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Sample records for a-dlc top layer

  1. 19. EMPTY SEDIMENTATION TANKS. TOP LAYER OF WATER FLOWS OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. EMPTY SEDIMENTATION TANKS. TOP LAYER OF WATER FLOWS OVER TRIANGULATED CHANNELS AND OUT THE RAISED DUCTS TO FILTRATION PLANT. MOVEABLE BOARDS ON BOTTOM ASSIST IN REMOVING SLUDGE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. FILTER CONTROL BUILDING AT REAR. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Thermodynamic and radiative structure of stratocumulus-topped boundary layers*

    DOE PAGES

    Ghate, Virendra P.; Miller, Mark A.; Albrecht, Bruce A.; ...

    2015-01-05

    Stratocumulus Topped Boundary Layers (STBL) observed in three different regions with distinctive environments are described in the context of their thermodynamic and radiative properties. Here, the primary data set consisted of 131 soundings from the South East Pacific (SEP), 90 soundings from the island of Graciosa (GRW) in the North Atlantic and 83 soundings from the US Southern Great Plains (SGP). A new technique that preserves the depths of the sub-layers within a STBL is proposed for averaging the profiles of thermodynamic and radiative variables. The STBL was deepest over SEP and had the strongest radiative cooling rates near cloudmore » top among the three locations. Although the radiative cooling rates were comparable over GRW and SGP, the STBL was deeper over GRW compared to that over SGP. On average the STBL inversion was strongest over SEP (11.7 k and -5.43 g kg -1) and weakest over the SGP (6.89 k and -0.41 g kg -1). Significantly larger liquid water path, integrated water vapor, and variability in these two properties was found over GRW and evidence presented suggests that conditions at cloud top may play a lesser role in determining the resident cloud structure over GRW than over SEP. A modal analysis revealed ~26% of the STBL to be well-mixed, ~20% of STBL to be stable and ~30% STBL having a stable layer in-between a surface mixed layer and the cloud layer. Over all the three locations, the STBL was shallowest in well-mixed mode and deepest in the stable mode.« less

  3. The evaporatively driven cloud-top mixing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2010-11-01

    Turbulent mixing caused by the local evaporative cooling at the top cloud-boundary of stratocumuli will be discussed. This research is motivated by the lack of a complete understanding of several phenomena in that important region, which translates into an unacceptable variability of order one in current models, including those employed in climate research. The cloud-top mixing layer is a simplified surrogate to investigate, locally, particular aspects of the fluid dynamics at the boundary between the stratocumulus clouds and the upper cloud-free air. In this work, direct numerical simulations have been used to study latent heat effects. The problem is the following: When the cloud mixes with the upper cloud-free layer, relatively warm and dry, evaporation tends to cool the mixture and, if strong enough, the buoyancy reversal instability develops. This instability leads to a turbulent convection layer growing next to the upper boundary of the cloud, which is, in several aspects, similar to free convection below a cold horizontal surface. In particular, results show an approximately self-preserving behavior that is characterized by the molecular buoyancy flux at the inversion base, fact that helps to explain the difficulties found when doing large-eddy simulations of this problem using classical subgrid closures.

  4. Shallow marine cloud topped boundary layer in atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjic, Zavisa

    2017-04-01

    A common problem in many atmospheric models is excessive expansion over cold water of shallow marine planetary boundary layer (PBL) topped by a thin cloud layer. This phenomenon is often accompanied by spurious light precipitation. The "Cloud Top Entrainment Instability" (CTEI) was proposed as an explanation of the mechanism controlling this process in reality thereby preventing spurious enlargement of the cloudy area and widely spread light precipitation observed in the models. A key element of this hypothesis is evaporative cooling at the PBL top. However, the CTEI hypothesis remains controversial. For example, a recent direct simulation experiment indicated that the evaporative cooling couldn't explain the break-up of the cloudiness as hypothesized by the CTEI. Here, it is shown that the cloud break-up can be achieved in numerical models by a further modification of the nonsingular implementation of the Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 turbulence closure model (MYJ) developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Washington. Namely, the impact of moist convective instability is included into the turbulent energy production/dissipation equation if (a) the stratification is stable, (b) the lifting condensation level (LCL) for a particle starting at a model level is below the next upper model level, and (c) there is enough turbulent kinetic energy so that, due to random vertical turbulent motions, a particle starting from a model level can reach its LCL. The criterion (c) should be sufficiently restrictive because otherwise the cloud cover can be completely removed. A real data example will be shown demonstrating the ability of the method to break the spurious cloud cover during the day, but also to allow its recovery over night.

  5. Modeling of Shallow Marine Cloud Topped Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjic, Z.

    2017-12-01

    A common problem in many atmospheric models is excessive expansion over cold water of shallow marine planetary boundary layer (PBL) topped by a thin cloud layer. This phenomenon is often accompanied by spurious light precipitation. The "Cloud Top Entrainment Instability" (CTEI) was proposed as an explanation of the mechanism controlling this process and thus preventing spurious enlargement of the cloudy area and widely spread light precipitation observed in the models. A key element of this hypothesis is evaporative cooling at the PBL top. However, the CTEI hypothesis remains controversial. For example, a recent direct simulation experiment indicated that the evaporative cooling couldn't explain the break-up of the cloudiness as hypothesized by the CTEI. Here, it is shown that the cloud break-up can be achieved in numerical models by a further modification of the nonsingular implementation of the nonsingular Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 turbulence closure model (MYJ) developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Washington. Namely, the impact of moist convective instability is included into the turbulent energy production/dissipation equation if (a) the stratification is stable, (b) the lifting condensation level (LCL) for a particle starting at a model level is below the next upper model level, and (c) there is enough turbulent kinetic energy so that, due to random vertical turbulent motions, a particle starting from a model level can reach its LCL. The criterion (c) should be sufficiently restrictive because otherwise the cloud cover can be completely removed. A real data example will be shown demonstrating the ability of the method to break the spurious cloud cover during the day, but also to allow its recovery over night.

  6. Durable superhydrophobic surfaces made by intensely connecting a bipolar top layer to the substrate with a middle connecting layer.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Jinghui; Zhang, Li-Zhi

    2017-08-30

    This study reported a simple fabrication method for a durable superhydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic top layer of the durable superhydrophobic surface was connected intensely to the substrate through a middle connecting layer. Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (KH-560) after hydrolysis was used to obtain a hydrophilic middle connecting layer. It could be adhered to the hydrophilic substrate by covalent bonds. Ring-open reaction with octadecylamine let the KH-560 middle layer form a net-like structure. The net-like sturcture would then encompass and station the silica particles that were used to form the coarse micro structures, intensely to increase the durability. The top hydrophobic layer with nano-structures was formed on the KH-560 middle layer. It was obtained by a bipolar nano-silica solution modified by hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). This layer was connected to the middle layer intensely by the polar Si hydroxy groups, while the non-polar methyl groups on the surface, accompanied by the micro and nano structures, made the surface rather hydrophobic. The covalently interfacial interactions between the substrate and the middle layer, and between the middle layer and the top layer, strengthened the durability of the superhydrophobic surface. The abrasion test results showed that the superhydrophobic surface could bear 180 abrasion cycles on 1200 CW sandpaper under 2 kPa applied pressure.

  7. A lower limit on the top of Jupiter's haze layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, A. F., II; Duxbury, T. C.; Hunt, G. E.

    1979-01-01

    Remote sensing observations of the Jovian atmosphere at wavelengths ranging from UV to the IR are affected by the presence of haze layers above the visible clouds. These layers are difficult to detect as they generally contain submicron particles. In the present paper, a sequence of Voyager images of high-latitude haze, which extends through the Jovian stratosphere into the mesosphere is presented and discussed.

  8. Determination of boundary layer top on the basis of the characteristics of atmospheric particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boming; Ma, Yingying; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Jian

    2018-04-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lowest layer of the atmosphere that can be directly influenced with the Earth's surface. This layer can also respond to surface forcing. The determination of the PBL is significant to environmental and climate research. PBL can also serve as an input parameter for further data processing with atmospheric models. Traditional detection algorithms are susceptible to errors associated with the vertical distribution of aerosol concentrations. To overcome this limitation, a maximum difference search (MDS) algorithm was proposed to calculate the top of the boundary layer based on differences in particle characteristics. The top positions of the PBL from MDS algorithm under different convection states were compared with those from conventional methods. Experimental results demonstrated that the MDS method can determine the top of the boundary layer precisely. The proposed algorithm can also be used to calculate the top of the PBL accurately under weak convection conditions where the traditional methods cannot be applied. Finally, experimental data from June 2015 to December 2015 were analysed to verify the reliability of the MDS algorithm. The correlation coefficients R2 (RMSE) between the results of MDS algorithm and radiosonde measurements were 0.53 (115 m), 0.79 (141 m) and 0.96 (43 m) under weak, moderate and strong convections, respectively. These findings indicated that the proposed method possessed a good feasibility and stability.

  9. Global climatology of planetary boundary layer top obtained from multi-satellite GPS RO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basha, Ghouse; Kishore, P.; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Ravindra Babu, S.; Velicogna, Isabella; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Ao, Chi O.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate estimation of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) top is essential for air quality prediction, weather forecast, and assessment of regional and global climate models. In this article, the long-term climatology of seasonal, global distribution of PBL is presented by using global positioning system radio occultation (GPSRO) based payloads such as Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC), Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS), TerraSAR-X, and The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) from the year 2006-2015. We used Wavelet Covariance Transform (WCT) technique for precise PBL top identification. The derived PBL top from GPSRO data is rigorously evaluated with GPS radiosonde data over Gadanki. Significant seasonal variation is noticed in both radiosonde and GPSRO observations. Further, we compared the PBL obtained GPS RO with global radiosonde network and observed very good correlation. The number of occultations reaching down to 500 m and retrieval rate of PBL top from WCT method is very high in mid-latitudes compared to tropical latitudes. The global distribution of PBL top shows significant seasonal variation with higher during summer followed by spring, fall, and minimum in winter. In the vicinity of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the PBL top is high over eastern Pacific compared to other regions. The ERA-Interim reanalysis data underestimate the PBL top compared to GPS RO observations due to different measurement techniques. The seasonal variation of global averaged PBL top over land and ocean shows contrasting features at different latitude bands.

  10. Long range wetting transparency on top of layered metal dielectric substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    multi-layered stacks were deposited onto glass substrates ( silica -based Micro cover glass , 22mmx22mm from VWR (48366-067), index of refraction n...necessarily endorsed by the United States Government. Long-range wetting transparency on top of layered metal-dielectric substrates M. A...as far as ~100 nm beneath the water/MgF2 interface. We refer to this phenomenon as long range wetting transparency . The latter effect cannot be

  11. A preliminary study on puncture resistances of top and bottom layers of multi-layered needlepunched nonwoven geotextiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alan, G.; Tercan, M.

    2017-10-01

    Needlepunched nonwoven textiles are commonly used as geotextiles for various applications. Considering both environmental and economical benefits, utilization of recycled fibres in nonwoven geotextiles has become an attractive issue. Within this scope, the aim of this study is to evaluate the puncture resistance performances of top and bottom layers of multi-layered needle punched nonwovens made of recycled fibres to be used as membrane protective geotextiles by comparing them with those of made from polypropylene and polyester fibres. Puncture resistance results indicated that nonwovens made of recycled fibres demonstrated good performances at this preliminary stage.

  12. Dynamic Turbulence Modelling in Large-eddy Simulations of the Cloud-topped Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, M. P.; Mansour, N. N.; Ackerman, A. S.; Stevens, D. E.

    2003-01-01

    The use of large eddy simulation, or LES, to study the atmospheric boundary layer dates back to the early 1970s when Deardor (1972) used a three-dimensional simulation to determine velocity and temperature scales in the convective boundary layer. In 1974 he applied LES to the problem of mixing layer entrainment (Deardor 1974) and in 1980 to the cloud-topped boundary layer (Deardor 1980b). Since that time the LES approach has been applied to atmospheric boundary layer problems by numerous authors. While LES has been shown to be relatively robust for simple cases such as a clear, convective boundary layer (Mason 1989), simulation of the cloud-topped boundary layer has proved more of a challenge. The combination of small length scales and anisotropic turbulence coupled with cloud microphysics and radiation effects places a heavy burden on the turbulence model, especially in the cloud-top region. Consequently, over the past few decades considerable effort has been devoted to developing turbulence models that are better able to parameterize these processes. Much of this work has involved taking parameterizations developed for neutral boundary layers and deriving corrections to account for buoyancy effects associated with the background stratification and local buoyancy sources due to radiative and latent heat transfer within the cloud (see Lilly 1962; Deardor 1980a; Mason 1989; MacVean & Mason 1990, for example). In this paper we hope to contribute to this effort by presenting a number of turbulence models in which the model coefficients are calculated dynamically during the simulation rather than being prescribed a priori.

  13. Vertical-velocity skewness in the marine stratus-topped boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeng, Chin-Hoh; Rotunno, Richard; Paluch, Ilga R.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical-velocity skewness, S(sub w), in a turbulent flow is important in several regards. S(sub w) is indicative of the structure of the motion when it is positive, updrafts are narrower and stronger than surrounding downdrafts, and vice versa. Aircraft measurements often suggest cool, narrow downdrafts at some distance below the stratus cloud top, indicating a negative S(sub w) (Nicholls and Leighton, 1986). This seems natural as the turbulence within the stratus-topped boundary layer (CTBL) is driven mainly by the radiative cooling at the cloud top (although sometimes surface heating can also play a major role). One expects intuitively (e.g., Nicolls, 1984) that, in the situations where cloud-top cooling and surface heating coexist, the turbulence statistics in the upper part of the CTBL are influenced more by the cloud-top cooling, while those in the lower part, more by the surface heating. Thus one expects negative S(sub w) in the upper part, and positive in the lower part, in this case. In contradistinction, large-eddy simulations (LES) of the CTBL show just the opposite: the S(sub w) is positive in the upper part and negative in the lower part of the layer. To understand the nature of vertical-velocity skewness, the simplest type of buoyancy-driven turbulence (turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection) is studied through direct numerical simulation.

  14. Emission characteristics of dispenser cathodes with a fine-grained tungsten top layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, S.; Higuchi, T.; Ouchi, Y.; Uda, E.; Nakamura, O.; Sudo, T.; Koyama, K.

    1997-02-01

    In order to improve the emission stability of the Ir-coated dispenser cathode under ion bombardment, a fine-grained tungsten top layer was applied on the substrate porous tungsten plug before Ir coating. The emission characteristics were studied after being assembled in a CRT gun. Cathode current was measured under pulse operation in a range of 0.1-9% duty. Remarkable anti-ion bombardment characteristics were observed over the range of 1-6% duty. The improved cathode showed 1.5 times higher emission current than that of a conventional Ir-coated dispenser cathode at 4% duty. AES analysis showed that the recovering rates of surface Ba and O atoms after ion bombardment were 2.5 times higher. From these results it is confirmed that the Ir coated cathode with a fine-grained tungsten top layer is provided with a good tolerance against the ion bombardment.

  15. The Sensitivity of Numerical Simulations of Cloud-Topped Boundary Layers to Cross-Grid Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyant, Matthew C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter N.

    2018-02-01

    In mesoscale and global atmospheric simulations with large horizontal domains, strong horizontal flow across the grid is often unavoidable, but its effects on cloud-topped boundary layers have received comparatively little study. Here the effects of cross-grid flow on large-eddy simulations of stratocumulus and trade-cumulus marine boundary layers are studied across a range of grid resolutions (horizontal × vertical) between 500 m × 20 m and 35 m × 5 m. Three cases are simulated: DYCOMS nocturnal stratocumulus, BOMEX trade cumulus, and a GCSS stratocumulus-to-trade cumulus case. Simulations are performed with a stationary grid (with 4-8 m s-1 horizontal winds blowing through the cyclic domain) and a moving grid (equivalent to subtracting off a fixed vertically uniform horizontal wind) approximately matching the mean boundary-layer wind speed. For stratocumulus clouds, cross-grid flow produces two primary effects on stratocumulus clouds: a filtering of fine-scale resolved turbulent eddies, which reduces stratocumulus cloud-top entrainment, and a vertical broadening of the stratocumulus-top inversion which enhances cloud-top entrainment. With a coarse (20 m) vertical grid, the former effect dominates and leads to strong increases in cloud cover and LWP, especially as horizontal resolution is coarsened. With a finer (5 m) vertical grid, the latter effect is stronger and leads to small reductions in cloud cover and LWP. For the BOMEX trade cumulus case, cross-grid flow tends to produce fewer and larger clouds with higher LWP, especially for coarser vertical grid spacing. The results presented are robust to choice of scalar advection scheme and Courant number.

  16. Buoyant production and consumption of turbulence kinetic energy in cloud-topped mixed layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that studies of the entraining planetary boundary layer (PBL) have generally emphasized the role of buoyancy fluxes in driving entrainment. The buoyancy flux is proportional to the rate of conversion of the potential energy of the mean flow into the kinetic energy of the turbulence. It is not unusual for conversion to proceed in both directions simultaneously. This occurs, for instance, in both clear and cloudy convective mixed layers which are capped by inversions. A partitioning of the net conversion into positive parts, generating turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), and negative parts (TKE-consuming), would make it possible to include the positive part in the gross production rate, and closure would be achieved. Three different approaches to partitioning have been proposed. The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of the three partitioning theories. Particular attention is given to the cloud-topped mixed layer because in this case the differences between two partitioning approaches are most apparent.

  17. Dynamics, thermodynamics, radiation, and cloudiness associated with cumulus-topped marine boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghate, Virendra P.; Miller, Mark

    The overall goal of this project was to improve the understanding of marine boundary clouds by using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites, so that they can be better represented in global climate models (GCMs). Marine boundary clouds are observed regularly over the tropical and subtropical oceans. They are an important element of the Earth’s climate system because they have substantial impact on the radiation budget together with the boundary layer moisture, and energy transports. These clouds also have an impact on large-scale precipitation features like the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Because these clouds occur atmore » temporal and spatial scales much smaller than those relevant to GCMs, their effects and the associated processes need to be parameterized in GCM simulations aimed at predicting future climate and energy needs. Specifically, this project’s objectives were to (1) characterize the surface turbulent fluxes, boundary layer thermodynamics, radiation field, and cloudiness associated with cumulus-topped marine boundary layers; (2) explore the similarities and differences in cloudiness and boundary layer conditions observed in the tropical and trade-wind regions; and (3) understand similarities and differences by using a simple bulk boundary layer model. In addition to working toward achieving the project’s three objectives, we also worked on understanding the role played by different forcing mechanisms in maintaining turbulence within cloud-topped boundary layers We focused our research on stratocumulus clouds during the first phase of the project, and cumulus clouds during the rest of the project. Below is a brief description of manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals that describe results from our analyses.« less

  18. Presumption of large-scale heterogeneity at the top of the outer core basal layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souriau, Annie

    2015-04-01

    A layer of reduced P-velocity gradient with thickness of about 100-200 km has been identified at the base of the liquid core from seismological methods. It has been interpreted as a dense layer resulting from partial re-melting of the inner core, which is depleted in light elements with respect to the liquid core during freezing. In an attempt to specify where freezing and re-melting occur, the structure of this basal layer is investigated with the seismological core phase PKPbc which has its turning point in the lower third of the outer core. The large PKPbc data set of the EHB catalog distributed by the International Seismological Centre is analyzed. In order to compensate for the uneven distribution of the data and to minimize the influence of mantle heterogeneities, the travel time anomalies are binned inside equal area and equal azimuth sectors sampling the base of the liquid core at different depths. Most of the observed variations in the binned travel time residuals are not significant according to their confidence level. The only features which could be significant are a large patch with a velocity increase of about 0.5% located at the top of the basal layer beneath the eastern hemisphere, and the complementary velocity decrease beneath the western hemisphere and the South pole. This observation suggests that some freezing or re-melting processes occur at the top of the basal layer with a hemispherical dissymmetry. If confirmed, it may give strong constraints on the fate of the light elements during the freezing and re-melting process and on their interaction with the basal layer and the overlying liquid core.

  19. Composition of the low seismic velocity E' layer at the top of Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badro, J.; Brodholt, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Evidence for a layer (E') at the top of the outer core has been available since the '90s and while different studies suggest slightly different velocity contrasts and thicknesses, the common observation is that the layer has lower velocities than the bulk outer core (PREM). Although there are no direct measurements on the density of this layer, dynamic stability requires it to be less dense than the bulk outer core under those same pressure and temperature conditions. Using ab initio simulations on Fe-Ni-S-C-O-Si liquids we constrain the origin and composition of the low-velocity layer E' at the top of Earth's outer core. We find that increasing the concentration of any light-element always increases velocity and so a low-velocity and low-density layer (for stability) cannot be made by simply increasing light element concentration. This rules out barodiffusion or upwards sedimentation of a light phase for its origin. However, exchanging elements can—depending on the elements exchanged—produce such a layer. We evaluate three possibilities. Firstly, crystallization of a light phase from a core containing more than one light element may make such a layer, but only if the crystalizing phase is very Fe-rich, which is at odds with available phase diagrams at CMB conditions. Secondly, the E' layer may result from incomplete mixing of an early Earth core with a late impactor, depending on the light element compositions of the impactor and Earth's core, but such a primordial stratification is neither supported by dynamical models of the core nor thermodynamic models of core merger after the giant impact. The last and most plausible scenario is core-mantle chemical interaction; using thermodynamic models for metal-silicate partitioning of silicon and oxygen at CMB conditions, we show that a reaction between the core and an FeO-rich basal magma ocean can enrich the core in oxygen while depleting it in silicon, in relative amounts that produce a light and slow layer

  20. Simulations of the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer with a third-order closure model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeng, C. H.; Randall, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    A third order closure model is proposed by Andre et al. (1982), in which the time rate of change terms, the relaxation and rapid effects for the pressure related terms, and the clipping approximation are included along with the quasi-normal closure, to study turbulence in a cloudy layer which is cooled radiatively from above. A spurious oscillation which is strongest near the inversion occurs. An analysis of the problem shows that the oscillation arises from the mean gradient and buoyancy terms of the triple moment equations; these terms are largest near the cloud top. The oscillation is physical, rather than computational. In nature the oscillation is effectively damped, by a mechanism which apparently is not included in our model. In the stably stratified layer just above the mixed layer top, turbulence can excite gravity waves, whose energy is radiated away. Because the closure assumption for the pressure terms does not take into account the transport of wave energy, the model generates spurious oscillations. Damping of the oscillations is possible by introducing diffusion terms into the triple moment equations. With a large enough choice for the diffusion coefficient, the oscillation is effectively eliminated. The results are quite sensitive to the ad hoc eddy coefficient.

  1. Influence of Subpixel Scale Cloud Top Structure on Reflectances from Overcast Stratiform Cloud Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Varnai, Tamas; Winker, David M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent observational studies have shown that satellite retrievals of cloud optical depth based on plane-parallel model theory suffer from systematic biases that depend on viewing geometry, even when observations are restricted to overcast marine stratus layers, arguably the closest to plane parallel in nature. At moderate to low sun elevations, the plane-parallel model significantly overestimates the reflectance dependence on view angle in the forward-scattering direction but shows a similar dependence in the backscattering direction. Theoretical simulations are performed that show that the likely cause for this discrepancy is because the plane-parallel model assumption does not account for subpixel, scale variations in cloud-top height (i.e., "cloud bumps"). Monte Carlo simulation, comparing ID model radiances to radiances from overcast cloud field with 1) cloud-top height variation, but constant cloud volume extinction; 2) flat tops but horizontal variations in cloud volume extinction; and 3) variations in both cloud top height and cloud extinction are performed over a approximately equal to 4 km x 4 km domain (roughly the size of an individual GAC AVHRR pixel). The comparisons show that when cloud-top height variations are included, departures from 1D theory are remarkably similar (qualitatively) to those obtained observationally. In contrast, when clouds are assumed flat and only cloud extinction is variable, reflectance differences are much smaller and do not show any view-angle dependence. When both cloud-top height and cloud extinction variations are included, however, large increases in cloud extinction variability can enhance reflectance difference. The reason 3D-1D reflectance differences are more sensitive to cloud-top height variations in the forward-scattering direction (at moderate to low, sun elevations) is because photons leaving the cloud field in that direction experience fewer scattering events (low-order scattering) and are restricted to the

  2. Layered intrusion formation by top down thermal migration zone refining (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrom, C.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of layered mafic intrusions by crystallization from cooling magmas represents the textbook example of igneous differentiation, often attributed to fractional crystallization through gravitational settling. Yet in detail, such interpretations have significant problems such that it remains unclear how these important features form. Put in the Earth perspective that no km scale blob of >50% melt has ever been imaged geophysically and that geochronological studies repeatedly indicate age inconsistencies with “big tank” magma chambers, it may be questioned if km scale magma chambers have ever existed. I will present the case for forming layered intrusions by a top down process whereby arriving basaltic magma reaches a permeability barrier, begins to underplate and forms the intrusion incrementally by sill injection with the body growing downward at ~1 mm/yr rate or less. A temperature gradient zone occurs in the overlying previously emplaced sills, leading to chemical components migrating by diffusion. As long as the rate of diffusion can keep up with rate of sill addition, the body will differentiate along a path similar to a liquid line of descent. In this talk, I will integrate data from 3 areas: 1) laboratory experiments examining the behavior of partially molten silicates in a temperature gradient (thermal migration); 2) numerical modeling of the moving temperature gradient zone process using IRIDIUM (Boudreau, 2003); 3) measurements of Fe isotope ratios and geochronology from the Sonju Lake Intrusion in the Duluth Complex. This model provides the ability to form km scale intrusions by a seismically invisible means, can explain million year offsets in chronology, and has implications for reef development and PGE concentration. Most importantly, this model of top down layered intrusion formation, following a similar recent proposal for granitoid formation (Lundstrom, 2009), represents a testable hypothesis: because temperature gradient driven

  3. Long-range wetting transparency on top of layered metal-dielectric substrates.

    PubMed

    Noginov, M A; Barnakov, Yuri A; Liberman, Vladimir; Prayakarao, Srujana; Bonner, Carl E; Narimanov, Evgenii E

    2016-06-21

    It has been recently shown that scores of physical and chemical phenomena (including spontaneous emission, scattering and Förster energy transfer) can be controlled by nonlocal dielectric environments provided by metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion and simpler metal/dielectric structures. At this time, we have researched van der Waals interactions and experimentally studied wetting of several metallic, dielectric and composite multilayered substrates. We have found that the wetting angle of water on top of MgF2 is highly sensitive to the thickness of the MgF2 layer and the nature of the underlying substrate that could be positioned as far as ~100 nm beneath the water/MgF2 interface. We refer to this phenomenon as long range wetting transparency. The latter effect cannot be described in terms of the most basic model of dispersion van der Waals-London forces based on pair-wise summation of dipole-dipole interactions across an interface or a gap separating the two media. We infer that the experimentally observed gradual change of the wetting angle with increase of the thickness of the MgF2 layer can possibly be explained by the distance dependence of the Hamaker function (describing the strength of interaction), which originates from retardation of electromagnetic waves at the distances comparable to a wavelength.

  4. Long-range wetting transparency on top of layered metal-dielectric substrates

    PubMed Central

    Noginov, M. A.; Barnakov, Yuri A.; Liberman, Vladimir; Prayakarao, Srujana; Bonner, Carl E.; Narimanov, Evgenii E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently shown that scores of physical and chemical phenomena (including spontaneous emission, scattering and Förster energy transfer) can be controlled by nonlocal dielectric environments provided by metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion and simpler metal/dielectric structures. At this time, we have researched van der Waals interactions and experimentally studied wetting of several metallic, dielectric and composite multilayered substrates. We have found that the wetting angle of water on top of MgF2 is highly sensitive to the thickness of the MgF2 layer and the nature of the underlying substrate that could be positioned as far as ~100 nm beneath the water/MgF2 interface. We refer to this phenomenon as long range wetting transparency. The latter effect cannot be described in terms of the most basic model of dispersion van der Waals-London forces based on pair-wise summation of dipole-dipole interactions across an interface or a gap separating the two media. We infer that the experimentally observed gradual change of the wetting angle with increase of the thickness of the MgF2 layer can possibly be explained by the distance dependence of the Hamaker function (describing the strength of interaction), which originates from retardation of electromagnetic waves at the distances comparable to a wavelength. PMID:27324650

  5. Long-range wetting transparency on top of layered metal-dielectric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noginov, M. A.; Barnakov, Yuri A.; Liberman, Vladimir; Prayakarao, Srujana; Bonner, Carl E.; Narimanov, Evgenii E.

    2016-06-01

    It has been recently shown that scores of physical and chemical phenomena (including spontaneous emission, scattering and Förster energy transfer) can be controlled by nonlocal dielectric environments provided by metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion and simpler metal/dielectric structures. At this time, we have researched van der Waals interactions and experimentally studied wetting of several metallic, dielectric and composite multilayered substrates. We have found that the wetting angle of water on top of MgF2 is highly sensitive to the thickness of the MgF2 layer and the nature of the underlying substrate that could be positioned as far as ~100 nm beneath the water/MgF2 interface. We refer to this phenomenon as long range wetting transparency. The latter effect cannot be described in terms of the most basic model of dispersion van der Waals-London forces based on pair-wise summation of dipole-dipole interactions across an interface or a gap separating the two media. We infer that the experimentally observed gradual change of the wetting angle with increase of the thickness of the MgF2 layer can possibly be explained by the distance dependence of the Hamaker function (describing the strength of interaction), which originates from retardation of electromagnetic waves at the distances comparable to a wavelength.

  6. Influencing factors on the cooling effect of coarse blocky top-layers on relict rock glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauritsch, Marcus; Wagner, Thomas; Mayaud, Cyril; Thalheim, Felix; Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Winkler, Gerfried

    2017-04-01

    Coarse blocky material widely occurs in alpine landscapes particularly at the surface of bouldery rock glaciers. Such blocky layers are known to have a cooling effect on the subjacent material because of the enhanced non-conductive heat exchange with the atmosphere. This effect is used for instance by the construction of blocky embankments in the building of railways and roads in permafrost regions to prevent thawing processes. In alpine regions, this cooling effect may have a strong influence on the distribution and conservation of permafrost related to climate warming. The thermal regimes of the blocky surface layers of two comparable - in terms of size, elevation and geology - relict rock glaciers with opposing slope aspects are investigated. Therefore, the influence of the slope aspect-related climatic conditions (mainly the incident solar radiation, wind conditions and snow cover) on the cooling effect of the blocky layers is investigated. Air temperature, ground surface temperature and ground temperature at one meter depth were continuously measured over a period of four years at several locations at the NE-oriented Schöneben Rock Glacier and the adjacent SW-oriented Dürrtal Rock Glacier. At the former, additional data about wind speed and wind direction as well as precipitation are available, which are used to take wind-forced convection and snow cover into consideration. Statistical analyses of the data reveal that the blocky top layer of the Dürrtal Rock Glacier generally exhibits lower temperatures compared to the Schöneben Rock Glacier despite the more radiation-exposed aspect and the related higher solar radiation. However, the data show that the thermal regimes of the surface layers are highly heterogeneous and that data from the individual measurement sites have to be interpreted with caution. High Rayleigh numbers at both rock glaciers show that free convection occurs particularly during winter. Furthermore, wind-forced convection has a high

  7. Second-moment budgets in cloud topped boundary layers: A large-eddy simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Rieke; Mironov, Dmitrii; Raasch, Siegfried

    2015-06-01

    A detailed analysis of second-order moment budgets for cloud topped boundary layers (CTBLs) is performed using high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES). Two CTBLs are simulated—one with trade wind shallow cumuli, and the other with nocturnal marine stratocumuli. Approximations to the ensemble-mean budgets of the Reynolds-stress components, of the fluxes of two quasi-conservative scalars, and of the scalar variances and covariance are computed by averaging the LES data over horizontal planes and over several hundred time steps. Importantly, the subgrid scale contributions to the budget terms are accounted for. Analysis of the LES-based second-moment budgets reveals, among other things, a paramount importance of the pressure scrambling terms in the Reynolds-stress and scalar-flux budgets. The pressure-strain correlation tends to evenly redistribute kinetic energy between the components, leading to the growth of horizontal-velocity variances at the expense of the vertical-velocity variance which is produced by buoyancy over most of both CTBLs. The pressure gradient-scalar covariances are the major sink terms in the budgets of scalar fluxes. The third-order transport proves to be of secondary importance in the scalar-flux budgets. However, it plays a key role in maintaining budgets of TKE and of the scalar variances and covariance. Results from the second-moment budget analysis suggest that the accuracy of description of the CTBL structure within the second-order closure framework strongly depends on the fidelity of parameterizations of the pressure scrambling terms in the flux budgets and of the third-order transport terms in the variance budgets. This article was corrected on 26 JUN 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  8. Large-eddy Simulation of Stratocumulus-topped Atmospheric Boundary Layers with Dynamic Subgrid-scale Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senocak, Inane

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the dynamic procedure in LES of stratocumulus topped atmospheric boundary layer and assess the relative importance of subgrid-scale modeling, cloud microphysics and radiation modeling on the predictions. The simulations will also be used to gain insight into the processes leading to cloud top entrainment instability and cloud breakup. In this report we document the governing equations, numerical schemes and physical models that are employed in the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCEM3D). We also present the subgrid-scale dynamic procedures that have been implemented in the GCEM3D code for the purpose of the present study.

  9. Entrainment Zone Characteristics and Entrainment Rates in Cloud-Topped Boundary Layers from DYCOMS-II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    water and ozone across the EIL. The scalar variables from this flight (not shown) suggest significant horizontal variation in the free- troposphere ...near the cloud top where mixing occurs between dry free- troposphere air and moist turbulent air. Although the concept of the entrainment zone is...mixing occurs between dry free- troposphere air and moist turbulent air. Although the concept of the entrainment zone is clear, defining the top and

  10. Transitions of cloud-topped marine boundary layers characterized by AIRS, MODIS, and a large eddy simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Qing; Kahn, Brian; Xiao, Heng

    2013-08-16

    Cloud top entrainment instability (CTEI) is a hypothesized positive feedback between entrainment mixing and evaporative cooling near the cloud top. Previous theoretical and numerical modeling studies have shown that the persistence or breakup of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds may be sensitive to the CTEI parameter. Collocated thermodynamic profile and cloud observations obtained from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments are used to quantify the relationship between the CTEI parameter and the cloud-topped MBL transition from stratocumulus to trade cumulus in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Results derived from AIRS and MODIS are compared withmore » numerical results from the UCLA large eddy simulation (LES) model for both well-mixed and decoupled MBLs. The satellite and model results both demonstrate a clear correlation between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction. Despite fundamental differences between LES steady state results and the instantaneous snapshot type of observations from satellites, significant correlations for both the instantaneous pixel-scale observations and the long-term averaged spatial patterns between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction are found from the satellite observations and are consistent with LES results. This suggests the potential of using AIRS and MODIS to quantify global and temporal characteristics of the cloud-topped MBL transition.« less

  11. Selective Activation of the Deep Layers of the Human Primary Visual Cortex by Top-Down Feedback.

    PubMed

    Kok, Peter; Bains, Lauren J; van Mourik, Tim; Norris, David G; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-02-08

    In addition to bottom-up input, the visual cortex receives large amounts of feedback from other cortical areas [1-3]. One compelling example of feedback activation of early visual neurons in the absence of bottom-up input occurs during the famous Kanizsa illusion, where a triangular shape is perceived, even in regions of the image where there is no bottom-up visual evidence for it. This illusion increases the firing activity of neurons in the primary visual cortex with a receptive field on the illusory contour [4]. Feedback signals are largely segregated from feedforward signals within each cortical area, with feedforward signals arriving in the middle layer, while top-down feedback avoids the middle layers and predominantly targets deep and superficial layers [1, 2, 5, 6]. Therefore, the feedback-mediated activity increase in V1 during the perception of illusory shapes should lead to a specific laminar activity profile that is distinct from the activity elicited by bottom-up stimulation. Here, we used fMRI at high field (7 T) to empirically test this hypothesis, by probing the cortical response to illusory figures in human V1 at different cortical depths [7-14]. We found that, whereas bottom-up stimulation activated all cortical layers, feedback activity induced by illusory figures led to a selective activation of the deep layers of V1. These results demonstrate the potential for non-invasive recordings of neural activity with laminar specificity in humans and elucidate the role of top-down signals during perceptual processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Layer of organic pine forest soil on top of chlorophenol-contaminated mineral soil enhances contaminant degradation.

    PubMed

    Sinkkonen, Aki; Kauppi, Sari; Simpanen, Suvi; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Strömmer, Rauni; Romantschuk, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Chlorophenols, like many other synthetic compounds, are persistent problem in industrial areas. These compounds are easily degraded in certain natural environments where the top soil is organic. Some studies suggest that mineral soil contaminated with organic compounds is rapidly remediated if it is mixed with organic soil. We hypothesized that organic soil with a high degradation capacity even on top of the contaminated mineral soil enhances degradation of recalcitrant chlorophenols in the mineral soil below. We first compared chlorophenol degradation in different soils by spiking pristine and pentachlorophenol-contaminated soils with 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in 10-L buckets. In other experiments, we covered contaminated mineral soil with organic pine forest soil. We also monitored in situ degradation on an old sawmill site where mineral soil was either left intact or covered with organic pine forest soil. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol was rapidly degraded in organic pine forest soil, but the degradation was slower in other soils. If a thin layer of the pine forest humus was added on top of mineral sawmill soil, the original chlorophenol concentrations (high, ca. 70 μg g(-1), or moderate, ca. 20 μg g(-1)) in sawmill soil decreased by >40 % in 24 days. No degradation was noticed if the mineral soil was kept bare or if the covering humus soil layer was sterilized beforehand. Our results suggest that covering mineral soil with an organic soil layer is an efficient way to remediate recalcitrant chlorophenol contamination in mineral soils. The results of the field experiment are promising.

  13. Anomalous top layer in the inner core beneath the eastern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, W.; Wen, L.; Niu, F.

    2003-12-01

    Recent studies reported hemispheric variations in seismic velocity and attenuation in the top of the inner core. It, however, remains unclear how the inner core hemisphericity extends deep in the inner core. Here, we analyze PKPbc-PKIKP and PKiKP-PKIKP waveforms collected from the Global Seismographic Network (GSN), regional recordings from the German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) and Graefenberg (GRF) sampling along the equatorial path (the ray path whose ray angle is larger than 35o from the Earth's rotation axis). The observed global and regional PKPbc-PKIKP differential traveltimes and PKIKP/PKPbc amplitude ratios suggest a simple W2 model (Wen/Niu:2002) in the western hemisphere with a constant velocity gradient of 0.049(km/sec)/100km and a Q value of 600 in the top 400 km of the inner core. In the eastern hemisphere, the data require a change of velocity gradient and Q value at about 235 km below the inner core boundary (ICB). Based on forward modeling, we construct radial velocity and attenuation models in the eastern hemisphere which can explain both the PKiKP-PKIKP and PKPbc-PKIKP observations. The inner core in the eastern hemisphere has a flat velocity gradient extending to about 235 km below the ICB. We test two solutions for the velocity models in the deeper portion of the inner core, with one having a first-order discontinuity at 235 km below the ICB with a velocity jump of 0.07(km/sec) followed by the PREM gradient, and the other having a gradual velocity transition with 0.1(km/sec)/100km gradient extended from 235 km to 375 km below the ICB followed by the PREM gradient. The observed traveltimes exclude the sharp discontinuity velocity model, as it predicts a kink in differential traveltimes at distance of 151o-152o which is not observed in the global and regional datasets. The observed PKIKP/PKPbc amplitude ratios can be best explained by a step function of attenuation with a Q value of 250 at the top 300 km and a Q value of 600 at 300-400 km

  14. Multispectral surface plasmon resonance approach for ultra-thin silver layer characterization: Application to top-emitting OLED cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taverne, S.; Caron, B.; Gétin, S.; Lartigue, O.; Lopez, C.; Meunier-Della-Gatta, S.; Gorge, V.; Reymermier, M.; Racine, B.; Maindron, T.; Quesnel, E.

    2018-01-01

    While dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) multilayer thin films have raised considerable interest as transparent and conductive electrodes in various optoelectronic devices, the knowledge of optical characteristics of thin metallic layers integrated in such structures is still rather approximate. The multispectral surface plasmon resonance characterization approach described in this work precisely aims at providing a rigorous methodology able to accurately determine the optical constants of ultra-thin metallic films. As a practical example, the refractive index and extinction dispersion curves of 8 to 25 nm-thick silver layers have been investigated. As a result, their extreme dependence on the layer thickness is highlighted, in particular in a thickness range close to the critical threshold value (˜10 nm) where the silver film becomes continuous and its electrical conductance/optical transmittance ratio particularly interesting. To check the validity of the revisited Ag layers constant dispersion curves deduced from this study, they were introduced into a commercial optical model software to simulate the behavior of various optoelectronic building blocks from the simplest ones (DMD electrodes) to much more complex structures [full organic light emitting device (OLED) stacks]. As a result, a much better prediction of the emission spectrum profile as well as the angular emission pattern of top-emitting OLEDs is obtained. On this basis, it is also shown how a redesign of the top encapsulation thin film of OLEDs is necessary to better take benefit from the advanced DMD electrode. These results should particularly interest the micro-OLED display field where bright and directive single color pixel emission is required.

  15. The View from the Top: CALIOP Ice Water Content in the Uppermost Layer of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, Melody A.; Deng, Min; Garnier, Anne; Heymsfield, Andrew; Pelon, Jacques; Powell, Kathleen A.; Trepte, Charles R.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, David M.; Young, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    NASA's CALIPSO satellite carries both the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR). The lidar is ideally suited to viewing the very top of tropical cyclones, and the IIR provides critical optical and microphysical information. The lidar and the IIR data work together to understand storm clouds since they are perfectly co-located, and big tropical cyclones provide an excellent complex target for comparing the observations. There is a lot of information from these case studies for understanding both the observations and the tropical cyclones, and we are just beginning to scratch the surface of what can be learned. Many tropical cyclone cloud particle measurements are focused on the middle and lower regions of storms, but characterization of cyclone interaction with the lowermost stratosphere at the upper storm boundary may be important for determining the total momentum and moisture transport budget, and perhaps for predicting storm intensity as well. A surprising amount of cloud ice is to be found at the very top of these big storms.

  16. Activity of convective coupled equatorial wave in tropical Tropopause layer in reanalysis and high-top CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harza, Alia; Lubis, Sandro W.; Setiawan, Sonni

    2018-05-01

    The activity of convectively coupled equatorial waves (CCEWs), including Kelvin waves, Mixed Rossby-Gravity (MRG), and Equatorial Rossby (ER), in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is investigated in the Reanalysis and nine high-top CMIP5 models using the zonal wave number-frequency spectral analysis with equatorially symmetric-antisymmetric decomposition. We found that the TTL activities in the high-top CMIP5 models show significant difference among the high-top CMIP5 models with respect to the observation. The MIROC and HadGEM2-CC models work best in simulating Kelvin wave in the TTL, while the HadGEM2-CC and MPI-ESM-LR models work best in simulating MRG waves. The ER waves in TTL are best simulated in the MRI-CGCM model. None of the models are good in simulating all waves at once. It is concluded that the broad range of wave activity found in the different CMIP5 models depend on the convective parameterization used by each model and the representation of the tropical stratosphere variability, including the QBO.

  17. Application of the top specified boundary layer (TSBL) approximation to initial characterization of an inland aquifer mineralization: 2. Seepage of saltwater through semi-confining layers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized basic study that addresses practical needs for an understanding of the major mechanisms involved in the mineralization of groundwater in the Great Bend Prairie aquifer in south- central Kansas. This Quaternary alluvial aquifer and associated surface waters are subject to contamination by saltwater, which in some areas seeps from the deeper Permian bedrock formation into the overlying freshwater aquifer through semiconfining layers. A simplified conceptual model is adopted. It incorporates the freshwater aquifer whose bottom is comprised of a semiconfining layer through which a hydrologically minor but geochemically important saline water discharge seeps into the aquifer. A hierarchy of approximate approaches is considered to analyze the mineralization processes taking place in the aquifer. The recently developed top specified boundary layer (TSBL) approach is very convenient to use for the initial characterization of these processes, and is further adapted to characterization of head-driven seepage through semi-confining layers. TSBL calculations indicate that the seeping saline water may create two distinct new zones in the aquifer: (1) a completely saline zone (CSZ) adjacent to the semiconfining bottom of the aquifer, and (2) a transition zone (TZ) which develops between the CSZ and the freshwater zone. Some possible scenarios associated with the various mineralization patterns are analyzed and discussed.

  18. Turbulence and Radiation in Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layers: A Case Study from VOCALS-REx

    DOE PAGES

    Ghate, Virendra P.; Albrecht, Bruce A.; Miller, Mark A.; ...

    2014-01-13

    Observations made during a 24-h period as part of the Variability of the American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean–Cloud–Atmosphere–Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) are analyzed to study the radiation and turbulence associated with the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer (BL). The first 14 h exhibited a well-mixed (coupled) BL with an average cloud-top radiative flux divergence of ~130 W m 22; the BL was decoupled during the last 10 h with negligible radiative flux divergence. The averaged radiative cooling very close to the cloud top was -9.04 K h -1 in coupled conditions and -3.85 K h -1 in decoupled conditions. Thismore » is the first study that combined data from a vertically pointing Doppler cloud radar and a Doppler lidar to yield the vertical velocity structure of the entire BL. The averaged vertical velocity variance and updraft mass flux during coupled conditions were higher than those during decoupled conditions at all levels by a factor of 2 or more. The vertical velocity skewness was negative in the entire BL during coupled conditions, whereas it was weakly positive in the lower third of the BL and negative above during decoupled conditions. A formulation of velocity scale is proposed that includes the effect of cloud-top radiative cooling in addition to the surface buoyancy flux. When scaled by the velocity scale, the vertical velocity variance and coherent downdrafts had similar magnitude during the coupled and decoupled conditions. Finally, the coherent updrafts that exhibited a constant profile in the entire BL during both the coupled and decoupled conditions scaled well with the convective velocity scale to a value of ~0.5.« less

  19. Optical Properties of Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Thin Film Encapsulation Layers for Flexible Top-Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    An, Jae Seok; Jang, Ha Jun; Park, Cheol Young; Youn, Hongseok; Lee, Jong Ho; Heo, Gi-Seok; Choi, Bum Ho; Lee, Choong Hun

    2015-10-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid thin film encapsulation layers consist of a thin Al2O3 layer together with polymer material. We have investigated optical properties of thin film encapsulation layers for top-emission flexible organic light-emitting diodes. The transmittance of hybrid thin film encapsulation layers and the electroluminescent spectrum of organic light-emitting diodes that were passivated by hybrid organic/inorganic thin film encapsulation layers were also examined as a function of the thickness of inorganic Al203 and monomer layers. The number of interference peaks, their intensity, and their positions in the visible range can be controlled by varying the thickness of inorganic Al2O3 layer. On the other hand, changing the thickness of monomer layer had a negligible effect on the optical properties. We also verified that there is a trade-off between transparency in the visible range and the permeation of water vapor in hybrid thin film encapsulation layers. As the number of dyads decreased, optical transparency improved while the water vapor permeation barrier was degraded. Our study suggests that, in top-emission organic light-emitting diodes, the thickness of each thin film encapsulation layer, in particular that of the inorganic layer, and the number of dyads should be controlled for highly efficient top-emission flexible organic light-emitting diodes.

  20. Near-surface Density Currents Observed in the Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus-topped Marine Boundary Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Matt C.; Yuter, S. E.; de Szoeke, S.

    2015-09-01

    Density currents (i.e. cold pools or outflows) beneath marine stratocumulus clouds are characterized using a 30-d data set of ship-based observations obtained during the 2008 Variability of American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) in the southeast Pacific. An objective method identifies 71 density current fronts using an air density criterion and isolates each density current’s core (peak density) and tail (dissipating) zone. Compared to front and core zones, most density current tails exhibited weaker density gradients and wind anomalies elongated about the axis of the mean wind. The mean cloud-level advection relative to the surface layer windmore » (1.9 m s-1) nearly matches the mean density current propagation speed (1.8 m s-1). The similarity in speeds allows drizzle cells to deposit tails in their wakes. Based on high-resolution scanning Doppler lidar data, prefrontal updrafts had a mean intensity of 0.91 m s-1, reached an average altitude of 800 m, and were often surmounted by low-lying shelf clouds not connected to the overlying stratocumulus cloud. Nearly 90% of density currents were identified when C-band radar estimated 30-km diameter areal average rain rates exceeded 1 mm d-1. Rather than peaking when rain rates are highest overnight, density current occurrence peaks between 0600 and 0800 local solar time when enhanced local drizzle co-occurs with shallow subcloud dry and stable layers. The dry layers may contribute to density current formation by enhancing subcloud evaporation of drizzle. Density currents preferentially occur in regions of open cells but also occur in regions of closed cells.« less

  1. A Case-study on Turbulence in a Stratocumulus Topped Marine Boundary Layer Observed during VOCALS-Rex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghate, V. P.; Albrecht, B. A.; Fairall, C. W.; Miller, M. A.; Brewer, A.

    2010-12-01

    Turbulence in the stratocumulus topped marine boundary layer (BL) is an important factor that is closely connected to both the cloud macro- and micro-physical characteristics, which can substantially affect their radiaitve properties. Data collected by ship borne instruments on the R/V Ronald H. Brown on November 27, 2008 as a part of the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land-Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex) are analyzed to study the turbulence structure of a stratocumulus topped marine BL. The first half of the analyzed 24 hour period was characterized by a coupled BL topped by a precipitating stratocumulus cloud; the second half had clear sky conditions with a decoupled BL. The motion stabilized vertically pointing W-band Doppler cloud radar reported the full Doppler spectrum at a temporal and spatial resolution of 3 Hz and 25 m respectively. The collocated motion stabilized Doppler lidar was operating at 2 micron wavelength and reported the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Doppler velocity at temporal and spatial resolution of 2 Hz and 30 m respectively. Data from the cloud Doppler radar and Doppler lidar were combined to yield the turbulence structure of entire BL in both cloudy and clear sky conditions. Retrievals were performed to remove the contribution of precipitating drizzle drops to the mean Doppler velocity measured by the radar. Hourly profiles of vertical velocity variance suggested high BL variance during coupled BL conditions and low variance during decoupled BL conditions. Some of the terms in second and third moment budget of vertical velocity are calculated and their diurnal evolution is explored.

  2. Effect of atomic layer deposition temperature on the performance of top-down ZnO nanowire transistors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature on the performance of top-down ZnO nanowire transistors. Electrical characteristics are presented for 10-μm ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and for deposition temperatures in the range 120°C to 210°C. Well-behaved transistor output characteristics are obtained for all deposition temperatures. It is shown that the maximum field-effect mobility occurs for an ALD temperature of 190°C. This maximum field-effect mobility corresponds with a maximum Hall effect bulk mobility and with a ZnO film that is stoichiometric. The optimized transistors have a field-effect mobility of 10 cm2/V.s, which is approximately ten times higher than can typically be achieved in thin-film amorphous silicon transistors. Furthermore, simulations indicate that the drain current and field-effect mobility extraction are limited by the contact resistance. When the effects of contact resistance are de-embedded, a field-effect mobility of 129 cm2/V.s is obtained. This excellent result demonstrates the promise of top-down ZnO nanowire technology for a wide variety of applications such as high-performance thin-film electronics, flexible electronics, and biosensing. PMID:25276107

  3. Theoretical study on the top- and enclosed-contacted single-layer MoS{sub 2} piezotronic transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei, E-mail: wliu@binn.cas.cn, E-mail: zlwang@gatech.edu; Zhou, Yongli; Zhang, Aihua

    Recently, the piezotronic effect has been observed in two-dimensional single-layer MoS{sub 2} materials, which have potential applications in force and pressure triggered or controlled electronic devices, sensors, and human-machine interfaces. However, classical theory faces the difficulty in explaining the mechanism of the piezotronic effect for the top- and enclosed-contacted MoS{sub 2} transistors, since the piezoelectric charges are assumed to exist only at the edge of the MoS{sub 2} flake that is far from the electronic transport pathway. In the present study, we identify the piezoelectric charges at the MoS{sub 2}/metal-MoS{sub 2} interface by employing both the density functional theory andmore » finite element method simulations. This interface is on the transport pathway of both top- and enclosed-contacted MoS{sub 2} transistors, thus it is capable of controlling their transport properties. This study deepens the understanding of piezotronic effect and provides guidance for the design of two-dimensional piezotronic devices.« less

  4. Impact of absorption in the top layer of a two layer sample on spectroscopic spectral domain interferometry of the bottom layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, F.; Feuchter, T.; Leick, L.; Rajendram, R.; Podoleanu, A.

    2018-03-01

    Spectroscopic spectral domain interferometry and spectroscopic optical coherence tomography combine depth information with spectrally-resolved localised absorption data. These additional data can improve diagnostics by giving access to functional information of the investigated sample. One possible application is measuring oxygenation levels at the retina for earlier detection of several eye diseases. Here measurements with different hollow glass tube phantoms are shown to measure the impact of a superficial absorbing layer on the precision of reconstructed attenuation spectra of a deeper layer. Measurements show that a superficial absorber has no impact on the reconstructed absorption spectrum of the deeper absorber. Even when diluting the concentration of the deeper absorber so far that an incorrect absorption maximum is obtained, still no influence of the superficially placed absorber is identified.

  5. Characterization of the Cloud-Topped Boundary Layer at the Synoptic Scale Using AVHRR Observations during the SEMAPHORE Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, A.; Sèze, G.; Lahellec, A.; Guerin, C.; Weill, A.

    2003-12-01

    Satellite platforms NOAA-11 and -12 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data are used during the daytime to study large sheets of stratocumulus over the North Atlantic Ocean. The application concerns an anticyclonic period of the Structure des Echanges Mer Atmosphère, Propriétés des Hétérogénéités Océaniques: Recherché Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE) campaign (10 17 November 1993). In the region of interest, the satellite images are recorded under large solar zenith angles. Extending the SEMAPHORE area, a region of about 3000 × 3000 km2 is studied to characterize the atmospheric boundary layer. A statistical cloud classification method is applied to discriminate for low-level and optically thick clouds. For AVHRR pixels covered with thick clouds, brightness temperatures are used to evaluate the boundary layer cloud-top temperature (CTT). The objective is to obtain accurate CTT maps for evaluation of a global model. In this application, the full-resolution fields are reduced to match model grid size. An estimate of overall temperature uncertainty associated with each grid point is also derived, which incorporates subgrid variability of the fields and quality of the temperature retrieval. Results are compared with the SEMAPHORE campaign measurements. A comparison with “DX” products obtained with the same dataset, but at lower resolution, is also presented. The authors claim that such instantaneous CTT maps could be as intensively used as classical SST maps, and both could be efficiently complemented with gridpoint error-bar maps. They may be used for multiple applications: (i) to provide a means to improve numerical weather prediction and climatological reanalyses, (ii) to represent a boundary layer global characterization to analyze the synoptic situation of field experiments, and (iii) to allow validation and to test development of large-scale and mesoscale models.

  6. Improvement in top-gate MoS2 transistor performance due to high quality backside Al2O3 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshakov, Pavel; Zhao, Peng; Azcatl, Angelica; Hurley, Paul K.; Wallace, Robert M.; Young, Chadwin D.

    2017-07-01

    A high quality Al2O3 layer is developed to achieve high performance in top-gate MoS2 transistors. Compared with top-gate MoS2 field effect transistors on a SiO2 layer, the intrinsic mobility and subthreshold slope were greatly improved in high-k backside layer devices. A forming gas anneal is found to enhance device performance due to a reduction in the charge trap density of the backside dielectric. The major improvements in device performance are ascribed to the forming gas anneal and the high-k dielectric screening effect of the backside Al2O3 layer. Top-gate devices built upon these stacks exhibit a near-ideal subthreshold slope of ˜69 mV/dec and a high Y-Function extracted intrinsic carrier mobility (μo) of 145 cm2/V.s, indicating a positive influence on top-gate device performance even without any backside bias.

  7. Tuning the magnetism of the top-layer FeAs on BaFe2As2 (001): First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing-Jing; Liu, Kai; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2018-04-01

    Magnetism may play an important role in inducing the superconductivity in iron-based superconductors. As a prototypical system, the surface of BaFe2As2 provides a good platform for studying related magnetic properties. We have designed systematic first-principles calculations to clarify the surface magnetism of BaFe2As2 (001), which previously has received little attention in comparison with surface structures and electronic states. We find that the surface environment has an important influence on the magnetic properties of the top-layer FeAs. For As-terminated surfaces, the magnetic ground state of the top-layer FeAs is in the staggered dimer antiferromagnetic (AFM) order, distinct from that of the bulk, while for Ba-terminated surfaces the collinear (single-stripe) AFM order is the most stable, the same as that in the bulk. When a certain coverage of Ba or K atoms is deposited onto the As-terminated surface, the calculated energy differences among different AFM orders for the top-layer FeAs on BaFe2As2 (001) can be much reduced, indicating enhanced spin fluctuations. To compare our results with available scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements, we have simulated the STM images of several structural/magnetic terminations. Astonishingly, when the top-layer FeAs is in the staggered dimer AFM order, a stripe pattern appears in the simulated STM image even when the surface Ba atoms adopt a √{2 }×√{2 } structure, while a √{2 }×√{2 } square pattern comes out for the 1 ×1 full As termination. Our results suggest: (i) the magnetic state at the BaFe2As2 (001) surface can be quite different from that in the bulk; (ii) the magnetic properties of the top-layer FeAs can be tuned effectively by surface doping, which may likely induce superconductivity at the surface layer; (iii) both the surface termination and the AFM order in the top-layer FeAs can affect the STM image of BaFe2As2 (001), which needs to be taken into account when identifying the surface

  8. Effects of V2O5/Au bi-layer electrodes on the top contact Pentacene-based organic thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthakur, Tribeni; Sarma, Ranjit

    2017-05-01

    Top-contact Pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with a thin layer of Vanadium Pent-oxide between Pentacene and Au layer are fabricated. Here we have found that the devices with V2O5/Au bi-layer source-drain electrode exhibit better field-effect mobility, high on-off ratio, low threshold voltage and low sub-threshold slope than the devices with Au only. The field-effect mobility, current on-off ratio, threshold voltage and sub-threshold slope of V2O5/Au bi-layer OTFT estimated from the device with 15 nm thick V2O5 layer is .77 cm2 v-1 s-1, 7.5×105, -2.9 V and .36 V/decade respectively.

  9. Roles of drizzle in a one-dimensional third-order turbulence closure model of the nocturnal stratus-topped marine boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Shouping; Wang, Qing

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of drizzle in a one-dimensional third-order turbulence closure model of the nocturnal stratus-topped marine boundary layer. When the simulated drizzle rate is relatively small (maximum approximately equal to 0.6 mm/day), steady-state solutions are obtained. The boundary layer stabilizes essentially because drizzle causes evaporative cooling of the subcloud layer. This stabilization considerably reduces the buoyancy flux and turbulence kinetic energy below the stratus cloud. Thus, drizzle tends to decouple the cloud from the subcloud layer in the model, as suggested by many observational studies. In addition, the evaporation of drizzle in the subcloud layer creates small scattered clouds, which are likely to represent cumulus clouds, below the solid stratus cloud in the model. The sensitivity experiments show that these scattered clouds help maintain a coupled boundary layer. When the drizzle rate is relatively large (maximum approximately equal to 0.9 mm/day), the response of the model becomes transient with bursts in turbulent fluxes. This phenomenon is related to the formation of the scattered cloud layer below the solid stratus cloud. It appears that the model is inadequate to represent the heat and moisture transport by strong updrafts covering a small fractional area in cumulus convection.

  10. A layered abduction model of perception: Integrating bottom-up and top-down processing in a multi-sense agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josephson, John R.

    1989-01-01

    A layered-abduction model of perception is presented which unifies bottom-up and top-down processing in a single logical and information-processing framework. The process of interpreting the input from each sense is broken down into discrete layers of interpretation, where at each layer a best explanation hypothesis is formed of the data presented by the layer or layers below, with the help of information available laterally and from above. The formation of this hypothesis is treated as a problem of abductive inference, similar to diagnosis and theory formation. Thus this model brings a knowledge-based problem-solving approach to the analysis of perception, treating perception as a kind of compiled cognition. The bottom-up passing of information from layer to layer defines channels of information flow, which separate and converge in a specific way for any specific sense modality. Multi-modal perception occurs where channels converge from more than one sense. This model has not yet been implemented, though it is based on systems which have been successful in medical and mechanical diagnosis and medical test interpretation.

  11. Thick layered semiconductor devices with water top-gates: High on-off ratio field-effect transistors and aqueous sensors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan; Sutter, Eli; Wu, Liangmei; Xu, Hong; Bao, Lihong; Gao, Hong-Jun; Zhou, Xingjiang; Sutter, Peter

    2018-06-21

    Layered semiconductors show promise as channel materials for field-effect transistors (FETs). Usually, such devices incorporate solid back or top gate dielectrics. Here, we explore de-ionized (DI) water as a solution top gate for field-effect switching of layered semiconductors including SnS2, MoS2, and black phosphorus. The DI water gate is easily fabricated, can sustain rapid bias changes, and its efficient coupling to layered materials provides high on-off current ratios, near-ideal sub-threshold swing, and enhanced short-channel behavior even for FETs with thick, bulk-like channels where such control is difficult to realize with conventional back-gating. Screening by the high-k solution gate eliminates hysteresis due to surface and interface trap states and substantially enhances the field-effect mobility. The onset of water electrolysis sets the ultimate limit to DI water gating at large negative gate bias. Measurements in this regime show promise for aqueous sensing, demonstrated here by the amperometric detection of glucose in aqueous solution. DI water gating of layered semiconductors can be harnessed in research on novel materials and devices, and it may with further development find broad applications in microelectronics and sensing.

  12. Application of the top specified boundary layer (TSBL) approximation to initial characterization of an inland aquifer mineralization 1. Direct contact between fresh and saltwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a basic study in generalized terms that originates from two needs: (1) to understand the major mechanisms involved in the mineralization of groundwater of the Great Bend Prairie aquifer of Kansas by saltwater originating from a deeper Permian bedrock formation, and (2) to develop simple, robust tools that can readily be used for local assessment and management activities in the salt-affected region. A simplified basic conceptual model is adopted, incorporating two horizontal layers of porous medium which come into contact at a specific location within the model domain. The top layer is saturated with freshwater, and the bottom layer is saturated with saltwater. The paper considers various stages of approximation which can be useful for simplified simulation of the build-up of the transition zone (TZ) between the freshwater and the saltwater. The hierarchy of approximate approaches leads to the development of the top specified boundary layer (TSBL) method, which is the major tool used in this study for initial characterization of the development of the TZ. It is shown that the thickness of the TZ is mainly determined by the characteristic dispersivity. The build-up of the TZ is completed after a time period equal to the time needed to advect a fluid particle along the whole extent of the TZ. Potential applications and the effects of natural recharge and pumpage on salinity transport in the domain are discussed and evaluated in the context of demonstrating the practicality of the TSBL approach.

  13. Advances in Plexcore active layer technology systems for organic photovoltaics: roof-top and accelerated lifetime analysis of high performance organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, Darin W.; Vaidya, Swanand; Li, Sergey; Mathai, Mathew; Woodworth, Brian; Sheina, Elena; Williams, Shawn; Hammond, Troy

    2007-09-01

    We report NREL-certified efficiencies and initial lifetime data for organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells based on Plexcore PV photoactive layer and Plexcore HTL-OPV hole transport layer technology. Plexcore PV-F3, a photoactive layer OPV ink, was certified in a single-layer OPV cell at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at 5.4%, which represents the highest official mark for a single-layer organic solar cell. We have fabricated and measured P3HT:PCBM solar cells with a peak efficiency of 4.4% and typical efficiencies of 3 - 4% (internal, NREL-calibrated measurement) with P3HT manufactured at Plextronics by the Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) method. Outdoor and accelerated lifetime testing of these devices is reported. Both Plexcore PV-F3 and P3HT:PCBM-based OPV cells exhibit >750 hours of outdoor roof-top, non-accelerated lifetime with less than 8% loss in initial efficiency for both active layer systems when exposed continuously to the climate of Western Pennsylvania. These devices are continuously being tested to date. Accelerated testing using a high-intensity (1000W) metal-halide lamp affords shorter lifetimes; however, the true acceleration factor is still to be determined.

  14. Effect of La2O3 addition on interface chemistry between 4YSZ top layer and Ni based alloy bond coat in thermal barrier coating by EB PVD.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Young; Yang, Young-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Won; Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Jang, Byung-Koog; Lim, Dae-Soon; Oh, Yoon-Suk

    2014-11-01

    The effect of a 5 mol% La2O3 addition on the forming behavior and compositional variation at interface between a 4 mol% Yttria (Y2O3) stabilized ZrO2 (4YSZ) top coat and bond coat (NiCrAlY) as a thermal barrier coating (TBC) has been investigated. Top coats were deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB PVD) onto a super alloy (Ni-Cr-Co-Al) substrate without pre-oxidation of the bond coat. Top coats are found to consist of dense columnar grains with a thin interdiffusion layer between metallic bond coats. In the as-received 4YSZ coating, a thin interdiffusion zone at the interface between the top and bond coats was found to consist of a Ni-Zr intermetallic compound with a reduced quantity of Y, Al or O elements. On the other hand, in the case of an interdiffusion area of 5 mol% La2O3-added 4YSZ coating, it was found that the complicated composition and structure with La-added YSZ and Ni-Al rich compounds separately. The thermal conductivity of 5 mol% La2O3-added 4YSZ coating (- 1.6 W/m x k at 1100 degrees C) was lower than a 4YSZ coating (- 3.2 W/m x k at 1100 degrees C) alone.

  15. Senstitivity analysis of horizontal heat and vapor transfer coefficients for a cloud-topped marine boundary layer during cold-air outbreaks. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Y. V.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of external parameters on the surface heat and vapor fluxes into the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) during cold-air outbreaks are investigated using the numerical model of Stage and Businger (1981a). These fluxes are nondimensionalized using the horizontal heat (g1) and vapor (g2) transfer coefficient method first suggested by Chou and Atlas (1982) and further formulated by Stage (1983a). In order to simplify the problem, the boundary layer is assumed to be well mixed and horizontally homogeneous, and to have linear shoreline soundings of equivalent potential temperature and mixing ratio. Modifications of initial surface flux estimates, time step limitation, and termination conditions are made to the MABL model to obtain accurate computations. The dependence of g1 and g2 in the cloud topped boundary layer on the external parameters (wind speed, divergence, sea surface temperature, radiative sky temperature, cloud top radiation cooling, and initial shoreline soundings of temperature, and mixing ratio) is studied by a sensitivity analysis, which shows that the uncertainties of horizontal transfer coefficients caused by changes in the parameters are reasonably small.

  16. Coordinated Parameterization Development and Large-Eddy Simulation for Marine and Arctic Cloud-Topped Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretherton, Christopher S.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to compare observations of marine and arctic boundary layers with: (1) parameterization systems used in climate and weather forecast models; and (2) two and three dimensional eddy resolving (LES) models for turbulent fluid flow. Based on this comparison, we hoped to better understand, predict, and parameterize the boundary layer structure and cloud amount, type, and thickness as functions of large scale conditions that are predicted by global climate models. The principal achievements of the project were as follows: (1) Development of a novel boundary layer parameterization for large-scale models that better represents the physical processes in marine boundary layer clouds; and (2) Comparison of column output from the ECMWF global forecast model with observations from the SHEBA experiment. Overall the forecast model did predict most of the major precipitation events and synoptic variability observed over the year of observation of the SHEBA ice camp.

  17. A Model for Particle Microphysics,Turbulent Mixing, and Radiative Transfer in the Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layer and Comparisons with Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Andrew S.; Toon, Owen B.; Hobbs, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed 1D model of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer is described. The model has three coupled components: a microphysics module that resolves the size distributions of aerosols and cloud droplets, a turbulence module that treats vertical mixing between layers, and a multiple wavelength radiative transfer module that calculates radiative heating rates and cloud optical properties. The results of a 12-h model simulation reproduce reasonably well the bulk thermodynamics, microphysical properties, and radiative fluxes measured in an approx. 500-m thick, summertime marine stratocumulus cloud layer by Nicholls. However, in this case, the model predictions of turbulent fluxes between the cloud and subcloud layers exceed the measurements. Results of model simulations are also compared to measurements of a marine stratus layer made under gate conditions and with measurements of a high, thin marine stratocumulus layer. The variations in cloud properties are generally reproduced by the model, although it underpredicts the entrainment of overlying air at cloud top under gale conditions. Sensitivities of the model results are explored. The vertical profile of cloud droplet concentration is sensitive to the lower size cutoff of the droplet size distribution due to the presence of unactivated haze particles in the lower region of the modeled cloud. Increases in total droplet concentrations do not always produce less drizzle and more cloud water in the model. The radius of the mean droplet volume does not correlate consistently with drizzle, but the effective droplet radius does. The greatest impacts on cloud properties predicted by the model are produced by halving the width of the size distribution of input condensation nuclei and by omitting the effect of cloud-top radiative cooling on the condensational growth of cloud droplets. The omission of infrared scattering produces noticeable changes in cloud properties. The collection efficiencies for droplets less

  18. A Model for Particle Microphysics, Turbulent Mixing, and Radiative Transfer in the Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layer and Comparisons with Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Andrew S.; Toon, Owen B.; Hobbs, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed 1D model of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer is described. The model has three coupled components: a microphysics module that resolves the size distributions of aerosols and cloud droplets, a turbulence module that treats vertical mixing between layers, and a multiple wavelength radiative transfer module that calculates radiative heating rates and cloud optical properties. The results of a 12-h model simulation reproduce reasonably well the bulk thermodynamics, microphysical properties, and radiative fluxes measured in an approx. 500-m thick, summertime marine stratocumulus cloud layer by Nicholls. However, in this case, the model predictions of turbulent fluxes between the cloud and subcloud layers exceed the measurements. Results of model simulations are also compared to measurements of a marine stratus layer made under gale conditions and with measurements of a high, thin marine stratocumulus layer. The variations in cloud properties are generally reproduced by the model, although it underpredicts the entrainment of overlying air at cloud top under gale conditions. Sensitivities of the model results are explored. The vertical profile of cloud droplet concentration is sensitive to the lower size cutoff of the droplet size distribution due to the presence of unactivated haze particles in the lower region of the modeled cloud. Increases in total droplet concentrations do not always produce less drizzle and more cloud water in the model. The radius of the mean droplet volume does not correlate consistently with drizzle, but the effective droplet radius does. The greatest impacts on cloud properties predicted by the model are produced by halving the width of the size distribution of input condensation nuclei and by omitting the effect of cloud-top radiative cooling on the condensational growth of cloud droplets. The omission of infrared scattering produces noticeable changes in cloud properties. The collection efficiencies for droplets less

  19. Atomic layer deposition of sub-10 nm high-K gate dielectrics on top-gated MoS2 transistors without surface functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Shu; Cheng, Po-Hsien; Huang, Kuei-Wen; Lin, Hsin-Chih; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2018-06-01

    Sub-10 nm high-K gate dielectrics are of critical importance in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) transistors. However, the chemical inertness of TMDs gives rise to a lot of pinholes in gate dielectrics, resulting in large gate leakage current. In this study, sub-10 nm, uniform and pinhole-free Al2O3 high-K gate dielectrics on MoS2 were achieved by atomic layer deposition without surface functionalization, in which an ultrathin Al2O3 layer prepared with a short purge time at a low temperature of 80 °C offers the nucleation cites for the deposition of the overlaying oxide at a higher temperature. Conductive atomic force microscopy reveals the significant suppression of gate leakage current in the sub-10 nm Al2O3 gate dielectrics with the low-temperature nucleation layer. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies indicate that no oxidation occurred during the deposition of the low-temperature Al2O3 nucleation layer on MoS2. With the high-quality sub-10 nm Al2O3 high-K gate dielectrics, low hysteresis and subthreshold swing were demonstrated on the normally-off top-gated MoS2 transistors.

  20. Lidar measurements of the atmospheric entrainment zone and the potential temperature jump across the top of the mixed layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boers, R.; Eloranta, E. W.

    1986-01-01

    Lidar data of the atmospheric entrainment zone from six days of clear air convection obtained in central Illinois during July 1979 are presented. A new method to measure the potential temperature jump across the entrainment zone based on only one temperature sounding and continuous lidar measurements of the mixed layer height is developed. An almost linear dependence is found between the normalized entrainment rate and the normalized thickness of the entrainment zone.

  1. Large-eddy simulation of subtropical cloud-topped boundary layers: 1. A forcing framework with closed surface energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhihong; Schneider, Tapio; Teixeira, João.; Pressel, Kyle G.

    2016-12-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) of clouds has the potential to resolve a central question in climate dynamics, namely, how subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds respond to global warming. However, large-scale processes need to be prescribed or represented parameterically in the limited-area LES domains. It is important that the representation of large-scale processes satisfies constraints such as a closed energy balance in a manner that is realizable under climate change. For example, LES with fixed sea surface temperatures usually do not close the surface energy balance, potentially leading to spurious surface fluxes and cloud responses to climate change. Here a framework of forcing LES of subtropical MBL clouds is presented that enforces a closed surface energy balance by coupling atmospheric LES to an ocean mixed layer with a sea surface temperature (SST) that depends on radiative fluxes and sensible and latent heat fluxes at the surface. A variety of subtropical MBL cloud regimes (stratocumulus, cumulus, and stratocumulus over cumulus) are simulated successfully within this framework. However, unlike in conventional frameworks with fixed SST, feedbacks between cloud cover and SST arise, which can lead to sudden transitions between cloud regimes (e.g., stratocumulus to cumulus) as forcing parameters are varied. The simulations validate this framework for studies of MBL clouds and establish its usefulness for studies of how the clouds respond to climate change.

  2. Chemical vapor deposited monolayer MoS2 top-gate MOSFET with atomic-layer-deposited ZrO2 as gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaoqiao; Jiang, Huaxing; Lau, Kei May; Li, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    For the first time, ZrO2 dielectric deposition on pristine monolayer MoS2 by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is demonstrated and ZrO2/MoS2 top-gate MOSFETs have been fabricated. ALD ZrO2 overcoat, like other high-k oxides such as HfO2 and Al2O3, was shown to enhance the MoS2 channel mobility. As a result, an on/off current ratio of over 107, a subthreshold slope of 276 mV dec-1, and a field-effect electron mobility of 12.1 cm2 V-1 s-1 have been achieved. The maximum drain current of the MOSFET with a top-gate length of 4 μm and a source/drain spacing of 9 μm is measured to be 1.4 μA μm-1 at V DS = 5 V. The gate leakage current is below 10-2 A cm-2 under a gate bias of 10 V. A high dielectric breakdown field of 4.9 MV cm-1 is obtained. Gate hysteresis and frequency-dependent capacitance-voltage measurements were also performed to characterize the ZrO2/MoS2 interface quality, which yielded an interface state density of ˜3 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1.

  3. Prediction of Hexaconazole Concentration in the Top Most Layer of Oil Palm Plantation Soil Using Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)

    PubMed Central

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Shitan, Mahendran; Kumar Karmokar, Provash; Najwa, Sulaiman

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma boninense is a fungus that can affect oil palm trees and cause a serious disease called the basal stem root (BSR). This disease causes the death of more than 80% of oil palm trees midway through their economic life and hexaconazole is one of the particular fungicides that can control this fungus. Hexaconazole can be applied by the soil drenching method and it will be of interest to know the concentration of the residue in the soil after treatment with respect to time. Hence, a field study was conducted in order to determine the actual concentration of hexaconazole in soil. In the present paper, a new approach that can be used to predict the concentration of pesticides in the soil is proposed. The statistical analysis revealed that the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) techniques would be appropriate in this study. The EDA techniques were used to fit a robust resistant model and predict the concentration of the residue in the topmost layer of the soil. PMID:28060816

  4. Prediction of Hexaconazole Concentration in the Top Most Layer of Oil Palm Plantation Soil Using Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA).

    PubMed

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Shitan, Mahendran; Kumar Karmokar, Provash; Najwa, Sulaiman

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma boninense is a fungus that can affect oil palm trees and cause a serious disease called the basal stem root (BSR). This disease causes the death of more than 80% of oil palm trees midway through their economic life and hexaconazole is one of the particular fungicides that can control this fungus. Hexaconazole can be applied by the soil drenching method and it will be of interest to know the concentration of the residue in the soil after treatment with respect to time. Hence, a field study was conducted in order to determine the actual concentration of hexaconazole in soil. In the present paper, a new approach that can be used to predict the concentration of pesticides in the soil is proposed. The statistical analysis revealed that the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) techniques would be appropriate in this study. The EDA techniques were used to fit a robust resistant model and predict the concentration of the residue in the topmost layer of the soil.

  5. Raman and IR-ATR spectroscopy studies of heteroepitaxial structures with a GaN:C top layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, M. F.; Vieira, L. G.; Alves, A.; Correia, R.; Huber, M.; Andreev, A.; Bonanni, A.; Vasilevskiy, M. I.

    2017-09-01

    This work, motivated by the technologically important task of determination of carbon dopant location in the GaN crystal lattice, employed Raman spectroscopy, with both resonant and non-resonant excitation, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy, in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration, to study lattice vibration modes in a set of carbon-doped GaN (GaN:C) epilayers grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. We analyse Raman and IR-ATR spectra from the point of view of possible effects of the carbon doping, namely: (i) local vibration mode of C atoms in the nitrogen sublattice (whose frequency we theoretically estimate as 768 cm-1 using an isotope defect model), and (ii) shift in the positions of longitudinal modes owing to the phonon-plasmon coupling. We find only indirect hints of the doping effect on the resonant Raman spectra. However, we show theoretically and confirm experimentally that the IR-ATR spectroscopy can be a much more sensitive tool for this purpose, at least for the considered structures. A weak perturbation of the dielectric function of GaN:C, caused by the substitutional carbon impurity, is shown to produce a measurable dip in the ATR reflectivity spectra at  ≈770 cm-1 for both p- and s-polarizations. Moreover, it influences a specific (guided-wave type) mode observed at  ≈737 cm-1, originating from the GaN layer, which appears in the narrow frequency window where the real parts of the two components of the dielectric tensor of the hexagonal crystal have opposite signs. This interpretation is supported by our modelling of the whole multilayer structure, using a transfer matrix formalism.

  6. Response of mixed-phase boundary layer clouds with rapid and slow ice nucleation processes to cloud-top temperature trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridlind, A. M.; Avramov, A.; Ackerman, A. S.; Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.; DeMott, P. J.; Brooks, S. D.; Glen, A.

    2015-12-01

    It has been argued on the basis of some laboratory data sets, observed mixed-phase cloud systems, and numerical modeling studies that weakly active or slowly consumed ice forming nuclei (IFN) may be important to natural cloud systems. It has also been argued on the basis of field measurements that ice nucleation under mixed-phase conditions appears to occur predominantly via a liquid-phase mechanism, requiring the presence of liquid droplets prior to substantial ice nucleation. Here we analyze the response of quasi-Lagrangian large-eddy simulations of mixed-phase cloud layers to IFN operating via a liquid-phase mode using assumptions that result in either slow or rapid depletion of IFN from the cloudy boundary layer. Using several generalized case studies that do not exhibit riming or drizzle, based loosely on field campaign data, we vary environmental conditions such that the cloud-top temperature trend varies. One objective of this work is to identify differing patterns in ice formation intensity that may be distinguishable from ground-based or satellite platforms.

  7. Piezoelectric Resonator with Two Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanou, Philip J. (Inventor); Black, Justin P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A piezoelectric resonator device includes: a top electrode layer with a patterned structure, a top piezoelectric layer adjacent to the top layer, a middle metal layer adjacent to the top piezoelectric layer opposite the top layer, a bottom piezoelectric layer adjacent to the middle layer opposite the top piezoelectric layer, and a bottom electrode layer with a patterned structure and adjacent to the bottom piezoelectric layer opposite the middle layer. The top layer includes a first plurality of electrodes inter-digitated with a second plurality of electrodes. A first one of the electrodes in the top layer and a first one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a first contact, and a second one of the electrodes in the top layer and a second one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a second contact.

  8. Improving corn silage quality in the top layer of farm bunker silos through the use of a next-generation barrier film with high impermeability to oxygen.

    PubMed

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect on the fermentation, chemical, and microbiological quality of corn silage covered with a new-generation high oxygen barrier film (HOB) made with a special grade of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) compared with a standard polyethylene film (PE). Two bunkers (farms 1 and 2) were divided into 2 parts lengthwise so that half of the silo would be covered with PE film and the other with HOB film. Plastic net bags with fresh chopped corn were buried in the upper layer (close to and far from the wall) and in the central part of the bunkers. During spring-summer consumption, the bags were unloaded, weighed, and subsampled to analyze the dry matter (DM) content, neutral detergent fiber and starch contents, pH, lactic and monocarboxylic acids, yeast and mold counts, aerobic and anaerobic spore-former counts, and aerobic stability. We also determined the economic benefit of applying the novel covering. The top layer of silage conserved under the HOB film had a higher lactic acid content and lower pH; lower counts of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers; higher aerobic stability; and lower DM losses than the silage conserved under the PE film. The use of the HOB film prevented almost all of the silage in the upper layer from spoiling; only 2 out of 32 samples had a mold count >6log10 cfu/g. This led to a net economic gain when the HOB film was used on both farms due to the increased DM recovery and reduced labor time required to clean the upper layer, even though the HOB film cost about 2.3 times more than the PE film. Furthermore, use of the HOB film, which ensures a longer shelf life of silage during consumption, reduced the detrimental effect of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers on the nutritional and microbiological quality of the unloaded silage. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ALD TiO x as a top-gate dielectric and passivation layer for InGaZnO115 ISFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidis, S.; Bayraktaroglu, B.; Leedy, K.; Henderson, W.; Vogel, E.; Brand, O.

    2017-11-01

    The suitability of atomic layer deposited (ALD) titanium oxide (TiO x ) as a top gate dielectric and passivation layer for indium gallium zinc oxide (InGaZnO115) ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) is investigated. TiO x is an attractive barrier material, but reports of its use for InGaZnO thin film transistor (TFT) passivation have been conflicting thus far. In this work, it is found that the passivated TFT’s behavior depends on the TiO x deposition temperature, affecting critical device characteristics such as threshold voltage, field-effect mobility and sub-threshold swing. An O2 annealing step is required to recover TFT performance post passivation. It is also observed that the positive bias stress response of the passivated TFTs improves compared the original bare device. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy excludes the effects of hydrogen doping and inter-diffusion as sources of the temperature-dependent performance change, therefore indicating that oxygen gettering induced by TiO x passivation is the likely source of oxygen vacancies and, consequently, carriers in the InGaZnO film. It is also shown that potentiometric sensing using ALD TiO x exhibits a near Nernstian response to pH change, as well as minimizes V TH drift in TiO x passivated InGaZnO TFTs immersed in an acidic liquid. These results add to the understanding of InGaZnO passivation effects and underscore the potential for low-temperature fabricated InGaZnO ISFETs to be used as high-performance mobile chemical sensors.

  10. A model for the estimation of the surface fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture of the cloud topped marine atmospheric boundary layer from satellite measurable parameters. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A model is developed for the estimation of the surface fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture of the cloud topped marine atmospheric boundary layer by use of satellite remotely sensed parameters. The parameters chosen for the problem are the integrated liquid water content, q sub li, the integrated water vapor content, q sub vi, the cloud top temperature, and either a measure of the 10 meter neutral wind speed or the friction velocity at the surface. Under the assumption of a horizontally homogeneous, well-mixed boundary layer, the model calculates the equivalent potential temperature and total water profiles of the boundary layer along with the boundary layer height from inputs of q sub li, q sub vi, and cloud top temperature. These values, along with the 10m neutral wind speed or friction velocity and the sea surface temperature are then used to estimate the surface fluxes. The development of a scheme to parameterize the integrated water vapor outside of the boundary layer for the cases of cold air outbreak and California coastal stratus is presented.

  11. Multiple sources supply eolian mineral dust to the Atlantic sector of coastal Antarctica: Evidence from recent snow layers at the top of Berkner Island ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bory, Aloys; Wolff, Eric; Mulvaney, Robert; Jagoutz, Emil; Wegner, Anna; Ruth, Urs; Elderfield, Harry

    2010-03-01

    The Sr and Nd isotopic composition of dust extracted from recent snow layers at the top of Berkner Island ice sheet (located within the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf at the southern end of the Weddell Sea) enables us, for the first time, to document dust provenance in Antarctica outside the East Antarctic Plateau (EAP) where all previous studies based on isotopic fingerprinting were carried out. Berkner dust displays an overall crust-like isotopic signature, characterized by more radiogenic 87Sr/ 86Sr and much less radiogenic 143Nd/ 144Nd compared to dust deposited on the EAP during glacial periods. Differences with EAP interglacial dust are not as marked but still significant, indicating that present-day Berkner dust provenance is distinct, at least to some extent, from that of the dust reaching the EAP. The fourteen snow-pit sub-seasonal samples that were obtained span a two-year period (2002-2003) and their dust Sr and Nd isotopic composition reveals that multiple sources are at play over a yearly time period. Southern South America, Patagonia in particular, likely accounts for part of the observed spring/summer dust deposition maxima, when isotopic composition is shifted towards "younger" isotopic signatures. In the spring, possible additional inputs from Australian sources would also be supported by the data. Most of the year, however, the measured isotopic signatures would be best explained by a sustained background supply from putative local sources in East Antarctica, which carry old-crust-like isotopic fingerprints. Whether the restricted East Antarctic ice-free areas produce sufficient eolian material has yet to be substantiated however. The fact that large (> 5 μm) particles represent a significant fraction of the samples throughout the entire time-series supports scenarios that involve contributions from proximal sources, either in Patagonia and/or Antarctica (possibly including snow-free areas in the Antarctic Peninsula and other areas as well). This also

  12. Intersection of All Top Quantile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This layer combines the Top quantiles of the CES, CEVA, and EJSM layers so that viewers can see the overlap of 00e2??hot spots00e2?? for each method. This layer was created by James Sadd of Occidental College of Los Angeles

  13. Reorientation of the ‘free OH’ group in the top-most layer of air/water interface of sodium fluoride aqueous solution probed with sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ran-Ran; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-09-17

    Many experimental and theoretical studies have established the specific anion, as well as cation effects on the hydrogen-bond structures at the air/water interface of electrolyte solutions. However, the ion effects on the top-most layer of the air/water interface, which is signified by the non-hydrogen-bonded so-called ‘free O-H’ group, has not been discussed or studied. In this report, we present the measurement of changes of the orientational angle of the ‘free O-H’ group at the air/water interface of the sodium fluoride (NaF) solutions at different concentrations using the interface selective sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in the ssp and ppp polarizations.more » The polarization dependent SFG-VS results show that the average tilt angle of the ‘free O-H’ changes from about 35.3 degrees ± 0.5 degrees to 43.4 degrees ± 2.1degrees as the NaF concentration increase from 0 to 0.94M (nearly saturated). Such tilt angle change is around the axis of the other O-H group of the same water molecule at the top-most layer at the air/water interface that is hydrogen-bonded to the water molecules below the top-most layer. These results provide quantitative molecular details of the ion effects of the NaF salt on the structure of the water molecules at the top-most layer of the air/water interfacial, even though both the Na+ cation and the F- anion are believed to be among the most excluded ions from the air/water interface.« less

  14. Highly reliable top-gated thin-film transistor memory with semiconducting, tunneling, charge-trapping, and blocking layers all of flexible polymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hwang, Sun Kak; Kim, Kang Lib; Lee, Ju Han; Cho, Suk Man; Park, Cheolmin

    2015-05-27

    The core components of a floating-gate organic thin-film transistor nonvolatile memory (OTFT-NVM) include the semiconducting channel layer, tunneling layer, floating-gate layer, and blocking layer, besides three terminal electrodes. In this study, we demonstrated OTFT-NVMs with all four constituent layers made of polymers based on consecutive spin-coating. Ambipolar charges injected and trapped in a polymer electret charge-controlling layer upon gate program and erase field successfully allowed for reliable bistable channel current levels at zero gate voltage. We have observed that the memory performance, in particular the reliability of a device, significantly depends upon the thickness of both blocking and tunneling layers, and with an optimized layer thickness and materials selection, our device exhibits a memory window of 15.4 V, on/off current ratio of 2 × 10(4), read and write endurance cycles over 100, and time-dependent data retention of 10(8) s, even when fabricated on a mechanically flexible plastic substrate.

  15. Tunneling-Magnetoresistance Ratio Comparison of MgO-Based Perpendicular-Magnetic-Tunneling-Junction Spin Valve Between Top and Bottom Co2Fe6B2 Free Layer Structure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Du-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Eun; Shim, Tae-Hun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2016-12-01

    For the perpendicular-magnetic-tunneling-junction (p-MTJ) spin valve with a nanoscale-thick bottom Co2Fe6B2 free layer ex situ annealed at 400 °C, which has been used as a common p-MTJ structure, the Pt atoms of the Pt buffer layer diffused into the MgO tunneling barrier. This transformed the MgO tunneling barrier from a body-centered cubic (b.c.c) crystallized layer into a mixture of b.c.c, face-centered cubic, and amorphous layers and rapidly decreased the tunneling-magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio. The p-MTJ spin valve with a nanoscale-thick top Co2Fe6B2 free layer could prevent the Pt atoms diffusing into the MgO tunneling barrier during ex situ annealing at 400 °C because of non-necessity of a Pt buffer layer, demonstrating the TMR ratio of ~143 %.

  16. Topography preserved microwave plasma etching for top-down layer engineering in MoS2 and other van der Waals materials.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Abin; Sharma, Chithra H; Thalakulam, Madhu

    2017-03-17

    A generic and universal layer engineering strategy for van der Waals (vW) materials, scalable and compatible with the current semiconductor technology, is of paramount importance in realizing all-two-dimensional logic circuits and to move beyond the silicon scaling limit. In this letter, we demonstrate a scalable and highly controllable microwave plasma based layer engineering strategy for MoS 2 and other vW materials. Using this technique we etch MoS 2 flakes layer-by-layer starting from an arbitrary thickness and area down to the mono- or the few-layer limit. From Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we confirm that the structural and morphological properties of the material have not been compromised. The process preserves the pre-etch layer topography and yields a smooth and pristine-like surface. We explore the electrical properties utilising a field effect transistor geometry and find that the mobility values of our samples are comparable to those of the pristine ones. The layer removal does not involve any reactive gasses or chemical reactions and relies on breaking the weak inter-layer vW interaction making it a generic technique for a wide spectrum of layered materials and heterostructures. We demonstrate the wide applicability of the technique by extending it to other systems such as graphene, h-BN and WSe 2 . In addition, using microwave plasma in combination with standard lithography, we illustrate a lateral patterning scheme making this process a potential candidate for large scale device fabrication in addition to layer engineering.

  17. Effect of active-layer composition and structure on device performance of coplanar top-gate amorphous oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Lan; Meng, Fanxin; Chen, Jiarong

    2018-01-01

    The thin-film transistors (TFTs) with amorphous aluminum-indium-zinc-oxide (a-AIZO) active layer were prepared by dip coating method. The dependence of properties of TFTs on the active-layer composition and structure was investigated. The results indicate that Al atoms acted as a carrier suppressor in IZO films. Meanwhile, it was found that the on/off current ratio (I on/off) of TFT was improved by embedding a high-resistivity AIZO layer between the low-resistivity AIZO layer and gate insulator. The improvement in I on/off was attributed to the decrease in off-state current of double-active-layer TFT due to an increase in the active-layer resistance and the contact resistance between active layer and source/drain electrode. Moreover, on-state current and threshold voltage (V th) can be mainly controlled through thickness and Al content of the low-resistivity AIZO layer. In addition, the saturation mobility (μ sat) of TFTs was improved with reducing the size of channel width or/and length, which was attributed to the decrease in trap states in the semiconductor and at the semiconductor/gate-insulator interface with the smaller channel width or/and shorter channel length. Thus, we can demonstrate excellent TFTs via the design of active-layer composition and structure by utilizing a low cost solution-processed method. The resulting TFT, operating in enhancement mode, has a high μ sat of 14.16 cm2 V-1 s-1, a small SS of 0.40 V/decade, a close-to-zero V th of 0.50 V, and I on/off of more than 105.

  18. Architectural Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop…

  19. Hypervelocity impacts into ice-topped layered targets: Investigating the effects of ice crust thickness and subsurface density on crater morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harriss, Kathryn H.; Burchell, Mark J.

    2017-07-01

    Many bodies in the outer solar system are theorized to have an ice shell with a different subsurface material below, be it chondritic, regolith, or a subsurface ocean. This layering can have a significant influence on the morphology of impact craters. Accordingly, we have undertaken laboratory hypervelocity impact experiments on a range of multilayered targets, with interiors of water, sand, and basalt. Impact experiments were undertaken using impact speeds in the range of 0.8-5.3 km s-1, a 1.5 mm Al ball bearing projectile, and an impact incidence of 45°. The surface ice crust had a thickness between 5 and 50 mm, i.e., some 3-30 times the projectile diameter. The thickness of the ice crust as well as the nature of the subsurface layer (liquid, well consolidated, etc.) have a marked effect on the morphology of the resulting impact crater, with thicker ice producing a larger crater diameter (at a given impact velocity), and the crater diameter scaling with impact speed to the power 0.72 for semi-infinite ice, but with 0.37 for thin ice. The density of the subsurface material changes the structure of the crater, with flat crater floors if there is a dense, well-consolidated subsurface layer (basalt) or steep, narrow craters if there is a less cohesive subsurface (sand). The associated faulting in the ice surface is also dependent on ice thickness and the substrate material. We find that the ice layer (in impacts at 5 km s-1) is effectively semi-infinite if its thickness is more than 15.5 times the projectile diameter. Below this, the crater diameter is reduced by 4% for each reduction in ice layer thickness equal to the impactor diameter. Crater depth is also affected. In the ice thickness region, 7-15.5 times the projectile diameter, the crater shape in the ice is modified even when the subsurface layer is not penetrated. For ice thicknesses, <7 times the projectile diameter, the ice layer is breached, but the nature of the resulting crater depends heavily on the

  20. Spatial patterns and ratios of ¹³⁷Cs, ⁹⁰Sr, and Pu isotopes in the top layer of undisturbed meadow soils as indicators for contamination origin.

    PubMed

    Lukšienė, Benedikta; Puzas, Andrius; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Druteikienė, Rūta; Gudelis, Arūnas; Gvozdaitė, Rasa; Buivydas, Šarūnas; Davidonis, Rimantas; Kandrotas, Gintautas

    2015-05-01

    Spatial distribution of activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (239,240)Pu in the top layer of undisturbed meadow soils was compared between two regional transects across Lithuania: one in the SW region, more affected by the Chernobyl radioactive fallout, and the other in the NE region. Radiochemical, γ-, α-, β-, and mass spectrometric methods were used to determine the radionuclide activity. Our results validate that higher activity concentrations in the top soil layer were present in the SW region, despite the fact that sampling was performed after 22 years of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. Using the activity concentration ratio (137)Cs/(239,240)Puglobal, the contribution of the Chernobyl NPP accident to the total radiocesium activity concentrations in these meadow soils was evaluated and found to be in the range of 6.5-59.1%. Meanwhile, the activity concentration ratio (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu showed that Chernobyl-derived Pu occurred at almost half of the sampling sites. The locations with maximal values of 47% of Chernobyl-derived Pu material were close to northeastern Poland, where deposition of most of non-volatile radioisotopes from the Chernobyl plume was determined.

  1. Backscatter-to-Extinction Ratios in the Top Layers of Tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems and in Isolated Cirrus from LITE Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, C. M. R.; Winker, D. M.; Vaughan, M. A.; Miller, S. D.

    1999-01-01

    Cloud-integrated attenuated backscatter from observations with the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) was studied over a range of cirrus clouds capping some extensive mesoscale convective systems (MCSS) in the Tropical West Pacific. The integrated backscatter when the cloud is completely attenuating, and when corrected for multiple scattering, is a measure of the cloud particle backscatter phase function. Four different cases of MCS were studied. The first was very large, very intense, and fully attenuating, with cloud tops extending to 17 km and a maximum lidar pulse penetration of about 3 km. It also exhibited the highest integrated attenuated isotropic backscatter, with values in the 532-nm channel of up to 2.5 near the center of the system, falling to 0.6 near the edges. The second MCS had cloud tops that extended to 14.8 km. Although MCS2 was almost fully attenuating, the pulse penetration into the cloud was up to 7 km and the MCS2 had a more diffuse appearance than MCS1. The integrated backscatter values were much lower in this system but with some systematic variations between 0.44 and 0.75. The third MCS was Typhoon Melissa. Values of integrated backscatter in tt-ds case varied from 1.64 near the eye of the typhoon to between 0.44 and 1.0 in the areas of typhoon outflow and in the 532-nm channel. Mean pulse penetration through the cloud top was 2-3 km, the lowest penetration of any of the systems. The fourth MCS consisted of a region of outflow from Typhoon Melissa. The cloud was semitransparent for more than half of the image time. During that time, maximum cloud depth was about 7 km. The integrated backscatter varied from about 0.38 to 0.63 in the 532-nm channel when the cloud was fully attenuating. In some isolated cirrus between the main systems, a plot of integrated backscatter against one minus the two-way transmittance gave a linear dependence with a maximum value of 0.35 when the clouds were fully attenuating. The effective backscatter

  2. Deuterium charge exchange recombination spectroscopy from the top of the pedestal to the scrape off layer in H-mode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskey, S. R.; Grierson, B. A.; Stagner, L.; Burrell, K. H.; Chrystal, C.; Groebner, R. J.; Ashourvan, A.; Pablant, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    Recent completion of the thirty two channel main-ion (deuterium) charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) diagnostic on DIII-D [J.L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42 (2002) 614] enables detailed comparisons between impurity and main-ion temperature, density, and toroidal rotation. Sixteen sightlines cover the core of the plasma and another sixteen are densely packed towards the edge, providing high resolution measurements of the pedestal and steep gradient edge region of H-mode plasmas. The complexities of the Dα spectrum require fitting with a comprehensive model, as well as using iterative collisional radiative modeling to determine the underlying thermal deuterium ion properties. Large differences in the structure and magnitude of impurity (C6+) and main-ion (D+) toroidal rotation profiles are seen in the H-mode pedestal. Additionally the D+ temperature can be half the value of the C6+ temperature at the separatrix and shows more of a pedestal structure. Typically only the impurity properties are measured and the main-ion properties are either assumed to be the same, or inferred using neoclassical models, which require validation in the steep gradient region. These measured differences have implications for transport model validation, intrinsic rotation studies, pedestal stability, and the boundary conditions for scrape off layer and plasma material interactions studies.

  3. Deuterium charge exchange recombination spectroscopy from the top of the pedestal to the scrape off layer in H-mode plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Haskey, S. R.; Grierson, B. A.; Stagner, L.; ...

    2017-10-25

    Recent completion of the thirty two channel main-ion (deuterium) charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) diagnostic on DIII-D enables detailed comparisons between impurity and main-ion temperature, density, and toroidal rotation. Sixteen sightlines cover the core of the plasma and another sixteen are densely packed towards the edge, providing high resolution measurements of the pedestal and steep gradient edge region of H-mode plasmas. The complexities of the D α spectrum require fitting with a comprehensive model, as well as using iterative collisional radiative modeling to determine the underlying thermal deuterium ion properties. Large differences in the structure and magnitude of impurity (Cmore » 6+) and main-ion (D +) toroidal rotation profiles are seen in the H-mode pedestal. Additionally the D + temperature can be half the value of the C 6+ temperature at the separatrix and shows more of a pedestal structure. Typically only the impurity properties are measured and the main-ion properties are either assumed to be the same, or inferred using neoclassical models, which require validation in the steep gradient region. Furthermore, these measured differences have implications for transport model validation, intrinsic rotation studies, pedestal stability, and the boundary conditions for scrape off layer and plasma material interactions studies.« less

  4. Dependence of wind speed and UV albedo at Venus top cloud layer on topography and local time revealed from VMC images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsaeva, Marina; Khatuntsev, Igor; Turin, Alexander; Zasova, Ludmila; Bertaux, Jean-loup

    2017-04-01

    Terra it is poleward. Acknowledgements: M.V. Patsaeva, I.V. Khatuntsev and J.-L. Bertaux were supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation grant 14.W03.31.0017. References: [1] Khatuntsev, I.V., M.V. Patsaeva, D.V. Titov, N.I. Ignatiev, A.V. Turin, S.S. Limaye, W.J. Markiewicz, M. Almeida, T. Roatsch and R. Moissl (2013), Cloud level winds from the Venus Express Monitoring Camera imaging., Icarus, 226, 140-158. [2] Patsaeva, M.V., I.V. Khatuntsev, D.V. Patsaev, D.V. Titov, N.I. Ignatiev, W.J. Markiewicz, A.V. Rodin (2015), The relationship between mesoscale circulation and cloud morphology at the upper cloud level of Venus from VMC/Venus Express, Planet. Space Sci. 113(08), 100-108, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2015.01.013. [3] Bertaux, J.-L., I. V. Khatuntsev, A. Hauchecorne, W. J. Markiewicz, E. Marcq, S. Lebonnois, M. Patsaeva, A. Turin, and A. Fedorova (2016), Influence of Venus topography on the zonal wind and UV albedo at cloud top level: The role of stationary gravity waves, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 121, 1087-1101, doi:10.1002/2015JE004958.

  5. Endurance and Cycle-to-cycle Uniformity Improvement in Tri-Layered CeO2/Ti/CeO2 Resistive Switching Devices by Changing Top Electrode Material

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Akbar, Tahira; Ismail, Muhammad; Ahmad, Ejaz; Hussain, Fayyaz; Talib, Ijaz; Imran, Muhammad; Mehmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Khalid; Nadeem, M. Younus

    2017-01-01

    Resistance switching characteristics of CeO2/Ti/CeO2 tri-layered films sandwiched between Pt bottom electrode and two different top electrodes (Ti and TaN) with different work functions have been investigated. RRAM memory cells composed of TaN/CeO2/Ti/CeO2/Pt reveal better resistive switching performance instead of Ti/CeO2/Ti/CeO2/Pt memory stacks. As compared to the Ti/CeO2 interface, much better ability of TaN/CeO2 interface to store and exchange plays a key role in the RS performance improvement, including lower forming/SET voltages, large memory window (~102) and no significant data degradation during endurance test of >104 switching cycles. The formation of TaON thinner interfacial layer between TaN TE and CeO2 film is found to be accountable for improved resistance switching behavior. Partial charge density of states is analyzed using density functional theory. It is found that the conductive filaments formed in CeO2 based devices is assisted by interstitial Ti dopant. Better stability and reproducibility in cycle-to-cycle (C2C) resistance distribution and Vset/Vreset uniformity were achieved due to the modulation of current conduction mechanism from Ohmic in low field region to Schottky emission in high field region. PMID:28079056

  6. Traffic operation strategies : TOPS

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-04-01

    The Legislature required the Department of Transportation to submit a report on Traffic Operations Strategies (TOPS). This report responds to the Legislative requirement by describing the motivation for TOPS, the current status of TOPS, and opportuni...

  7. Top coat or no top coat for immersion lithography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanenko, N.; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kishimura, S.; Van Den Heuvel, D.; Vandenbroeck, N.; Kocsis, M.; Foubert, P.; Maenhoudt, M.; Ercken, M.; Van Roey, F.; Gronheid, R.; Pollentier, I.; Vangoidsenhoven, D.; Delvaux, C.; Baerts, C.; O'Brien, S.; Fyen, W.; Wells, G.

    2006-03-01

    Since the moment immersion lithography appeared in the roadmaps of IC manufacturers, the question whether to use top coats has become one of the important topics for discussions. The top coats used in immersion lithography have proved to serve as good protectors from leaching of the resist components (PAGs, bases) into the water. However their application complicates the process and may lead to two side effects. First, top coats can affect the process window and resist profile depending on the material's refractive index, thickness, acidity, chemical interaction with the resist and the soaking time. Second, the top coat application may increase the total amount of defects on the wafer. Having an immersion resist which could work without the top coat would be a preferable solution. Still, it is quite challenging to make such a resist as direct water/resist interaction may also result in process window changes, CD variations, generation of additional defects. We have performed a systematic evaluation of a large number of immersion resist and top coat combinations, using the ASML XT:1250Di scanner at IMEC. The samples for the experiments were provided by all the leading resist and top coat suppliers. Particular attention was paid to how the resist and top coat materials from different vendors interacted with each other. Among the factors which could influence the total amount of defects or CD variations on the wafer were: the material's dynamic contact angle and its interaction with the scanner stage speed, top coat thickness and intermixing layer formation, water uptake and leaching. We have examined the importance of all mentioned factors, using such analytical techniques as Resist Development Analyser (RDA), Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM), Mass Spectroscopy (MS) and scatterometry. We have also evaluated the influence of the pre- and pos- exposure rinse processes on the defectivity. In this paper we will present the data on imaging and defectivity performance of

  8. Multi-layer coatings

    DOEpatents

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze'ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  9. Spherical Tippe Tops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-03-01

    A tippe top (see Fig. 1) is usually constructed as a truncated sphere with a cylindrical peg on top, as indicated in Fig. 2(a). When spun rapidly on a horizontal surface, a tippe top spins about a vertical axis while rotating slowly about a horizontal axis until the peg touches the surface. At that point, weight is transferred to the peg, the truncated sphere rises off the surface, and the top spins on the peg until it is upright. A feature of a tippe top is that its center of mass, labeled G in Fig. 2, is below the geometric center of the sphere, C, when the top is at rest. That is where it will return if the top is tilted sideways and released since that is the stable equilibrium position. The fact that a tippe top turns upside down when it spins is therefore astonishing. The behavior of a tippe top is quite unlike that of a regular top since the spin axis remains closely vertical the whole time. The center of mass of a regular top can also rise, but the spin axis tilts upward as the top rises and enters a "sleeping" position.

  10. CDF Top Physics

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Tartarelli, G. F.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    The authors present the latest results about top physics obtained by the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The data sample used for these analysis (about 110 pb{sup{minus}1}) represents almost the entire statistics collected by CDF during four years (1992--95) of data taking. This large data size has allowed detailed studies of top production and decay properties. The results discussed here include the determination of the top quark mass, the measurement of the production cross section, the study of the kinematics of the top events and a look at top decays.

  11. NASA Brevard Top Scholars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-13

    Retired NASA astronaut Tom Jones is with top scholars from Brevard County public high schools in the Rocket Garden at the NASA Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. Top scholars from the high schools were invited to Kennedy Space Center for a tour of facilities, lunch and a roundtable discussion with engineers and scientists at the center. The 2017-2018 Brevard Top Scholars event was hosted by the center's Education Projects and Youth Engagement office to honor the top three scholars of the 2017-2018 graduating student class from each of Brevard County’s public high schools. They students received a personalized certificate at the end of the day.

  12. NASA Brevard Top Scholars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-13

    Top scholars from Brevard County public high schools participate in roundtable discussions with NASA engineers and scientists at the Public Engagement Center at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. Top scholars from the high schools were invited to Kennedy Space Center for a tour of facilities, lunch and a roundtable discussion. The 2017-2018 Brevard Top Scholars event was hosted by the center's Education Projects and Youth Engagement office to honor the top three scholars of the graduating student class from each of Brevard County’s public high schools. The students received a personalized certificate at the end of the day.

  13. Training Top 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Top companies realize how vital training is to their success and continue to invest in it, even in trying times. This article presents "Training" magazine's 11th annual ranking of the top companies with employee-sponsored workforce training and development. First-time No. 1 winner Farmers Insurance puts such a premium on learning that its new…

  14. Training Top 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Identifies the top 50 companies in terms of the amount spent on training and development, the number of hours of training per employee, and percentage of payroll spent on training. Profiles the top five plus four additional companies selected by the magazine's editors. (SK)

  15. Training Top 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The best learning and development organizations support business initiatives tactically "and" help drive strategic change. Verizon did just that, earning it the No. 1 spot for the first time on the Training Top 125. Verizon and the other 2012 Top 125 winners continued to invest in training, collectively dedicating a mean of 4.52 percent of their…

  16. Top physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    We report on top physics results using a 100 pb{sup -1} data sample of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We have identified top signals in a variety of decay channels, and used these channels to extract a measurement of the top mass and production cross section. A subset of the data (67 pb{sup -1}) is used to determine M{sub top} = 176 {+-} 8(stat) {+-} 10(syst) and {sigma}(tt) = 7.6 {sub -2.0}{sup +2.4} pb. We present studies of the kinematics of t{bar t} events and extract the first directmore » measurement of V{sub tb}. Finally, we indicate prospects for future study of top physics at the Tevatron.« less

  17. Top Quark Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Yvonne

    2011-12-01

    Since its discovery in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, the top quark has undergone intensive studies. Besides the Tevatron experiments, with the start of the LHC in 2010 a top quark factory started its operation. It is now possible to measure top quark properties simultaneously at four different experiments, namely ATLAS and CMS at LHC and CDF and D0 at Tevatron. Having collected thousands of top quarks each, several top quark properties have been measured precisely, while others are being measured for the first time. In this article, recent measurements of top quarkmore » properties from ATLAS, CDF, CMS and D0 are presented, using up to 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity at the Tevatron and 1.1 fb{sup -1} at the LHC. In particular, measurements of the top quark mass, mass difference, foward backward charge asymmetry, t{bar t} spin correlations, the ratio of branching fractions, W helicity, anomalous couplings, color flow and the search for flavor changing neutral currents are discussed.« less

  18. NASA Brevard Top Scholars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-13

    Retired NASA astronaut Tom Jones talks to high school students during "Lunch with an Astronaut" at the NASA Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. Top scholars from Brevard County public high schools were invited to Kennedy Space Center for a tour of facilities, lunch and a roundtable discussion with engineers and scientists at the center. The 2017-2018 Brevard Top Scholars event was hosted by the center's Education Projects and Youth Engagement office to honor the top three scholars of the 2017-2018 graduating student class from each of Brevard County’s public high schools. The students received a personalized certificate at the end of the day.

  19. NASA Brevard Top Scholars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-13

    Students from Brevard County public high schools arrive at the NASA Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. Top scholars from the high schools were invited to Kennedy Space Center for a tour of facilities, lunch and a roundtable discussion with engineers and scientists at the center. The 2017-2018 Brevard Top Scholars event was hosted by the center's Education Projects and Youth Engagement office to honor the top three scholars of the graduating student class from each of Brevard County’s public high schools. The students received a personalized certificate at the end of the day.

  20. Top Hispanic Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy students at the Indiana University Bloomington. For the year 2012, the listings focus on Hispanic students. Data for…

  1. Choosing a Top Ten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IUCN Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of 34 animals and 32 plants which are candidates for a list of the top 10 endangered species. Also presents the criteria used to formulate these lists. They include the conservation value (urgency prominance, biological value) and operational considerations (such as cost factors) for each species. (JN)

  2. Brevard Top Scholars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-05

    About 40 Brevard County high school seniors attended Brevard Top Scholars Day at Kennedy Space Center on May 5. Kennedy's Office of Education coordinated the event that featured a special behind-the-scenes tour of Kennedy, including prototype shops, cryogenic labs and facilities such as the Vehicle Assembly Building and the Launch Control Center firing rooms.

  3. Brevard Top Scholars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-05

    About 40 Brevard County high school seniors take in the enormity of the Vehicle Assembly Building during Brevard Top Scholars Day on May 5. Kennedy's Office of Education coordinated the event that featured a special behind-the-scenes tour of Kennedy, including prototype shops, cryogenic labs and the Launch Control Center firing rooms.

  4. Photonics Academy: TOPS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Nick; Barwis, Vicky; Maghuk, Faris

    2009-06-01

    Technicians in Opto-Electronics Project (TOP) has five targets: one, to develop and pilot train with at least 10 learners; two, to implement a marketing plan; three, to raise awareness of the sector with young people to increase new entrants into the sector; four, to engage employers in development; and five, to provide information on leadership and management.

  5. Over the Top.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes how careful preparation and having reliable information can make for a successful roofing project, whether retrofitting an old roof or topping off new construction. Contractor evaluation and warranty analysis are discussed. Also included is a roofing specifications chart for multi-ply and single-ply systems. (GR)

  6. Ten Top Tech Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  7. Top Quark Properties at Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Lysák, Roman

    2017-11-27

    The latest CDF and D0 experiment measurements of the top quark properties except the top quark mass are presented. The final combination of the CDF and D0 forward-backward asymmetry measurements is shown together with the D0 measurements of the inclusive top quark pair cross-section as well as the top quark polarization.

  8. Combination of grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence with x-ray reflectivity in one table-top spectrometer for improved characterization of thin layer and implants on/in silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Ingerle, D.; Schiebl, M.; Streli, C.

    2014-08-15

    As Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence (GIXRF) analysis does not provide unambiguous results for the characterization of nanometre layers as well as nanometre depth profiles of implants in silicon wafers by its own, the approach of providing additional information using the signal from X-ray Reflectivity (XRR) was tested. As GIXRF already uses an X-ray beam impinging under grazing incidence and the variation of the angle of incidence, a GIXRF spectrometer was adapted with an XRR unit to obtain data from the angle dependent fluorescence radiation as well as data from the reflected beam. A θ-2θ goniometer was simulated by combining amore » translation and tilt movement of a Silicon Drift detector, which allows detecting the reflected beam over 5 orders of magnitude. HfO{sub 2} layers as well as As implants in Silicon wafers in the nanometre range were characterized using this new setup. A just recently published combined evaluation approach was used for data evaluation.« less

  9. Brevard Top Scholars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-05

    Kennedy Space Center Associate Director Kelvin Manning addresses about 40 Brevard County high school seniors regarding NASA's and Kennedy’s roles and missions during Brevard Top Scholars Day at Kennedy Space Center on May 5. Kennedy's Office of Education coordinated the event that featured a special behind-the-scenes tour of Kennedy, including prototype shops, cryogenic labs and facilities such as the Vehicle Assembly Building and the Launch Control Center firing rooms.

  10. 11. VIEW SHOWING TOP OF WATER TANK TAKEN FROM TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW SHOWING TOP OF WATER TANK TAKEN FROM TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Dependence of stratocumulus-topped boundary-layer entrainment on cloud-water sedimentation: Impact on global aerosol indirect effect in GISS ModelE3 single column model and global simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Kelley, M.; Cheng, Y.; Fridlind, A. M.; Del Genio, A. D.; Bauer, S.

    2017-12-01

    Reduction in cloud-water sedimentation induced by increasing droplet concentrations has been shown in large-eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) to enhance boundary-layer entrainment, thereby reducing cloud liquid water path and offsetting the Twomey effect when the overlying air is sufficiently dry, which is typical. Among recent upgrades to ModelE3, the latest version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM), are a two-moment stratiform cloud microphysics treatment with prognostic precipitation and a moist turbulence scheme that includes an option in its entrainment closure of a simple parameterization for the effect of cloud-water sedimentation. Single column model (SCM) simulations are compared to LES results for a stratocumulus case study and show that invoking the sedimentation-entrainment parameterization option indeed reduces the dependence of cloud liquid water path on increasing aerosol concentrations. Impacts of variations of the SCM configuration and the sedimentation-entrainment parameterization will be explored. Its impact on global aerosol indirect forcing in the framework of idealized atmospheric GCM simulations will also be assessed.

  12. Jovian Cloud Tops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-18

    This enhanced color view of Jupiter's cloud tops was processed by citizen scientist Bjorn Jonsson using data from the JunoCam instrument on NASA's Juno spacecraft. The image highlights a massive counterclockwise rotating storm that appears as a white oval in the gas giant's southern hemisphere. Juno acquired this image on Feb. 2, 2017, at 6:13 a.m. PDT (9:13 a.m. EDT), as the spacecraft performed a close flyby of Jupiter. When the image was taken, the spacecraft was about 9,000 miles (14,500 kilometers) from the planet. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21391

  13. Curly Top Disease of Tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top disease, caused by viruses in the genus, Curtovirus, has impacted western US agriculture for over a century; and is a significant threat to tomato production. The two most abundant curtovirus species today are Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and Beet mild curly top virus (BMCTV) but ot...

  14. Under Jupiter's Cloud Tops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-25

    NASA's Juno spacecraft carries an instrument called the Microwave Radiometer, which examines Jupiter's atmosphere beneath the planet's cloud tops. This image shows the instrument's view of the outer part of Jupiter's atmosphere. Before Juno began using this instrument, scientists expected the atmosphere to be uniform at depths greater than 60 miles (100 kilometers). But with the Microwave Radiometer, scientists have discovered that the atmosphere has variations down to at least 220 miles (350 kilometers), as deep as the instrument can see. In the cut-out image to the right, orange signifies high ammonia abundance and blue signifies low ammonia abundance. Jupiter appears to have a band around its equator high in ammonia abundance, with a column shown in orange. This is contrary to scientists' expectations that ammonia would be uniformly mixed. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21642

  15. Top quark pair production and top quark properties at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang-Seong

    2016-06-02

    We present the most recent measurements of top quark pairs production and top quark properties in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV using CDF II detector at the Tevatron. The combination of top pair production cross section measurements and the direct measurement of top quark width are reported. The test of Standard Model predictions for top quark decaying intomore » $b$-quarks, performed by measuring the ratio $R$ between the top quark branching fraction to $b$-quark and the branching fraction to any type of down quark is shown. The extraction of the CKM matrix element $$|V_{tb}|$$ from the ratio $R$ is discussed. We also present the latest measurements on the forward-backward asymmetry ($$A_{FB}$$) in top anti-top quark production. With the full CDF Run II data set, the measurements are performed in top anti-top decaying to final states that contain one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons). In addition, we combine the results of the leptonic forward-backward asymmetry in $$t\\bar t$$ system between the two final states. All the results show deviations from the next-to-leading order (NLO) standard model (SM) calculation.« less

  16. Top squark with mass close to the top quark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Plehn, Tilman; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

    2014-07-01

    The most natural supersymmetric solution to the hierarchy problem prefers the scalar top partner to be close in mass to the top quark. Experimental searches exclude top squarks across a wide range of masses, but a gap remains when the difference between the masses of the stop and the lightest supersymmetric particle is close to the top mass. We propose to search for stops in this regime by exploiting the azimuthal angular correlation of forward tagging jets in (s)top pair production. As shown in earlier work, this correlation is sensitive to the spin of the heavy states, allowing one to distinguish between top and stop pair production. Here, we demonstrate that this angular information can give a statistically significant stop pair production signal in the upcoming LHC run. While the appropriate simulation including parton showering and detector simulation requires some care, we find stable predictions for the angular correlation using multijet merging.

  17. Top of the World

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-28

    These turbulent clouds are on top of the world at Saturn. NASA's Cassini spacecraft captured this view of Saturn's north pole on April 26, 2017 - the day it began its Grand Finale -- as it approached the planet for its first daring dive through the gap between the planet and its rings. Although the pole is still bathed in sunlight at present, northern summer solstice on Saturn occurred on May 24, 2017, bringing the maximum solar illumination to the north polar region. Now the Sun begins its slow descent in the northern sky, which eventually will plunge the north pole into Earth-years of darkness. Cassini's long mission at Saturn enabled the spacecraft to see the Sun rise over the north, revealing that region in great detail for the first time. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 44 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera using a spectral filter which preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 752 nanometers. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 166,000 miles (267,000 kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is about 10 miles (16 kilometers) per pixel. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21343

  18. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  19. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2010-06-15

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  20. Two layer structure for reinforcing pothole repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei; Yuan, Kuo-Yao; Zou, Linhua; Yang, Jenn-Ming; Ju, Jiann-Wen; Kao, Wei; Carlson, Larry

    2013-04-01

    We have applied dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) resin for reinforcing pothole patch materials due to its unique properties - low cost, low viscosity at beginning and ultra-toughness after curing, chemical compatibility with tar, tunable curing profile through catalyst design. In this paper, we have designed a two layer structure - well compacted base layer and DCPD reinforced 1-1.5" top layer - for pothole repair. By choosing two graded asphalt mixes, a porous top layer and fully compacted base layer was prepared after compaction and ready for DCPD resin infiltration. The DCPD curing and infiltration profile within this porous top layer was measured with thermocouples. The rutting resistance was tested with home-made wheel rutter. The cage effect due to the p-DCPD wrapping was characterized with wheel penetration test. The results showed that this two layer structure pothole repair has greatly improved properties and can be used for pothole repair to increase the service life.

  1. Optimized capping layers for EUV multilayers

    DOEpatents

    Bajt, Sasa [Livermore, CA; Folta, James A [Livermore, CA; Spiller, Eberhard A [Livermore, CA

    2004-08-24

    A new capping multilayer structure for EUV-reflective Mo/Si multilayers consists of two layers: A top layer that protects the multilayer structure from the environment and a bottom layer that acts as a diffusion barrier between the top layer and the structure beneath. One embodiment combines a first layer of Ru with a second layer of B.sub.4 C. Another embodiment combines a first layer of Ru with a second layer of Mo. These embodiments have the additional advantage that the reflectivity is also enhanced. Ru has the best oxidation resistance of all materials investigated so far. B.sub.4 C is an excellent barrier against silicide formation while the silicide layer formed at the Si boundary is well controlled.

  2. Naturalness from a composite top?

    DOE PAGES

    Pierce, Aaron; Zhao, Yue

    2017-01-12

    Here, we consider a theory with composite top quarks but an elementary Higgs boson. The hierarchy problem can be solved by supplementing TeV scale top compositeness with either supersymmetry or Higgs compositeness appearing at the multi-TeV scale. Furthermore, the Higgs boson couples to uncolored partons within the top quark. We also study how this approach can give rise to a novel screening effect that suppresses production of the colored top partners at the LHC. Strong constraints arise from Z tomore » $$\\bar{b}$$b, as well potentially from avor physics. Independent of flavor considerations, current constraints imply a compositeness scale &TeV; this implies that the model is likely tuned at the percent level. Four top quark production at the LHC is a smoking-gun probe of this scenario. New CP violation in D meson mixing is also possible.« less

  3. Top mass from asymptotic safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Held, Aaron

    2018-02-01

    We discover that asymptotically safe quantum gravity could predict the top-quark mass. For a broad range of microscopic gravitational couplings, quantum gravity could provide an ultraviolet completion for the Standard Model by triggering asymptotic freedom in the gauge couplings and bottom Yukawa and asymptotic safety in the top-Yukawa and Higgs-quartic coupling. We find that in a part of this range, a difference of the top and bottom mass of approximately 170GeV is generated and the Higgs mass is determined in terms of the top mass. Assuming no new physics below the Planck scale, we construct explicit Renormalization Group trajectories for Standard Model and gravitational couplings which link the transplanckian regime to the electroweak scale and yield a top pole mass of Mt,pole ≈ 171GeV.

  4. Wave Engine Topping Cycle Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    The performance benefits derived by topping a gas turbine engine with a wave engine are assessed. The wave engine is a wave rotor that produces shaft power by exploiting gas dynamic energy exchange and flow turning. The wave engine is added to the baseline turboshaft engine while keeping high-pressure-turbine inlet conditions, compressor pressure ratio, engine mass flow rate, and cooling flow fractions fixed. Related work has focused on topping with pressure-exchangers (i.e., wave rotors that provide pressure gain with zero net shaft power output); however, more energy can be added to a wave-engine-topped cycle leading to greater engine specific-power-enhancement The energy addition occurs at a lower pressure in the wave-engine-topped cycle; thus the specific-fuel-consumption-enhancement effected by ideal wave engine topping is slightly lower than that effected by ideal pressure-exchanger topping. At a component level, however, flow turning affords the wave engine a degree-of-freedom relative to the pressure-exchanger that enables a more efficient match with the baseline engine. In some cases, therefore, the SFC-enhancement by wave engine topping is greater than that by pressure-exchanger topping. An ideal wave-rotor-characteristic is used to identify key wave engine design parameters and to contrast the wave engine and pressure-exchanger topping approaches. An aerodynamic design procedure is described in which wave engine design-point performance levels are computed using a one-dimensional wave rotor model. Wave engines using various wave cycles are considered including two-port cycles with on-rotor combustion (valved-combustors) and reverse-flow and through-flow four-port cycles with heat addition in conventional burners. A through-flow wave cycle design with symmetric blading is used to assess engine performance benefits. The wave-engine-topped turboshaft engine produces 16% more power than does a pressure-exchanger-topped engine under the specified topping

  5. Forum outlines top emerging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Extance, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Additive manufacturing, next-generation robotics, "sense and avoid" drones that fly themselves, artificial intelligence and "neuromorphic" computing have all made it into the World Economic Forum's top 10 emerging technologies for 2015.

  6. Trajectory correction propulsion for TOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, H. R.; Bjorklund, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A blowdown-pressurized hydrazine propulsion system was selected to provide trajectory correction impulse for outer planet flyby spacecraft as the result of cost/mass/reliability tradeoff analyses. Present hydrazine component and system technology and component designs were evaluated for application to the Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS); while general hydrazine technology was adequate, component design changes were deemed necessary for TOPS-type missions. A prototype hydrazine propulsion system was fabricated and fired nine times for a total of 1600 s to demonstrate the operation and performance of the TOPS propulsion configuration. A flight-weight trajectory correction propulsion subsystem (TCPS) was designed for the TOPS based on actual and estimated advanced components.

  7. Calculate the Top Quark Mass

    Science.gov Websites

    Searching for Top How do today's scientists use conservation of momentum? Particle physicists mass into energy and then energy into mass! You can use the principle of conservation of momentum which

  8. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  9. Layering in Spallanzani Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-22

    In this image from NASA Mars Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we can see quite a spectacular layering pattern inside an impact crater called Spallanzani. Seeing layering is always exciting to geologists because it implies that the region has experienced multiple climatic conditions or geologic processes through time. The study of layering is so important in geology that it has its own dedicated branch of study: stratigraphy! Commonly, layering implies different lithologies (i.e., rock types). However, sometimes the layers could be of very similar composition but formed in different periods of time. This could happen for example in the case of annual flood deposits from rivers, multiple volcanic eruptions, or annual or periodic deposition of ice-rich material. We can also see in this image another feature called terracing, which happens when the layers form distinctive planes on top of one another like terraces. This could imply that the layers are being eroded with time but some of the layers are being eroded quicker than others because they are less resistant to erosion. So what is the composition of these layers? Spallanzani Crater lies in the high latitudes of the Southern hemisphere (around 60 degrees in latitude) so there is a good possibility that the deposits are ice-rich. If we look more closely we will notice fractured mounds, which sometimes indicate the presence of subsurface ice. Another interesting observation is the presence of grooves in the shaded slopes of some of the layers. Perhaps these grooves formed because of the sublimation (the direct transfer of solid ice to water vapor) of ice from these slopes since slopes tend to get warmer than the surrounding terrains. A close inspection of this image may help answer this question and investigate the multiple cycles in which these deposits were laid down as well as the duration of these individual cycles. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19367

  10. Properties of the Top Quark

    DOE PAGES

    Déliot, Frédéric; Hadley, Nicholas; Parke, Stephen; ...

    2014-10-19

    We report that the top quark is the heaviest known elementary particle, and it is often seen as a window to search for new physics processes in particle physics. A large program to study the top-quark properties has been performed both at the Tevatron and LHC colliders by the D0, CDF, ATLAS and CMS experiments. The most recent results are discussed here in this article.

  11. Top 10 Products of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, American School & University (AS&U) showcased some of the hottest products in the industry. This article presents the top ten most requested products as determined by readers. The top one on the list is the Bulb crusher which can cut recycling costs by 50%, can hold 1,350 4-foot lamps in a single 55-gallon drum, can crush a 4-foot lamp in…

  12. Uncovering the single top: observation of electroweak top quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Jorge Armando

    2009-01-01

    The top quark is generally produced in quark and anti-quark pairs. However, the Standard Model also predicts the production of only one top quark which is mediated by the electroweak interaction, known as 'Single Top'. Single Top quark production is important because it provides a unique and direct way to measure the CKM matrix element V tb, and can be used to explore physics possibilities beyond the Standard Model predictions. This dissertation presents the results of the observation of Single Top using 2.3 fb -1 of Data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The analysis includes the Single Top muon+jets and electron+jets final states and employs Boosted Decision Tress as a method to separate the signal from the background. The resulting Single Top cross section measurement is: (1) σ(pmore » $$\\bar{p}$$→ tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74 -0.74 +0.95 pb, where the errors include both statistical and systematic uncertainties. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is p = 1.9 x 10 -6. This corresponds to a standard deviation Gaussian equivalence of 4.6. When combining this result with two other analysis methods, the resulting cross section measurement is: (2) σ(p$$\\bar{p}$$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 ± 0.88 pb, and the corresponding measurement significance is 5.0 standard deviations.« less

  13. Two-layer anti-reflection strategies for implant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Douglas J.; Smith, Tamara; Kato, Masakazu; Kimura, Shigeo; Enomoto, Tomoyuki

    2006-03-01

    A two-layer bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) concept in which a layer that develops slowly is coated on top of a bottom layer that develops more rapidly was demonstrated. Development rate control was achieved by selection of crosslinker amount and BARC curing conditions. A single-layer BARC was compared with the two-layer BARC concept. The single-layer BARC does not clear out of 200-nm deep vias. When the slower developing single-layer BARC was coated on top of the faster developing layer, the vias were cleared. Lithographic evaluation of the two-layer BARC concept shows the same resolution advantages as the single-layer system. Planarization properties of a two-layer BARC system are better than for a single-layer system, when comparing the same total nominal thicknesses.

  14. SW New Mexico Oil Well Formation Tops

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    Rock formation top picks from oil wells from southwestern New Mexico from scout cards and other sources. There are differing formation tops interpretations for some wells, so for those wells duplicate formation top data are presented in this file.

  15. Thin layer composite unimorph ferroelectric driver and sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Jalink, Jr., Antony (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor); Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for forming ferroelectric wafers is provided. A prestress layer is placed on the desired mold. A ferroelectric wafer is placed on top of the prestress layer. The layers are heated and then cooled, causing the ferroelectric wafer to become prestressed. The prestress layer may include reinforcing material and the ferroelectric wafer may include electrodes or electrode layers may be placed on either side of the ferroelectric layer. Wafers produced using this method have greatly improved output motion.

  16. Thin Layer Composite Unimorph Ferroelectric Driver and Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor); Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for forming ferroelectric wafers is provided. A prestress layer is placed on the desired mold. A ferroelectric wafer is placed on top of the prestress layer. The layers are heated and then cooled, causing the ferroelectric wafer to become prestressed. The prestress layer may include reinforcing material and the ferroelectric wafer may include electrodes or electrode layers may be placed on either side of the ferroelectric layer. Wafers produced using this method have greatly improved output motion.

  17. Dynamics of a cliff top dune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    beds of coarse sand are missing the cliff is steep and dunes are absent at the cliff top. On the other hand when floes are present then some parts of the cliff are less steep and where sand is abundant cliff top dunes seem to be abundant, too. In order to investigate how flow conditions at the cliff front responds to its geometry, scale models of the cliff front approximately 1:10, but with different steepness have been tested in a boundary layer wind tunnel. All runs have been made with proper roughness scaling and besides a variation in their longitudinal profiles some variation in their transverse profiles has also been tested. The surface-near flow has been mapped with high resolution 2-D laser-Doppler profiling, and one of the important aims is to demonstrate the interaction between sediment and geological structure on one side and flow and dune state on the other side. A particular aim is to investigate if and how the separation bubble may have a profound control on mobilization and transport of sediment.

  18. Buffer layers on metal alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Groves, James R.

    2004-10-05

    An article including a substrate, at least one intermediate layer upon the surface of the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the at least one intermediate layer, and a layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer is provided together with additional layers such as a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon the layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material layer. With a HTS top-layer of YBCO upon at least one layer of the SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material in such an article, J.sub.c 's of up to 1.3.times.10.sup.6 A/cm.sup.2 have been demonstrated with projected I.sub.c 's of over 200 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide.

  19. The Top STEM Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) degree producers in the U.S. This list is broken down into seven categories: (1) Total Minority Research/Scholarship and Other Doctoral: Mathematics and Statistics; (2) Total Minority Bachelors: Biological and Biomedical Sciences; (3) Total Minority…

  20. The 2003 Training Top 100.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Tammy

    2003-01-01

    Identifies the top 100 U.S. companies in terms of the amount spent on training and development, the number of hours of training per employee, percentage of payroll spent on training, and tuition allotment per employee. Describes best practices in succession planning and leadership development, mentoring, and job shadowing and provides a detailed…

  1. The 2002 Training Top 100.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Identifies the top 100 companies in terms of the amount spent on training and development, the number of hours of training per employee, percentage of payroll spent on training, and tuition allotment per employee. Describes best practices in succession planning and leadership development, mentoring, and job shadowing and provides a detailed…

  2. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first…

  3. The Top 100: Associate Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmon, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    This year, Diverse has added a new addition to its annual Top 100 degree producers series--recognizing, with this edition, the institutions that award the most associate degrees to students of color. More than half of minority undergraduate students start their degree quest at a community college with 55 percent of all Hispanic and Native American…

  4. "Top School Problems" Are Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike

    1992-01-01

    A well-known "study" comparing the top school problems of 1940 (talking and gum chewing) with those of 1987 (drug abuse, pregnancy, and violence) is nonexistent. In 1940, 49 percent of all youth did not finish high school, 37,000 teenagers died from violence or disease, and 335,000 teens gave birth. Educators should discount pastoral…

  5. Tether Optical Phenomena (TOP) experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-03-14

    STS075-310-002 (22 Feb.-9 March 1996) --- Astronaut Maurizio Cheli, STS-75 mission specialist, works with the Tether Optical Phenomenon System (TOPS) on the flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia. Cheli, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), joined four other astronauts and an international payload specialists for 16 days of scientific research in Earth-orbit.

  6. Observation of the Top Quark

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Kim, S. B.

    1995-08-01

    Top quark production is observed in{bar p}p collisions at{radical}s= 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and D{O} observe signals consistent with t{bar t} to WWb{bar b}, but inconsistent with the background prediction by 4.8{sigma} (CDF), 4.6a (D{O}). Additional evidence for the top quark Is provided by a peak in the reconstructed mass distribution. The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with the top quark decay. They measure the top quark mass to be 176{plus_minus}8(stat.){plus_minus}10(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (CDF), 199{sub -21}{sup+19}(stat.){plus_minus}22(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (D{O}), and the t{bar t} production cross section to be 6.8{sub -2.4}{sup+3.6}pb (CDF), 6.4{plus_minus}2.2 pb (D{O}).

  7. Training Top 10 Hall of Fame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Microsoft Corporation and SCC Soft Computer are the newest inductees into the Training Top 10 Hall of Fame, joining the ranks of the 11 companies named to the hall since its inception in 2008 (Wyeth Pharmaceuticals subsequently was acquired by Pfizer Inc. in 2009). These 11 companies held Top 10 spots in the Training Top 50, Top 100, and now Top…

  8. Large-Eddy Simulation in Planetary Boundary-Layer Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyngaard, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of the convective boundary layer are discussed. The vertical transport of a conservative, passive scalar was simulated. Also studied were the statistics by top-down and bottom-up scalar fields. Substantial differences were found between them due, presumably, to the asymmetry in the convective boundary layer. A generalization of mixed-layer scaling was developed which allows one to include the effects of top-down diffusion.

  9. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

  10. Attitude propulsion technology for TOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.

    1972-01-01

    The thermoelectric outer planet spacecraft (TOPS) attitude propulsion subsystem (APS) effort is discussed. It includes the tradeoff rationale that went into the selection of an anhydrous hydrazine baseline system, followed by a discussion of the 0.22 N thruster and its integration into a portable, self-contained propulsion module that was designed, developed, and man rated to support the TOPS single-axis attitude control tests. The results of a cold-start feasibility demonstration with a modified thruster are presented. A description of three types of 0.44 thrusters that were procured for in-house evaluation is included along with the results of the test program. This is followed by a description of the APS feed system components, their evaluations, and a discussion of an evaluation of elastomeric material for valve seat seals. A list of new technology items which will be of value for application to future systems of this type is included.

  11. Flexible top-emitting OLEDs for lighting: bending limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwamb, Philipp; Reusch, Thilo C.; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2013-09-01

    Flexible OLED light sources have great appeal due to new design options, being unbreakable and their low weight. Top-emitting OLED device architectures offer the broadest choice of substrate materials including metals which are robust, impermeable to humidity, and good thermal conductors making them promising candidates for flexible OLED device substrates. In this study, we investigate the bending limits of flexible top-emitting OLED lighting devices with transparent metal electrode and thin film encapsulation on a variety of both metal and plastic foils. The samples were subjected to concave and convex bending and inspected by different testing methods for the onset of breakdown for example visible defects and encapsulation failures. The critical failure modes were identified as rupture of the transparent thin metal top electrode and encapsulation for convex bending and buckling of the transparent metal top electrode for concave bending. We investigated influences from substrate material and thickness and top coating thickness. The substrate thickness is found to dominate bending limits as expected by neutral layer modeling. Coating shows strong improvements for all substrates. Bending radii <15mm are achieved for both convex and concave testing without damage to devices including their encapsulation.

  12. Tunable Optical Polymer Systems (TOPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    pixelation o1 displays is done. One team member has combined this work with self-assembling layers so that it is possible to make three-dimensional...I THERMOCHROMISM I ELECTROCHEMILUMINESCENCE (ECL) I MAGNETOCHROMISM I TUNABLE ELECTROLUMINESCENCE (EL) PROTONIC BAND GAP (PBG) SELECTIVE...via Selective Reflection • Chiral-nematic liquid crystalline film as a helical stack of quasinematic layers , illustrated below with a LH structure

  13. Cloud Top Scanning radiometer (CTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A scanning radiometer to be used for measuring cloud radiances in each of three spectral regions is described. Significant features incorporated in the Cloud Top Scanner design are: (1) flexibility and growth potential through use of easily replaceable modular detectors and filters; (2) full aperture, multilevel inflight calibration; (3) inherent channel registration through employment of a single shared field stop; and (4) radiometric sensitivity margin in a compact optical design through use of Honeywell developed (Hg,Cd)Te detectors and preamplifiers.

  14. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DO Collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions, and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  15. Peeling Back the Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols.

    Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed.

    Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers.

    The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior.

    The Mazatzal targets were named

  16. Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loitsianskii. L. G.

    1956-01-01

    The fundamental, practically the most important branch of the modern mechanics of a viscous fluid or a gas, is that branch which concerns itself with the study of the boundary layer. The presence of a boundary layer accounts for the origin of the resistance and lift force, the breakdown of the smooth flow about bodies, and other phenomena that are associated with the motion of a body in a real fluid. The concept of boundary layer was clearly formulated by the founder of aerodynamics, N. E. Joukowsky, in his well-known work "On the Form of Ships" published as early as 1890. In his book "Theoretical Foundations of Air Navigation," Joukowsky gave an account of the most important properties of the boundary layer and pointed out the part played by it in the production of the resistance of bodies to motion. The fundamental differential equations of the motion of a fluid in a laminar boundary layer were given by Prandtl in 1904; the first solutions of these equations date from 1907 to 1910. As regards the turbulent boundary layer, there does not exist even to this day any rigorous formulation of this problem because there is no closed system of equations for the turbulent motion of a fluid. Soviet scientists have done much toward developing a general theory of the boundary layer, and in that branch of the theory which is of greatest practical importance at the present time, namely the study of the boundary layer at large velocities of the body in a compressed gas, the efforts of the scientists of our country have borne fruit in the creation of a new theory which leaves far behind all that has been done previously in this direction. We shall herein enumerate the most important results by Soviet scientists in the development of the theory of the boundary layer.

  17. HUBBLE'S TOP TEN GRAVITATIONAL LENSES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Hubble Space Telescope serendipitous survey of the sky has uncovered exotic patterns, rings, arcs and crosses that are all optical mirages produced by a gravitational lens, nature's equivalent of having giant magnifying glass in space. Shown are the top 10 lens candidates uncovered in the deepest 100 Hubble fields. Hubble's sensitivity and high resolution allow it to see faint and distant lenses that cannot be detected with ground-based telescopes whose images are blurred by Earth's atmosphere. [Top Left] - HST 01248+0351 is a lensed pair on either side of the edge-on disk lensing galaxy. [Top Center] - HST 01247+0352 is another pair of bluer lensed source images around the red spherical elliptical lensing galaxy. Two much fainter images can be seen near the detection limit which might make this a quadruple system. [Top Right] - HST 15433+5352 is a very good lens candidate with a bluer lensed source in the form of an extended arc about the redder elliptical lensing galaxy. [Middle Far Left] - HST 16302+8230 could be an 'Einstein ring' and the most intriguing lens candidate. It has been nicknamed the 'the London Underground' since it resembles that logo. [Middle Near Left] - HST 14176+5226 is the first, and brightest lens system discovered in 1995 with the Hubble telescope. This lens candidate has now been confirmed spectroscopically using large ground-based telescopes. The elliptical lensing galaxy is located 7 billion light-years away, and the lensed quasar is about 11 billion light-years distant. [Middle Near Right] - HST 12531-2914 is the second quadruple lens candidate discovered with Hubble. It is similar to the first, but appears smaller and fainter. [Middle Far Right] - HST 14164+5215 is a pair of bluish lensed images symmetrically placed around a brighter, redder galaxy. [Bottom Left] - HST 16309+8230 is an edge-on disk-like galaxy (blue arc) which has been significantly distorted by the redder lensing elliptical galaxy. [Bottom Center] - HST 12368

  18. Results on top-quark physics and top-quark-like signatures by CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabert, Eric; CMS Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    This report reviews the results obtained by the CMS Collaboration on top quark physics, focusing on the latest ones based on p-p collisions provided by the LHC at \\sqrt{s}=13{{TeV}} during Run II. It covers measurements of single-top, top quark pairs and associated productions as well as measurements of top quark properties. Finally several beyond the standard model searches involving top quark in the final states are presented, such as searches for supersymmetry in the third generation, heavy resonances decaying into a top quark pair, or dark matter produced in association to a single-top or a top quark pair.

  19. Sliding Wear and Fretting Wear of DLC-Based, Functionally Graded Nanocomposite Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Pohlchuck, B.; Street, Kenneth W.; Zabinski, J. S.; Sanders, J. H.; Voevodin, A. a.; Wu, R. L. C.

    1999-01-01

    Improving the tribological functionality of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films--developing, good wear resistance, low friction, and high load-carrying capacity-was the aim of this investigation. Nanocomposite coatings consisting of an amorphous DLC (a-DLC) top layer and a functionally graded titanium-titanium carbon-diamondlike carbon (Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC) underlayer were produced on AISI 440C stainless steel substrates by the hybrid technique of magnetron sputtering and pulsed-laser deposition. The resultant DLC films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and surface profilometry. Two types of wear experiment were conducted in this investioation: sliding friction experiments and fretting wear experiments. Unidirectional ball-on-disk sliding friction experiments were conducted to examine the wear behavior of an a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC-coated AISI 440C stainless steel disk in sliding contact with a 6-mm-diameter AISI 440C stainless steel ball in ultrahigh vacuum, dry nitrogen, and humid air. Although the wear rates for both the coating and ball were low in all three environments, the humid air and dry nitrogen caused mild wear with burnishing, in the a-DLC top layer, and the ultrahigh vacuum caused relatively severe wear with brittle fracture in both the a-DLC top layer and the Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC underlayer. For reference, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (H-DLC) films produced on a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC nanocomposite coatings by using an ion beam were also examined in the same manner. The H-DLC films markedly reduced friction even in ultrahigh vacuum without sacrificing wear resistance. The H-DLC films behaved much like the a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC nanocomposite coating in dry nitrogen and humid air, presenting low friction and low wear. Fretting wear experiments were conducted in humid air (approximately 50% relative humidity) at a frequency of 80 Hz and an amplitude of 75 micron on an a-DLC

  20. In Praise of Top-Down Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the ongoing debate of the efficacy of top-down versus bottom-up strategies to improve school districts, top-down is clearly losing. Many district leaders are reluctant to champion improvement for fear of being labeled with the epithet "top-down leader," the unkindest cut of all. In this article, the author presents the change…

  1. Fly ash in landfill top covers - a review.

    PubMed

    Brännvall, E; Kumpiene, J

    2016-01-01

    Increase of energy recovery from municipal solid waste by incineration results in the increased amounts of incineration residues, such as fly ash, that have to be taken care of. Material properties should define whether fly ash is a waste or a viable resource to be used for various applications. Here, two areas of potential fly ash application are reviewed: the use of fly ash in a landfill top cover either as a liner material or as a soil amendment in vegetation layer. Fly ashes from incineration of three types of fuel are considered: refuse derived fuel (RDF), municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and biofuel. Based on the observations, RDF and MSWI fly ash is considered as suitable materials to be used in a landfill top cover liner. Whereas MSWI and biofuel fly ashes based on element availability for plant studies, could be considered suitable for the vegetation layer of the top cover. Responsible application of MSWI ashes is, however, warranted in order to avoid element accumulation in soil and elevation of background values over time.

  2. Bottom-up meets top-down: tailored raspberry-like Fe 3 O 4 –Pt nanocrystal superlattices

    DOE PAGES

    Qiu, Fen; Vervuurt, René H. J.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; ...

    2018-01-01

    Bottom up colloidal synthesis is combined with top down atomic layer deposition to achieve raspberry-like Pt-decorated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticle superlattices with good metal–oxide–metal contact for photoelectrocatalysis.

  3. Bottom-up meets top-down: tailored raspberry-like Fe 3 O 4 –Pt nanocrystal superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Fen; Vervuurt, René H. J.; Verheijen, Marcel A.

    Bottom up colloidal synthesis is combined with top down atomic layer deposition to achieve raspberry-like Pt-decorated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticle superlattices with good metal–oxide–metal contact for photoelectrocatalysis.

  4. Measurements of top quark properties at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Kraan, Aafke C.; /Pennsylvania U.

    The top quark with its mass of about 172 GeV/c{sup 2} is the most massive fundamental particle observed by experiment. In this talk they highlight the most recent measurements of several top quark properties performed with the CDF detector based on data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities up to 1 fb{sup -1}. These results include a search for top quark pair production via new massive resonances, measurements of the helicity of the W boson from top-quark decay, and a direct limit on the lifetime of the top quark.

  5. Top Quark Studies at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2014-11-26

    Years after its discovery in 1995 by CDF and D0, the top quark still undergoes intense investigations at the Tevatron. Using up to the full Run II data sample, new measurements of top quark production and properties by the D0 Collaboration are presented. In particular, the first observation of single top quark s-channel production, the measurement of differential tbar t distributions, forward-backward tbar t asymmetry, a new measurement of the top quark mass, and a measurement of the top quark charge are discussed.

  6. Table-top job analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to establish general training program guidelines for training personnel in developing training for operation, maintenance, and technical support personnel at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. TTJA is not the only method of job analysis; however, when conducted properly TTJA can be cost effective, efficient, and self-validating, and represents an effective method of defining job requirements. The table-top job analysis is suggested in the DOE Training Accreditation Program manuals as an acceptable alternative to traditional methods of analyzing job requirements. DOE 5480-20A strongly endorses and recommends it as the preferred method for analyzing jobsmore » for positions addressed by the Order.« less

  7. Top down electroweak dipole operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuyuto, Kaori; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We derive present constraints on, and prospective sensitivity to, the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the top quark (dt) implied by searches for the EDMs of the electron and nucleons. Above the electroweak scale v, the dt arises from two gauge invariant operators generated at a scale Λ ≫ v that also mix with the light fermion EDMs under renormalization group evolution at two-loop order. Bounds on the EDMs of first generation fermion systems thus imply bounds on |dt |. Working in the leading log-squared approximation, we find that the present upper bound on |dt | is 10-19 e cm for Λ = 1 TeV, except in regions of finely tuned cancellations that allow for |dt | to be up to fifty times larger. Future de and dn probes may yield an order of magnitude increase in dt sensitivity, while inclusion of a prospective proton EDM search may lead to an additional increase in reach.

  8. Apulian crust: Top to bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Alessandro; Bianchi, Irene; Agostinetti, Nicola Piana

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the crustal seismic structure of the Adria plate using teleseismic receiver functions (RF) recorded at 12 broadband seismic stations in the Apulia region. Detailed models of the Apulian crust, e.g. the structure of the Apulian Multi-layer Platform (AMP), are crucial for assessing the presence of potential décollements at different depth levels that may play a role in the evolution of the Apenninic orogen. We reconstruct S-wave velocity profiles applying a trans-dimensional Monte Carlo method for the inversion of RF data. Using this method, the resolution at the different depth level is completely dictated by the data and we avoid introducing artifacts in the crustal structure. We focus our study on three different key-elements: the Moho depth, the lower crust S-velocity, and the fine-structure of the AMP. We find a well defined and relatively flat Moho discontinuity below the region at 28-32 km depth, possibly indicating that the original Moho is still preserved in the area. The lower crust appears as a generally low velocity layer (average Vs = 3.7 km/s in the 15-26 km depth interval), likely suggestive of a felsic composition, with no significant velocity discontinuities except for its upper and lower boundaries where we find layering. Finally, for the shallow structure, the comparison of RF results with deep well stratigraphic and sonic log data allowed us to constrain the structure of the AMP and the presence of underlying Permo-Triassic (P-T) sediments. We find that the AMP structure displays small-scale heterogeneities in the region, with a thickness of the carbonates layers varying between 4 and 12 km, and is underlain by a thin, discontinuous layer of P-T terrigenous sediments, that are lacking in some areas. This fact may be due to the roughness in the original topography of the continental margins or to heterogeneities in its shallow structure due to the rifting process.

  9. Layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  10. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack

    2004-06-23

    23rd Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released: Japan's Earth Simulator Enters Third Year in Top Position MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.;&BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a closely watched event in the world of high-performance computing, the 23rd edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 23, 2004) at the International Supercomputer Conference in Heidelberg, Germany.

  11. Single Top Quark Production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    While the heaviest known elementary particle, the top quark, has been discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations in ttbar events, it took 14 more years until the observation of single top quark production. In this article, we discuss recent studies of single top quark production by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron. In particular, we present the measurement of single top quark s- and t-channel production combined, the first observation of t-channel production, the simultaneous measurement of s- and t-channel production cross sections as well as the extraction of the CMK matrix element |Vtb}|.

  12. Top Quark Mass Measurements at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of the top quark in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron proton antiproton collider, precise measurements of its mass are ongoing. Using data recorded by the D0 and CDF experiment, corresponding to up to the full Tevatron data sample, top quark mass measurements performed in different final states using various extraction techniques are presented in this article. The recent Tevatron top quark mass combination yields m_t=173.20 +-0.87 GeV. Furthermore, measurements of the top antitop quark mass difference from the Tevatron are discussed.

  13. Neural network cloud top pressure and height for MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Håkansson, Nina; Adok, Claudia; Thoss, Anke; Scheirer, Ronald; Hörnquist, Sara

    2018-06-01

    Cloud top height retrieval from imager instruments is important for nowcasting and for satellite climate data records. A neural network approach for cloud top height retrieval from the imager instrument MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is presented. The neural networks are trained using cloud top layer pressure data from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) dataset. Results are compared with two operational reference algorithms for cloud top height: the MODIS Collection 6 Level 2 height product and the cloud top temperature and height algorithm in the 2014 version of the NWC SAF (EUMETSAT (European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) Satellite Application Facility on Support to Nowcasting and Very Short Range Forecasting) PPS (Polar Platform System). All three techniques are evaluated using both CALIOP and CPR (Cloud Profiling Radar for CloudSat (CLOUD SATellite)) height. Instruments like AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) contain fewer channels useful for cloud top height retrievals than MODIS, therefore several different neural networks are investigated to test how infrared channel selection influences retrieval performance. Also a network with only channels available for the AVHRR1 instrument is trained and evaluated. To examine the contribution of different variables, networks with fewer variables are trained. It is shown that variables containing imager information for neighboring pixels are very important. The error distributions of the involved cloud top height algorithms are found to be non-Gaussian. Different descriptive statistic measures are presented and it is exemplified that bias and SD (standard deviation) can be misleading for non-Gaussian distributions. The median and mode are found to better describe the tendency of the error distributions and IQR (interquartile range) and MAE (mean absolute error) are found

  14. Preliminary results of fluid dynamic model calculation of convective motion induced by solar heating at the Venus cloud top level.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Imamura, Takeshi; Maejima, Yasumitsu; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro

    The thick cloud layer of Venus reflects solar radiation effectively, resulting in a Bond albedo of 76% (Moroz et al., 1985). Most of the incoming solar flux is absorbed in the upper cloud layer at 60-70 km altitude. An unknown UV absorber is a major sink of the solar energy at the cloud top level. It produces about 40-60% of the total solar heating near the cloud tops, depending on its vertical structure (Crisp et al., 1986; Lee et al., in preparation). UV images of Venus show a clear difference in morphology between laminar flow shaped clouds on the morning side and convective-like cells on the afternoon side of the planet in the equatorial region (Titov et al., 2012). This difference is probably related to strong solar heating at the cloud tops at the sub-solar point, rather than the influence from deeper level convection in the low and middle cloud layers (Imamura et al., 2014). Also, small difference in cloud top structures may trigger horizontal convection at this altitude, because various cloud top structures can significantly alter the solar heating and thermal cooling rates at the cloud tops (Lee et al., in preparation). Performing radiative forcing calculations for various cloud top structures using a radiative transfer model (SHDOM), we investigate the effect of solar heating at the cloud tops on atmospheric dynamics. We use CReSS (Cloud Resolving Storm Simulator), and consider the altitude range from 35 km to 90 km, covering a full cloud deck.

  15. Hybrid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Consisting of Double Titania Layers for Harvesting Light with Wide Range of Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadamasu, Kengo; Inoue, Takafumi; Ogomi, Yuhei; Pandey, Shyam S.; Hayase, Shuzi

    2011-02-01

    We report a hybrid dye-sensitized solar cell consisting of double titania layers (top and bottom layers) stained with two dyes. A top layer fabricated on a glass was mechanically pressed with a bottom layer fabricated on a glass cloth. The glass cloth acts as a supporter of a porous titania layer as well as a holder of electrolyte. The incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) curve had two peaks corresponding to those of the two dyes, which demonstrates that electrons are collected from both the top and bottom layers.

  16. Depression-Biased Reverse Plasticity Rule Is Required for Stable Learning at Top-Down Connections

    PubMed Central

    Burbank, Kendra S.; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Top-down synapses are ubiquitous throughout neocortex and play a central role in cognition, yet little is known about their development and specificity. During sensory experience, lower neocortical areas are activated before higher ones, causing top-down synapses to experience a preponderance of post-synaptic activity preceding pre-synaptic activity. This timing pattern is the opposite of that experienced by bottom-up synapses, which suggests that different versions of spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) rules may be required at top-down synapses. We consider a two-layer neural network model and investigate which STDP rules can lead to a distribution of top-down synaptic weights that is stable, diverse and avoids strong loops. We introduce a temporally reversed rule (rSTDP) where top-down synapses are potentiated if post-synaptic activity precedes pre-synaptic activity. Combining analytical work and integrate-and-fire simulations, we show that only depression-biased rSTDP (and not classical STDP) produces stable and diverse top-down weights. The conclusions did not change upon addition of homeostatic mechanisms, multiplicative STDP rules or weak external input to the top neurons. Our prediction for rSTDP at top-down synapses, which are distally located, is supported by recent neurophysiological evidence showing the existence of temporally reversed STDP in synapses that are distal to the post-synaptic cell body. PMID:22396630

  17. Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02153 Polar Layers

    This image of the south polar region shows layered material. It is not known if the layers are formed yearly or if they form over the period of 10s to 100s of years or more.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.3N, Longitude 296.2E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Layer-by-layer strippable Ag multilayer films fabricated by modular assembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Qianqian; Song, Kai; Wang, Shihui; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Kai; Fu, Yu; Jiao, Yong-Hua; Sun, Ting; Liu, Fu-Chun; Han, En-Hou

    2014-01-21

    We have developed a new method to fabricate multilayer films, which uses prepared thin films as modular blocks and transfer as operation mode to build up multilayer structures. In order to distinguish it from the in situ fabrication manner, this method is called modular assembly in this study. On the basis of such concept, we have fabricated a multilayer film using the silver mirror film as the modular block and poly(lactic acid) as the transfer tool. Due to the special double-layer structure of the silver mirror film, the resulting multilayer film had a well-defined stratified architecture with alternate porous/compact layers. As a consequence of the distinct structure, the interaction between the adjacent layers was so weak that the multilayer film could be layer-by-layer stripped. In addition, the top layer in the film could provide an effective protection on the morphology and surface property of the underlying layers. This suggests that if the surface of the film was deteriorated, the top layer could be peeled off and the freshly exposed surface would still maintain the original function. The successful preparation of the layer-by-layer strippable silver multilayer demonstrates that modular assembly is a feasible and effective method to build up multilayer films capable of creating novel and attractive micro/nanostructures, having great potential in the fabrication of nanodevices and coatings.

  19. Multiresonant layered plasmonic films

    SciTech Connect

    DeVetter, Brent M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    Multi-resonant nanoplasmonic films have numerous applications in areas such as nonlinear optics, sensing, and tamper indication. While techniques such as focused ion beam milling and electron beam lithography can produce high-quality multi-resonant films, these techniques are expensive, serial processes that are difficult to scale at the manufacturing level. Here, we present the fabrication of multi-resonant nanoplasmonic films using a layered stacking technique. Periodically-spaced gold nanocup substrates were fabricated using self-assembled polystyrene nanospheres followed by oxygen plasma etching and metal deposition via magnetron sputter coating. By adjusting etch parameters and initial nanosphere size, it was possible to achieve an optical responsemore » ranging from the visible to the near-infrared. Singly resonant, flexible films were first made by performing peel-off using an adhesive-coated polyolefin film. Through stacking layers of the nanofilm, we demonstrate fabrication of multi-resonant films at a fraction of the cost and effort as compared to top-down lithographic techniques.« less

  20. Bottom-up photonic crystal approach with top-down defect and heterostructure fine-tuning.

    PubMed

    Ding, Tao; Song, Kai; Clays, Koen; Tung, Chen-Ho

    2010-03-16

    We combine the most efficient (chemical) approach toward three-dimensional photonic crystals with the most convenient (physical) technique for creating non-close-packed crystalline structures. Self-assembly of colloidal particles in artificial opals is followed by a carefully tuned plasma etching treatment. By covering the resulting top layer of more open structure with original dense opal, embedded defect layers and heterostructures can be conveniently designed for advanced photonic band gap and band edge engineering.

  1. Review of Top Quark Physics Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, R.; Narain, M.; Kumar, A.

    2007-12-01

    As the heaviest known fundamental particle, the top quark has taken a central role in the study of fundamental interactions. Production of top quarks in pairs provides an important probe of strong interactions. The top quark mass is a key fundamental parameter which places a valuable constraint on the Higgs boson mass and electroweak symmetry breaking. Observations of the relative rates and kinematics of top quark final states constrain potential new physics. In many cases, the tests available with study of the top quark are both critical and unique. Large increases in data samples from the Fermilab Tevatron have beenmore » coupled with major improvements in experimental techniques to produce many new precision measurements of the top quark. The first direct evidence for electroweak production of top quarks has been obtained, with a resulting direct determination of V{sub tb}. Several of the properties of the top quark have been measured. Progress has also been made in obtaining improved limits on potential anomalous production and decay mechanisms. This review presents an overview of recent theoretical and experimental developments in this field. We also provide a brief discussion of the implications for further efforts.« less

  2. Top 12 Web Resources for 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Lisa; Vodicka, Devin

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe some of the top websites recommended by colleagues for the Association of California School Administrators. The Top 12 for 2012 are: (1) Facebook (facebook.com); (2) Twitter (twitter.com); (3) Tungle (tungle.me); (4) FCMAT (fcmat.org); (5) YouSendIt (yousendit.com); (6) Slideshare (slideshare.net); (7) QR…

  3. The Sakai Spinner: A Paperclip Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrao, Christian T.

    2014-01-01

    A challenge: Can you create a stable top from a single paper clip? Several interesting solutions to this problem were provided by Takao Sakai from Japan, the requirement of each being that the center of gravity be located on the vertical y-axis at the center of the top. In the simplest configuration, we see that there exists a single angle ?…

  4. 7. DETAIL OF TOP CHORD/END POST CONNECTION. THE TOPS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF TOP CHORD/END POST CONNECTION. THE TOPS OF BOTH MEMBERS ARE COVERED WITH SOLID PLATES. - Montgomery County Bridge No. 221, Metz Road spanning Towamencin Creek, Skippack, Montgomery County, PA

  5. Measuring top-quark polarization in top-pair + missing-energy events.

    PubMed

    Berger, Edmond L; Cao, Qing-Hong; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-10-12

    The polarization of a top quark can be sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model. Since the charged lepton from top-quark decay is maximally correlated with the top-quark spin, it is common to measure the polarization from the distribution in the angle between the charged lepton and the top-quark directions. We propose a novel method based on the charged lepton energy fraction and illustrate the method with a detailed simulation of top-quark pairs produced in supersymmetric top squark pair production. We show that the lepton energy ratio distribution that we define is very sensitive to the top-quark polarization but insensitive to the precise measurement of the top-quark energy.

  6. Top-Down Visual Saliency via Joint CRF and Dictionary Learning.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jimei; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2017-03-01

    Top-down visual saliency is an important module of visual attention. In this work, we propose a novel top-down saliency model that jointly learns a Conditional Random Field (CRF) and a visual dictionary. The proposed model incorporates a layered structure from top to bottom: CRF, sparse coding and image patches. With sparse coding as an intermediate layer, CRF is learned in a feature-adaptive manner; meanwhile with CRF as the output layer, the dictionary is learned under structured supervision. For efficient and effective joint learning, we develop a max-margin approach via a stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Experimental results on the Graz-02 and PASCAL VOC datasets show that our model performs favorably against state-of-the-art top-down saliency methods for target object localization. In addition, the dictionary update significantly improves the performance of our model. We demonstrate the merits of the proposed top-down saliency model by applying it to prioritizing object proposals for detection and predicting human fixations.

  7. A Physical Mechanism for the Asymmetry in Top-Down and Bottom-Up Diffusion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaard, J. C.

    1987-04-01

    Recent large-eddy simulations of the vertical diffusion of a passive, conservative scalar through the convective boundary layer (CBL) show strikingly different eddy diffusivity profiles in the `top-down' and `bottom-up' cases. These results indicate that for a given turbulent velocity field and associated scalar flux, the mean change in scalar mixing ratio across the CBL is several times larger if the flux originates at the top of the boundary layer (i.e., in top-down diffusion) rather than at the bottom. The large-eddy simulation (LES) data show that this asymmetry is due to a breakdown of the eddy-diffusion concept.A simple updraft-downdraft model of the CBL reveals a physical mechanism that could cause this unexpected behavior. The large, positive skewness of the convectively driven vertical velocity gives an appreciably higher probability of downdrafts than updrafts; this excess probability of downdrafts, interacting with the time changes of the mean mixing ratio caused by the nonstationarity of the bottom-up and top-down diffusion processes, decreases the equilibrium value of mean mixing-ratio jump across the mixed layer in the bottom-up case and increases it in the top-down case. The resulting diffusion asymmetry agrees qualitatively with that found through LES.

  8. Strained layer Fabry-Perot device

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Fritz, Ian J.; Hammons, Burrell E.

    1994-01-01

    An asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflectance modulator (AFPM) consists of an active region between top and bottom mirrors, the bottom mirror being affixed to a substrate by a buffer layer. The active region comprises a strained-layer region having a bandgap and thickness chosen for resonance at the Fabry-Perot frequency. The mirrors are lattice matched to the active region, and the buffer layer is lattice matched to the mirror at the interface. The device operates at wavelengths of commercially available semiconductor lasers.

  9. Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yuewei; Allerman, Andrew A.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; ...

    2016-04-11

    The efficiency of ultra violet LEDs has been critically limited by the absorption losses in p-type and metal layers. In this work, surface roughening based light extraction structures are combined with tunneling based p-contacts to realize highly efficient top-side light extraction efficiency in UV LEDs. Surface roughening of the top n-type AlGaN contact layer is demonstrated using self-assembled Ni nano-clusters as etch mask. The top surface roughened LEDs were found to enhance external quantum efficiency by over 40% for UV LEDs with a peak emission wavelength of 326 nm. The method described here can enable highly efficient UV LEDs withoutmore » the need for complex manufacturing methods such as flip chip bonding.« less

  10. The Top Quark, QCD, And New Physics.

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dawson, S.

    2002-06-01

    The role of the top quark in completing the Standard Model quark sector is reviewed, along with a discussion of production, decay, and theoretical restrictions on the top quark properties. Particular attention is paid to the top quark as a laboratory for perturbative QCD. As examples of the relevance of QCD corrections in the top quark sector, the calculation of e{sup+}e{sup -}+ t{bar t} at next-to-leading-order QCD using the phase space slicing algorithm and the implications of a precision measurement of the top quark mass are discussed in detail. The associated production of a t{bar t} pair and a Higgs boson in either e{sup+}e{sup -} or hadronic collisions is presented at next-to-leading-order QCD and its importance for a measurement of the top quark Yulrawa coupling emphasized. Implications of the heavy top quark mass for model builders are briefly examined, with the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model and topcolor discussed as specific examples.

  11. Top-gate pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor with amorphous rubrene gate insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroki, Mizuha; Maeda, Yasutaka; Ohmi, Shun-ichiro

    2018-02-01

    The scaling of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is necessary for high-density integration and for this, OFETs with a top-gate configuration are required. There have been several reports of damageless lithography processes for organic semiconductor or insulator layers. However, it is still difficult to fabricate scaled OFETs with a top-gate configuration. In this study, the lift-off process and the device characteristics of the OFETs with a top-gate configuration utilizing an amorphous (α) rubrene gate insulator were investigated. We have confirmed that α-rubrene shows an insulating property, and its extracted linear mobility was 2.5 × 10-2 cm2/(V·s). The gate length and width were 10 and 60 µm, respectively. From these results, the OFET with a top-gate configuration utilizing an α-rubrene gate insulator is promising for the high-density integration of scaled OFETs.

  12. Homogeneous Aerosol Freezing in the Tops of High-Altitude Tropical Cumulonimbus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E. J.; Ackerman, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations of deep, intense continental tropical convection indicate that when the cloud tops extend more than a few kilometers above the liquid water homogeneous freezing level, ice nucleation due to freezing of entrained aqueous sulfate aerosols generates large concentrations of small crystals (diameters less than approx. equal to 20 micrometers). The small crystals produced by aerosol freezing have the largest impact on cloud-top ice concentration for convective clouds with strong updrafts but relatively low aerosol concentrations. An implication of this result is that cloud-top ice concentrations in high anvil cirrus can be controlled primarily by updraft speeds in the tops of convective plumes and to a lesser extent by aerosol concentrations in the uppermost troposphere. While larger crystals precipitate out and sublimate in subsaturated air below, the population of small crystals can persist in the saturated uppermost troposphere for many hours, thereby prolonging the lifetime of remnants from anvil cirrus in the tropical tropopause layer.

  13. Double Layers in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

  14. Review: the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1994-10-01

    An overview is given of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over both continental and ocean surfaces, mainly from observational and modelling perspectives. Much is known about ABL structure over homogeneous land surfaces, but relatively little so far as the following are concerned, (i) the cloud-topped ABL (over the sea predominantly); (ii) the strongly nonhomogeneous and nonstationary ABL; (iii) the ABL over complex terrain. These three categories present exciting challenges so far as improved understanding of ABL behaviour and improved representation of the ABL in numerical models of the atmosphere are concerned.

  15. Tevatron Top-Quark Combinations and World Top-Quark Mass Combination

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2014-11-04

    Almost 20 years after its discovery, the top quark is still an interesting particle, undergoing precise investigation of its properties. For many years, the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab was the only place to study top quarks in detail, while with the recent start of the LHC proton proton collider a top quark factory has opened. An important ingredient for the full understanding of the top quark is the combination of measurements from the individual experiments. In particular, the Tevaton combinations of single top-quark cross sections, the ttbar production cross section, the W helicity in top-quark decays as wellmore » as the Tevatron and the world combination of the top-quark mass are discussed.« less

  16. Buffer layers on metal alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Groves, James R.

    2004-06-29

    An article including a substrate, a layer of an inert oxide material upon the surface of the substrate, a layer of an amorphous oxide or oxynitride material upon the inert oxide material layer, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the amorphous oxide material layer, and a layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer is provided together with additional layers such as a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon the layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material layer. With a HTS top-layer of YBCO upon at least one layer of the SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material in such an article, J.sub.c 's of up to 1.3.times.10.sup.6 A/cm.sup.2 have been demonstrated with projected IC's of over 200 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide.

  17. Screen printed silver top electrode for efficient inverted organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Junwoo; Duraisamy, Navaneethan; Lee, Taik-Min

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Screen printing of silver pattern. • X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face centered cubic structure of silver. • Uniform surface morphology of silver pattern with sheet resistance of 0.06 Ω/sq. • The power conversion efficiency of fabricated solar cell is found to be 2.58%. - Abstract: The present work is mainly focused on replacement of the vacuum process for top electrode fabrication in organic solar cells. Silver top electrode deposited through solution based screen printing on pre-deposited polymeric thin film. The solution based printing technology provides uniform top electrode without damaging the underlying organic layers. The surface crystallinitymore » and surface morphology of silver top electrode are examined through X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The purity of silver is examined through X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The top electrode exhibits face centered cubic structure with homogeneous morphology. The sheet resistance of top electrode is found to be 0.06 Ω/sq and an average pattern thickness of ∼15 μm. The power conversion efficiency is 2.58%. Our work demonstrates that the solution based screen printing is a significant role in the replacement of vacuum process for the fabrication of top electrode in organic solar cells.« less

  18. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus MF 31 on the Top and Cut Surfaces of Southern Custard Pies

    PubMed Central

    Preonas, D. L.; Nelson, A. I.; Ordal, Z. John; Steinberg, M. P.; Wei, L. S.

    1969-01-01

    A Staphylococcus strain was inoculated on the top and cut surfaces of freshly baked Southern custard pies which were then packaged in a pasteboard carton and held at 30 C. Daily plate counts of surface sections 0.3 inch (0.76 cm) in thickness were made. The top surface inoculum showed a 24-hr lag time. This was due to the protective action of a top cakelike layer as shown by homogenization of the mix and coating of the surface. Substitution of all sweeteners with dextrose completely inhibited growth on the top surface. Further addition of dextrose to lower water activity (Aw) to 0.9 prevented growth on the cut surface as well, but such pies were organoleptically unacceptable. Growth on the top surface could also be prevented by 80 μg of undissociated sorbic acid per g in combination with 100 μg of undissociated propionic acid per g in the baked pie. Growth on the cakelike top surface was always retarded longer than on the cut surface provided the packaging allowed evaporation of surface moisture. Reducing the Aw of a different type of cream pie to 0.907 prevented top surface growth. It was concluded that baked cream pies with a cakelike top layer could be marketed with a “refrigerate after opening” label, provided the package maintains the moisture gradient caused by the surface skin and either a combination of 80 μg of undissociated sorbic acid per g and 100 μg undissociated propionic acid per g is present in the baked pie or the Aw of the baked pie is 0.920 or lower. Images PMID:5803631

  19. Coupled wake boundary layer model of windfarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Richard; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-11-01

    We present a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a windfarm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall windfarm boundary layer structure. Wake models capture the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down approach represents the interaction between the windturbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the CWBL model requires specification of a parameter that is unknown a-priori. The wake model requires the wake expansion rate, whereas the top-down model requires the effective spanwise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion rate is obtained by matching the mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective spanwise turbine spacing is determined from the wake model. Coupling of the constitutive components of the CWBL model is achieved by iterating these parameters until convergence is reached. We show that the CWBL model predictions compare more favorably with large eddy simulation results than those made with either the wake or top-down model in isolation and that the model can be applied successfully to the Horns Rev and Nysted windfarms. The `Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by NWO, and NSF Grant #1243482.

  20. The Keck keyword layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, A. R.; Lupton, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Each Keck instrument presents a consistent software view to the user interface programmer. The view consists of a small library of functions, which are identical for all instruments, and a large set of keywords, that vary from instrument to instrument. All knowledge of the underlying task structure is hidden from the application programmer by the keyword layer. Image capture software uses the same function library to collect data for the image header. Because the image capture software and the instrument control software are built on top of the same keyword layer, a given observation can be 'replayed' by extracting keyword-value pairs from the image header and passing them back to the control system. The keyword layer features non-blocking as well as blocking I/O. A non-blocking keyword write operation (such as setting a filter position) specifies a callback to be invoked when the operation is complete. A non-blocking keyword read operation specifies a callback to be invoked whenever the keyword changes state. The keyword-callback style meshes well with the widget-callback style commonly used in X window programs. The first keyword library was built for the two Keck optical instruments. More recently, keyword libraries have been developed for the infrared instruments and for telescope control. Although the underlying mechanisms used for inter-process communication by each of these systems vary widely (Lick MUSIC, Sun RPC, and direct socket I/O, respectively), a basic user interface has been written that can be used with any of these systems. Since the keyword libraries are bound to user interface programs dynamically at run time, only a single set of user interface executables is needed. For example, the same program, 'xshow', can be used to display continuously the telescope's position, the time left in an instrument's exposure, or both values simultaneously. Less generic tools that operate on specific keywords, for example an X display that controls optical

  1. 49 CFR 236.779 - Plate, top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.779 Plate, top. A metal plate secured to a locking bracket to prevent the cross locking from being forced out of the...

  2. Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Mar 16,2018 How much do ... Healthy This content was last reviewed July 2015. Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac ...

  3. Dynamics of a spherical tippe top

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2018-05-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented concerning the inversion of a spherical tippe top. It was found that the top rises quickly while it is sliding and then more slowly when it starts rolling, in a manner similar to that observed previously with a spinning egg. As the top rises it rotates about the horizontal Y axis, an effect that is closely analogous to rotation of the top about the vertical Z axis. Both effects can be described in terms of precession about the respective axes. Steady precession about the Z axis arises from the normal reaction force in the Z direction, while precession about the Y axis arises from the friction force in the Y direction.

  4. Probing light top partners with CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panico, Giuliano; Riembau, Marc; Vantalon, Thibaud

    2018-06-01

    We investigate CP-violating effects induced by light top partners in composite Higgs theories. We find that sizable contributions to the dipole moments of the light SM quarks and leptons are generically generated at the two-loop level through Barr-Zee-type diagrams. The present constraints on the electron and neutron electric dipole moments translate into bounds on top partner masses of order few TeV and are competitive with the reach of LHC direct searches. Interestingly, we find that CP-violation effects are sensitive to the same operators that control top partner single production. Near-future improvements in the determination of the electron dipole moment will extend the reach on top partner masses beyond the 5-10TeV range.

  5. Top Ten Technology Breakthroughs for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Bill; Crystal, Jerry; Davidson, Hall; Holzberg, Carol S.; McIntire, Todd; McLester, Susan; Ohler, Jason; Rose, Ray; Shields, Jean; Warlick, David

    2001-01-01

    Contributors discuss the top ten technologies that allow for thinking in new and innovative ways about the concept of "school": virtual learning; wireless networking; collaboration tools; digital video; Application Service Providers; handheld devices; optical networking; videoconferencing; XML; and simulations. (AEF)

  6. TEST STAND 4697 CONSTRUCTION TOP OUT

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-04

    ON MARCH 4, CREW MEMBERS READIED A 900-POUND STEEL BEAM TO "TOP OUT" TEST STAND 4697, WHICH IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION TO TEST THE SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM LIQUID OXYGEN TANK AT NASA'S MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER.

  7. Review of recent top quark measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heinson, A.P.; /UC, Riverside

    2004-11-01

    At the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab, a large number of top quarks have been produced in the ongoing run. The CDF and D0 collaborations have made first measurements of the t{bar t} cross section in several decay channels, and have measured the top quark mass. In addition, they have set new limits on the cross sections for single top quark production, and have started to measure some of the properties of the top quark via studies of its decays. This paper summarizes the status of these measurements and discusses where they are heading in the next few years. The papermore » is based on a talk I gave at the Rencontres du Vietnam in Hanoi, August 2004; the results have been updated to show the latest values and new measurements.« less

  8. Green Power Partnership National Top 100

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. The National Top 100 lists the largest green power users within the Green Power Partnership.

  9. Green Power Partnership Top Partner Rankings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Top Partner Rankings highlight the annual green power use of leading Green Power Partners.

  10. Enhanced device performances of a new inverted top-emitting OLEDs with relatively thick Ag electrode.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Ra; Suh, Min Chul

    2018-02-19

    To improve the device performances of top-emitting organic light emitting diodes (TEOLEDs), we developed a new inverted TEOLEDs structure with silver (Ag) metal as a semi-transparent top electrode. Especially, we found that the use of relatively thick Ag electrode without using any carrier injection layer is beneficial to realize highly efficient device performances. Also, we could insert very thick overlying hole transport layer (HTL) on the emitting layer (EML) which could be very helpful to suppress the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) coupling if it is applied to the common bottom-emission OLEDs (BEOLEDs). As a result, we could realize noteworthy high current efficiency of approximately ~188.1 cd/A in our new inverted TEOLEDs with 25 nm thick Ag electrode.

  11. Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

    1998-10-13

    A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications is disclosed. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. 8 figs.

  12. Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, John P.; Friedmann, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced.

  13. The Discovery of the Top Quark

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1995-12-01

    The top quark and the Higgs boson are the heaviest elementary particles predicted by the standard model. The four lightest quark flavours, the up, down, strange and charm quarks, were well-established by the mid-1970's. The discovery in 1977 of the {Tau} resonances, a new family of massive hadrons, required the introduction of the fifth quark flavour. Experimental and theoretical studies have indicated that this quark also has a heavier partner, the top quark.

  14. Contact mechanics for layered materials with randomly rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2012-03-07

    The contact mechanics model of Persson is applied to layered materials. We calculate the M function, which relates the surface stress to the surface displacement, for a layered material, where the top layer (thickness d) has different elastic properties than the semi-infinite solid below. Numerical results for the contact area as a function of the magnification are presented for several cases. As an application, we calculate the fluid leak rate for laminated rubber seals.

  15. Top shield temperatures, C and K Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Agar, J.D.

    1964-12-28

    A modification program is now in progress at the C and K Reactors consisting of an extensive renovation of the graphite channels in the vertical safety rod ststems. The present VSR channels are being enlarged by a graphite coring operation and channel sleeves will be installed in the larger channels. One problem associated with the coring operation is the danger of damaging top thermal shield cooling tubes located close to the VSR channels to such an extent that these tubes will have to be removed from service. If such a condition should exist at one or a number of locationsmore » in the top shield of the reactors after reactor startup, the question remains -- what would the resulting temperatures be of the various components of the top shields? This study was initiated to determine temperature distributions in the top shield complex at the C and K Reactors for various top thermal shield coolant system conditions. Since the top thermal shield cooling system at C Reactor is different than those at the K Reactors, the study was conducted separately for the two different systems.« less

  16. Ozone Layer Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Offices Labs and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “ ... to ozone-depleting substances, and sun safety. Stratospheric Ozone Layer Basic Ozone Layer Science Health and Environmental ...

  17. On the Edge of the South Pole Layered Deposit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-05

    This image shows the edge of the Martian South Polar layered deposit. The stack of fine layering is highlighted by the rays of the polar sun. These layers show the pervasive red coloring of Mars which have built up over the ages. While this is a polar deposit, no ice or frost is visible on these layers, as they face the sun. However, if you look beyond the rim of the layered slope at the 'top' of the deposit, you can see that red rock and dust are covered with frost, as well as small radial channels that are evidence of polar spider networks. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21105

  18. Taking into Account Interelement Interference in X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Thin Two-Layer Ti/V Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashin, N. I.; Razuvaev, A. G.; Cherniaeva, E. A.; Gafarova, L. M.; Ershov, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new method for determining the thickness of layers in x-ray fluorescence analysis of two-layer Ti/V systems, using easily fabricated standardized film layers obtained by sputter deposition of titanium on a polymer film substrate. We have calculated correction factors taking into account the level of attenuation for the intensity of the primary emission from the x-ray tube and the analytical line for the element of the bottom layer in the top layer, and the enhancement of the fluorescence intensity for the top layer by the emission of atoms in the bottom layer.

  19. 5 CFR 1312.27 - Top secret control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Top secret control. 1312.27 Section 1312... Classified Information § 1312.27 Top secret control. The EOP Security Officer serves as the Top Secret... Top Secret material. The ATSCOs will be responsible for the accountability and custodianship of Top...

  20. 5 CFR 1312.27 - Top secret control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Top secret control. 1312.27 Section 1312... Classified Information § 1312.27 Top secret control. The EOP Security Officer serves as the Top Secret... Top Secret material. The ATSCOs will be responsible for the accountability and custodianship of Top...

  1. 5 CFR 1312.27 - Top secret control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Top secret control. 1312.27 Section 1312... Classified Information § 1312.27 Top secret control. The EOP Security Officer serves as the Top Secret... Top Secret material. The ATSCOs will be responsible for the accountability and custodianship of Top...

  2. 5 CFR 1312.27 - Top secret control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Top secret control. 1312.27 Section 1312... Classified Information § 1312.27 Top secret control. The EOP Security Officer serves as the Top Secret... Top Secret material. The ATSCOs will be responsible for the accountability and custodianship of Top...

  3. 5 CFR 1312.27 - Top secret control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Top secret control. 1312.27 Section 1312... Classified Information § 1312.27 Top secret control. The EOP Security Officer serves as the Top Secret... Top Secret material. The ATSCOs will be responsible for the accountability and custodianship of Top...

  4. Top tether effectiveness during side impacts.

    PubMed

    Majstorovic, Jordan; Bing, Julie; Dahle, Eric; Bolte, John; Kang, Yun-Seok

    2018-02-28

    Few studies have looked at the effectiveness of the top tether during side impacts. In these studies, limited anthropomorphic test device (ATD) data were collected and/or few side impact scenarios were observed. The goal of this study was to further understand the effects of the top tether on ATD responses and child restraint system (CRS) kinematics during various side impact conditions. A series of high-speed near-side and far-side sled tests were performed using the FMVSS213 side impact sled buck and Q3s ATD. Tests were performed at both 10° and 30° impacts with respect to the pure lateral direction. Two child restraints, CRS A and CRS B, were attached to the bench using flexible lower anchors. Each test scenario was performed with the presence and absence of a top tether. Instrumentation recorded Q3s responses and CRS kinematics, and the identical test scenarios with and without a top tether attachment were compared. For the far-side lateral (10°) and oblique (30°) impacts, top tether attachment increased resultant head accelerations by 8-38% and head injury criterion (HIC 15 ) values by 20-140%. However, the top tether was effective in reducing lateral head excursion by 5-25%. For near-side impacts, the top tether resulted in less than 10% increases in both resultant head acceleration and HIC 15 in the lateral impact direction. For near-side oblique impacts, the top tether increased HIC 15 by 17.3% for CRS A and decreased it by 19.5% for CRS B. However, the injury values determined from both impact conditions were below current injury assessment reference values (IARVs). Additionally, the top tether proved beneficial in preventing forward and lateral CRS rotations. The results show that the effects of the top tether on Q3s responses were dependent on impact type, impact angle, and CRS. Tether attachments that increased head accelerations and HIC 15 values were generally counterbalanced by a reduction in head excursion and CRS rotation compared to

  5. Measurement of top quark polarisation in t-channel single top quark production

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-04-13

    Our first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in t-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based on a sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb -1. A high-purity sample of t-channel single top quark events with an isolated muon is selected. Signal and background components are estimated using a fit to data. Furthermore, a differential cross section measurement, corrected for detector effects, of an angular observable sensitive to the top quark polarisation is performed. The differential distribution ismore » used to extract a top quark spin asymmetry of 0.26 ± 0.03 (stat) ± 0.10 (syst), which is compatible with a p-value of 4.6% with the standard model prediction of 0.44.« less

  6. Core layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, S. A.; Rubie, D. C.; Hernlund, J. W.; Morbidelli, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have created a planetary accretion and differentiation model that self-consistently builds and evolves Earth's core. From this model, we show that the core grows stably stratified as the result of rising metal-silicate equilibration temperatures and pressures, which increases the concentrations of light element impurities into each newer core addition. This stable stratification would naturally resist convection and frustrate the onset of a geodynamo, however, late giant impacts could mechanically mix the distinct accreted core layers creating large homogenous regions. Within these regions, a geodynamo may operate. From this model, we interpret the difference between the planetary magnetic fields of Earth and Venus as a difference in giant impact histories. Our planetary accretion model is a numerical N-body integration of the Grand Tack scenario [1]—the most successful terrestrial planet formation model to date [2,3]. Then, we take the accretion histories of Earth-like and Venus-like planets from this model and post-process the growth of each terrestrial planet according to a well-tested planetary differentiation model [4,5]. This model fits Earth's mantle by modifying the oxygen content of the pre-cursor planetesimals and embryos as well as the conditions of metal-silicate equilibration. Other non-volatile major, minor and trace elements included in the model are assumed to be in CI chondrite proportions. The results from this model across many simulated terrestrial planet growth histories are robust. If the kinetic energy delivered by larger impacts is neglected, the core of each planet grows with a strong stable stratification that would significantly impede convection. However, if giant impact mixing is very efficient or if the impact history delivers large impacts late, than the stable stratification can be removed. [1] Walsh et al. Nature 475 (2011) [2] O'Brien et al. Icarus 223 (2014) [3] Jacobson & Morbidelli PTRSA 372 (2014) [4] Rubie et al. EPSL 301

  7. Deep Convective Cloud Top Heights and Their Thermodynamic Control During CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Steven C.; Minnis, Patrick; McGill, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Infrared (11 micron) radiances from GOES-8 and local radiosonde profiles, collected during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) in July 2002, are used to assess the vertical distribution of Florida-area deep convective cloud top height and test predictions as to its variation based on parcel theory. The highest infrared tops (Z(sub 11)) reached approximately to the cold point, though there is at least a 1-km uncertainty due to unknown cloud-environment temperature differences. Since lidar shows that visible 'tops' are 1 km or more above Z(sub 11), visible cloud tops frequently penetrated the lapse-rate tropopause (approx. 15 km). Further, since lofted ice content may be present up to approx. 1 km above the visible tops, lofting of moisture through the mean cold point (15.4 km) was probably common. Morning clouds, and those near Key West, rarely penetrated the tropopause. Non-entraining parcel theory (i.e., CAPE) does not successfully explain either of these results, but can explain some of the day-to-day variations in cloud top height over the peninsula. Further, moisture variations above the boundary layer account for most of the day-today variability not explained by CAPE, especially over the oceans. In all locations, a 20% increase in mean mixing ratio between 750 and 500 hPa was associated with about 1 km deeper maximum cloud penetration relative to the neutral level. These results suggest that parcel theory may be useful for predicting changes in cumulus cloud height over time, but that parcel entrainment must be taken into account even for the tallest clouds. Accordingly, relative humidity above the boundary layer may exert some control on the height of the tropical troposphere.

  8. Layer-by-layer modification of thin-film metal-semiconductor multilayers with ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romashevskiy, S. A.; Tsygankov, P. A.; Ashitkov, S. I.; Agranat, M. B.

    2018-05-01

    The surface modifications in a multilayer thin-film structure (50-nm alternating layers of Si and Al) induced by a single Gaussian-shaped femtosecond laser pulse (350 fs, 1028 nm) in the air are investigated by means of atomic-force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopy (OM). Depending on the laser fluence, various modifications of nanometer-scale metal and semiconductor layers, including localized formation of silicon/aluminum nanofoams and layer-by-layer removal, are found. While the nanofoams with cell sizes in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers are produced only in the two top layers, layer-by-layer removal is observed for the four top layers under single pulse irradiation. The 50-nm films of the multilayer structure are found to be separated at their interfaces, resulting in a selective removal of several top layers (up to 4) in the form of step-like (concentric) craters. The observed phenomenon is associated with a thermo-mechanical ablation mechanism that results in splitting off at film-film interface, where the adhesion force is less than the bulk strength of the used materials, revealing linear dependence of threshold fluences on the film thickness.

  9. Substantiation of artificial composite-structure roof construction in top-down cut-and-fill stoping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukavishnikov, GD; Neverov, SA; Neverov, AA

    2018-03-01

    It has been found efficient and safe to use top-down cut-and-fill stoping with saving of the artificial backfill cost and material through the use of a solid nonuniform material composed of two components (layers). It is shown that the artificial roof can be advanced after a stope without essential change in the stope condition as compared with the classical top-down slice method, which provides higher safety of mining.

  10. Holograms of a dynamical top quark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Will; Evans, Nick; Scott, Marc

    2017-09-01

    We present holographic descriptions of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking models that incorporate the top mass generation mechanism. The models allow computation of the spectrum in the presence of large anomalous dimensions due to walking and strong Nambu-Jona-Lasinio interactions. Technicolor and QCD dynamics are described by the bottom-up Dynamic AdS/QCD model for arbitrary gauge groups and numbers of quark flavors. An assumption about the running of the anomalous dimension of the quark bilinear operator is input, and the model then predicts the spectrum and decay constants for the mesons. We add Nambu-Jona-Lasinio interactions responsible for flavor physics from extended technicolor, top-color, etc., using Witten's multitrace prescription. We show the key behaviors of a top condensation model can be reproduced. We study generation of the top mass in (walking) one doublet and one family technicolor models and with strong extended technicolor interactions. The models clearly reveal the tensions between the large top mass and precision data for δ ρ . The necessary tunings needed to generate a model compatible with precision constraints are simply demonstrated.

  11. Top-down causation and social structures

    PubMed Central

    Elder-Vass, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Top-down causation has been implicit in many sociological accounts of social structure and its influence on social events, but the social sciences have struggled to provide a coherent account of top-down causation itself. This paper summarizes a critical realist view of causation and emergence, shows how it supports a plausible account of top-down causation and then applies this account to the social world. The argument is illustrated by an examination of the concept of a norm circle, a kind of social entity that, it is argued, is causally responsible for the influence of normative social institutions. Nevertheless, social entities are structured rather differently from ordinary material ones, with the result that the compositional level structure of reality implicit in the concept of top-down causation has some limitations in the social world. The paper closes by considering what might be involved in examining how top-down causation can be shown to be at work in the social domain. PMID:23386963

  12. Single top quarks and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinna, Deborah; Zucchetta, Alberto; Buckley, Matthew R.; Canelli, Florencia

    2017-08-01

    Processes with dark matter interacting with the standard model fermions through new scalars or pseudoscalars with flavor-diagonal couplings proportional to fermion mass are well motivated theoretically, and provide a useful phenomenological model with which to interpret experimental results. Two modes of dark matter production from these models have been considered in the existing literature: pairs of dark matter produced through top quark loops with an associated monojet in the event, and pair production of dark matter with pairs of heavy flavored quarks (tops or bottoms). In this paper, we demonstrate that a third, previously overlooked channel yields a non-negligible contribution to LHC dark matter searches in these models. In spite of a generally lower production cross section at LHC when compared to the associated top-pair channel, non-flavor violating single top quark processes are kinematically favored and can significantly increase the sensitivity to these models. Including dark matter production in association with a single top quark through scalar or pseudoscalar mediators, the exclusion limit set by the LHC searches for dark matter can be improved by 30% up to a factor of two, depending on the mass assumed for the mediator particle.

  13. Protein Identification Using Top-Down Spectra*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaowen; Sirotkin, Yakov; Shen, Yufeng; Anderson, Gordon; Tsai, Yihsuan S.; Ting, Ying S.; Goodlett, David R.; Smith, Richard D.; Bafna, Vineet; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2012-01-01

    In the last two years, because of advances in protein separation and mass spectrometry, top-down mass spectrometry moved from analyzing single proteins to analyzing complex samples and identifying hundreds and even thousands of proteins. However, computational tools for database search of top-down spectra against protein databases are still in their infancy. We describe MS-Align+, a fast algorithm for top-down protein identification based on spectral alignment that enables searches for unexpected post-translational modifications. We also propose a method for evaluating statistical significance of top-down protein identifications and further benchmark various software tools on two top-down data sets from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Salmonella typhimurium. We demonstrate that MS-Align+ significantly increases the number of identified spectra as compared with MASCOT and OMSSA on both data sets. Although MS-Align+ and ProSightPC have similar performance on the Salmonella typhimurium data set, MS-Align+ outperforms ProSightPC on the (more complex) Saccharomyces cerevisiae data set. PMID:22027200

  14. Monotop signature from a fermionic top partner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Dorival; Kong, Kyoungchul; Sakurai, Kazuki; Takeuchi, Michihisa

    2018-01-01

    We investigate monotop signatures arising from phenomenological models of fermionic top partners, which are degenerate in mass and decay into a bosonic dark matter candidate, either spin 0 or spin 1. Such a model provides a monotop signature as a smoking gun, while conventional searches with t t ¯ + missing transverse momentum are limited. Two such scenarios, (i) a phenomenological third generation extradimensional model with excited top and electroweak sectors, and (ii) a model where only a top partner and a dark matter particle are added to the standard model, are studied in the degenerate mass regime. We find that in the case of extra dimension a number of different processes give rise to effectively the same monotop final state, and a great gain can be obtained in the sensitivity for this channel. We show that the monotop search can explore top-partner masses up to 630 and 300 GeV for the third generation extradimensional model and the minimal fermionic top-partner model, respectively, at the high luminosity LHC.

  15. Synchrotron studies of top-down grown silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turishchev, S. Yu.; Parinova, E. V.; Nesterov, D. N.; Koyuda, D. A.; Sivakov, V.; Schleusener, A.; Terekhov, V. A.

    2018-06-01

    Morphology of the top-down grown silicon nanowires obtained by metal-assisted wet-chemical approach on silicon substrates with different resistance were studied by scanning electron microscopy. Obtained arrays of compact grown Si nanowires were a subject for the high resolution electronic structures studies by X-ray absorption near edge structure technique performed with the usage of high intensity synchrotron radiation of the SRC storage ring of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The different oxidation rates were found by investigation of silicon atoms local surrounding specificity of the highly developed surface and near surface layer that is not exceeded 70 nm. Flexibility of the wires arrays surface morphology and its composition is demonstrated allowing smoothly form necessary surface oxidation rate and using Si nanowires as a useful matrixes for a wide range of further functionalization.

  16. Cloud layer thicknesses from a combination of surface and upper-air observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poore, Kirk D.; Wang, Junhong; Rossow, William B.

    1995-01-01

    Cloud layer thicknesses are derived from base and top altitudes by combining 14 years (1975-1988) of surface and upper-air observations at 63 sites in the Northern Hemisphere. Rawinsonde observations are employed to determine the locations of cloud-layer top and base by testing for dewpoint temperature depressions below some threshold value. Surface observations serve as quality checks on the rawinsonde-determined cloud properties and provide cloud amount and cloud-type information. The dataset provides layer-cloud amount, cloud type, high, middle, or low height classes, cloud-top heights, base heights and layer thicknesses, covering a range of latitudes from 0 deg to 80 deg N. All data comes from land sites: 34 are located in continental interiors, 14 are near coasts, and 15 are on islands. The uncertainties in the derived cloud properties are discussed. For clouds classified by low-, mid-, and high-top altitudes, there are strong latitudinal and seasonal variations in the layer thickness only for high clouds. High-cloud layer thickness increases with latitude and exhibits different seasonal variations in different latitude zones: in summer, high-cloud layer thickness is a maximum in the Tropics but a minimum at high latitudes. For clouds classified into three types by base altitude or into six standard morphological types, latitudinal and seasonal variations in layer thickness are very small. The thickness of the clear surface layer decreases with latitude and reaches a summer minimum in the Tropics and summer maximum at higher latitudes over land, but does not vary much over the ocean. Tropical clouds occur in three base-altitude groups and the layer thickness of each group increases linearly with top altitude. Extratropical clouds exhibit two groups, one with layer thickness proportional to their cloud-top altitude and one with small (less than or equal to 1000 m) layer thickness independent of cloud-top altitude.

  17. Layering and Ordering in Electrochemical Double Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yihua; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Pierce, Michael S.

    Electrochemical double layers (EDL) form at electrified interfaces. While Gouy-Chapman model describes moderately charged EDL, formation of Stern layers was predicted for highly charged EDL. Our results provide structural evidence for a Stern layer of cations, at potentials close to hydrogen evolution in alkali fluoride and chloride electrolytes. Layering was observed by x-ray crystal truncation rods and atomic-scale recoil responses of Pt(111) surface layers. Ordering in the layer is confirmed by glancing-incidence in-plane diffraction measurements.

  18. Top B physics at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Gedalia, Oram; Isidori, Gino; Maltoni, Fabio; Perez, Gilad; Selvaggi, Michele; Soreq, Yotam

    2013-06-07

    In top-pair events where at least one of the tops decays semileptonically, the identification of the lepton charge allows us to tag not only the top quark charge but also that of the subsequent b quark. In cases where the b also decays semileptonically, the charge of the two leptons can be used to probe CP violation in heavy flavor mixing and decays. This strategy to measure CP violation is independent of those adopted so far in experiments, and can already constrain non standard model sources of CP violation with current and near future LHC data. To demonstrate the potential of this method we construct two CP asymmetries based on same-sign and opposite-sign leptons and estimate their sensitivities. This proposal opens a new window for doing precision measurements of CP violation in b and c quark physics via high p(T) processes at ATLAS and CMS.

  19. Write Strategy for Dual-Layer Digital Versatile Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabata, Hiroshi; Tokui, Kenji; Higuchi, Shinji; Moriizumi, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Ikuo

    2006-02-01

    A novel write strategy for rewritable dual-layer digital versatile discs (DVDs) was studied. This new strategy involves the erase top pulse which is included in the conventional write strategy for single-layer DVDs in present market. By thermal calculations, it was confirmed that this erase top pulse has an affect on the rapid heating of recording films. We observed that this new strategy enabled the improvement in data qualities on the layer near the laser incident (L0) effectively in 2 × and 4 ×-speed recordings even if L0 had a high optical transparency. Furthermore we also demonstrated a combination of what with the 2T-period strategy on the layer far from the laser incident (L1) realized a well-balanced signal performance for dual-layer DVD media.

  20. TOP500 Supercomputers for November 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack

    2003-11-16

    22nd Edition of TOP500 List of World s Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.; BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 22nd edition of the TOP500 list of the worlds fastest supercomputers was released today (November 16, 2003). The Earth Simulator supercomputer retains the number one position with its Linpack benchmark performance of 35.86 Tflop/s (''teraflops'' or trillions of calculations per second). It was built by NEC and installed last year at the Earth Simulator Center in Yokohama, Japan.

  1. Thermionic Energy Conversion (TEC) topping thermoelectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Performance expectations for thermionic and thermoelectric energy conversion systems are reviewed. It is noted that internal radiation effects diminish thermoelectric figures of merit significantly at 1000 K and substantially at 2000 K; the effective thermal conductivity contribution of intrathermoelectric radiative dissipation increases with the third power of temperature. It is argued that a consideration of thermoelectric power generation with high temperature heat sources should include utilization of thermionic energy conversion (TEC) topping thermoelectrics. However TEC alone or TEC topping more efficient conversion systems like steam or gas turbines, combined cycles, or Stirling engines would be more desirable generally.

  2. An Efficiency Comparison of MBA Programs: Top 10 versus Non-Top 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Maxwell K.; James, Marcia L.; Chao, Gary H.

    2009-01-01

    The authors compared the cohort group of the top-10 MBA programs in the United States with their lower-ranking counterparts on their value-added efficiency. The findings reveal that the top-10 MBA programs in the United States are associated with statistically higher average "technical and scale efficiency" and "scale efficiency", but not with a…

  3. Top2 and Sgs1-Top3 Act Redundantly to Ensure rDNA Replication Termination

    PubMed Central

    Fredsøe, Jacob; Nielsen, Ida; Pedersen, Jakob Madsen; Bentsen, Iben Bach; Lisby, Michael; Bjergbaek, Lotte; Andersen, Anni H

    2015-01-01

    Faithful DNA replication with correct termination is essential for genome stability and transmission of genetic information. Here we have investigated the potential roles of Topoisomerase II (Top2) and the RecQ helicase Sgs1 during late stages of replication. We find that cells lacking Top2 and Sgs1 (or Top3) display two different characteristics during late S/G2 phase, checkpoint activation and accumulation of asymmetric X-structures, which are both independent of homologous recombination. Our data demonstrate that checkpoint activation is caused by a DNA structure formed at the strongest rDNA replication fork barrier (RFB) during replication termination, and consistently, checkpoint activation is dependent on the RFB binding protein, Fob1. In contrast, asymmetric X-structures are formed independent of Fob1 at less strong rDNA replication fork barriers. However, both checkpoint activation and formation of asymmetric X-structures are sensitive to conditions, which facilitate fork merging and progression of replication forks through replication fork barriers. Our data are consistent with a redundant role of Top2 and Sgs1 together with Top3 (Sgs1-Top3) in replication fork merging at rDNA barriers. At RFB either Top2 or Sgs1-Top3 is essential to prevent formation of a checkpoint activating DNA structure during termination, but at less strong rDNA barriers absence of the enzymes merely delays replication fork merging, causing an accumulation of asymmetric termination structures, which are solved over time. PMID:26630413

  4. TOPS Report: Analysis of the TOPS Program from 2006-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Board of Regents, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Tuition Opportunity Program for Students (subsequently renamed the Taylor Opportunity Program for Students, or TOPS) was created via ACT 1375 during the 1997 Regular Legislative Session. The first college freshman class to receive TOPS awards entered postsecondary education in the fall of 1998. ACT 1202 of the 2001 Regular Legislative Session…

  5. Tennessee to the Top: One State's Pursuit to Win Race to the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Maida A.

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, a seldom-used policy lever emerged in the form of a competitive grant program, Race to the Top (RTTT), and sparked a flurry of state-led initiatives as states vied for federal dollars. The current study examines the policymaking context that surrounded these events and propelled Tennessee to the top of the race among the states. Through…

  6. Improved BC method of Compomat G4 for expression of BCs twice from whole blood in top and top bags.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiao-Yan; Wu, Xiao-Man; Zhao, Yang; Luo, Hong; Jia, Hong-Yun; Wang, Zhong-Ying; He, Bo; Wang, Chuan-Xi

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate an improved buffy coat (BC) method of Compomat G4 for automated expression of BCs twice from whole blood (WB) in top and top (T&T) bags. WB was separated using hard spin centrifugation (2,988g, 10 min) into layers of blood components by specific gravity, and different components were subsequently expressed into satellite bags in the T&T system using the manual BC method, the conventional BC method of G4, and our improved BC method of G4. In the improved BC method, an accessorial device we have named a 'gravity press' was designed and installed on the top flat of G4 to produce gravitational pressure on the plasma bag so as to exclude air and some of plasma to the upper compartment of the slide after BCs were expressed for the first time. The residual BCs in the upper compartment were expressed a second time by extending the upper press once more. All of the pooled BCs were centrifuged by soft spin (402g, 10 min) and upper platelet-rich supernatant was manually expressed into a platelet container by the plasma extractor. In vitro studies of blood components and pooled platelet concentrates (PCs) revealed no significant differences in BC blood components and platelet recovery of pooled platelets (61 ± 9 vs. 60 ± 7%, n = 12, p > 0.05) between the improved BC method and the conventional BC method; all components met our specifications for blood products. We suggest that the new BC method for use of T&T bags may improve the collection of BCs.

  7. Spectral ellipsometry as a method for characterization of nanosized films with ferromagnetic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, H.; Singkh, S. P.; Panina, L. V.; Pudonin, F. A.; Sherstnev, I. A.; Podgornaya, S. V.; Shpetnyi, I. A.; Beklemisheva, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Nanosized films with ferromagnetic layers are widely used in nanoelectronics, sensor systems and telecommunications. Their properties may strongly differ from those of bulk materials that is on account of interfaces, intermediate layers and diffusion. In the present work, spectral ellipsometry and magnetooptical methods are adapted for characterization of the optical parameters and magnetization processes in two- and three-layer Cr/NiFe, Al/NiFe and Cr(Al)/Ge/NiFe films onto a sitall substrate for various thicknesses of Cr and Al layers. At a layer thickness below 20 nm, the complex refractive coefficients depend pronouncedly on the thickness. In two-layer films, remagnetization changes weakly over a thickness of the top layer, but the coercive force in three-layer films increases by more than twice upon remagnetization, while increasing the top layer thickness from 4 to 20 nm.

  8. Interrogating the superconductor Ca- 10(Pt 4As 8)(Fe 2-xPt xAs 2) 5 Layer-by-layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jisun; Zhu, Yimei; Nam, Hyoungdo

    2016-10-14

    Ever since the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in layered cuprates, the roles that individual layers play have been debated, due to difficulty in layer-by-layer characterization. While there is similar challenge in many Fe-based layered superconductors, the newly-discovered Ca 10(Pt 4As 8)(Fe 2As 2) 5 provides opportunities to explore superconductivity layer by layer, because it contains both superconducting building blocks (Fe 2As 2 layers) and intermediate Pt 4As 8 layers. Cleaving a single crystal under ultra-high vacuum results in multiple terminations: an ordered Pt 4As 8 layer, two reconstructed Ca layers on the top of a Pt 4As 8 layer, andmore » disordered Ca layer on the top of Fe 2As 2 layer. The electronic properties of individual layers are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), which reveals different spectra for each surface. Remarkably superconducting coherence peaks are seen only on the ordered Ca/Pt 4As 8 layer. Our results indicate that an ordered structure with proper charge balance is required in order to preserve superconductivity.« less

  9. Interrogating the superconductor Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2-xPtxAs2)5 Layer-by-layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisun; Nam, Hyoungdo; Li, Guorong; Karki, A B; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Yimei; Shih, Chih-Kang; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E W

    2016-10-14

    Ever since the discovery of high-T c superconductivity in layered cuprates, the roles that individual layers play have been debated, due to difficulty in layer-by-layer characterization. While there is similar challenge in many Fe-based layered superconductors, the newly-discovered Ca 10 (Pt 4 As 8 )(Fe 2 As 2 ) 5 provides opportunities to explore superconductivity layer by layer, because it contains both superconducting building blocks (Fe 2 As 2 layers) and intermediate Pt 4 As 8 layers. Cleaving a single crystal under ultra-high vacuum results in multiple terminations: an ordered Pt 4 As 8 layer, two reconstructed Ca layers on the top of a Pt 4 As 8 layer, and disordered Ca layer on the top of Fe 2 As 2 layer. The electronic properties of individual layers are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), which reveals different spectra for each surface. Remarkably superconducting coherence peaks are seen only on the ordered Ca/Pt 4 As 8 layer. Our results indicate that an ordered structure with proper charge balance is required in order to preserve superconductivity.

  10. Top tagging: a method for identifying boosted hadronically decaying top quarks.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David E; Rehermann, Keith; Schwartz, Matthew D; Tweedie, Brock

    2008-10-03

    A method is introduced for distinguishing top jets (boosted, hadronically decaying top quarks) from light-quark and gluon jets using jet substructure. The procedure involves parsing the jet cluster to resolve its subjets and then imposing kinematic constraints. With this method, light-quark or gluon jets with p{T} approximately 1 TeV can be rejected with an efficiency of around 99% while retaining up to 40% of top jets. This reduces the dijet background to heavy tt[over ] resonances by a factor of approximately 10 000, thereby allowing resonance searches in tt[over ] to be extended into the all-hadronic channel. In addition, top tagging can be used in tt[over ] events when one of the top quarks decays semileptonically, in events with missing energy, and in studies of b-tagging efficiency at high p{T}.

  11. Tailoring graphene layer-to-layer growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongtao; Wu, Bin; Guo, Wei; Wang, Lifeng; Li, Jingbo; Liu, Yunqi

    2017-06-01

    A layered material grown between a substrate and the upper layer involves complex interactions and a confined reaction space, representing an unusual growth mode. Here, we show multi-layer graphene domains grown on liquid or solid Cu by the chemical vapor deposition method via this ‘double-substrate’ mode. We demonstrate the interlayer-induced coupling effect on the twist angle in bi- and multi-layer graphene. We discover dramatic growth disunity for different graphene layers, which is explained by the ideas of a chemical ‘gate’ and a material transport process within a confined space. These key results lead to a consistent framework for understanding the dynamic evolution of multi-layered graphene flakes and tailoring the layer-to-layer growth for practical applications.

  12. Optical property measurement from layered biological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Matthew R.

    1998-12-01

    concisely, and Ke becomes a tool in describing the layered optical properties. This approach is applied clinically to measure changes in the blood concentration and oxygenation measured in vivo from normals and patients with peripheral vascular disease. A significant finding from the modeling was to identify the functional relationship of Ke to the top and lower layer diffusion constants, and the top layer thickness. When applied to in vitro measurements from media containing homogeneous layers with known optical properties, this functional relationship predicted Ke within the 95% confidence interval of the measured Ke. For the in vivo measurements, changes in K e with exercise are consistent with expected exercise physiology. With the incorporation of the known optical absorbance of hemoglobin in the presence of oxygen, the SRPs provide a means to measure the oxygen saturation of a deep tissue layer from the surface light reflectance.

  13. Neutrino masses from neutral top partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batell, Brian; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    We present theories of "natural neutrinos" in which neutral fermionic top partner fields are simultaneously the right-handed neutrinos (RHN), linking seemingly disparate aspects of the Standard Model structure: (a) The RHN top partners are responsible for the observed small neutrino masses, (b) they help ameliorate the tuning in the weak scale and address the little hierarchy problem, and (c) the factor of 3 arising from Nc in the top-loop Higgs mass corrections is countered by a factor of 3 from the number of vectorlike generations of RHN. The RHN top partners may arise in pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson Higgs models such as the twin Higgs, as well as more general composite, little, and orbifold Higgs scenarios, and three simple example models are presented. This framework firmly predicts a TeV-scale seesaw, as the RHN masses are bounded to be below the TeV scale by naturalness. The generation of light neutrino masses relies on a collective breaking of the lepton number, allowing for comparatively large neutrino Yukawa couplings and a rich associated phenomenology. The structure of the neutrino mass mechanism realizes in certain limits the inverse or linear classes of seesaw. Natural neutrino models are testable at a variety of current and future experiments, particularly in tests of lepton universality, searches for lepton flavor violation, and precision electroweak and Higgs coupling measurements possible at high energy e+e- and hadron colliders.

  14. What Top Management Expects from the Communicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fegley, Robert L.

    Top corporate management requires communications departments that maintain credibility with the public by developing the following qualities: integrity established through consistent and honest messages; accuracy based on solid research; authority derived from an understanding of the subject and from drawing on appropriate expertise; a…

  15. Top-Ten IT Issues: 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Anne Scrivener; Yang, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the top-ten IT-related issues in terms of strategic importance to the institution, as revealed by the tenth annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. These IT-related issues include: (1) Funding IT; (2) Administrative/ERP Information Systems; (3) Security; (4) Infrastructure/Cyberinfrastructure; (5) Teaching and Learning with…

  16. Race to Top Round Two Heating Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    With the second-round deadline for federal Race to the Top Fund grants less than six weeks away, states are rushing to raise the stakes on their education reform plans as they fight over the remaining $3.4 billion in prize money. But in doing so, states from Massachusetts to Colorado are tangling with their teachers' unions as they test how far…

  17. Race to Top Districts "Personalize" Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The 16 Race to the Top district winners, pushed by $400 million in federal grants that put a premium on personalized learning, are embarking on vastly different makeovers of the classroom experience--from districtwide approaches to a narrower blueprint focused on middle school math. Despite the divergent approaches, a review of the winning…

  18. More Top Students Answer the Ministry's Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to help reverse a decades-long decline in the number of top students entering seminaries, the Lilly Endowment invited colleges to compete for grants to be used for three related purposes: (1) to help students explore the relationship between faith and work; (2) to encourage talented students to consider entering Christian ministry;…

  19. Race to Top Enters Home Stretch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele; Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2010-01-01

    When 16 finalists come to Washington next week to make their final pitches in the $4 billion Race to the Top competition, most can expect to go home empty-handed. U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan, in announcing the finalists last week, said that no more than $2 billion will be divided among "very few winners" when the awards are…

  20. The Top American Indian Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" publishes lists of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at the Indiana University Bloomington. This year, Diverse staff…

  1. Singlet scalar top partners from accidental supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Li, Lingfeng; Salvioni, Ennio; Verhaaren, Christopher B.

    2018-05-01

    We present a model wherein the Higgs mass is protected from the quadratic one-loop top quark corrections by scalar particles that are complete singlets under the Standard Model (SM) gauge group. While bearing some similarity to Folded Supersymmetry, the construction is purely four dimensional and enjoys more parametric freedom, allowing electroweak symmetry breaking to occur easily. The cancelation of the top loop quadratic divergence is ensured by a Z 3 symmetry that relates the SM top sector and two hidden top sectors, each charged under its own hidden color group. In addition to the singlet scalars, the hidden sectors contain electroweak-charged supermultiplets below the TeV scale, which provide the main access to this model at colliders. The phenomenology presents both differences and similarities with respect to other realizations of neutral naturalness. Generally, the glueballs of hidden color have longer decay lengths. The production of hidden sector particles results in quirk or squirk bound states, which later annihilate. We survey the possible signatures and corresponding experimental constraints.

  2. Race to Top Now Faces Acid Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2010-01-01

    With the conclusion of the second round of the federal Race to the Top competition, states across the country--winners and losers alike--are vowing to move forward with ambitious plans to reshape teacher-evaluation systems, fix struggling schools, revamp antiquated data systems, and make other changes aimed at raising student achievement. Yet…

  3. Venus Cloud Tops Viewed by Hubble

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-18

    Venus Cloud Tops Viewed by Hubble. This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet-light image of the planet Venus, taken on January 24 1995, when Venus was at a distance of 70.6 million miles 113.6 million kilometers from Earth.

  4. Evaluation of a Bench Top Mechanical Delinter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This presentation will report on current research associated with a new mechancial delinter being developed at the Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit in conjunction with Cotton Inc. A bench-top version of the new mechanical delinter was built and evaluated to determine operational speeds...

  5. W-Z-top-quark bags

    SciTech Connect

    Crichigno, Marcos P.; Shuryak, Edward; Flambaum, Victor V.

    2010-10-01

    We discuss a new family of multiquanta-bound states in the standard model which exist due to the mutual Higgs-based attraction of the heaviest members of the standard model, namely, gauge quanta W, Z, and (anti)top quarks, t, t. We use a self-consistent mean-field approximation, up to a rather large particle number N. In this paper we do not focus on weakly bound, nonrelativistic bound states, but rather on 'bags' in which the Higgs vacuum expectation value is significantly modified or depleted. The minimal number N above which such states appear strongly depends on the ratio of the Higgs mass tomore » the masses of W, Z, t, t: For a light Higgs mass, m{sub H{approx}}50 GeV, bound states start from N{approx}O(10), but for a ''realistic'' Higgs mass, m{sub H{approx}}100 GeV, one finds metastable/bound W, Z bags only for N{approx}O(1000). We also found that in the latter case pure top bags disappear for all N, although top quarks can still be well bound to the W bags. Anticipating the cosmological applications (discussed in the following Article [Phys. Rev. D 82, 073019]) of these bags as 'doorway states' for baryosynthesis, we also consider here the existence of such metastable bags at finite temperatures, when standard-model parameters such as Higgs, gauge, and top masses are significantly modified.« less

  6. The Top 100 Bachelor's Degrees Conferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents this year's Top 100 institutions that conferred the most bachelor's degrees to students of color in academic year 2009-2010. It shows the total number of bachelor's degrees for a specific minority group or for total minorities, with subtotals for women and men in that ethnic group. The author also includes the prior year…

  7. The Top 100 Bachelor's Degree Conferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Each year in the Top 100 series, researchers highlight the institutions that confer the most degrees to students of color. In this edition, they focus on the most prevalent degree conferred: the bachelor's degree. Among the types of colleges and universities that they examine--those that have Title IV status (recognized by the U.S. Department of…

  8. Top-Ten IT Issues, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingerman, Bret L.; Yang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The results of the twelfth annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey reflect the everyday balancing act that IT leaders need to perform. Many of the issues show the need for continued and thoughtful long-range planning, yet new issues have also risen quickly to the top, requiring nimbleness in both thought and act. Administered by the EDUCAUSE Current…

  9. Correlating Top Agency Success with Educational Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, William J.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates whether there is any correlation between successful advertising agency careers and undergraduate education. Finds that the educational tracks pursued by executives of the top 50 advertising agencies are so varied and remarkably evenly distributed that educational background appears to have little, if any, to do with success in…

  10. America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,…

  11. States Press Race to Top Blueprints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2010-01-01

    States are pushing ahead with efforts to make sweeping changes to education policy through the Race to the Top program, despite some of them having seen individual schools and districts back out of the process because of concerns over the time and money required to make those plans a reality. The Obama administration has envisioned Race to the…

  12. Organic crop production's top research priority: Pestiphytology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pestiphytology is the study of pest plants, commonly referred to as weeds. In a recent national survey, weed research was designated as the top research priority by organic producers. Manual weed control is a costly practice that can quickly decrease return on investment, while the absence of weed...

  13. NREL Researcher is Top World Physicist

    Science.gov Websites

    is Top World Physicist For more information contact: Kerry Masson, (303) 275-4083 e:mail physicists in the world by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI). The standing is based on the number your peers is the ultimate measure of the quality and quantity of world class research being conducted

  14. Learning from Top-Performing Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Paul L.

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates five criteria that can be used to identify the "best" managers in any organization: business results, employee attitudes, peer confirmation, upper-level manager appraisal, and customer satisfaction. Examines what top-performing managers say and do, and concludes that their thinking processes and their specific sets of skills…

  15. Top Tips for Buying Telecommunication Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    Examines top regulatory issues and other unique issues resulting from this regulatory overlay when negotiating for corporate telecom services. Issues cover such topics as tariffs, rate negotiation, exclusivity provisions, revenue commitments, mid-term negotiations, service-level agreements, and dispute resolution. (GR)

  16. Green Power Partnership Top 30 College & University

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. The Top 30 College & University list details the largest higher ed green power users in GPP.

  17. Top Four Trends in Student Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weathers, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The modern student information systems (SIS) is a powerful administrative tool with robust functionality. As such, it is essential that school and district administrators consider the top trends in modern student information systems before going forward with system upgrades or new purchases. These trends, described herein, are: (1) Support for…

  18. Hurdles Ahead in "Race to Top"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    As states scramble to spend and report on millions of dollars of education stimulus funds already flowing their way, they face another daunting task if they want a shot at even more money: navigating the complex application process for $4 billion from the Race to the Top Fund. Merely filling out the award application will take each state 642…

  19. Solution-processed transparent blue organic light-emitting diodes with graphene as the top cathode

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jung-Hung; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Wang, Po-Chuan; Taur, Jieh-I; Ku, Ting-An; Chen, Wei-Ting; Yan, Shiang-Jiuan; Wu, Chih-I

    2015-01-01

    Graphene thin films have great potential to function as transparent electrodes in organic electronic devices, due to their excellent conductivity and high transparency. Recently, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)have been successfully demonstrated to possess high luminous efficiencies with p-doped graphene anodes. However, reliable methods to fabricate n-doped graphene cathodes have been lacking, which would limit the application of graphene in flexible electronics. In this paper, we demonstrate fully solution-processed OLEDs with n-type doped multilayer graphene as the top electrode. The work function and sheet resistance of graphene are modified by an aqueous process which can also transfer graphene on organic devices as the top electrodes. With n-doped graphene layers used as the top cathode, all-solution processed transparent OLEDs can be fabricated without any vacuum process. PMID:25892370

  20. Top-tagging at the energy frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhenyu; Son, Minho; Tweedie, Brock

    2018-02-01

    At proposed future hadron colliders and in the coming years at the LHC, top quarks will be produced at genuinely multi-TeV energies. Top-tagging at such high energies forces us to confront several new issues in terms of detector capabilities and jet physics. Here, we explore these issues in the context of some simple JHU/CMS-type declustering algorithms and the N -subjettiness jet-shape variable τ32. We first highlight the complementarity between the two tagging approaches at particle level with respect to discriminating top-jets against gluons and quarks, using multivariate optimization scans. We then introduce a basic fast detector simulation, including electromagnetic calorimeter showering patterns determined from GEANT. We consider a number of tricks for processing the fast detector output back to an approximate particle-level picture. Re-optimizing the tagger parameters, we demonstrate that the inevitable losses in discrimination power at very high energies can typically be ameliorated. For example, percent-scale mistag rates might be maintained even in extreme cases where an entire top decay would sit inside of one hadronic calorimeter cell and tracking information is completely absent. We then study three novel physics effects that will come up in the multi-TeV energy regime: gluon radiation off of boosted top quarks, mistags originating from g →t t ¯ , and mistags originating from q →(W /Z )q collinear electroweak splittings with subsequent hadronic decays. The first effect, while nominally a nuisance, can actually be harnessed to slightly improve discrimination against gluons. The second effect can lead to effective O (1 ) enhancements of gluon mistag rates for tight working points. And the third effect, while conceptually interesting, we show to be of highly subleading importance at all energies.

  1. Mixing Of Mode Symmetries In Top Gated Bilayer And Multilayer Graphene Field Effect Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Biswanath; Das, Anindya; Sood, A. K.

    2011-07-15

    We report Raman study to investigate the influence of stacking on the inversion symmetry breaking in top gated bi- and multi-layer ({approx}10 layers) graphene field effect transistors. The G phonon mode splits into a low frequency (G{sub low}) and a high frequency (G{sub high}) mode in bi- and multi-layer graphene and the two modes show different dependence on doping. The mode splitting is explained in terms of mixing of zone-center in-plane optical phonons representing in-phase and out-of-phase inter-layer atomic motions. Unlike in bilayer graphene, there is no transfer of intensity from G{sub low} to G{sub high} in multilayer graphene. Amore » comparison is made for the bilayer graphene data with the recent theory of Gava et al. [Phys. Rev. B 80, 155422 (2009)].« less

  2. Phase portrait analysis of super solitary waves and flat top solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffy, S. V.; Ghosh, S. S.

    2018-06-01

    The phase portrait analysis of super solitary waves has revealed a new kind of intermediate solution which defines the boundary between the two types of super solitary waves, viz., Type I and Type II. A Type I super solitary wave is known to be associated with an intermediate double layer while a Type II solution has no such association. The intermediate solution at the boundary has a flat top structure and is called a flat top solitary wave. Its characteristics resemble an amalgamation of a solitary wave and a double layer. It was found that, mathematically, such kinds of structures may emerge due to the presence of an extra nonlinearity. Although they are relatively unfamiliar in the realm of plasma physics, they have much wider applications in other physical systems.

  3. Laminated metal composite formed from low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers using flow constraining elements and making same

    DOEpatents

    Syn, C.K.; Lesuer, D.R.

    1995-07-04

    A laminated metal composite of low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers is described which is formed using flow constraining elements, preferably in the shape of rings, individually placed around each of the low flow stress layers while pressure is applied to the stack to bond the layers of the composite together, to thereby restrain the flow of the low flow stress layers from the stack during the bonding. The laminated metal composite of the invention is made by the steps of forming a stack of alternate layers of low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers with each layer of low flow stress material surrounded by an individual flow constraining element, such as a ring, and then applying pressure to the top and bottom surfaces of the resulting stack to bond the dissimilar layers together, for example, by compression rolling the stack. In a preferred embodiment, the individual flow constraining elements surrounding the layers of low flow stress material are formed of a material which may either be the same material as the material comprising the high flow stress layers, or have similar flow stress characteristics to the material comprising the high flow stress layers. Additional sacrificial layers may be added to the top and bottom of the stack to avoid damage to the stack during the bonding step; and these additional layers may then be removed after the bonding step. 5 figs.

  4. Laminated metal composite formed from low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers using flow constraining elements and making same

    DOEpatents

    Syn, Chol K.; Lesuer, Donald R.

    1995-01-01

    A laminated metal composite of low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers is described which is formed using flow constraining elements, preferably in the shape of rings, individually placed around each of the low flow stress layers while pressure is applied to the stack to bond the layers of the composite together, to thereby restrain the flow of the low flow stress layers from the stack during the bonding. The laminated metal composite of the invention is made by the steps of forming a stack of alternate layers of low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers with each layer of low flow stress material surrounded by an individual flow constraining element, such as a ring, and then applying pressure to the top and bottom surfaces of the resulting stack to bond the dissimilar layers together, for example, by compression rolling the stack. In a preferred embodiment, the individual flow constraining elements surrounding the layers of low flow stress material are formed of a material which may either be the same material as the material comprising the high flow stress layers, or have similar flow stress characteristics to the material comprising the high flow stress layers. Additional sacrificial layers may be added to the top and bottom of the stack to avoid damage to the stack during the bonding step; and these additional layers may then be removed after the bonding step.

  5. Innovation in Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Joseph J; Cui, Jiwei; Björnmalm, Mattias; Braunger, Julia A; Ejima, Hirotaka; Caruso, Frank

    2016-12-14

    Methods for depositing thin films are important in generating functional materials for diverse applications in a wide variety of fields. Over the last half-century, the layer-by-layer assembly of nanoscale films has received intense and growing interest. This has been fueled by innovation in the available materials and assembly technologies, as well as the film-characterization techniques. In this Review, we explore, discuss, and detail innovation in layer-by-layer assembly in terms of past and present developments, and we highlight how these might guide future advances. A particular focus is on conventional and early developments that have only recently regained interest in the layer-by-layer assembly field. We then review unconventional assemblies and approaches that have been gaining popularity, which include inorganic/organic hybrid materials, cells and tissues, and the use of stereocomplexation, patterning, and dip-pen lithography, to name a few. A relatively recent development is the use of layer-by-layer assembly materials and techniques to assemble films in a single continuous step. We name this "quasi"-layer-by-layer assembly and discuss the impacts and innovations surrounding this approach. Finally, the application of characterization methods to monitor and evaluate layer-by-layer assembly is discussed, as innovation in this area is often overlooked but is essential for development of the field. While we intend for this Review to be easily accessible and act as a guide to researchers new to layer-by-layer assembly, we also believe it will provide insight to current researchers in the field and help guide future developments and innovation.

  6. Surface plasmon optical sensor with enhanced sensitivity using top ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ming; Li, Ge; Jiang, Dongmei; Cheng, Wenjuan; Ma, Xueming

    2012-05-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is one of the most sensitive label-free detection methods and has been used in a wide range of chemical and biochemical sensing. Upon using a 200 nm top layer of dielectric film with a high value of the real part ɛ' of the dielectric function, on top of an SPR sensor in the Kretschmann configuration, the sensitivity is improved. The refractive index effect of dielectric film on sensitivity is usually ignored. Dielectric films with different refractive indices were prepared by radio frequency magnetron (RF) sputtering and measured with spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The imaginary part ɛ'' of the top nanolayer permittivity needs to be small enough in order to reduce the losses and get sharper dips. The stability of the sensor is also improved because the nanolayer is protecting the Ag film from interacting with the environment. The response curves of the Ag/ZnO chips were obtained by using SPR sensor. Theoretical analysis of the sensitivity of the SPR sensors with different ZnO film refractive indices is presented and studied. Both experimental and simulation results show that the Ag/ZnO films exhibit an enhanced SPR over the pure Ag film with a narrower full width at half maximum (FWHM). It shows that the top ZnO layer is effective in enhancing the surface plasmon resonance and thus its sensitivity.

  7. Effect of top gate potential on bias-stress for dual gate amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Minkyu; Um, Jae Gwang; Park, Min Sang

    We report the abnormal behavior of the threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) shift under positive bias Temperature stress (PBTS) and negative bias temperature stress (NBTS) at top/bottom gate in dual gate amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). It is found that the PBTS at top gate shows negative transfer shift and NBTS shows positive transfer shift for both top and bottom gate sweep. The shift of bottom/top gate sweep is dominated by top gate bias (V{sub TG}), while bottom gate bias (V{sub BG}) is less effect than V{sub TG}. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profile provides the evidence of Inmore » metal diffusion to the top SiO{sub 2}/a-IGZO and also the existence of large amount of In{sup +} under positive top gate bias around top interfaces, thus negative transfer shift is observed. On the other hand, the formation of OH{sup −} at top interfaces under the stress of negative top gate bias shows negative transfer shift. The domination of V{sub TG} both on bottom/top gate sweep after PBTS/NBTS is obviously occurred due to thin active layer.« less

  8. PREFACE: 5th International Workshop on Top Quark Physics (TOP2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamanna, G.; Boisvert, V.; Cerrito, L.; Khan, A.; Moretti, S.; Owen, M.; Schwanenberger, C.

    2013-07-01

    The 5th International Workshop on Top Quark Physics (TOP 2012) took place in Winchester, UK, from the 16-21 September. It gathered students as well as people active in the top quark sector and provided a framework to highlight the newest results and matters related to top quark physics. Discovered in 1995, the top quark is the sixth and heaviest of all quarks, and it is the only one with a lifetime short enough to be observed 'naked'. This makes it an important testing ground in the search for new physics. In fact, the fact of its mass being so much larger than the other quarks, hints at its special role in the Higgs mechanism. For the same reason, in many models of New Physics, new heavy resonances are expected to couple mostly with top quarks. Even if no new particles are observed, the direct correlation between its angular momentum and that of its detectable decay products allows us to probe indirectly New Physics in action when top quarks are created. In this edition of the TOP conference series, for the first time, the agenda was equally balanced between 'traditional' measurements and the now vast number of searches for physics BSM in the top quark sector, thanks mostly to the amount of data collected at the LHC in its Run I. New results were presented by both the Tevatron and the LHC collaborations: improved ttbar and single top cross-section measurements, refined techniques to measure the top quark mass and a large number of results on properties such as spin correlation and W boson polarization in top quark decays were shown. More technical discussions on the experimental issues, both from the detector and the simulation side also took place, drawing together experimentalists and theorists. Reviews of the latest results on ttbar asymmetry both from CDF and D0 and from ATLAS and CMS were shown, and theorists active in the field made some interesting points on this hot topic. Additionally, results on the search for fourth generation fermions and new

  9. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack

    2003-06-23

    21st Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.;&BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 21st edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 23, 2003). The Earth Simulator supercomputer built by NEC and installed last year at the Earth Simulator Center in Yokohama, Japan, with its Linpack benchmark performance of 35.86 Tflop/s (teraflops or trillions of calculations per second), retains the number one position. The number 2 position is held by the re-measured ASCI Q system at Los Alamosmore » National Laboratory. With 13.88 Tflop/s, it is the second system ever to exceed the 10 Tflop/smark. ASCIQ was built by Hewlett-Packard and is based on the AlphaServerSC computer system.« less

  10. IceTop tank response to muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirörs, L.; Beimforde, M.; Eisch, J.; Madsen, J.; Niessen, P.; Spiczak, G.M.; Stoyanov, S.; Tilav, S

    The calibration of the surface air shower array of IceCube - IceTop is based on identifying and understanding the muon response of each IceTop tank. Special calibration runs are carried out throughout the year and are supplemented with austral season measurements with tagging telescope for vertical muons. The vertical equivalent muon (VEM) charge value of each tank is determined and monitored by keeping track of its variation with time and temperature. We also study muons that stop and decay in the tank. The energy spectrum of the electrons from muon decay (Michel spectrum) is well known with maximum energy of 53 MeV. This energy is usually deposited inside the tank and can also be used as a calibration tool. We use both these spectra and compare them to a Monte Carlo simulation to gain a better understanding of the tank properties.

  11. The fully differential top decay distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Boudreau, J.; Escobar, C.

    We write down the four-dimensional fully differential decay distribution for the top quark decay t → Wb → ℓνb. We discuss how its eight physical parameters can be measured, either with a global fit or with the use of selected one-dimensional distributions and asymmetries. We give expressions for the top decay amplitudes for a general tbW interaction, and show how the untangled measurement of the two components of the fraction of longitudinal W bosons – those with b quark helicities of 1/2 and –1/2, respectively – could improve the precision of a global fit to the tbW vertex.

  12. The fully differential top decay distribution

    DOE PAGES

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Boudreau, J.; Escobar, C.; ...

    2017-03-29

    We write down the four-dimensional fully differential decay distribution for the top quark decay t → Wb → ℓνb. We discuss how its eight physical parameters can be measured, either with a global fit or with the use of selected one-dimensional distributions and asymmetries. We give expressions for the top decay amplitudes for a general tbW interaction, and show how the untangled measurement of the two components of the fraction of longitudinal W bosons – those with b quark helicities of 1/2 and –1/2, respectively – could improve the precision of a global fit to the tbW vertex.

  13. Top-down visual search in Wimmelbild

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergbauer, Julia; Tari, Sibel

    2013-03-01

    Wimmelbild which means "teeming figure picture" is a popular genre of visual puzzles. Abundant masses of small figures are brought together in complex arrangements to make one scene in a Wimmelbild. It is picture hunt game. We discuss what type of computations/processes could possibly underlie the solution of the discovery of figures that are hidden due to a distractive influence of the context. One thing for sure is that the processes are unlikely to be purely bottom-up. One possibility is to re-arrange parts and see what happens. As this idea is linked to creativity, there are abundant examples of unconventional part re-organization in modern art. A second possibility is to define what to look for. That is to formulate the search as a top-down process. We address top-down visual search in Wimmelbild with the help of diffuse distance and curvature coding fields.

  14. The heavy top quark and supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Three aspects of supersymmetric theories are discussed: electroweak symmetry breaking, the issues of flavor, and gauge unification. The heavy top quark plays an important, sometimes dominant, role in each case. Additional symmetries lead to extensions of the Standard Model which can provide an understanding for many of the outstanding problems of particle physics. A broken supersymmetric extension of spacetime allows electroweak symmetry breaking to follow from the dynamics of the heavy top quark; an extension of isospin provides a constrained framework for understanding the pattern of quark and lepton masses; and a grand unified extension of the Standard Model gaugemore » group provides an elegant understanding of the gauge quantum numbers of the components of a generation. Experimental signatures for each of these additional symmetries are discussed.« less

  15. Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Tae Lim, Jong; Lee, Hyunkoo; Cho, Hyunsu; Kwon, Byoung-Hwa; Sung Cho, Nam; Kuk Lee, Bong; Park, Jonghyurk; Kim, Jaesu; Han, Jun-Han; Yang, Jong-Heon; Yu, Byoung-Gon; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Chu Lim, Seong; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has attracted considerable attention as a next-generation transparent conducting electrode, because of its high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Various optoelectronic devices comprising graphene as a bottom electrode, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaics, quantum-dot LEDs, and light-emitting electrochemical cells, have recently been reported. However, performance of optoelectronic devices using graphene as top electrodes is limited, because the lamination process through which graphene is positioned as the top layer of these conventional OLEDs is a lack of control in the surface roughness, the gapless contact, and the flexion bonding between graphene and organic layer of the device. Here, a multilayered graphene (MLG) as a top electrode is successfully implanted, via dry bonding, onto the top organic layer of transparent OLED (TOLED) with flexion patterns. The performance of the TOLED with MLG electrode is comparable to that of a conventional TOLED with a semi-transparent thin-Ag top electrode, because the MLG electrode makes a contact with the TOLED with no residue. In addition, we successfully fabricate a large-size transparent segment panel using the developed MLG electrode. Therefore, we believe that the flexion bonding technology presented in this work is applicable to various optoelectronic devices. PMID:26626439

  16. A Search for new particles decaying into top quark anti-top quark pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Cassada, Josh Aaron

    2000-01-01

    We use 106 pb -1 of data collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab to search for narrow-width particles decaying to a top and an anti-top quark. We measure the tmore » $$\\bar{t}$$ invariant mass distribution by requiring that either t or $$\\bar{t}$$ decays semileptonically to an electron or muon and the other decays hadronically.« less

  17. The top 50 cited articles on chordomas.

    PubMed

    Ikpeze, Tochukwu; Mesfin, Addisu

    2018-03-01

    Chordomas are rare malignant primary tumors of the spine. In the mobile spine and sacrum an en-bloc resection is associated with decreased rates of recurrence. Our objective was to identify the top cited articles in chordoma research and to further analyze characteristics of these articles. In March 2017, we used ISI Web of Science (v5.11, Thomas Reuter, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA) to search for the following key word: "chordoma". Articles were searched from 1900 to 2017. Articles were ranked based on number of citations. The results were evaluated to determine articles most clinically relevant to the management of chordomas. The top 50 articles that met the search criteria were further characterized on the basis of: title, author, citation density, journal of publication, year (and decade) of publication, institution and country of origin and paper topic. A total of 1,043 articles matched the search criteria. The most influential 50 articles were cited 65 to 290 times. The articles were published between 1926 and 2012, and all articles were published in English. Thirty-three publications (66%) originated from the United States and seven (14%) from Italy. Cancer accounted for the most frequent (n=9) destination journal followed by Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (n=4). A total of 41 institutions contributed to the top 50 articles. The most common article types were: clinical 44% (n=22), papers that combined clinical and pathology findings 18% (n=9) and basic science research 14% (n=7). The top 50 cited articles on chordomas are predominantly clinical papers, arising from the United States and most frequently published in Cancer and Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery .

  18. The Top 10 Lists of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents lists of the top ten schools with most students, largest enrollment, and other categories for 2011 in the U.S. The school districts with most student for 2010-2011 are New York City with 1,043,886 followed by Los Angeles with 667,251, Chicago with 403,770 and down to the 10th spot Orange County (Fla.) with 175,986. The…

  19. Explaining Meiji Japans Top Down Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-01

    enabled Japan to become a great power also provides insights into how Japan became what it is today—an economically strong but militarily weak country...top- down nature of the Japanese revolution allowed for effective decision-making that centralized domestic politics and boosted economic ...other road focuses on changes made to compete with the West in the economic and military realm. Since Meiji Japan began in reaction to hostile Western

  20. Boosted dibosons from mixed heavy top squarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Diptimoy

    2013-12-01

    The lighter mass eigenstate (t˜1) of the two top squarks, the scalar superpartners of the top quark, is extremely difficult to discover if it is almost degenerate with the lightest neutralino (χ˜10), the lightest stable supersymmetric particle in the R-parity conserving supersymmetry. The current experimental bound on t˜1 mass in this scenario stands only around 200 GeV. For such a light t˜1, the heavier top squark (t˜2) can also be around the TeV scale. Moreover, the high value of the Higgs (h) mass prefers the left- and right-handed top squarks to be highly mixed, allowing the possibility of a considerable branching ratio for t˜2→t˜1h and t˜2→t˜1Z. In this paper, we explore the above possibility together with the pair production of t˜2 t˜2*, giving rise to the spectacular diboson+missing transverse energy final state. For an approximately 1 TeV t˜2 and a few hundred GeV t˜1 the final state particles can be moderately boosted, which encourages us to propose a novel search strategy employing the jet substructure technique to tag the boosted h and Z. The reconstruction of the h and Z momenta also allows us to construct the stransverse mass MT2, providing an additional efficient handle to fight the backgrounds. We show that a 4-5σ signal can be observed at the 14 TeV LHC for ˜1TeV t˜2 with 100fb-1 integrated luminosity.

  1. Planetary Boundary Layer from AERI and MPL

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sawyer, Virginia

    2014-02-13

    The distribution and transport of aerosol emitted to the lower troposphere is governed by the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which limits the dilution of pollutants and influences boundary-layer convection. Because radiative heating and cooling of the surface strongly affect the PBL top height, it follows diurnal and seasonal cycles and may vary by hundreds of meters over a 24-hour period. The cap the PBL imposes on low-level aerosol transport makes aerosol concentration an effective proxy for PBL height: the top of the PBL is marked by a rapid transition from polluted, well-mixed boundary-layer air to the cleaner, more stratified free troposphere. Micropulse lidar (MPL) can provide much higher temporal resolution than radiosonde and better vertical resolution than infrared spectrometer (AERI), but PBL heights from all three instruments at the ARM SGP site are compared to one another for validation. If there is agreement among them, the higher-resolution remote sensing-derived PBL heights can accurately fill in the gaps left by the low frequency of radiosonde launches, and thus improve model parameterizations and our understanding of boundary-layer processes.

  2. Single top quark photoproduction at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Favereau de Jeneret, J.; Ovyn, S.

    2008-08-01

    High-energy photon-proton interactions at the LHC offer interesting possibilities for the study of the electroweak sector up to TeV scale and searches for processes beyond the Standard Model. An analysis of the W associated single top photoproduction has been performed using the adapted MadGraph/MadEvent [F. Maltoni and T. Stelzer, JHEP 0302, (2003) 027; T. Stelzer and W.F. Long, Phys. Commun. 81, (1994) 357-371] and CalcHEP [A. Pukhov, Nucl. Inst. Meth A 502, (2003) 596-598] programs interfaced to the Pythia [T. Sjöstrand et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 135, (2001) 238] generator and a fast detector simulation program. Event selection and suppression of main backgrounds have been studied. A comparable sensitivity to |V| to those obtained using the standard single top production in pp collisions has been achieved already for 10 fb of integrated luminosity. Photoproduction at the LHC provides also an attractive framework for observation of the anomalous production of single top due to Flavour-Changing Neutral Currents. The sensitivity to anomalous coupling parameters, k and k is presented and indicates that stronger limits can be placed on anomalous couplings after 1 fb.

  3. Dark decay of the top quark

    DOE PAGES

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Lee, Hye -Sung; Park, Myeonghun

    2014-04-01

    We suggest top quark decays as a venue to search for light dark force carriers. Top quark is the heaviest particle in the standard model whose decays are relatively poorly measured, allowing sufficient room for exotic decay modes from new physics. A very light (GeV scale) dark gauge boson (Z') is a recently highlighted hypothetical particle that can address some astrophysical anomalies as well as the 3.6 σ deviation in the muon g-2 measurement. We present and study a possible scenario that top quark decays as t → b W + Z's. This is the same as the dominant topmore » quark decay (t → b W) accompanied by one or multiple dark force carriers. The Z' can be easily boosted, and it can decay into highly collimated leptons (lepton-jet) with large branching ratio. In addition, we discuss the implications for the Large Hadron Collider experiments including the analysis based on the lepton-jets.« less

  4. TOP500 Sublist for November 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack J.

    2001-11-09

    18th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, GERMANY; KNOXVILLE, TENN.; BERKELEY, CALIF. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 18th edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (November 9, 2001). The latest edition of the twice-yearly ranking finds IBM as the leader in the field, with 32 percent in terms of installed systems and 37 percent in terms of total performance of all the installed systems. In a surprise move Hewlett-Packard captured the second place with 30 percent of the systems. Most ofmore » these systems are smaller in size and as a consequence HP's share of installed performance is smaller with 15 percent. This is still enough for second place in this category. SGI, Cray and Sun follow in the number of TOP500 systems with 41 (8 percent), 39 (8 percent), and 31 (6 percent) respectively. In the category of installed performance Cray Inc. keeps the third position with 11 percent ahead of SGI (8 percent) and Compaq (8 percent).« less

  5. The top 100 cited neurorehabilitation papers.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, Jeffrey S; Agyemang, Amma A; Weedon, David; Zasler, Nathan; Oliver, Melissa; Sorensen, Aaron A; van Wijngaarden, Saskia; Leahy, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    Neurorehabilitation covers a large range of disorders, assessment approaches and treatment methods. There have been previous citation analyses of rehabilitation and of its subfields. However, there has never been a comprehensive citation analysis in neurorehabilitation. The present study reports findings from a citation analysis of the top 100 most cited neurorehabilitation papers to describe the research trends in the field. A de-novo keyword search of papers indexed in the Web of Science Core Collection database yielded 52,581 papers. A candidate pool of the 200 most-cited papers published between 2005 and 2016 was reviewed by the clinician authors. The papers in the top 100 deemed to be irrelevant were discarded and replaced by the most highly-cited articles in the second tier deemed to be clinically relevant. The most frequently cited neurorehablitation papers appeared in Stroke, Movement Disorders, and Neurology. Papers tended to focus on treatments, especially for stroke. Authorship trends suggest that top cited papers result from group endeavors, with 90% of the papers involving a collaboration among 3 or more authors. Treatment studies, often focused on stroke, appear to have the highest impact in the field of neurorehabilitation.

  6. Tracking down hyper-boosted top quarks

    DOE PAGES

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Maltoni, Fabio; Selvaggi, Michele

    2015-06-05

    The identification of hadronically decaying heavy states, such as vector bosons, the Higgs, or the top quark, produced with large transverse boosts has been and will continue to be a central focus of the jet physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At a future hadron collider working at an order-of-magnitude larger energy than the LHC, these heavy states would be easily produced with transverse boosts of several TeV. At these energies, their decay products will be separated by angular scales comparable to individual calorimeter cells, making the current jet substructure identification techniques for hadronic decay modes not directlymore » employable. In addition, at the high energy and luminosity projected at a future hadron collider, there will be numerous sources for contamination including initial- and final-state radiation, underlying event, or pile-up which must be mitigated. We propose a simple strategy to tag such "hyper-boosted" objects that defines jets with radii that scale inversely proportional to their transverse boost and combines the standard calorimetric information with charged track-based observables. By means of a fast detector simulation, we apply it to top quark identification and demonstrate that our method efficiently discriminates hadronically decaying top quarks from light QCD jets up to transverse boosts of 20 TeV. Lastly, our results open the way to tagging heavy objects with energies in the multi-TeV range at present and future hadron colliders.« less

  7. Stable Low-Voltage Operation Top-Gate Organic Field-Effect Transistors on Cellulose Nanocrystal Substrates

    Treesearch

    Cheng-Yin Wang; Canek Fuentes-Hernandez; Jen-Chieh Liu; Amir Dindar; Sangmoo Choi; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; Robert J. Moon; Bernard Kippelen

    2015-01-01

    We report on the performance and the characterization of top-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), comprising a bilayer gate dielectric of CYTOP/ Al2O3 and a solution-processed semiconductor layer made of a blend of TIPS-pentacene:PTAA, fabricated on recyclable cellulose nanocrystal−glycerol (CNC/glycerol...

  8. Ballistic Impact Resistance of Multi-Layer Textile Fabrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    REBOT (NNOLA, NVAR). the first array contains the vector of forces externally applied to the ’ top surface of the layer under consideration, while the...array REBOT (NNOLA, NVAR) contains the forces externally applied to the lower surface of the array. Initially all the elements of each of the two arrays...Qodes in a layer, the contents of array REBOT are now replaced with those of array RETOP in preparation for the repetition of the same calculations for

  9. Phase-resolved reflectance spectroscopy on layered turbid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Liu, Hanli; Chance, Britton; Tittel, Frank K.; Jacques, Steven L.

    1995-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the influence of layered tissue structures on the phase-resolved reflectance. As a particular example, we consider the affect of the skin, skull, and meninges on noninvasive blood oxygenation determination of the brain. In this case, it's important to know how accurate one can measure the absorption coefficient of the brain through the enclosing layers of different tissues. Experiments were performed on layered gelatin tissue phantoms and the results compared to diffusion theory. It is shown that when a high absorbing medium is placed on top of a low absorbing medium, the absorption coefficient of the lower layer is accessible. In the inverse case, where a low absorbing medium is placed on top of a high absorbing medium, the absorption coefficient of the underlying medium can only be determined if the differences in the absorption coefficient are small, or the top layer is very thin. Investigations on almost absorption and scattering free layers, like the cerebral fluid filled arachnoid, reveal that the determination of the absorption coefficient is barely affected by these kinds of structures.

  10. Synchronization of coupled metronomes on two layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Yu, Yi-Zhen; Wang, Xin-Gang

    2017-12-01

    Coupled metronomes serve as a paradigmatic model for exploring the collective behaviors of complex dynamical systems, as well as a classical setup for classroom demonstrations of synchronization phenomena. Whereas previous studies of metronome synchronization have been concentrating on symmetric coupling schemes, here we consider the asymmetric case by adopting the scheme of layered metronomes. Specifically, we place two metronomes on each layer, and couple two layers by placing one on top of the other. By varying the initial conditions of the metronomes and adjusting the friction between the two layers, a variety of synchronous patterns are observed in experiment, including the splay synchronization (SS) state, the generalized splay synchronization (GSS) state, the anti-phase synchronization (APS) state, the in-phase delay synchronization (IPDS) state, and the in-phase synchronization (IPS) state. In particular, the IPDS state, in which the metronomes on each layer are synchronized in phase but are of a constant phase delay to metronomes on the other layer, is observed for the first time. In addition, a new technique based on audio signals is proposed for pattern detection, which is more convenient and easier to apply than the existing acquisition techniques. Furthermore, a theoretical model is developed to explain the experimental observations, and is employed to explore the dynamical properties of the patterns, including the basin distributions and the pattern transitions. Our study sheds new lights on the collective behaviors of coupled metronomes, and the developed setup can be used in the classroom for demonstration purposes.

  11. Spectacular Layers Exposed in Becquerel Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Toward the end of its Primary Mapping Mission, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) acquired one of its most spectacular pictures of layered sedimentary rock exposed within the ancient crater Becquerel. Pictures such as this one from January 25, 2001, underscore the fact that you never know from one day to the next what the next MOC images will uncover. While the Primary Mission ends January 31, 2001, thousands of new pictures--revealing as-yet-unseen terrain on the red planet--may be obtained during the Extended Mission phase, scheduled to run through at least April 2002.

    The picture shown here reveals hundreds of light-toned layers in the 167 kilometers (104 miles) wide basin named for 19th Century French physicist Antoine H. Becquerel (1852-1908). These layers are interpreted to be sedimentary rocks deposited in the crater at some time in the distant past. They have since been eroded and exposed, revealing faults, dark layers between the bright layers, and a long geologic history (of unknown duration) recorded in these materials. Sets of parallel faults can be seen cutting across the layers in the left third of the image. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the top/upper right.

  12. The race to decipher the top secrets of TOP mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Meyuhas, Oded; Kahan, Tamar

    2015-07-01

    Cells encountering hostile growth conditions, like those residing in the middle of a newly developing solid tumor, conserve resources and energy by downregulating protein synthesis. One mechanism in this response is the translational repression of multiple mRNAs that encode components of the translational apparatus. This coordinated translational control is carried through a common cis-regulatory element, the 5' Terminal OligoPyrimidine motif (5'TOP), after which these mRNAs are referred to as TOP mRNAs. Subsequent to the initial structural and functional characterization of members of this family, the research of TOP mRNAs has progressed in three major directions: a) delineating the landscape of the family; b) establishing the pathways that transduce stress cues into selective translational repression; and c) attempting to decipher the most proximal trans-acting factor(s) and defining its mode of action--a repressor or activator. The present chapter critically reviews the development in these three avenues of research with a special emphasis on the two "top secrets" of the TOP mRNA family: the scope of its members and the identity of the proximal cellular regulator(s). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translation and Cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Accelerating monoenergetic protons from ultrathin foils by flat-top laser pulses in the directed-Coulomb-explosion regime

    PubMed Central

    Bulanov, S. S.; Brantov, A.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Chvykov, V.; Kalinchenko, G.; Matsuoka, T.; Rousseau, P.; Reed, S.; Yanovsky, V.; Litzenberg, D. W.; Krushelnick, K.; Maksimchuk, A.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the effect of laser beam shaping on proton acceleration in the interaction of a tightly focused pulse with ultrathin double-layer solid targets in the regime of directed Coulomb explosion. In this regime, the heavy ions of the front layer are forced by the laser to expand predominantly in the direction of the pulse propagation, forming a moving longitudinal charge separation electric field, thus increasing the effectiveness of acceleration of second-layer protons. The utilization of beam shaping, namely, the use of flat-top beams, leads to more efficient proton acceleration due to the increase of the longitudinal field. PMID:18850951

  14. Top-down Approach for the Direct Synthesis, Patterning, and Operation of Artificial Micromuscles on Flexible Substrates.

    PubMed

    Maziz, Ali; Plesse, Cédric; Soyer, Caroline; Cattan, Eric; Vidal, Frédéric

    2016-01-27

    Recent progress in the field of microsystems on flexible substrates raises the need for alternatives to the stiffness of classical actuation technologies. This paper reports a top-down process to microfabricate soft conducting polymer actuators on substrates on which they ultimately operate. The bending microactuators were fabricated by sequentially stacking layers using a layer polymerization by layer polymerization of conducting polymer electrodes and a solid polymer electrolyte. Standalone microbeams thinner than 10 μm were fabricated on SU-8 substrates associated with a bottom gold electrical contact. The operation of microactuators was demonstrated in air and at low voltage (±4 V).

  15. Altmetric: Top 50 dental articles in 2014.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, J; Khazaei, S

    2016-06-10

    Introduction Altmetrics is a new and emerging scholarly tool that measures online attention surrounding journal articles. Altmetric data resources include: policy documents, news outlets, blogs, online reference managers (eg Mendeley and CiteULike), post-publication peer-review forums (eg PubPeer and Publons), social media (eg Twitter, Facebook, Weibo, Google(+), Pinterest, Reddit), Wikipedia, sites running Stack Exchange (Q&A), and reviews on F1000 and YouTube.Methods To identify the top 50 dental articles in 2014, PubMed was searched using the following query "("2014/1/1"[PDAT]:"2014/12/31"[PDAT]) and jsubsetd[text]" in December, 2015. Consequently, all PubMed records were extracted and sent to Altmetric LLP (London, UK) as a CSV file for examination. Data were analysed by Microsoft Office Excel 2010 using descriptive statistics and charts.Results Using PubMed searches,15,132 dental articles were found in 2014. The mean Altmetric score of 50 top dental articles in 2014 was 69.5 ± 73.3 (95% CI: -74.14 to 213.14). The British Dental Journal (48%) and Journal of Dental Research (16%) had the maximum number of top articles. Twitter (67.13%), Mendeley (15.89%) and news outlets (10.92%) were the most popular altmetric data resources.Discussion Altmetrics are intended to supplement bibliometrics, not replace them. Altmetrics is a fresh and emerging arena for the dental research community. We believe that dental clinical practitioners, research scientists, research directors and journal editors must pay more attention to altmetrics as a new and rapid tool to measure the social impact of scholarly articles.

  16. The new road to the top.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Peter; Hamori, Monika

    2005-01-01

    By comparing the top executives of 1980's Fortune 100 companies with the top brass of firms in the 2001 list, the authors have quantified a transformation that until now has been largely anecdotal. A dramatic shift in executive careers, and in executives themselves, has occurred over the past two decades. Today's Fortune 100 executives are younger, more of them are female, and fewer were educated at elite institutions. They're also making their way to the top more quickly. They're taking fewer jobs along the way, and they increasingly move from one company to the next as their careers unfold. In their wide-ranging analysis,the authors offer a number of insights. For one thing, it has become clear that there are huge advantages to working in a growing firm. For another, the firms that have been big for a long time still provide the most extensive training and development. They also offer relatively long promotion ladders--hence the common wisdom that these "academy companies" are great to have been from. While women were disproportionately scarce among the most senior ranks of executives in 2001, those who arrived got there faster and at a younger age than their male colleagues. Perhaps the career hurdles that women face had blocked all but the most highly qualified female managers, who then proceeded to rise quickly. In the future, a record of good P&L performance may become even more critical to getting hired and advancing in the largest companies. As a result, we may see a reversal of the usual flow of talent, which has been from the academy companies to smaller firms. It may be increasingly common for executives to develop records of performance in small companies, or even as entrepreneurs, and then seek positions in large corporations.

  17. Physical Processes within the Nocturnal Stratus-Topped Boundary Layer. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    applied to PBL parameter- ization by Chatfield and Brost (1987), Randall (1987), Wang and Albrecht (1990), and Randall et al. (1992). One of the closures...mecha- nism. Acknowledgments We thank Joost Businger, Don Lenschow, figa Paluch, Steve Siems, Steve Stage, Roland Stull, and George Young for helpful...Oncley, 1990: Flux measurement with conditional sampling. At- mos. Oceanic Tech., 7, 349-352. Chatfield, R. B., and R. A. Brost , 1987: A two-stream model

  18. Effect of thin oxide layers incorporated in spin valve structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, M. F.; Kuiper, A. E. T.; Leibbrandt, G. W. R.

    2001-06-01

    The enhancement of the magnetoresistance effect, induced by incorporating nano-oxide layers (NOLs) in a bottom-type spin valve, was studied for various preparation conditions. The effect of a NOL in the Co90Fe10 pinned layer was found to depend critically on the oxygen pressure applied to form the thin oxide film. Pressures over 10-3 Torr O2 yield oxides thicker than about 0.7 nm, which apparently deteriorate the biasing field which exists over the oxide. The magnetoresistance values can further be raised by forming a specular reflecting oxide on top of the sense layer. Promising results were obtained with an Al2O3 capping layer formed in a solid-state oxidation reaction that occurs spontaneously when a thin Al layer is deposited on the oxidized surface of the Co90Fe10 sense layer.

  19. Investigation of Tank 241-AW-104 Composite Floating Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Meznarich, H. K.; Bolling, S. D.; Lachut, J. S.

    Seven grab samples and one field blank were taken from Tank 241-AW-104 (AW-104) on June 2, 2017, and received at 222-S Laboratory on June 5, 2017. A visible layer with brown solids was observed floating on the top of two surface tank waste samples (4AW-17-02 and 4AW 17 02DUP). The floating layer from both samples was collected, composited, and submitted for chemical analyses and solid phase characterization in order to understand the composition of the floating layer. Tributyl phosphate and tridecane were higher in the floating layer than in the aqueous phase. Density in the floating layer was slightly lowermore » than the mean density of all grab samples. Sodium nitrate and sodium carbonate were major components with a trace of gibbsite and very small size agglomerates were present in the solids of the floating layer. The supernate consisted of organics, soluble salt, and particulates.« less

  20. Top 10 Replicated Findings from Behavioral Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Plomin, Robert; DeFries, John C.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of current concerns about replication in psychological science, we describe 10 findings from behavioral genetic research that have robustly replicated. These are ‘big’ findings, both in terms of effect size and potential impact on psychological science, such as linearly increasing heritability of intelligence from infancy (20%) through adulthood (60%). Four of our top-10 findings involve the environment, discoveries that could only have been found using genetically sensitive research designs. We also consider reasons specific to behavioral genetics that might explain why these findings replicate. PMID:26817721

  1. A top-face-sway electromagnetic micromotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jingqiu; Le, Zichun; Yao, Jinsong; Wu, Zhiyong; Jia, Hongguang; Wu, Yihui; Jia, Zhi; 1, Qiongying Lu; Xuan, Ming; Wang, Lijun

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, the structure of a top-face-sway electromagnetic micromotor and its principle, fabrication and performance are introduced. A combination of the electromagnetic actuating and the planetary reducing provides this micromotor an advantage of low rotational speed and high torque. In addition, since a flexible coupling absorbs the sway and only outputs rotation, it gives this micromotor a balanced output. The dimension of the micromotor is 5 mm. Its rotation speed has a range of 20 - 860 rpm, and its driving current is 300 mA. The output torque of the micromotor is measured to be 13.0 ?Nm.

  2. Flat-topped broadband rugate filters.

    PubMed

    Imenes, Anne G; McKenzie, David R

    2006-10-20

    A method of creating rugate interference filters that have flat-topped reflectance across an extended spectral region is presented. The method applies known relations from the classical coupled wave theory to develop a set of equations that gives the spatial frequency distribution of rugate cycles to achieve constant reflectance across a given spectral region. Two examples of the application of this method are discussed: a highly reflective coating for eye protection against harmful laser radiation incident from normal to 45 degrees , and a spectral beam splitter for efficient solar power conversion.

  3. Magnetothermoelectric properties of layered structures for ion impurity scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figarova, S. R.; Huseynov, H. I.; Figarov, V. R.

    2018-05-01

    In the paper, longitudinal and transverse thermoelectric powers are considered in a magnetic field parallel to the layer plane for scattering of charge carriers by weakly screened impurity ions. Based on the semiclassical approximation, it is obtained that, depending on the position of the Fermi level relative to the miniband top and superlattice period, the thermoelectric power can change sign and amplify.

  4. A perspective view of the plane mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, J.; Cogollos, M.; Bernal, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the plane mixing layer is constructed by applying digital image processing and computer graphic techniques to laser fluorescent motion pictures of its transversal sections. A system of streamwise vortex pairs is shown to exist on top of the classical spanwise eddies. Its influence on mixing is examined.

  5. Energy dissipation in intercalated carbon nanotube forests with metal layers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests were synthesized to study their quasi-static mechanical properties in a layered configuration with metallization. The top and bottom surfaces of CNT forests were metalized with Ag, Fe, and In using paste, sputtering, and thermal evaporation, respectiv...

  6. Recovery of residue tops in selectively cut northern hardwood stands.

    Treesearch

    James A. Johnson; Rodger A. Arola; Edwin S. Miyata

    1982-01-01

    Tests the feasibility and economics of compacting hardwood tops with a prototype shearing and bunching device prior to skidding. Presents productivity levels and costs associated with compacting, skidding, and chipping hardwood tops.

  7. Top Quark Properties at the TeVatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Yvonne

    2011-03-01

    Discovered in 1995 by CDF and D0 at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, the top quark remains interesting to test the Standard Model. Having collected more than 7 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity with both experiments until today, several top quark properties have been measured with increasing precision, while other properties have been investigated for the first time. In this article recent measurements of top quark properties from CDF and D0 are presented, using between 1 fb{sup -1} and 4.8 fb{sup -1} of data. In particular, the measurement of the top quark mass, the top quark width, the top antitop massmore » difference, a check of the electric charge of the top quark, measurements of the top antitop quark spin correlation and W helicity as well as a search for charged Higgs bosons are discussed.« less

  8. Nanofiber based triple layer hydro-philic/-phobic membrane - a solution for pore wetting in membrane distillation

    PubMed Central

    Prince, J. A.; Rana, D.; Matsuura, T.; Ayyanar, N.; Shanmugasundaram, T. S.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    The innovative design and synthesis of nanofiber based hydro-philic/phobic membranes with a thin hydro-phobic nanofiber layer on the top and a thin hydrophilic nanofiber layer on the bottom of the conventional casted micro-porous layer which opens up a solution for membrane pore wetting and improves the pure water flux in membrane distillation. PMID:25377488

  9. Top quark forward-backward asymmetry and same-sign top quark pairs.

    PubMed

    Berger, Edmond L; Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Chuan-Ren; Li, Chong Sheng; Zhang, Hao

    2011-05-20

    The top quark forward-backward asymmetry measured at the Tevatron collider shows a large deviation from standard model expectations. Among possible interpretations, a nonuniversal Z' model is of particular interest as it naturally predicts a top quark in the forward region of large rapidity. To reproduce the size of the asymmetry, the couplings of the Z' to standard model quarks must be large, inevitably leading to copious production of same-sign top quark pairs at the energies of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We explore the discovery potential for tt and ttj production in early LHC experiments at 7-8 TeV and conclude that if no tt signal is observed with 1 fb⁻¹ of integrated luminosity, then a nonuniversal Z' alone cannot explain the Tevatron forward-backward asymmetry.

  10. Burning Graphene Layer-by-Layer

    PubMed Central

    Ermakov, Victor A.; Alaferdov, Andrei V.; Vaz, Alfredo R.; Perim, Eric; Autreto, Pedro A. S.; Paupitz, Ricardo; Galvao, Douglas S.; Moshkalev, Stanislav A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, in single layer or multi-layer forms, holds great promise for future electronics and high-temperature applications. Resistance to oxidation, an important property for high-temperature applications, has not yet been extensively investigated. Controlled thinning of multi-layer graphene (MLG), e.g., by plasma or laser processing is another challenge, since the existing methods produce non-uniform thinning or introduce undesirable defects in the basal plane. We report here that heating to extremely high temperatures (exceeding 2000 K) and controllable layer-by-layer burning (thinning) can be achieved by low-power laser processing of suspended high-quality MLG in air in “cold-wall” reactor configuration. In contrast, localized laser heating of supported samples results in non-uniform graphene burning at much higher rates. Fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were also performed to reveal details of oxidation mechanisms leading to uniform layer-by-layer graphene gasification. The extraordinary resistance of MLG to oxidation paves the way to novel high-temperature applications as continuum light source or scaffolding material. PMID:26100466

  11. Numerical simulations of the stratified oceanic bottom boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John R.

    Numerical simulations are used to consider several problems relevant to the turbulent oceanic bottom boundary layer. In the first study, stratified open channel flow is considered with thermal boundary conditions chosen to approximate a shallow sea. Specifically, a constant heat flux is applied at the free surface and the lower wall is assumed to be adiabatic. When the surface heat flux is strong, turbulent upwellings of low speed fluid from near the lower wall are inhibited by the stable stratification. Subsequent studies consider a stratified bottom Ekman layer over a non-sloping lower wall. The influence of the free surface is removed by using an open boundary condition at the top of the computational domain. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the outer layer stratification on the boundary layer structure. When the density field is initialized with a linear profile, a turbulent mixed layer forms near the wall, which is separated from the outer layer by a strongly stable pycnocline. It is found that the bottom stress is not strongly affected by the outer layer stratification. However, stratification reduces turbulent transport to the outer layer and strongly limits the boundary layer height. The mean shear at the top of the boundary layer is enhanced when the outer layer is stratified, and this shear is strong enough to cause intermittent instabilities above the pycnocline. Turbulence-generated internal gravity waves are observed in the outer layer with a relatively narrow frequency range. An explanation for frequency content of these waves is proposed, starting with an observed broad-banded turbulent spectrum and invoking linear viscous decay to explain the preferential damping of low and high frequency waves. During the course of this work, an open-source computational fluid dynamics code has been developed with a number of advanced features including scalar advection, subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation, and distributed memory

  12. Top marine predators track Lagrangian coherent structures

    PubMed Central

    Tew Kai, Emilie; Rossi, Vincent; Sudre, Joel; Weimerskirch, Henri; Lopez, Cristobal; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Marsac, Francis; Garçon, Veronique

    2009-01-01

    Meso- and submesoscales (fronts, eddies, filaments) in surface ocean flow have a crucial influence on marine ecosystems. Their dynamics partly control the foraging behavior and the displacement of marine top predators (tuna, birds, turtles, and cetaceans). In this work we focus on the role of submesoscale structures in the Mozambique Channel in the distribution of a marine predator, the Great Frigatebird. Using a newly developed dynamic concept, the finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE), we identified Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) present in the surface flow in the channel over a 2-month observation period (August and September 2003). By comparing seabird satellite positions with LCS locations, we demonstrate that frigatebirds track precisely these structures in the Mozambique Channel, providing the first evidence that a top predator is able to track these FSLE ridges to locate food patches. After comparing bird positions during long and short trips and different parts of these trips, we propose several hypotheses to understand how frigatebirds can follow these LCSs. The birds might use visual and/or olfactory cues and/or atmospheric current changes over the structures to move along these biologic corridors. The birds being often associated with tuna schools around foraging areas, a thorough comprehension of their foraging behavior and movement during the breeding season is crucial not only to seabird ecology but also to an appropriate ecosystemic approach to fisheries in the channel. PMID:19416811

  13. Spin-one top partner: phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Jack H.; Jain, Bithika; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le

    2014-08-01

    Cai, Cheng, and Terning (CCT) suggested a model in which the left-handed top quark is identified with a gaugino of an extended gauge group, and its superpartner is a spin-1 particle. We perform a phenomenological analysis of this model, with a focus on the spin-1 top partner, which we dub the "swan". We find that precision electroweak fits, together with direct searches for Z ' bosons at the LHC, place a lower bound of at least about 4.5 TeV on the swan mass. An even stronger bound, 10 TeV or above, applies in most of the parameter space, mainly due to the fact that the swan is typically predicted to be significantly heavier than the Z '. We find that the 125 GeV Higgs can be easily accommodated in this model with non-decoupling D-terms. In spite of the strong lower bound on the swan mass, we find that corrections to Higgs couplings to photons and gluons induced by swan loops are potentially observable at future Higgs factories. We also briefly discuss the prospects for discovering a swan at the proposed 100 TeV pp collider.

  14. Using Desk-Top Publishing to Develop Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, David; Medwell, Jane

    1989-01-01

    Examines the learning benefits which may accrue from using desk-top publishing techniques with children, especially in terms of the development of literacy skills. Analyzes desk-top publishing as an extension of word processing and describes some ways of using desk-top publishing in the classroom. (RS)

  15. Top Contributors to the School Psychology Literature: 1996-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gabrielle A.; Davis, Kim S.; Zanger, Dinorah; Gerrard-Morris, Aimee; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2006-01-01

    S.G. Little (1997) reported the top contributors to the school psychology literature from 1987 to 1995. The present study represents a follow-up by examining the top contributors from 1996 to 2005. Similar to Little, a list of the top 50 contributors was developed using a point system that assigned more credit based on fewer coauthors and higher…

  16. Basic Ozone Layer Science

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the ozone layer and how human activities deplete it. This page provides information on the chemical processes that lead to ozone layer depletion, and scientists' efforts to understand them.

  17. Colorful Polar Layered Deposits

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-23

    The North Polar layered deposits provide a record of recent climate changes on Mars as seen by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. Color variations between layers are due to differences in composition of the dust.

  18. Remote Sensing of Cloud Top Heights Using the Research Scanning Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, Kenneth; van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Cairns, Brian; Yorks, John; Wasilewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Clouds cover roughly two thirds of the globe and act as an important regulator of Earth's radiation budget. Of these, multilayered clouds occur about half of the time and are predominantly two-layered. Changes in cloud top height (CTH) have been predicted by models to have a globally averaged positive feedback, however observational changes in CTH have shown uncertain results. Additional CTH observations are necessary to better and quantify the effect. Improved CTH observations will also allow for improved sub-grid parameterizations in large-scale models and accurate CTH information is important when studying variations in freezing point and cloud microphysics. NASA's airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) is able to measure cloud top height using a novel multi-angular contrast approach. RSP scans along the aircraft track and obtains measurements at 152 viewing angles at any aircraft location. The approach presented here aggregates measurements from multiple scans to a single location at cloud altitude using a correlation function designed to identify the location-distinct features in each scan. During NASAs SEAC4RS air campaign, the RSP was mounted on the ER-2 aircraft along with the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL), which made simultaneous measurements of CTH. The RSPs unique method of determining CTH is presented. The capabilities of using single and combinations of channels within the approach are investigated. A detailed comparison of RSP retrieved CTHs with those of CPL reveal the accuracy of the approach. Results indicate a strong ability for the RSP to accurately identify cloud heights. Interestingly, the analysis reveals an ability for the approach to identify multiple cloud layers in a single scene and estimate the CTH of each layer. Capabilities and limitations of identifying single and multiple cloud layers heights are explored. Special focus is given to sources of error in the method including optically thin clouds, physically thick clouds, multi-layered

  19. Layered Craters and Icy Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-05

    This highest-resolution image from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft reveals new details of Pluto's rugged, icy cratered plains. Notice the layering in the interior walls of many craters (the large crater at upper right is a good example) -- layers in geology usually mean an important change in composition or event but at the moment New Horizons team members do not know if they are seeing local, regional or global layering. The darker crater in the lower center is apparently younger than the others, because dark material ejected from within -- its "ejecta blanket" -- have not been erased and can still be made out. The origin of the many dark linear features trending roughly vertically in the bottom half of the image is under debate, but may be tectonic. Most of the craters seen here lie within the 155-mile (250-kilometer)-wide Burney Basin, whose outer rim or ring forms the line of hills or low mountains at bottom. The basin is informally named after Venetia Burney, the English schoolgirl who first proposed the name "Pluto" for the newly discovered planet in 1930. The top of the image is to Pluto's northwest. These images were made with the telescopic Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) aboard New Horizons, in a timespan of about a minute centered on 11:36 UT on July 14 -- just about 15 minutes before New Horizons' closest approach to Pluto-- from a range of just 10,000 miles (17,000 kilometers). They were obtained with an unusual observing mode; instead of working in the usual "point and shoot," LORRI snapped pictures every three seconds while the Ralph/Multispectral Visual Imaging Camera (MVIC) aboard New Horizons was scanning the surface. This mode requires unusually short exposures to avoid blurring the images. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20200

  20. Environmental Barrier Coatings Having a YSZ Top Coat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N.; Gray, Hugh (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) with a Si bond coat, a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat, and various intermediate coats were investigated. EBCs were processed by atmospheric pressure plasma spraying. The EBC durability was determined by thermal cycling tests in water vapor at 1300 C and 1400 C, and in air at 1400 C and 1500 C. EBCs with a mullite (3Al2O3 (dot) 2SiO2) + BSAS (1 - xBaO (dot) xSrO (dot) Al2O3 (dot) 2SiO2) intermediate coat were more durable than EBCs with a mullite intermediate coat, while EBCs with a mullite/BSAS duplex intermediate coat resulted in inferior durability. The improvement with a mullite + BSAS intermediate coat was attributed to enhanced compliance of the intermediate coat due to the addition of a low modulus BSAS second phase. Mullite + BSAS/YSZ and BSAS/YSZ interfaces produced a low melting (less than 1400 C) reaction product, which is expected to degrade the EBC performance by increasing the thermal conductivity. EBCs with a mullite + BSAS / graded mullite + YSZ intermediate coat showed the best durability among the EBCs investigated in this study. This improvement was attributed to diffused CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatch stress and improved chemical stability due to the compositionally graded mullite+YSZ layer.

  1. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  2. Photonic layered media

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2002-01-01

    A new class of structured dielectric media which exhibit significant photonic bandstructure has been invented. The new structures, called photonic layered media, are easy to fabricate using existing layer-by-layer growth techniques, and offer the ability to significantly extend our practical ability to tailor the properties of such optical materials.

  3. Top 10% Admissions in the Borderlands: Access and Success of Borderland Top Students at Texas Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on Texas Borderland students admitted through the Texas Top 10% admissions policy, which assumes that Top 10% students are college ready for any public university and provides Top 10% high school graduates automatic admission to any 4-year public university in Texas. Using descriptive and inferential statistics, results…

  4. Linear segmentation algorithm for detecting layer boundary with lidar.

    PubMed

    Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Logan, Timothy

    2013-11-04

    The automatic detection of aerosol- and cloud-layer boundary (base and top) is important in atmospheric lidar data processing, because the boundary information is not only useful for environment and climate studies, but can also be used as input for further data processing. Previous methods have demonstrated limitations in defining the base and top, window-size setting, and have neglected the in-layer attenuation. To overcome these limitations, we present a new layer detection scheme for up-looking lidars based on linear segmentation with a reasonable threshold setting, boundary selecting, and false positive removing strategies. Preliminary results from both real and simulated data show that this algorithm cannot only detect the layer-base as accurate as the simple multi-scale method, but can also detect the layer-top more accurately than that of the simple multi-scale method. Our algorithm can be directly applied to uncalibrated data without requiring any additional measurements or window size selections.

  5. Learning enhances the relative impact of top-down processing in the visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Hiroshi; Komiyama, Takaki

    2015-01-01

    Theories have proposed that in sensory cortices learning can enhance top-down modulation by higher brain areas while reducing bottom-up sensory inputs. To address circuit mechanisms underlying this process, we examined the activity of layer 2/3 (L2/3) excitatory neurons in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1) as well as L4 neurons, the main bottom-up source, and long-range top-down projections from the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) during associative learning over days using chronic two-photon calcium imaging. During learning, L4 responses gradually weakened, while RSC inputs became stronger. Furthermore, L2/3 acquired a ramp-up response temporal profile with learning, coinciding with a similar change in RSC inputs. Learning also reduced the activity of somatostatin-expressing inhibitory neurons (SOM-INs) in V1 that could potentially gate top-down inputs. Finally, RSC inactivation or SOM-IN activation was sufficient to partially reverse the learning-induced changes in L2/3. Together, these results reveal a learning-dependent dynamic shift in the balance between bottom-up and top-down information streams and uncover a role of SOM-INs in controlling this process. PMID:26167904

  6. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOEpatents

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  7. Investigations into the structure of PEO-layers for understanding of layer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedemann, A. E. R.; Thiel, K.; Haßlinger, U.; Ritter, M.; Gesing, Th. M.; Plagemann, P.

    2018-06-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a type of high-voltage anodic oxidation process capable of producing a thick oxide layer with a wide variety of structural and chemical properties influenced by the electrolytic system. This process enables the combined adjustment of various characteristics, i.e. the morphology and chemical composition. The procedure facilitates the possibility of generating an individual structure as well as forming a crystalline surface in a single step. A highly porous surface with a high crystalline content consisting of titanium dioxide phases is ensured through the process of plasma electrolytic oxidizing pure titanium. In the present study plasma electrolytic oxidized TiO2-layers were investigated regarding their crystallinity through the layer thickness. The layers were prepared with a high applied voltage of 280 V to obtain a PEO-layer with highly crystalline anatase and rutile amounts. Raman spectroscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were selected to clarify the structure of the oxide layer with regard to its crystallinity and phase composition. The composition of the TiO2-phases is more or less irregularly distributed as a result of the higher energy input on the uppermost side of the layer. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) provided a deeper understanding of the structure and the effects of plasma discharges on the layer. It was observed that the plasma discharges have a strong influence on crystallite formation on top of the oxide layer and also at the boundary layer to the titanium substrate. Therefore, small crystallites of TiO2 could be detected in these regions. In addition, it was shown that amorphous TiO2 phases are formed around the characteristic pore structures, which allows the conclusion to be drawn that a rapid cooling from the gas phase had to take place in these areas.

  8. Colorful Twisted Top Partners and Partnerium at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kats, Yevgeny; McCullough, Matthew; Perez, Gilad; Soreq, Yotam; Thaler, Jesse

    2017-06-01

    In scenarios that stabilize the electroweak scale, the top quark is typically accompanied by partner particles. In this work, we demonstrate how extended stabilizing symmetries can yield scalar or fermionic top partners that transform as ordinary color triplets but carry exotic electric charges. We refer to these scenarios as "hypertwisted" since they involve modifications to hypercharge in the top sector. As proofs of principle, we construct two hypertwisted scenarios: a supersymmetric construction with spin-0 top partners, and a composite Higgs construction with spin-1/2 top partners. In both cases, the top partners are still phenomenologically compatible with the mass range motivated by weak-scale naturalness. The phenomenology of hypertwisted scenarios is diverse, since the lifetimes and decay modes of the top partners are model dependent. The novel coupling structure opens up search channels that do not typically arise in top-partner scenarios, such as pair production of top-plus-jet resonances. Furthermore, hypertwisted top partners are typically sufficiently long lived to form "top-partnerium" bound states that decay predominantly via annihilation, motivating searches for rare narrow resonances with diboson decay modes.

  9. The Functioning of a Cortex without Layers.

    PubMed

    Guy, Julien; Staiger, Jochen F

    2017-01-01

    A major hallmark of cortical organization is the existence of a variable number of layers, i.e., sheets of neurons stacked on top of each other, in which neurons have certain commonalities. However, even for the neocortex, variable numbers of layers have been described and it is just a convention to distinguish six layers from each other. Whether cortical layers are a structural epiphenomenon caused by developmental dynamics or represent a functionally important modularization of cortical computation is still unknown. Here we present our insights from the reeler mutant mouse, a model for a developmental, "molecular lesion"-induced loss of cortical layering that could serve as ground truth of what an intact layering adds to the cortex in terms of functionality. We could demonstrate that the reeler neocortex shows no inversion of cortical layers but rather a severe disorganization that in the primary somatosensory cortex leads to the complete loss of layers. Nevertheless, the somatosensory system is well organized. When exploring an enriched environment with specific sets of whiskers, activity-dependent gene expression takes place in the corresponding modules. Precise whisker stimuli lead to the functional activation of somatotopically organized barrel columns as visualized by intrinsic signal optical imaging. Similar results were obtained in the reeler visual system. When analyzing pathways that could be responsible for preservation of tactile perception, lemniscal thalamic projections were found to be largely intact, despite the smearing of target neurons across the cortical mantle. However, with optogenetic experiments we found evidence for a mild dispersion of thalamic synapse targeting on layer IV-spiny stellate cells, together with a general weakening in thalamocortical input strength. This weakening of thalamic inputs was compensated by intracortical mechanisms involving increased recurrent excitation and/or reduced feedforward inhibition. In conclusion, a

  10. Top 16 Earth Images of 2016

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-12

    Astronauts on the International Space Station take pictures of Earth out their windows nearly every day; over a year that adds up to thousands of photos. The people at the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston pored through this year’s crop to pick their top 16 photos of Earth for 2016—enjoy! Download the images: https://www.flickr.com/photos/nasa2explore/albums/72157674260752223 HD download link: https://archive.org/details/TheSpaceProgram _______________________________________ FOLLOW THE SPACE STATION! Twitter: https://twitter.com/Space_Station Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ISS Instagram: https://instagram.com/iss/

  11. The Great White Guppy: Top Predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopes are often used to trace the trophic level of members of an ecosystem. As part of a stable isotope biogeochemistry and forensics course at Purdue University, students are introduced to this concept by analyzing nitrogen isotopes in sea food purchased from local grocery stores. There is a systematic increase in 15N/14N ratios going from kelp to clams/shrimp, to sardines, to tuna and finally to shark. These enrichments demonstrate how nitrogen is enriched in biomass as predators consume prey. Some of the highest nitrogen isotope enrichments observed, however, are in the common guppy. We investigated a number of aquarium fish foods and find they typically have high nitrogen isotope ratios because they are made form fish meal that is produced primarily from the remains of predator fish such as tuna. From, a isotope perspective, the guppy is the top of the food chain, more ferocious than even the Great White shark.

  12. Who rises to the top? Early indicators.

    PubMed

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2013-05-01

    Youth identified before age 13 (N = 320) as having profound mathematical or verbal reasoning abilities (top 1 in 10,000) were tracked for nearly three decades. Their awards and creative accomplishments by age 38, in combination with specific details about their occupational responsibilities, illuminate the magnitude of their contribution and professional stature. Many have been entrusted with obligations and resources for making critical decisions about individual and organizational well-being. Their leadership positions in business, health care, law, the professoriate, and STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) suggest that many are outstanding creators of modern culture, constituting a precious human-capital resource. Identifying truly profound human potential, and forecasting differential development within such populations, requires assessing multiple cognitive abilities and using atypical measurement procedures. This study illustrates how ultimate criteria may be aggregated and longitudinally sequenced to validate such measures.

  13. Cloud-top height retrieval from polarizing remote sensor POLDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xianqiang; Pan, Delu; Yan, Bai; Mao, Zhihua

    2006-10-01

    A new cloud-top height retrieval method is proposed by using polarizing remote sensing. In cloudy conditions, it shows that, in purple and blue bands, linear polarizing radiance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) is mainly contributed by Rayleigh scattering of the atmosphere's molecules above cloud, and the contribution by cloud reflection and aerosol scattering can be neglected. With such characteristics, the basis principle and method of cloud-top height retrieval using polarizing remote sensing are presented in detail, and tested by the polarizing remote sensing data of POLDER. The satellite-derived cloud-top height product can not only show the distribution of global cloud-top height, but also obtain the cloud-top height distribution of moderate-scale meteorological phenomena like hurricanes and typhoons. This new method is promising to become the operational algorithm for cloud-top height retrieval for POLDER and the future polarizing remote sensing satellites.

  14. Inducing electric polarization in ultrathin insulating layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Castro, Jose; Piantek, Marten; Persson, Mats; Serrate, David; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.

    Studies of ultrathin polar oxide films have attracted the interest of researchers for a long time due to their different properties compared to bulk materials. However they present several challenges such as the difficulty in the stabilization of the polar surfaces and the limited success in tailoring their properties. Moreover, recently developed Van der Waals materials have shown that the stacking of 2D-layers trigger new collective states thanks to the interaction between layers. Similarly, interface phenomena emerge in polar oxides, like induced ferroelectricity. This represents a promising way for the creation of new materials with customized properties that differ from those of the isolated layers. Here we present a new approach for the fabrication and study of atomically thin insulating films. We show that the properties of insulating polar layers of sodium chloride (NaCl) can be engineered when they are placed on top of a charge modulated template of copper nitride (Cu2N). STM studies carried out in ultra-high vacuum and at low temperatures over NaCl/Cu2N/Cu(001) show that we are able to build up and stabilize interfaces of polar surface at the limit of one atomic layer showing new properties not present before at the atomic scale.

  15. Top-Cited Articles in Implant Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Fardi, Anastasia; Kodonas, Konstantinos; Lillis, Theodoros; Veis, Alexander

    Citation analysis is the field of bibliometrics that uses citation data to evaluate the scientific recognition and the influential performance of a research article in the scientific community. The aim of this study was to conduct a bibliometric analysis of the top-cited articles pertaining to implant dentistry, to analyze the main characteristics, and to display the most interesting topics and evolutionary trends. The 100 top-cited articles published in "Dentistry, Oral Surgery, and Medicine" journals were identified using the Science Citation Index Database. The articles were further reviewed, and basic information was collected, including the number of citations, journals, authors, publication year, study design, level of evidence, and field of study. The highly cited articles in implant dentistry were cited between 199 and 2,229 times. The majority of them were published in four major journals: Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, and Journal of Periodontology. The publication year ranged from 1981 to 2009, with 45% published in a nine-year period (2001 to 2009). Publications from the United States (29%) were the most heavily cited, followed by those from Sweden (23%) and Switzerland (17%). The University of Göteborg from Sweden produced the highest number of publications (n = 19), followed by the University of Bern in Switzerland (n = 13). There was a predominance of clinical papers (n = 42), followed by reviews (n = 25), basic science research (n = 21), and proceedings papers (n = 12). Peri-implant tissue healing and health (24%), implant success/failures (19.2%), and biomechanical topics (16.8%) were the most common fields of study. Citation analysis in the field of implant dentistry reveals interesting information about the topics and trends negotiated by researchers and elucidates which characteristics are required for a paper to attain a "classic" status. Clinical

  16. Enhancement of magnetoresistance with low interlayer coupling by insertion of a nano-oxide layer into a free magnetic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Chunghee; Lee, Ki-Su; Cho, B. K.

    2005-05-01

    We studied the interlayer coupling strength (Hin) and GMR ratio of a spin-valve with the top free layer, separated by a nano-oxide layer (NOL). With the total thickness of the top free layer being fixed at 60Å, the physical properties of the NOL spin-valve were studied with the thickness (tf) of the free layer under the inserted NOL and compared with those of the normal spin-valve with the same thickness as tf. It was found that the spin-valve with NOL has a higher GMR ratio than that of the normal spin-valve at the optimal condition (tf=40Å) after thermal annealing at T =250°C. The NOL spin-valve also shows a lower Hin than that of the optimal normal spin-valve with tf=40Å, which is comparable to that of the normal spin-valve with tf=60Å. This indicates that the enhancement of GMR, while keeping the Hin to be low, can be achieved by inserting a NOL into the top free layer.

  17. Methods to induce perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in full-Heusler Co2FeSi thin layers in a magnetic tunnel junction structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Koki; Suzuki, Takahiro; Takamura, Yota; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2018-05-01

    In this study, to obtain perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) using half-metallic ferromagnets (HMFs), several methods were developed to induce perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in full-Heusler Co2FeSi (CFS) alloy thin layers in an MTJ multilayer composed of a layered CFS/MgO/CFS structure. Oxygen exposure at 2.0 Pa for 10 min after deposition of the bottom CFS layer was effective for obtaining PMA in the CFS layer. One of the reasons for the PMA is the formation of nearly ideal CFS/MgO interfaces due to oxygen exposure before the deposition of the MgO layer. The annealing process was effective for obtaining PMA in the top CFS layer capped with a Pd layer. PMA was clearly observed in the top CFS layer of a Cr(40 nm)/Pd(50 nm)/bottom CFS(0.6 nm)/MgO(2.0 nm)/top CFS(0.6 nm)/ Pd(10 nm) multilayer, where the top CFS and Pd thin films were deposited at RT and subsequently annealed at 300°C. In addition to the continuous layer growth of the films, the crystalline orientation alignment at the top CFS/Pd interface probably attributes to the origin of PMA at the top CFS layer.

  18. A New Layered Model on Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Drigas, Athanasios S.

    2018-01-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been an important and controversial topic during the last few decades. Its significance and its correlation with many domains of life has made it the subject of expert study. EI is the rudder for feeling, thinking, learning, problem-solving, and decision-making. In this article, we present an emotional–cognitive based approach to the process of gaining emotional intelligence and thus, we suggest a nine-layer pyramid of emotional intelligence and the gradual development to reach the top of EI. PMID:29724021

  19. A New Layered Model on Emotional Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Drigas, Athanasios S; Papoutsi, Chara

    2018-05-02

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been an important and controversial topic during the last few decades. Its significance and its correlation with many domains of life has made it the subject of expert study. EI is the rudder for feeling, thinking, learning, problem-solving, and decision-making. In this article, we present an emotional⁻cognitive based approach to the process of gaining emotional intelligence and thus, we suggest a nine-layer pyramid of emotional intelligence and the gradual development to reach the top of EI.

  20. Effects of top-dressing recycled broiler litter on litter production, litter characteristics, and nitrogen mass balance.

    PubMed

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    Top-dressing is a method of broiler litter management in which a thin layer of new, clean litter material is spread over the top of previously used litter prior to placement of a new flock. This fresh layer of bedding material increases the absorptive capacity of the litter and decreases litter caking. Although this practice has been widely used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to quantify the effects the practice has on broiler performance, litter production rates, and nutrient content, or the ability of broiler litter to retain manure N and prevent volatilization. An experiment was conducted to quantify these parameters under simulated commercial conditions in a research facility. Nine consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on recycled broiler litter that had previously been used for 9 flocks. Control pens received no litter treatment whereas top-dressed pens received a thin layer of new rice hulls (1 to 2 cm) before the placement of each flock. Nitrogen loss was calculated using the mass balance method. Average broiler performance was not different between the top-dressed and control pens. Top-dressing of litter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced caked litter production compared with control pens in 6 of 9 flocks. However, average total litter production over all 9 flocks was not different between the 2 litter management strategies. In all flocks, litter N content was significantly reduced in top-dressed pens compared with control pens. As a result, litter C:N ratios were significantly higher for pens with top-dressed litter. Differences in N loss between the treatments were not consistent. Average N loss for all flocks was 10.61 and 11.92 g of N/kg of marketed broiler for control and top-dressed pens, respectively, or 20.1 and 22.5% of N inputs, respectively. Based on this experiment, top-dressing of recycled broiler litter would not be recommended as a strategy to reduce the volatilization of N from broiler rearing

  1. Altitude of the top of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand in three areas of Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Westerfield, Paul W.; Gonthier, Gerard; Poynter, David T.

    1998-01-01

    The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand form the second most productive aquifer in Arkansas. The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand range in thick- ness from 0 to 900 feet, consisting of fine- to medium-grained sands interbedded with layers of silt, clay, shale, and minor amounts of lignite. Within the three areas of interest, the top surface of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand dips regionally east and southeast towards the axis of the Mississippi Embayment syncline and Desha Basin. Local variations in the top surface may be attributed to a combination of continued development of structural features, differential compaction, localized faulting, and erosion of the surface prior to subsequent inundation and deposition of younger sediments.

  2. Silver Nanowire Top Electrodes in Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells using Titanium Metal as Substrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minoh; Ko, Yohan; Min, Byoung Koun; Jun, Yongseok

    2016-01-08

    Flexible perovskite solar cells (FPSCs) have various applications such as wearable electronic textiles and portable devices. In this work, we demonstrate FPSCs on a titanium metal substrate employing solution-processed silver nanowires (Ag NWs) as the top electrode. The Ag NW electrodes were deposited on top of the spiro-MeOTAD hole transport layer by a carefully controlled spray-coating method at moderate temperatures. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) reached 7.45 % under AM 1.5 100 mW cm(-2) illumination. Moreover, the efficiency for titanium-based FPSCs decreased only slightly (by 2.6 % of the initial value) after the devices were bent 100 times. With this and other advances, fully solution-based indium-free flexible photovoltaics, advantageous in terms of price and processing, have the potential to be scaled into commercial production. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A Top-Down Pathway to Secondary Eyewall Formation in Simulated Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyner, Bryce; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Jun A.; Gopalakrishnan, Sundararaman; Marks, Frank; Tallapragada, Vijay

    2018-01-01

    Idealized and real-case simulations conducted using the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF) model demonstrate a "top-down" pathway to secondary eyewall formation (SEF) for tropical cyclones (TCs). For the real-case simulations of Hurricane Rita (2005) and Hurricane Edouard (2014), a comparison to observations reveals the timing and overall characteristics of the simulated SEF appear realistic. An important control of the top-down pathway to SEF is the amount and radial-height distribution of hydrometeors at outer radii. Examination into the simulated hydrometeor particle fall speed distribution reveals that the HWRF operational microphysics scheme is not producing the lightest hydrometeors, which are likely present in observed TCs and are most conducive to being advected from the primary eyewall to the outer rainband region of the TC. Triggering of SEF begins with the fallout of hydrometeors at the outer radii from the TC primary eyewall, where penetrative downdrafts resulting from evaporative cooling of precipitation promote the development of local convection. As the convection-induced radial convergence that is initially located in the midtroposphere extends downward into the boundary layer, it results in the eruption of high entropy air out of the boundary layer. This leads to the rapid development of rainband convection and subsequent SEF via a positive feedback among precipitation, convection, and boundary layer processes.

  4. Measurements of top quark properties in top pair production and decay at the LHC using the CMS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Jindariani, Sergo

    2016-05-31

    Measurements are presented of the properties of top quarks in pair production and decay from proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The data were collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV by the CMS experiment during the years 2011 and 2012. The top quark-antiquark charge asymmetry is measured using the difference of the absolute rapidities of the reconstructed top and anti-top kinematics, as well as from distributions of the top quark decay products. The measurements are performed in the decay channels of the tt¯ pair into both one and two leptons in the final state. The polarization of topmore » quarks and top pair spin correlations are measured from the angular distributions of top quark decay products. The W-boson helicity fractions and angular asymmetries are extracted and limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex are determined. The flavor content in top-quark pair events is measured using the fraction of top quarks decaying into a W-boson and a b -quark relative to all top quark decays, R=B(t→Wb)/B(t→Wq) , and the result is used to determine the CKM matrix element Vtb as well as the width of the top quark resonance. Finally, all of the results are found to be in good agreement with standard model predictions.« less

  5. Experimental and numerical study on the onset of natural convection in a cavity open at the top

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Ashish; Kishor, Vimal; Singh, Suneet; Srivastava, Atul

    2018-05-01

    The onset of natural convection in a 2D air filled cavity open at the top with adiabatic side walls is studied. The numerical model shows the existence of weak convective flow near the top corner of a cavity due to the thermal gradient between the walls and the atmosphere even at low Rayleigh numbers, as also confirmed by the interferometry-based experimental data. Additionally, a thermally stratified layer is formed on the lower side of the cavity. The onset of convection is seen to be dependent on the interaction of these two features in the cavity. Results of the study show that in low aspect ratio cavities, the thermally stratified layers are clearly formed and are not significantly disturbed by the flow at the corners. The onset of convection takes place in these earlier thermally stratified layers beyond a certain Rayleigh number. This convective movement is characterized by a sudden jump in the heat transfer coefficient at a critical Rayleigh number. However, for high aspect ratio cavities, the flow at the corners has significant influence on the stratified layers and results in a decrease in the value of critical Rayleigh number. Beyond a certain aspect ratio, these layers cannot be formed and hence there is no onset of convection. Simulations as well as the interferometric measurements show an inherent symmetry in the corner flows, which was seen to breakdown due to the flow-induced instabilities in the thermally stratified layers for Rayleigh numbers greater than the critical value.

  6. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Li, E. Q.; Marston, J. O.; Bonito, A.; Thoroddsen, S. T.

    2013-06-01

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one's hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine bubbles. The resulting microbubble sizes suggest this air layer is of submicron thickness. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding.

  7. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Li, E Q; Marston, J O; Bonito, A; Thoroddsen, S T

    2013-06-01

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one's hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine bubbles. The resulting microbubble sizes suggest this air layer is of submicron thickness. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding.

  8. Top-down causation and emergence: some comments on mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, George F. R.

    2012-01-01

    Both bottom-up and top-down causation occur in the hierarchy of structure and causation. A key feature is multiple realizability of higher level functions, and consequent existence of equivalence classes of lower level variables that correspond to the same higher level state. Five essentially different classes of top-down influence can be identified, and their existence demonstrated by many real-world examples. They are: algorithmic top-down causation; top-down causation via non-adaptive information control, top-down causation via adaptive selection, top-down causation via adaptive information control and intelligent top-down causation (the effect of the human mind on the physical world). Through the mind, abstract entities such as mathematical structures have causal power. The causal slack enabling top-down action to take place lies in the structuring of the system so as to attain higher level functions; in the way the nature of lower level elements is changed by context, and in micro-indeterminism combined with adaptive selection. Understanding top-down causation can have important effects on society. Two cases will be mentioned: medical/healthcare issues, and education—in particular, teaching reading and writing. In both cases, an ongoing battle between bottom-up and top-down approaches has important consequences for society. PMID:23386967

  9. Stable plume rise in a shear layer.

    PubMed

    Overcamp, Thomas J

    2007-03-01

    Solutions are given for plume rise assuming a power-law wind speed profile in a stably stratified layer for point and finite sources with initial vertical momentum and buoyancy. For a constant wind speed, these solutions simplify to the conventional plume rise equations in a stable atmosphere. In a shear layer, the point of maximum rise occurs further downwind and is slightly lower compared with the plume rise with a constant wind speed equal to the wind speed at the top of the stack. If the predictions with shear are compared with predictions for an equivalent average wind speed over the depth of the plume, the plume rise with shear is higher than plume rise with an equivalent average wind speed.

  10. Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, John P.; Friedmann, Thomas A.

    1999-01-01

    A novel field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials.

  11. Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

    1999-08-10

    A novel field emitter device is disclosed for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials. 8 figs.

  12. Top anti-top Asymmetries at the Tevatron and the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Yvonne Reinhild

    2012-11-01

    The heaviest known elementary particle today, the top quark, has been discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab. Recently, the CDF and D0 collaborations have studied the forward-backward asymmetry in ttbar events, resulting in measured values larger than the standard model prediction. With the start of the LHC at CERN in 2010, a new top quark factory has opened and asymmetry measurements in ttbar have also been performed in a proton proton environment with higher collision energy. No deviations from the standard model have been noticed so far in themore » measurements of ATLAS and CMS. This article discusses recent results of asymmetry measurements in ttbar events of the ATLAS, CDF, CMS and D0 collaborations.« less

  13. Wind and boundary layers in Rayleigh-Bénard convection. II. Boundary layer character and scaling.

    PubMed

    van Reeuwijk, Maarten; Jonker, Harm J J; Hanjalić, Kemo

    2008-03-01

    The scaling of the kinematic boundary layer thickness lambda(u) and the friction factor C(f) at the top and bottom walls of Rayleigh-Bénard convection is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS). By a detailed analysis of the friction factor, a new parameterisation for C(f) and lambda(u) is proposed. The simulations were made of an L/H=4 aspect-ratio domain with periodic lateral boundary conditions at Ra=(10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8)) and Pr=1. The continuous spectrum, as well as significant forcing due to Reynolds stresses, clearly indicates a turbulent character of the boundary layer, while viscous effects cannot be neglected, judging from the scaling of classical integral boundary layer parameters with Reynolds number. Using a conceptual wind model, we find that the friction factor C(f) should scale proportionally to the thermal boundary layer thickness as C(f) proportional variant lambda(Theta)/H, while the kinetic boundary layer thickness lambda(u) scales inversely proportionally to the thermal boundary layer thickness and wind Reynolds number lambda(u)/H proportional variant (lambda(Theta)/H)(-1)Re(-1). The predicted trends for C(f) and lambda(u) are in agreement with DNS results.

  14. Eddy current measurement of the thickness of top Cu film of the multilayer interconnects in the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zilian; Meng, Yonggang; Zhao, Qian

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a new eddy current method, named equivalent unit method (EUM), for the thickness measurement of the top copper film of multilayer interconnects in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process, which is an important step in the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing. The influence of the underneath circuit layers on the eddy current is modeled and treated as an equivalent film thickness. By subtracting this equivalent film component, the accuracy of the thickness measurement of the top copper layer with an eddy current sensor is improved and the absolute error is 3 nm for sampler measurement.

  15. Interplay between dewetting and layer inversion in poly(4-vinylpyridine)/polystyrene bilayers.

    PubMed

    Thickett, Stuart C; Harris, Andrew; Neto, Chiara

    2010-10-19

    We investigated the morphology and dynamics of the dewetting of metastable poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) thin films situated on top of polystyrene (PS) thin films as a function of the molecular weight and thickness of both films. We focused on the competition between the dewetting process, occurring as a result of unfavorable intermolecular interactions at the P4VP/PS interface, and layer inversion due to the lower surface energy of PS. By means of optical and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we observed how both the dynamics of the instability and the morphology of the emerging patterns depend on the ratio of the molecular weights of the polymer films. When the bottom PS layer was less viscous than the top P4VP layer (liquid-liquid dewetting), nucleated holes in the P4VP film typically stopped growing at long annealing times because of a combination of viscous dissipation in the bottom layer and partial layer inversion. Full layer inversion was achieved when the viscosity of the top P4VP layer was significantly greater (>10⁴) than the viscosity of the PS layer underneath, which is attributed to strongly different mobilities of the two layers. The density of holes produced by nucleation dewetting was observed for the first time to depend on the thickness of the top film as well as the polymer molecular weight. The final (completely dewetted) morphology of isolated droplets could be achieved only if the time frame of layer inversion was significantly slower than that of dewetting, which was characteristic of high-viscosity PS underlayers that allowed dewetting to fall into a liquid-solid regime. Assuming a simple reptation model for layer inversion occurring at the dewetting front, the observed surface morphologies could be predicted on the basis of the relative rates of dewetting and layer inversion.

  16. A Method for Obtaining High Frequency, Global, IR-Based Convective Cloud Tops for Studies of the TTL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Ueyama, Rei; Jensen, Eric; Schoeberl, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Models of varying complexity that simulate water vapor and clouds in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) show that including convection directly is essential to properly simulating the water vapor and cloud distribution. In boreal winter, for example, simulations without convection yield a water vapor distribution that is too uniform with longitude, as well as minimal cloud distributions. Two things are important for convective simulations. First, it is important to get the convective cloud top potential temperature correctly, since unrealistically high values (reaching above the cold point tropopause too frequently) will cause excessive hydration of the stratosphere. Second, one must capture the time variation as well, since hydration by convection depends on the local relative humidity (temperature), which has substantial variation on synoptic time scales in the TTL. This paper describes a method for obtaining high frequency (3-hourly) global convective cloud top distributions which can be used in trajectory models. The method uses rainfall thresholds, standard IR brightness temperatures, meteorological temperature analyses, and physically realistic and documented corrections IR brightness temperature corrections to derive cloud top altitudes and potential temperatures. The cloud top altitudes compare well with combined CLOUDSAT and CALIPSO data, both in time-averaged overall vertical and horizontal distributions and in individual cases (correlations of .65-.7). An important finding is that there is significant uncertainty (nearly .5 km) in evaluating the statistical distribution of convective cloud tops even using lidar. Deep convection whose tops are in regions of high relative humidity (such as much of the TTL), will cause clouds to form above the actual convection. It is often difficult to distinguish these clouds from the actual convective cloud due to the uncertainties of evaluating ice water content from lidar measurements. Comparison with models show that

  17. Measurement of top quark polarization in top-antitop lepton+jets final states at DØ

    SciTech Connect

    Augsten, Kamil

    This thesis presents a measurement of the top quark polarization in themore » $$t\\overline{t}$$ events produced in $$p\\overline{p}$$ collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}=1.96$$ TeV using data corresponding to 9.7 fb$$^{-1}$$ of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The final states used in the measurement contain one lepton and at least three jets. The polarization is measured using the angular distribution of leptons along three different axes: the beam axis, the helicity axis, and the transverse axis normal to the $$t\\overline{t}$$ production plane. This is the first measurement of top quark polarization at the Tevatron Collider in lepton+jets final states, and the first measurement of transverse polarization in $$t\\overline{t}$$ production. The polarization along the beam axis is combined with the previous result in the dilepton final states by the D0 experiment. The observed distributions are consistent with the Standard Model of nearly no polarization and no indication for beyond Standard Model physics is observed. The measurement offers legacy result from unique Tevatron Collider data and provides more information about the top quark production and decays, about the properties of the heaviest elementary particle.« less

  18. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOEpatents

    Babcock, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is .gtoreq.2 and is the number of selective layers.

  19. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOEpatents

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  20. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  1. Investigating the effect of multiple layers of insulation with a bubble wrap experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, Dolores; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2018-03-01

    We provide a fun, inexpensive laboratory experiment for students to investigate the effects of multiple layers of insulation and observe diminishing values for additional layers using bubble wrap. This experiment provides an opportunity for students to learn about heat transfer through conduction using readily available materials. A water-ice pack is placed on top of five layers of bubble wrap. The temperature is taken between each layer periodically for at least 15 min. Students determine asymptotic temperatures for varying layers. This experiment also suggests a real world application.

  2. Breaking open the set top box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, David; Wiley, Anthony; Catania, Nicolas; Coles, Alastair N.; Smith, Duncan; Baynham, Simon; Deliot, Eric; Chidzey, Rod

    1998-02-01

    In this paper we describe the work being done at HP Labs Bristol in the area of home networks and gateways. This work is based on the idea of breaking open the set top box by physically separating the access network specific functions from the application specific functions. The access network specific functions reside in an access network gateway that can be shared by many end user devices. The first section of the paper present the philosophy behind this approach. The end user devices and the access network gateways must be interconnected by a high bandwidth network which can offer a bounded delay service for delay sensitive traffic. We are advocating the use of IEEE 1394 for this network, and the next section of the paper gives a brief introduction to this technology. We then describe a prototype digital video broadcasting satellite compliant gateway that we have built. This gateway could be used, for example, by a PC for receiving a data service or by a digital TV for receiving an MPEG-2 video service. A control architecture is the presented which uses a PC application to provide a web based user interface to the system. Finally, we provide details of our work on extending the reach of IEEE 1394 and its standardization status.

  3. Population remains top priority for China.

    PubMed

    Li, H

    1998-04-01

    China, whose population was 430 million in 1840, is facing a population total of 1.3 billion in 2000. Population increased rapidly in the country during the 1950s, but early efforts at population control were abandoned from the start of the Cultural Revolution in 1966 until the 1970s. Today, the importance of family planning (FP) is recognized throughout Chinese society. With 20 million newborns adding 13 million people to the population each year, controlling the population increase will remain a top priority of China's population policy. Other priorities include 1) increasing the quality of life of the population by improving health, promoting literacy, and developing human resources; 2) facing the impact of population aging; 3) struggling to overcome the poverty experienced by 50 million people; and 4) dealing with the imbalanced sex ratio of newborns. China has been attempting to institute strategies to implement the Program of Action adopted by the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and is attempting to adopt an integrated approach to population programs that combines FP with development measures and the delivery of multiple services to enhance reproductive health. Since 1984, China has worked with Japan's JOICFP on an Integrated Project that offers FP, maternal and child health services, and parasite control.

  4. Economic feeder for recharging and ``topping off''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fickett, Bryan; Mihalik, G.

    2000-04-01

    Increasing the size of the melt charge significantly increases yield and reduces costs. Siemens Solar Industries is optimizing a method to charge additional material after meltdown (top-off) using an external feeder system. A prototype feeder system was fabricated consisting of a hopper and feed delivery system. The low-cost feeder is designed for simple operation and maintenance. The system is capable of introducing up to 60 kg of granular silicon while under vacuum. An isolation valve permits refilling of the hopper while maintaining vacuum in the growth furnace. Using the feeder system in conjunction with Siemens Solar Industries' energy efficient hot zone dramatically reduces power and argon consumption. Throughput is also improved as faster pull speeds can be attained. The increased pull speeds have an even greater impact when the charge size is increased. Further cost reduction can be achieved by refilling the crucible after crystal growth and pulling a second ingot run. Siemens Solar Industries is presently testing the feeder in production.

  5. New type of hill-top inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A.O.; Department of Physics, Tomsk State University,Lenin Ave. 36, Tomsk 634050; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pacific Institue for Theoretical Physics,University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1

    2016-01-20

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on themore » background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ϵ and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R{sup 2}-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.« less

  6. New type of hill-top inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A.O.; Nesterov, D.V.; Kamenshchik, A.Yu., E-mail: barvin@td.lpi.ru, E-mail: Alexander.Kamenshchik@bo.infn.it, E-mail: nesterov@td.lpi.ru

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on themore » background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ε and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R{sup 2}-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.« less

  7. Beam uniformity of flat top lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chao; Cramer, Larry; Danielson, Don; Norby, James

    2015-03-01

    Many beams that output from standard commercial lasers are multi-mode, with each mode having a different shape and width. They show an overall non-homogeneous energy distribution across the spot size. There may be satellite structures, halos and other deviations from beam uniformity. However, many scientific, industrial and medical applications require flat top spatial energy distribution, high uniformity in the plateau region, and complete absence of hot spots. Reliable standard methods for the evaluation of beam quality are of great importance. Standard methods are required for correct characterization of the laser for its intended application and for tight quality control in laser manufacturing. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published standard procedures and definitions for this purpose. These procedures have not been widely adopted by commercial laser manufacturers. This is due to the fact that they are unreliable because an unrepresentative single-pixel value can seriously distort the result. We hereby propose a metric of beam uniformity, a way of beam profile visualization, procedures to automatically detect hot spots and beam structures, and application examples in our high energy laser production.

  8. Calculation and Experiment of Adding Top Beryllium Shims for Iran MNSR

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadati, Javad; Rezvanifard, Mehdi; Shahabi, Iraj

    2006-07-01

    Miniature Neutron Source Reactor which is called MNSR were put into operation on June 1994 in Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center (ENTC). At that time the excess reactivity at the cold condition was 3.85 mk. After 7 years of operation and fuel consumption the reactivity was reduced to 2.90 mk. To compensate this reduction and upgrade the reactor, Beryllium Shim were used at the top of the core. This paper discusses the steps for this accurate and sensitive task. Finally a layer of 1.5 mm Beryllium were added to restore the reactor life. (authors)

  9. Top-Down CMOS-NEMS Polysilicon Nanowire with Piezoresistive Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Marigó, Eloi; Sansa, Marc; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Uranga, Arantxa; Barniol, Núria

    2015-01-01

    A top-down clamped-clamped beam integrated in a CMOS technology with a cross section of 500 nm × 280 nm has been electrostatic actuated and sensed using two different transduction methods: capacitive and piezoresistive. The resonator made from a single polysilicon layer has a fundamental in-plane resonance at 27 MHz. Piezoresistive transduction avoids the effect of the parasitic capacitance assessing the capability to use it and enhance the CMOS-NEMS resonators towards more efficient oscillator. The displacement derived from the capacitive transduction allows to compute the gauge factor for the polysilicon material available in the CMOS technology. PMID:26184222

  10. Top-Down CMOS-NEMS Polysilicon Nanowire with Piezoresistive Transduction.

    PubMed

    Marigó, Eloi; Sansa, Marc; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Uranga, Arantxa; Barniol, Núria

    2015-07-14

    A top-down clamped-clamped beam integrated in a CMOS technology with a cross section of 500 nm × 280 nm has been electrostatic actuated and sensed using two different transduction methods: capacitive and piezoresistive. The resonator made from a single polysilicon layer has a fundamental in-plane resonance at 27 MHz. Piezoresistive transduction avoids the effect of the parasitic capacitance assessing the capability to use it and enhance the CMOS-NEMS resonators towards more efficient oscillator. The displacement derived from the capacitive transduction allows to compute the gauge factor for the polysilicon material available in the CMOS technology.

  11. Bi-layered nanocomposite bandages for controlling microbial infections and overproduction of matrix metalloproteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Anjana, J; Mohandas, Annapoorna; Seethalakshmy, S; Suresh, Maneesha K; Menon, Riju; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R

    2018-04-15

    Chronic diabetic wounds is characterised by increased microbial contamination and overproduction of matrix metalloproteases that would degrade the extracellular matrix. A bi-layer bandage was developed, that promotes the inhibition of microbial infections and matrix metalloprotease (MMPs) activity. Bi-layer bandage containing benzalkonium chloride loaded gelatin nanoparticles (BZK GNPs) in chitosan-Hyaluronic acid (HA) as a bottom layer and sodium alendronate containing chitosan as top layer was developed. We hypothesized that the chitosan-gelatin top layer with sodium alendronate could inhibit the MMPs activity, whereas the chitosan-HA bottom layer with BZK GNPs (240±66nm) would enable the elimination of microbes. The porosity, swelling and degradation nature of the prepared Bi-layered bandage was studied. The bottom layer could degrade within 4days whereas the top layer remained upto 7days. The antimicrobial activity of the BZK NPs loaded bandage was determined using normal and clinical strains. Gelatin zymography shows that the proteolytic activity of MMP was inhibited by the bandage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molding of top skull in the treatment of Apert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weimin; Cui, Jie; Chen, Jianbin; Weiping, Shen

    2015-03-01

    Patients with Apert syndrome have bilateral coronal craniosynostosis, along with a distinguishing feature of their many deformity, called tower skull. Surgical correction of this deformity is the mainstay of treatment. We describe 3 patients molded top skull after front bone osteotomy orbital bar advancement. This successfully restricted growth of their top skull while allowing growth in other dimensions. Utilization of top-skull molding after cranial surgery shows promise of satisfaction in this setting.

  13. Power, politics, and top management team characteristics: do they matter?

    PubMed

    Gerowitz, M B

    1998-01-01

    This study assesses the contributions of the leader power and top management team characteristics to perceived strategic capability. Low age heterogeneity and low tenure heterogeneity were found to have a positive association with perceived adaptability. High diversity in educational specialization was also found to be positively associated with adaptability. Top management perceptions of CEO power were, however, lower among high adaptors. Implications for leadership research, senior management recruitment, and the design of management development for top management teams are discussed.

  14. Top Quark Pair Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2015-09-25

    The top quark, discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab, has undergone intense studies in the last 20 years. Currently, CDF and D0 converge on their measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections using the full Tevatron data sample. In these proceedings, the latest results on inclusive and differential measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections at the Tevatron are reported.

  15. Multilayer Transparent Top Electrode for Solution Processed Perovskite/Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 Four Terminal Tandem Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang Michael; Chen, Qi; Hsieh, Yao-Tsung; Song, Tze-Bin; Marco, Nicholas De; Zhou, Huanping; Yang, Yang

    2015-07-28

    Halide perovskites (PVSK) have attracted much attention in recent years due to their high potential as a next generation solar cell material. To further improve perovskites progress toward a state-of-the-art technology, it is desirable to create a tandem structure in which perovskite may be stacked with a current prevailing solar cell such as silicon (Si) or Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS). The transparent top electrode is one of the key components as well as challenges to realize such tandem structure. Herein, we develop a multilayer transparent top electrode for perovskite photovoltaic devices delivering an 11.5% efficiency in top illumination mode. The transparent electrode is based on a dielectric/metal/dielectric structure, featuring an ultrathin gold seeded silver layer. A four terminal tandem solar cell employing solution processed CIGS and perovskite cells is also demonstrated with over 15% efficiency.

  16. Removing gaps in the exclusion of top squark parameter space.

    PubMed

    Czakon, Michal; Mitov, Alexander; Papucci, Michele; Ruderman, Joshua T; Weiler, Andreas

    2014-11-14

    Light stops are a hallmark of the most natural realizations of weak-scale supersymmetry. While stops have been extensively searched for, there remain open gaps around and below the top mass, due to similarities of stop and top signals with current statistics. We propose a new fast-track avenue to improve light stop searches for R-parity-conserving supersymmetry by comparing top cross section measurements to the theoretical prediction. Stop masses below ∼180  GeV can now be ruled out for a light neutralino. The possibility of a stop signal contaminating the top mass measurement is also briefly addressed.

  17. Removing Gaps in the Exclusion of Top Squark Parameter Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czakon, Michal; Mitov, Alexander; Papucci, Michele; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Weiler, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Light stops are a hallmark of the most natural realizations of weak-scale supersymmetry. While stops have been extensively searched for, there remain open gaps around and below the top mass, due to similarities of stop and top signals with current statistics. We propose a new fast-track avenue to improve light stop searches for R -parity-conserving supersymmetry by comparing top cross section measurements to the theoretical prediction. Stop masses below ˜180 GeV can now be ruled out for a light neutralino. The possibility of a stop signal contaminating the top mass measurement is also briefly addressed.

  18. Getting to the top of Google: search engine optimization.

    PubMed

    Maley, Catherine; Baum, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Search engine optimization is the process of making your Web site appear at or near the top of popular search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and MSN. This is not done by luck or knowing someone working for the search engines but by understanding the process of how search engines select Web sites for placement on top or on the first page. This article will review the process and provide methods and techniques to use to have your site rated at the top or very near the top.

  19. Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Simone; Thomschke, Michael; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2011-11-07

    We review top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which are beneficial for lighting and display applications, where non-transparent substrates are used. The optical effects of the microcavity structure as well as the loss mechanisms are discussed. Outcoupling techniques and the work on white top-emitting OLEDs are summarized. We discuss the power dissipation spectra for a monochrome and a white top-emitting OLED and give quantitative reports on the loss channels. Furthermore, the development of inverted top-emitting OLEDs is described.

  20. Community Evolution in International Migration Top1 Networks.

    PubMed

    Peres, Mihaela; Xu, Helian; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on each country's topmost destination/origin migration relation with other countries, this study builds top1 destination networks and top1 origin networks in order to understand their skeletal construction and community dynamics. Each top1 network covers approximately 50% of the complete migrant network stock for each decade between 1960 and 2000. We investigate the community structure by implementing the Girvan-Newman algorithm and compare the number of components and communities to illustrate their differences. We find that (i) both top1 networks (origin and destination) exhibited communities with a clear structure and a surprising evolution, although 80% edges persist between each decade; (ii) top1 destination networks focused on developed countries exhibiting shorter paths and preferring more advance countries, while top1 origin networks focused both on developed as well as more substantial developing nations that presented a longer path and more stable groups; (iii) only few countries have a decisive influence on community evolution of both top1 networks. USA took the leading position as a destination country in top1 destination networks, while China and India were the main Asian emigration countries in top1 origin networks; European countries and the Russian Federation played an important role in both.

  1. Observations of Overshooting Convective Tops and Dynamical Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Halverson, Jeffrey; Fitzgerald, Mike; Dominquez, Rose; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Convective tops overshooting the tropopause have been suggested in the literature to play an important role in modifying the tropical tropopause. The structure of thunderstorm tops overshooting the tropopause have been difficult to measure due to the intensity of the convection and aircraft safety. This paper presents remote observations of overshooting convective tops with the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft during several of the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) and (Convection and Moisture Experiment) CAMEX campaigns. The ER-2 was instrumented with the down-looking ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP), a new dropsonde system (ER-2 High Altitude Dropsonde, EHAD), and an IR radiometer (Modis Airborne Simulator, MAS). Measurements were collected in Florida and Amazonia (Brazil). In this study, we utilize the radar cloud top information and cloud top infrared temperatures to document the amount of overshoot and temperature difference relative to the soundings provided by dropsondes and conventional upsondes. The radar measurements provide the details of the updraft structure near cloud top, and it is found that tops of stronger convective cells can overshoot by 1-2 km and with temperatures 5C colder than the tropopause minimum temperature. The negatively buoyant cloud tops are also evidenced in the Doppler measurements by strong subsiding flow along the sides of the convective tops . These findings support some of the conceptual and modeling studies of deep convection penetrating the tropopause.

  2. Community Evolution in International Migration Top1 Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Helian

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on each country’s topmost destination/origin migration relation with other countries, this study builds top1 destination networks and top1 origin networks in order to understand their skeletal construction and community dynamics. Each top1 network covers approximately 50% of the complete migrant network stock for each decade between 1960 and 2000. We investigate the community structure by implementing the Girvan-Newman algorithm and compare the number of components and communities to illustrate their differences. We find that (i) both top1 networks (origin and destination) exhibited communities with a clear structure and a surprising evolution, although 80% edges persist between each decade; (ii) top1 destination networks focused on developed countries exhibiting shorter paths and preferring more advance countries, while top1 origin networks focused both on developed as well as more substantial developing nations that presented a longer path and more stable groups; (iii) only few countries have a decisive influence on community evolution of both top1 networks. USA took the leading position as a destination country in top1 destination networks, while China and India were the main Asian emigration countries in top1 origin networks; European countries and the Russian Federation played an important role in both. PMID:26859406

  3. 4. TOP OF EAST ELEVATION WALL SHOWING BUTTRESS CAPS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. TOP OF EAST ELEVATION WALL SHOWING BUTTRESS CAPS LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Original Airport Entrance Overpass, Spanning original Airport Entrance Road at National Airport, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  4. Acoustic sounding in the planetary boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    Three case studies are presented involving data from an acoustic radar. The first two cases examine data collected during the passage of a mesoscale cold-air intrusion, probably thunderstorm outflow, and a synoptic-scale cold front. In these studies the radar data are compared to conventional meteorological data obtained from the WKY tower facility for the purpose of radar data interpretation. It is shown that the acoustic radar echoes reveal the boundary between warm and cold air and other areas of turbulent mixing, regions of strong vertical temperature gradients, and areas of weak or no wind shear. The third case study examines the relationship between the nocturnal radiation inversion and the low-level wind maximum or jet in the light of conclusions presented by Blackadar (1957). The low-level jet is seen forming well above the top of the inversion. Sudden rapid growth of the inversion occurs which brings the top of the inversion to a height equal that of the jet. Coincident with the rapid growth of the inversion is a sudden decrease in the intensity of the acoustic radar echoes in the inversion layer. It is suggested that the decrease in echo intensity reveals a decrease in turbulent mixing in the inversion layer as predicted by Blackadar. It is concluded that the acoustic radar can be a valuable tool for study in the lower atmosphere.

  5. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  6. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  7. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennekes, Hendrik

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some important parameters of the boundary layer and effects of turbulence on the circulation and energy dissipation of the atmosphere. Indicates that boundary-layer research plays an important role in long-term forecasting and the study of air-pollution meteorology. (CC)

  8. Biquadratic coupling through nano-oxide layers in pinned layers of IrMn-based spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chih-Huang; Lu, K. H.

    2003-05-01

    We have investigated the coupling between top and bottom pinned layers through various nano-oxide layers (NOLs) in IrMn-based spin valves. The NOLs were formed by using oxygen-plasma oxidation or natural oxidation on 1 nm metallic layers. By inserting naturally oxidized Co-NOLs in the pinned layer, strong ferromagnetic coupling through NOLs and high specularity at the NOL interface were achieved. In contrast, when the plasma-oxidized Co-NOLs were inserted, ferromagnetic coupling through NOLs disappeared, plausibly due to the formation of nonferromagnetic oxides, which led to a low magnetoresistance (MR). Insertion of naturally oxidized Ni80Fe20-NOLs showed the same results as that of naturally oxidized Co-NOLs. On the other hand, biquadratic coupling between top and bottom pinned-Co90Fe10 layers was observed by inserting plasma-oxidized Ni80Fe20-NOLs. The highest MR was obtained when the field was applied along the direction perpendicular to the field-annealing direction. Similar biquadratic coupling was also found with naturally oxidized or plasma-oxidized Fe-NOLs. We suggest that the biquadratic coupling between pinned Co90Fe10 layers through NOLs results from the coupling between Fe (or Co90Fe10) and Fe+3 oxides

  9. Fullerene/layered antiferromagnetic reconstructed spinterface: Subsurface layer dominates molecular orbitals' spin-split and large induced magnetic moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yangfan; Pang, Rui; Pan, Hui; Shi, Xingqiang

    2018-03-01

    The interfaces between organic molecules and magnetic metals have gained increasing interest for both fundamental reasons and applications. Among them, the C60/layered antiferromagnetic (AFM) interfaces have been studied only for C60 bonded to the outermost ferromagnetic layer [S. L. Kawahara et al., Nano Lett. 12, 4558 (2012) and D. Li et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 085425 (2016)]. Here, via density functional theory calculations combined with evidence from the literature, we demonstrate that C60 adsorption can reconstruct the layered-AFM Cr(001) surface at elevated annealing temperatures so that C60 bonds to both the outermost and the subsurface Cr layers in opposite spin directions. Surface reconstruction drastically changes the adsorbed molecule spintronic properties: (1) the spin-split p-d hybridization involves multi-orbitals of C60 and top two layers of Cr with opposite spin-polarization, (2) the subsurface Cr atom dominates the C60 electronic properties, and (3) the reconstruction induces a large magnetic moment of 0.58 μB in C60 as a synergistic effect of the top two Cr layers. The induced magnetic moment in C60 can be explained by the magnetic direct-exchange mechanism, which can be generalized to other C60/magnetic metal systems. Understanding these complex hybridization behaviors is a crucial step for molecular spintronic applications.

  10. Aerosol characteristics in the entrainment interface layer in relation to the marine boundary layer and free troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadashazar, Hossein; Braun, Rachel A.; Crosbie, Ewan; Chuang, Patrick Y.; Woods, Roy K.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Sorooshian, Armin

    2018-02-01

    This study uses airborne data from two field campaigns off the California coast to characterize aerosol size distribution characteristics in the entrainment interface layer (EIL), a thin and turbulent layer above marine stratocumulus cloud tops, which separates the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer (STBL) from the free troposphere (FT). The vertical bounds of the EIL are defined in this work based on considerations of buoyancy and turbulence using thermodynamic and dynamic data. Aerosol number concentrations are examined from three different probes with varying particle diameter (Dp) ranges: > 3 nm, > 10 nm, and 0.11-3.4 µm. Relative to the EIL and FT layers, the sub-cloud (SUB) layer exhibited lower aerosol number concentrations and higher surface area concentrations. High particle number concentrations between 3 and 10 nm in the EIL are indicative of enhanced nucleation, assisted by high actinic fluxes, cool and moist air, and much lower surface area concentrations than the STBL. Slopes of number concentration versus altitude in the EIL were correlated with the particle number concentration difference between the SUB and lower FT layers. The EIL aerosol size distribution was influenced by varying degrees from STBL aerosol versus subsiding FT aerosol depending on the case examined. These results emphasize the important role of the EIL in influencing nucleation and aerosol-cloud-climate interactions.

  11. Method and apparatus for the evaluation of a depth profile of thermo-mechanical properties of layered and graded materials and coatings

    DOEpatents

    Finot, Marc; Kesler, Olivera; Suresh, Subra

    1998-01-01

    A technique for determining properties such as Young's modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, and residual stress of individual layers within a multi-layered sample is presented. The technique involves preparation of a series of samples, each including one additional layer relative to the preceding sample. By comparison of each sample to a preceding sample, properties of the topmost layer can be determined, and residual stress at any depth in each sample, resulting from deposition of the top layer, can be determined.

  12. Metal-oxide thin-film transistor-based pH sensor with a silver nanowire top gate electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Tae-Hee; Sang, Byoung-In; Wang, Byung-Yong; Lim, Dae-Soon; Kang, Hyun Wook; Choi, Won Kook; Lee, Young Tack; Oh, Young-Jei; Hwang, Do Kyung

    2016-04-01

    Amorphous InGaZnO (IGZO) metal-oxide-semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) are one of the most promising technologies to replace amorphous and polycrystalline Si TFTs. Recently, TFT-based sensing platforms have been gaining significant interests. Here, we report on IGZO transistor-based pH sensors in aqueous medium. In order to achieve stable operation in aqueous environment and enhance sensitivity, we used Al2O3 grown by using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a porous Ag nanowire (NW) mesh as the top gate dielectric and electrode layers, respectively. Such devices with a Ag NW mesh at the top gate electrode rapidly respond to the pH of solutions by shifting the turn-on voltage. Furthermore, the output voltage signals induced by the voltage shifts can be directly extracted by implantation of a resistive load inverter.

  13. Characterization of the interface interaction of cobalt on top of copper- and iron-phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Felix; Sauther, Jens; Lach, Stefan; Ziegler, Christiane

    2011-05-01

    The electronic structure of the interface between ferromagnetic cobalt and the organic semiconductors copper- (CuPc) and iron-phthalocyanine (FePc) was investigated by means of photoemission spectroscopy (UPS, IPES, and XPS). These metal-phthalocyanine (MePc) molecules have an open shell structure and are known to show promising properties for their use in organic spintronics. In spintronic devices, the interface between ferromagnetic electrode and the organic layer determines the spin injection properties and is hence important for the quality of, e.g., a possible spin-valve device. For this purpose, cobalt was deposited onto the MePcs, such as in devices with ferromagnetic top contacts. The reported investigations reveal a diffusion of cobalt into the organic layers and chemical reactions at the interface.

  14. A flexible top-emitting organic light-emitting diode on steel foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhiyuan; Hung, Liang-Sun; Zhu, Furong

    2003-11-01

    An efficient flexible top-emitting organic light-emitting diode (FTOLED) was developed on a thin steel foil. The FTOLED was constructed on the spin-on-glass (SOG)-coated steel substrate with an organic stack of NPB/Alq 3 sandwiched by a highly reflective Ag anode and a semitransparent Sm cathode. An ultrathin plasma-polymerized hydrocarbon film (CF X) was interposed between the Ag anode and the NPB layer to enhance hole-injection, and an additional Alq 3 layer was overlaid on the Sm cathode to increase light output. The FTOLED showed a peak efficiency of 4.4 cd/A higher than 3.7 cd/A of a convention NPB/Alq 3-based bottom-emitting OLED.

  15. The new deal at the top.

    PubMed

    Doz, Yves L; Kosonen, Mikko

    2007-06-01

    What makes a company strategically agile--able to alter its strategies and business models rapidly in response to major changes in its market space, and to do so repeatedly without major trauma? Three years of in-depth case research on a dozen large companies worldwide showed the authors that one key factor is a new leadership model at the top. Senior executives at agile companies assume collective rather than individual responsibility for results. They build interdependencies among units and divisions, motivating themselves to engage with one another, and carefully manage their dealings to promote collaboration that is frequent, intense, informal, open, and focused on shared issues and the long term. Challenges to conventional thinking are encouraged. This is the new deal, and it's not easy to strike, because it requires executives to act in ways that are far from comfortable. After all, the corporate ladder at most firms favors independent types with a deep need for power and autonomy. At executive meetings, disagreement is suppressed or expressed passive-aggressively, eroding any real sense of belonging to a team. Switching to the new deal almost always requires a huge shift in the company's culture, values, and norms of interaction. The authors describe three approaches to making the shift: Executives can be given formal responsibility not for a business unit but for different stages in the company's value chain. This worked well for SAP, which has a relatively focused business portfolio. When a company's portfolio is less uniform, like Nokia's, business and functional units can be organized to crisscross on a matrix. And when a company is widely diverse, like easyGroup, it can emphasize the learning opportunities that units with common business models may share.

  16. Geometrization and Generalization of the Kowalevski Top

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragović, Vladimir

    2010-08-01

    A new view on the Kowalevski top and the Kowalevski integration procedure is presented. For more than a century, the Kowalevski 1889 case, has attracted full attention of a wide community as the highlight of the classical theory of integrable systems. Despite hundreds of papers on the subject, the Kowalevski integration is still understood as a magic recipe, an unbelievable sequence of skillful tricks, unexpected identities and smart changes of variables. The novelty of our present approach is based on our four observations. The first one is that the so-called fundamental Kowalevski equation is an instance of a pencil equation of the theory of conics which leads us to a new geometric interpretation of the Kowalevski variables w, x 1, x 2 as the pencil parameter and the Darboux coordinates, respectively. The second is observation of the key algebraic property of the pencil equation which is followed by introduction and study of a new class of discriminantly separable polynomials. All steps of the Kowalevski integration procedure are now derived as easy and transparent logical consequences of our theory of discriminantly separable polynomials. The third observation connects the Kowalevski integration and the pencil equation with the theory of multi-valued groups. The Kowalevski change of variables is now recognized as an example of a two-valued group operation and its action. The final observation is surprising equivalence of the associativity of the two-valued group operation and its action to the n = 3 case of the Great Poncelet Theorem for pencils of conics.

  17. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  18. Laboratory layered latte.

    PubMed

    Xue, Nan; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Zhu, Lailai; Nunes, Janine K; Kim, Hyoungsoo; Stone, Howard A

    2017-12-12

    Inducing thermal gradients in fluid systems with initial, well-defined density gradients results in the formation of distinct layered patterns, such as those observed in the ocean due to double-diffusive convection. In contrast, layered composite fluids are sometimes observed in confined systems of rather chaotic initial states, for example, lattes formed by pouring espresso into a glass of warm milk. Here, we report controlled experiments injecting a fluid into a miscible phase and show that, above a critical injection velocity, layering emerges over a time scale of minutes. We identify critical conditions to produce the layering, and relate the results quantitatively to double-diffusive convection. Based on this understanding, we show how to employ this single-step process to produce layered structures in soft materials, where the local elastic properties vary step-wise along the length of the material.

  19. Tuning SPT-3G Transition-Edge-Sensor Electrical Properties with a Four-Layer Ti-Au-Ti-Au Thin-Film Stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, F. W.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ahmed, Z.; Anderson, A. J.; Austermann, J. E.; Avva, J. S.; Thakur, R. Basu; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Cecil, T.; Chang, C. L.; Cliche, J. F.; Cukierman, A.; Denison, E. V.; de Haan, T.; Ding, J.; Divan, R.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dutcher, D.; Everett, W.; Foster, A.; Gannon, R. N.; Gilbert, A.; Groh, J. C.; Halverson, N. W.; Harke-Hosemann, A. H.; Harrington, N. L.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Huang, N.; Irwin, K. D.; Jeong, O. B.; Jonas, M.; Khaire, T.; Kofman, A. M.; Korman, M.; Kubik, D.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuo, C. L.; Kutepova, V.; Lee, A. T.; Lowitz, A. E.; Meyer, S. S.; Michalik, D.; Miller, C. S.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nguyen, H.; Noble, G. I.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pan, Z.; Pearson, J.; Posada, C. M.; Rahlin, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saunders, L. J.; Sayre, J. T.; Shirley, I.; Shirokoff, E.; Smecher, G.; Sobrin, J. A.; Stan, L.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Suzuki, A.; Tang, Q. Y.; Thompson, K. L.; Tucker, C.; Vale, L. R.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.; Young, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed superconducting Ti transition-edge sensors with Au protection layers on the top and bottom for the South Pole Telescope's third-generation receiver (a cosmic microwave background polarimeter, due to be upgraded this austral summer of 2017/2018). The base Au layer (deposited on a thin Ti glue layer) isolates the Ti from any substrate effects; the top Au layer protects the Ti from oxidation during processing and subsequent use of the sensors. We control the transition temperature and normal resistance of the sensors by varying the sensor width and the relative thicknesses of the Ti and Au layers. The transition temperature is roughly six times more sensitive to the thickness of the base Au layer than to that of the top Au layer. The normal resistance is inversely proportional to sensor width for any given film configuration. For widths greater than five micrometers, the critical temperature is independent of width.

  20. The effect of annealing on the MR and exchange bias characteristics in dual spin valve with nano-oxide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, S. H.; Kang, T.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K. Y.

    2002-02-01

    We investigated magnetoresistance (MR) and exchange bias properties by annealing in the dual spin valve (SV) with nano-oxide layer (NOL). By analyzing effects of NOL in top and bottom pinned simple SVs, MR enhancement effect of NOL inserted in the bottom pinned layer was higher than that of NOL in the top pinned layer with annealing. By the enhanced specular scattering of electrons by NOL, the MR ratio of dual SV with NOL was increased to 15.5-15.9% with an annealing of 200-250°C. Exchange coupling constant Jex was improved rapidly as 0.13-0.16 erg/cm 2 by annealing in the bottom pinned layer, whereas the effect of annealing was not large in the top pinned layer with Jex of about 0.09-0.116 erg/cm 2.

  1. Top-Down Beta Enhances Bottom-Up Gamma

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, William H.

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that the bottom-up signaling of a visual stimulus is subserved by interareal gamma-band synchronization, whereas top-down influences are mediated by alpha-beta band synchronization. These processes may implement top-down control of stimulus processing if top-down and bottom-up mediating rhythms are coupled via cross-frequency interaction. To test this possibility, we investigated Granger-causal influences among awake macaque primary visual area V1, higher visual area V4, and parietal control area 7a during attentional task performance. Top-down 7a-to-V1 beta-band influences enhanced visually driven V1-to-V4 gamma-band influences. This enhancement was spatially specific and largest when beta-band activity preceded gamma-band activity by ∼0.1 s, suggesting a causal effect of top-down processes on bottom-up processes. We propose that this cross-frequency interaction mechanistically subserves the attentional control of stimulus selection. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Contemporary research indicates that the alpha-beta frequency band underlies top-down control, whereas the gamma-band mediates bottom-up stimulus processing. This arrangement inspires an attractive hypothesis, which posits that top-down beta-band influences directly modulate bottom-up gamma band influences via cross-frequency interaction. We evaluate this hypothesis determining that beta-band top-down influences from parietal area 7a to visual area V1 are correlated with bottom-up gamma frequency influences from V1 to area V4, in a spatially specific manner, and that this correlation is maximal when top-down activity precedes bottom-up activity. These results show that for top-down processes such as spatial attention, elevated top-down beta-band influences directly enhance feedforward stimulus-induced gamma-band processing, leading to enhancement of the selected stimulus. PMID:28592697

  2. Boosting water oxidation layer-by-layer.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Acosta, Jonnathan C; Scanlon, Micheál D; Méndez, Manuel A; Amstutz, Véronique; Vrubel, Heron; Opallo, Marcin; Girault, Hubert H

    2016-04-07

    Electrocatalysis of water oxidation was achieved using fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes modified with layer-by-layer deposited films consisting of bilayers of negatively charged citrate-stabilized IrO2 NPs and positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) polymer. The IrO2 NP surface coverage can be fine-tuned by controlling the number of bilayers. The IrO2 NP films were amorphous, with the NPs therein being well-dispersed and retaining their as-synthesized shape and sizes. UV/vis spectroscopic and spectro-electrochemical studies confirmed that the total surface coverage and electrochemically addressable surface coverage of IrO2 NPs increased linearly with the number of bilayers up to 10 bilayers. The voltammetry of the modified electrode was that of hydrous iridium oxide films (HIROFs) with an observed super-Nernstian pH response of the Ir(III)/Ir(IV) and Ir(IV)-Ir(IV)/Ir(IV)-Ir(V) redox transitions and Nernstian shift of the oxygen evolution onset potential. The overpotential of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was essentially pH independent, varying only from 0.22 V to 0.28 V (at a current density of 0.1 mA cm(-2)), moving from acidic to alkaline conditions. Bulk electrolysis experiments revealed that the IrO2/PDDA films were stable and adherent under acidic and neutral conditions but degraded in alkaline solutions. Oxygen was evolved with Faradaic efficiencies approaching 100% under acidic (pH 1) and neutral (pH 7) conditions, and 88% in alkaline solutions (pH 13). This layer-by-layer approach forms the basis of future large-scale OER electrode development using ink-jet printing technology.

  3. Top-philic scalar Dark Matter with a vector-like fermionic top partner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seungwon; Ko, Pyungwon; Wu, Peiwen

    2016-10-01

    We consider a simple extension of the Standard Model with a scalar top-philic Dark Matter (DM) S coupling, apart from the Higgs portal, exclusively to the right-handed top quark t R and a colored vector-like top partner T with a Yukawa coupling y ST which we call the topVL portal. When the Higgs portal is closed and y ST is perturbative (≲1), T S → ( W + b, gt), SSto toverline{t} and Toverline{T}to (qoverline{q}, gg) provide the dominant (co) annihilation contributions to obtain ΩDM h 2 ≃ 0 .12 in light, medium and heavy DM mass range, respectively. However, large {y}_{ST}˜ O(10) can make SS → gg dominate via the loop-induced coupling C SSgg in the m S < m t region. In this model it is the C SSgg coupling that generates DM-nucleon scattering in the direct detection, which can be large and simply determined by ΩDM h 2 ≃ 0 .12 when SS → gg dominates the DM annihilation. The current LUX results can exclude the SS → gg dominating scenario and XENON-1T experiment may further test y ST ≳ 1, and 0 .5 ≲ y ST ≲ 1 may be covered in the future LUX-ZP experiment. The current indirect detection results from Fermi gamma-ray observations can also exclude the SS → gg dominating scenario and are sensitive to the heavy DM mass region, of which the improved sensitivity by one order will push DM mass to be above 400, 600, 1000 GeV for y ST = 0 .3 , 0 .5 , 1 .0, respectively. Toverline{T} pair produced at the hadron collider will decay 100% into [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] signal when kinematically open. The latest ATLAS 13 TeV 13.2 fb-1 data can excluded m T between 300 (650) and 1150 (1100) GeV for m S =40 (400) GeV and the exclusion region can reach up to m S ˜ 500 GeV.

  4. Top-Down Influence in Young Children's Linguistic Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabagliati, Hugh; Pylkkanen, Liina; Marcus, Gary F.

    2013-01-01

    Language is rife with ambiguity. Do children and adults meet this challenge in similar ways? Recent work suggests that while adults resolve syntactic ambiguities by integrating a variety of cues, children are less sensitive to top-down evidence. We test whether this top-down insensitivity is specific to syntax or a general feature of children's…

  5. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF FOUNDRY FROM TOP OF GREY IRON CUPOLA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHWEST VIEW OF FOUNDRY FROM TOP OF GREY IRON CUPOLA SHOWING OPENED TOP OF CUPOLA WITH EMISSION RECOVERY DUCT COMING OFF. TO THE RIGHT IS THE STORAGE AND SHIPPING BUILDING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 26. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL COLLAPSE OF TOP FLOOR OF MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL COLLAPSE OF TOP FLOOR OF MILL, ABOVE ORE BIN, LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF STAIRWAY IN CA-290-25. THE PIPE AT CENTER WAS USED TO SPREAD CRUSHED ORE COMING FROM THE JAW CRUSHER EVENLY TO ALL AREA OF THE ORE BIN BELOW. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. Vertical variation of ice particle size in convective cloud tops.

    PubMed

    van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Fridlind, Ann M; Cairns, Brian; Ackerman, Andrew S; Yorks, John E

    2016-05-16

    A novel technique is used to estimate derivatives of ice effective radius with respect to height near convective cloud tops ( dr e / dz ) from airborne shortwave reflectance measurements and lidar. Values of dr e / dz are about -6 μ m/km for cloud tops below the homogeneous freezing level, increasing to near 0 μ m/km above the estimated level of neutral buoyancy. Retrieved dr e / dz compares well with previously documented remote sensing and in situ estimates. Effective radii decrease with increasing cloud top height, while cloud top extinction increases. This is consistent with weaker size sorting in high, dense cloud tops above the level of neutral buoyancy where fewer large particles are present, and with stronger size sorting in lower cloud tops that are less dense. The results also confirm that cloud-top trends of effective radius can generally be used as surrogates for trends with height within convective cloud tops. These results provide valuable observational targets for model evaluation.

  8. 3. ONTARIO MINE. ADIT ENTRANCE WITH TIN ROOF. TIP TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ONTARIO MINE. ADIT ENTRANCE WITH TIN ROOF. TIP TOP IS LOCATED IN LINE WITH 'Y' BRANCH AND THE TAILING PILE FOR TIP TOP IS VISIBLE JUST TO RIGHT OF IT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Ontario Mine, Northwest side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  9. Dimensional Characteristics of Hardwood Top and Limb Residue

    Treesearch

    Nels S. Christopherson

    1983-01-01

    Sawtimber harvesting in northern hardwood stands leaves behind a large amount of residue in the form of tops and limbs. This paper presents typical dimensional characteristics of residue for northern hardwood tops incluting data on lengths, widths, diameters, and complete branch details.

  10. 7. VIEW OF TRICOMPOSITE ROOF STRUCTURE. TOP CHORDS ARE TIMBER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF TRICOMPOSITE ROOF STRUCTURE. TOP CHORDS ARE TIMBER. TENSION RODS (THIN METAL RODS EXTENDING DIAGONALLY FROM THE HORIZONTAL TIMBER BRACE) ARE WROUGHT IRON. SOLID CRUCIFORM SHAPED COMPRESSION MEMBERS EXTENDING DOWNWARD FROM THE TIMBER TOP CHORD ARE MADE OF CAST IRON - North Central Railroad, Baltimore Freight House, Guilford & Centre Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  11. Teachers Pick the Top 50 Kids Books Ever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the top 25 best picture and chapter books according to a survey of more than 200 teachers, children's authors, and children's literature experts. Included in the top 10 picture books are: (1) "Where the Wild Things Are" by Maurice Sendak (HarperCollins); (2) "The Very Hungry Caterpillar" by Eric Carle (Penguin); (3) "The…

  12. Table Top Tennis: A Vehicle for Teaching Sportspersonship and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwager, Susan; Stylianou, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Table top tennis is a game that can be played in the classroom or lunchroom when the gymnasium is unavailable. It is a good activity for developing sportspersonship and responsibility in students in grades four and up. This article provides a description of table top tennis, including basic rules and strategies; an explanation of how it can…

  13. Vertical Variation of Ice Particle Size in Convective Cloud Tops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Fridlind, Ann M.; Cairns, Brian; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Yorks, John E.

    2016-01-01

    A novel technique is used to estimate derivatives of ice effective radius with respect to height near convective cloud tops (dr(sub e)/dz) from airborne shortwave reflectance measurements and lidar. Values of dr(sub e)/dz are about -6 micrometer/km for cloud tops below the homogeneous freezing level, increasing to near 0 micrometer/km above the estimated level of neutral buoyancy. Retrieved dr(sub e)/dz compares well with previously documented remote sensing and in situ estimates. Effective radii decrease with increasing cloud top height, while cloud top extinction increases. This is consistent with weaker size sorting in high, dense cloud tops above the level of neutral buoyancy where fewer large particles are present and with stronger size sorting in lower cloud tops that are less dense. The results also confirm that cloud top trends of effective radius can generally be used as surrogates for trends with height within convective cloud tops. These results provide valuable observational targets for model evaluation.

  14. Top-Down Management: An Effective Tool in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Yau; Beverton, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the strengths and weaknesses of top-down management in a university that has embraced globalisation with a strong market-led ethos and to suggest the ways in which adjustments might be made to top-down management processes. Design/methodology/approach: The paper examines the strengths and weaknesses…

  15. Selective Comprehensives: The Social Composition of Top Comprehensive Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton Trust, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at publicly available data on the proportion of pupils eligible and claiming for free school meals (FSM) in the top 500 comprehensive state schools and at how representative they are of their localities and of their school type. We have looked at the top 500 when measured by five good GCSEs including English and Maths and at the…

  16. 63. CANAL BOAT IN CRADLE AT TOP OF PLANE. TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. CANAL BOAT IN CRADLE AT TOP OF PLANE. TO PASS OVER THE SUMMIT (THE HUMP OF LAND AT THE TOP OF PLANE TO HOLD BACK THE WATER AT THAT LEVEL), THE BOATS HAVE SEEN HINGED AND TWO CRADLES ARE USED TO CARRY THE BOAT UP THE PLANE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  17. Stereoscopic, thermal, and true deep cumulus cloud top heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Corlett, G. K.; Lawrence, S. P.; Remedios, J. J.; Sherwood, S. C.; Chae, J.; Minnis, P.; McGill, M.

    2004-05-01

    We compare cloud-top height estimates from several sensors: thermal tops from GOES-8 and MODIS, stereoscopic tops from MISR, and directly measured heights from the Goddard Cloud Physics Lidar on board the ER-2, all collected during the CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign. Comparisons reveal a persistent 1-2 km underestimation of cloud-top heights by thermal imagery, even when the finite optical extinctions near cloud top and in thin overlying cirrus are taken into account. The most severe underestimates occur for the tallest clouds. The MISR "best-sinds" and lidar estimates disagree in very similar ways with thermally estimated tops, which we take as evidence of excellent performance by MISR. Encouraged by this, we use MISR to examine variations in cloud penetration and thermal top height errors in several locations of tropical deep convection over multiple seasons. The goals of this are, first, to learn how cloud penetration depends on the near-tropopause environment; and second, to gain further insight into the mysterious underestimation of tops by thermal imagery.

  18. Slow Manifold and Hannay Angle in the Spinning Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, M. V.; Shukla, P.

    2011-01-01

    The spin of a top can be regarded as a fast variable, coupled to the motion of the axis which is slow. In pure precession, the rotation of the axis round a cone (without nutation), can be considered as the result of a reaction from the fast spin. The resulting restriction of the total state space of the top is an illustrative example, at…

  19. 78 FR 60268 - Race to the Top-District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Race to the Top--District AGENCY: Office of the Deputy Secretary, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice extending the deadline of the fiscal year (FY) 2013 Race to the Top...) Number: 84.416. SUMMARY: The Secretary is extending the application deadline in the FY 2013 Race to the...

  20. Laboratory Layered Latte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Nan; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Zhu, Lailai; Nunes, Janine; Kim, Hyoungsoo; Stone, Howard

    2017-11-01

    Layered composite fluids are sometimes observed in confined systems of rather chaotic initial states, for example, layered lattes formed by pouring espresso into a glass of warm milk. In such configurations, pouring forces a lower density liquid (espresso) into a higher density ambient, which is similar to the fountain effects that characterize a wide range of flows driven by injecting a fluid into a second miscible phase. Although the initial state of the mixture is complex and chaotic, there are conditions where the mixture cools at room temperature and exhibits an organized layered pattern. Here we report controlled experiments injecting a fluid into a miscible phase and show that, above a critical injection velocity, layering naturally emerges over the time scale of minutes. We perform experimental and numerical analyses of the time-dependent flows to observe and understand the convective circulation in the layers. We identify critical conditions to produce the layering and relate the results quantitatively to the critical Rayleigh number in double-diffusive convection, which indicates the competition between the horizontal thermal gradient and the vertical density gradient generated by the fluid injection. Based on this understanding, we show how to employ this single-step process to produce layered structures in soft materials, where the local elastic properties as well as the local material concentration vary step-wise along the length of the material.

  1. Comparison between semiconducting and oxide layers as a reflection layer in spin-valve films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinia, A.; Schmerber, G.; Ulhaq, C.

    2003-07-01

    It is well established that appropriate oxide capping is effective in forming nano-oxide layers (NOL) in spin-valve films for specular enhancement of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect. However, the beneficial effect of a NOL is strongly dependent on its process of formation. Therefore, we are interested to use a nano-semiconducting layer (NSL) for specular reflection instead of oxide layers because its achievement is easier since no specific growth conditions are needed. Moreover, we intend to compare the efficiency of the electronic confinement inside the spin valve induced either by NSL or NOLs for structures with the same stack. We have prepared hard-soft spin valve structures by sputtering on glass substrates with the following stacking sequence: Fe6 nm/Cu3 nm/CoFe1.8 nmRu0.8 nmCoFe3 nmCu2 nmRu2 nm. The reflecting layers have been inserted in the middle of the Fe soft layer and on the top of the spin valve. The GMR effect is enhanced by 60% and 75% respectively for the NSL and the NOL. This shows that the NOL is more efficient in term of electronic confinement. To understand the origin of the difference between the NOL and NSL magnetization measurements as well as transmission electron microscopy are presented.

  2. Transparent perovskite light-emitting diodes by employing organic-inorganic multilayer transparent top electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junqing; Guo, Xiaoyang; Song, Li; Lin, Jie; Hu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Xingyuan

    2017-11-01

    Perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) have attracted much attention in the past two years due to their high photoluminescence quantum efficiencies and wavelength tuneable characteristics. In this work, transparent PeLEDs (TPeLEDs) have been reported with organic-inorganic multilayer transparent top electrodes that have more convenient control of the organic/electrode interface. By optimizing the thickness of the MoO3 layer in the top electrode, the best average transmittance of 47.21% has been obtained in the TPeLED in the wavelength range of 380-780 nm. In addition, the TPeLED exhibits a maximum luminance of 6380 cd/m2, a maximum current efficiency (CE) of 3.50 cd/A, and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 0.85% from the bottom side together with a maximum luminance of 3380 cd/m2, a maximum CE of 1.47 cd/A, and a maximum EQE of 0.36% from the top side. The total EQE of the TPeLED is about 86% of that of the reference device, indicating efficient TPeLED achieved in this work, which could have significant contribution to PeLEDs for see-through displays.

  3. USDOE Top-of-Rail Lubricant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mohumad F. Alzoubi; George R. Fenske; Robert A. Erck

    2002-02-01

    Lubrication of wheel/rail systems has been recognized for the last two decades as a very important issue for railroads. Energy savings and less friction and wear can be realized if a lubricant can be used at the wheel/rail interface. On the other hand, adverse influences are seen in operating and wear conditions if improper or excessive lubrication is used. Also, inefficiencies in lubrication need to be avoided for economic and environmental reasons. The top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant concept was developed by Texaco Corporation to lubricate wheels and rails effectively and efficiently. Tranergy Corporation has been developing its SENTRAEN 2000{trademark} lubrication systemmore » for the last ten years, and this revolutionary new high-tech on-board rail lubrication system promises to dramatically improve the energy efficiency, performance, safety, and track environment of railroads. The system is fully computer-controlled and ensures that all of the lubricant is consumed as the end of the train passes. Lubricant quantity dispensed is a function of grade, speed, curve, and axle load. Tranergy also has its LA4000{trademark} wheel and rail simulator, a lubrication and traction testing apparatus. The primary task of this project was collecting and analyzing the volatile and semivolatile compounds produced as the lubricant was used. The volatile organic compounds were collected by Carbotrap cartridges and analyzed by adsorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The semivolatile fraction was obtained by collecting liquid that dripped from the test wheel. The collected material was also analyzed by GC/MS. Both of these analyses were qualitative. The results indicated that in the volatile fraction, the only compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund List of Analytes detected were contaminants either in the room air or from other potential contamination sources in the laboratory. Similarly, in the semivolatile fraction none of the

  4. Terascale Optimal PDE Simulations (TOPS) Center

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Olof B. Widlund

    2007-07-09

    .g., illustrated in [24, 25, 26]. This work is based on [29, 31]. Our work over these five and half years has, in our opinion, helped advance the knowledge of domain decomposition methods significantly. We see these methods as providing valuable alternatives to other iterative methods, in particular, those based on multi-grid. In our opinion, our accomplishments also match the goals of the TOPS project quite closely.« less

  5. Characterization of triple layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Toribio F.; Cortes, M. Teresa

    2001-07-01

    We reported the characterization of a macroscopic electrochemomechanical actuator like triple layer (3x1 cm) formed by polypyrrole)/double- sided, non-conducting and flexible tape/ polypyrrole that works in liquid electrolytes under electrochemical control. This triple layer has characteristics of artificial muscle. The influence of variables that control the volume change in the polymer as electrolyte concentration, or temperature has been studied. Variations of time, energy and charge under different conditions are described. We have found that the triple layer acts, at the same time, as sensor and actuator. Therefore, physical magnitudes like the electrolyte concentration or the temperature in the cell can be obtained from electrical energy consumed by a muscle. We have evaluated the influence of variables as area of the triple layer or the trailing weight, which don't participate in the electrochemical reaction. We propose an explication to the results, which show a correlation between the trailed mass and the consumed charge required to move a constant angle those masses by the triple layer. When different surface areas of the triple layer has been evaluated we found that the consumed electrical charge is proportional to area (the mass) of the triple layer. The triple layer can make macroscopical movements in short times, their position is absolutely controlled with the electrical charge, and it has capacity to lift masses. These characteristics allow their use in the design of tools. So, we present a macroscopic tool constituted by two triple layers, which allows catch and translate objects in liquid medium (nipper).

  6. The Application of Layer Theory to Design: The Control Layer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Langton, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    A theory of design layers proposed by Gibbons ("An Architectural Approach to Instructional Design." Routledge, New York, 2014) asserts that each layer of an instructional design is related to a body of theory closely associated with the concerns of that particular layer. This study focuses on one layer, the control layer, examining…

  7. Substrate Structures For Growth Of Highly Oriented And/Or Epitaxial Layers Thereon

    DOEpatents

    Arendt, Paul N.; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Groves, James R.; Jia, Quanxi

    2005-07-26

    A composite substrate structure including a substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer is provided together with additional layers such as one or more layers of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer. Jc's of 2.3×106 A/cm2 have been demonstrated with projected Ic's of 320 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide for a superconducting article including a flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, an inert oxide material layer upon the surface of the flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the layer of the inert oxide material, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer, a layer of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer, and, a top-layer of a high temperature superconducting material upon the layer of a buffer material.

  8. Determination of the top quark mass from leptonic observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frixione, Stefano; Mitov, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    We present a procedure for the determination of the mass of the top quark at the LHC based on leptonic observables in dilepton events. Our approach utilises the shapes of kinematic distributions through their few lowest Mellin moments; it is notable for its minimal sensitivity to the modelling of long-distance effects, for not requiring the reconstruction of top quarks, and for having a competitive precision, with theory errors on the extracted top mass of the order of 0.8 GeV. A novel aspect of our work is the study of theoretical biases that might influence in a dramatic way the determination of the top mass, and which are potentially relevant to all template-based methods. We propose a comprehensive strategy that helps minimise the impact of such biases, and leads to a reliable top mass extraction at hadron colliders.

  9. Search strategies for top partners in composite Higgs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gripaios, Ben; Müller, Thibaut; Parker, M. A.; Sutherland, Dave

    2014-08-01

    We consider how best to search for top partners in generic composite Higgs models. We begin by classifying the possible group representations carried by top partners in models with and without a custodial SU(2) × SU(2) ⋊ 2 symmetry protecting the rate for Z → decays. We identify a number of minimal models whose top partners only have electric charges of , , or and thus decay to top or bottom quarks via a single Higgs or electroweak gauge boson. We develop an inclusive search for these based on a top veto, which we find to be more effective than existing searches. Less minimal models feature light states that can be sought in final states with like-sign leptons and so we find that 2 straightforward LHC searches give a reasonable coverage of the gamut of composite Higgs models.

  10. Compliant layer chucking surface

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, Kenneth L [Dublin, CA; Spence, Paul A [Pleasanton, CA; Thompson, Samuel L [Pleasanton, CA

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a thin layer of complaint material is deposited on the surface of a chuck to mitigate the deformation that an entrapped particle might cause in the part, such as a mask or a wafer, that is clamped to the chuck. The harder particle will embed into the softer layer as the clamping pressure is applied. The material composing the thin layer could be a metal or a polymer for vacuum or electrostatic chucks. It may be deposited in various patterns to affect an interrupted surface, such as that of a "pin" chuck, thereby reducing the probability of entrapping a particle.

  11. Altitude of the Top of the Madison Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and groundwater in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study arca arc Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  12. Altitude of the Top of the Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  13. Altitude of the Top of the Minnelusa Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  14. Altitude of the top of the Inyan Kara Group in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  15. Altitude of the Top of the Minnekahta Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and groundwater in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoli, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara. Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  16. A Novel, Diazonium-Phenolic Resin Two-Layer Resist System Utilizing Photoinduced Interfacial Insolubilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, Shou-ichi; Iwayanagi, Takao; Ueno, Takumi; Hashimoto, Michiaki; Nonogaki, Saburo

    1987-08-01

    This paper deals with a negative two-layer photoresist system utilizing a photoinduced insolubilization process at the interface. The bottom layer is a phenolic resin either with or without aromatic azide and the top layer is a photosensitive layer comprised of an aromatic diazonium compound and a water soluble polymer. Upon exposure to light, the diazo compound decomposes to cause insolubilization at the interface between the two layers. The system exhibits high contrast due to the combination of interfacial insolubilization and contrast enhancement by photobleaching of the diazonium compound. Patterns of 0.5 um lines and spaces are obtained using an i-line stepper and a resist system containing 4-diazo-N,N-dimethylaniline chloride zinc chloride in the top layer and 3-(4-azidostyry1)- 5,5-dimethyl- 2-cyclohexen-1-one in the bottom layer. Resists with varying spectral responses from mid-UV to g-line can be designed by selecting the kind of diazo compound used in the top layer.

  17. Nanoscale multiple gaseous layers on a hydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Xuehua; Fan, Chunhai; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Jun

    2009-08-18

    The nanoscale gas state at the interfaces of liquids (water, acid, and salt solutions) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was investigated via tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). For the first time, we report that the interfacial gases could form bilayers and trilayers, i.e., on the top of a flat gas layer, there are one or two more gas layers. The formation of these gas layers could be induced by a local supersaturation of gases, which can be achieved by (1) temperature difference between the liquids and the HOPG substrates or (2) exchange ethanol with water. Furthermore, we found that the gas layers were less stable than spherical bubbles. They could transform to bubbles with time or under the perturbation of the AFM tip.

  18. Top-Down Beta Rhythms Support Selective Attention via Interlaminar Interaction: A Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung H.; Whittington, Miles A.; Kopell, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical rhythms have been thought to play crucial roles in our cognitive abilities. Rhythmic activity in the beta frequency band, around 20 Hz, has been reported in recent studies that focused on neural correlates of attention, indicating that top-down beta rhythms, generated in higher cognitive areas and delivered to earlier sensory areas, can support attentional gain modulation. To elucidate functional roles of beta rhythms and underlying mechanisms, we built a computational model of sensory cortical areas. Our simulation results show that top-down beta rhythms can activate ascending synaptic projections from L5 to L4 and L2/3, responsible for biased competition in superficial layers. In the simulation, slow-inhibitory interneurons are shown to resonate to the 20 Hz input and modulate the activity in superficial layers in an attention-related manner. The predicted critical roles of these cells in attentional gain provide a potential mechanism by which cholinergic drive can support selective attention. PMID:23950699

  19. Stratocumulus Cloud Top Radiative Cooling and Cloud Base Updraft Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Balsells, J.; Klinger, C.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud top radiative cooling is a primary driver of turbulence in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary. A functional relationship between cloud top cooling and cloud base updraft speeds may therefore exist. A correlation of cloud top radiative cooling and cloud base updraft speeds has been recently identified empirically, providing a basis for satellite retrieval of cloud base updraft speeds. Such retrievals may enable analysis of aerosol-cloud interactions using satellite observations: Updraft speeds at cloud base co-determine supersaturation and therefore the activation of cloud condensation nuclei, which in turn co-determine cloud properties and precipitation formation. We use large eddy simulation and an off-line radiative transfer model to explore the relationship between cloud-top radiative cooling and cloud base updraft speeds in a marine stratocumulus cloud over the course of the diurnal cycle. We find that during daytime, at low cloud water path (CWP < 50 g m-2), cloud base updraft speeds and cloud top cooling are well-correlated, in agreement with the reported empirical relationship. During the night, in the absence of short-wave heating, CWP builds up (CWP > 50 g m-2) and long-wave emissions from cloud top saturate, while cloud base heating increases. In combination, cloud top cooling and cloud base updrafts become weakly anti-correlated. A functional relationship between cloud top cooling and cloud base updraft speed can hence be expected for stratocumulus clouds with a sufficiently low CWP and sub-saturated long-wave emissions, in particular during daytime. At higher CWPs, in particular at night, the relationship breaks down due to saturation of long-wave emissions from cloud top.

  20. Swelling-induced wrinkling in layered gel beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardinocchi, P.; Puntel, E.

    2017-11-01

    Gels are widely employed in smart mechanical devices and biomedical applications. Swelling-induced bending actuation can be obtained by means of a simple bilayer gel beam. We show that this system can also exhibit wrinkling patterns of potential interest for structural morphing and sensing. We study swelling-induced wrinkling at the extrados of a bilayer gel beam with the softer layer on top. The bent configuration at finite strain is recovered first and, starting from it, a linear perturbation analysis is performed. We delimit the zone corresponding to wrinkling modes in a parameter plane encompassing a mechanical stiffness ratio and a geometric top layer to total height ratio. Interestingly, we observe that surface instability precedes and envelopes wrinkling modes of finite wavelength. Finally, we discuss the effect of changes in stiffness and of the Flory-Huggins parameters χ on the size of the wrinkling domain.

  1. Field recovery of layered tektites in northeast Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, J.T.; Pitakpaivan, K.; Putthapiban, P.

    The authors recovered Australasian tektites in place throughout a 40 X 130 km region in northeast Thailand extending from the Laotian border westward to a line connecting Na Pho Klang in the northeast through Det Udom to Nam Yun in the south. With two exceptions, in sites near the western edge of this region, all fragments are layered (muong-Nong-type) tektites. It appears that large layered tektites are mainly found by rice farmers in fields that were forested until the recent past. The presence of layered tektites in this 40 X 130 km area implies that impact melt that fell inmore » these areas was hot enough to flow if it was deposited on a sloping surface. The absence of splash-form tektites from the region indicates that the layer was still molten when masses having shapes (teardrops, dumbbells, etc.) produced by spinning reached the ground. To account for this and to allow time for the melt to flow a few tens of centimeters requires that the atmosphere remained hot (>2300 K) for a few minutes. Tektites that are in place are almost always associated with a widespread 10-cm to meter-thick layer of laterite. In two cases (one involving layered, one involving splash-form tektites), where accurate stratigraphic control demonstrated that the tektites were still in section, they were sited on top of the laterite layer just below a layer of aeolian sand. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.« less

  2. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J

    2018-01-03

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  3. The Bottom Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  4. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  5. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOEpatents

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  6. Boundary layer relaminarization device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creel, Theodore R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Relamination of a boundary layer formed in supersonic flow over the leading edge of a swept airfoil is accomplished by means of at least one band, especially a quadrangular band, and most preferably a square band. Each band conforms to the leading edge and the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil as an integral part thereof and extends perpendicularly from the leading edge. Each band has a height of about two times the thickness of the maximum expected boundary layer.

  7. Report on the Radar/PIREP Cloud Top Discrepancy Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's (AMU) investigation of inconsistencies between pilot reported cloud top heights and weather radar indicated echo top heights (assumed to be cloud tops) as identified by the 45 Weather Squadron (45WS). The objective for this study is to document and understand the differences in echo top characteristics as displayed on both the WSR-88D and WSR-74C radars and cloud top heights reported by the contract weather aircraft in support of space launch operations at Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), Florida. These inconsistencies are of operational concern since various Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) and Flight Rules (FR) in part describe safe and unsafe conditions as a function of cloud thickness. Some background radar information was presented. Scan strategies for the WSR-74C and WSR-88D were reviewed along with a description of normal radar beam propagation influenced by the Effective Earth Radius Model. Atmospheric conditions prior to and leading up to both launch operations were detailed. Through the analysis of rawinsonde and radar data, atmospheric refraction or bending of the radar beam was identified as the cause of the discrepancies between reported cloud top heights by the contract weather aircraft and those as identified by both radars. The atmospheric refraction caused the radar beam to be further bent toward the Earth than normal. This radar beam bending causes the radar target to be displayed erroneously, with higher cloud top heights and a very blocky or skewed appearance.

  8. Optical Properties of Multi-Layered Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Heather M.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Barker, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Multi-layer insulation, MLI, is a material used on rocket bodies and satellites mainly for thermal insulation. MLI can be comprised of a variety of materials, layer numbers, and dimensions based on its purpose. A common composition of MLI consists of outer facing copper-colored Kapton with an aluminized backing for the top and bottom layers and the middle consisting of alternating layers of DARCON or Nomex netting with aluminized Mylar. If this material became separated from the spacecraft or rocket body its orbit would vary greatly in eccentricity due to its high area to mass (A/m) and susceptibility to solar radiation pressure perturbations. Recently a debris population was found with high A/m, which could be MLI. Laboratory photometric measurements of one intact piece and three different layers of MLI is presented in an effort to predict the characteristics of a MLI light curve and aid in identifying the source of the new population. For this paper, the layers used will be consistent with the common MLI mentioned in the above paragraph. Using a robotic arm, the piece was rotated from 0-360 degrees in one degree increments along the object s longest axis. Laboratory photometric data was recorded with a CCD camera using various filters (Johnson B, Johnson V and Bessell R). The measurements were taken at an 18 degree (light-object-camera) phase angle. As expected, the MLI pieces showed characteristics similar to a bimodal magnitude plot of a flat plate, but with more photometric features, dependant upon the layer of MLI. Time exposures varied from piece to piece such that the amount of pixels saturated would be minimal. In addition to photometric laboratory measurements, laboratory spectral measurements are shown for the same MLI samples. Spectral data will be combined to match the wavelength region of photometric data so a measure of truth can be established for the photometric measurements. Spectral data shows a strong absorption feature near 4800 angstroms

  9. Year-Long Vertical Velocity Statistics Derived from Doppler Lidar Data for the Continental Convective Boundary Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.

    One year of Coherent Doppler Lidar (CDL) data collected at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Oklahoma is analyzed to provide profiles of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis for cases of cloud-free convective boundary layers. The variance was scaled by the Deardorff convective velocity scale, which was successful when the boundary layer depth was stationary but failed in situations when the layer was changing rapidly. In this study the data are sorted according to time of day, season, wind direction, surface shear stress, degree of instability, and wind shear across the boundary-layer top. Themore » normalized variance was found to have its peak value near a normalized height of 0.25. The magnitude of the variance changes with season, shear stress, and degree of instability, but was not impacted by wind shear across the boundary-layer top. The skewness was largest in the top half of the boundary layer (with the exception of wintertime conditions). The skewness was found to be a function of the season, shear stress, wind shear across the boundary-layer top, with larger amounts of shear leading to smaller values. Like skewness, the vertical profile of kurtosis followed a consistent pattern, with peak values near the boundary-layer top (also with the exception of wintertime data). The altitude of the peak values of kurtosis was found to be lower when there was a large amount of wind shear at the boundary-layer top.« less

  10. Tests on Double Layer Metalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    28 page report describes experiments in fabrication of integrated circuits with double-layer metalization. Double-layer metalization requires much less silicon "real estate" and allows more flexibility in placement of circuit elements than does single-layer metalization.

  11. Top: Latest results from the Tevatron - Cross section and mass

    SciTech Connect

    M. Coca

    2003-09-02

    The Tevatron is presently the world's only source of top quark production. This presentation summarizes the latest Run II results on top physics obtained by the CDF and D0 collaborations, using data taken until mid-January 2003. The first cross section measurements at 1.96 TeV in dilepton and lepton+jets channels agree with the NLO (Next-to-Leading-Order) theoretical predictions. Two top mass measurements, one by CDF using Run II data and another by D0 using an improved technique anticipate the improvements to come in the near future.

  12. Probing new top physics at the LHCb experiment.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Alexander L; Kamenik, Jernej F; Perez, Gilad; Stone, Sheldon

    2011-08-19

    We suggest that top quark physics can be studied at the LHCb experiment and that top quark production could be observed. Since LHCb covers a large pseudorapidity region in the forward direction, it has unique abilities to probe new physics in the top quark sector. Furthermore, we demonstrate that LHCb may be able to measure a t ̄t production rate asymmetry and, thus, indirectly probe an anomalous forward-backward t ̄t asymmetry in the forward region, a possibility suggested by the enhanced forward-backward asymmetry reported by the CDF experiment. © 2011 American Physical Society

  13. Ranking benchmarks of top 100 players in men's professional tennis.

    PubMed

    Reid, Machar; Morris, Craig

    2013-01-01

    In men's professional tennis, players aspire to hold the top ranking position. On the way to the top spot, reaching the top 100 can be seen as a significant career milestone. National Federations undertake extensive efforts to assist their players to reach the top 100. However, objective data considering reasonable ranking yardsticks for top 100 success in men's professional tennis are lacking. Therefore, it is difficult for National Federations and those involved in player development to give empirical programming advice to young players. By taking a closer look at the ranking history of professional male tennis players, this article tries to provide those involved in player development a more objective basis for decision-making. The 100 names, countries, birthdates and ranking histories of the top 100 players listed in the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) at 31 December 2009 were recorded from websites in the public domain. Descriptive statistics were reported for the ranking milestones of interest. Results confirmed the merits of the International Tennis Federation's junior tour with 91% of the top 100 professionals earning a junior ranking, the mean peak of which was 94.1, s=148.9. On average, top 100 professionals achieved their best junior rankings and earned their first ATP point at similar ages, suggesting that players compete on both the junior and professional tours during their transition. Once professionally ranked, players took an average 4.5, s=2.1 years to reach the ATP top 100 at the mean age of 21.5, s=2.6 years, which contrasts with the mean current age of the top 100 of 26.8, s=3.2. The best professional rankings of players born in 1982 or earlier were positively related to the ages at which players earned their first ATP point and then entered the top 100, suggesting that the ages associated with these ranking milestones may have some forecasting potential. Future work should focus on the change in top 100 demographics over time as well

  14. Mountain-Top-to-Mountain-Top Optical Link Demonstration. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, A.; Wright, M. W.

    2002-01-01

    A mountain-top-to-mountain-top optical link was demonstrated between JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF), Wrightwood, California, and Strawberry Peak (SP), Lake Arrowhead, California, during the months of June, August, and September of 2000. The bidirectional laser link was nearly horizontal at an altitude of 2 km and spanned a range of 46.8 km. The 780-nm beacon laser transmitted from TMF comprised eight co-propagating mutually incoherent laser beams. The normalized variance or scintillation index (SI) of the individual beacon lasers measured by recording the signal received through 8.50-cm-diameter spotting telescopes on three different nights (June 28-30, 2000) was 1.05 +/- 0.2, 1.76 +/- 0.6, and 0.96 +/- 0.24, respectively. These measurements agreed with values predicted by a heuristic model. The SI of the signal received at SP was found to decrease progressively with an increasing number of beams, and a factor of 3 to 3.5 reduction was achieved for all eight beams. The beam divergence determined by mapping out the point spread function of a few of the individual laser footprints received at SP was 85 to 150 microrad, compared to a design goal of 120 microrad. The 852-nm communications laser beam received at TMF through a 60-cm-diameter telescope on the nights of August 4 and September 14 and 15, 2000, yielded SI values of 0.23 +/- 0.04, 0.32 +/- 0.01, and 0.49 +/- 0.18, respectively, where the reduction was attributed to aperture averaging. The probability distribution functions of the received signal at either end, mitigated by multi-beam averaging in one direction and by aperture averaging in the other direction, displayed lognormal behavior. Consequently, the measured fade statistics showed good agreement with a lognormal model.

  15. Layered Outcrops of Far West Candor Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    has a relatively smooth upper surface, and each is hard enough to form steep cliffs at its margins.

    Layers indicate change. The uniform pattern seen here--beds of similar properties and thickness repeated over a hundred times--suggest that the deposition of materials that made the layers was interrupted at regular or episodic intervals. Patterns like this, when found on Earth, usually indicate the presence of sediment deposited in dynamic, energetic, underwater environments. On Mars, these same patterns could very well indicate that the materials were deposited in a lake or shallow sea. Other MOC images suggest that these layers would not have formed in a lake in Candor Chasma, but instead were deposited in a crater or other basin that existed before Candor Chasma was cut (by faulting and erosion) into the surrounding terrain. However, it is not known for certain that these materials actually formed underwater, for it is possible that there were uniquely Martian processes occurring in the distant past that would mimic the pattern of sedimentation in water. For example, if the early Martian atmosphere was denser than it is today, and if the planet's atmospheric pressure changed on a cyclic basis (as it does today), then perhaps these materials are simply deposits of airborne dust that were later buried and cemented to create cliff-forming rock.

    Sunlight illuminates both the wide angle context view and the narrow angle high resolution image from the left/upper left. In both, north is toward the top and east to the right.

  16. Method of forming a dense, high temperature electronically conductive composite layer on a porous ceramic substrate

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical device, containing a solid oxide electrolyte material and an electrically conductive composite layer, has the composite layer attached by: (A) applying a layer of LaCrO.sub.3, YCrO.sub.3 or LaMnO.sub.3 particles (32), on a portion of a porous ceramic substrate (30), (B) heating to sinter bond the particles to the substrate, (C) depositing a dense filler structure (34) between the doped particles (32), (D) shaving off the top of the particles, and (E) applying an electronically conductive layer over the particles (32) as a contact.

  17. Method of forming a dense, high temperature electronically conductive composite layer on a porous ceramic substrate

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1992-04-21

    An electrochemical device, containing a solid oxide electrolyte material and an electrically conductive composite layer, has the composite layer attached by: (A) applying a layer of LaCrO[sub 3], YCrO[sub 3] or LaMnO[sub 3] particles, on a portion of a porous ceramic substrate, (B) heating to sinter bond the particles to the substrate, (C) depositing a dense filler structure between the doped particles, (D) shaving off the top of the particles, and (E) applying an electronically conductive layer over the particles as a contact. 7 figs.

  18. EDITORIAL: Atomic layer deposition Atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Marek

    2012-07-01

    The growth method of atomic layer deposition (ALD) was introduced in Finland by Suntola under the name of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). The method was originally used for deposition of thin films of sulphides (ZnS, CaS, SrS) activated with manganese or rare-earth ions. Such films were grown for applications in thin-film electroluminescence (TFEL) displays. The ALE mode of growth was also tested in the case of molecular beam epitaxy. Films grown by ALD are commonly polycrystalline or even amorphous. Thus, the name ALE has been replaced by ALD. In the 80s ALD was developed mostly in Finland and neighboring Baltic countries. Deposition of a range of different materials was demonstrated at that time, including II-VI semiconductors (e.g. CdTe, CdS) and III-V (e.g. GaAs, GaN), with possible applications in e.g. photovoltaics. The number of publications on ALD was slowly increasing, approaching about 100 each year. A real boom in interest came with the development of deposition methods of thin films of high-k dielectrics. This research was motivated by a high leakage current in field-effect transistors with SiO2-based gate dielectrics. In 2007 Intel introduced a new generation of integrated circuits (ICs) with thin films of HfO2 used as gate isolating layers. In these and subsequent ICs, films of HfO2 are deposited by the ALD method. This is due to their unique properties. The introduction of ALD to the electronics industry led to a booming interest in the ALD growth method, with the number of publications increasing rapidly to well above 1000 each year. A number of new applications were proposed, as reflected in this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology. The included articles cover a wide range of possible applications—in microelectronics, transparent electronics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics and spintronics. Research papers and reviews on the basics of ALD growth are also included, reflecting a growing interest in precursor chemistry and growth

  19. Layered electrode for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Swathirajan, Swathy; Mikhail, Youssef M.

    2001-01-01

    There is provided an electrode structure comprising a current collector sheet and first and second layers of electrode material. Together, the layers improve catalyst utilization and water management.

  20. Marine Layer Stratus Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Leonard A.

    2007-06-01

    The intent of this study is to develop a better understanding of the behavior of late spring through early fall marine layer stratus and fog at Vandenberg Air Force Base, which accounts for a majority of aviation forecasting difficulties. The main objective was to use Leipper (1995) study as a starting point to evaluate synoptic and mesoscale processes involved, and identify specific meteorological parameters that affected the behavior of marine layer stratus and fog. After identifying those parameters, the study evaluates how well the various weather models forecast them. The main conclusion of this study is that weak upper-air dynamic features work with boundary layer motions to influence marine layer behavior. It highlights the importance of correctly forecasting the surface temperature by showing how it ties directly to the wind field. That wind field, modified by the local terrain, establishes the low-level convergence and divergence pattern and the resulting marine layer cloud thicknesses and visibilities.

  1. Stability of mixing layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher; Krothapalli, A

    1993-01-01

    The research program for the first year of this project (see the original research proposal) consists of developing an explicit marching scheme for solving the parabolized stability equations (PSE). Performing mathematical analysis of the computational algorithm including numerical stability analysis and the determination of the proper boundary conditions needed at the boundary of the computation domain are implicit in the task. Before one can solve the parabolized stability equations for high-speed mixing layers, the mean flow must first be found. In the past, instability analysis of high-speed mixing layer has mostly been performed on mean flow profiles calculated by the boundary layer equations. In carrying out this project, it is believed that the boundary layer equations might not give an accurate enough nonparallel, nonlinear mean flow needed for parabolized stability analysis. A more accurate mean flow can, however, be found by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. The advantage of the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations is that its accuracy is consistent with the PSE method. Furthermore, the method of solution is similar. Hence, the major part of the effort of the work of this year has been devoted to the development of an explicit numerical marching scheme for the solution of the Parabolized Navier-Stokes equation as applied to the high-seed mixing layer problem.

  2. Effect of surface wave propagation in a four-layered oceanic crust model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Pasupati; Kundu, Santimoy; Mandal, Dinbandhu

    2017-12-01

    Dispersion of Rayleigh type surface wave propagation has been discussed in four-layered oceanic crust. It includes a sandy layer over a crystalline elastic half-space and over it there are two more layers—on the top inhomogeneous liquid layer and under it a liquid-saturated porous layer. Frequency equation is obtained in the form of determinant. The effects of the width of different layers as well as the inhomogeneity of liquid layer, sandiness of sandy layer on surface waves are depicted and shown graphically by considering all possible case of the particular model. Some special cases have been deduced, few special cases give the dispersion equation of Scholte wave and Stoneley wave, some of which have already been discussed elsewhere.

  3. 4 Top Healthy Snacks | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity 4 Top Healthy Snacks Past Issues / Spring - Summer ... looking at whether or not the risks for childhood obesity could actually start before birth. The subject needs ...

  4. Top-up injection schemes for future circular lepton collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiba, M.; Goddard, B.; Oide, K.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Saá Hernández, Á.; Shwartz, D.; White, S.; Zimmermann, F.

    2018-02-01

    Top-up injection is an essential ingredient for the future circular lepton collider (FCC-ee) to maximize the integrated luminosity and it determines the design performance. In ttbar operation mode, with a beam energy of 175 GeV, the design lifetime of ∼1 h is the shortest of the four anticipated operational modes, and the beam lifetime may be even shorter in actual operation. A highly robust top-up injection scheme is consequently imperative. Various top-up methods are investigated and a number of suitable schemes are considered in developing alternative designs for the injection straight section of the collider ring. For the first time, we consider multipole-kicker off-energy injection, for minimizing detector background in top-up operation, and the use of a thin wire septum in a lepton storage ring, for maximizing the luminosity.

  5. 15. FAN HOUSE ON TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FAN HOUSE ON TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  6. 17. TOP OF TURBINE LOOKING NORTHWEST. SHAFT TO GENERATOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. TOP OF TURBINE LOOKING NORTHWEST. SHAFT TO GENERATOR IN CENTER. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  7. Same-sign dilepton excesses and light top squarks

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Peisi; Ismail, Ahmed; Low, Ian

    2015-10-01

    Run 1 data of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) contain excessive events in the same-sign dilepton channel with b-jets and missing transverse energy (MET), which were observed by five separate analyses from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. We show that these events could be explained by direct production of top squarks in supersymmetry. In particular, a right-handed top squark with a mass of 550 GeV decaying into 2 t quarks, 2 W bosons, and MET could fit the observed excess without being constrained by other direct search limits from Run 1. We propose kinematic cuts at 13 TeV to enhancemore » the top squark signal, and estimate that top squarks could be discovered with 40 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity at Run 2 of the LHC, when considering only the statistical uncertainty.« less

  8. 15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF TUBS, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. OPEN METAL BREWER'S STAIR VISIBLE ALONG WEST WALL - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 36. OVERALL VIEW OF PATTERN SHOP FORM TOP OF STAIR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. OVERALL VIEW OF PATTERN SHOP FORM TOP OF STAIR, SHEET METAL AREA AND OFFICE IN FOREGROUND-LOOKING WEST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  10. 5. TOP OF ARCH AND VIADUCT. NOTE THAT STONES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. TOP OF ARCH AND VIADUCT. NOTE THAT STONES OF ARCH HAVE BEEN DRAFTED FINISH AROUND THE EDGE) AND THE KEYSTONE HAS BEEN ROUGHLY POINTED. - Valley Railroad, Folly Mills Creek Viaduct, Interstate 81, Staunton, Staunton, VA

  11. 73. photographer unknown 9 January 1936 TOP OF DRAFT TUBE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. photographer unknown 9 January 1936 TOP OF DRAFT TUBE LINER AND SPEED RING PIERS. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  12. 8. Close view of sign showing the pediment, top portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Close view of sign showing the pediment, top portion with letter "C" and middle portion with letters "H-I-C" (Note: side sheet metal panels are missing) - Chicago Theater, 175 North State Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. 17. Interior view, top floor, original bathroom and lockers, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior view, top floor, original bathroom and lockers, looking east. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  14. 4. Photocopy of c. 1906 photograph taken from top of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of c. 1906 photograph taken from top of water tower looking E showing mule barn and yard; building adjacent to mill pond is not identified. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  15. 3. View looking E from top of World Trade Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View looking E from top of World Trade Tower with World Trade Tower parapet in foreground. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  16. VIEW OF LEFT WING AND FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LEFT WING AND FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND. LEADING AND TRAILING EDGE FLAPS ARE DOWN; AIELERONS ARE IN NEUTRAL. ENGINE COWLING OFF FOR HEAVY INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  17. PLACING TOP CHORD CENTER PANEL. View to the northwest from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLACING TOP CHORD CENTER PANEL. View to the northwest from the old suspension bridge. Chord members in place - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  18. 28. WEST CONFEDERATE AVENUE, OBSERVATION TOWER, VIEW FROM THE TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. WEST CONFEDERATE AVENUE, OBSERVATION TOWER, VIEW FROM THE TOP OF TOWER TO SOUTH. NOTE FOREST AND AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES. VIEW S. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  19. Top priorities of Canadian and American policymakers for conservation science

    EPA Science Inventory

    We summarize the content of America's "top 40" conservation research questions and how they can inform policy and management needs that emerged from informal interviews with senior policymakers and other decision makers

  20. INTERIOR VIEW OF COLUMN TOPS. CARBON DIOXIDE BUBBLED THROUGH AMMONIONATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF COLUMN TOPS. CARBON DIOXIDE BUBBLED THROUGH AMMONIONATED SALT BRINE TO MAKE BICARBONATE OF SODA. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY