. These results suggest that this multipeptide cocktail has the potential to induce effective and durable memory MP-CTL in SMM patients. Therefore, our findings provide the rationale for clinical evaluation of a therapeutic vaccine to prevent or delay progression of SMM to active disease. PMID:24935722

  14. High-frequency stimulation-induced peptide release synchronizes arcuate kisspeptin neurons and excites GnRH neurons

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jian; Nestor, Casey C; Zhang, Chunguang; Padilla, Stephanie L; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) neurocircuits are essential for pubertal development and fertility. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Kiss1ARH) co-express Kiss1, NKB, dynorphin and glutamate and are postulated to provide an episodic, excitatory drive to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH) neurons, the synaptic mechanisms of which are unknown. We characterized the cellular basis for synchronized Kiss1ARH neuronal activity using optogenetics, whole-cell electrophysiology, molecular pharmacology and single cell RT-PCR in mice. High-frequency photostimulation of Kiss1ARH neurons evoked local release of excitatory (NKB) and inhibitory (dynorphin) neuropeptides, which were found to synchronize the Kiss1ARH neuronal firing. The light-evoked synchronous activity caused robust excitation of GnRH neurons by a synaptic mechanism that also involved glutamatergic input to preoptic Kiss1 neurons from Kiss1ARH neurons. We propose that Kiss1ARH neurons play a dual role of driving episodic secretion of GnRH through the differential release of peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters to coordinate reproductive function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16246.001 PMID:27549338

  15. Fluorophore labeling of a cell-penetrating peptide induces differential effects on its cellular distribution and affects cell viability.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ditlev; Christensen, Malene Vinther; Staerk, Dan; Franzyk, Henrik; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2017-12-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides constitute efficient delivery vectors, and studies of their uptake and mechanism of translocation typically involve fluorophore-labeled conjugates. In the present study, the influence of a number of specific fluorophores on the physico-chemical properties and uptake-related characteristics of penetratin were studied. An array of seven fluorophores belonging to distinct structural classes was examined, and the impact of fluorophore labeling on intracellular distribution and cytotoxicity was correlated to the physico-chemical properties of the conjugates. Exposure of several mammalian cell types to fluorophore-penetratin conjugates revealed a strong structure-dependent reduction in viability (1.5- to 20-fold lower IC 50 values as compared to those of non-labeled penetratin). Also, the degree of less severe effects on membrane integrity, as well as intracellular distribution patterns differed among the conjugates. Overall, neutral hydrophobic fluorophores or negatively charged fluorophores conferred less cytotoxicity as compared to the effect exerted by positively charged, hydrophobic fluorophores. The latter conjugates, however, exhibited less membrane association and more clearly defined intracellular distribution patterns. Thus, selection of the appropriate flurophore is critical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lipolysis-Stimulating Peptide from Soybean Protects Against High Fat Diet-Induced Apoptosis in Skeletal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Marthandam Asokan, Shibu; Hung, Tsu-Han; Chiang, Wen-Dee; Lin, Wan-Teng

    2018-03-01

    Obesity is generally associated with low-grade chronic inflammation that involves the recruitment of macrophages and other inflammation factors to the adipocytes of obese individuals. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a cytokine associated with systemic inflammation, is elevated in conditions of obesity. TNF-α is an important factor that plays an important role in skeletal muscle wasting. Apoptosis of myonuclei contributes to the loss of muscle mass and therefore plays an important role in skeletal muscle atrophy. In mouse models that were fed a high fat diet (HFD), a lipolysis-stimulating peptide-VHVV (purified from hydrolysate resulting from flavourzyme treatment of soy protein) was found to reduce HFD-related apoptotic effects in mice skeletal muscle and potentially control atrophy. HFD fed mice had heavier body weight than those fed with normal chow, and VHVV administration restricted lipid accumulation in muscle tissues of mice fed with HFD but increased nutrient uptake. Moreover, specific concentrations of VHVV regulated TNF-α expression that was elevated by HFD, suppressed apoptosis-related proteins and regulated the proteins of lipid metabolism.

  17. A peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein inhibits the proliferation induced by estradiol in mammary tumor cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, Walter D; Epuñan, Maria J; Reyes, José M; Valladares, Luis E; Andersen, Thomas T; Bennett, James A; Jacobson, Herbert I; Pino, Ana M

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to obtain additional information on the activity of a cyclized 9-amino acid peptide (cP) containing the active site of alpha fetoprotein, which inhibits the estrogen-stimulated proliferation of tumor cells in culture and of xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Breast cancer cells cultured in the presence of 2 nM estradiol were exposed to cP for different periods and their proliferation, estradiol binding parameters, clustering tendency and expression of E-cadherin and p21Cip1 were analyzed by biochemical and cell biology methods. The proliferation of MCF7 cells was significantly decreased by the addition of 2 microg/ml cP to the medium. cP did not increase cell death rate nor alter the number of binding sites for estradiol nor the endogenous aromatase activity of MCF7 cells. cP also decreased the proliferation of estrogen-dependent ZR75-1 cells but had no effect on estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 cells. An increased nuclear p21Cip1 expression detected after cP treatment suggests that cP slows MCF7 cell proliferation via this regulator. We propose that cP could represent a novel breast cancer therapeutic agent whose mechanism of action is different from that of tamoxifen or of inhibitors of aromatase.

  18. Electro-activation of sweet defatted whey: Impact on the induced Maillard reaction products and bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Kareb, Ourdia; Gomaa, Ahmed; Champagne, Claude P; Jean, Julie; Aïder, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    Electro-activation was used to add value to sweet defatted whey. This study aimed to investigate and to characterize the bioactive compounds formed under different electro-activation conditions by molecular and proteomic approaches. The effects of electric current intensity (400, 500 or 600mA) and whey concentration (7, 14 or 21% (w/v)) as a function of the electro-activation time (0, 15, 30 or 45min) were evaluated. The targeted dependent variables were the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), protein hydrolysates and glycated compounds. It was shown that the MRPs derived from electro-activated whey at a concentration of 14% had the highest potential of biological activity. SDS-PAGE analyses indicated the formation of hydrolysates and glycated compounds with different molecular weight distributions. FTIR indicated the predominance of intermediate MRPs, such as the Schiff base compounds. LC-MS/MS and proteomics analysis showed the production of multi-functional bioactive peptides due to the hydrolysis of whey proteins. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acteoside and Isoacteoside Protect Amyloid β Peptide Induced Cytotoxicity, Cognitive Deficit and Neurochemical Disturbances In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shiao, Young-Ji; Su, Muh-Hwan; Lin, Hang-Ching; Wu, Chi-Rei

    2017-01-01

    Acteoside and isoacteoside, two phenylethanoid glycosides, coexist in some plants. This study investigates the memory-improving and cytoprotective effects of acteoside and isoacteoside in amyloid β peptide 1-42 (Aβ 1-42)-infused rats and Aβ 1-42-treated SH-SY5Y cells. It further elucidates the role of amyloid cascade and central neuronal function in these effects. Acteoside and isoacteoside ameliorated cognitive deficits, decreased amyloid deposition, and reversed central cholinergic dysfunction that were caused by Aβ 1-42 in rats. Acteoside and isoacteoside further decreased extracellular Aβ 1-40 production and restored the cell viability that was decreased by Aβ 1-42 in SH-SY5Y cells. Acteoside and isoacteoside also promoted Aβ 1-40 degradation and inhibited Aβ 1-42 oligomerization in vitro. However, the memory-improving and cytoprotective effects of isoacteoside exceeded those of acteoside. Isoacteoside promoted exploratory behavior and restored cortical and hippocampal dopamine levels, but acteoside did not. We suggest that acteoside and isoacteoside ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction that was caused by Aβ 1-42 by blocking amyloid deposition via preventing amyloid oligomerization, and reversing central neuronal function via counteracting amyloid cytotoxicity. PMID:28441758

  20. PB1-F2 Peptide Derived from Avian Influenza A Virus H7N9 Induces Inflammation via Activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome*

    PubMed Central

    Pinar, Anita; Dowling, Jennifer K.; Bitto, Natalie J.; Robertson, Avril A. B.; Latz, Eicke; Stewart, Cameron R.; Drummond, Grant R.; Cooper, Matthew A.; McAuley, Julie L.; Tate, Michelle D.; Mansell, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of avian H7N9 influenza A virus in humans with associated high mortality has highlighted the threat of a potential pandemic. Fatal H7N9 infections are characterized by hyperinflammation and increased cellular infiltrates in the lung. Currently there are limited therapies to address the pathologies associated with H7N9 infection and the virulence factors that contribute to these pathologies. We have found that PB1-F2 derived from H7N9 activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and induces lung inflammation and cellular recruitment that is NLRP3-dependent. We have also shown that H7N9 and A/Puerto Rico/H1N1 (PR8)PB1-F2 peptide treatment induces significant mitochondrial reactive oxygen production, which contributes to NLRP3 activation. Importantly, treatment of cells or mice with the specific NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 significantly reduces IL-1β maturation, lung cellular recruitment, and cytokine production. Together, these results suggest that PB1-F2 from H7N9 avian influenza A virus may be a major contributory factor to disease pathophysiology and excessive inflammation characteristic of clinical infections and that targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome may be an effective means to reduce the inflammatory burden associated with H7N9 infections. PMID:27913620

  1. PB1-F2 Peptide Derived from Avian Influenza A Virus H7N9 Induces Inflammation via Activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Pinar, Anita; Dowling, Jennifer K; Bitto, Natalie J; Robertson, Avril A B; Latz, Eicke; Stewart, Cameron R; Drummond, Grant R; Cooper, Matthew A; McAuley, Julie L; Tate, Michelle D; Mansell, Ashley

    2017-01-20

    The emergence of avian H7N9 influenza A virus in humans with associated high mortality has highlighted the threat of a potential pandemic. Fatal H7N9 infections are characterized by hyperinflammation and increased cellular infiltrates in the lung. Currently there are limited therapies to address the pathologies associated with H7N9 infection and the virulence factors that contribute to these pathologies. We have found that PB1-F2 derived from H7N9 activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and induces lung inflammation and cellular recruitment that is NLRP3-dependent. We have also shown that H7N9 and A/Puerto Rico/H1N1 (PR8)PB1-F2 peptide treatment induces significant mitochondrial reactive oxygen production, which contributes to NLRP3 activation. Importantly, treatment of cells or mice with the specific NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 significantly reduces IL-1β maturation, lung cellular recruitment, and cytokine production. Together, these results suggest that PB1-F2 from H7N9 avian influenza A virus may be a major contributory factor to disease pathophysiology and excessive inflammation characteristic of clinical infections and that targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome may be an effective means to reduce the inflammatory burden associated with H7N9 infections. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. A novel GIP analogue, ZP4165, enhances glucagon-like peptide-1-induced body weight loss and improves glycaemic control in rodents.

    PubMed

    Nørregaard, Pia K; Deryabina, Maria A; Tofteng Shelton, Pernille; Fog, Jacob U; Daugaard, Jens R; Eriksson, Per-Olof; Larsen, Lone F; Jessen, Lene

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the novel glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) analogue, ZP4165, on body weight and glycaemic control in rodents, and to investigate if ZP4165 modulates the anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycaemic effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist (liraglutide). The acute insulinotropic effect of ZP4165 was investigated in rats during an oral glucose tolerance test. The long-term effects of ZP4165 on body weight and glycaemic control, either alone or in combination with liraglutide, were assessed in diet-induced obese mice and diabetic db/db mice. ZP4165 showed insulinotropic action in rats. The GIP analogue did not alter the body weight of obese mice but enhanced GLP-1-induced weight loss. In diabetic mice, 4 weeks' dosing with ZP4165 reduced glycated haemoglobin levels vs vehicle by an extent similar to the GLP-1 agonist. ZP4165 potentiated the anti-obesity effect of a GLP-1 agonist in obese mice and improved glycaemic control in diabetic mice. These studies support further investigation of dual-incretin therapy as a more effective treatment option than mono GLP-1 medication for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta1-induced signaling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by the Smad-binding peptide aptamer Trx-SARA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bryan M; Hoffmann, F Michael

    2006-09-01

    Overexpression of the inhibitory Smad, Smad7, is used frequently to implicate the Smad pathway in cellular responses to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling; however, Smad7 regulates several other proteins, including Cdc42, p38MAPK, and beta-catenin. We report an alternative approach for more specifically disrupting Smad-dependent signaling using a peptide aptamer, Trx-SARA, which comprises a rigid scaffold, the Escherichia coli thioredoxin A protein (Trx), displaying a constrained 56-amino acid Smad-binding motif from the Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein. Trx-SARA bound specifically to Smad2 and Smad3 and inhibited both TGF-beta-induced reporter gene expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in NMuMG murine mammary epithelial cells. In contrast to Smad7, Trx-SARA had no effect on the Smad2 or 3 phosphorylation levels induced by TGF-beta1. Trx-SARA was primarily localized to the nucleus and perturbed the normal cytoplasmic localization of Smad2 and 3 to a nuclear localization in the absence of TGF-beta1, consistent with reduced Smad nuclear export. The key mode of action of Trx-SARA was to reduce the level of Smad2 and Smad3 in complex with Smad4 after TGF-beta1 stimulation, a mechanism of action consistent with the preferential binding of SARA to monomeric Smad protein and Trx-SARA-mediated disruption of active Smad complexes.

  4. Cellular and molecular insight into the inhibition of primary root growth of Arabidopsis induced by peptaibols, a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-Ling; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wang, Li-Xia; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Shuyu; Li, Chun-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Mei; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well known biocontrol agents that produce a variety of antibiotics. Peptaibols are a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma Alamethicin, the most studied peptaibol, is reported as toxic to plants at certain concentrations, while the mechanisms involved are unclear. We illustrated the toxic mechanisms of peptaibols by studying the growth-inhibitory effect of Trichokonin VI (TK VI), a peptaibol from Trichoderma longibrachiatum SMF2, on Arabidopsis primary roots. TK VI inhibited root growth by suppressing cell division and cell elongation, and disrupting root stem cell niche maintenance. TK VI increased auxin content and disrupted auxin response gradients in root tips. Further, we screened the Arabidopsis TK VI-resistant mutant tkr1. tkr1 harbors a point mutation in GORK, which encodes gated outwardly rectifying K(+)channel proteins. This mutation alleviated TK VI-induced suppression of K(+)efflux in roots, thereby stabilizing the auxin gradient. The tkr1 mutant also resisted the phytotoxicity of alamethicin. Our results indicate that GORK channels play a key role in peptaibol-plant interaction and that there is an inter-relationship between GORK channels and maintenance of auxin homeostasis. The cellular and molecular insight into the peptaibol-induced inhibition of plant root growth advances our understanding of Trichoderma-plant interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Combining autophagy-inducing peptides and brefeldin A delivered by perinuclear-localized mesoporous silica nanoparticles: a manipulation strategy for ER-phagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimin; Zhao, Zhao; Wei, Fujing; Luo, Zewei; Duan, Yixiang

    2018-05-10

    Autophagic degradation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-phagy) has been found to play a critical role in human sensory neuropathy. So far, however, specific and efficient intervention means for ER-phagy remain unexplored. Herein, brefeldin A (BFA), a blocking agent on protein transport between the ER and Golgi, was screened from ER stress inducers. BFA was then delivered to the perinuclear area co-localized with the ER by a mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based drug-carrier functionalized with autophagy-inducing peptides of TAT-beclin 1 (MSNs-BFA), to evoke a perturbation of ER-phagy. The molecular mechanism of ER-phagy regulated by BFA was explored by biochemical evaluation including time-lapse live-cell fluorescence imaging. We found that MSNs-BFA treatment caused a lower mRNA/protein expression level of FAM134b even under a compensation of autophagic flux in U2OS cells, and resulted in ER-expansion. The fragmentation of the ER was blocked as a response to ER stress mediated by inactivation of the AKT/TSC/mTOR pathway. Our work developed an efficient external manipulation strategy to regulate ER-phagy and may contribute to the therapeutic application of autophagy-related major human diseases.

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies for Assessing the Immune Response and Protection-Inducing Ability Conferred by Fasciola hepatica-Derived Synthetic Peptides Containing B- and T-Cell Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Caraballo, Jose; López-Abán, Julio; Pérez del Villar, Luis; Vizcaíno, Carolina; Vicente, Belén; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; del Olmo, Esther; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Muro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Fasciolosis is considered the most widespread trematode disease affecting grazing animals around the world; it is currently recognised by the World Health Organisation as an emergent human pathogen. Triclabendazole is still the most effective drug against this disease; however, resistant strains have appeared and developing an effective vaccine against this disease has increasingly become a priority. Several bioinformatics tools were here used for predicting B- and T-cell epitopes according to the available data for Fasciola hepatica protein amino acid sequences. BALB/c mice were immunised with the synthetic peptides by using the ADAD vaccination system and several immune response parameters were measured (antibody titres, cytokine levels, T-cell populations) to evaluate their ability to elicit an immune response. Based on the immunogenicity results so obtained, seven peptides were selected to assess their protection-inducing ability against experimental infection with F. hepatica metacercariae. Twenty-four B- or T-epitope-containing peptides were predicted and chemically synthesised. Immunisation of mice with peptides so-called B1, B2, B5, B6, T14, T15 and T16 induced high levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a (p<0.05) and a mixed Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg immune response, according to IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17 and IL-10 levels, accompanied by increased CD62L+ T-cell populations. A high level of protection was obtained in mice vaccinated with peptides B2, B5, B6 and T15 formulated in the ADAD vaccination system with the AA0029 immunomodulator. The bioinformatics approach used in the present study led to the identification of seven peptides as vaccine candidates against the infection caused by Fasciola hepatica (a liver-fluke trematode). However, vaccine efficacy must be evaluated in other host species, including those having veterinary importance. PMID:25122166

  7. Rationally designed chimeric peptide of met-enkephalin and FMRFa-[D-Ala2,p-Cl-Phe4]YFa induce multiple opioid receptors mediated antinociception and up-regulate their expression.

    PubMed

    Vats, Ishwar Dutt; Chaudhary, Snehlata; Sharma, Ahuti; Nath, Mahendra; Pasha, Santosh

    2010-07-25

    The physiological role of NPFF/FMRFa family of peptides appears to be complex and exact mechanism of action of these peptides is not yet completely understood. In same line of scrutiny, another analog of YGGFMKKKFMRFamide (YFa), a chimeric peptide of met-enkephalin and FMRFamide, was rationally designed and synthesized which contain D-alanine and p-Cl-phenylalanine residues at 2nd and 4th positions, respectively i.e., Y-(D-Ala)-G-(p-Cl-Phe)-MKKKFMRFamide ([D-Ala(2), p-Cl-Phe(4)]YFa) in order to achieve improved bioavailability and blood brain barrier penetration. Therefore, present study investigates the possible antinociceptive effect of [D-Ala(2), p-Cl-Phe(4)]YFa on intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration using tail-flick test in rats followed by its opioid receptor(s) specificity using mu, delta and kappa receptor antagonists. Further, its antinociceptive effect was examined during 6 days of chronic i.p. treatment and assessed effect of this treatment on differential expression of opioid receptors. [D-Ala(2), p-Cl-Phe(4)]YFa in comparison to parent peptide YFa, induce significantly higher dose dependent antinociception in rats which was mediated by all three opioid receptors (mu, delta and kappa). Importantly, it induced comparable antinociception in rats throughout the chronic i.p. treatment and significantly up-regulated the overall expression (mRNA and protein) of mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors. Therefore, pharmacological and molecular behavior of [D-Ala(2), p-Cl-Phe(4)]YFa demonstrate that incorporation of D-alanine and p-Cl-phenylalanine residues at appropriate positions in chimeric peptide leads to altered opioid receptor selectivity and enhanced antinociceptive potency, relative to parent peptide. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic) Acid Nanovaccine Based on Chimeric Peptides from Different Leishmania infantum Proteins Induces Dendritic Cells Maturation and Promotes Peptide-Specific IFNγ-Producing CD8+ T Cells Essential for the Protection against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Evita; Agallou, Maria; Tastsoglou, Spyros; Kammona, Olga; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis; Kiparissides, Costas; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania ( L .) donovani and L. infantum protozoan parasites, can provoke overwhelming and protracted epidemics, with high case-fatality rates. An effective vaccine against the disease must rely on the generation of a strong and long-lasting T cell immunity, mediated by CD4 + T H1 and CD8 + T cells. Multi-epitope peptide-based vaccine development is manifesting as the new era of vaccination strategies against Leishmania infection. In this study, we designed chimeric peptides containing HLA-restricted epitopes from three immunogenic L. infantum proteins (cysteine peptidase A, histone H1, and kinetoplastid membrane protein 11), in order to be encapsulated in poly(lactic- co -glycolic) acid nanoparticles with or without the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) or surface modification with an octapeptide targeting the tumor necrosis factor receptor II. We aimed to construct differentially functionalized peptide-based nanovaccine candidates and investigate their capacity to stimulate the immunomodulatory properties of dendritic cells (DCs), which are critical regulators of adaptive immunity generated upon vaccination. According to our results, DCs stimulation with the peptide-based nanovaccine candidates with MPLA incorporation or surface modification induced an enhanced maturation profile with prominent IL-12 production, promoting allogeneic T cell proliferation and intracellular production of IFNγ by CD4 + and CD8 + T cell subsets. In addition, DCs stimulated with the peptide-based nanovaccine candidate with MPLA incorporation exhibited a robust transcriptional activation, characterized by upregulated genes indicative of vaccine-driven DCs differentiation toward type 1 phenotype. Immunization of HLA A2.1 transgenic mice with this peptide-based nanovaccine candidate induced peptide-specific IFNγ-producing CD8 + T cells and conferred significant protection against L. infantum infection. Concluding, our findings supported that

  9. A Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic) Acid Nanovaccine Based on Chimeric Peptides from Different Leishmania infantum Proteins Induces Dendritic Cells Maturation and Promotes Peptide-Specific IFNγ-Producing CD8+ T Cells Essential for the Protection against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiou, Evita; Agallou, Maria; Tastsoglou, Spyros; Kammona, Olga; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis; Kiparissides, Costas; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania (L.) donovani and L. infantum protozoan parasites, can provoke overwhelming and protracted epidemics, with high case-fatality rates. An effective vaccine against the disease must rely on the generation of a strong and long-last