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Sample records for a-encoding messenger ribonucleic

  1. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  2. Effect of Thymine Starvation on Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Luzzati, Denise

    1966-01-01

    Luzzati, Denise (Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, Paris, France). Effect of thymine starvation on messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 92:1435–1446. 1966.—During the course of thymine starvation, the rate of synthesis of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA, the rapidly labeled fraction of the RNA which decays in the presence of dinitrophenol or which hybridizes with deoxyribonucleic acid) decreases exponentially, in parallel with the viability of the thymine-starved bacteria. The ability of cell-free extracts of starved bacteria to incorporate ribonucleoside triphosphates into RNA was determined; it was found to be inferior to that of extracts from control cells. The analysis of the properties of cell-free extracts of starved cells shows that their decreased RNA polymerase activity is the consequence of a modification of their deoxyribonucleic acid, the ability of which to serve as a template for RNA polymerase decreases during starvation. PMID:5332402

  3. Presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its messenger ribonucleic acid in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ohno, T; Imai, A; Furui, T; Takahashi, K; Tamaya, T

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid and the presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in human ovarian carcinoma known to have gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites and to be affected by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog. Human ovarian carcinomas surgically removed and human ovarian carcinoma cell lines were examined. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was determined by a radioimmunoassay and a bioassay. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using oligonucleotide primers synthesized according to the published human gonadotropin-releasing hormone sequence. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was shown to be present in extracts of ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma sample (0.8 +/- 0.12 pg/mg of protein) and ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line SK-OV3 (0.92 +/- 0.17 pg/mg of protein) but not in the normal ovary and placenta. Two of two extract samples from individual cases evoked dose-dependent phosphoinositide breakdown in rat granulosa cells similar to that caused by authentic gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid was detected in two of two mucinous cystadenocarcinoma specimens, one of one serous cystadenocarcinoma, and SK-OV3 cells but not in the dysgerminoma, mucinous cystadenoma, and normal ovary and placenta. The demonstration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its messenger ribonucleic acid raises the possibility that gonadotropin-releasing hormone may play an autocrine regulatory role in the growth of ovarian carcinoma.

  4. TNF-α messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Alaaeddine, Nada; Sidaoui, Joseph; Hilal, George; Serhal, Reem; Abedelrahman, Abir; Khoury, Salem

    2012-01-01

    tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). A few studies have confirmed high TNF-α plasma protein levels in patients with NASH compared to healthy volunteers. We herein aimed to revisit these findings using other molecular techniques. a cross-sectional evaluation of patients newly diagnosed with NASH. A quantitative assay for the measurement of TNF-α messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was performed for NASH patients and controls using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). in 39 patients with NASH (mean age 38.6 ± 9.4 years, range 28-60 years; 79% males), the mean TNF-α mRNA level was significantly higher than that found for controls (137.6 ± 102.3 ng/mL versus 83.5 ± 43.8 ng/mL, respectively; P = 0.012). A TNF-α mRNA cut-off of 100 ng/mL predicted NASH most optimally (AUC 0.685 ± 0.066, P = 0.01; with 66.7% sensitivity and 74.1% specificity). Serum TNF-α and soluble TNF-α receptor II (sTNFRII) levels were significantly higher in patients compared to controls using ELISA. high TNF-α mRNA levels, determined by RT-PCR, characterize patients with NASH.

  5. Assessment Effects of Resveratrol on Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Transcript in Human Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Mirzazadeh, Azin; Kheirollahi, Majid; Farashahi, Ehsan; Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Fatemeh; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan; Aflatoonian, Behrouz

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumor, which has a poor prognosis despite the advent of different therapeutic strategies. There are numerous molecular biomarkers to contribute diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of response to the current therapy in GBM. One of the most important markers that are potentially valuable is immortalization-specific or immortalization-associated marker named "hTERT messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)" the key subunit of telomerase enzyme, which is expressed in more than 85% of cancer cells, in spite of the majority of normal somatic cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol (RSV) on this mRNA marker level, leading to cancer progression. U-87MG cell line was obtained from Pasteur Institute of Iran and treated with various concentrations of 0-160 μg/mL of RSV and at different time points (24, 48, and 72 h). To evaluate viability of U-87MG cells, standard 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for comparative and quantitative assessment of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA copy number versus control-untreated group. The results of our investigation suggested that RSV effectively inhibited cell growth and caused cell death in dose-dependent ( P < 0.05) and not in time-dependent manner ( P > 0.05), in vitro . Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that at half inhibition concentration, RSV dramatically decreased mRNA expression of hTERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase enzyme, which leads to prevention of cell division and tumor progression. With regard to downregulation of this immortalization-associated marker, RSV may potentially be used as a therapeutic agent against GBM.

  6. Assessment Effects of Resveratrol on Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Transcript in Human Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Mirzazadeh, Azin; Kheirollahi, Majid; Farashahi, Ehsan; Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Fatemeh; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan; Aflatoonian, Behrouz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumor, which has a poor prognosis despite the advent of different therapeutic strategies. There are numerous molecular biomarkers to contribute diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of response to the current therapy in GBM. One of the most important markers that are potentially valuable is immortalization-specific or immortalization-associated marker named “hTERT messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)” the key subunit of telomerase enzyme, which is expressed in more than 85% of cancer cells, in spite of the majority of normal somatic cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol (RSV) on this mRNA marker level, leading to cancer progression. Materials and Methods: U-87MG cell line was obtained from Pasteur Institute of Iran and treated with various concentrations of 0–160 μg/mL of RSV and at different time points (24, 48, and 72 h). To evaluate viability of U-87MG cells, standard 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for comparative and quantitative assessment of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA copy number versus control–untreated group. Results: The results of our investigation suggested that RSV effectively inhibited cell growth and caused cell death in dose-dependent (P < 0.05) and not in time-dependent manner (P > 0.05), in vitro. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that at half inhibition concentration, RSV dramatically decreased mRNA expression of hTERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase enzyme, which leads to prevention of cell division and tumor progression. Conclusion: With regard to downregulation of this immortalization-associated marker, RSV may potentially be used as a therapeutic agent against GBM. PMID:28706881

  7. Prostanoid-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 messenger ribonucleic acid in rat osteosarcoma cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clohisy, J. C.; Connolly, T. J.; Bergman, K. D.; Quinn, C. O.; Partridge, N. C.

    1994-01-01

    Individual prostanoids have distinct potencies in activating intracellular signaling pathways and regulating gene expression in osteoblastic cells. The E-series prostaglandins (PGs) are known to stimulate matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) synthesis and secretion in certain rodent and human osteoblastic cells, yet the intracellular events involved remain unclear. To further characterize this response and its signal transduction pathway(s), we examined prostanoid-induced expression of the MMP-1 gene in the rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line UMR 106-01. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGE1 were very potent stimulators (40-fold) of MMP-1 transcript abundance, PGF2 alpha and prostacyclin were weak stimulators (4-fold), and thromboxane-B2 had no effect. The marked increase in MMP-1 transcript abundance after PGE2 treatment was first detected at 2 h, became maximal at 4 h, and persisted beyond 24 h. This response was dose dependent and elicited maximal and half-maximal effects with concentrations of 10(-6) and 0.6 x 10(-7) M, respectively. Cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, completely blocked this effect of PGE2, suggesting that the expression of other genes is required. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that PGE2 rapidly activates MMP-1 gene transcription, with a maximal increase at 2-4 h. The second messenger analog, 8-bromo-cAMP, mimicked the effects of PGE2 by stimulating a dose-dependent increase in MMP-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, with a maximal effect quantitatively similar to that observed with PGE2. Thus, in UMR 106-01 cells, different prostanoids have distinct potencies in stimulating MMP-1 mRNA abundance. Our data suggest that PGE2 stimulation of MMP-1 synthesis is due to activation of MMP-1 gene transcription and a subsequent marked increase in MMP-1 mRNA abundance. This effect is dependent on de novo protein synthesis and is mimicked by protein kinase-A activation.

  8. Pro-opiomelanocortin messenger ribonucleic acid and posttranslational processing of beta endorphin in spleen macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Lolait, S J; Clements, J A; Markwick, A J; Cheng, C; McNally, M; Smith, A I; Funder, J W

    1986-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated low levels of immunoreactive (ir)-beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and ir-ACTH in a subpopulation of mouse spleen macrophages, which is consistent with an involvement of opioid peptides in modulation of immune responses. Gel chromatography studies suggested the presence of an approximately 3.5,000-molecular weight (mol wt) species, putatively beta-EP, an approximately 11.5,000-mol-wt species, putatively beta-lipotropin, and a higher molecular weight species (putative beta-EP precursor, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). In this study we have extended our original findings by demonstrating the presence of messenger RNA for POMC by the use of a complementary DNA probe and Northern blot analysis of extracts of mouse and rat spleen. In addition, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we have shown that the major endorphin species in mouse spleen macrophages is beta-EP1-31, and that there are smaller amounts of each of the acetylated forms, N-acetyl-beta-EP1-16 (alpha-endorphin), N-acetyl-beta-EP1-17 (gamma-endorphin), N-acetyl-beta-EP1-27, and N-acetyl-beta-EP1-31. We interpret these studies as showing that (a) the spleen is an organ of POMC synthesis and that (b) the predominant COOH-terminal product of macrophage POMC is the opiate-receptor active species beta-EP1-31. Images PMID:2423557

  9. Retinoic acid stimulates interstitial collagenase messenger ribonucleic acid in osteosarcoma cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, T. J.; Clohisy, J. C.; Shilt, J. S.; Bergman, K. D.; Partridge, N. C.; Quinn, C. O.

    1994-01-01

    The rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line UMR 106-01 secretes interstitial collagenase in response to retinoic acid (RA). The present study demonstrates by Northern blot analysis that RA causes an increase in collagenase messenger RNA (mRNA) at 6 h, which is maximal at 24 h (20.5 times basal) and declines toward basal level by 72 h. This stimulation is dose dependent, with a maximal response at 5 x 10(-7) M RA. Nuclear run-on assays show a greater than 20-fold increase in the rate of collagenase mRNA transcription between 12-24 h after RA treatment. Cycloheximide blocks RA stimulation of collagenase mRNA, demonstrating the need for de novo protein synthesis. RA not only causes an increase in collagenase secretion, but is known to decrease collagen synthesis in UMR 106-01 cells. In this study, the increase in collagenase mRNA is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the level of alpha 1(I) procollagen mRNA, which is maximal at 24 h (70% decrease), with a return to near-control levels by 72 h. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrated that the decrease in alpha 1 (I) procollagen expression does not have a statistically significant transcriptional component. RA did not statistically decrease the stability of alpha 1 (I) procollagen mRNA (calculated t1/2 = 8.06 +/- 0.30 and 9.01 +/- 0.62 h in the presence and absence of RA, respectively). However, transcription and stability together probably contribute to the major decrease in stable alpha 1 (I) procollagen mRNA observed. Cycloheximide treatment inhibits basal level alpha 1 (I) procollagen mRNA accumulation, demonstrating the need for on-going protein synthesis to maintain basal expression of this gene.

  10. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha messenger ribonucleic acid and protein in human and rat testis.

    PubMed

    Schultz, R; Yan, W; Toppari, J; Völkl, A; Gustafsson, J A; Pelto-Huikko, M

    1999-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a (PPARalpha), a member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily, has been linked to lipid homeostasis and tumorigenesis in tissues with high expression of receptor protein. On the other hand, the role of PPARalpha in tissues with a lower expression is not well known. Here we demonstrate the localization of PPARalpha messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in developing and adult rat testis. Additionally, we demonstrate the expression of PPARalpha protein in adult human testis. Our experiments with Northern analysis, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry reveal a complex distribution of PPARalpha in tubular and interstitial cells of both adult and developing rat testis. The overall expression is rather low but may be modified by exogenous or endogenous stimuli. An up-regulation of PPARalpha mRNA could be observed after stimulation with FSH. In the developing rat testis, a clear expression of PPARalpha mRNA was present from the first days after birth. Additionally, PPARalpha mRNA and protein increased toward adulthood. In adult human testis PPARalpha immunoreactivity (IR) was present in interstitial Leydig cells and tubular cells. In the seminiferous epithelium of adult human testis the expression of PPARalpha-IR could be seen in meiotic spermatocytes, spermatids and myoid peritubular cells. The findings of our study suggest that PPARalpha may be involved in the regulation of growth and differentiation of tubular and interstitial cells in rat and human testis.

  11. A comparison of cell-free placental messenger ribonucleic acid and color Doppler ultrasound for the prediction of placental invasion in patients with placenta accreta

    PubMed Central

    Naghshineh, Elham; Khorvash, Elahe; Kamali, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to comparison between cell-free placental messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and Doppler ultrasound for the prediction of placental invasion in women with placenta accreta. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 50 pregnant women at risk for placenta accreta underwent color Doppler and assessment of cell-free placental mRNA. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used for measurement of cell-free placental mRNA in maternal plasma. Based on the findings at cesarean delivery and histological examination, patients were divided into two groups of women with and without placenta accrete. To compare of the mean of mRNA levels between the two groups we used independent t-test and to compare of the mean of age and gestational age at sonography we used Mann-Whitney test. For determination of sensitivity and specificity and the cut-off point of mRNA levels we used the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: A total of 50 women with a mean age of 30.24 ± 4.905 years entered the study and 12 (24%) patients were diagnosed with placenta accreta. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of Doppler ultrasound were 83.3%, 78.9%, 56% and 94%, respectively. Results of our study showed if we consider a cut-off point equal to 3.325, with sensitivity and specificity of 0.917 and 0.789, respectively and the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of mRNA with were cut-off point of 3.325 were 91.7%, 78.9%, 57.9% and 96.8%, respectively. Conclusions: Cell-free mRNA is an acceptable, easy made, functional test with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV more than Doppler ultrasound for diagnosis and prediction of incidence of placenta accrete and we recommend the use of cell-free mRNA test for diagnosis of placenta accreta. PMID:25709996

  12. A comparison of cell-free placental messenger ribonucleic acid and color Doppler ultrasound for the prediction of placental invasion in patients with placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Naghshineh, Elham; Khorvash, Elahe; Kamali, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to comparison between cell-free placental messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and Doppler ultrasound for the prediction of placental invasion in women with placenta accreta. In this cross-sectional study, 50 pregnant women at risk for placenta accreta underwent color Doppler and assessment of cell-free placental mRNA. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used for measurement of cell-free placental mRNA in maternal plasma. Based on the findings at cesarean delivery and histological examination, patients were divided into two groups of women with and without placenta accrete. To compare of the mean of mRNA levels between the two groups we used independent t-test and to compare of the mean of age and gestational age at sonography we used Mann-Whitney test. For determination of sensitivity and specificity and the cut-off point of mRNA levels we used the receiver operating characteristic curve. A total of 50 women with a mean age of 30.24 ± 4.905 years entered the study and 12 (24%) patients were diagnosed with placenta accreta. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of Doppler ultrasound were 83.3%, 78.9%, 56% and 94%, respectively. Results of our study showed if we consider a cut-off point equal to 3.325, with sensitivity and specificity of 0.917 and 0.789, respectively and the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of mRNA with were cut-off point of 3.325 were 91.7%, 78.9%, 57.9% and 96.8%, respectively. Cell-free mRNA is an acceptable, easy made, functional test with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV more than Doppler ultrasound for diagnosis and prediction of incidence of placenta accrete and we recommend the use of cell-free mRNA test for diagnosis of placenta accreta.

  13. Effect of the mutation (C3435T) at exon 26 of the MDR1 gene on expression level of MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid in duodenal enterocytes of healthy Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tsutomu; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Horinouchi, Masanori; Tamura, Takao; Aoyama, Nobuo; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Matsuo, Masafumi; Kasuga, Masato; Okumura, Katsuhiko

    2002-04-01

    The effect of the C3435T mutation at exon 26 of the MDR1 gene on the expression levels of MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was evaluated by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction in 51 biopsy specimens of duodenum obtained from 13 healthy Japanese subjects. The mRNA levels of MDR1 were 0.38 +/- 0.15, 0.56 +/- 0.14, and 1.13 +/- 0.42 (mean value +/- SE) in the subjects with the homozygote of wild-type allele (C/C), compound heterozygote with mutant T allele (C/T), and the homozygote of the mutant allele (T/T), respectively, reasonably explaining the lower digoxin serum concentration after administration of a single oral dose to subjects harboring a mutant T allele. Good correlation (r =.797; P <.01) was observed between the mRNA concentrations of MDR1 and CYP3A4 in the individual biopsy specimens. This finding suggested a lower plasma concentration of the substrates for CYP3A4 in subjects harboring the C3435T mutation of the MDR1 gene.

  14. Saw palmetto extract enhances erectile responses by inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 activity and increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat and rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Surong; Chen, Changrui; Li, Yiying; Ren, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yungang; Wu, Gantong; Wang, Hao; Hu, Zhenzhen; Yao, Minghui

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate whether saw palmetto extract (SPE) relaxes corpus cavernosum and explore the underlying mechanisms. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats and 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated into 3 SPE-treated groups (low-, middle-, and high-dose) and 1 saline-treated control group. SPE was administered intragastrically for 7 consecutive days. Another 23 rats treated with sildenafil were used to appraise the erectile response to electrical stimulation of nerves in the corpus cavernosum. The erectile functions of rats and rabbits were evaluated 24 hours after the last SPE administration or 15 minutes after intragastric sildenafil. Outcome measures included corpus cavernosum electrical activity recording, phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) activity detected by the colorimetric quantitative method, and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level for PDE5 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the SPE-treated animals, the relaxant response to electrical stimulation of nerves in the corpus cavernosum, reflected by the amplitude of the electrical activity within the cavernosum, was significantly and dose-dependently augmented. Similar effects were observed in the sildenafil-treated rats. PDE5 activity in rat and rabbit corpus cavernosum tissues was significantly and dose-dependently inhibited in SPE-treated animals, whereas the iNOS mRNA level increased compared with the saline group. PDE5 mRNA, however, was only significantly enhanced in the rats treated with the middle dose of SPE. The results suggest that SPE may have potential application value for the prevention or treatment of erectile dysfunction through an increase in iNOS mRNA expression and inhibition of PDE5 activity in corpus cavernosum smooth muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of orbital spaceflight on bone histomorphometry and messenger ribonucleic acid levels for bone matrix proteins and skeletal signaling peptides in ovariectomized growing rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolina, J. M.; Evans, G. L.; Harris, S. A.; Zhang, M.; Westerlind, K. C.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    A 14-day orbital spaceflight was performed using ovariectomized Fisher 344 rats to determine the combined effects of estrogen deficiency and near weightlessness on tibia radial bone growth and cancellous bone turnover. Twelve ovariectomized rats with established cancellous osteopenia were flown aboard the space shuttle Columbia (STS-62). Thirty ovariectomized rats were housed on earth as ground controls: 12 in animal enclosure modules, 12 in vivarium cages, and 6 killed the day of launch for baseline measurements. An additional 18 ovary-intact rats were housed in vivarium cages as ground controls: 8 rats were killed as baseline controls and the remaining 10 rats were killed 14 days later. Ovariectomy increased periosteal bone formation at the tibia-fibula synostosis; cancellous bone resorption and formation in the secondary spongiosa of the proximal tibial metaphysis; and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for the prepro-alpha2(1) subunit of type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, transforming growth factor-beta, and insulin-like growth factor I in the contralateral proximal tibial metaphysis and for the collagen subunit in periosteum pooled from tibiae and femora and decreased cancellous bone area. Compared to ovariectomized weight-bearing rats, the flight group experienced decreases in periosteal bone formation, collagen subunit mRNA levels, and cancellous bone area. The flight rats had a small decrease in the cancellous mineral apposition rate, but no change in the calculated bone formation rate. Also, spaceflight had no effect on cancellous osteoblast and osteoclast perimeters or on mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins and signaling peptides. On the other hand, spaceflight resulted in an increase in bone resorption, as ascertained from the diminished retention of a preflight fluorochrome label. This latter finding suggests that osteoclast activity was increased. In a follow-up ground-based experiment, unilateral sciatic neurotomy of ovariectomized rats resulted in cancellous

  16. Developmental regulation of vascular endothelial growth/permeability factor messenger ribonucleic acid levels in and vascularization of the villous placenta during baboon pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, V A; Babischkin, J S; Koos, R D; Pepe, G J; Albrecht, E D

    2001-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth/permeability factor (VEG/PF) has an important role in angiogenesis; however, very little is known about the developmental regulation of VEG/PF and the vascular system within the placenta during human pregnancy. In the present study, therefore, a developmental approach was used in the baboon to determine the placental source of VEG/PF and its fms-like tyrosine kinase (flt-1) and kinase-insert domain containing (KDR/flk-1) receptors, and whether the rise in estrogen with advancing pregnancy was associated with a corresponding increase in placental VEG/PF expression and vascularization. VEG/PF messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were determined by competitive RT-PCR in villous cell fractions isolated by Percoll gradient centrifugation from placentas obtained on days 45 and 54 (very early), 60 (early), 100 (mid), and 165-170 (late) of baboon pregnancy (term = 184 days). Maternal peripheral serum estradiol increased from very low concentrations early in gestation (0.15-0.20 ng/ml) to an early surge of over 2.5 ng/ml on days 60-85, and peak levels of 4-6 ng/ml late in baboon pregnancy. VEG/PF mRNA was expressed in low level in the syncytiotrophoblast (<2,000 attomol/microgram total RNA), and values in this fraction did not change significantly with advancing gestation. VEG/PF mRNA expression was slightly greater in the inner villous core cell fraction; however, levels decreased (P < 0.05) between early and late gestation. Cytotrophoblasts were a major source of VEG/PF mRNA and levels increased (P < 0.01) from 3,631 +/- 844 attomol/microgram total RNA on day 45 to 25,807 +/- 5,873 attomol/microgram total RNA on day 170. VEG/PF protein expression determined by immunocytochemistry was abundant in cytotrophoblasts and lower in the syncytiotrophoblast and inner villous core cells. The flt-1 and KDR/flk-1 receptors were expressed in the vascular endothelial cells of the baboon villous placenta. The percentage of villous placenta occupied by blood vessels

  17. Comparing the effects of tetrabromobisphenol-A, bisphenol A, and their potential replacement alternatives, TBBPA-bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether) and bisphenol S, on cell viability and messenger ribonucleic acid expression in chicken embryonic hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Melissa; Crump, Doug; Farmahin, Reza; Kennedy, Sean W

    2015-02-01

    A market for alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has emerged recently due to the phase out of persistent and inherently toxic BFRs. Several of these replacement compounds have been detected in environmental matrices, including wild birds. A chicken embryonic hepatocyte (CEH) assay was utilized to assess the effects of the BFR, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), and its replacement alternative, tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether [TBBPA-DBPE]) on cell viability and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression. Bisphenol A (BPA) and 1 of its replacement alternatives, bisphenol S (BPS), were also screened for effects. Both TBBPA and BPA decreased CEH viability with calculated median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 40.6 μM and 61.7 μM, respectively. However, the replacement alternatives, TBBPA-DBPE and BPS, did not affect cell viability (up to 300 μM). Effects on mRNA expression were determined using an Avian ToxChip polymerse chain reaction (PCR) array and a real-time (RT)-PCR assay for the estrogen-responsive genes, apolipoproteinII (ApoII) and vitellogenin (Vtg). A luciferase reporter gene assay was used to assess dioxin-like effects. Tetrabromobisphenol-A altered mRNA levels of 4 genes from multiple toxicity pathways and increased luciferase activity in the luciferase reporter gene assay, whereas its alternative, TBBPA-DBPE, only altered 1 gene on the array, Cyp1a4, and increased luciferase activity. At 300 μM, a concentration that decreased cell viability for TBBPA and BPA, the BPA replacement, BPS, altered the greatest number of transcripts, including both ApoII and Vtg. Bisphenol A exposure did not alter any genes on the array but did up-regulate Vtg at 10 μM. Characterization of the potential toxicological and molecular-level effects of these compounds will ideally be useful to chemical regulators tasked with assessing the risk of new and existing chemicals. © 2014 SETAC.

  18. Changes in insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 messenger ribonucleic acid in endothelial cells of the human corpus luteum: a possible role in luteal development and rescue.

    PubMed

    Fraser, H M; Lunn, S F; Kim, H; Duncan, W C; Rodger, F E; Illingworth, P J; Erickson, G F

    2000-04-01

    In the human menstrual cycle, extensive angiogenesis accompanies luteinization; and the process is physiologically important for corpus luteum (CL) function. During luteolysis, the vasculature collapses, and the endothelial cells die. In a conceptual cycle, the CL persists both functionally and structurally beyond the luteoplacental shift. Although luteal rescue is not associated with increased angiogenesis, endothelial survival is extended. Despite the central role of the luteal vasculature in fertility, the mechanisms regulating its development and demise are poorly understood. There is increasing evidence that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) may be important effectors of luteal function. Here, we have found that IGFBP-3 messenger RNA is expressed in the endothelium of the human CL and that the levels of message change during luteal development and rescue by human CG. The signal was strong during the early luteal phase, but it showed significant reduction during the mid- and late luteal phases. Interestingly, administration of human CG caused a marked increase in the levels of IGFBP-3 messenger RNA in luteal endothelial cells that was comparable to that observed during the early luteal phase. We conclude that endothelial cell IGFBP-3 expression is a physiological property of the CL of menstruation and pregnancy. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that the regulated expression of endothelial IGFBP-3 may play a role in controlling angiogenesis and cell responses in the human CL by autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.

  19. Prostaglandin E2-induced up-regulation of c-fos messenger ribonucleic acid is primarily mediated by 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Dietz, T. J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism by which the proto-oncogene, c-fos, is up-regulated in response to PGE2 in the mouse osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cell line was investigated using RT-PCR. c-fos messenger RNA up-regulation by dmPGE2 is rapid, starting 10 min post stimulation, and transient. The specific protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89, inhibited c-fos induction. Moreover, down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by chronic TPA treatment had no effect on the induction of c-fos by dmPGE2. We conclude that up-regulation of c-fos by dmPGE2 is primarily dependent on PKA in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. In S49 lymphoma wild-type but not S49 cyc- cells, which are deficient in cAMP signaling, dmPGE2 up-regulates c-fos and increases cell growth compared with unstimulated cells. Thus in S49 lymphoma cells, c-fos induction by PGE2 is also dependent on cAMP signaling. The minimal c-fos promoter region required for dmPGE2-induced expression was identified by transfecting c-fos promoter deletion constructs coupled to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene into Vero cells. Transfection of a plasmid containing 99 bp c-fos proximal promoter was sufficient to direct c-fos/CAT expression following stimulation with dmPGE2. Because induction of c-fos is mediated by cAMP, these data are consistent with activation of c-fos via the CRE/ATF cis element.

  20. Mercury's Messenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  1. A Contemporary, Laboratory-Intensive Course on Messenger RNA Transcription and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Sue; Miller, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) plays a pivotal role in the central dogma of molecular biology. Importantly, molecular events occurring during and after mRNA synthesis have the potential to create multiple proteins from one gene, leading to some of the remarkable protein diversity that genomes hold. The North Carolina State University…

  2. MESSENGER Departs Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-30

    After NASA MESSENGER spacecraft completed its successful flyby of Mercury, the Narrow Angle Camera NAC, part of the Mercury Dual Imaging System MDIS, took these images of the receding planet. This is a frame from an animation.

  3. Cellular distribution and regulation of ghrelin messenger ribonucleic acid in the rat pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Caminos, J E; Nogueiras, R; Blanco, M; Seoane, L M; Bravo, S; Alvarez, C V; García-Caballero, T; Casanueva, F F; Diéguez, C

    2003-11-01

    Ghrelin, a 28-amino-acid acylated peptide, strongly stimulates GH release and food intake. In the present study, we found that ghrelin is expressed in somatotrophs, lactotrophs, and thyrotrophs but not in corticotrophs or gonadotrophs of rat pituitary. Persistent expression of the ghrelin gene is found during postnatal development in male and female rats, although the levels significantly decrease in both cases from pituitaries of 20-d-old rats onward, but at 60 d old, the levels were higher in male than female rats. This sexually dimorphic pattern appears to be mediated by estrogens because ovariectomy, but not orchidectomy, increases pituitary ghrelin mRNA levels. Taking into account that somatotroph cell function is markedly influenced by thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids, GH, and metabolic status, we also assessed such influence. We found that ghrelin mRNA levels decrease in hypothyroid- and glucocorticoid-treated rats, increase in GH-deficient rats (dwarf rats), and remain unaffected by food deprivation. In conclusion, we have defined the specific cell types that express ghrelin in the rat anterior pituitary gland. These data provide direct morphological evidence that ghrelin may well be acting in a paracrine-like fashion in the regulation of anterior pituitary cell function. In addition, we clearly demonstrate that pituitary ghrelin mRNA levels are age and gender dependent. Finally, we show that pituitary ghrelin mRNA levels are influenced by alteration on thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, and GH levels but not by fasting, which indicates that the regulation of ghrelin gene expression is tissue specific.

  4. Partial purification, characterization and translation in vitro of rat liver metallothionein messenger ribonucleic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, R D; Weser, U

    1978-01-01

    Poly(A)+ (polyadenylated) mRNA coding for metallothioneins was purified 13-fold from rat liver polyribosomes and was identified by its ability to direct the biosynthesis of these proteins in a wheat-germ cell-free system. The carboxymethylated products of the protein-synthesizing system in vitro were analysed with sodium dodecyl sulphate/20% polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The labelled compounds [3H]serine and [35S]cysteine were incorporated at high specific radioactivity into proteins that co-migrated with authentic metallothioneins. No [3H]leucine incorporation was found, in agreement with the amino acid composition of the metallothioneins. Metallothionein mRNA had a sedimentation coefficient of 9 S and carried a maximum of four ribosomes. At 5 h after a subcutaneous injection of ZnCl2 or CdCl2 (10 mumol/kg body wt.), the amount of this mRNA increased approx. 2- and 4-fold respectively, on the basis of translation in vitro. The increase in metallothionein mRNA (defined by translation in the wheat-germ system) was transient and, after CdCl2 treatment, fell back to control values by 17 h. Metallothioneins constituted a maximum of 0.8% of the total protein products synthesized in the wheat-germ system by total mRNA isolated from rat liver after CdCl2 treatment. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:743237

  5. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    Patty Carpenter, wife of NASA Mercury Astronaut Scott Carpenter, left, Daughters of NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, Laura Shepard Churchley, and, Alice Wackermann, right, sing the National Anthem during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    United States Postal Service Vice President of Finance Steve Masse, left, and NASA Mercury Astronaut Scott Carpenter, unveil two USPS stamps to commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    Daughters of NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, Laura Shepard Churchley, left, Alice Wackermann and Julie Jenkins, right, speak during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    Daughters of NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, Laura Shepard Churchley, standing left, Alice Wackermann and Julie Jenkins, standing right, speak during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Reovirus-induced Ribonucleic Acid Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Y.; Gauntt, C. J.; Graham, A. F.

    1968-01-01

    A virus-induced ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase activity was found in L cells infected with type 3 reovirus. Most of the enzyme is associated with the “large particle” fraction of the infected cells. The enzyme first appeared at 3 to 5 hr after infection and increased in amount until 7 to 9 hr. All four ribonucleoside triphosphates are incorporated in vitro into an acid-insoluble form by the enzyme. The major part of the product formed in vitro is a double-stranded RNA indistinguishable from viral RNA by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. Approximately 40% of the product is a single-stranded RNA of relatively small molecular weight. More than 95% of the nucleotides incorporated into double-stranded RNA by the enzyme are bound in internal 3′-5′-phosphodiester linkages extending back from both 3′- and 5′-termini of the RNA strands. PMID:5725319

  10. Messenger RNA transcripts

    Treesearch

    Dan Cullen

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to DNA, messenger RNA (mRNA) in complex substrata is rarely analyzed, in large part because labile RNA molecules are difficult to purify. Nucleic acid extractions from fungi that colonize soil are particularly difficult and plagued by humic substances that interfere with Taq polymerase (Tebbe and Vahjen 1993 and references therein). Magnetic capture...

  11. Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) and control of citrus pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, applications and function are described for the non-scientist to bring a better understanding of how this emerging technology is providing environmentally friendly, non-transgenic, insect pest control. ...

  12. Strain of Escherichia coli with a temperature-sensitive mutation affecting ribosomal ribonucleic acid accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Frey, T; Newlin, L L; Atherly, A G

    1975-01-01

    A mutant of Escherichia coli has been isolated that has a temperature-sensitive mutation that results in specific loss of ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis and some reduction in messenger RNA synthesis. When the strain was grown in glucose medium at a restrictive temperature, RNA accumulation ceased, but both messenger RNA and protein synthesis continued for an extended time. Because carbon metabolism was slowed drastically when strain AA-157 was placed at the restrictive temperature, this phenotype can be compared with carbon depletion conditions present during diauxic lag. However, the phenotype of mutant AA-157 differs from shift-down conditions in that guanosine-3',5'-tetraphosphate levels are unaffected; therefore, a different site is affected. This mutant strain (AA-157) thus shows many characteristics similar to an aldolase mutant previously reported (Böck and Neidhardt, 1966). However, the mutation occurred in a different position on the E. coli genetic map, and furthermore, aldolase was not temperature sensitive in strain AA-157. In this paper we present a study of macromolecular biosynthesis in this mutant. PMID:1090609

  13. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    From left, NASA Deputy Director, Planetary Science Division, Science Mission Directorate, Jim Adams, NASA Kennedy Space Center Director of Education and External Relations Cheryl Hurst, United States Postal Service Vice President of Finance Steve Masse, NASA Mercury Astronaut Scott Carpenter, NASA Administrator Charles Boldin, Daughters of NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, Alice Wackermann, Laura Shepard Churchley, and Julie Jenkins, and NASA Kennedy Space Center Director Robert Cabana pose for a photograph during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Distinctive ribonucleic acid patterns of human rotavirus subgroups 1 and 2.

    PubMed Central

    Kalica, A R; Greenberg, H B; Espejo, R T; Flores, J; Wyatt, R G; Kapikian, A Z; Chanock, R M

    1981-01-01

    The ribonucleic acid migration patterns of 7 subgroup 1 and 16 subgroup 2 human rotaviruses recovered from four geographic areas were compared. The subgroup 1 ribonucleic acid patterns had strikingly slower-moving segments 10 and 11, suggesting a correlation between the ribonucleic acid pattern and the subgroup specificity. Images PMID:6270002

  15. How does hydroxyl introduction influence the double helical structure: the stabilization of an altritol nucleic acid:ribonucleic acid duplex

    PubMed Central

    Ovaere, Margriet; Sponer, Jiri; Sponer, Judit E.; Herdewijn, Piet; Van Meervelt, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Altritol nucleic acids (ANAs) are a promising new tool in the development of artificial small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs) for therapeutical applications. To mimic the siRNA:messenger RNA (mRNA) interactions, the crystal structure of the ANA:RNA construct a(CCGUAAUGCC-P):r(GGCAUUACGG) was determined to 1.96 Å resolution which revealed the hybrid to form an A-type helix. As this A-form is a major requirement in the RNAi process, this crystal structure confirms the potential of altritol-modified siRNAs. Moreover, in the ANA strands, a new type of intrastrand interactions was found between the O2′ hydroxyl group of one residue and the sugar ring O4′ atom of the next residue. These interactions were further investigated by quantum chemical methods. Besides hydration effects, these intrastrand hydrogen bonds may also contribute to the stability of ANA:RNA duplexes. PMID:22638588

  16. Towards the elements of successful insect Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi), the sequence-specific suppression of gene expression, offers great opportunities for insect science, especially to analyze gene function, manage pest populations, and reduce disease pathogens. The accumulating body of literature on insect RNAi has revealed that ...

  17. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Acuna, Mario H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Koehn, Patrick L.; Korth, Haje; Levi, Stefano; Mauk, Barry H.; Solomon, Sean C.; hide

    2005-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet s miniature magnetosphere since the brief flybys of Mariner 10. Mercury s magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is among the smallest in the solar system; its magnetic field typically stands off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed drift paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts. The characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short and kinetic and fluid modes may be coupled. Magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to impact directly the regolith. Inductive currents in Mercury s interior may act to modify the solar wind interaction by resisting changes due to solar wind pressure variations. Indeed, observations of these induction effects may be an important source of information on the state of Mercury s interior. In addition, Mercury s magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionospheric layer. This lack of an ionosphere is probably the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short-lived, - 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 during its first traversal of Mercury s magnetic tail. Because of Mercury s proximity to the sun, 0.3 - 0.5 AU, this magnetosphere experiences the most extreme driving forces in the solar system. All of these factors are expected to produce complicated interactions involving the exchange and re-cycling of neutrals and ions between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and regolith. The electrodynamics of Mercury s magnetosphere are expected to be equally complex, with strong forcing by the solar wind, magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause and in the tail, and the pick-up of planetary ions all

  18. MESSENGER Final Image

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-30

    Today, the MESSENGER spacecraft sent its final image. Originally planned to orbit Mercury for one year, the mission exceeded all expectations, lasting for over four years and acquiring extensive datasets with its seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation. This afternoon, the spacecraft succumbed to the pull of solar gravity and impacted Mercury's surface. The image shown here is the last one acquired and transmitted back to Earth by the mission. The image is located within the floor of the 93-kilometer-diameter crater Jokai. The spacecraft struck the planet just north of Shakespeare basin. Date acquired: April 30, 2015 Image Mission Elapsed Time (MET): 72716050 Image ID: 8422953 Instrument: Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) of the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Center Latitude: 72.0° Center Longitude: 223.8° E Resolution: 2.1 meters/pixel Scale: This image is about 1 kilometers (0.6 miles) across Incidence Angle: 57.9° Emission Angle: 56.5° Phase Angle: 40.7° http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19448

  19. Encephalomyocarditis Virus Ribonucleic Acid Polymerase Associated with 150S Cytoplasmic Particles

    PubMed Central

    Bases, Robert; Tarikas, Helgi

    1969-01-01

    Cytoplasmic particles which sedimented at 150S were the smallest structures containing detectable viral ribonucleic acid polymerase in mouse cells infected with encephalomyocarditis virus. PMID:4307906

  20. TCCTA Messenger, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TCCTA Messenger, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The Texas Community College Teachers Association (TCCTA), formerly known as the Texas Junior College Teachers Association (TJCTA), publishes the TCCTA Messenger newsletter four times a year to cover events, legislation and TCCTA activities affecting Texas community colleges and their faculty. This document contains four newsletter issues…

  1. Mercury's Reference Frames After the MESSENGER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, A.; Oberst, J.; Preusker, F.; Burmeister, S.; Steinbrügge, G.; Hussmann, H.

    2018-05-01

    We provide an overview of Mercury's reference frames based on MESSENGER observations. We discuss the dynamical, the principal-axes, the ellipsoid, as well as the cartographic frame, which was adopted for MESSENGER data products.

  2. Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis and Glutamate Excretion in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Broda, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Cultures of Escherichia coli excreted glutamate into the medium when protein synthesis was blocked in RCrel strains or when it was blocked with chloramphenicol in either RCstr or RCrel strains. Both of these conditions resulted in continued ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis in the absence of protein synthesis. Glutamate was also excreted by both RCstr and RCrel strains when RNA synthesis was inhibited by uracil starvation or by treatment with actinomycin D. It is proposed that, in each of these cases, glutamate excretion resulted from an increase in the permeability of the cell membrane. PMID:4973126

  3. Effects of irradiation and semistarvation on rat thyrotropin beta subunit messenger ribonucleic acid, pituitary thyrotropin content, and thyroid hormone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Litten, R.Z.; Carr, F.E.; Fein, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of radiation-induced anorexia on serum thyrotropin (TSH), pituitary TSH-{beta} mRNA, pituitary TSH content, serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), and serum 3,5,3{prime}-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) was investigated using feed-matched controls. Rats received 10 Gy gamma whole-body irradiation and were examined 1-3 days postirradiation. Feed-matched and untreated controls were also studied. The average food intake of the irradiated and feed-matched groups was approximately 18% of the untreated controls. Over the three day period both the irradiated and feed-matched groups lost a significant amount of body weight. The serum T{sub 4} levels of both the irradiated and feed-matched groups were not significantly differentmore » from each other, but were significantly depressed when compared to the untreated control group. The serum TSH and T{sub 3} were, however, significantly greater in the irradiated than the feed-matched groups at day 3 posttreatment. To determine if the difference in the serum TSH level between the two groups was due to a pretranslational alteration in TSH production, we measured the TSH-{beta} mRNA using an RNA blot hybridization assay. We found that the TSH-{beta} mRNA level was the same in the irradiated and feed-matched groups, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the radiation-induced increase in the serum TSH level is posttranscriptional. Pituitary TSH content in the irradiated rats was significantly less than in pair-fed controls, suggesting that irradiation may permit enhanced secretion of stored hormone.« less

  4. 12 CFR 7.1012 - Messenger service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Messenger service. 7.1012 Section 7.1012 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1012 Messenger service. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, a “messenger...

  5. Factors affecting citrus tree absorption of double-stranded ribonucleic acid, and RNAi delivery to psyllids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern molecular biological techniques allow for the design of molecules of ribonucleic acid capable of disrupting key biological processes of pests and diseases. A major requirement for the practical application of ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) against insect pests is an efficient entry path...

  6. Geodesy at Mercury with MESSENGER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria t.; Peale, Stanley J.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2006-01-01

    In 2011 the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft will enter Mercury orbit and begin the mapping phase of the mission. As part of its science objectives the MESSENGER mission will determine the shape and gravity field of Mercury. These observations will enable the topography and the crustal thickness to be derived for the planet and will determine the small libration of the planet about its axis, the latter critical to constraining the state of the core. These measurements require very precise positioning of the MESSENGER spacecraft in its eccentric orbit, which has a periapsis altitude as low as 200 km, an apoapsis altitude near 15,000 km, and a closest approach to the surface varying from latitude 60 to about 70 N. The X-band tracking of MESSENGER and the laser altimetry are the primary data that will be used to measure the planetary shape and gravity field. The laser altimeter, which has an expected range of 1000 to 1200 km, is expected to provide significant data only over the northern hemisphere because of MESSENGER's eccentric orbit. For the southern hemisphere, radio occultation measurements obtained as the spacecraft passes behind the planet as seen from Earth and images obtained with the imaging system will be used to provide the long-wavelength shape of the planet. Gravity, derived from the tracking data, will also have greater resolution in the northern hemisphere, but full global models for both topography and gravity will be obtained at low harmonic order and degree. The limiting factor for both gravity and topography is expected to be knowledge of the spacecraft location. Present estimations are that in a combined tracking, altimetry, and occultation solution the spacecraft position uncertainty is likely to be of order 10 m. This accuracy should be adequate for establishing an initial geodetic coordinate system for Mercury that will enable positioning of imaged features on the surface, determination of

  7. Ribonucleic Acid and Ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus1

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Grady F.; Campbell, L. Leon

    1966-01-01

    Saunders, Grady F. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and L. Leon Campbell. Ribonucleic acid and ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 91:332–339. 1966.—The ability of some thermophilic bacteria to grow at temperatures as high as 76 C emphasizes the remarkable thermal stability of their crucial macromolecules. An investigation of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) and ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus was conducted. Washed log-phase cells were disrupted either by sonic treatment or by alumina grinding in 10−2m MgCl2–10−2m tris-(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, pH 7.4 (TM buffer). Ultracentrifugal analysis revealed peaks at 72.5S, 101S, and 135S, with the 101S peak being the most prominent. By lowering the Mg++ concentration to 10−3m, the ribosome preparation was dissociated to give 40S, 31S, and 54S peaks. These in turn were reassociated in the presence of 10−2m Mg++ to give the larger 73S and 135S particles. When heated in TM buffer, Escherichia coli ribosomes began a gradual dissociation at 58 C, and at 70 C underwent a large hyperchromic shift with a Tm at 72.8 C. In contrast, B. stearothermophilus ribosomes did not show a hyperchromic shift below 70 C; they had a Tm of 77.9 C. The thermal denaturation curves of the 4S, 16S, and 23S RNA from both organisms were virtually identical. The gross amino acid composition of B. stearothermophilus ribosomes showed no marked differences from that reported for E. coli ribosomes. These data suggest that the unusual thermal stability of B. stearothermophilus ribosomes may reflect either an unusual packing arrangement of the protein to the RNA or differences in the primary structure of the ribosomal proteins. Images PMID:5903099

  8. Melatonin: a universal time messenger.

    PubMed

    Erren, Thomas C; Reiter, Russel J

    2015-01-01

    Temporal organization plays a key role in humans, and presumably all species on Earth. A core building block of the chronobiological architecture is the master clock, located in the suprachi asmatic nuclei [SCN], which organizes "when" things happen in sub-cellular biochemistry, cells, organs and organisms, including humans. Conceptually, time messenging should follow a 5 step-cascade. While abundant evidence suggests how steps 1 through 4 work, step 5 of "how is central time information transmitted througout the body?" awaits elucidation. Step 1: Light provides information on environmental (external) time; Step 2: Ocular interfaces between light and biological (internal) time are intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells [ipRGS] and rods and cones; Step 3: Via the retinohypothalamic tract external time information reaches the light-dependent master clock in the brain, viz the SCN; Step 4: The SCN translate environmental time information into biological time and distribute this information to numerous brain structures via a melanopsin-based network. Step 5: Melatonin, we propose, transmits, or is a messenger of, internal time information to all parts of the body to allow temporal organization which is orchestrated by the SCN. Key reasons why we expect melatonin to have such role include: First, melatonin, as the chemical expression of darkness, is centrally involved in time- and timing-related processes such as encoding clock and calendar information in the brain; Second, melatonin travels throughout the body without limits and is thus a ubiquitous molecule. The chemial conservation of melatonin in all tested species could make this molecule a candidate for a universal time messenger, possibly constituting a legacy of an all-embracing evolutionary history.

  9. Details of MESSENGER Impact Location

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-29

    These graphics show the current best prediction of the location and time of NASA MESSENGER impact on Mercury surface. These current best estimates are: Date: 30 April 2015 Time: 3:26:02 pm EDT 19:26:02 UTC Latitude: 54.4° N Longitude: 210.1° E. Traveling at 3.91 kilometers per second (over 8,700 miles per hour), the MESSENGER spacecraft will collide with Mercury's surface, creating a crater estimated to be 16 meters (52 feet) in diameter. View this image to learn about the named features and geology of this region on Mercury. Instruments: Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) and Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) Top Image Latitude Range: 49°-59° N Top Image Longitude Range: 204°-217° E Topography in Top Image: Exaggerated by a factor of 5.5. Colors in Top Image: Coded by topography. The tallest regions are colored red and are roughly 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) higher than low-lying areas such as the floors of impact craters, colored blue. Scale in Top Image: The large crater on the left side of the image is Janacek, with a diameter of 48 kilometers (30 miles) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19443

  10. MESSENGER Observations of Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's second and third flybys of Mercury on October 6, 2008 and September 29, 2009, respectively, southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) produced intense reconnection signatures in the dayside and nightside magnetosphere and markedly different system-level responses. The IMF during the second flyby was continuously southward and the magnetosphere appeared very active, with large magnetic field components normal to the magnetopause and the generation of flux transfer events at the magnetopause and plasmoids in the tail current sheet every 30 to 90 s. However, the strength and direction of the tail magnetic field was stable. In contrast, the IMF during the third flyby varied from north to south on timescales of minutes. Although the MESSENGER measurements were limited during that encounter to the nightside magnetosphere, numerous examples of plasmoid release in the tail were detected, but they were not periodic. Instead, plasmoid release was highly correlated with four large enhancements of the tail magnetic field (i.e. by factors > 2) with durations of approx. 2 - 3 min. The increased flaring of the magnetic field during these intervals indicates that the enhancements were caused by loading of the tail with magnetic flux transferred from the dayside magnetosphere. New analyses of the second and third flyby observations of reconnection and its system-level effects provide a basis for comparison and contrast with what is known about the response of the Earth s magnetosphere to variable versus steady southward IMF.

  11. Nitric oxide: a physiologic messenger.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, C J; Dinerman, J L; Snyder, S H

    1994-02-01

    To review the physiologic role of nitric oxide, an unusual messenger molecule that mediates blood vessel relaxation, neurotransmission, and pathogen suppression. A MEDLINE search of articles published from 1987 to 1993 that addressed nitric oxide and the enzyme that synthesizes it, nitric oxide synthase. Animal and human studies were selected from 3044 articles to analyze the clinical importance of nitric oxide. Descriptions of the structure and function of nitric oxide synthase were selected to show how nitric oxide acts as a biological messenger molecule. Biochemical and physiologic studies were analyzed if the same results were found by three or more independent observers. Two major classes of nitric oxide synthase enzymes produce nitric oxide. The constitutive isoforms found in endothelial cells and neurons release small amounts of nitric oxide for brief periods to signal adjacent cells, whereas the inducible isoform found in macrophages releases large amounts of nitric oxide continuously to eliminate bacteria and parasites. By diffusing into adjacent cells and binding to enzymes that contain iron, nitric oxide plays many important physiologic roles. It regulates blood pressure, transmits signals between neurons, and suppresses pathogens. Excess amounts, however, can damage host cells, causing neurotoxicity during strokes and causing the hypotension associated with sepsis. Nitric oxide is a simple molecule with many physiologic roles in the cardiovascular, neurologic, and immune systems. Although the general principles of nitric oxide synthesis are known, further research is necessary to determine what role it plays in causing disease.

  12. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    PubMed Central

    Katahira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex. PMID:25836925

  13. Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) Technology for control of Asian citrus psyllid - You Tube

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNAi, Ribonucleic acid interference, function and application are described to bring a better understanding of how this emerging technology is providing environmentally friendly, non-transgenic, insect pest control to the citrus industry....

  14. Astroparticles: Messengers from Outer Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desiati, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Since Galileo pointed a spyglass toward the sky, 400 years ago, observations empowered by man-made instrumentation have provided us with an enormous leap in the knowledge of how the Universe functions. More and more powerful optical telescopes made it possible for us to reach the farthest corners of space. At the same time, the advances in microphysics and the discovery of the electromagnetic spectrum, made it possible to directly look at the Universe in a way that our eyes cannot see. The discoveries of the intimate structure of matter, of subatomic particles and of how they interact with each other, have led astronomers to use the smallest objects in Nature to observe the farthest reaches of the otherwise invisible Universe. Not unlike Galileo, today we observe Outer Space with visible light and beyond, across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from long wavelength radio waves to short wavelength gamma rays. But also with instruments detecting cosmic rays (the atomic nuclei we know on Earth) neutrinos (neutral subatomic particles that interact very weakly with matter) and gravitational waves (perturbations of spacetime predicted by General Relativity). Each cosmic messenger provides us with a unique piece of information about their source and the history of their journey to us. Modern astrophysics has the challenging goal to collect as much information as possible from all those messengers, to reconstruct the story of the Universe and how it became what it is today. This journey started with the unsettling discovery that we are only one minuscule dot in the immensity of the Universe and yet we are able to observe objects that are far in space and time. This journey is yet to complete its course, and the more we advance our knowledge, the more we need to understand. This interdisciplinary talk provides an overview of this journey and the future perspectives.

  15. Interferon Action on Parental Semliki Forest Virus Ribonucleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Robert M.; Fantes, Karl H.; Levy, Hilton B.; Carter, William B.

    1967-01-01

    Actinomycin D-treated chick fibroblasts were infected with purified 32P-labeled Semliki forest virus, and ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted after 1 or 2 hr. Within 1 hr, viral RNA forms sedimenting in sucrose gradients at 42S, 30S, and 16S were present. The 42S form corresponded to the RNA of the virion. The 16S form appeared to be a double-stranded template for the formation of new viral RNA, since nascent RNA was associated with it and the molecule could be heat-denatured and subsequently reannealed by slow cooling. Interferon treatment before infection, or puromycin (50 μg/ml) or cycloheximide (200 μg/ml) added at the time of virus infection, had no effect on the formation of the 30S RNA but inhibited the production of the 16S form. Several findings made it unlikely that these results were due to breakdown of parental RNA and reincorporation of 32P into progeny structures. The results suggested that the mechanism of interferon action involves inhibition of protein synthesis by parental viral RNA, since a specific viral RNA polymerase had previously been demonstrated to be necessary for production of 16S RNA. No protein synthesis appears necessary for formation of 30S RNA from parental virus RNA. PMID:5621488

  16. Composition of ribonucleic acid from various parts of spider oocytes.

    PubMed

    EDSTROM, J E

    1960-09-01

    Microphoretic purine-pyrimidine analyses of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) in nucleoli, nucleoplasm, cytoplasm, and yolk nuclei of spider oocytes have been carried out. The material necessary for the analyses was isolated by micromanipulation. Determinations of the amounts of RNA in the different parts of the cell were also performed. No differences between the composition of RNA in the nucleolus and the cytoplasm could be disclosed. Nucleoplasmic RNA was, on the other hand, distinctly different from that in the nucleolus and in the cytoplasm. The difference lies in the content of adenine, which is highest in nucleoplasmic RNA. The few analyses carried out on yolk nuclei showed their RNA to be variable in composition with a tendency to high purine values. The cytoplasm contains about 99 per cent of the total RNA in these cells, the nucleoplasm about 1 per cent, and the nucleolus not more than 0.3 per cent, although the highest concentrations are found in these latter structures. When considered in the light of other recent findings the results are compatible with the view that nucleolar RNA is the precursor of cytoplasmic RNA.

  17. Current Research on Non-Coding Ribonucleic Acid (RNA).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Samuels, David C; Zhao, Shilin; Xiang, Yu; Zhao, Ying-Yong; Guo, Yan

    2017-12-05

    Non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) has without a doubt captured the interest of biomedical researchers. The ability to screen the entire human genome with high-throughput sequencing technology has greatly enhanced the identification, annotation and prediction of the functionality of non-coding RNAs. In this review, we discuss the current landscape of non-coding RNA research and quantitative analysis. Non-coding RNA will be categorized into two major groups by size: long non-coding RNAs and small RNAs. In long non-coding RNA, we discuss regular long non-coding RNA, pseudogenes and circular RNA. In small RNA, we discuss miRNA, transfer RNA, piwi-interacting RNA, small nucleolar RNA, small nuclear RNA, Y RNA, single recognition particle RNA, and 7SK RNA. We elaborate on the origin, detection method, and potential association with disease, putative functional mechanisms, and public resources for these non-coding RNAs. We aim to provide readers with a complete overview of non-coding RNAs and incite additional interest in non-coding RNA research.

  18. Discrimination of Self and Non-Self Ribonucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, Anna; Laudenbach, Beatrice T.

    2017-01-01

    Most virus infections are controlled through the innate and adaptive immune system. A surprisingly limited number of so-called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) have the ability to sense a large variety of virus infections. The reason for the broad activity of PRRs lies in the ability to recognize viral nucleic acids. These nucleic acids lack signatures that are present in cytoplasmic cellular nucleic acids and thereby marking them as pathogen-derived. Accumulating evidence suggests that these signatures, which are predominantly sensed by a class of PRRs called retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors and other proteins, are not unique to viruses but rather resemble immature forms of cellular ribonucleic acids generated by cellular polymerases. RIG-I-like receptors, and other cellular antiviral proteins, may therefore have mainly evolved to sense nonprocessed nucleic acids typically generated by primitive organisms and pathogens. This capability has not only implications on induction of antiviral immunity but also on the function of cellular proteins to handle self-derived RNA with stimulatory potential. PMID:28475460

  19. The Mercury exosphere after MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, Rosemary; McClintock, William; Vervack, Ronald; Merkel, Aimee; Burger, Matthew; Cassidy, Timothy; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2016-07-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft observed sodium, calcium and magnesium emisison in Mercury's exosphere on a near-daily basis for >16 Mercury years. The MASCS observations showed that calcium in Mercury's exosphere is persistently concentrated in the dawn hemisphere and is of extreme temperature (>50,000 K). The column abundance varies seasonally, and is extremely repeatable each Mercury year. In addition, the calcium exhibits a persistent maximum not at perihelion but 20° after perihelion, an enhancement that was shown to be coincident with the probable intersection of Mercury's orbit with a dust stream originating at Comet Encke. Any mechanism producing the Mercurian Ca exosphere must explain the facts that the Ca is extremely hot, that it is seen almost exclusively on the dawnside of the planet, and that its content varies seasonally, not sporadically. Energization of the Ca atoms was suggested to originate through dissociation of Ca-bearing molecules ejected by meteoritic impacts. Magnesium was also observed on a daily basis throughout the MESSENGER orbital phase. Mg has its own spatial and temporal pattern, peaking at mid-morning instead of early morning like Ca, and exhibiting a warm thermal profile, about 5000 K, unlike the extreme temperature of Ca which is an order of magnitude hotter. Although Mercury's sodium exosphere has been observed from the ground for many decades, the MASCS observations showed that, like calcium, the sodium exosphere is dominated by seasonal variations, not sporadic variations. However a conundrum exists as to why ground-based observations show highly variable high-latitude variations that eluded the MASCS. The origin of a persistent south polar enhancement has not been explained. The more volatile element, Na, is again colder, about 1200 K, but not thermally accommodated to the surface temperature. A

  20. Nuclear Synthesis of Cytoplasmic Ribonucleic Acid in Amoeba proteus

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, David M.

    1959-01-01

    The enucleation technique has been applied to Amoeba proteus by several laboratories in attempts to determine whether the cytoplasm is capable of nucleus-independent ribonucleic acid synthesis. This cell is very convenient for micrurgy, but its use requires a thorough starvation period to eliminate the possibility of metabolic influence by food vacuoles and frequent washings and medium renewal to maintain asepsis. In the experiments described here, amoebae were starved for periods of 24 to 96 hours, cut into nucleated and enucleated halves, and exposed to either C-14 uracil, C-14 adenine, C-14 orotic acid, or a mixture of all three. When the starvation period was short (less than 72 hours), organisms (especially yeast cells) contained within amoeba food vacuoles frequently showed RNA synthesis in both nucleated and enucleated amoebae. When the preperiod of starvation was longer than 72 hours, food vacuole influence was apparently negligible, and a more meaningful comparison between enucleated and nucleated amoebae was possible. Nucleated cells incorporated all three precursors into RNA; enucleated cells were incapable of such incorporation. The experiments indicate a complete dependence on the nucleus for RNA synthesis. The conflict with the experimental results of others on this problem could possibly stem from differences in culture conditions, starvation treatment, or experimental conditions. For an unequivocal answer in experiments of this design, ideally the cells should be capable of growth on an entirely synthetic medium under aseptic conditions. The use of a synthetic medium (experiments with A. proteus are done under starvation conditions) would permit, moreover, a more realistic comparison of metabolic capacities of nucleated and enucleated cells. PMID:14434750

  1. Nuclear synthesis of cytoplasmic ribonucleic acid in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    PRESCOTT, D M

    1959-10-01

    The enucleation technique has been applied to Amoeba proteus by several laboratories in attempts to determine whether the cytoplasm is capable of nucleus-independent ribonucleic acid synthesis. This cell is very convenient for micrurgy, but its use requires a thorough starvation period to eliminate the possibility of metabolic influence by food vacuoles and frequent washings and medium renewal to maintain asepsis. In the experiments described here, amoebae were starved for periods of 24 to 96 hours, cut into nucleated and enucleated halves, and exposed to either C-14 uracil, C-14 adenine, C-14 orotic acid, or a mixture of all three. When the starvation period was short (less than 72 hours), organisms (especially yeast cells) contained within amoeba food vacuoles frequently showed RNA synthesis in both nucleated and enucleated amoebae. When the preperiod of starvation was longer than 72 hours, food vacuole influence was apparently negligible, and a more meaningful comparison between enucleated and nucleated amoebae was possible. Nucleated cells incorporated all three precursors into RNA; enucleated cells were incapable of such incorporation. The experiments indicate a complete dependence on the nucleus for RNA synthesis. The conflict with the experimental results of others on this problem could possibly stem from differences in culture conditions, starvation treatment, or experimental conditions. For an unequivocal answer in experiments of this design, ideally the cells should be capable of growth on an entirely synthetic medium under aseptic conditions. The use of a synthetic medium (experiments with A. proteus are done under starvation conditions) would permit, moreover, a more realistic comparison of metabolic capacities of nucleated and enucleated cells.

  2. MESSENGER Reveals Mercury in New Detail

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-16

    As NASA MESSENGER approached Mercury on January 14, 2008, the spacecraft Narrow-Angle Camera on the Mercury Dual Imaging System MDIS instrument captured this view of the planet rugged, cratered landscape illuminated obliquely by the Sun.

  3. MESSENGER Team Presents Latest Science Results

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-30

    This mosaic was assembled using NAC images acquired as the MESSENGER spacecraft approached the planet during the mission second Mercury flyby The Rembrandt impact basin is seen at the center of the mosaic.

  4. Influence of the stringent control system on the transcription of ribosomal ribonucleic acid and ribosomal protein genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, P P

    1977-01-01

    The fraction of the total ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis rate that is messenger RNA (mRNA) for ribosomal protein (r-protein) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) has been estimated in valS(Ts) rel+ stringent and valS(Ts) relA1 relaxed strains of Escherichia coli during a partial inhibition of valyl-transfer RNA aminoacylation. The partial inhibition was accomplished by shifting the strains from the permissive growth temperature of 29.5 degrees C to the semipermissive temperature of 35.5 degrees C. The RNA synthesized at the elevated temperature was pulse labeled with [3H]uracil. The fraction of the total incorpoarted 3H radioactivity in r-protein mRNA or in rRNA was estimated by specific hybridization to the transducing phages gammaspc1, which carries about 15 r-protein genes and lambdailv5, which carries an rRNA transcription unit. The results clearly demonstrate that the rel gene influences the fraction of the total RNA synthesis rate that is r protein mRNA and rRNA; in the rel+ strain they are significantly increased relative to control cultures. This indicates that the expression of the genes coding for the RNA and protein component of the ribosome are most likely regulated at the level of transcription. Furthermore, it appears that the distribution of functioning RNA polymerase between rRNA genes, r-protein genes, and other types of genes is influenced by the rel gene control system; presumably this influence is mediated through the unusual nucleotide guanosine tetraphosphate. PMID:320185

  5. Inactivation of Encephalomyocarditis Virus in Aerosols: Fate of Virus Protein and Ribonucleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    De Jong, J. C.; Harmsen, M.; Trouwborst, T.; Winkler, K. C.

    1974-01-01

    After aerosolization at relative humidities of 50% or lower, encephalomyocarditis virus is rapidly inactivated. In this process the protein coat of the virion is damaged. This appears as a loss of hemagglutination activity and loss of affinity for hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies. The ribonucleic acid of the virus retains its infectivity but it becomes susceptible to ribonuclease. It sediments in sucrose gradients when centrifuged at high speed with the same velocity as free infectious ribonucleic acid extracted with phenol from intact encephalomyocarditis virus. PMID:4358862

  6. Parameters on plant absortion of double-stranded Ribonucleic acid, dsRNA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efficient absorption of double-stranded Ribonucleic acid, dsRNA, into citrus is critical for effective psyllid management by RNA interference, RNAi. Parameters which might affect absorption into citrus trees and subsequent ingestion by Asian citrus psyllid were evaluated. Age of leaves, variety of c...

  7. Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) technology for control of Asian citrus psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, applications and function are described for the non-scientist to bring a better understanding of how this emerging technology is providing environmentally friendly, non-transgenic, insect pest control to the citrus industry. Two part Video presentation....

  8. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-10-30

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10{sup 5} GeV {approx}< M{sub mess} {approx}< 10{sup 10} GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N{sub mess} are possible depending on themore » choice of the gauge group.« less

  9. 12 CFR 7.1012 - Messenger service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... service” means any service, such as a courier service or armored car service, used by a national bank and... service do not advertise, or otherwise represent, that the bank itself is providing the service, although the bank may advertise that its customers may use one or more third party messenger services to...

  10. Intercultural Learning via Instant Messenger Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Li; Erben, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating the viability of instant messenger (IM) interaction to facilitate intercultural learning in a foreign language class. Eight students in a Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) class participated in the study. Each student was paired with a native speaker (NS) of Chinese, and each pair…

  11. MESSENGER Orbital Observations of Mercury's Hydrogen Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervack, R. J.; Hurley, D. M.; Pryor, W.; Killen, R. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present a complete analysis of the MESSENGER H Lyman alpha altitude profiles. These data confirm the two-temperature nature of the Mariner 10 observations of H and address long-outstanding questions on the origin of Mercury's H exosphere.

  12. MESSENGER at Mercury: Early Orbital Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNutt, Ralph L., Jr; Solomon, Sean C.; Bedini, Peter D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Blewett, David T.; Evans, Larry G.; Gold, Robert E.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larry R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 under NASA's Discovery Program, was inserted into orbit about the planet Mercury in March 2011. MESSENGER's three flybys of Mercury in 2008-2009 marked the first spacecraft visits to the innermost planet since the Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975. The unprecedented orbital operations are yielding new insights into the nature and evolution of Mercury. The scientific questions that frame the MESSENGER mission led to the mission measurement objectives to be achieved by the seven payload instruments and the radio science experiment. Interweaving the full set of required orbital observations in a manner that maximizes the opportunity to satisfy all mission objectives and yet meet stringent spacecraft pointing and thermal constraints was a complex optimization problem that was solved with a software tool that simulates science observations and tracks progress toward meeting each objective. The final orbital observation plan, the outcome of that optimization process, meets all mission objectives. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System is acquiring a global monochromatic image mosaic at better than 90% coverage and at least 250 m average resolution, a global color image mosaic at better than 90% coverage and at least 1 km average resolution, and global stereo imaging at better than 80% coverage and at least 250 m average resolution. Higher-resolution images are also being acquired of targeted areas. The elemental remote sensing instruments, including the Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer and the X-Ray Spectrometer, are being operated nearly continuously and will establish the average surface abundances of most major elements. The Visible and Infrared Spectrograph channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer is acquiring a global map of spectral reflectance from 300 to 1450 nm wavelength at a range of incidence and emission

  13. MESSENGER at Mercury: Early Orbital Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Solomon, Sean C.; Bedini, Peter D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Blewett, David T.; Evans, Larry G.; Gold, Robert E.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larry R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 under NASA's Discovery Program, was inserted into orbit about the planet Mercury in March 2011. MESSENGER's three flybys of Mercury in 2008-2009 marked the first spacecraft visits to the innermost planet since the Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975. The unprecedented orbital operations are yielding new insights into the nature and evolution of Mercury. The scientific questions that frame the MESSENGER mission led to the mission measurement objectives to be achieved by the seven payload instruments and the radio science experiment. Interweaving the full set of required orbital observations in a manner that maximizes the opportunity to satisfy all mission objectives and yet meet stringent spacecraft pointing and thermal constraints was a complex optimization problem that was solved with a software tool that simulates science observations and tracks progress toward meeting each objective. The final orbital observation plan, the outcome of that optimization process, meets all mission objectives. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System is acquiring a global monochromatic image mosaic at better than 90%coverage and at least 250 m average resolution, a global color image mosaic at better than 90%coverage and at least 1 km average resolution, and global stereo imaging at better than 80%coverage and at least 250 m average resolution. Higher-resolution images are also being acquired of targeted areas. The elemental remote sensing instruments, including the Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer and the X-Ray Spectrometer, are being operated nearly continuously and will establish the average surface abundances of most major elements. The Visible and Infrared Spectrograph channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer is acquiring a global map of spectral reflectance from 300 to 1450 nm wavelength at a range of incidence and emission angles

  14. Comparison of Two Serologically Distinct Ribonucleic Acid Bacteriophages I. Properties of the Viral Particles

    PubMed Central

    Overby, L. R.; Barlow, G. H.; Doi, R. H.; Jacob, Monique; Spiegelman, S.

    1966-01-01

    Overby, L. R. (University of Illinois, Urbana), G. H. Barlow, R. H. Doi, Monique Jacob, and S. Spiegelman. Comparison of two serologically distinct ribonucleic acid bacteriophages. I. Properties of the viral particle. J. Bacteriol. 91:442–448. 1966.—Two ribonucleic acid (RNA) coliphages, MS-2 and Qβ, have been characterized physically and serologically. MS-2 has an S20, w value of 79, a molecular weight of 3.6 × 106, a density of 1.422, and pH 3.9 as its isoelectric point. Qβ has an S20, w of 84, a molecular weight of 4.2 × 106, a density of 1.439, and an isoelectric point at pH 5.3. One host (Escherichia coli A-19) permits a distinction between the two on the basis of a marked difference in plaque size. They are distinct immunochemically, no serological cross-reaction being detectable. Images PMID:5903109

  15. Attitude Sensor and Gyro Calibration for Messenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Shaughnessy, Daniel; Pittelkau, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    The Redundant Inertial Measurement Unit Attitude Determination/Calibration (RADICAL(TM)) filter was used to estimate star tracker and gyro calibration parameters using MESSENGER telemetry data from three calibration events. We present an overview of the MESSENGER attitude sensors and their configuration is given, the calibration maneuvers are described, the results are compared with previous calibrations, and variations and trends in the estimated calibration parameters are examined. The warm restart and covariance bump features of the RADICAL(TM) filter were used to estimate calibration parameters from two disjoint telemetry streams. Results show that the calibration parameters converge faster with much less transient variation during convergence than when the filter is cold-started at the start of each telemetry stream.

  16. Bacterial nucleotide-based second messengers.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Christina; Hengge, Regine

    2009-04-01

    In all domains of life nucleotide-based second messengers transduce signals originating from changes in the environment or in intracellular conditions into appropriate cellular responses. In prokaryotes cyclic di-GMP has emerged as an important and ubiquitous second messenger regulating bacterial life-style transitions relevant for biofilm formation, virulence, and many other bacterial functions. This review describes similarities and differences in the architecture of the cAMP, (p)ppGpp, and c-di-GMP signaling systems and their underlying signaling principles. Moreover, recent advances in c-di-GMP-mediated signaling will be presented and the integration of c-di-GMP signaling with other nucleotide-based signaling systems will be discussed.

  17. MESSENGER View of Mercury's Caloris Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA image acquired October 28, 2011 This stunning, and as of yet unnamed, crater lies within the Caloris basin. Its floor provides another example of the beautiful "hollows" found on Mercury and has an etched appearance similar to that found in the crater Tyagaraja. This image was acquired as a high-resolution targeted observation. Targeted observations are images of a small area on Mercury's surface at resolutions much higher than the 250-meter/pixel (820 feet/pixel) morphology base map or the 1-kilometer/pixel (0.6 miles/pixel) color base map. It is not possible to cover all of Mercury's surface at this high resolution during MESSENGER's one-year mission, but several areas of high scientific interest are generally imaged in this mode each week. The MESSENGER spacecraft is the first ever to orbit the planet Mercury, and the spacecraft's seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation are unraveling the history and evolution of the Solar System's innermost planet. Visit the Why Mercury? section of this website to learn more about the key science questions that the MESSENGER mission is addressing. During the one-year primary mission, MDIS is scheduled to acquire more than 75,000 images in support of MESSENGER's science goals. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  18. The Energy Messenger, Number 1, Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Stancil, J.

    1995-01-01

    `The Energy Messenger` is a Department of Energy publication on energy activities of interest to American Indians. The first issue of 1995 (in a magazine format) includes articles on: tribes winning grants to develop energy resources, recruiting of internships for DOE, information about Title XXVI-Indian Energy Resources, American Indian Heritage Month, tribal perspective on DOE actions, joint ventures between tribes and the DOE, and brief description of recent DOE activities.

  19. Termination of second messenger signaling in olfaction.

    PubMed Central

    Boekhoff, I; Breer, H

    1992-01-01

    By using isolated rat olfactory cilia and a fast kinetics methodology, it has been demonstrated that odorant-induced second messenger signaling in the millisecond time range is terminated via phosphorylation reactions catalyzed by specific protein kinases. The cyclic adenosine nucleotide pathway is turned off by kinase A activity, whereas the inositol trisphosphate cascade is terminated by kinase C. The data support the concept that desensitization of odorant responses involves phosphorylation of key elements in the transduction cascade. PMID:1370581

  20. MESSENGER: The Discovery Mission to Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, R. L.; Solomon, S. C.; Gold, R. E.; Domingue, D. L.

    2004-12-01

    NASA's MErcury, Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochenistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched on 3 August 2004, has begun its voyage to initiate a new era in our understanding of the terrestrial planets. The mission, spacecraft, and payload are designed to answer six fundamental questions regarding the innermost planet: What planetary formational processes led to Mercury's high metal/silicate ratio? What is the geological history of Mercury? What are the nature and origin of Mercury's magnetic field? What are the structure and state of Mercury's core? What are the radar-reflective materials at Mercury's poles? What are the important volatile species and their sources and sinks on and near Mercury? Planet formational hypotheses will be tested by measuring the surface abundances of major elements by X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry. The geological history will be determined from high-resolution color imaging of the heavily cratered highlands, intercrater plains, and smooth plains. MESSENGER will provide detailed views of both the Caloris basin and its antipodal terrain. Topographic, mineralogical, and elemental abundance data will be used to seek evidence of volcanic features and units. Measurement of Mercury's magnetic field and its interaction with the solar wind will distinguish the intrinsic dipole and quadrupole components while separating these from the current systems driven by solar-wind-induced convection. The structure of the internal field will put constraints on dynamo models. Such models will also be constrained by measuring Mercury's libration to determine the extent of a fluid outer core. Both water ice and sulfur have been postulated as major constituents of the high-radar-backscatter polar deposits. MESSENGER will combine gamma-ray and neutron spectrometry of the surface with ultraviolet spectrometry and in situ particle measurements to detect both neutral and charged species originating from the surface. Such measurements will address the

  1. Maternal nutritional programming of fetal adipose tissue development: differential effects on messenger ribonucleic acid abundance for uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated and prolactin receptors.

    PubMed

    Bispham, J; Gardner, D S; Gnanalingham, M G; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M E; Budge, H

    2005-09-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction at specific stages of gestation has differential effects on fetal development such that the offspring are programmed to be at increased risk of a range of adult diseases, including obesity. We investigated the effect of maternal nutritional manipulation through gestation on fetal adipose tissue deposition in conjunction with mRNA abundance for uncoupling protein (UCP)1 and 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)alpha and gamma, together with long and short forms of the prolactin receptor (PRLR). Singleton-bearing ewes were either nutrient restricted (3.2-3.8 MJ day(-1) metabolizable energy) or fed to appetite (8.7-9.9 MJ day(-1)) over the period of maximal placental growth, i.e. between 28 and 80 d gestation. After 80 d gestation, ewes were either fed to calculated requirements, (6.7-7.5 MJ day(-1)), or to appetite (8.0-10.9 MJ day(-1)). At term, offspring of nutrient-restricted ewes possessed more adipose tissue, an adaptation that was greatest in those born to mothers that fed to requirements in late gestation. This was accompanied by an increased mRNA abundance for UCP2 and PPARalpha, an adaptation not seen in mothers re-fed to appetite. Maternal nutrition had no effect on mRNA abundance for UCP1, PPARgamma, or PRLR. Irrespective of maternal nutrition, mRNA abundance for UCP1 was positively correlated with PPARgamma and the long and short forms of PRLR, indicating that these factors may act together to ensure that UCP1 abundance is maximized in the newborn. In conclusion, we have shown, for the first time, differential effects of maternal nutrition on key regulatory components of fetal fat metabolism.

  2. Spatial distribution of the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein of the nuclear receptor coactivator, amplified in breast cancer-3, in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Liao, Lan; Kuang, Shao-Qing; Xu, Jianming

    2003-04-01

    Transcriptional activities of nuclear receptors are modulated by coactivators and corepressors. The amplified in breast cancer-3 protein (AIB3, also known as ASC-2, RAP250, PRIP, TRBP, and NCR) is a newly identified nuclear receptor coactivator that is amplified and overexpressed in breast cancers. This study aims to investigate the spatial expression of AIB3 mRNA and protein in various murine tissues. Quantitative measurements revealed that the concentrations of AIB3 mRNA differ substantially in different tissues in a descending order from the following: testis, brain, thymus, white fat, pituitary, ovary, adrenal gland, lung, uterus, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, liver, and virgin mammary gland. The AIB3 mRNA level in the testis is 165-fold higher than that in the virgin mammary gland. Specific antiserum was generated and used to map the distribution of AIB3 protein by immunohistochemistry. Although AIB3 protein was detected in many tissues, the AIB3 immunoreactivities varied significantly from cell type to cell type. High levels of AIB3 immunoreactivity were observed in hormone target cells including the testicular Sertoli cells, follicular granulosa cells, and epithelial cells of the prostate, uterus, mammary gland, and kidney tubules. Medium and low levels of AIB3 immunoreactivities were also detected in a variety of other cell types. These results demonstrate that AIB3 mRNA and protein are preferentially expressed in specific cell types, suggesting that AIB3 may support the function of nuclear receptors in a cell type-specific manner.

  3. Effect of diet containing phytate and phytase on the activity and messenger ribonucleic acid expression of carbohydrase and transporter in chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, N; Ru, Y J; Li, F D; Cowieson, A J

    2008-12-01

    The effect of dietary phytate and phytase on carbohydrase activity and hexose transport was investigated in broiler chickens. Diets containing phytate P (2.2 or 4.4 g/kg) with different phytase dose rates (0, 500, or 1,000 phytase units/kg) were fed to 504 female Cobb chicks for 3 wk. Diets containing high phytate concentrations depressed (P < 0.05) BW and G:F, whereas phytase supplementation improved (P < 0.05) the performance of birds. In the duodenum, phytate decreased (P < 0.05) the activities of disaccharidases, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, and glucose concentrations by 5 to 11%, but phytase enhanced (P < 0.05) the concentrations of amylase, sucrase, maltase, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, and glucose by 5 to 30%. In the jejunum, phytate decreased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of amylase, sucrase, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, and glucose by 10 to 22%, and phytase alleviated the negative effect of phytate on the above variables. Ingestion of diets containing phytate also decreased (P < 0.05) serum amylase activity and glucose concentration, and phytase enhanced (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of amylase, sucrase, maltase, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, and glucose. There were also interactions (P < 0.05) between phytate and phytase on the concentrations of serum amylase, duodenal amylase, sucrase, and jejunal glucose. Enzymatic analysis at a molecular level showed that neither phytate nor phytase influenced the mRNA expression of sucrase-isomaltase in the small intestine. Also, the investigation into the sodium glucose cotransporter gene may challenge the mechanism by which phytate interferes with glucose utilization, as partly indicated by bird performance, and transmembrane transport because diets containing increased phytate upregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of the sodium glucose cotransporter gene in duodenum and did not influence it in the jejunum. These results indicate that phytate can impair endogenous carbohydrase activity and digestive competence, and phytase can ameliorate these effects for chickens.

  4. The small intestinal epithelia of beef steers differentially express sugar transporter messenger ribonucleic acid in response to abomasal versus ruminal infusion of starch hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Liao, S F; Harmon, D L; Vanzant, E S; McLeod, K R; Boling, J A; Matthews, J C

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, the absorption of monosaccharides from small intestinal lumen involves at least 3 sugar transporters (SugT): sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1; gene SLC5A1) transports glucose and galactose, whereas glucose transporter (GLUT) 5 (GLUT5; gene SLC2A5) transports fructose, across the apical membrane of enterocytes. In contrast, GLUT2 (gene SLC2A2) transports all of these sugars across basolateral and apical membranes. To compare the distribution patterns and sensitivity with nutritional regulation of these 3 SugT mRNA in beef cattle small intestinal tissue, 18 ruminally and abomasally catheterized Angus steers (BW approximately 260 kg) were assigned to water (control), ruminal cornstarch (partially hydrolyzed by alpha-amylase; SH), or abomasal SH infusion treatments (n = 6) and fed an alfalfa-cube-based diet at 1.3 x NE(m) requirement. The SH infusions amounted to 20% of ME intake. After 14- or 16-d of infusion, steers were killed; duodenal, jejunal, and ileal epithelia harvested; and total RNA extracted. The relative amount of SugT mRNA in epithelia was determined using real-time reverse transcription-PCR quantification methods. Basal expression of GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA was greater (P < 0.09) by jejunal than by duodenal or ileal epithelia, whereas basal content of GLUT5 mRNA was greater (P < or = 0.02) by jejunal and duodenal than by ileal epithelia. The content of GLUT5 mRNA in small intestinal epithelia was not affected (P > or = 0.16) by either SH infusion treatment. In contrast, GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA content in the ileal epithelium was increased (P < or = 0.05) by 6.5- and 1.3-fold, respectively, after abomasal SH infusion. Duodenal SGLT1 mRNA content also was increased (P = 0.07) by 64% after ruminal SH infusion. These results demonstrate that the ileum of beef cattle small intestine adapts to an increased luminal supply of glucose by increasing SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA content, whereas increased ruminal SH supply results in duodenal upregulation of SGLT1 mRNA content. These adaptive responses of GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA to abomasal or ruminal SH infusion suggest that beef cattle can adapt to increase their carbohydrate assimilation through small intestinal epithelia, assuming that altered SugT mRNA contents reflect the altered transport functional capacities.

  5. The Small Intestinal Epithelia of Beef Steers Differentially Express Sugar Transporter Messenger Ribonucleic Acid in Response to Abomasal Versus Ruminal Infusion of Starch Hydrolysate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In mammals, the absorption of mono¬saccharides from small intestinal lumen involves at least 3 sugar transporters (SugT): sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1; gene SLC5A1) transports glucose and galactose, whereas glucose transporter (GLUT) 5 (GLUT5; gene SLC2A5) transports fructose, acros...

  6. Adaptor protein SH2-B linking receptor-tyrosine kinase and Akt promotes adipocyte differentiation by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma messenger ribonucleic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Yoshiga, Daigo; Sato, Naoichi; Torisu, Takehiro; Mori, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Ryoko; Nakamura, Seiji; Takaesu, Giichi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2007-05-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is regulated by insulin and IGF-I, which transmit signals by activating their receptor tyrosine kinase. SH2-B is an adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology and Src homology 2 (SH2) domains that have been implicated in insulin and IGF-I receptor signaling. In this study, we found a strong link between SH2-B levels and adipogenesis. The fat mass and expression of adipogenic genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) were reduced in white adipose tissue of SH2-B-/- mice. Reduced adipocyte differentiation of SH2-B-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) was observed in response to insulin and dexamethasone, whereas retroviral SH2-B overexpression enhanced differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes. SH2-B overexpression enhanced mRNA level of PPARgamma in 3T3-L1 cells, whereas PPARgamma levels were reduced in SH2-B-deficient MEFs in response to insulin. SH2-B-mediated up-regulation of PPARgamma mRNA was blocked by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, but not by a MAPK kinase inhibitor. Insulin-induced Akt activation and the phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factor (FKHR/Foxo1), a negative regulator of PPARgamma transcription, were up-regulated by SH2-B overexpression, but reduced in SH2-B-deficient MEFs. These data indicate that SH2-B is a key regulator of adipogenesis both in vivo and in vitro by regulating the insulin/IGF-I receptor-Akt-Foxo1-PPARgamma pathway.

  7. Mercury's Na Exosphere from MESSENGER Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Sarantos, M.; Vervack, R. J.; McClintock, W. El; Merkel, A. W.; Sprague, A. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UWS) channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has been observing Mercury's exosphere nearly continuously. Daily measurements of Na brightness were fitted with non-uniform exospheric models. With Monte Carlo sampling we traced the trajectories of a representative number of test particles, generally one million per run per source process, until photoionization, escape from the gravitational well, or permanent sticking at the surface removed the atom from the simulation. Atoms were assumed to partially thermally accommodate on each encounter with the surface with accommodation coefficient 0.25. Runs for different assumed source processes are run separately, scaled and co-added. Once these model results were saved onto a 3D grid, we ran lines of sight from the MESSENGER spacecraft :0 infinity using the SPICE kernels and we computed brightness integrals. Note that only particles that contribute to the measurement can be constrained with our method. Atoms and molecules produced on the nightside must escape the shadow in order to scatter light if the excitation process is resonant-light scattering, as assumed here. The aggregate distribution of Na atoms fits a 1200 K gas, with a PSD distribution, along with a hotter component. Our models constrain the hot component, assumed to be impact vaporization, to be emitted with a 2500 K Maxwellian. Most orbits show a dawnside enhancement in the hot component broadly spread over the leading hemisphere. However, on some dates there is no dawn/dusk asymmetry. The portion of the hot/cold source appears to be highly variable.

  8. Gravitational Waves and Multi-Messenger Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational waves are produced by a wide variety of sources throughout the cosmos, including the mergers of black hole and neutron star binaries/compact objects spiraling into central black holes in galactic nuclei, close compact binaries/and phase transitions and quantum fluctuations in the early universe. Observing these signals can bring new, and often very precise, information about their sources across vast stretches of cosmic time. In this talk we will focus on thee opening of this gravitational-wave window on the universe, highlighting new opportunities for discovery and multi-messenger astronomy.

  9. Multi-Messenger Astronomy and Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, Lars

    This chapter presents the elaborated lecture notes on Multi-Messenger Astronomy and Dark Matter given by Lars Bergström at the 40th Saas-Fee Advanced Course on "Astrophysics at Very High Energies". One of the main problems of astrophysics and astro-particle physics is that the nature of dark matter remains unsolved. There are basically three complementary approaches to try to solve this problem. One is the detection of new particles with accelerators, the second is the observation of various types of messengers from radio waves to gamma-ray photons and neutrinos, and the third is the use of ingenious experiments for direct detection of dark matter particles. After giving an introduction to the particle universe, the author discusses the relic density of particles, basic cross sections for neutrinos and gamma-rays, supersymmetric dark matter, detection methods for neutralino dark matter, particular dark matter candidates, the status of dark matter detection, a detailled calculation on an hypothetical "Saas-Fee Wimp", primordial black holes, and gravitational waves.

  10. Mercury's Interior from MESSENGER Radio Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, A.; Mazarico, E.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft provided precise radio tracking data in orbit about Mercury for more than 4 years, from March 2011 to April 2015. These geodetic measurements enable us to investigate the interior structure of the planet from the inner core to the crust. The first three years of radio data allowed us to determine the gravity field of Mercury with a resolution of 150 km in the northern hemisphere (degree and order 50 in spherical harmonics) since the periapsis was located at higher latitudes (>65˚N) and 200-500 km altitudes. The comparison of this gravity solution with Mercury's topography, which was retrieved by using over 25 million individual measurements of the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA), resulted in a preliminary map of the crustal thickness of the planet. However, those results were limited by the resolution of the gravity field since the topography was defined in spherical harmonics up to degree and order 125. The last year of the MESSENGER extended mission was dedicated to a low-altitude campaign, where the spacecraft periapsis was maintained at altitudes between 25 and 100 km. The radio data collected during this mission phase allowed us to significantly improve the resolution of the gravity field locally in the northern hemisphere up to degree and order 100 in spherical harmonics. We present the gravity anomalies and crustal thickness maps that lead to a better understanding on the formation and evolution of specific regions. We present our estimated orientation model, which slightly differs from the solutions that were obtained by using Earth-based radar measurements and the co-registration of MESSENGER imaging and altimetry data. These previous estimates provide a direct measurement of the surface response, whereas the orientation model from gravity is more sensitive to the inner and outer core. A discrepancy between core and surface obliquities may provide fundamental

  11. Imaging During MESSENGER's Second Flyby of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabot, N. L.; Prockter, L. M.; Murchie, S. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Laslo, N. R.; Kang, H. K.; Hawkins, S. E.; Vaughan, R. M.; Head, J. W.; Solomon, S. C.; MESSENGER Team

    2008-12-01

    During MESSENGER's second flyby of Mercury on October 6, 2008, the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) will acquire 1287 images. The images will include coverage of about 30% of Mercury's surface not previously seen by spacecraft. A portion of the newly imaged terrain will be viewed during the inbound portion of the flyby. On the outbound leg, MDIS will image additional previously unseen terrain as well as regions imaged under different illumination geometry by Mariner 10. These new images, when combined with images from Mariner 10 and from MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, will enable the first regional- resolution global view of Mercury constituting a combined total coverage of about 96% of the planet's surface. MDIS consists of both a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). During MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby, the following imaging activities are planned: about 86 minutes before the spacecraft's closest pass by the planet, the WAC will acquire images through 11 different narrow-band color filters of the approaching crescent planet at a resolution of about 5 km/pixel. At slightly less than 1 hour to closest approach, the NAC will acquire a 4-column x 11-row mosaic with an approximate resolution of 450 m/pixel. At 8 minutes after closest approach, the WAC will obtain the highest-resolution multispectral images to date of Mercury's surface, imaging a portion of the surface through 11 color filters at resolutions of about 250-600 m/pixel. A strip of high-resolution NAC images, with a resolution of approximately 100 m/pixel, will follow these WAC observations. The NAC will next acquire a 15-column x 13- row high-resolution mosaic of the northern hemisphere of the departing planet, beginning approximately 21 minutes after closest approach, with resolutions of 140-300 m/pixel; this mosaic will fill a large gore in the Mariner 10 data. At about 42 minutes following closest approach, the WAC will acquire a 3x3, 11-filter, full- planet mosaic with an

  12. The development of fixed-ratio performance under the influence of ribonucleic acid12

    PubMed Central

    Gott, C. Thomas; Weiss, Bernard

    1972-01-01

    The transition from fixed-ratio 1 performance (every response reinforced) to fixed-ratio 30 performance (every thirtieth response reinforced) was studied in nine pigeons. These were divided into three treatment groups given daily oral doses of saline, or 250 mg/kg/day or 500 mg/kg/day of yeast ribonucleic acid. Detailed computer-assisted analyses of how fixed-ratio behavior develops revealed the following typical sequence. After the transition, the first few ratios typically were emitted without long interresponse times within the ratio. Steady responding then ceased, and numerous long interresponse times occurred, with no systematic relationship to ordinal position within the ratio. Gradually, a new pattern evolved, characterized by a consistently long post-reinforcement time, a border region of the next few interresponse times within which the mean interresponse time monotonically decreased, and short interresponse times within the last 80% of the ratio. Long interresponse times were eliminated from this last section of the ratio without regard to proximity to reinforcement. Various analytical procedures suggested that the final pattern can be conceived, in part, as the shaping of a reliable response topography. The group of three pigeons given 250 mg/kg/day of yeast ribonucleic acid responded at higher rates than the saline and 500 mg/kg/day groups. The latter group, in contrast to the saline and lower dose groups, which continued to increase their rates, reached a rate asymptote very early. PMID:4574711

  13. Mercury's magnetosphere after MESSENGER's first flyby.

    PubMed

    Slavin, James A; Acuña, Mario H; Anderson, Brian J; Baker, Daniel N; Benna, Mehdi; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E; Ho, George C; Killen, Rosemary M; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M; McNutt, Ralph L; Nittler, Larry R; Raines, Jim M; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C; Starr, Richard D; Trávnícek, Pavel; Zurbuchen, Thomas H

    2008-07-04

    Observations by MESSENGER show that Mercury's magnetosphere is immersed in a comet-like cloud of planetary ions. The most abundant, Na+, is broadly distributed but exhibits flux maxima in the magnetosheath, where the local plasma flow speed is high, and near the spacecraft's closest approach, where atmospheric density should peak. The magnetic field showed reconnection signatures in the form of flux transfer events, azimuthal rotations consistent with Kelvin-Helmholtz waves along the magnetopause, and extensive ultralow-frequency wave activity. Two outbound current sheet boundaries were observed, across which the magnetic field decreased in a manner suggestive of a double magnetopause. The separation of these current layers, comparable to the gyro-radius of a Na+ pickup ion entering the magnetosphere after being accelerated in the magnetosheath, may indicate a planetary ion boundary layer.

  14. Current Status of Messenger RNA Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Matthew G

    2018-06-01

    Messenger RNA is emerging as a highly versatile biological construct for creation of impactful medicines. mRNA vaccines directed toward infectious disease and cancer are in clinical development with encouraging early reads on tolerability and efficacy. The use of mRNA to direct intense but transient expression of paracrine factors is finding utility in reprogramming progenitor cells for wound healing and cardiac regeneration and for stimulation of antitumor immune responses, at least preclinically as we await clinical results. The use of mRNA for prolonged and repeated expression of proteins and enzymes to treat rare, typically monogenic disease is nearing clinical entry. These uses of mRNA require delivery solutions, and the application of and improvement to existing nanoparticle nucleic acid delivery systems have jump started the pace of development and reenergized the field of particle based nucleic acid delivery. The current status of mRNA delivery is reviewed in this article with an eye toward clinical tractability.

  15. [Irisin: a messenger from the gods?].

    PubMed

    Moreno, María; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Due to the need to understand the basis of the metabolic benefits of exercise, irisin was discovered a few years ago. This cytokine, secreted by skeletal muscle due to exercise, should have positive effects on energetic metabolism. In particular, it could act as a messenger on white adipose tissue, modifying its phenotype into the beige adipocyte, and increasing its thermogenic capacity. Since it was described, there have been numerous studies led to depict its function, with the aim of determining if irisin could become a therapeutic target in the context of diseases associated with a caloric excess, such as obesity and diabetes. In this review, the irisin discovery is summarized, along with its in vitro and in vivo effects described up until now. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Isoaccepting Transfer Ribonucleic Acid Species of Bacillus subtilis: Chromatographic Differences Between Transfer Ribonucleic Acids from Spores and Cells in Exponential Growth

    PubMed Central

    Vold, Barbara S.

    1973-01-01

    Differences between the transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) of spores and exponentially growing cells of Bacillus subtilis 168 were compared by co-chromatography on reversed-phase column RPC-5. This system gave excellent resolution of isoaccepting species in 1 to 2 hr using a 200-ml gradient. Two methods were used to extract spore tRNAs, a procedure using a Braun homogenizer and a pretreatment with dithiothreitol followed by lysis with lysozyme. Where changes were observed, column elution profiles of spore tRNAs were independent of the extraction method used. Three kinds of changes between the profiles of vegetative cell tRNA and spore tRNA were observed: (i) no change; phe-, val-, ala-, asp-, ileu-, pro-, met-, fmet-, and his-tRNAs, (ii) a change in the ratio of existing peaks; gly-, tyr-, leu-, ser-, thr-, aspn-, and arg-tRNAs, and (iii) the appearance or disappearance of unique peaks; lys-, glu-, and trp-tRNAs. PMID:4632322

  17. Assessment of psyllid double-stranded Ribonucleic acid, RNA, off-target effects on a ladybird beetle predator

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of Ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi against insect pests needs to show species target specificity so that beneficial insects remain unharmed, as many pest insects are a food source for predatory insects like lady beetles. We evaluated an RNAi product specific to Asian citrus psyllid f...

  18. Calcium in Mercury's Exosphere: Modeling MESSENGER Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Merkel, Aimee; Vervack, Ronald J.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is surrounded by a surface-bounded exosphere comprised of atomic species including hydrogen, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and likely oxygen. Because it is collisionless. the exosphere's composition represents a balance of the active source and loss processes. The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface. Space ENvironment. GEochemistry. and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has made high spatial-resolution observations of sodium, calcium, and magnesium near Mercury's surface and in the extended, anti-sunward direction. The most striking feature of these data has been the substantial differences in the spatial distribution of each species, Our modeling demonstrates that these differences cannot be due to post-ejection dynamics such as differences in photo-ionization rate and radiation pressure. but instead point to differences in the source mechanisms and regions on the surface from which each is ejected. The observations of calcium have revealed a strong dawn/dusk asymmetry. with the abundance over the dawn hemisphere significantly greater than over the dusk. To understand this asymmetry, we use a Monte Carlo model of Mercury's exosphere that we developed to track the motions of exospheric neutrals under the influence of gravity and radiation pressure. Ca atoms can be ejected directly from the surface or produced in a molecular exosphere (e.g., one consisting of CaO). Particles are removed from the system if they stick to the surface or escape from the model region of interest (within 15 Mercury radii). Photoionization reduces the final weighting given to each particle when simulating the Ca radiance. Preliminary results suggest a high temperature ( I-2x 10(exp 4) K) source of atomic Ca concentrated over the dawn hemisphere. The high temperature is consistent with the dissociation of CaO in a near-surface exosphere with scale height <= 100 km, which imparts 2 eV to the freshly produced Ca atom. This

  19. Small interfering ribonucleic acid induces liquid-to-ripple phase transformation in a phospholipid membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Choubey, Amit; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kalia, Rajiv K.

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) molecules play a pivotal role in silencing gene expression via the RNA interference mechanism. A key limitation to the widespread implementation of siRNA therapeutics is the difficulty of delivering siRNA-based drugs to cells. Here, we examine changes in the structure and dynamics of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in the presence of a siRNA molecule and mechanical barriers to siRNA transfection in the bilayer. Our all-atom molecular dynamics simulation shows that siRNA induces a liquid crystalline-to-ripple phase transformation in the bilayer. The ripple phase consists of a major region of non-interdigitated and a minor region of interdigitatedmore » lipid molecules with an intervening kink. In the ripple phase, hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules have large compressive stresses, which present a considerable barrier to siRNA transfection.« less

  20. THE CONTENT AND RELATIVE BASE RATIOS OF RIBONUCLEIC ACID IN AMOEBA

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Ray M.

    1964-01-01

    The amount and relative base ratios of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Amoeba proteus and A. dubia, and of homospecies cells obtained by nuclear transfer with A. proteus, have been determined by microelectrophoresis. In A. proteus the average amounts of RNA in the nucleus and the cytoplasm were 134. micromicrograms and 2520. micromicrograms; in A. dubia the averages for the nucleus and cytoplasm were 67. micromicrograms and 1427. micromicrograms. The relative base ratio of RNA of the nucleus is similar to that of the RNA of the cytoplasm within a species, but the two species differed in this respect. Homospecies nuclear transfer did not affect the relative base ratio or amount of RNA. PMID:14105213

  1. Nanoscale platforms for messenger RNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Xinfu; Dong, Yizhou

    2018-05-04

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) has become a promising class of drugs for diverse therapeutic applications in the past few years. A series of clinical trials are ongoing or will be initiated in the near future for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Currently, mRNA-based therapeutics mainly focuses on ex vivo transfection and local administration in clinical studies. Efficient and safe delivery of therapeutically relevant mRNAs remains one of the major challenges for their broad applications in humans. Thus, effective delivery systems are urgently needed to overcome this limitation. In recent years, numerous nanoscale biomaterials have been constructed for mRNA delivery in order to protect mRNA from extracellular degradation and facilitate endosomal escape after cellular uptake. Nanoscale platforms have expanded the feasibility of mRNA-based therapeutics, and enabled its potential applications to protein replacement therapy, cancer immunotherapy, therapeutic vaccines, regenerative medicine, and genome editing. This review focuses on recent advances, challenges, and future directions in nanoscale platforms designed for mRNA delivery, including lipid and lipid-derived nanoparticles, polymer-based nanoparticles, protein derivatives mRNA complexes, and other types of nanomaterials. This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Lipid-Based Structures Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Nucleic Acid-Based Structures. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mercury's Seasonal Sodium Exosphere: MESSENGER Orbital Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variation but there is little or no year-to-year variation; we do not see the episodic variability reported by ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere is about 1200 K, much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

  3. Mercury's Seasonal Sodium Exosphere: MESSENGER Orbital Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variations, but there are no obvious year-to-year variations in most of the observations. We do not see the episodic variability reported by some ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere, at about 1200 K, is much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

  4. Neutrinos as the messengers of CPT violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borissov, Liubomir Anguelov

    CPT violation has the potential to explain all three existing neutrino oscillation signals without enlarging the neutrino sector. CPT violation in the Dirac mass terms of the three neutrino flavors preserves Lorentz invariance, but generates in dependent masses for neutrinos and antineutrinos. This specific signature can be motivated by braneworld scenarios with extra dimensions, where neutrinos are the natural messengers for Standard Model physics of CPT violation in the bulk. A simple model of maximal CPT violation is sufficient to explain the exisiting neutrino data, while accommodating the recent results from the KamLAND experiment and making dramatic predictions for the ongoing MiniBooNE experiment. In addition, the model fits the existing SuperKamiokande data, at least as well as the standard atmospheric neutrino oscillation models. Another attractive feature of the presented model is that it provides a new promising mechanism for baryogenesis, which obviates two of the three Sakharov conditions necessary to generate the baryon asymmetry of the universe. CPT-violating scenarios can give new insights about the possible nature of neutrinos. Majorana neutrino masses are still allowed, but in general, there are no longer Majorana neutrinos in the conventional sense. However, CPT-violating models still have interesting consequences for neutrinoless double beta decay. Compared to the usual case, while the larger mass scale (from LSND) may appear, a greater degree of suppression can also occur.

  5. The Crust of Mercury After the MESSENGER Gravity Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarico, E.; Genova, A.; Goossens, S.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of an improved analysis of the entire MESSENGER radio tracking dataset to derive key geophysical parameters of Mercury such as its gravity field. In particular, we derive and interpret a new crustal thickness model.

  6. Planetary Ions at Mercury: Unanswered Questions After MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raines, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    We will discuss the key open questions relating to planetary ions, including the behavior of recently created photoions, the near absence of Ca+ / K+ in MESSENGER ion measurements, and the role of ion sputtering in the system.

  7. Cosmic Microwave Background Mapmaking with a Messenger Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffenberger, Kevin M.; Næss, Sigurd K.

    2018-01-01

    We apply a messenger field method to solve the linear minimum-variance mapmaking equation in the context of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations. In simulations, the method produces sky maps that converge significantly faster than those from a conjugate gradient descent algorithm with a diagonal preconditioner, even though the computational cost per iteration is similar. The messenger method recovers large scales in the map better than conjugate gradient descent, and yields a lower overall χ2. In the single, pencil beam approximation, each iteration of the messenger mapmaking procedure produces an unbiased map, and the iterations become more optimal as they proceed. A variant of the method can handle differential data or perform deconvolution mapmaking. The messenger method requires no preconditioner, but a high-quality solution needs a cooling parameter to control the convergence. We study the convergence properties of this new method and discuss how the algorithm is feasible for the large data sets of current and future CMB experiments.

  8. Exploration of Mercury: The MESSENGER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 under NASA’s Discovery Program, has been collecting orbital observations of Mercury since March 2011. Elemental remote sensing of Mercury’s surface indicates that the moderately volatile elements Na, K, and S are not depleted relative to other terrestrial planets. Orbital images document widespread evidence for ancient volcanic activity ranging from effusive to explosive eruptions. High-resolution images have revealed the presence of irregular rimless depressions or “hollows” likely produced by the loss to diurnal heating or sputtering of some volatile-rich material. Polar deposits in permanently shadowed high-latitude regions are dominated by water ice on the basis of neutron spectrometry, surface reflectance, and thermal modeling with measured topography; in most locations the ice is covered by 10-30 cm of anomalously dark volatile material postulated to consist of complex organic compounds. The tectonic history of Mercury is dominated by greater planetary contraction than previously recognized; long-wavelength changes in topography postdated the emplacement of large expanses of volcanic plains. Gravity and topography measurements indicate that mascons and crustal thinning are associated with some impact basins. Mercury’s internal magnetic field is that of a dipole offset from the planet’s center by ~0.2 Mercury radii, a geometry difficult to reconcile with existing dynamo models. Magnetospheric measurements have revealed a highly time-variable and spatially structured particle environment. Despite complex feedbacks among the exosphere, magnetosphere, and surface, the large-scale structure of the exosphere - dominated by Na, Ca, and Mg - shows seasonal variations in general agreement with those expected from variations in solar flux with Mercury true anomaly but little variation with changing solar conditions. Energetic electron events are

  9. Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

  10. Mercury's Crustal Magnetic Field from MESSENGER Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattner, A.; Johnson, C.

    2017-12-01

    We present a regional spherical-harmonic based crustal magnetic field model for Mercury between latitudes 45° and 70° N, derived from MESSENGER magnetic field data. In addition to contributions from the core dynamo, the bow shock, and the magnetotail, Mercury's magnetic field is also influenced by interactions with the solar wind. The resulting field-aligned currents generate magnetic fields that are typically an order of magnitude stronger at spacecraft altitude than the field from sources within Mercury's crust. These current sources lie within the satellite path and so the resulting magnetic field can not be modeled using potential-field approaches. However, these fields are organized in the local-time frame and their spatial structure differs from that of the smaller-scale crustal field. We account for large-scale magnetic fields in the local-time reference frame by subtracting from the data a low-degree localized vector spherical-harmonic model including curl components fitted at satellite altitude. The residual data exhibit consistent signals across individual satellite tracks in the body fixed reference frame, similar to those obtained via more rudimentary along-track filtering approaches. We fit a regional internal-source spherical-harmonic model to the night-time radial component of the residual data, allowing a maximum spherical-harmonic degree of L = 150. Due to the cross-track spacing of the satellite tracks, spherical-harmonic degrees beyond L = 90 are damped. The strongest signals in the resulting model are in the region around the Caloris Basin and over Suisei Planitia, as observed previously. Regularization imposed in the modeling allows the field to be downward continued to the surface. The strongest surface fields are 30 nT. Furthermore, the regional power spectrum of the model shows a downward dipping slope between spherical-harmonic degrees 40 and 80, hinting that the main component of the crustal field lies deep within the crust.

  11. Evaluating the reproducibility of quantifying modified nucleosides from ribonucleic acids by LC–UV–MS

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Susan P.; Limbach, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Post-transcriptional chemical covalent modification of adenosine, guanosine, uridine and cytidine occurs frequently in all types of ribonucleic acids (RNAs). In ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) these modifications make important contributions to RNA structure and stability and to the accuracy and efficiency of protein translation. The functional dynamics, synergistic nature and regulatory roles of these posttranscriptional nucleoside modifications within the cell are not well characterized. These modifications are present at very low levels and isolation of individual nucleosides for analysis requires a complex multi-step approach. The focus of this study is to characterize the reproducibility of a liquid chromatography method used to isolate and quantitatively characterize modified nucleosides in tRNA and rRNA when nucleoside detection is performed using ultraviolet and mass spectrometric detection (UV and MS, respectively). Despite the analytical challenges of sample isolation and dynamic range, quantitative profiling of modified nucleosides obtained from bacterial tRNAs and rRNAs is feasible at relative standard deviations of 5% RSD or less. PMID:23500350

  12. In Vitro Product of a Ribonucleic Acid Polymerase Induced by Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Mahy, B. W. J.; Bromley, P. A.

    1970-01-01

    The ribonucleic acid (RNA)-dependent RNA polymerase induced in the microsomal fraction of cells infected with influenza virus synthesized a mixture of single-and double-stranded RNA in vitro. The single-stranded RNA sedimented mainly in the 8S region on sucrose density gradients, with a smaller proportion of the RNA sedimenting at 18S. This sedimentation pattern corresponds closely to that of incomplete influenza virus RNA. The double-stranded RNA formed in vitro sedimented at 11S, but molecules which may be replicative intermediate, sedimenting at 14 to 20S, were also detected in the in vitro reaction product. Similar species of RNA were detected in vivo by pulse-labeling infected cells at the time of polymerase harvest, but the proportion of each RNA species was different, most of the RNA being single-stranded and sedimenting in the 18S region. An 11S double-stranded RNA was also synthesized in vivo. Pulse chase analysis of the double-stranded RNA synthesized in vitro showed that most is stable, and only a small proportion turns over during the reaction. A proportion of the RNA formed in vitro could be annealed to RNA formed in infected cells and to RNA extracted from purified virus. PMID:5480408

  13. How MESSENGER Meshes Simulations and Games with Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshon, B.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J.; Goldstein, J.; Hallau, K. G.; Solomon, S. C.; Vanhala, H.; Weir, H. M.; Messenger Education; Public Outreach (Epo) Team

    2010-12-01

    How MESSENGER Meshes Simulations and Games with Citizen Science In the film The Last Starfighter, an alien civilization grooms their future champion—a kid on Earth—using a video game. As he gains proficiency in the game, he masters the skills he needs to pilot a starship and save their civilization. The NASA MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team is using the same tactic to train citizen scientists to help the Science Team explore the planet Mercury. We are building a new series of games that appear to be designed primarily for fun, but that guide players through a knowledge and skill set that they will need for future science missions in support of MESSENGER mission scientists. As players score points, they gain expertise. Once they achieve a sufficiently high score, they will be invited to become participants in Mercury Zoo, a new program being designed by Zooniverse. Zooniverse created Galaxy Zoo and Moon Zoo, programs that allow interested citizens to participate in the exploration and interpretation of galaxy and lunar data. Scientists use the citizen interpretations to further refine their exploration of the same data, thereby narrowing their focus and saving precious time. Mercury Zoo will be designed with input from the MESSENGER Science Team. This project will not only support the MESSENGER mission, but it will also add to the growing cadre of informed members of the public available to help with other citizen science projects—building on the concept that engaged, informed citizens can help scientists make new discoveries. The MESSENGER EPO Team comprises individuals from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE); Center for Educational Resources (CERES) at Montana State University (MSU) - Bozeman; National Center for Earth and Space Science Education (NCESSE); Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL); National Air and Space Museum (NASM); Science

  14. To Be Connected or Not To Be Connected? Mobile Messenger Overload, Fatigue, and Mobile Shunning.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaewook; Shin, Mincheol

    2016-10-01

    With the increased adoption of mobile devices, mobile communication is all around us and we are connected anywhere, anytime. Mobile communication in general and mobile messenger service in particular make interpersonal communication in Korea so frequent and convenient. However, being connected too much anywhere and anytime via mobile messenger service appears to lead an increasing number of people to feel fatigue and to decrease mobile communication under some conditions. Based on a sample of 334 respondents, this study empirically investigated the relationships among commercial, noncommercial mobile messenger overload, mobile messenger fatigue, relational self-concept, and mobile shunning behavior. The findings show that (a) the effect of noncommercial mobile messenger overload is stronger than that of commercial mobile messenger overload in increasing mobile messenger fatigue although both positively affect mobile messenger fatigue, (b) relational self-concept has moderating effects on the relationship between mobile messenger overload and mobile messenger fatigue, and that (c) mobile messenger fatigue triggers mobile communicators' shunning behavior through which the communicators increase their intention to avoid mobile communication, to change their mobile phone numbers, and to subscribe to dual number service on one mobile device. When confronted with mobile messenger fatigue caused by mobile messenger overload, mobile messaging service users are likely to shun their mobile communication. Being constantly and conveniently connected appears to be a blessing in disguise.

  15. MESSENGER Observation of Mercury's Magnetopause: Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Baker, D. N.; Benna, M.; Boardsen, S. A.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R. E.; Ho, G. C.; Korth, H.; hide

    2008-01-01

    MESSENGER'S 14 January 2008 encounter with Mercury has provided new observations of the magnetopause of this small magnetosphere, particularly concerning the effect of the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the structure and dynamics of this boundary. The IMF was northward immediately prior to and following the passage of the MESSENGER spacecraft through Mercury's magnetosphere. However, several-minute episodes of southward IMF were observed in the magnetosheath during the inbound portion of the encounter. Evidence for reconnection at the dayside magnetopause in the form of well-developed flux transfer events (FTEs) was observed in the magnetosheath following some of these southward-B, intervals. The inbound magnetopause crossing seen in the magnetic field measurements is consistent with a transition from the magnetosheath into the plasma sheet. Immediately following MESSENGER'S entry into the magnetosphere, rotational perturbations in the magnetic field similar to those seen at the Earth in association with large-scale plasma sheet vortices driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz waves along the magnetotail boundary at the Earth were observed. The outbound magnetopause occurred during northward IMF B(sub z) and had the characteristics of a tangential discontinuity. These new observations by MESSENGER may be combined and compared with the magnetopause measurements collected by Mariner 10 to derive new understanding of the response of Mercury's magnetopause to IMF direction and its effect on the rate of solar wind energy and mass input to this small magnetosphere.

  16. Messenger in the Barn: Networking in a Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes the use of a synchronous communication application (MSN Messenger) in a large academic computing environment. It draws on data from interviews, questionnaires and student marks to examine the link between use of the application and success measured through module marks. The relationship is not simple. Total abstainers and…

  17. 30 CFR 77.704-11 - Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-11 Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems. Solely for purposes of grounding ungrounded high-voltage power systems, grounded messenger wires...

  18. 30 CFR 75.705-11 - Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded....705-11 Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems. Solely for purposes of grounding ungrounded high-voltage power systems, grounded messenger wires used to suspend the cables of such systems...

  19. 30 CFR 75.705-11 - Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded....705-11 Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems. Solely for purposes of grounding ungrounded high-voltage power systems, grounded messenger wires used to suspend the cables of such systems...

  20. 30 CFR 77.704-11 - Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-11 Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems. Solely for purposes of grounding ungrounded high-voltage power systems, grounded messenger wires...

  1. Spermatozoa micro ribonucleic acid-34c level is correlated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Long; Fang, Li; Shi, Biwei; Qiu, Sunquan; Ye, Yinghui

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effects of micro ribonucleic acid (miR)-34b/c expression levels in human spermatozoa on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. Retrospective observational study. In vitro fertilization center. A total of 162 patients with idiopathic male infertility who had undergone first ICSI cycles. None. The levels of miR-34b/c in spermatozoa were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fertilization, early cleavage, day-3 good-quality embryo, pregnancy, implantation, and live birth rate were assessed. A receiver operating characteristic curve was employed to analyze the cutoff values. No correlation was found between the spermatozoa miR-34b/c levels and the 2 pronuclei early cleavage rate. A correlation was seen between an increased level of miR-34c and a higher percentage of good-quality embryos on day 3. Although miR-34b and miR-34c levels were higher in the pregnancy group, compared with the nonpregnancy group, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that miR-34c levels in spermatozoa were more strongly correlated with ICSI treatment outcomes, compared with miR-34b (area under the curve = 0.75). Patients in the miR-34c-positive group were more likely to exhibit higher rates of good-quality embryos, implantation, pregnancy, and live birth. A multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that miR-34c in spermatozoa (odds ratio: 5.699, with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.687-12.088) and woman's age (odds ratio: 0.843, with 95% CI: 0.736-0.966) were the 2 parameters that were significantly correlated with pregnancy. Our results demonstrate that miR-34c levels in spermatozoa are correlated with ICSI outcomes, suggesting that paternal miR-34c may play a role in the early phases of embryonic development. Levels of MiR-34c in human spermatozoa may be used as an indicator for ICSI outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid - a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Guichard Alves, Helena; Marques, Guilhermina; Nunes, Fernando Milheiro; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2016-07-13

    Despite the large popularity of the Boletus edulis mushroom, little is known about its influence on human health and the possibilities of its therapeutic use. Nevertheless, several reports revealed the usefulness of biopolymers isolated from it in cancer treatment. Our previous studies have shown that B. edulis water soluble biopolymers are not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells (CCD841 CoTr) and at the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells (LS180) which was accompanied with cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The purpose of the present study was to verify the proapoptotic properties of a selected fraction from B. edulis - BE3, as well as determine its chemical nature. The BE3 fraction was extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. Further chemical examinations revealed that BE3 consists mainly of ribonucleic acid (59.1%). The ability of BE3 to induce programmed cell death was examined in human colon cancer cell lines LS180 and HT-29 by measuring caspase activation, DNA fragmentation and expression of BAX, BCL2, TP53 and CDKN1A genes. The sensitivity of colon cancer cells with silenced BAX, TP53 and CDKN1A expression to BE3 treatment was also evaluated. We have demonstrated for the first time that the BE3 fraction is a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon cancer cells. The revealed mechanism of apoptosis triggering was dependent on the presence of functional p53 and consequently was a little different in investigated cell lines. Our results indicated that BE3 stimulated proapoptotic genes BAX (LS180, HT-29), TP53 (LS180) and CDKN1A (HT-29) while at the same time silenced the expression of the key prosurvival gene BCL2 (LS180, HT-29). The obtained results indicate the high therapeutic potential of the BE3 fraction against colon cancer, yet it is necessary to further confirm fraction efficacy and safety in animal and clinical studies.

  3. Brain clock driven by neuropeptides and second messengers.

    PubMed

    Miro-Bueno, Jesus; Sosík, Petr

    2014-09-01

    The master circadian pacemaker in mammals is localized in a small portion of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). It is unclear how the SCN produces circadian rhythms. A common interpretation is that the SCN produces oscillations through the coupling of genetic oscillators in the neurons. The coupling is effected by a network of neuropeptides and second messengers. This network is crucial for the correct function of the SCN. However, models that study a possible oscillatory behavior of the network itself have received little attention. Here we propose and analyze a model to examine this oscillatory potential. We show that an intercellular oscillator emerges in the SCN as a result of the neuropeptide and second messenger dynamics. We find that this intercellular clock can produce circadian rhythms by itself with and without genetic clocks. We also found that the model is robust to perturbation of parameters and can be entrained by light-dark cycles.

  4. MESSENGER Observations of Large Flux Transfer Events at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Wu, Chin-Chun; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Six flux transfer events (FTEs) were encountered during MESSENGER's first two flybys of Mercury (M1 and M2). For M1 the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was predominantly northward and four FTEs with durations of 1 to 6 s were observed in the magnetosheath following southward IMF turnings. The IMF was steadily southward during M2, and an FTE 4 s in duration was observed just inside the dawn magnetopause followed approx. 32 s later by a 7 s FTE in the magnetosheath. Flux rope models were fit to the magnetic field data to determine FTE dimensions and flux content. The largest FTE observed by MESSENGER had a diameter of approx. 1 R(sub M) (where R(sub M) is Mercury s radius), and its open magnetic field increased the fraction of the surface exposed to the solar wind by 10 - 20 percent and contributed up to approx. 30 kV to the cross-magnetospheric electric potential.

  5. Brain clock driven by neuropeptides and second messengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miro-Bueno, Jesus; Sosík, Petr

    2014-09-01

    The master circadian pacemaker in mammals is localized in a small portion of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). It is unclear how the SCN produces circadian rhythms. A common interpretation is that the SCN produces oscillations through the coupling of genetic oscillators in the neurons. The coupling is effected by a network of neuropeptides and second messengers. This network is crucial for the correct function of the SCN. However, models that study a possible oscillatory behavior of the network itself have received little attention. Here we propose and analyze a model to examine this oscillatory potential. We show that an intercellular oscillator emerges in the SCN as a result of the neuropeptide and second messenger dynamics. We find that this intercellular clock can produce circadian rhythms by itself with and without genetic clocks. We also found that the model is robust to perturbation of parameters and can be entrained by light-dark cycles.

  6. PERSISTENCE OF MESSENGER RNA THROUGH MITOSIS IN HELA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, L. D.; Robbins, E.; Scharff, M. D.

    1969-01-01

    The decrease in protein synthesis which occurs in mammalian cells during cell division is associated with significant disaggregation of polyribosomes. For determining whether messenger RNA survives this disaggregation, the reformation of polyribosomes was investigated in synchronized HeLa cells as they progressed from metaphase into interphase in the presence of 2 µg/ml Actinomycin D. The persistence of messenger during cell division was evidenced by: (1) a progressive increase in the rate of protein synthesis in both treated and untreated cells for 45 min after metaphase; (2) reformation of polyribosomes, as determined by both sucrose gradients and electron microscopy, within 30 min after the addition of Actinomycin D to metaphase cells; (3) the persistence of approximately 50% of the rapidly labeled nonribosomal RNA which had associated with polyribosomes just before metaphase; (4) the resumption of synthesis, following cell division, of 6 selected peptides in Actinomycin-treated cells. PMID:5761922

  7. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    PubMed

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  8. MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Space Weather in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, J. A.

    2013-09-01

    Increasing activity on the Sun is allowing MESSENGER to make its first observations of Mercury's magnetosphere under extreme solar wind conditions. At Earth interplanetary shock waves and coronal mass ejections produce severe "space weather" in the form of large geomagnetic storms that affect telecommunications, space systems, and ground-based power grids. In the case of Mercury the primary effect of extreme space weather in on the degree to which this it's weak global magnetic field can shield the planet from the solar wind. Direct impact of the solar wind on the surface of airless bodies like Mercury results in space weathering of the regolith and the sputtering of atomic species like sodium and calcium to high altitudes where they contribute to a tenuous, but highly dynamic exosphere. MESSENGER observations indicate that during extreme interplanetary conditions the solar wind plasma gains access to the surface of Mercury through three main regions: 1. The magnetospheric cusps, which fill with energized solar wind and planetary ions; 2. The subsolar magnetopause, which is compressed and eroded by reconnection to very low altitudes where the natural gyro-motion of solar wind protons may result in their impact on the surface; 3. The magnetotail where hot plasma sheet ions rapidly convect sunward to impact the surface on the nightside of Mercury. The possible implications of these new MESSENGER observations for our ability to predict space weather at Earth and other planets will be described.

  9. The Morphology of Craters on Mercury: Results from MESSENGER Flybys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnouin, Oliver S.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Herrick, Robert R.; Chappelow, John E.; Murchie, Scott L.; Prockter, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic data measured from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft were used for investigations of the relationship between depth and diameter for impact craters on Mercury. Results using data from the MESSENGER flybys of the innermost planet indicate that most of the craters measured with MLA are shallower than those previously measured by using Mariner 10 images. MDIS images of these same MLA-measured craters show that they have been modified. The use of shadow measurement techniques, which were found to be accurate relative to the MLA results, indicate that both small bowl-shaped and large complex craters that are fresh possess depth-to-diameter ratios that are in good agreement with those measured from Mariner 10 images. The preliminary data also show that the depths of modified craters are shallower relative to fresh ones, and might provide quantitative estimates of crater in-filling by subsequent volcanic or impact processes. The diameter that defines the transition from simple to complex craters on Mercury based on MESSENGER data is consistent with that reported from Mariner 10 data.

  10. Mercury's Sodium Exosphere: Observations during the MESSENGER Orbital Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Burger, Matthew H.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.; McClintock, William E.; Benna, Mehdi; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered into orbit about Mercury on March 18,2011. We now have approximately five Mercury years of data from orbit. Prior to the MESSENGER mission, Mercury's surface-bounded exosphere was known to contain H, He, Na. K, and Ca. The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) began routine orbital observations of both the dayside and nightside exosphere on March 29. 2011, measuring altitude profiles for all previously detected neutral species except for He and K. We focus here on what we have learned about the sodium exosphere: its spatial, seasonal, and sporadic variation. Observations to date permit delineation of the relative roles of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and impact vaporization (IV) from seasonal and spatial effects, as well as of the roles of ions both as sputtering agents and in their possible role to enhance the efficiency of PSD. Correlations of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere with measurements from MESSENGER's Magnetometer (MAG) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) provide insight into the roles of ions and electrons. Models incorporating MAG observations provide a basis for identifying the location and area of the surface exposed to solar wind plasma, and EPPS observations reveal episodic populations of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere and the presence of planetary He(+), 0(+), and Na(+),

  11. Tomographic Reconstruction of Mercury's Exosphere from MESSENGER Flyby Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Slavin, James A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The exosphere of Mercury is among the best-studied examples of a common type of atmosphere, a surface-bounded exosphere. Mercury's exosphere was probed in 2008-2009 with Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) measurements obtained during three planetary flybys by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft [1-3]. The measurements detailed the distribution of two previously known metallic constituents of Mercury's exosphere, Na and Ca, and indicated the presence in the gas phase of yet another metallic species, Mg. Such measurements can answer fundamental scientific questions regarding the relative importance of possible source and loss processes for exospheric species ejected from a surface boundary [4]. The trajectory of MESSENGER during the last of its three flybys provided the best spatial coverage prior to orbit insertion. The measurements by MESSENGER of Na, Ca, and Mg during the third flyby have been analyzed with a novel tomographic method. This approach maximizes the amount of information that can be extracted from line-of-sight measurements because it yields three-dimensional distributions of neutrals consistent with the data.

  12. MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby: A summary of scientific observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Boynton, William V.; Evans, Larry G.; Head, James W.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Murchie, Scott; Phillips, Roger J.; Slavin, James A.; Zuber, Maria T.

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, developed under NASA's Discovery Program, will be the first probe to orbit the planet Mercury in March 2011. Launched in August 2004, MESSENGER successfully completed the first of three flybys of Mercury in January 2008. The Mercury Dual Imaging System acquired an 11-color mosaic of part of the hemisphere not seen by Mariner 10, including the entire Caloris basin; several large monochrome mosaics at a range of resolutions; a series of color frames designed for photometric analysis; and inbound and outbound movies. The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer obtained the first high-resolution spectral reflectance measurements (at ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths) of surface composition, conducted limb scans of exospheric species, and mapped the composition and structure of the tail region. The Magnetometer measured Mercury's internal field at low latitudes and documented the major plasma boundaries of Mercury's magnetosphere. The Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer made the first measurements of low-energy ions in Mercury's magnetosphere. The Mercury Laser Altimeter carried out the first space altimetric profile of the planet. Other instruments in the payload provided baseline measurements that will aid in the interpretation of data from the mission orbital phase. Together, the MESSENGER flyby observations have begun to advance our understanding of the innermost planet.

  13. Color Image of Mercury from NASA's MESSENGER Satellite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA image acquired September 3, 2011 Dominici crater, the very bright crater to the top of this image, exhibits bright rays and contains hollows. This crater lies upon the peak ring of Homer Basin, a very degraded peak ring basin that has been filled by volcanism. This image contains several examples of craters that have excavated materials from depth that are spectrally distinct from the surface volcanic layers, providing windows into the subsurface. MESSENGER scientists are estimating the approximate depths of these spectrally distinct materials by applying knowledge of how impacts excavate material during the cratering process. The 1000, 750, and 430 nm bands of the Wide Angle Camera are displayed in red, green, and blue, respectively. This image was acquired as a high-resolution targeted observation. Targeted observations are images of a small area on Mercury's surface at resolutions much higher than the 250-meter/pixel (820 feet/pixel) morphology base map or the 1-kilometer/pixel (0.6 miles/pixel) color base map. It is not possible to cover all of Mercury's surface at this high resolution during MESSENGER's one-year mission, but several areas of high scientific interest are generally imaged in this mode each week. The MESSENGER spacecraft is the first ever to orbit the planet Mercury, and the spacecraft's seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation are unraveling the history and evolution of the Solar System's innermost planet. Visit the Why Mercury? section of this website to learn more about the key science questions that the MESSENGER mission is addressing. During the one-year primary mission, MDIS is scheduled to acquire more than 75,000 images in support of MESSENGER's science goals. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System

  14. The intracellular distribution and heterogeneity of ribonucleic acid in starfish oocytes.

    PubMed

    EDSTROM, J E; GRAMPP, W; SCHOR, N

    1961-12-01

    A study has been made of the content and composition of RNA in cytoplasm, nucleoplasm, and nucleoli from growing oocytes of the starfish Asterias rubens. The determinations were carried out, using ultramicrochemical methods, on units isolated by microdissection from fixed sections. Macrochemical and interferometric control experiments show that RNA can be quantitatively evaluated in this way. The results show that the growing oocyte represents a system in which the relations between the quantities of nucleolar, nucleoplasmic, and cytoplasmic RNA undergo great changes. These changes are continuous for nucleolar and cytoplasmic RNA so that their amounts may be predicted from the size of the cell. Nucleoplasmic RNA, on the other hand, shows great variations among different cells, independent of cell size. Purine-pyrimidine analyses show that each cell component contains an RNA which differs significantly from that of the other two. Cytoplasmic and nucleolar RNA are closely related, the only difference being a slightly higher guanine/uracil quotient for the nucleolar RNA. They are both of the usual tissue RNA type, i.e., they show a preponderance of guanine and cytosine over adenine and uracil. Nucleoplasmic RNA deviates grossly from the RNA of the other two components. Here the concentrations of adenine and uracil are higher than those of guanine and cytosine, respectively. This RNA consequently shows some resemblance to the general type of animal DNA although the purine/pyrimidine ratio is far from unity. Our data favor a nucleolar origin for the stable part of the ribosomal RNA and a nucleoplasmic one for the unstable part (the messenger RNA).

  15. 5S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequences in Bacteroides and Fusobacterium: evolutionary relationships within these genera and among eubacteria in general

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van den Eynde, H.; De Baere, R.; Shah, H. N.; Gharbia, S. E.; Fox, G. E.; Michalik, J.; Van de Peer, Y.; De Wachter, R.

    1989-01-01

    The 5S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequences were determined for Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides capillosus, Bacteroides veroralis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Anaerorhabdus furcosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Fusobacterium mortiferum, and Fusobacterium varium. A dendrogram constructed by a clustering algorithm from these sequences, which were aligned with all other hitherto known eubacterial 5S rRNA sequences, showed differences as well as similarities with respect to results derived from 16S rRNA analyses. In the 5S rRNA dendrogram, Bacteroides clustered together with Cytophaga and Fusobacterium, as in 16S rRNA analyses. Intraphylum relationships deduced from 5S rRNAs suggested that Bacteroides is specifically related to Cytophaga rather than to Fusobacterium, as was suggested by 16S rRNA analyses. Previous taxonomic considerations concerning the genus Bacteroides, based on biochemical and physiological data, were confirmed by the 5S rRNA sequence analysis.

  16. Mapping the Topography of Mercury with MESSENGER Laser Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E..; Zubor, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter onboard MESSENGER involves unique design elements that deal with the challenges of being in orbit around Mercury. The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of seven instruments on NASA's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. MESSENGER was launched on 3 August 2004, and entered into orbit about Mercury on 18 March 2011 after a journey through the inner solar system. This involved six planetary flybys, including three of Mercury. MLA is designed to map the topography and landforms of Mercury's surface. It also measures the planet's forced libration (motion about the spin axis), which helps constrain the state of the core. The first science measurements from orbit taken with MLA were made on 29 March 2011 and continue to date. MLA had accumulated about 8.3 million laser ranging measurements to Mercury's surface, as of 31 July 2012, i.e., over six Mercury years (528 Earth days). Although MLA is the third planetary lidar built at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), MLA must endure a much harsher thermal environment near Mercury than the previous instruments on Mars and Earth satellites. The design of MLA was derived in part from that of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on Mars Global Surveyor. However, MLA must range over greater distances and often in off-nadir directions from a highly eccentric orbit. In MLA we use a single-mode diode-pumped Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) laser that is highly collimated to maintain a small footprint on the planet. The receiver has both a narrow field of view and a narrow spectral bandwidth to minimize the amount of background light detected from the sunlit hemisphere of Mercury. We achieve the highest possible receiver sensitivity by employing the minimum receiver detection threshold.

  17. Calcium ion as intracellular messenger and cellular toxin.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, H; Barrett, P; Smallwood, J; Bollag, W; Isales, C

    1990-03-01

    Ca2+ serves a nearly universal intracellular messenger function in cell activation, but excess Ca2+ is also a cellular toxin. The possibility of Ca2+ intoxication is minimized by an elaborate autoregulatory system in which changes in Ca2+ influx rate across the plasma membrane are rapidly compensated for by parallel changes in Ca2+ efflux rate. By this mean, cellular Ca2+ homestasis is maintained so that minimal changes in total cell calcium and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration occur during sustained Ca2(+)-mediated responses. Rather than a sustained increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, it is the localized cycling of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane that is the critically important Ca2+ messenger during the sustained phase of cellular responses mediated via surface receptors linked to the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). PIP2 hydrolysis gives rise to inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). The IP3 acts to release Ca2+ from an intracellular pool, thereby causing a transient rise in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. This transient Ca2+ signal activates calmodulin-dependent protein kinases transiently, and hence, causes the transient phosphorylation of a subset of cellular proteins that mediate the initial phase of the response. The DAG brings about the association of protein kinase C (PKC) with the plasma membrane where a receptor-mediated increase in Ca2+ cycling across the membrane regulates PKC activity. The sustained phosphorylation of a second subset of proteins by PKC mediates the sustained phase of the response. Hence, Ca2+ serves as a messenger during both phases of the cellular response, but its cellular sites of action, its mechanisms of generation, and its molecular targets differ during the initial and sustained phases of the response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Calcium ion as intracellular messenger and cellular toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, H; Barrett, P; Smallwood, J; Bollag, W; Isales, C

    1990-01-01

    Ca2+ serves a nearly universal intracellular messenger function in cell activation, but excess Ca2+ is also a cellular toxin. The possibility of Ca2+ intoxication is minimized by an elaborate autoregulatory system in which changes in Ca2+ influx rate across the plasma membrane are rapidly compensated for by parallel changes in Ca2+ efflux rate. By this mean, cellular Ca2+ homestasis is maintained so that minimal changes in total cell calcium and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration occur during sustained Ca2(+)-mediated responses. Rather than a sustained increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, it is the localized cycling of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane that is the critically important Ca2+ messenger during the sustained phase of cellular responses mediated via surface receptors linked to the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). PIP2 hydrolysis gives rise to inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). The IP3 acts to release Ca2+ from an intracellular pool, thereby causing a transient rise in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. This transient Ca2+ signal activates calmodulin-dependent protein kinases transiently, and hence, causes the transient phosphorylation of a subset of cellular proteins that mediate the initial phase of the response. The DAG brings about the association of protein kinase C (PKC) with the plasma membrane where a receptor-mediated increase in Ca2+ cycling across the membrane regulates PKC activity. The sustained phosphorylation of a second subset of proteins by PKC mediates the sustained phase of the response. Hence, Ca2+ serves as a messenger during both phases of the cellular response, but its cellular sites of action, its mechanisms of generation, and its molecular targets differ during the initial and sustained phases of the response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2190811

  19. MESSENGER Observations of Mercury's Dynamic Magnetosphere During Three Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, James; Krimigis, Stamatios; Anderson, Brian J.; Benna, Mehdi; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George; McNutt, Ralph; Raines, James; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.

    MESSENGER's 14 January and 6 October 2008 and 29 September 2009 encounters with Mer-cury have provided new measurements of dynamic variations in the planet's coupled atmo-sphere-magnetosphere system. The three flybys took place under very different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Consistent with predictions of magnetospheric models for northward IMF, the neutral atmosphere was observed to have its strongest sources in the high latitude northern hemisphere for the first flyby. The southward IMF for the second encounter revealed a highly dynamic magnetosphere. Reconnection between the interplanetary and plan-etary magnetic fields is known to control the rate of energy transfer from the solar wind and to drive magnetospheric convection. The MESSENGER magnetic field measurements revealed that the rate at which interplanetary magnetic fields were reconnecting to the planetary fields was a factor of 10 greater than is usually observed at Earth. This extremely high reconnection rate results in a large magnetic field component normal to the magnetopause and the formation of flux transfer events that are much larger relative to the size of the forward magnetosphere than is observed at Earth. The resulting magnetospheric configuration allows the solar wind access to much of the dayside surface of Mercury. During MESSENGER's third Mercury flyby, a variable interplanetary magnetic field produced a series of several-minute-long enhancements of the tail magnetic field by factors of 2 to 3.5. The magnetic field flaring during these intervals indicates that they resulted from loading of the tail with magnetic flux transferred from the dayside magnetosphere. The unloading intervals were associated with plasmoids and traveling compression regions, signatures of tail reconnection. The peak tail magnetic flux during the smallest loading events equaled 30

  20. Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Solomon, Sean C; Phillips, Roger J; Peale, Stanton J; Head, James W; Hauck, Steven A; McNutt, Ralph L; Oberst, Jürgen; Neumann, Gregory A; Lemoine, Frank G; Sun, Xiaoli; Barnouin-Jha, Olivier; Harmon, John K

    2008-07-04

    A 3200-kilometers-long profile of Mercury by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MESSENGER spacecraft spans approximately 20% of the near-equatorial region of the planet. Topography along the profile is characterized by a 5.2-kilometer dynamic range and 930-meter root-mean-square roughness. At long wavelengths, topography slopes eastward by 0.02 degrees , implying a variation of equatorial shape that is at least partially compensated. Sampled craters on Mercury are shallower than their counterparts on the Moon, at least in part the result of Mercury's higher gravity. Crater floors vary in roughness and slope, implying complex modification over a range of length scales.

  1. Mercury's complex exosphere: results from MESSENGER's third flyby.

    PubMed

    Vervack, Ronald J; McClintock, William E; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Anderson, Brian J; Burger, Matthew H; Bradley, E Todd; Mouawad, Nelly; Solomon, Sean C; Izenberg, Noam R

    2010-08-06

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer detected emission from ionized calcium concentrated 1 to 2 Mercury radii tailward of the planet. This measurement provides evidence for tailward magnetospheric convection of photoions produced inside the magnetosphere. Observations of neutral sodium, calcium, and magnesium above the planet's north and south poles reveal altitude distributions that are distinct for each species. A two-component sodium distribution and markedly different magnesium distributions above the two poles are direct indications that multiple processes control the distribution of even single species in Mercury's exosphere.

  2. A Test of General Relativity with MESSENGER Mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, A.; Mazarico, E.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Nicholas, J. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Solomon, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft initiated collection of scientific data from the innermost planet during its first flyby of Mercury in January 2008. After two additional Mercury flybys, MESSENGER was inserted into orbit around Mercury on 18 March 2011 and operated for more than four Earth years through 30 April 2015. Data acquired during the flyby and orbital phases have provided crucial information on the formation and evolution of Mercury. The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and the radio science system, for example, obtained geodetic observations of the topography, gravity field, orientation, and tides of Mercury, which helped constrain its surface and deep interior structure. X-band radio tracking data collected by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) allowed the determination of Mercury's gravity field to spherical harmonic degree and order 100, as well as refinement of the planet's obliquity and estimation of the tidal Love number k2. These geophysical parameters are derived from the range-rate observables that measure precisely the motion of the spacecraft in orbit around the planet. However, the DSN stations acquired two other kinds of radio tracking data, range and delta-differential one-way ranging, which also provided precise measurements of Mercury's ephemeris. The proximity of Mercury's orbit to the Sun leads to a significant perihelion precession, which was used by Einstein as confirmation of general relativity (GR) because of its inconsistency with the effects predicted from classical Newtonian theory. MESSENGER data allow the estimation of the GR parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) coefficients γ and β. Furthermore, determination of Mercury's orbit also allows estimation of the gravitational parameter (GM) and the flattening (J2) of the Sun. We modified our orbit determination software, NASA GSFC's GEODYN II, to enable simultaneous orbit integration of both MESSENGER and the planet Mercury. The

  3. Electrochemical branched-DNA assay for polymerase chain reaction-free detection and quantification of oncogenes in messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ai-Cheng; Dai, Ziyu; Chen, Baowei; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Aiguo; Zhang, Lurong; Lim, Tit-Meng; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-12-15

    We describe a novel electrochemical branched-DNA (bDNA) assay for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-free detection and quantification of p185 BCR-ABL leukemia fusion transcripts in the population of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) extracted from cell lines. The bDNA amplifier carrying high loading of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) tracers was used to amplify the target signal. The targets were captured on microplate well surfaces through cooperative sandwich hybridization prior to the labeling of bDNA. The activity of captured ALP was monitored by square-wave voltammetric (SWV) analysis of the electroactive enzymatic product in the presence of 1-naphthyl phosphate. The voltammetric characteristics of substrate and enzymatic product as well as the parameters of SWV analysis were systematically optimized. A detection limit of 1 fM (1 x 10(-19) mol of target transcripts in 100 microL) and a 3-order-wide dynamic range of target concentration were achieved by the electrochemical bDNA assay. Such limit corresponded to approximately 17 fg of the p185 BCR-ABL fusion transcripts. The specificity and sensitivity of assay enabled direct detection of target transcripts in as little as 4.6 ng of mRNA population without PCR amplification. In combination with the use of a well-quantified standard, the electrochemical bDNA assay was capable of direct use for a PCR-free quantitative analysis of target transcripts in mRNA population. A mean transcript copy number of 62,900/ng of mRNA was determined, which was at least 50-fold higher than that of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The finding was consistent with the underestimation of targets by qPCR reported earlier. In addition, the unique design based on bDNA technology increases the assay specificity as only the p185 BCR-ABL fusion transcripts will respond to the detection. The approach thus provides a simple, sensitive, accurate, and quantitative tool alternative to the qPCR for early disease diagnosis.

  4. Impacts of Center of Mass Shifts on Messenger Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Shaughnessy, D. J.; Vaughan, R. M.; Chouinard, T. L., III; Jaekle, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) has successfully completed its first three years of flight operations following launch on August 3, 2004. As part of NASA s Discovery Program, MESSENGER will observe Mercury during flybys in 2008 and 2009, as well as from orbit beginning in March 2011. This paper discusses the impact that center of mass (CM) location changes have had on many mission activities, particularly angular momentum management and maneuver execution. Momentum trends were altered significantly following the first deep-space maneuver, and these changes were related to a change in the CM. The CM location also impacts maneuver execution, and uncertainties in its location led to the significant direction errors experienced at trajectory correction maneuver 11. Because of the spacecraft sensitivity to CM location, efforts to estimate its position are important to momentum and maneuver prediction. This paper summarizes efforts to estimate the CM from flight data, as well as the operational strategy to handle CM uncertainties and their impact on momentum trends and maneuver execution accuracy.

  5. Translation of globin messenger RNA by the mouse ovum

    PubMed Central

    Brinster, R. L.; Chen, H. Y.; Trumbauer, M. E.; Avarbock, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the Xenopus oocyte can translate rabbit haemoglobin messenger RNA (mRNA) following microinjection of the message into the cell1. The Xenopus oocyte has since been shown to be capable of translating a variety of messenger RNAs from different species2–4. This system has proved useful in understanding the mechanism of message translation and has also provided information about the translation capability of the Xenopus oocyte5,6. Several other cell types, including HeLa cells and fibroblasts, can also translate exogenous message injected into the cell7,8. However, there have been no reports of injection of mRNA into oocytes or fertilised one-cell ova of mammalian species. Nevertheless, the latter system could be of considerable use in studying the processing of exogenous messages in a mammalian system undergoing development, as well as providing insight into the way the early embryo processes injected messages and the protein products of such messages. We report here the results of injecting message into the fertilised one-cell mouse ovum and show that both mouse and rabbit globin mRNA are translated in this system. PMID:7352032

  6. Multi-Messenger Astronomy: White Dwarf Binaries, LISA and GAIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Michael; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves has ushered in a new era in astronomy. The low-frequency band covered by the future LISA detector provides unprecedented opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy. With the Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics (GAIA) mission, we expect to discover about 1,000 eclipsing binary systems composed of a WD and a main sequence star - a sizeable increase from the approximately 34 currently known binaries of this type. In advance of the first GAIA data release and the launch of LISA within the next decade, we used the Binary Stellar Evolution (BSE) code simulate the evolution of White Dwarf Binaries (WDB) in a fixed galaxy population of about 196,000 sources. Our goal is to assess the detectability of a WDB by LISA and GAIA using the parameters from our population synthesis, we calculate GW strength h, and apparent GAIA magnitude G. We can then use a scale factor to make a prediction of how many multi- messenger sources we expect to be detectable by both LISA and GAIA in a galaxy the size of the Milky Way. We create binaries 10 times to ensure randomness in distance assignment and average our results. We then determined whether or not astronomical chirp is the difference between the total chirp and the GW chirp. With Astronomical chirp and simulations of mass transfer and tides, we can gather more information about the internal astrophysics of stars in ultra-compact binary systems.

  7. First observations of Mercury's plasma mantle by MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBraccio, Gina A.; Slavin, James A.; Raines, Jim M.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Tracy, Patrick J.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; McNutt, Ralph L.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-11-01

    We present the first observations of Mercury's plasma mantle, a primary region for solar wind entry into the planetary magnetosphere, located in the high-latitude magnetotail. MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) observations from two orbits on 10 November 2012 have been analyzed. The main plasma mantle features are (1) a steady decrease in proton density as MESSENGER moved deeper into the magnetotail; (2) frequent flux transfer events throughout the magnetosheath and into the magnetotail, suggesting that these events are the primary source for solar wind plasma injection; (3) a diamagnetic depression, due to the presence of plasma, as pressure balance is maintained; and (4) a clear proton velocity dispersion, resulting from lower-energy protons being transported deep into the magnetosphere as higher-energy protons escape downtail. From these velocity dispersions we infer cross-magnetosphere electric potentials of 23 kV and 29 kV, consistent with estimates determined from measurements of magnetopause reconnection rate and tail loading and unloading events.

  8. MESSENGER Observations of Reconnection and Its Effects on Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Imber, Suzanne M.; Korth, Haje; hide

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's second and third flybys of Mercury on October 6, 2008 and September 29, 2009, respectively, southward interplanetary magnetic fields produced very intense reconnection signatures in the dayside and nightside magnetosphere and very different systemlevel responses. The IMF during the second flyby was continuously southward and the magnetosphere appeared very active with very large magnetic fields normal to the magnetopause and the generation of flux transfer events at the magnetopause and plasmoids in the tail current sheet every 30 s to 90 s. However, the strength and direction of the tail magnetic field was very stable. In contrast the third flyby experienced a variable IMF with it varying from north to south on timescales of minutes. Although the MESSENGER measurements were limited this time to the nightside magnetosphere, numerous examples of plasmoid release in the tail were detected, but they were not periodic. Rather, plasmoid release was highly correlated with the four large enhancements of the tail magnetic field (i.e. by factors > 2) with durations of approx. 2 - 3 min. The increased flaring of the magnetic field during these intervals indicates that the enhancements were caused by loading of the tail with magnetic flux transferred from the dayside magnetosphere. New analyses of the second and third flyby observations of reconnection and its system-level effects will be presented. The results will be examined in light of what is known about the response of the Earth's magnetosphere to variable versus steady southward IMF.

  9. Modeling MESSENGER Observations of Calcium in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Matthew Howard; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sprague, Ann L.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2012-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MESSENGER spacecraft has made the first high-spatial-resolution observations of exospheric calcium at Mercury. We use a Monte Carlo model of the exosphere to track the trajectories of calcium atoms ejected from the surface until they are photoionized, escape from the system, or stick to the surface. This model permits an exploration of exospheric source processes and interactions among neutral atoms, solar radiation, and the planetary surface. The MASCS data have suggested that a persistent, high-energy source of calcium that was enhanced in the dawn, equatorial region of Mercury was active during MESSENGER's three flybys of Mercury and during the first seven orbits for which MASCS obtained data. The total Ca source rate from the surface varied between 1.2x10(exp 23) and 2.6x10(exp 23) Ca atoms/s, if its temperature was 50,000 K. The origin of this high-energy, asymmetric source is unknown, although from this limited data set it does not appear to be consistent with micrometeoroid impact vaporization, ion sputtering, electron-stimulated desorption, or vaporization at dawn of material trapped on the cold nightside.

  10. Cloning of oligopeptide transport carrier PepT1 and comparative analysis of PepT1 messenger ribonucleic acid expression in response to dietary nitrogen levels in yak () and indigenous cattle () on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, H C; Shi, F Y; Hou, M J; Fu, X Y; Long, R J

    2016-08-01

    The gastrointestinal lumen can directly absorb all di- and tripeptide protein degradation products, and oligopeptide absorption depends on the specific peptide transport carriers, which are located in gastrointestinal epithelial cells on the brush border membrane. Yak () use N more efficiently than cattle do, which implies that yak have a specific mechanism of nonprotein utilization including a peptide absorption mechanism. However, this mechanism has not been clarified. Our objective was to explore whether yak possess any adaptive mechanisms of peptide absorption to survive in the harsh foraging environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Twelve castrated males of each of 2 genotypes, yak () and indigenous cattle (), were fed diets of various N levels. The yak PepT1 (yPepT1) cDNA was cloned in omasum epithelial tissue. Our results showed that the full-length yPepT1 cDNA contains 2,805 bp, and a 2,121-bp open reading frame encodes a putative protein of 707 AA residues. The yPepT1 AA sequence identified 5 putative extracellular N-glycosylation sites (Asn, Asn, Asn, Asn, and Asn), 2 putative intracellular protein kinase A sites (Ser and Thr), and 3 intracellular putative protein kinase C sites (Ser, Ser, and Ser). The yPepT1 AA sequence was 99, 95, 86, and 83% identical to PepT1 from cattle (), sheep (), pigs (), and humans (), respectively. The relative PepT1 mRNA expression for indigenous cattle was greater than yak in the rumen, omasum, duodenum, ileum, and liver ( < 0.001); however, it was lower in jejunum tissue ( < 0.01). The relative PepT1 mRNA expression in response to increasing dietary N for both genotypes were linear in the rumen and jejunum ( < 0.10); quadratic or cubic in the reticulum ( < 0.01); linear or quadratic in the duodenum, ileum, and liver ( ≤ 0.01); and linear, quadratic, or cubic in the omasum ( < 0.001). Moreover, there were significant interactions between genotype and dietary N in rumen, reticulum, omasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and liver tissues. In conclusion, the PepT1 profile and expression in gastrointestinal epithelial cells of yak varied from those of cattle, implying that yak have evolved a peptide transport mechanism to adapt the environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

  11. Gravity, Topography, and Magnetic Field of Mercury from Messenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Barnouin, Olivier; Ernst, Carolyn; Goosens, Sander; Hauck, Steven A., II; Head, James W., III; Johnson, Catherine L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    On 18 March 2011, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft was inserted into a 12-hour, near-polar orbit around Mercury, with an initial periapsis altitude of 200 km, initial periapse latitude of 60 deg N, and apoapsis at approximately 15,200 km altitude in the southern hemisphere. This orbit has permitted the mapping of regional gravitational structure in the northern hemisphere, and laser altimetry from the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a geodetically controlled elevation model for the same hemisphere. The shape of a planet combined with gravity provides fundamental information regarding its internal structure and geologic and thermal evolution. Elevations in the northern hemisphere exhibit a unimodal distribution with a dynamic range of 9.63 km, less than that of the Moon (19.9 km), but consistent with Mercury's higher surface gravitational acceleration. After one Earth-year in orbit, refined models of gravity and topography have revealed several large positive gravity anomalies that coincide with major impact basins. These candidate mascons have anomalies that exceed 100 mGal and indicate substantial crustal thinning and superisostatic uplift of underlying mantle. An additional uncompensated 1000-km-diameter gravity and topographic high at 68 deg N, 33 deg E lies within Mercury's northern volcanic plains. Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is generally thicker at low latitudes than in the polar region. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR2 = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M=3.30 x 10(exp 23) kg and R=2440 km are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of Cm/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. One proposed model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes silicate crust and mantle layers overlying a dense solid (possibly Fe-S) layer, a liquid Fe

  12. One Small Collection of Images, Many Giant Strides Forward for MESSENGER

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-23

    This image compilation shows some of the most exciting images taken thus far on the MESSENGER mission. A mural-sized copy hangs next to the MESSENGER Science Operations Center at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA16364

  13. Using an Instant Messenger to Learn a Foreign Language in a Peer-Tutoring Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Joeun; Yoo, Yungtai; Lee, Kyungsuk; Jung, Bokmoon; Baek, Youngkyun

    2017-01-01

    This study explores useful ways of using an instant messenger in a peer-tutoring environment when two students exchange their mother languages. Seven learners of Korean and seven Korean students learning English were paired randomly to conduct language exchange via an instant messenger, KakaoTalk. The pairs (five of male and female pair and two of…

  14. Insights into the Nature of Mercury's Exosphere: Early Results from the MESSENGER Orbital Mission Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClintock, William E.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.; Solomon, Sean C.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft has been making routine observations of Mercury's exosphere since March 29, 2011. Correlations of the spatial distributions of Ca, Mg, and Na with MESSENGER magnetic field and energetic particle distribution data provide insight into the processes that populate the neutral exosphere

  15. New Understanding of Mercury's Magnetosphere from MESSENGER'S First Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Acuna, Mario H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Killen, M.; Korth, Haje; hide

    2008-01-01

    Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft on 14 January 2008 have revealed new features of the solar system's smallest planetary magnetosphere. The interplanetary magnetic field orientation was unfavorable for large inputs of energy from the solar wind and no evidence of magnetic substorms, internal magnetic reconnection, or energetic particle acceleration was detected. Large-scale rotations of the magnetic field were measured along the dusk flank of the magnetosphere and ultra-tow frequency waves were frequently observed beginning near closest approach. Outbound the spacecraft encountered two current-sheet boundaries across which the magnetic field intensity decreased in a step-like manner. The outer current sheet is the magnetopause boundary. The inner current sheet is similar in structure, but weaker and -1000 km closer to the planet. Between these two current sheets the magnetic field intensity is depressed by the diamagnetic effect of planetary ions created by the photo-ionization of Mercury's exosphere.

  16. Imaging Mercury's Polar Deposits during MESSENGER's Low-altitude Campaign.

    PubMed

    Chabot, Nancy L; Ernst, Carolyn M; Paige, David A; Nair, Hari; Denevi, Brett W; Blewett, David T; Murchie, Scott L; Deutsch, Ariel N; Head, James W; Solomon, Sean C

    2016-09-28

    Images obtained during MESSENGER's low-altitude campaign in the final year of the mission provide the highest-spatial-resolution views of Mercury's polar deposits. Images for distinct areas of permanent shadow within 35 north polar craters were successfully captured during the campaign. All of these regions of permanent shadow were found to have low-reflectance surfaces with well-defined boundaries. Additionally, brightness variations across the deposits correlate with variations in the biannual maximum surface temperature across the permanently shadowed regions, supporting the conclusion that multiple volatile organic compounds are contained in Mercury's polar deposits, in addition to water ice. A recent large impact event or ongoing bombardment by micrometeoroids could deliver water as well as many volatile organic compounds to Mercury. Either scenario is consistent with the distinctive reflectance properties and well-defined boundaries of Mercury's polar deposits and the presence of volatiles in all available cold traps.

  17. The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanaugh, John F.; Smith, James C.; Sun, Xiaoli; Bartels, Arlin E.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Krebs, Danny J.; Novo-Gradac, Anne marie; McGarry, Jan F.; Trunzo, Raymond; Britt, Jamie L.

    2006-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of the payload science instruments on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, which launched on 3 August 2004. The altimeter will measure the round trip time-of-flight of transmitted laser pulses reflected from the surface of the planet that, in combination with the spacecraft orbit position and pointing data, gives a high-precision measurement of surface topography referenced to Mercury's center of mass. The altimeter measurements will be used to determine the planet's forced librations by tracking the motion of large-scale topographic features as a function of time. MLA's laser pulse energy monitor and the echo pulse energy estimate will provide an active measurement of the surface reflectivity at 1064 nm. This paper describes the instrument design, prelaunch testing, calibration, and results of post-launch testing.

  18. How Messenger RNA and Nascent Chain Sequences Regulate Translation Elongation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Junhong; Grosely, Rosslyn; Prabhakar, Arjun; Lapointe, Christopher P; Wang, Jinfan; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2018-06-20

    Translation elongation is a highly coordinated, multistep, multifactor process that ensures accurate and efficient addition of amino acids to a growing nascent-peptide chain encoded in the sequence of translated messenger RNA (mRNA). Although translation elongation is heavily regulated by external factors, there is clear evidence that mRNA and nascent-peptide sequences control elongation dynamics, determining both the sequence and structure of synthesized proteins. Advances in methods have driven experiments that revealed the basic mechanisms of elongation as well as the mechanisms of regulation by mRNA and nascent-peptide sequences. In this review, we highlight how mRNA and nascent-peptide elements manipulate the translation machinery to alter the dynamics and pathway of elongation.

  19. MESSENGER observations of magnetic reconnection in Mercury's magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Slavin, James A; Acuña, Mario H; Anderson, Brian J; Baker, Daniel N; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E; Ho, George C; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M; McNutt, Ralph L; Raines, Jim M; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C; Trávnícek, Pavel; Zurbuchen, Thomas H

    2009-05-01

    Solar wind energy transfer to planetary magnetospheres and ionospheres is controlled by magnetic reconnection, a process that determines the degree of connectivity between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and a planet's magnetic field. During MESSENGER's second flyby of Mercury, a steady southward IMF was observed and the magnetopause was threaded by a strong magnetic field, indicating a reconnection rate ~10 times that typical at Earth. Moreover, a large flux transfer event was observed in the magnetosheath, and a plasmoid and multiple traveling compression regions were observed in Mercury's magnetotail, all products of reconnection. These observations indicate that Mercury's magnetosphere is much more responsive to IMF direction and dominated by the effects of reconnection than that of Earth or the other magnetized planets.

  20. The evolution of Mercury's crust: a global perspective from MESSENGER.

    PubMed

    Denevi, Brett W; Robinson, Mark S; Solomon, Sean C; Murchie, Scott L; Blewett, David T; Domingue, Deborah L; McCoy, Timothy J; Ernst, Carolyn M; Head, James W; Watters, Thomas R; Chabot, Nancy L

    2009-05-01

    Mapping the distribution and extent of major terrain types on a planet's surface helps to constrain the origin and evolution of its crust. Together, MESSENGER and Mariner 10 observations of Mercury now provide a near-global look at the planet, revealing lateral and vertical heterogeneities in the color and thus composition of Mercury's crust. Smooth plains cover approximately 40% of the surface, and evidence for the volcanic origin of large expanses of plains suggests that a substantial portion of the crust originated volcanically. A low-reflectance, relatively blue component affects at least 15% of the surface and is concentrated in crater and basin ejecta. Its spectral characteristics and likely origin at depth are consistent with its apparent excavation from a lower crust or upper mantle enriched in iron- and titanium-bearing oxides.

  1. Gravity field and internal structure of Mercury from MESSENGER.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Hauck, Steven A; Lemoine, Frank G; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Peale, Stanton J; Margot, Jean-Luc; Johnson, Catherine L; Torrence, Mark H; Perry, Mark E; Rowlands, David D; Goossens, Sander; Head, James W; Taylor, Anthony H

    2012-04-13

    Radio tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern hemisphere, several large gravity anomalies, including candidate mass concentrations (mascons), exceed 100 milli-Galileos (mgal). Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is thicker at low latitudes and thinner in the polar region and shows evidence for thinning beneath some impact basins. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR(2) = 0.353 ± 0.017, where M and R are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C(m)/C = 0.452 ± 0.035. A model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid iron-sulfide layer and an iron-rich liquid outer core and perhaps a solid inner core.

  2. Tissue distribution of human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase messenger RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Jbilo, O.; Barteles, C.F.; Chatonnet, A.

    1994-12-31

    Tissue distribution of human acetyicholinesterase and butyryicholinesterase messenger RNA. 1 Cholinesterase inhibitors occur naturally in the calabar bean (eserine), green potatoes (solanine), insect-resistant crab apples, the coca plant (cocaine) and snake venom (fasciculin). There are also synthetic cholinesterase inhibitors, for example man-made insecticides. These inhibitors inactivate acetyicholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase as well as other targets. From a study of the tissue distribution of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase mRNA by Northern blot analysis, we have found the highest levels of butyrylcholinesterase mRNA in the liver and lungs, tissues known as the principal detoxication sites of the human body. These results indicate that butyrylcholinesterasemore » may be a first line of defense against poisons that are eaten or inhaled.« less

  3. MESSENGER Observations of ULF Waves in Mercury's Foreshock Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Guan; Chi, Peter J.; Bardsen, Scott; Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Slavin, James A.; Korth, Haje

    2012-01-01

    The region upstream from a planetary bow shock is a natural plasma laboratory containing a variety of wave particle phenomena. The study of foreshocks other than the Earth s is important for extending our understanding of collisionless shocks and foreshock physics since the bow shock strength varies with heliocentric distance from the Sun, and the sizes of the bow shocks are different at different planets. The Mercury s bow shock is unique in our solar system as it is produced by low Mach number solar wind blowing over a small magnetized body with a predominately radial interplanetary magnetic field. Previous observations of Mercury upstream ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves came exclusively from two Mercury flybys of Mariner 10. The MESSENGER orbiter data enable us to study of upstream waves in the Mercury s foreshock in depth. This paper reports an overview of upstream ULF waves in the Mercury s foreshock using high-time resolution magnetic field data, 20 samples per second, from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The most common foreshock waves have frequencies near 2 Hz, with properties similar to the 1-Hz waves in the Earth s foreshock. They are present in both the flyby data and in every orbit of the orbital data we have surveyed. The most common wave phenomenon in the Earth s foreshock is the large-amplitude 30-s waves, but similar waves at Mercury have frequencies at 0.1 Hz and occur only sporadically with short durations (a few wave cycles). Superposed on the "30-s" waves, there are spectral peaks at 0.6 Hz, not reported previously in Mariner 10 data. We will discuss wave properties and their occurrence characteristics in this paper.

  4. Thickness of Mercury's crust from MESSENGER gravity and altimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovan, S.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Margot, J. L.; Tosi, N.; Solomon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The major igneous events that form and shape the crust of a rocky body, such as magma ocean solidification and volcanism, affect the interior thermo-chemical evolution through control on the bulk volatile content, partitioning of heat-producing elements, and heat loss. Therefore, characterizing the crust of a body provides information on that object's origin, differentiation, and subsequent geologic evolution. For Mercury, the crust may hold clues in particular to the still poorly understood processes of formation of this planet. Analysis of geoid-to-topography ratios (GTRs) has been previously applied to infer the thickness of the crust of the Moon, Mars, and Venus. We perform a similar analysis for Mercury with the gravity and altimetry data acquired by the MESSENGER spacecraft. We consider only the northern hemisphere, where the gravity field and topography are well constrained. We assume that Airy isostasy is the principal mechanism of support of variations in topography, and we therefore exclude from the analysis regions that might not be compatible with this assumption, such as large expanses of smooth plains and large impact basins. For a conservative range of densities of the crust, we infer a crustal thickness of 35±18 km (one standard deviation). This new mean value is substantially less than earlier estimates that were based on viscous relaxation of topography, on the relation between the low-degree gravity field and equatorial ellipticity, and on the depth of the brittle-ductile transition as constrained by models of thrust faulting and thermal evolution. This relatively thin crust allows for the possibility of excavation of mantle material during the formation of large impact basins (such as Caloris). Such material might be observed with instruments on MESSENGER and the BepiColombo spacecraft now in development.

  5. A comprehensive study of Mercury and MESSENGER orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Rowlands, David D.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-10-01

    The MErcury, Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft orbited the planet Mercury for more than 4 years. The probe started its science mission in orbit around Mercury on 18 March 2011. The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and radio science system were the instruments dedicated to geodetic observations of the topography, gravity field, orientation, and tides of Mercury. X-band radio-tracking range-rate data collected by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) allowed the determination of Mercury's gravity field to spherical harmonic degree and order 100, the planet's obliquity, and the Love number k2.The extensive range data acquired in orbit around Mercury during the science mission (from April 2011 to April 2015), and during the three flybys of the planet in 2008 and 2009, provide a powerful dataset for the investigation of Mercury's ephemeris. The proximity of Mercury's orbit to the Sun leads to a significant perihelion precession attributable to the gravitational flattening of the Sun (J2) and the Parameterized Post-Newtonian (PPN) coefficients γ and β, which describe the space curvature produced by a unit rest mass and the nonlinearity in superposition of gravity, respectively. Therefore, the estimation of Mercury's ephemeris can provide crucial information on the interior structure of the Sun and Einstein's general theory of relativity. However, the high correlation among J2, γ, and β complicates the combined recovery of these parameters, so additional assumptions are required, such as the Nordtvedt relationship η = 4β - γ - 3.We have modified our orbit determination software, GEODYN II, to enable the simultaneous integration of the spacecraft and central body trajectories. The combined estimation of the MESSENGER and Mercury orbits allowed us to determine a more accurate gravity field, orientation, and tides of Mercury, and the values of GM and J2 for the Sun, where G is the gravitational constant and M is the solar mass

  6. Magnetosphere of Mercury : Observations and Insights from MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimigis, Stamatios

    The MESSENGER spacecraft executed three flyby encounters with Mercury in 2008 and 2009, was inserted into orbit about Mercury on 18 March 2011, and has returned a wealth of data on the magnetic field, plasma, and energetic particle environment of Mercury. These observations reveal a profoundly dynamic and active solar wind interaction. In addition to establishing the average structures of the bow shock, magnetopause, northern cusp, and tail plasma sheet, MESSENGER measurements document magnetopause boundary processes (reconnection and surface waves), global convection and dynamics (tail loading and unloading, magnetic flux transport, and Birkeland currents), surface precipitation of particles (protons and electrons), particle heating and acceleration, and wave generation processes (ions and electrons). Mercury’s solar wind interaction presents new challenges to our understanding of the physics of magnetospheres. The offset of the planetary moment relative to the geographic equator creates a larger hemispheric asymmetry relative to magnetospheric dimensions than at any other planet. The prevalence, magnitude, and repetition rates of flux transfer events at the magnetopause as well as plasmoids in the magnetotail indicate that, unlike at Earth, episodic convection may dominate over steady-state convection. The magnetopause reconnection rate is not only an order of magnitude greater than at Earth, but reconnection occurs over a much broader range of interplanetary magnetic field orientations than at Earth. Finally, the planetary body itself plays a significant role in Mercury’s magnetosphere. Birkeland currents close through the planet, induction at the planetary core-mantle boundary modifies the magnetospheric response to solar wind pressure excursions, the surface in darkness exhibits sporadic X-ray fluorescence consistent with precipitation of 10 to 100 keV electrons, magnetospheric plasmas precipitate directly onto the planetary surface and contribute to

  7. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Peeters, M; Huang, C L; Vonk, L A; Lu, Z F; Bank, R A; Helder, M N; Doulabi, B Zandieh

    2016-11-01

    Studies which consider the molecular mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration of cartilaginous tissues are seriously hampered by problematic ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolations due to low cell density and the dense, proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of cartilage. Proteoglycans tend to co-purify with RNA, they can absorb the full spectrum of UV light and they are potent inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, the objective of the present study is to compare and optimise different homogenisation methods and RNA isolation kits for an array of cartilaginous tissues. Tissue samples such as the nucleus pulposus (NP), annulus fibrosus (AF), articular cartilage (AC) and meniscus, were collected from goats and homogenised by either the MagNA Lyser or Freezer Mill. RNA of duplicate samples was subsequently isolated by either TRIzol (benchmark), or the RNeasy Lipid Tissue, RNeasy Fibrous Tissue, or Aurum Total RNA Fatty and Fibrous Tissue kits. RNA yield, purity, and integrity were determined and gene expression levels of type II collagen and aggrecan were measured by real-time PCR. No differences between the two homogenisation methods were found. RNA isolation using the RNeasy Fibrous and Lipid kits resulted in the purest RNA (A260/A280 ratio), whereas TRIzol isolations resulted in RNA that is not as pure, and show a larger difference in gene expression of duplicate samples compared with both RNeasy kits. The Aurum kit showed low reproducibility. For the extraction of high-quality RNA from cartilaginous structures, we suggest homogenisation of the samples by the MagNA Lyser. For AC, NP and AF we recommend the RNeasy Fibrous kit, whereas for the meniscus the RNeasy Lipid kit is advised.Cite this article: M. Peeters, C. L. Huang, L. A. Vonk, Z. F. Lu, R. A. Bank, M. N. Helder, B. Zandieh Doulabi. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Bone Joint Res 2016

  8. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, M.; Huang, C. L.; Vonk, L. A.; Lu, Z. F.; Bank, R. A.; Doulabi, B. Zandieh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies which consider the molecular mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration of cartilaginous tissues are seriously hampered by problematic ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolations due to low cell density and the dense, proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of cartilage. Proteoglycans tend to co-purify with RNA, they can absorb the full spectrum of UV light and they are potent inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, the objective of the present study is to compare and optimise different homogenisation methods and RNA isolation kits for an array of cartilaginous tissues. Materials and Methods Tissue samples such as the nucleus pulposus (NP), annulus fibrosus (AF), articular cartilage (AC) and meniscus, were collected from goats and homogenised by either the MagNA Lyser or Freezer Mill. RNA of duplicate samples was subsequently isolated by either TRIzol (benchmark), or the RNeasy Lipid Tissue, RNeasy Fibrous Tissue, or Aurum Total RNA Fatty and Fibrous Tissue kits. RNA yield, purity, and integrity were determined and gene expression levels of type II collagen and aggrecan were measured by real-time PCR. Results No differences between the two homogenisation methods were found. RNA isolation using the RNeasy Fibrous and Lipid kits resulted in the purest RNA (A260/A280 ratio), whereas TRIzol isolations resulted in RNA that is not as pure, and show a larger difference in gene expression of duplicate samples compared with both RNeasy kits. The Aurum kit showed low reproducibility. Conclusion For the extraction of high-quality RNA from cartilaginous structures, we suggest homogenisation of the samples by the MagNA Lyser. For AC, NP and AF we recommend the RNeasy Fibrous kit, whereas for the meniscus the RNeasy Lipid kit is advised. Cite this article: M. Peeters, C. L. Huang, L. A. Vonk, Z. F. Lu, R. A. Bank, M. N. Helder, B. Zandieh Doulabi. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real

  9. Gradient enhanced-fluidity liquid hydrophilic interaction chromatography of ribonucleic acid nucleosides and nucleotides: A "green" technique.

    PubMed

    Beilke, Michael C; Beres, Martin J; Olesik, Susan V

    2016-03-04

    A "green" hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) technique for separating the components of mixtures with a broad range of polarities is illustrated using enhanced-fluidity liquid mobile phases. Enhanced-fluidity liquid chromatography (EFLC) involves the addition of liquid CO2 to conventional liquid mobile phases. Decreased mobile phase viscosity and increased analyte diffusivity results when a liquefied gas is dissolved in common liquid mobile phases. The impact of CO2 addition to a methanol:water (MeOH:H2O) mobile phase was studied to optimize HILIC gradient conditions. For the first time a fast separation of 16 ribonucleic acid (RNA) nucleosides/nucleotides was achieved (16min) with greater than 1.3 resolution for all analyte pairs. By using a gradient, the analysis time was reduced by over 100% compared to similar separations conducted under isocratic conditions. The optimal separation using MeOH:H2O:CO2 mobile phases was compared to MeOH:H2O and acetonitrile:water (ACN:H2O) mobile phases. Based on chromatographic performance parameters (efficiency, resolution and speed of analysis) and an assessment of the environmental impact of the mobile phase mixtures, MeOH:H2O:CO2 mixtures are preferred over ACN:H2O or MeOH:H2O mobile phases for the separation of mixtures of RNA nucleosides and nucleotides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanping; Chen, Gang; Feng, Shangyuan; Pan, Jianji; Zheng, Xiongwei; Su, Ying; Chen, Yan; Huang, Zufang; Lin, Xiaoqian; Lan, Fenghua; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2012-06-01

    Studies with circulating ribonucleic acid (RNA) not only provide new targets for cancer detection, but also open up the possibility of noninvasive gene expression profiling for cancer. In this paper, we developed a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), platform for detection and differentiation of serum RNAs of colorectal cancer. A novel three-dimensional (3-D), Ag nanofilm formed by dry MgSO4 aggregated silver nanoparticles, Ag NP, as the SERS-active substrate was presented to effectively enhance the RNA Raman signals. SERS measurements were performed on two groups of serum RNA samples. One group from patients, n=55 with pathologically diagnosed colorectal cancer and the other group from healthy controls, n=45. Tentative assignments of the Raman bands in the normalized SERS spectra demonstrated that there are differential expressions of cancer-related RNAs between the two groups. Linear discriminate analysis, based on principal component analysis, generated features can differentiate the colorectal cancer SERS spectra from normal SERS spectra with sensitivity of 89.1 percent and specificity of 95.6 percent. This exploratory study demonstrated great potential for developing serum RNA SERS analysis into a useful clinical tool for label-free, noninvasive screening and detection of colorectal cancers.

  11. Global Controlled Mosaic of Mercury from MESSENGER Orbital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K. J.; Weller, L. A.; Edmundson, K. L.; Becker, T. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft entered orbit around Mercury in March 2011. Since then, the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) has been steadily acquiring images from the monochrome, narrow-angle camera (NAC) and the multispectral, wide-angle camera (WAC). With these images, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is constructing a global, controlled monochrome base map of the planet using the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS3) [1]. Although the characterization of MESSENGER spacecraft's navigation and attitude data has proven to be reliable to date, an element of uncertainty in these parameters is unavoidable. This leads to registration offsets between images in the base map. To minimize these errors, images are controlled using a least-squares bundle adjustment that provides refined spacecraft attitude and position parameters plus triangulated ground coordinates of image tie points. As a first effort, 4542 images (2781 NAC, 1761 WAC G filter) have been controlled with a root mean squared error of 0.25 pixels in image space [2]. A preliminary digital elevation model (DEM) is also being produced from the large number of ground points (~ 47,000) triangulated in this adjustment. The region defined by these points ranges from 80°S to 86°N latitude and 158°E to 358°E longitude. A symmetric, unimodal distribution and a dynamic range of 10.5 km characterize the hypsometry of this area. Minimum, maximum, and mean elevations are -5.0, 5.5, and -0.2 km relative to the mean radius of Mercury (2440 km) as defined by the mission. The USGS will use the DEM and base map for the construction of a registered color (WAC) map of high spatial integrity essential for reliable scientific interpretation of the color data. Ongoing improvements to the base map will be made as new images from MDIS become available, providing continuity in resolution, illumination, and viewing conditions. Additional bundle adjustments will further improve spacecraft attitude. The results from

  12. Results and prospects in multi-messenger particle astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy particle astrophysics the old days were certainly not better than these. Our field has thrived in the past decade with experiments covering thousands of square kilometers to measure the suppression in the flux of the highest energy cosmic rays ever observed, instrumenting a cubic kilometer of Antarctic ice to discover astrophysical neutrinos, and measuring a change in arm length as small as 10-19 m for the ground-breaking direct observation of gravitational waves. Additionally, the current generation of space-borne and ground-based gamma-ray experiments have revealed a plethora of gamma-ray sources, including pulsars, compact binaries, the galactic center, and extragalactic sources such as starburst galaxies and radio galaxies. Before the next generation of instruments bring us yet another order of magnitude in sensitivity, we can combine current observations to probe physics beyond the standard model, and to extend the high-energy frontier well above the energies accessible to laboratory accelerators. One example of this potential is the search for dark-matter annihilation and decay products. To use the multi-messenger approach effectively for probing dark-matter signatures and physics beyond the LHC energy requires understanding the origin (or acceleration mechanism) and the propagation processes. High energy protons and nuclei, neutrinos, gamma-rays, X-rays, and gravitational waves bring new and complementary views of the astrophysical sources. By comparing observations through different windows, we can use the sites of violent phenomena as a laboratory to probe the physical processes under extreme conditions throughout the Universe, and to test the fundamental laws of particle physics and gravitation. As a community we need to engage in a bold synergistic approach to understanding the violent processes that give rise to the high-energy cosmic phenomena in the Universe. In this invited talk, I will present on-going multi-messenger studies to

  13. Navigating the MESSENGER Spacecraft through End of Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, C. G.; Williams, B. G.; Williams, K. E.; Taylor, A. H.; Carranza, E.; Page, B. R.; Stanbridge, D. R.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; O'Shaughnessy, D. J.; McAdams, J. V.; Calloway, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft orbited the planet Mercury from March 2011 until the end of April 2015, when it impacted the planetary surface after propellant reserves used to maintain the orbit were depleted. This highly successful mission was led by the principal investigator, Sean C. Solomon, of Columbia University. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) designed and assembled the spacecraft and served as the home for spacecraft operations. Spacecraft navigation for the entirety of the mission was provided by the Space Navigation and Flight Dynamics Practice (SNAFD) of KinetX Aerospace. Orbit determination (OD) solutions were generated through processing of radiometric tracking data provided by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) using the MIRAGE suite of orbital analysis tools. The MESSENGER orbit was highly eccentric, with periapsis at a high northern latitude and periapsis altitude in the range 200-500 km for most of the orbital mission phase. In a low-altitude "hover campaign" during the final two months of the mission, periapsis altitudes were maintained within a narrow range between about 35 km and 5 km. Navigating a spacecraft so near a planetary surface presented special challenges. Tasks required to meet those challenges included the modeling and estimation of Mercury's gravity field and of solar and planetary radiation pressure, and the design of frequent orbit-correction maneuvers. Superior solar conjunction also presented observational modeling issues. One key to the overall success of the low-altitude hover campaign was a strategy to utilize data from an onboard laser altimeter as a cross-check on the navigation team's reconstructed and predicted estimates of periapsis altitude. Data obtained from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on a daily basis provided near-real-time feedback that proved invaluable in evaluating alternative orbit estimation strategies, and

  14. Topicality and impact in social media: diverse messages, focused messengers.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the factors that make people influential and topics popular in social media. Are users who comment on a variety of matters more likely to achieve high influence than those who stay focused? Do general subjects tend to be more popular than specific ones? Questions like these demand a way to detect the topics hidden behind messages associated with an individual or a keyword, and a gauge of similarity among these topics. Here we develop such an approach to identify clusters of similar hashtags in Twitter by detecting communities in the hashtag co-occurrence network. Then the topical diversity of a user's interests is quantified by the entropy of her hashtags across different topic clusters. A similar measure is applied to hashtags, based on co-occurring tags. We find that high topical diversity of early adopters or co-occurring tags implies high future popularity of hashtags. In contrast, low diversity helps an individual accumulate social influence. In short, diverse messages and focused messengers are more likely to gain impact.

  15. Topicality and Impact in Social Media: Diverse Messages, Focused Messengers

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the factors that make people influential and topics popular in social media. Are users who comment on a variety of matters more likely to achieve high influence than those who stay focused? Do general subjects tend to be more popular than specific ones? Questions like these demand a way to detect the topics hidden behind messages associated with an individual or a keyword, and a gauge of similarity among these topics. Here we develop such an approach to identify clusters of similar hashtags in Twitter by detecting communities in the hashtag co-occurrence network. Then the topical diversity of a user’s interests is quantified by the entropy of her hashtags across different topic clusters. A similar measure is applied to hashtags, based on co-occurring tags. We find that high topical diversity of early adopters or co-occurring tags implies high future popularity of hashtags. In contrast, low diversity helps an individual accumulate social influence. In short, diverse messages and focused messengers are more likely to gain impact. PMID:25710685

  16. [Deregulation of pre-messenger RNA splicing and rare diseases].

    PubMed

    de la Grange, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    Most of protein-coding human genes are subjected to alternative pre-mRNA splicing. This mechanism is highly regulated to precisely modulate detection of specific splice sites. This regulation is under control of the spliceosome and several splicing factors are also required to modulate the alternative usage of splice sites. Splicing factors and spliceosome components recognize splicing signals and regulatory sequences of the pre-mRNAs. These splicing sequences make splicing susceptible to polymorphisms and mutations. Examples of associations between human rare diseases and defects in pre-messenger RNA splicing are accumulating. Although many alterations are caused by mutations in splicing sequence (i.e., cis acting mutations), recent studies described the disruptive impact of mutations within spliceosome components or splicing factors (i.e., trans acting mutations). Following growing of knowledge regarding splicing regulation, several approaches have been developed to compensate for the effect of deleterious mutations and to restore sufficient amounts of functional protein. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  17. Gravity Field and Internal Structure of Mercury from MESSENGER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Hauck, Steven A., II; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Peale, Stanton J.; Margot, Jean-Luc; hide

    2012-01-01

    Radio tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern hemisphere, several large gravity anomalies, including candidate mass concentrations (mascons), exceed 100 milli-Galileos (mgal). Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is thicker at low latitudes and thinner in the polar region and shows evidence for thinning beneath some impact basins. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/M(R(exp 2) = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M and R are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C(sub m)/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. A model for Mercury s radial density distribution consistent with these results includes a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid iron-sulfide layer and an iron-rich liquid outer core and perhaps a solid inner core.

  18. A discontinuous hammerhead ribozyme embedded in a mammalian messenger RNA

    PubMed Central

    Martick, Monika; Horan, Lucas H.; Noller, Harry F.; Scott, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Structured RNAs embedded in the untranslated regions (UTRs) of messenger RNAs can regulate gene expression. In bacteria, control of a metabolite gene is mediated by the self-cleaving activity of a ribozyme embedded in its 5′ UTR1. This discovery has raised the question of whether gene-regulating ribozymes also exist in eukaryotic mRNAs. Here we show that highly active hammerhead ribozymes2,3 are present in the 3′ UTRs of rodent C-type lectin type II (Clec2) genes4–7. Using a hammerhead RNA motif search with relaxed delimitation of the non-conserved regions, we detected ribozyme sequences in which the invariant regions, in contrast to the previously identified continuous hammerheads8–10, occur as two fragments separated by hundreds of nucleotides. Notably, a fragment pair can assemble to form an active hammerhead ribozyme structure between the translation termination and the poly-adenylation signals within the 3′ UTR. We demonstrate that this hammerhead structure can self-cleave both in vitro and in vivo, and is able to reduce protein expression in mouse cells. These results indicate that an unrecognized mechanism of post-transcriptional gene regulation involving association of discontinuous ribozyme sequences within an mRNA may be modulating the expression of several CLEC2 proteins that function in bone remodelling and the immune response of several mammals. PMID:18615019

  19. Internet messenger based smart virtual class learning using ubiquitous computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umam, K.; Mardi, S. N. S.; Hariadi, M.

    2017-06-01

    Internet messenger (IM) has become an important educational technology component in college education, IM makes it possible for students to engage in learning and collaborating at smart virtual class learning (SVCL) using ubiquitous computing. However, the model of IM-based smart virtual class learning using ubiquitous computing and empirical evidence that would favor a broad application to improve engagement and behavior are still limited. In addition, the expectation that IM based SVCL using ubiquitous computing could improve engagement and behavior on smart class cannot be confirmed because the majority of the reviewed studies followed instructions paradigms. This article aims to present the model of IM-based SVCL using ubiquitous computing and showing learners’ experiences in improved engagement and behavior for learner-learner and learner-lecturer interactions. The method applied in this paper includes design process and quantitative analysis techniques, with the purpose of identifying scenarios of ubiquitous computing and realize the impressions of learners and lecturers about engagement and behavior aspect and its contribution to learning

  20. Differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules using micro ribonucleic acid amplification in residual cells obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Mazeh, Haggi; Levy, Yair; Mizrahi, Ido; Appelbaum, Liat; Ilyayev, Nadia; Halle, David; Freund, Herbert R; Nissan, Aviram

    2013-04-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the most commonly used diagnostic tool to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Nevertheless, some FNAB cytology results are not definite. In such cases diagnostic thyroid lobectomy is performed with malignancy rate on final histopathology ranging at 15%-75%. The aim of this study was to improve on the accuracy of FNAB-based cytology by amplification of microRNAs (micro ribonucleic acids [miRs]) from the residual cells left in the FNAB needle after submission for cytology. Residual cells were collected from the needle cup after FNAB cytology of 77 consecutive patients with thyroid nodules. miR-enriched RNA was extracted for all patients with cytology showing either follicular lesion or suspicion for malignancy (n=11). The expression of miR-21, -31, -146b, -187, -221, and -222 was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results were compared with final surgical histopathology. RNA was successfully extracted from all FNAB specimens. Five patients had FNAB cytology suspicious for malignancy. The miR panel was positive in all five (100%). Six patients had follicular lesions on FNAB. The miR panel was positive in three of four patients (75%) with confirmed malignancy and was negative in two of two (0%) patients with benign pathology results. This corresponded to a specificity of 100%, sensitivity of 88%, and accuracy of 90%. RNA extraction from FNAB residual cells is feasible, and a miR panel amplified from the extracted RNA seems like a promising diagnostic tool in this limited number of patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reagentless Measurement of Aminoglycoside Antibiotics in Blood Serum via an Electrochemical, Ribonucleic Acid Aptamer-Based Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Aaron A.; Miller, Erin A.; Plaxco, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Biosensors built using ribonucleic acid (RNA) aptamers show promise as tools for point-of-care medical diagnostics, but they remain vulnerable to nuclease degradation when deployed in clinical samples. To explore methods for protecting RNA-based biosensors from such degradation we have constructed and characterized an electrochemical, aptamer-based sensor for the detection of aminoglycosidic antibiotics. We find that while this sensor achieves low micromolar detection limits and subminute equilibration times when challenged in buffer, it deteriorates rapidly when immersed directly in blood serum. In order to circumvent this problem, we have developed and tested sensors employing modified versions of the same aptamer. Our first effort to this end entailed the methylation of all of the 2′-hydroxyl groups outside of the aptamer’s antibiotic binding pocket. However, while devices employing this modified aptamer are as sensitive as those employing an unmodified parent, the modification fails to confer greater stability when the sensor is challenged directly in blood serum. As a second potentially naive alternative, we replaced the RNA bases in the aptamer with their more degradation-resistant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) equivalents. Surprisingly and unlike control DNA-stem loops employing other sequences, this DNA aptamer retains the ability to bind aminoglycosides, albeit with poorer affinity than the parent RNA aptamer. Unfortunately, however, while sensors fabricated using this DNA aptamer are stable in blood serum, its lower affinity pushes their detection limits above the therapeutically relevant range. Finally, we find that ultrafiltration through a low-molecular-weight-cutoff spin column rapidly and efficiently removes the relevant nucleases from serum samples spiked with gentamicin, allowing the convenient detection of this aminoglycoside at clinically relevant concentrations using the original RNA-based sensor. PMID:20687587

  2. Mechanical forces and their second messengers in stimulating cell growth in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanical forces play an important role in modulating the growth of a number of different tissues including skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, bone, endothelium, epithelium, and lung. As interest increases in the molecular mechanisms by which mechanical forces are transduced into growth alterations, model systems are being developed to study these processes in tissue culture. This paper reviews the current methods available for mechanically stimulating tissue cultured cells. It then outlines some of the putative 'mechanogenic' second messengers involved in altering cell growth. Not surprisingly, many mechanogenic second messengers are the same as those involved in growth factor-induced cell growth. It is hypothesized that from an evolutionary standpoint, some second messenger systems may have initially evolved for unicellular organisms to respond to physical forces such as gravity and mechanical perturbation in their environment. As multicellular organisms came into existence, they appropriated these mechanogenic second messenger cascades for cellular regulation by growth factors.

  3. Early MESSENGER Results for Less Abundant or Weakly Emitting Species in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; McClintock, William E.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Burger, Matthew H.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2011-01-01

    Now that the Messenger spacecraft is in orbit about Mercury, the extended observing time enables searches for exospheric species that are less abundant or weakly emitting compared with those for which emission has previously been detected. Many of these species cannot be observed from the ground because of terrestrial atmospheric absorption. We report here on the status of MESSENGER orbital-phase searches for additional species in Mercury's exosphere.

  4. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  5. Limits to Mercury's Magnesium Exosphere from MESSENGER Second Flyby Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Bradley, E. Todd; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery measurements of Mercury's exospheric magnesium, obtained by the MErcury Surface. Space ENvironment, GEochemistry. and Ranging (MESSENGER) probe during its second Mercury flyby, are modeled to constrain the source and loss processes for this neutral species. Fits to a Chamberlain exosphere reveal that at least two source temperatures are required to reconcile the distribution of magnesium measured far from and near the planet: a hot ejection process at the equivalent temperature of several tens of thousands of degrees K, and a competing, cooler source at temperatures as low as 400 K. For the energetic component, our models indicate that the column abundance that can be attributed to sputtering under constant southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions is at least a factor of five less than the rate dictated by the measurements, Although highly uncertain, this result suggests that another energetic process, such as the rapid dissociation of exospheric MgO, may be the main source of the distant neutral component. If meteoroid and micrometeoroid impacts eject mainly molecules, the total amount of magnesium at altitudes exceeding approximately 100 km is found to be consistent with predictions by impact vaporization models for molecule lifetimes of no more than two minutes. Though a sharp increase in emission observed near the dawn terminator region can be reproduced if a single meteoroid enhanced the impact vapor at equatorial dawn, it is much more likely that observations in this region, which probe heights increasingly near the surface, indicate a reservoir of volatile Mg being acted upon by lower-energy source processes.

  6. Evolution and structure of Mercury's interior from MESSENGER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    During the past four years, the MESSENGER mission (MErcury Surface, Space Environment, GEochemistry and Ranging) has delivered a wealth of information that has been dramatically advancing the understanding of the geological, chemical, and physical state of Mercury. Taking into account the latest constraints on the interior structure, surface composition, volcanic and tectonic history, we employed numerical models to simulate the thermo-chemical evolution of the planet's interior [1]. Typical evolution scenarios that allow the observational constraints to be satisfied consist of an initial phase of mantle heating accompanied by planetary expansion and the production of a substantial amount of partial melt. The evolution subsequent to 2 Ga is characterised by secular cooling that proceeds approximately at a constant rate and implies that contraction should be still ongoing. Most of the models also predict mantle convection to cease after 3-4 Ga, indicating that Mercury may be no longer dynamically active. In addition, the topography, measured by laser altimetry and the gravity field, obtained from radio-tracking, represent fundamental observations that can be interpreted in terms of the chemical and mechanical structure of the interior. The observed geoid-to-topography ratios at intermediate wavelengths are well explained by the isostatic compensation of the topography associated with lateral variations of the crustal thickness, whose mean value can be estimated to be ~35 km, broadly confirming the predictions of the evolution simulations [2]. Finally, we will show that the degree-2 and 4 of the topography and geoid spectra can be explained in terms of the long-wavelength deformation of the lithosphere resulting from deep thermal anomalies caused by the large latitudinal and longitudinal variations in temperature experienced by Mercury's surface. [1] Tosi N., M. Grott, A.-C. Plesa and D. Breuer (2013). Thermo-chemical evolution of Mercury's interior. Journal of

  7. New insights into the molecular mechanism of Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid fraction (BE3) concerning antiproliferative activity on human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Marques, Guilhermina; Nunes, Fernando Milheiro; Pożarowski, Piotr; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2017-05-24

    One of the relatively new and promising strategies of cancer treatment is chemoprevention, which involves the use of natural or synthetic compounds to block, inhibit or reverse carcinogenesis. A valuable and still untapped source of chemopreventive compounds seems to be edible mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes. Boletus edulis biopolymers extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography showed antiproliferative activity in colon cancer cells, but only fraction BE3, mostly composed of ribonucleic acids, was able to inhibit DNA synthesis in HT-29 cells. The present work aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism of this Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid fraction and in this sense flow cytometry and western blotting were applied to cell cycle analysis in HT-29 cells. We found that the antiproliferative ability of fraction BE3 observed in HT-29 cells was associated with the modulation of expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cyclin D1, Cyclin A, p21 and p27) leading to cell accumulation in the S phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, the BE3 fraction showed effective silencing of the signal transduction in an MAPK/Erk pathway in HT-29 and LS180 colon cancer cell lines. Thus, the previously and currently obtained results indicate that the BE3 fraction from Boletus edulis has great potential and needs to be further exploited through animal and clinical studies in order to develop a new efficient and safe therapeutic strategy for people who have been threatened by or suffered from colon cancer.

  8. Evaluation of the reversal of multidrug resistance by MDR1 ribonucleic acid interference in a human colon cancer model using a Renilla luciferase reporter gene and coelenterazine.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yong Hyun; Bae, Seon-ae; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, You La; Lee, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Ghil-Suk; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Lee, Jaetae

    2010-12-01

    The reversal effect of multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene expression by adenoviral vector-mediated MDR1 ribonucleic acid interference was assessed in a human colon cancer animal model using bioluminescent imaging with Renilla luciferase (Rluc) gene and coelenterazine, a substrate for Rluc or MDR1 gene expression. A fluorescent microscopic examination demonstrated an increased green fluorescent protein signal in Ad-shMDR1- (recombinant adenovirus that coexpressed MDR1 small hairpin ribonucleic acid [shRNA] and green fluorescent protein) infected HCT-15/Rluc cells in a virus dose-dependent manner. Concurrently, with an increasing administered virus dose (0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 multiplicity of infection), Rluc activity was significantly increased in Ad-shMDR1-infected HCT-15/Rluc cells in a virus dose-dependent manner. In vivo bioluminescent imaging showed about 7.5-fold higher signal intensity in Ad-shMDR1-infected tumors than in control tumors (p < .05). Immunohistologic analysis demonstrated marked reduction of P-glycoprotein expression in infected tumor but not in control tumor. In conclusion, the reversal of MDR1 gene expression by MDR1 shRNA was successfully evaluated by bioluminescence imaging with Rluc activity using an in vivo animal model with a multidrug resistance cancer xenograft.

  9. MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach Arranges a Ride to the Innermost Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, H. M.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J.; Goldstein, J.; Hallau, K. G.; Hirshon, B.; Vanhala, H.; Solomon, S. C.; Messenger Education; Public Outreach Team

    2010-12-01

    Exploration of the mysterious planet Mercury offers an unprecedented opportunity for teachers, students, and citizens to tag along for the ride, and the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team for MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) is making sure the public gets quite a show. Since 2004, when MESSENGER was launched, MESSENGER has been gathering intriguing data and information about the Solar System's innermost planet. That journey will continue at a quickened pace after March 18, 2011, when MESSENGER enters into orbit around Mercury for one year of observations of the planet and its environment. The EPO Team - an extensive network of individuals and institutions - has sought to convey the excitement and complexity of the mission as MESSENGER's team overcomes challenges, achieves triumphs, and shares the adventure of space exploration with the American and global public. The EPO Team has developed a broad and comprehensive set of educational and outreach activities, ranging from curricular materials, teacher training, and unique mission-related student investigations to museum displays and special outreach to underserved communities and minority students. One of the most visible aspects of this effort is the MESSENGER Educator Fellows program: master science educators who conduct teacher training workshops throughout the nation for pre-K-12 educators. Educator Fellows train teachers on the EPO Team's MESSENGER Education Modules, which are also relevant to other NASA missions reaching important milestones this year (see http://www.messenger-education.org/teachers/educ_modules.php). By the time MESSENGER goes into orbit, Educator Fellows will have trained an estimated 18,000 teachers, who in turn, facilitate classroom experiences to over 1.8 million students. The EPO Team comprises individuals from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE); Center for

  10. Bacterial Signal Transduction by Cyclic Di-GMP and Other Nucleotide Second Messengers

    PubMed Central

    Gründling, Angelika; Jenal, Urs; Ryan, Robert; Yildiz, Fitnat

    2015-01-01

    The first International Symposium on c-Di-GMP Signaling in Bacteria (22 to 25 March 2015, Harnack-Haus, Berlin, Germany) brought together 131 molecular microbiologists from 17 countries to discuss recent progress in our knowledge of bacterial nucleotide second messenger signaling. While the focus was on signal input, synthesis, degradation, and the striking diversity of the modes of action of the current second messenger paradigm, i.e., cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), “classics” like cAMP and (p)ppGpp were also presented, in novel facets, and more recent “newcomers,” such as c-di-AMP and c-AMP-GMP, made an impressive appearance. A number of clear trends emerged during the 30 talks, on the 71 posters, and in the lively discussions, including (i) c-di-GMP control of the activities of various ATPases and phosphorylation cascades, (ii) extensive cross talk between c-di-GMP and other nucleotide second messenger signaling pathways, and (iii) a stunning number of novel effectors for nucleotide second messengers that surprisingly include some long-known master regulators of developmental pathways. Overall, the conference made it amply clear that second messenger signaling is currently one of the most dynamic fields within molecular microbiology, with major impacts in research fields ranging from human health to microbial ecology. PMID:26055111

  11. Comparing Strategies for Health Information Dissemination: Messengers That Can Help or Hinder.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Jessica; Greenberg, Patricia; Bagga, Margy Barbieri; Casarett, David; Propert, Kathleen

    2018-05-01

    To test the effects of different messengers on the dissemination of health information. An experimental study exposed participants to 12 news articles pertaining to 1 of 3 health topics framed from the perspective of 4 generic messengers: religious figures, doctors, celebrity patients, or ordinary patients. Participants select as many of the 12 articles as desired. A cancer clinic within a large, urban hospital serving a sociodemographically diverse patient population. Eighty-nine patients with a history of cancer. The primary outcome was the frequency with which each news story was selected. Summary statistics and a general estimating equation model. For each health topic, news articles using celebrity messengers were the least likely to be selected; almost half of the participants (36 [41.4%] of 87) rejected all such articles. Articles linked to religious figures were equally unpopular ( P = .59). Articles that used doctors or ordinary patients as the messenger were very likely to be selected: Nearly all women (84 [96.6%] of 87) selected at least one of these. Furthermore, the odds of choosing articles linked to celebrities or religious leaders were statistically significantly lower than the odds of choosing those linked to ordinary patients or doctors ( P < .01). Commonly used generic messengers had large effects on the dissemination of information. Health materials linked to celebrities or religious figures were consistently less likely to be selected than those linked to ordinary patients, or doctors.

  12. Coulomb interactions between cytoplasmic electric fields and phosphorylated messenger proteins optimize information flow in cells.

    PubMed

    Gatenby, Robert A; Frieden, B Roy

    2010-08-11

    Normal cell function requires timely and accurate transmission of information from receptors on the cell membrane (CM) to the nucleus. Movement of messenger proteins in the cytoplasm is thought to be dependent on random walk. However, Brownian motion will disperse messenger proteins throughout the cytosol resulting in slow and highly variable transit times. We propose that a critical component of information transfer is an intracellular electric field generated by distribution of charge on the nuclear membrane (NM). While the latter has been demonstrated experimentally for decades, the role of the consequent electric field has been assumed to be minimal due to a Debye length of about 1 nanometer that results from screening by intracellular Cl- and K+. We propose inclusion of these inorganic ions in the Debye-Huckel equation is incorrect because nuclear pores allow transit through the membrane at a rate far faster than the time to thermodynamic equilibrium. In our model, only the charged, mobile messenger proteins contribute to the Debye length. Using this revised model and published data, we estimate the NM possesses a Debye-Huckel length of a few microns and find this is consistent with recent measurement using intracellular nano-voltmeters. We demonstrate the field will accelerate isolated messenger proteins toward the nucleus through Coulomb interactions with negative charges added by phosphorylation. We calculate transit times as short as 0.01 sec. When large numbers of phosphorylated messenger proteins are generated by increasing concentrations of extracellular ligands, we demonstrate they generate a self-screening environment that regionally attenuates the cytoplasmic field, slowing movement but permitting greater cross talk among pathways. Preliminary experimental results with phosphorylated RAF are consistent with model predictions. This work demonstrates that previously unrecognized Coulomb interactions between phosphorylated messenger proteins and

  13. The gravity field and orientation of Mercury after the MESSENGER mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarico, E.; Genova, A.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    After more than four years in orbit about Mercury, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft impacted the planet's surface north of Shakespeare crater (54.44° N, 210.12° E,) on 30 April 2015. One of the main goals of the mission was to determine the gravity field of Mercury in order to learn about Mercury's interior. Together with ground-based radar measurements of the obliquity and forced librations, MESSENGER-derived gravity models helped revise models of Mercury's interior. Nevertheless, the refinement of Mercury's orientation with the latest data from MESSENGER can further improve the interior modeling of the planet. The last eight months of the mission provided a special opportunity to conduct low-altitude measurements, with extensive radio tracking coverage below 200 km altitude north of ~30°N. MESSENGER's Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) mapped the topography of Mercury's northern hemisphere with a sub-meter vertical precision, an along-track sampling of ~500 m, and a longitudinal resolution (~0.1°) limited by the number of spacecraft orbits (~4,000). The combination of gravity and topography helps determine crustal thickness and interior properties. Altimetric ranges provide geodetic constraints to improve the spacecraft orbit determination, and thus the gravity field model. In particular, whereas the MESSENGER spacecraft was not tracked at each periapsis passage, MLA operated nearly continuously (outside of thermally challenging periods). From an analysis of the entire radiometric and altimetric datasets acquired by MESSENGER, a new gravity field to degree and order 100 has been obtained, resolving features down to ~75 km horizontal scale. The altimetric data help reduce the uncertainties in the determination of the pole position. A reanalysis of the Mercury flybys also constrains the spin rate over the longest available time span.

  14. Mercury's Exosphere During MESSENGER's Second Flyby: Detection of Magnesium and Distinct Distributions of Neutral Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; Killen, Rosemary M.; Mouawad, Nelly; Sprague, Ann L.; Burger, Matthew H.; Solomon, Sean C.; Izenberg, Noam R.

    2009-01-01

    During MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer observed emission from Mercury's neutral exosphere. These observations include the first detection of emission from magnesium. Differing spatial distributions for sodium, calcium, and magnesium were revealed by observations beginning in Mercury's tail region, approximately 8 Mercury radii anti-sunward of the planet, continuing past the nightside, and ending near the dawn terminator. Analysis of these observations, supplemented by observations during the first Mercury flyby as well as those by other MESSENGER instruments, suggests that the distinct spatial distributions arise from a combination of differences in source, transfer, and loss processes.

  15. Micro-ribonucleic acid-binding site variants of type 2 diabetes candidate loci predispose to gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese Han women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Li, Wei; Ma, Liangkun; Ping, Fan; Liu, Juntao; Wu, Xueyan; Mao, Jiangfeng; Wang, Xi; Nie, Min

    2018-01-20

    Emerging evidence has suggested that the genetic background of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was analogous to type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast to type 2 diabetes mellitus, the genetic studies for GDM were limited. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to extensively explore the influence of micro-ribonucleic acid-binding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus candidate loci on GDM susceptibility in Chinese. A total of 839 GDM patients and 900 controls were enrolled. Six micro-ribonucleic acid-binding SNPs were selected from 30 type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility loci and genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. The minor allele of three SNPs, PAX4 rs712699 (OR 1.366, 95% confidence interval 1.021-1.828, P = 0.036), KCNB1 rs1051295 (OR 1.579, 95% confidence interval 1.172-2.128, P = 0.003) and MFN2 rs1042842 (OR 1.398, 95% confidence interval 1.050-1.862, P = 0.022) were identified to significantly confer higher a risk of GDM in the additive model. The association between rs1051295 and increased fasting plasma glucose (b = 0.006, P = 0.008), 3-h oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose (b = 0.058, P = 0.025) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (b = 0.065, P = 0.017) was also shown. Rs1042842 was correlated with higher 3-h oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose (b = 0.056, P = 0.028). However, no significant correlation between the other included SNPs (LPIN1 rs1050800, VPS26A rs1802295 and NLRP3 rs10802502) and GDM susceptibility were observed. The present findings showed that micro-ribonucleic acid-binding SNPs in type 2 diabetes mellitus candidate loci were also associated with GDM susceptibility, which further highlighted the similar genetic basis underlying GDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Students Engaging the Public in Exciting Discoveries by NASA's MESSENGER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallau, K. G.; Morison, J.; Schuele, H.

    2012-12-01

    In March 2011, NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft entered into orbit around Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun. As the first mission to orbit and study Mercury in depth, MESSENGER sought to answer six primary scientific questions: why is Mercury so dense; what is the geologic history of Mercury; what is the nature of Mercury's magnetic field; what is the structure of Mercury's core; what are the unusual materials at Mercury's poles; and what volatiles are important at Mercury? In the first year of orbit, MESSENGER answered all of these questions, and also made several surprising discoveries. Student interns working with the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) team are using MESSENGER Mosaic Postcards (MPC) in both print and digital formats to present this new information to a broad audience. These MPCs, in conjunction with the rest of the MESSENGER EPO tools, present a unified and global resource for the public. By creating this resource in a variety of media, from printable cards to interactive features on the EPO website (http://www.messenger-education.org/), the EPO team can reach a larger audience, further the goal of the MPC project to share newly discovered features and phenomena with the general public, and thereby generate increased interest in and excitement about science and planetary exploration. One side of each MPC shows a MESSENGER image of a portion of Mercury's surface, and together the postcards can be arranged to form a complete image of the planet. On the reverse side of some cards is information pertaining to an item of interest in view on the image-side. One of us (physics undergraduate JEM) researches interesting features on the surface of Mercury and creates descriptions for the informational side of the postcards, and another (computer science undergraduate HCS) creates the digital versions of cards and associated resources for the Surface Interactive, an interactive tool on the MESSENGER EPO website. Postcards already in distribution

  17. 29 CFR 520.410 - How long does a messenger, learner, or apprentice certificate remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certificate remain in effect? 520.410 Section 520.410 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF MESSENGERS... effect? (a) Messenger and/or learner certificates may be issued for a period of not longer than one year...

  18. Corrective Feedback via Instant Messenger Learning Activities in NS-NNS and NNS-NNS Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotillo, Susana

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examines corrective feedback in native speaker-nonnative speaker (NS-NNS) and NNS-NNS dyads while participants were engaged in communicative and problem-solving activities via "Yahoo! Instant Messenger" (YIM). As "negotiation of meaning" studies of the 1990s have shown, linguistic items which learners negotiate in…

  19. MESSENGER soft X-ray observations of the quiet solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Richard A.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Tolbert, Anne K; Dennis, Brian R.

    2014-06-01

    In a remarkable result from their "SphinX" experiment, Sylwester et al. (2012) found a non-varying base level of soft X-ray emission at the quietest times in 2009. We describe comparable data from the soft X-ray monitor on board MESSENGER (en route to Mercury) which had excellent coverage both in 2009 and during the true solar minimum of 2008. These observations overlap SphinX's and also are often exactly at Sun-MESSENGER-Earth conjunctions. During solar minimum the Sun-MESSENGER distance varied substantially, allowing us to use the inverse-square law to help distinguish the aperture flux (ie, solar X-rays) from that due to sources of background in the 2-5 keV range. The MESSENGER data show a non-varying background level for many months in 2008 when no active regions were present. We compare these data in detail with those from SphinX. Both sets of data reveal a different behavior when magnetic active regions are present on the Sun, and when they are not.Reference: Sylwester et al., ApJ 751, 111 (2012)

  20. Mobile Immersion: An Experiment Using Mobile Instant Messenger to Support Second-Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Immersion has been an acclaimed approach for second-language acquisition, but is not available to most students. The idea of this study was to create a mobile immersion environment on a smartphone using a mobile instant messenger, WhatsApp™. Forty-five Form-1 (7th grade) students divided into the Mobile Group and Control Group participated in a…

  1. Integrating Instant Messenger into Online Office Hours to Enhance Synchronous Online Interaction in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lih-Ching, Chen Wang; Beasley, William

    2006-01-01

    Modern communication technologies have modified the tradition of instructor's office hours in numerous ways. This article explores the use of Instant Messenger (IM) software in the context of "online office hours". The authors discuss strengths and weaknesses of IM interactions for instructor/student communication, and examine a sample of such…

  2. Synthesis of Messenger RNA and Chromosome Structure in the Cellular Slime Mold*

    PubMed Central

    Lodish, Harvey F.; Jacobson, Allan; Firtel, Richard; Alton, Tom; Tuchman, Jessica

    1974-01-01

    This paper summarizes our knowledge of the structure and biosynthesis of messenger RNA in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, the arrangement of DNA sequences in the Dictyostelium chromosome, and the changes in the pattern of predominant polypeptides synthesized during Dictyostelium development. Images PMID:4531041

  3. Mercury-arc photolysis: a method for examining second messenger regulation of endothelial cell monolayer integrity.

    PubMed

    Patton, W F; Alexander, J S; Dodge, A B; Patton, R J; Hechtman, H B; Shepro, D

    1991-07-01

    Cell-cell apposition in bovine pulmonary endothelial cell monolayers was modulated by inducing transient increases in intracellular adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and 1,4,5-inositol triphosphate (IP3). This was accomplished by mercury-arc flash photolysis of o-nitrobenzyl derivatives of the second messengers (caged compounds). Second messenger release by the mercury-arc lamp was determined by radioimmunoassay of cAMP to have a t1/2 of approximately 8 min. Each second messenger induced the phosphorylation of a distinct subset of cytoskeletal proteins; however, both IP3 and cAMP increased vimentin phosphorylation. Actin isoform patterns were not altered by the second messengers. Intracellular pulses of IP3 in pulmonary endothelial cells caused disruption of endothelial monolayer integrity as determined by phase-contrast microscopy and by visualization of actin stress fibers with rhodamine-phalloidin. Intracellular pulses of cAMP increased cell-cell contact, cell surface area, and apposition. IP3 appeared to have its greatest effect on the actin peripheral band. In silicone rubber contractility assays this agent caused contraction of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells as visualized by an increase in wrinkles beneath the cells. On the other hand, cAMP appeared to effect both the peripheral band and centralized actin domains. Caged cAMP caused relaxation of endothelial cells as visualized by a disappearance of wrinkles beneath the cells.

  4. 29 CFR 516.30 - Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped workers employed under special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped... handicapped workers employed under special certificates as provided in section 14 of the Act. (a) With respect... education, or handicapped workers employed at special minimum hourly rates under Special Certificates...

  5. 29 CFR 516.30 - Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped workers employed under special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped... handicapped workers employed under special certificates as provided in section 14 of the Act. (a) With respect... education, or handicapped workers employed at special minimum hourly rates under Special Certificates...

  6. 29 CFR 516.30 - Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped workers employed under special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped... handicapped workers employed under special certificates as provided in section 14 of the Act. (a) With respect... education, or handicapped workers employed at special minimum hourly rates under Special Certificates...

  7. 29 CFR 516.30 - Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped workers employed under special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped... handicapped workers employed under special certificates as provided in section 14 of the Act. (a) With respect... education, or handicapped workers employed at special minimum hourly rates under Special Certificates...

  8. 29 CFR 516.30 - Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped workers employed under special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped... handicapped workers employed under special certificates as provided in section 14 of the Act. (a) With respect... education, or handicapped workers employed at special minimum hourly rates under Special Certificates...

  9. Social and Virtual Networks: Evaluating Synchronous Online Interviewing Using Instant Messenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchcliffe, Vanessa; Gavin, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of the quality and utility of synchronous online interviewing for data collection in social network research. Synchronous online interviews facilitated by Instant Messenger as the communication medium, were undertaken with ten final year university students. Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of…

  10. Farm Women, Solidarity, and "The Suffrage Messenger": Nebraska Suffrage Activism on the Plains, 1915-1917

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heider, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In 1914 Nebraska men once again voted against the amendment that would have granted full suffrage to Nebraska women. This article focuses on the three years immediately after that defeat. It explores the remaining seventeen issues of the "Suffrage Messenger" and asks the following question: how did the suffrage newspaper portray and…

  11. Audience and Witnessing: Research into Dramatherapy using Vignettes and aMSN Messenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phil

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the process of research undertaken to examine therapists' responses to the concept of the core processes of change in dramatherapy. The research uses a combination of vignette description and analysis using aMSN messenger. The article describes the theoretical underpinning and rationale to the approach, and the…

  12. The Gravity Field of Mercury After the Messenger Low-Altitude Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gary A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    The final year of the MESSENGER mission was designed to take advantage of the remaining propellant onboard to provide a series of lowaltitude observation campaigns and acquire novel scientific data about the innermost planet. The lower periapsis altitude greatly enhances the sensitivity to the short-wavelength gravity field, but only when the spacecraft is in view of Earth. After more than 3 years in orbit around Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft was tracked for the first time below 200-km altitude on 5 May 2014 by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). Between August and October, periapsis passages down to 25-km altitude were routinely tracked. These periods considerably improved the quality of the data coverage. Before the end of its mission, MESSENGER will fly at very low altitudes for extended periods of time. Given the orbital geometry, however the periapses will not be visible from Earth and so no new tracking data will be available for altitudes lower than 75 km. Nevertheless, the continuous tracking of MESSENGER in the northern hemisphere will help improve the uniformity of the spatial coverage at altitudes lower than 150 km, which will further improve the overall quality of the Mercury gravity field.

  13. Realising effective theories of tribrid inflation: are there effects from messenger fields?

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Max-Planck-Institut für Physik; Nolde, David

    2015-09-22

    Tribrid inflation is a variant of supersymmetric hybrid inflation in which the inflaton is a matter field (which can be charged under gauge symmetries) and inflation ends by a GUT-scale phase transition of a waterfall field. These features make tribrid inflation a promising framework for realising inflation with particularly close connections to particle physics. Superpotentials of tribrid inflation involve effective operators suppressed by some cutoff scale, which is often taken as the Planck scale. However, these operators may also be generated by integrating out messenger superfields with masses below the Planck scale, which is in fact quite common in GUTmore » and/or flavour models. The values of the inflaton field during inflation can then lie above this mass scale, which means that for reliably calculating the model predictions one has to go beyond the effective theory description. We therefore discuss realisations of effective theories of tribrid inflation and specify in which cases effects from the messenger fields are expected, and under which conditions they can safely be neglected. In particular, we point out how to construct realisations where, despite the fact that the inflaton field values are above the messenger mass scale, the predictions for the observables are (to a good approximation) identical to the ones calculated in the effective theory treatment where the messenger mass scale is identified with the (apparent) cutoff scale.« less

  14. Realising effective theories of tribrid inflation: are there effects from messenger fields?

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David, E-mail: stefan.antusch@unibas.ch, E-mail: david.nolde@unibas.ch

    2015-09-01

    Tribrid inflation is a variant of supersymmetric hybrid inflation in which the inflaton is a matter field (which can be charged under gauge symmetries) and inflation ends by a GUT-scale phase transition of a waterfall field. These features make tribrid inflation a promising framework for realising inflation with particularly close connections to particle physics. Superpotentials of tribrid inflation involve effective operators suppressed by some cutoff scale, which is often taken as the Planck scale. However, these operators may also be generated by integrating out messenger superfields with masses below the Planck scale, which is in fact quite common in GUTmore » and/or flavour models. The values of the inflaton field during inflation can then lie above this mass scale, which means that for reliably calculating the model predictions one has to go beyond the effective theory description. We therefore discuss realisations of effective theories of tribrid inflation and specify in which cases effects from the messenger fields are expected, and under which conditions they can safely be neglected. In particular, we point out how to construct realisations where, despite the fact that the inflaton field values are above the messenger mass scale, the predictions for the observables are (to a good approximation) identical to the ones calculated in the effective theory treatment where the messenger mass scale is identified with the (apparent) cutoff scale.« less

  15. Realising effective theories of tribrid inflation: are there effects from messenger fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David

    2015-09-01

    Tribrid inflation is a variant of supersymmetric hybrid inflation in which the inflaton is a matter field (which can be charged under gauge symmetries) and inflation ends by a GUT-scale phase transition of a waterfall field. These features make tribrid inflation a promising framework for realising inflation with particularly close connections to particle physics. Superpotentials of tribrid inflation involve effective operators suppressed by some cutoff scale, which is often taken as the Planck scale. However, these operators may also be generated by integrating out messenger superfields with masses below the Planck scale, which is in fact quite common in GUT and/or flavour models. The values of the inflaton field during inflation can then lie above this mass scale, which means that for reliably calculating the model predictions one has to go beyond the effective theory description. We therefore discuss realisations of effective theories of tribrid inflation and specify in which cases effects from the messenger fields are expected, and under which conditions they can safely be neglected. In particular, we point out how to construct realisations where, despite the fact that the inflaton field values are above the messenger mass scale, the predictions for the observables are (to a good approximation) identical to the ones calculated in the effective theory treatment where the messenger mass scale is identified with the (apparent) cutoff scale.

  16. Mercury Conditions for the MESSENGER Mission Simulated in High- Solar-Radiation Vacuum Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2003-01-01

    The MESSENGER (Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft, planned for launch in March 2004, will perform two flybys of Mercury before entering a year-long orbit of the planet in September 2009. The mission will provide opportunities for detailed characterization of the surface, interior, atmosphere, and magnetosphere of the closest planet to the Sun. The NASA Glenn Research Center and the MESSENGER spacecraft integrator, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, have partnered under a Space Act Agreement to characterize a variety of critical components and materials under simulated conditions expected near Mercury. Glenn's Vacuum Facility 6, which is equipped with a solar simulator, can simulate the vacuum and high solar radiation anticipated in Mercury orbit. The MESSENGER test hardware includes a variety of materials and components that are being characterized during the Tank 6 vacuum tests, where the hardware will be exposed to up to 11 suns insolation, simulating conditions expected in Mercury orbit. In 2002, ten solar vacuum tests were conducted, including beginning of life, end of life, backside exposure, and solar panel thermal shock cycling tests. Components tested include candidate solar array panels, sensors, thermal shielding materials, and communication devices. As an example, for the solar panel thermal shock cycling test, two candidate solar array panels were suspended on a lift mechanism that lowered the panels into a liquid-nitrogen-cooled box. After reaching -140 C, the panels were then lifted out of the box and exposed to the equivalent of 6 suns (8.1 kilowatts per square meters). After five cold soak/heating cycles were completed successfully, there was no apparent degradation in panel performance. An anticipated 100-hr thermal shield life test is planned for autumn, followed by solar panel flight qualification tests in winter. Glenn's ongoing support to the MESSENGER program has been instrumental in

  17. Expression of messenger RNAs encoding ionotropic glutamate receptors in rat brain: regulation by haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Brené, S; Messer, C; Nestler, E J

    1998-06-01

    In situ hybridization was used to study the regional distribution of messenger RNAs encoding ionotropic glutamate receptor subtypes in the rat brain's dopaminergic cell body regions and their forebrain projection areas. Short oligonucleotide probes specific for the messenger RNAs encoding the flip or flop splice forms of the GluR1 and GluR2 AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate) receptor subunits, or for the messenger RNAs encoding the N-methyl-D-aspartate R1 subunit, were used. Significant differences were seen in the relative messenger RNA levels, and the distribution of the flip and flop splice forms, of GluR1 and GluR2. In the dopaminergic cell groups of the substantia nigra pars compacta and the ventral tegmental area, the flip form of both GluR1 and GluR2 dominated over the flop form. Similarly, in the core division of the nucleus accumbens, GluR1 and GluR2 flip forms dominated over the flop forms. In contrast, in the accumbens shell, the GluR1 and GluR2 flop forms dominated over the flip forms. As a comparison to the AMPA receptor subunits, N-methyl-D-aspartate R1 messenger RNA was relatively evenly distributed in all the regions analysed. The results demonstrate a heterogeneous distribution of the flip and flop splice forms of GluR1 and GluR2 in the brain's dopaminergic pathways, which could contribute to physiological differences in regulation of the pathways by glutamatergic neurotransmission. We also studied regulation of glutamate receptor subunit expression in these regions by antipsychotic drugs, based on previous reports of altered levels of subunit immunoreactivity after drug treatment. Chronic administration of the typical antipsychotic drug, haloperidol, caused a small but significant induction of GluR2 flip messenger RNA in the dorsolateral caudate putamen. This effect was not seen after chronic administration of the atypical antipsychotic drug, clozapine. Significant drug regulation of the other glutamate receptor subunits

  18. WhatsApp Messenger as an Adjunctive Tool for Telemedicine: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background The advent of telemedicine has allowed physicians to deliver medical treatment to patients from a distance. Mobile apps such as WhatsApp Messenger, an instant messaging service, came as a novel concept in all fields of social life, including medicine. The use of instant messaging services has been shown to improve communication within medical teams by providing means for quick teleconsultation, information sharing, and starting treatment as soon as possible. Objective The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive systematic review of present literature on the use of the WhatsApp Messenger app as an adjunctive health care tool for medical doctors. Methods Searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library using the term “whatsapp*” in articles published before January 2016. A bibliography of all relevant original articles that used the WhatsApp Messenger app was created. The level of evidence of each study was determined according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence ranking system produced by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The impact and the indications of WhatsApp Messenger are discussed in order to understand the extent to which this app currently functions as an adjunctive tool for telemedicine. Results The database search identified a total of 30 studies in which the term “whatsapp*” was used. Each article’s list of references was evaluated item-by-item. After literature reviews, letters to the editor, and low-quality studies were excluded, a total of 10 studies were found to be eligible for inclusion. Of these studies, 9 had been published in the English language and 1 had been published in Spanish. Five were published by medical doctors. Conclusions The pooled data presents compelling evidence that the WhatsApp Messenger app is a promising system, whether used as a communication tool between health care professionals, as a means of communication between health care professionals and the general public

  19. WhatsApp Messenger as an Adjunctive Tool for Telemedicine: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Koch, Hilton; Godoy-Santos, Alexandre; Dias Belangero, William; Esteves Santos Pires, Robinson; Labronici, Pedro

    2017-07-21

    The advent of telemedicine has allowed physicians to deliver medical treatment to patients from a distance. Mobile apps such as WhatsApp Messenger, an instant messaging service, came as a novel concept in all fields of social life, including medicine. The use of instant messaging services has been shown to improve communication within medical teams by providing means for quick teleconsultation, information sharing, and starting treatment as soon as possible. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive systematic review of present literature on the use of the WhatsApp Messenger app as an adjunctive health care tool for medical doctors. Searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library using the term "whatsapp*" in articles published before January 2016. A bibliography of all relevant original articles that used the WhatsApp Messenger app was created. The level of evidence of each study was determined according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence ranking system produced by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The impact and the indications of WhatsApp Messenger are discussed in order to understand the extent to which this app currently functions as an adjunctive tool for telemedicine. The database search identified a total of 30 studies in which the term "whatsapp*" was used. Each article's list of references was evaluated item-by-item. After literature reviews, letters to the editor, and low-quality studies were excluded, a total of 10 studies were found to be eligible for inclusion. Of these studies, 9 had been published in the English language and 1 had been published in Spanish. Five were published by medical doctors. The pooled data presents compelling evidence that the WhatsApp Messenger app is a promising system, whether used as a communication tool between health care professionals, as a means of communication between health care professionals and the general public, or as a learning tool for providing health care information

  20. Astronomy's New Messengers: A traveling exhibit to reach out to a young adult audience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaglià, Marco; Hendry, Martin; Márka, Szabolcs; Reitze, David H.; Riles, Keith

    2010-05-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory exhibit Astronomy's New Messengers: Listening to the Universe with Gravitational Waves is traveling to colleges, universities, museums and other public institutions throughout the United States. In 2010, an extended version of this exhibit will appear in a New York City venue that is accessible to a large and diverse cross section of the general public. Astronomy's New Messengers primarily communicates with an adolescent and young adult audience, potentially inspiring them into the field of science. Acknowledging that this audience is traditionally a difficult one to attract, the exhibit publicly announces itself in a charismatic fashion to reach its principal goals of broadening the community of people interested in science and encouraging interest in science among young people.

  1. Polarimetry of X-rays and messengers of High Energy phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, E.

    2017-05-01

    Astrophysics of High Energies has been historically based on radio, X-ray and γ -ray data. Understanding the mechanism and the site of acceleration of Cosmic Rays, has been probably the most important goal of this discipline. Recently high energy neutrinos and gravitational waves have shown up as new messengers and we expect a major role from X-ray observations, to understand the nature and location of the emitters. In fact X-rays have been for more than half a century the driver to study the Violent Universe. Yet one feature of this messengers, the Polarimetry, is still totally unexploited. Within a few years, a mission will add two important parameters to understand the physical context of high energy phenomena, namely the amount and angle of X-ray polarimetry.

  2. Expected Geochemical and Mineralogical Properties of Meteorites from Mercury: Inferences from Messenger Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, F. M.; McCoy, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Meteorites from the Moon, Mars, and many types of asteroid bodies have been identified among our global inventory of meteorites, however samples of Mercury and Venus have not been identified. The absence of mercurian and venusian meteorites could be attributed to an inability to recognize them in our collections due to a paucity of geochemical information for Venus and Mercury. In the case of mercurian meteorites, this possibility is further supported by dynamical calculations that suggest mercurian meteorites should be present on Earth at a factor of 2-3 less than meteorites from Mars [1]. In the present study, we focus on the putative mineralogy of mercurian meteorites using data obtained from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, which has provided us with our first quantitative constraints on the geochemistry of planet Mercury. We have used the MESSENGER data to compile a list of mineralogical and geochemical characteristics that a meteorite from Mercury is likely to exhibit.

  3. Evidence for young volcanism on Mercury from the third MESSENGER flyby.

    PubMed

    Prockter, Louise M; Ernst, Carolyn M; Denevi, Brett W; Chapman, Clark R; Head, James W; Fassett, Caleb I; Merline, William J; Solomon, Sean C; Watters, Thomas R; Strom, Robert G; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marchi, Simone; Massironi, Matteo

    2010-08-06

    During its first two flybys of Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft acquired images confirming that pervasive volcanism occurred early in the planet's history. MESSENGER's third Mercury flyby revealed a 290-kilometer-diameter peak-ring impact basin, among the youngest basins yet seen, having an inner floor filled with spectrally distinct smooth plains. These plains are sparsely cratered, postdate the formation of the basin, apparently formed from material that once flowed across the surface, and are therefore interpreted to be volcanic in origin. An irregular depression surrounded by a halo of bright deposits northeast of the basin marks a candidate explosive volcanic vent larger than any previously identified on Mercury. Volcanism on the planet thus spanned a considerable duration, perhaps extending well into the second half of solar system history.

  4. Return to Mercury: a global perspective on MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Sean C; McNutt, Ralph L; Watters, Thomas R; Lawrence, David J; Feldman, William C; Head, James W; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Murchie, Scott L; Phillips, Roger J; Slavin, James A; Zuber, Maria T

    2008-07-04

    In January 2008, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft became the first probe to fly past the planet Mercury in 33 years. The encounter revealed that Mercury is a dynamic system; its liquid iron-rich outer core is coupled through a dominantly dipolar magnetic field to the surface, exosphere, and magnetosphere, all of which interact with the solar wind. MESSENGER images confirm that lobate scarps are the dominant tectonic landform and record global contraction associated with cooling of the planet. The history of contraction can be related to the history of volcanism and cratering, and the total contractional strain is at least one-third greater than inferred from Mariner 10 images. On the basis of measurements of thermal neutrons made during the flyby, the average abundance of iron in Mercury's surface material is less than 6% by weight.

  5. Changes in hepatic levels of tyrosine aminotransferase messenger RNA during induction by hydrocortisone. [Xenopus laevis

    SciTech Connect

    Nickol, J.M.; Lee, K.L.; Kenney, F.T.

    Messenger RNA specific for tyrosine aminotransferase was quantitated by microinjection into oocytes of Xenopus laevis. The heterologously translated enzyme was identified by specific immunoprecipitation and found to be identical with authentic aminotransferase by several criteria. The level of functional message present in rat liver increases during hydrocortisone induction, and this increase is directly proportional to the increased rate of synthesis of the enzyme. Kinetic analysis of the changes in tyrosine aminotransferase mRNA levels during induction and withdrawal indicates that the steroid does not affect the stability of the message, which has a half-life of approximately 1.2 h. Hydrocortisone, therefore, actsmore » to increase the rate of synthesis of the specific messenger by stimulating either its transcription or processing to functional mRNA.« less

  6. Planetary science. Low-altitude magnetic field measurements by MESSENGER reveal Mercury's ancient crustal field.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Catherine L; Phillips, Roger J; Purucker, Michael E; Anderson, Brian J; Byrne, Paul K; Denevi, Brett W; Feinberg, Joshua M; Hauck, Steven A; Head, James W; Korth, Haje; James, Peter B; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Philpott, Lydia C; Siegler, Matthew A; Tsyganenko, Nikolai A; Solomon, Sean C

    2015-05-22

    Magnetized rocks can record the history of the magnetic field of a planet, a key constraint for understanding its evolution. From orbital vector magnetic field measurements of Mercury taken by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft at altitudes below 150 kilometers, we have detected remanent magnetization in Mercury's crust. We infer a lower bound on the average age of magnetization of 3.7 to 3.9 billion years. Our findings indicate that a global magnetic field driven by dynamo processes in the fluid outer core operated early in Mercury's history. Ancient field strengths that range from those similar to Mercury's present dipole field to Earth-like values are consistent with the magnetic field observations and with the low iron content of Mercury's crust inferred from MESSENGER elemental composition data. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. MESSENGER observations of Mercury's exosphere: detection of magnesium and distribution of constituents.

    PubMed

    McClintock, William E; Vervack, Ronald J; Bradley, E Todd; Killen, Rosemary M; Mouawad, Nelly; Sprague, Ann L; Burger, Matthew H; Solomon, Sean C; Izenberg, Noam R

    2009-05-01

    Mercury is surrounded by a tenuous exosphere that is supplied primarily by the planet's surface materials and is known to contain sodium, potassium, and calcium. Observations by the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer during MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby revealed the presence of neutral magnesium in the tail (anti-sunward) region of the exosphere, as well as differing spatial distributions of magnesium, calcium, and sodium atoms in both the tail and the nightside, near-planet exosphere. Analysis of these observations, supplemented by observations during the first Mercury flyby, as well as those by other MESSENGER instruments, suggests that the distinct spatial distributions arise from a combination of differences in source, transfer, and loss processes.

  8. MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Loading and Unloading of Mercury's Magnetic Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, a series of 2-3 minute long enhancements of the magnetic field in the planet's magnetotail were observed. Magnetospheric substorms at Earth are powered by similar tail loading, but the amplitude is approximately 10 times less and the durations are 1 hr. These observations of extreme loading imply that the relative intensity of substorms at Mercury must be much larger than at Earth. The correspondence between the duration of tail enhancements and the calculated approximately 2 min Dungey cycle, which describes plasma circulation through Mercury's magnetosphere, suggests that such circulation determines substorm timescale. A key aspect of tail unloading during terrestrial substorms is the acceleration of energetic charged particles. Such signatures are puzzlingly absent from the MESSENGER flyby measurements.

  9. MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Loading and Unloading of Mercury's Magnetic Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the magnetic field in the planet's magnetotail increased by factors of 2 to 3.5 over intervals of 2 to 3 min. Magnetospheric substorms at Earth are powered by similar tail loading, but the amplitude is approx.10 times less and typical durations are approx.1 hour. The extreme tail loading observed at Mercury implies that the relative intensity of sub storms must be much larger than at Earth. The correspondence between the duration of tail field enhancements and the characteristic time for the Dungey cycle, which describes plasma circulation through Mercury's magnetosphere. suggests that such circulation determines substorm timescale. A key aspect of tail unloading during terrestrial substorms is the acceleration of energetic charged particles, but no acceleration signatures were seen during the MESSENGER flyby.

  10. Emotion elicitor or emotion messenger? Subliminal priming reveals two faces of facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Ruys, Kirsten I; Stapel, Diederik A

    2008-06-01

    Facial emotional expressions can serve both as emotional stimuli and as communicative signals. The research reported here was conducted to illustrate how responses to both roles of facial emotional expressions unfold over time. As an emotion elicitor, a facial emotional expression (e.g., a disgusted face) activates a response that is similar to responses to other emotional stimuli of the same valence (e.g., a dirty, nonflushed toilet). As an emotion messenger, the same facial expression (e.g., a disgusted face) serves as a communicative signal by also activating the knowledge that the sender is experiencing a specific emotion (e.g., the sender feels disgusted). By varying the duration of exposure to disgusted, fearful, angry, and neutral faces in two subliminal-priming studies, we demonstrated that responses to faces as emotion elicitors occur prior to responses to faces as emotion messengers, and that both types of responses may unfold unconsciously.

  11. 3',5'-cIMP as Potential Second Messenger in the Vascular Wall.

    PubMed

    Leung, Susan W S; Gao, Yuansheng; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, only the 3',5'-cyclic monophosphates of adenosine and guanosine (produced by adenylyl cyclase and guanylyl cyclase, respectively) are regarded as true "second messengers" in the vascular wall, despite the presence of other cyclic nucleotides in different tissues. Among these noncanonical cyclic nucleotides, inosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cIMP) is synthesized by soluble guanylyl cyclase in porcine coronary arteries in response to hypoxia, when the enzyme is activated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Its production is associated with augmentation of vascular contraction mediated by stimulation of Rho kinase. Based on these findings, cIMP appears to meet most, if not all, of the criteria required for it to be accepted as a "second messenger," at least in the vascular wall.

  12. Is the Pharmacological Mode of Action of Chromium(III) as a Second Messenger?

    PubMed

    Vincent, John B

    2015-07-01

    Although recent studies have shown that chromium (as the trivalent ion) is not an essential trace element, it has been demonstrated to generate beneficial effects at pharmacologically relevant doses on insulin sensitivity and cholesterol levels of rodent models of insulin insensitivity, including models of type 2 diabetes. The mode of action of Cr(III) at a molecular level is still an area of active debate; however, the movement of Cr(III) in the body, particularly in response to changes in insulin concentration, suggests that Cr(III) could act as a second messenger, amplifying insulin signaling. The evidence for the pharmacological mechanism of Cr(III)'s ability to increase insulin sensitivity by acting as a second messenger is reviewed, and proposals for testing this hypothesis are described.

  13. Riboswitches in eubacteria sense the second messenger c-di-AMP

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, James W.; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Weinberg, Zasha; Wang, Joy X.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a recently discovered bacterial second messenger implicated in the control of cell wall metabolism, osmotic stress responses, and sporulation. However, the mechanisms by which c-di-AMP triggers these physiological responses have remained largely unknown. Intriguingly, a candidate riboswitch class called ydaO associates with numerous genes involved in these same processes. Although a representative ydaO motif RNA recently was reported to weakly bind ATP, we report that numerous members of this noncoding RNA class selectively respond to c-di-AMP with sub-nanomolar affinity. Our findings resolve the mystery regarding the primary ligand for this extremely common riboswitch class and expose a major portion of the super-regulon of genes that are controlled by the widespread bacterial second messenger c-di-AMP. PMID:24141192

  14. Global Distribution of Mercury's Neutrals from MESSENGER Measurements Combined with a Tomographic Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; McClintock, Bill; Vervack, Ron, Jr.; Killen, Rosemary; Merkel, Aimee; Slavin, James; Solomon, Sean C.

    2011-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) onboard this spacecraft has been observing Mercury's collisionless exosphere. We present measurements by MESSENGER UVVS of the sodium, calcium, and magnesium distributions that were obtained during multiple passes through the tail over a period of one month. Global maps of the exosphere were constructed daily from such measurements using a recently developed tomographic technique. During this period, Mercury moved towards the Sun from being about 0.44 astronomical units (AU) to approximately 0.32 AU from the Sun. Hence, our reconstructions provide information about the three-dimensional structure of the exosphere, the source processes for these species, and their dependence with orbital distance during the entire in-leg of Mercury's orbit.

  15. Defective control of pre–messenger RNA splicing in human disease

    PubMed Central

    Shkreta, Lulzim

    2016-01-01

    Examples of associations between human disease and defects in pre–messenger RNA splicing/alternative splicing are accumulating. Although many alterations are caused by mutations in splicing signals or regulatory sequence elements, recent studies have noted the disruptive impact of mutated generic spliceosome components and splicing regulatory proteins. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of how the altered splicing function of RNA-binding proteins contributes to myelodysplastic syndromes, cancer, and neuropathologies. PMID:26728853

  16. High-Resolution Topography of Mercury from Messenger Orbital Stereo Imaging - the Southern Hemisphere Quadrangles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusker, F.; Oberst, J.; Stark, A.; Burmeister, S.

    2018-04-01

    We produce high-resolution (222 m/grid element) Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) for Mercury using stereo images from the MESSENGER orbital mission. We have developed a scheme to process large numbers, typically more than 6000, images by photogrammetric techniques, which include, multiple image matching, pyramid strategy, and bundle block adjustments. In this paper, we present models for map quadrangles of the southern hemisphere H11, H12, H13, and H14.

  17. Comparison of MESSENGER Optical Images with Thermal and Radar Data for the Surface of MERCURY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewett, D. T.; Coman, E. I.; Chabot, N. L.; Izenberg, N. R.; Harmon, J. K.; Neish, C.

    2010-12-01

    Images collected by the MESSENGER spacecraft during its three Mercury flybys cover nearly the entire surface of the planet that was not imaged by Mariner 10. The MESSENGER data now allow us to observe features at optical wavelengths that were previously known only through remote sensing in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. For example, the Mariner 10 infrared (IR) radiometer made measurements along a track on the night side of Mercury during the spacecraft's first encounter in 1974. Analysis of the IR radiometer data identified several thermal anomalies that we have correlated to craters with extensive rays or ejecta deposits, including Xiao Zhao and Eminescu. The thermal properties are consistent with a greater exposure of bare rock (exposed in steep walls or as boulders and cobbles) in and around these craters compared with the lower-thermal-inertia, finer-grained regolith of the surrounding older surface. The portion of Mercury not viewed by Mariner 10 has also been imaged by Earth-based radar. The radar backscatter gives information on the wavelength-scale surface roughness. Arecibo S-band (12.6-cm wavelength) radar observations have produced images of Eminescu and also revealed two spectacular rayed craters (Debussy and Hokusai) that have since been imaged by MESSENGER. We are examining radial profiles for these craters, extracted from both the radar images and MESSENGER narrow-angle camera mosaics, that extend from the crater center outwards to a distance of several crater diameters. Comparison of optical and radar profiles for the craters, as well as similar profiles for lunar craters, can provide insight into ejecta deposition, the effect of surface gravity on the cratering process, and space weathering.

  18. Control of a Salmonella virulence locus by an ATP-sensing leader messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jin; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2012-06-13

    The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica resides within a membrane-bound compartment inside macrophages. This compartment must be acidified for Salmonella to survive within macrophages, possibly because acidic pH promotes expression of Salmonella virulence proteins. We reasoned that Salmonella might sense its surroundings have turned acidic not only upon protonation of the extracytoplasmic domain of a protein sensor but also by an increase in cytosolic ATP levels, because conditions that enhance the proton gradient across the bacterial inner membrane stimulate ATP synthesis. Here we report that an increase in cytosolic ATP promotes transcription of the coding region for the virulence gene mgtC, which is the most highly induced horizontally acquired gene when Salmonella is inside macrophages. This transcript is induced both upon media acidification and by physiological conditions that increase ATP levels independently of acidification. ATP is sensed by the coupling/uncoupling of transcription of the unusually long mgtC leader messenger RNA and translation of a short open reading frame located in this region. A mutation in the mgtC leader messenger RNA that eliminates the response to ATP hinders mgtC expression inside macrophages and attenuates Salmonella virulence in mice. Our results define a singular example of an ATP-sensing leader messenger RNA. Moreover, they indicate that pathogens can interpret extracellular cues by the impact they have on cellular metabolites.

  19. Monte Carlo Modeling of Sodium in Mercury's Exosphere During the First Two MESSENGER Flybys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; McClintock, William E.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Mouawad, Nelly

    2010-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model of the distribution of neutral sodium in Mercury's exosphere and tail using data from the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft during the first two flybys of the planet in January and September 2008. We show that the dominant source mechanism for ejecting sodium from the surface is photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and that the desorption rate is limited by the diffusion rate of sodium from the interior of grains in the regolith to the topmost few monolayers where PSD is effective. In the absence of ion precipitation, we find that the sodium source rate is limited to approximately 10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) per square centimeter per second, depending on the sticking efficiency of exospheric sodium that returns to the surface. The diffusion rate must be at least a factor of 5 higher in regions of ion precipitation to explain the MASCS observations during the second MESSENGER f1yby. We estimate that impact vaporization of micrometeoroids may provide up to 15% of the total sodium source rate in the regions observed. Although sputtering by precipitating ions was found not to be a significant source of sodium during the MESSENGER flybys, ion precipitation is responsible for increasing the source rate at high latitudes through ion-enhanced diffusion.

  20. Optimal and fast E/B separation with a dual messenger field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodi Ramanah, Doogesh; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-05-01

    We adapt our recently proposed dual messenger algorithm for spin field reconstruction and showcase its efficiency and effectiveness in Wiener filtering polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps. Unlike conventional preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) solvers, our preconditioner-free technique can deal with high-resolution joint temperature and polarization maps with inhomogeneous noise distributions and arbitrary mask geometries with relative ease. Various convergence diagnostics illustrate the high quality of the dual messenger reconstruction. In contrast, the PCG implementation fails to converge to a reasonable solution for the specific problem considered. The implementation of the dual messenger method is straightforward and guarantees numerical stability and convergence. We show how the algorithm can be modified to generate fluctuation maps, which, combined with the Wiener filter solution, yield unbiased constrained signal realizations, consistent with observed data. This algorithm presents a pathway to exact global analyses of high-resolution and high-sensitivity CMB data for a statistically optimal separation of E and B modes. It is therefore relevant for current and next-generation CMB experiments, in the quest for the elusive primordial B-mode signal.

  1. RoboOligo: software for mass spectrometry data to support manual and de novo sequencing of post-transcriptionally modified ribonucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Sample, Paul J.; Gaston, Kirk W.; Alfonzo, Juan D.; Limbach, Patrick A.

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA), transfer RNA and other biological or synthetic RNA polymers can contain nucleotides that have been modified by the addition of chemical groups. Traditional Sanger sequencing methods cannot establish the chemical nature and sequence of these modified-nucleotide containing oligomers. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become the conventional approach for determining the nucleotide composition, modification status and sequence of modified RNAs. Modified RNAs are analyzed by MS using collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID MS/MS), which produces a complex dataset of oligomeric fragments that must be interpreted to identify and place modified nucleosides within the RNA sequence. Here we report the development of RoboOligo, an interactive software program for the robust analysis of data generated by CID MS/MS of RNA oligomers. There are three main functions of RoboOligo: (i) automated de novo sequencing via the local search paradigm. (ii) Manual sequencing with real-time spectrum labeling and cumulative intensity scoring. (iii) A hybrid approach, coined ‘variable sequencing’, which combines the user intuition of manual sequencing with the high-throughput sampling of automated de novo sequencing. PMID:25820423

  2. A Blood-based Test for the Detection of ROS1 and RET Fusion Transcripts from Circulating Ribonucleic Acid Using Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Mellert, Hestia S.; Alexander, Kristin E.; Jackson, Leisa P.; Pestano, Gary A.

    2018-01-01

    We have developed novel methods for the isolation and characterization of tumor-derived circulating ribonucleic acid (cRNA) for blood-based liquid biopsy. Robust detection of cRNA recovered from blood represents a solution to a critical unmet need in clinical diagnostics. The test begins with the collection of whole blood into blood collection tubes containing preservatives that stabilize cRNA. Cell-free, exosomal, and platelet-associated RNA is isolated from plasma in this test system. The cRNA is reverse transcribed to complementary DNA (cDNA) and amplified using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR). Samples are evaluated for both the target biomarker as well as a control gene. Test validation included limit of detection, accuracy, and robustness studies with analytic samples. The method developed as a result of these studies reproducibly detect multiple fusion variants for ROS1 (C-Ros proto-oncogene 1; 8 variants) and RET (rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene; 8 variants). The sample processing workflow has been optimized so that test results can consistently be generated within 72 hours of sample receipt. PMID:29683453

  3. Performance Assessment of the Mercury Laser Altimeter on MESSENGER from Mercury Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Edward M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of seven instruments on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft,a mission in NASA's Discovery Program. MESSENGER was launched on August 3, 2004, and entered into orbit about Mercury on March 29, 2011. As of June 30, 2011 MLA started to collect science Measurements on March 29, 2011. As of June 30, 2011 MLA had accumulated about 3 million laser ranging measurements to the Mercury surface through one Mercury year, i.e ., one complete cycle of the spacecraft thermal environment. The average MLA laser output-pulse energy remained steady despite the harsh thermal environment, in which the laser bench temperature changed by as much as 15 C over a 35 min operating period . The laser beam-collimating telescope experienced a 30 C temperature swing over the same period, and the thermal cycling repeated every 12 hours. Nonetheless, MLA receiver optics appeared to be aligned and in focus throughout these temperature excursions. The maximum ranging distance of MLA was 1500 km at near-zero laser-beam incidence angle (and emission angle) and 600 km at 60 deg incidence angle. The MLA instrument performance in Mercury orbit has been consistent with the performance demonstrated during MESSENGER's Mercury flybys in January and October 2008 and during pre-launch testing. In addition to range measurements, MLA data are being used to estimate the surface reflectance of Mercury at 1064 nm wavelength, including regions of permanent shadow on the floors of polar craters. MLA also provides a measurement of the surface reflectance of sunlight at 1064 nm wavelength by its noise counters, for which output is a monotonic function of the background light.

  4. Mercury's Internal Magnetic Field: Results from MESSENGER's Search for Remanent Crustal Magnetization Associated with Impact Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purucker, M. E.; Johnson, C. L.; Nicholas, J. B.; Philpott, L. C.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.; Head, J. W., III; Phillips, R. J.; Solomon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic field measurements obtained by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft in orbit around Mercury have entered a new phase since April 2014, with periapsis altitudes below 200 km. MESSENGER is now obtaining magnetic profiles across large impact features at altitudes less than the horizontal scale of those features. We use data from this latest phase to investigate evidence for remanent crustal magnetization specifically associated with impact basins and large craters. The spatial resolution of magnetic field measurements for investigating crustal magnetization is approximately equal to the altitude of the observations. We focus on large impact features because their relative ages provide a powerful chronological tool for interpreting any associated magnetic signatures. We examine profiles across large impact basins such as Caloris, Shakespeare, Budh-Sobkou and Goethe. For example, coverage over Caloris during the last year of the mission will be largely at night and will comprise 18 profiles with altitudes between 125 and 200 km and 12 profiles with altitudes between 50 and 125 km over the northern part of the basin. We use large-scale magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data to remove contributions from the offset axial dipole, magnetopause, and magnetotail. The residual magnetic fields above 200 km are still dominated by poorly understood magnetospheric fields such as those from the cusp and from Birkeland currents. We empirically average, or exclude observations from these local times, in order to search for repeatable internal field signals. We use local basis functions such as equivalent source dipoles, applied with regularization tools, in order to map the altitude-normalized magnetic field from internal sources. These internal sources may comprise both crustal and core contributions, and we use the information from the along-track magnetic gradient in order to separate these contributions.

  5. Parecoxib Increases Blood Pressure Through Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 Messenger RNA in an Experimental Model.

    PubMed

    Vértiz-Hernández, Ángel Antonio; Martínez-Morales, Flavio; Valle-Aguilera, Roberto; López-Sánchez, Pedro; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Pérez-Urizar, José

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors have been developed to alleviate pain and inflammation; however, the use of a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor is associated with mild edema, hypertension, and cardiovascular risk. To evaluate, in an experimental model in normotensive rats, the effect of treatment with parecoxib in comparison with diclofenac and aspirin and L-NAME, a non-selective nitric oxide synthetase, on mean arterial blood pressure, and cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 messenger RNA and protein expression in aortic tissue. Rats were treated for seven days with parecoxib (10 mg/kg/day), diclofenac (3.2 mg/kg/day), aspirin (10 mg/kg/day), or L-NAME (10 mg/kg/day). Mean arterial blood pressure was evaluated in rat tail; cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 were evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis in aortic tissue. Parecoxib and L-NAME, but not aspirin and diclofenac, increased mean arterial blood pressure by about 50% (p < 0.05) without changes in cardiac frequency. Messenger RNA cyclooxygenase-1 expression in aortic tissue was not modified with any drug (p < 0.05). L-NAME and parecoxib treatment decreased messenger RNA cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 (p < 0.05). While cyclooxygenase-1 protein decreased with the three drugs tested but not with L-NAME (p < 0.05), the cyclooxygenase-2 protein decreased only with aspirin and parecoxib (p < 0.05). Parecoxib increases the blood pressure of normotensive rats by the suppression of COX-2 gene expression, which apparently induced cardiovascular control.

  6. The MESSENGER Earth Flyby: Results from the Mercury Dual Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, L. M.; Murchie, S. L.; Hawkins, S. E.; Robinson, M. S.; Shelton, R. G.; Vaughan, R. M.; Solomon, S. C.

    2005-12-01

    The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., on 3 August 2004. It returned to Earth for a gravity assist on 2 August 2005, providing an exceptional opportunity for the Science Team to perform instrument calibrations and to test some of the data acquisition sequences that will be used to meet Mercury science goals. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS), one of seven science instruments on MESSENGER, consists of a wide-angle and a narrow-angle imager that together can map landforms, track variations in surface color, and carry out stereogrammetry. The two imagers are mounted on a pivot platform that enables the instrument to point in a different direction from the spacecraft boresight, allowing great flexibility and increased imaging coverage. During the week prior to the closest approach to Earth, MDIS acquired a number of images of the Moon for radiometric calibration and to test optical navigation sequences that will be used to target planetary flybys. Twenty-four hours before closest approach, images of the Earth were acquired with 11 filters of the wide-angle camera. After MDIS flew over the nightside of the Earth, additional color images centered on South America were obtained at sufficiently high resolution to discriminate small-scale features such as the Amazon River and Lake Titicaca. During its departure from Earth, MDIS acquired a sequence of images taken in three filters every 4 minutes over a period of 24 hours. These images have been assembled into a movie of a crescent Earth that begins as South America slides across the terminator into darkness and continues for one full Earth rotation. This movie and the other images have provided a successful test of the sequences that will be used during the MESSENGER Mercury flybys in 2008 and 2009 and have demonstrated the high quality of the MDIS wide-angle camera.

  7. MESSENGER Searches for Less Abundant or Weakly Emitting Species in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; McClintock, William E.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Burger, Matthew H.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2011-01-01

    Mercury's exosphere is composed of material that originates at the planet's surface, whether that material is native or delivered by the solar wind and micrometeoroids. Many exospheric species have been detected by remote sensing, including H and He by Mariner 10, Na, K, and Ca by ground-based observations, and H, Na, Ca, Mg, and Ca+ by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Other exospheric species, including Fe, AI, Si, 0, S, Mn, CI, Ti, OH, and their ions, are expected to be present on the basis of MESSENGER surface measurements and models of Mercury's surface chemistry. Here we report on searches for these species made with the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) channel of the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS). No obvious signatures of the listed species have yet been observed in Mercury's exosphere by the UVVS as of this writing. It is possible that detections are elusive because the optimum regions of the exosphere have not been sampled. The Sun-avoidance constraints on MESSENGER place tight limits on instrument boresight directions, and some regions are probed infrequently. If there are strong spatial gradients in the distribution of weakly emitting species, a high-resolution sampling of specific regions may be required to detect them. Summing spectra over time will also aid in the ability to detect weaker emission. Observations to date nonetheless permit strong upper limits to be placed on the abundances of many undetected species, in some cases as functions of time and space. As those limits are lowered with time, the absence of detections can provide insight into surface composition and the potential source mechanisms of exospheric material.

  8. Mercury's gravity field, orientation, and ephemeris after MESSENGER's Low-Altitude Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander J.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-04-01

    In April 2015, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft will complete more than 4 years of operations in orbit around Mercury. In its last year, as part of MESSENGER's Second Extended Mission (XM2) started in March 2013, the spacecraft has been collecting radio tracking data at unprecedented low altitudes in Mercury's northern hemisphere. During the first two years in orbit, the spacecraft periapsis altitude was kept between 200 and 500 km, while its location drifted slowly northward from 60˚N to 84˚N. The orbital period initially was 12 h, but it was decreased to 8 h in April 2012. The remaining fuel onboard the spacecraft enabled two extended missions, the last of which will end with an impact expected on or before 28 April 2015. During the second extended mission, the periapsis altitude has been as low as 15-25 km. NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) tracked the spacecraft during periapsis passages from April to October 2014, when the spacecraft periapsis altitude was between 25 and 100 km. In the last six months of the mission, the closest approaches of MESSENGER were occulted by Mercury and were thus not visible from Earth. However, additional radio tracking data have been collected at altitudes (75-100 km) that are still substantially below the initial periapsis altitude. The new low-altitude radio tracking data have enabled an updated model of the gravity field of Mercury. With these data, the resolution of the field in the northern hemisphere has been improved, revealing features that were previously undetectable and that correlate well with topography. The zonal harmonics are in good agreement with those in previous models of the gravity field. We also focused our study on the determination of other geophysical parameters, such as the orientation of Mercury. The new data were acquired not only at lower altitudes but also at latitudes closer to the equator, so they provide important information on tides, the

  9. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Fast Transients. Multi-wavelength Observations and Multi-messenger Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willingale, R.; Mészáros, P.

    2017-07-01

    The current status of observations and theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts and some other related transients, including ultra-long bursts and tidal disruption events, is reviewed. We consider the impact of multi-wavelength data on the formulation and development of theoretical models for the prompt and afterglow emission including the standard fireball model utilizing internal shocks and external shocks, photospheric emission, the role of the magnetic field and hadronic processes. In addition, we discuss some of the prospects for non-photonic multi-messenger detection and for future instrumentation, and comment on some of the outstanding issues in the field.

  10. Development of a microcapillary column for detecting targeted messenger RNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Michihiro

    2006-03-24

    A capillary column in a rapid-flow system has been developed for detecting targeted messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules. The column has a structure made of two beds-one bed of porous microbeads and one bed of microbeads with a polythymidine base sequence. The targeted eukaryotic mRNA molecules are detected by two-step hybridization (sandwich hybridization) composed of polyadenosine selection of mRNA molecules and formation of a probe-target (targeted mRNA) hybrid. The sandwich hybridization, which is accomplished within 1 h, was tested using synthetic polydeoxynucleotides. Ten picomoles of the targeted polydeoxynucleotide were detected.

  11. MESSENGER Observations of the Spatial Distribution of Planetary Ions Near Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Gloeckler, George; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Global measurements by MESSENGER of the fluxes of heavy ions at Mercury, particularly sodium (Na(+)) and oxygen (O(+)), exhibit distinct maxima in the northern magnetic-cusp region, indicating that polar regions are important sources of Mercury's ionized exosphere, presumably through solar-wind sputtering near the poles. The observed fluxes of helium (He(+)) are more evenly distributed, indicating a more uniform source such as that expected from evaporation from a helium-saturated surface. In some regions near Mercury, especially the nightside equatorial region, the Na(+) pressure can be a substantial fraction of the proton pressure.

  12. Distribution of messenger RNAs for D1 dopamine receptors and DARPP-32 in striatum and cerebral cortex of the cynomolgus monkey: relationship to D1 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Brené, S; Hall, H; Lindefors, N; Karlsson, P; Halldin, C; Sedvall, G

    1995-07-01

    Messenger RNAs for the D1 dopamine receptor and dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of relative mass 32,000 (DARPP-32) were examined by in situ hybridization in the cynomolgus monkey brain. The messenger RNA distribution was compared to the distribution of D1 dopamine receptors using [3H]SCH 23390 autoradiography. In the caudate nucleus and putamen, D1 dopamine receptor messenger RNA-positive cells were unevenly distributed. Clusters of cells with an approximately three-fold higher intensity of labeling, as compared to surrounding regions, were found. Some of these D1 dopamine receptor messenger RNA intensive cell clusters in the caudate nucleus appeared to some extent to be matched to regions of higher intensity of [3H]SCH 23390 binding. The distribution of cells expressing DARPP-32 messenger RNA in the caudate nucleus and putamen was found to be non-clustered. In neocortical regions, cells of different sizes expressing D1 dopamine receptor messenger RNA were present in layers II-VI. D1 dopamine receptor messenger RNA-positive cells were most abundant in layer V. Unexpectedly, no DARPP-32 messenger RNA signal was detected in neocortex. Chronic SCH 23390 administration did not change the relative levels of messenger RNAs for the D1 dopamine receptor and DARPP-32 or [3H]SCH 23390 binding as measured by quantitative image analysis. The clustered distribution of D1 dopamine receptor messenger RNA is in contrast to that of DARPP-32 messenger RNA. This suggests that D1 dopamine receptors may play a more significant role in regulating DARPP-32 function in patch regions as compared to matrix regions. D1 dopamine receptor messenger RNA-expressing cells could also be visualized in several layers of the primate neocortex, implying that dopamine acts through D1 dopamine receptors within functionally different neuronal circuits of the neocortex.

  13. Ultrasound-microbubble-mediated intercellular adhesion molecule-1 small interfering ribonucleic acid transfection attenuates neointimal formation after arterial injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Ogawa, Masahito; Takayama, Kiyoshi; Taniyama, Yoshiaki; Morishita, Ryuichi; Hirata, Yasunobu; Nagai, Ryozo; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2010-03-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) in murine arteries. We transfected it using a nonviral ultrasound-microbubble-mediated in vivo gene delivery system. siRNA is an effective methodology to suppress gene function. The siRNA can be synthesized easily; however, a major obstacle in the use of siRNA as therapeutics is the difficulty involved in effective in vivo delivery. To investigate the efficiency of nonviral ultrasound-microbubble-mediated in vivo siRNA delivery, we used a fluorescein-labeled siRNA, green fluorescent protein (GFP) siRNA, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 siRNA in murine arteries. Murine femoral arteries were injured using flexible wires to establish arterial injury. The fluorescein-labeled siRNA and GFP siRNA showed that this nonviral approach could deliver siRNA into target arteries effectively without any tissue damage and systemic adverse effects. ICAM-1 siRNA transfection into murine injured arteries significantly suppressed the development of neointimal formation in comparison to those in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that accumulation of T cells and adhesion molecule positive cells was observed in nontreated injured arteries, whereas siRNA suppressed accumulation. The nonviral ultrasound-microbubble delivery of siRNA ensures effective transfection into target arteries. ICAM-1 siRNA has the potential to suppress arterial neointimal formation. Transfection of siRNA can be beneficial for the clinical treatment of cardiovascular and other inflammatory diseases. Copyright 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling of the Magnetosphere of Mercury at the Time of the First MESSENGER Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benna, Mehdi; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft flyby of Mercury on 14 January 2008 provided a new opportunity to study the intrinsic magnetic field of the innermost planet and its interaction with the solar wind, The model presented in this paper is based on the solution of the three-dimensional, bi-f1uid equations for solar wind protons and electrons in the absence of mass loading, In this study we provide new estimates of Mercury's intrinsic magnetic field and the solar wind conditions that prevailed at the time of the flyby. We show that the location of the boundary layers and the strength of the magnetic field along the spacecraft trajectory can be reproduced with a solar wind ram pressure P(sub sw) = 6.8 nPa and a planetary magnetic dipole having a magnitude of 210 R(sub M)(exp 3)- nT and an offset of 0.18 R(sub M) to the north of the equator, where R(sub M) is Mercury's radius. Analysis of the plasma flow reveals the existence of a stable drift belt around the planet; such a belt can account for the locations of diamagnetic decreases observed by the MESSENGER Magnetometer. Moreover, we determine that the ion impact rate at the n011hern cusp was four times higher than at the southern cusp, a result that provides a possible explanation for the observed north-south asymmetry in exospheric sodium in the neutral tail.

  15. Exosomes as divine messengers: are they the Hermes of modern molecular oncology?

    PubMed Central

    Braicu, C; Tomuleasa, C; Monroig, P; Cucuianu, A; Berindan-Neagoe, I; Calin, G A

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles that convey key elements with the potential to modulate intercellular communication. They are known to be secreted from all types of cells, and are crucial messengers that can regulate cellular processes by ‘trafficking' molecules from cells of one tissue to another. The exosomal content has been shown to be broad, composed of different types of cytokines, growth factors, proteins, or nucleic acids. Besides messenger RNA (mRNA) they can also contain noncoding transcripts such as microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small endogenous cellular regulators of protein expression. In diseases such as cancer, exosomes can facilitate tumor progression by altering their vesicular content and supplying the tumor niche with molecules that favor the progression of oncogenic processes such as proliferation, invasion and metastasis, or even drug resistance. The packaging of their molecular content is known to be tissue specific, a fact that makes them interesting tools in clinical diagnostics and ideal candidates for biomarkers. In the current report, we describe the main properties of exosomes and explain their involvement in processes such as cell differentiation and cell death. Furthermore, we emphasize the need of developing patient-targeted treatments by applying the conceptualization of exosomal-derived miRNA-based therapeutics. PMID:25236394

  16. Active site structure and catalytic mechanism of phosphodiesterase for degradation of intracellular second messengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2002-03-01

    Phosphodiesterases are clinical targets for a variety of biological disorders, because this superfamily of enzymes regulate intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides that serve as the second messengers playing a critical role in a variety of physiological processes. Understanding structure and mechanism of a phosphodiesterase will provide a solid basis for rational design of the more efficient therapeutics. Although a three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human phosphodiesterase 4B2B was recently reported, it was uncertain whether a critical bridging ligand in the active site is a water molecule or a hydroxide ion. The identity of this bridging ligand has been determined by performing first-principles quantum chemical calculations on models of the active site. All the results obtained indicate that this critical bridging ligand in the active site of the reported X-ray crystal structure is a hydroxide ion, rather than a water molecule, expected to serve as the nucleophile to initialize the catalytic degradation of the intracellular second messengers.

  17. A novel frameshift mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene is rescued by alternative messenger RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Andrew D; Kyle, Campbell V

    Type I hyperlipoproteinemia, manifesting as chylomicronemia and severe hypertriglyceridemia, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder usually caused by mutations in the lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL). We sought to determine whether mutations in LPL could explain the clinical indications of a patient presenting with pancreatitis and hypertriglyceridemia. Coding regions of LPL were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by nucleotide sequencing. The LPL messenger RNA transcript was also analyzed to investigate whether alternative splicing was occurring. The patient was homozygous for the mutation c.767_768insTAAATATT in exon 5 of the LPL gene. This mutation is predicted to result in either a truncated nonfunctional LPL, or alternatively a new 5' donor splice site may be used, resulting in a full-length LPL with an in-frame deletion of 3 amino acids. Analysis of messenger RNA from the patient showed that the new splice site is used in vivo. Homozygosity for a mutation in the LPL gene was consistent with the clinical findings. Use of the new splice site created by the insertion mutation rescues an otherwise damaging frameshift mutation, resulting in expression of an almost full-length LPL that is predicted to be partially functional. The patient therefore has a less severe form of type I hyperlipoproteinemia than would be expected if she lacked any functional LPL. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MESSENGER Orbital Observations of Large-Amplitude Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves at Mercury's Magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Torbjorn; Boardsen, Scott A.; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a survey of Kelvi\\ n-Helmholtz (KH) waves at Mercury's magnetopause during MESSENGER's first Mercury year in orb it. The waves were identified on the basis of the well-established sawtooth wave signatures that are associated with non-linear KH vortices at the magnetopause. MESSENGER frequently observed such KH waves in the dayside region of the magnetosphere where the magnetosheath flow velocity is still sub -sonic, which implies that instability growth rates at Mercury's magnetopau are much larger than at Earth. We attribute these greater rates to the limited wave energy dissipation in Mercury's highly resistive regolith. The wave amplitude was often on the order of ' 00 nT or more, and the wave periods were - 10- 20 s. A clear dawn-dusk asymmetry is present in the data, in that all of the observed wave events occurred in the post-noon and dusk-side sectors of the magnetopause. This asymmetry is like ly related to finite Larmor-radius effects and is in agreement with results from particle-in-cell simulations of the instability. The waves were observed almost exclusively during periods when the north-south component of the magnetosheath magnetic field was northward, a pattern similar to that for most terrestrial KH wave events. Accompanying plasma measurements show that the waves were associated with the transport of magnetosheath plasma into the magnetosphere.

  19. The low-iron, reduced surface of Mercury as seen in spectral reflectance by MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izenberg, Noam R.; Klima, Rachel L.; Murchie, Scott L.; Blewett, David T.; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; McClintock, William E.; Malaret, Erick; Mauceri, Calogero; Vilas, Faith; Sprague, Ann L.; Helbert, Jörn; Domingue, Deborah L.; Head, James W.; Goudge, Timothy A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Hibbitts, Charles A.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2014-01-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) obtained more than 1.6 million reflectance spectra of Mercury's surface from near-ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths during the first year of orbital operations. A global analysis of spectra in the wavelength range 300-1450 nm shows little regional variation in absolute reflectance or spectral slopes and a lack of mineralogically diagnostic absorptions. In particular, reflectance spectra show no clear evidence for an absorption band centered near 1 μm that would be associated with the presence of ferrous iron in silicates. There is, however, evidence for an ultraviolet absorption possibly consistent with a very low iron content (2-3 wt% FeO or less) in surface silicates and for the presence of small amounts of metallic iron or other opaque minerals in the form of nano- or micrometer-sized particles. These findings are consistent with MESSENGER X-ray and gamma-ray measurements of Mercury's surface iron abundance. Although X-ray and gamma-ray observations indicate higher than expected quantities of sulfur on the surface, reflectance spectra show no absorption bands diagnostic of sulfide minerals. Whereas there is strong evidence of water ice in permanently shadowed craters near Mercury's poles, MASCS spectra provide no evidence for hydroxylated materials near permanently shadowed craters.

  20. Plasma Distribution in Mercury's Magnetosphere Derived from MESSENGER Magnetometer and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korth, Haje; Anderson, Brian J.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    We assess the statistical spatial distribution of plasma in Mercury's magnetosphere from observations of magnetic pressure deficits and plasma characteristics by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. The statistical distributions of proton flux and pressure were derived from 10months of Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) observations obtained during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission. The Magnetometer-derived pressure distributions compare favorably with those deduced from the FIPS observations at locations where depressions in the magnetic field associated with the presence of enhanced plasma pressures are discernible in the Magnetometer data. The magnitudes of the magnetic pressure deficit and the plasma pressure agree on average, although the two measures of plasma pressure may deviate for individual events by as much as a factor of approximately 3. The FIPS distributions provide better statistics in regions where the plasma is more tenuous and reveal an enhanced plasma population near the magnetopause flanks resulting from direct entry of magnetosheath plasma into the low-latitude boundary layer of the magnetosphere. The plasma observations also exhibit a pronounced north-south asymmetry on the nightside, with markedly lower fluxes at low altitudes in the northern hemisphere than at higher altitudes in the south on the same field line. This asymmetry is consistent with particle loss to the southern hemisphere surface during bounce motion in Mercury's offset dipole magnetic field.

  1. Time Domain Astronomy with Fermi GBM in the Multi-messenger Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Fermi GBM team, GBM-LIGO team

    2018-01-01

    As the Multi-Messenger era begins with detections of gravitational waves with LIGO/Virgo and neutrinos with IceCube, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) provides context observations of gamma-ray transients between 8 keV and 40 MeV. Fermi GBM has a wide field of view, high uptime, and both in-orbit triggering and high time resolution continuous data enabling offline searches for weaker transients. GBM detects numerous gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), soft gamma-ray repeaters, X-ray bursters, solar flares and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. Longer timescale transients, predominantly in our galaxy so far, are detected using the Earth occultation technique and epoch-folding for periodic sources. The GBM team has developed two ground-based searches to enhance detections of faint transients, especially short GRBs. The targeted search uses the time and location of an event detected with another instrument to coherently search the GBM data, increasing the sensitivity to a transient. The untargeted search agnostically searches the GBM data for all directions and times to find weaker transients. This search finds about 80 short GRBs per year, adding to the 40 per year triggered on-orbit. With its large field of view, high duty cycle and increasingly sophisticated detection methods, Fermi GBM is expected to have a major role in the Multi-Messenger era.

  2. Lyman-α Models for LRO LAMP from MESSENGER MASCS and SOHO SWAN Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryor, Wayne R.; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; McClintock, William E.; Snow, Martin; Vervack, Ronald J.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Stern, S. Alan; Retherford, Kurt D.; Miles, Paul F.

    From models of the interplanetary Lyman-α glow derived from observations by the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) interplanetary Lyman-α data obtained in 2009-2011 on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft mission, daily all-sky Lyman-α maps were generated for use by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) LAMP Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) experiment. These models were then compared with Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Solar Wind ANistropy (SWAN) Lyman-α maps when available. Although the empirical agreement across the sky between the scaled model and the SWAN maps is adequate for LAMP mapping purposes, the model brightness values best agree with the SWAN values in 2008 and 2009. SWAN's observations show a systematic decline in 2010 and 2011 relative to the model. It is not clear if the decline represents a failure of the model or a decline in sensitivity in SWAN in 2010 and 2011. MESSENGER MASCS and SOHO SWAN Lyman-α calibrations systematically differ in comparison with the model, with MASCS reporting Lyman-α values some 30 % lower than SWAN.

  3. A multiplexed fluorescent assay for independent second-messenger systems: decoding GPCR activation in living cells.

    PubMed

    Tewson, Paul H; Quinn, Anne Marie; Hughes, Thomas E

    2013-08-01

    There is a growing need in drug discovery and basic research to measure multiple second-messenger components of cell signaling pathways in real time and in relevant tissues and cell types. Many G-protein-coupled receptors activate the heterotrimeric protein, Gq, which in turn activates phospholipase C (PLC). PLC cleaves phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to produce two second messengers: diacylglycerol (DAG), which remains in the plasma membrane, and inositol triphosphate (IP3), which diffuses through the cytosol to release stores of intracellular calcium ions (Ca(2+)). Our goal was to create a series of multiplex sensors that would make it possible to simultaneously measure two different components of the Gq pathway in living cells. Here we describe new fluorescent sensors for DAG and PIP2 that produce robust changes in green or red fluorescence and can be combined with one another, or with existing Ca(2+) sensors, in a live-cell assay. These assays can detect multiple components of Gq signaling, simultaneously in real time, on standard fluorescent plate readers or live-cell imaging systems.

  4. Mercury's thermo-chemical evolution from numerical models constrained by Messenger observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, N.; Breuer, D.; Plesa, A. C.; Wagner, F.; Laneuville, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Messenger spacecraft, in orbit around Mercury for almost one year, has been delivering a great deal of new information that is changing dramatically our understanding of the solar system's innermost planet. Tracking data of the Radio Science experiment yielded improved estimates of the first coefficients of the gravity field that permit to determine the normalized polar moment of inertia of the planet (C/MR2) and the ratio of the moment of inertia of the mantle to that of the whole planet (Cm/C). These two parameters provide a strong constraint on the internal mass distribution and, in particular, on the core mass fraction. With C/MR2 = 0.353 and Cm/C = 0.452 [1], interior structure models predict a core radius as large as 2000 km [2], leaving room for a silicate mantle shell with a thickness of only ~ 400 km, a value significantly smaller than that of 600 km usually assumed in parametrized [3] as well as in numerical models of Mercury's mantle dynamics and evolution [4]. Furthermore, the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer measured the surface abundance of radioactive elements, revealing, besides uranium and thorium, the presence of potassium. The latter, being moderately volatile, rules out traditional formation scenarios from highly refractory materials, favoring instead a composition not much dissimilar from a chondritic model. Considering a 400 km thick mantle, we carry out a large series of 2D and 3D numerical simulations of the thermo-chemical evolution of Mercury's mantle. We model in a self-consistent way the formation of crust through partial melting using Lagrangian tracers to account for the partitioning of radioactive heat sources between mantle and crust and variations of thermal conductivity. Assuming the relative surface abundance of radiogenic elements observed by Messenger to be representative of the bulk mantle composition, we attempt at constraining the degree to which uranium, thorium and potassium are concentrated in the silicate mantle through a broad

  5. Effects of the foliar-applied protein "Harpin(Ea)" (messenger) on tomatoes infected with Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Fontanilla, M; Montes, M; De Prado, R

    2005-01-01

    The active ingredient in Messenger, is Harpin(Ea), a naturally occurring protein derived from Erwinia amylovora, a causal agent of fire blight. When Messenger is applied to a plant, the protein Harpin(Ea) binds foliar receptors to it. The receptors recognize the presence of Harpin(Ea), sending a signal that a pathogen is present, actually "tricking" the plant into thinking that it is under attack. This binding process triggers a cascade of responses affecting a global change of gene expressions, stimulating several distinct biochemical pathways within the plant responsible for growth and disease and insect resistance. The objective of this work is to characterize the development of an induced resistance against Phytophthora infestans. No effective treatment is currently available against this pathogenic agent, which causes the loss of complete harvests of different crops. Tomato plants with and without Messenger applications were inoculated with Phytophthora infestans in the same way. In addition, some plants with and without Messenger applications were not inoculated. Inoculated plants were symptomatologically checked for local and systemic symptoms. Evaluations of the number of tomatoes produced, with or without damage, and their growth, were also carried out. Based on the data obtained from the assays, significant changes were observed in the parameters measured due to Messenger treatment. The severe damage of this disease was reduced in the plants which received Messenger applications. These results open up new pathways in the control of diseases like Phytophthora infestans, in which effective means to combat them still do not exist, or these means are harmful to the environment.

  6. Coronal mass ejection hits mercury: A.I.K.E.F. hybrid-code results compared to MESSENGER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exner, W.; Heyner, D.; Liuzzo, L.; Motschmann, U.; Shiota, D.; Kusano, K.; Shibayama, T.

    2018-04-01

    Mercury is the closest orbiting planet around the sun and is therefore embedded in an intensive and highly varying solar wind. In-situ data from the MESSENGER spacecraft of the plasma environment near Mercury indicates that a coronal mass ejection (CME) passed the planet on 23 November 2011 over the span of the 12 h MESSENGER orbit. Slavin et al. (2014) derived the upstream parameters of the solar wind at the time of that orbit, and were able to explain the observed MESSENGER data in the cusp and magnetopause segments of MESSENGER's trajectory. These upstream parameters will be used for our first simulation run. We use the hybrid code A.I.K.E.F. which treats ions as individual particles and electrons as a mass-less fluid, to conduct hybrid simulations of Mercury's magnetospheric response to the impact of the CME on ion gyro time scales. Results from the simulation are in agreement with magnetic field measurements from the inner day-side magnetosphere and the bow-shock region. However, at the planet's nightside, Mercury's plasma environment seemed to be governed by different solar wind conditions, in conclusion, Mercury's interaction with the CME is not sufficiently describable by only one set of upstream parameters. Therefore, to simulate the magnetospheric response while MESSENGER was located in the tail region, we use parameters obtained from the MHD solar wind simulation code SUSANOO (Shiota et al. (2014)) for our second simulation run. The parameters of the SUSANOO model achieve a good agreement of the data concerning the plasma tail crossing and the night-side approach to Mercury. However, the polar and closest approach are hardly described by both upstream parameters, namely, neither upstream dataset is able to reproduce the MESSENGER crossing of Mercury's magnetospheric cusp. We conclude that the respective CME was too variable on the timescale of the MESSENGER orbit to be described by only two sets of upstream conditions. Our results suggest locally strong

  7. Agonist-specific coupling of a cloned Drosophila octopamine/tyramine receptor to multiple second messenger systems.

    PubMed Central

    Robb, S; Cheek, T R; Hannan, F L; Hall, L M; Midgley, J M; Evans, P D

    1994-01-01

    A cloned seven transmembrane-spanning Drosophila octopamine/tyramine receptor, permanently expressed in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, both inhibits adenylate cyclase activity and leads to the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels by separate G-protein-coupled pathways. Agonists of this receptor (octopamine and tyramine), differing by only a single hydroxyl group in their side chain, may be capable of differentially coupling it to different second messenger systems. Thus, a single receptor may have a different pharmacological profile depending on which second messenger system is used to assay its efficacy. PMID:8137817

  8. MESSENGER observations of the response of Mercury's magnetosphere to northward and southward interplanetary magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, James

    M. H. Acũa (2), B. J. Anderson (3), D. N. Baker (4), M. Benna (2), S. A. Boardsen (1), G. n Gloeckler (5), R. E. Gold (3), G. C. Ho (3), H. Korth (3), S. M. Krimigis (3), S. A. Livi (6), R. L. McNutt Jr. (3), J. M. Raines (5), M. Sarantos (1), D. Schriver (7), S. C. Solomon (8), P. Travnicek (9), and T. H. Zurbuchen (5) (1) Heliophysics Science Division, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA, (2) Solar System Exploration Division, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA, (3) The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723, USA, (4) Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303, USA, (5) Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA (6) Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 28510, USA, (7) Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA, (8) Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC 20015, USA, and (9) Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Prague, Czech Republic, 14131 MESSENGER's 14 January 2008 encounter with Mercury has provided new observations of the solar wind interaction with this planet. Here we report initial results concerning this miniature magnetosphere's response to the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). This is the component of the IMF that is expected to exert the greatest influence over the structure of the magnetopause and the processes responsible for energy transfer into the magnetosphere. The IMF was northward immediately prior to and following the passage of the MESSENGER spacecraft through this small magnetosphere. However, several-minute episodes of southward IMF were observed in the magnetosheath during the inbound portion of the encounter. Evidence for reconnection at the dayside magnetopause in the form of welldeveloped flux transfer events (FTEs) was observed in the magnetosheath following some of

  9. NASA's MESSENGER Finds New Evidence for Water Ice at Mercury's Poles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    New observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft provide compelling support for the long-held hypothesis that Mercury harbors abundant water ice and other frozen volatile materials in its permanently shadowed polar craters. Three independent lines of evidence support this conclusion: the first measurements of excess hydrogen at Mercury's north pole with MESSENGER's Neutron Spectrometer, the first measurements of the reflectance of Mercury's polar deposits at near-infrared wavelengths with the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA), and the first detailed models of the surface and near-surface temperatures of Mercury's north polar regions that utilize the actual topography of Mercury's surface measured by the MLA. These findings are presented in three papers published online today in Science Express. Given its proximity to the Sun, Mercury would seem to be an unlikely place to find ice. But the tilt of Mercury's rotational axis is almost zero — less than one degree — so there are pockets at the planet's poles that never see sunlight. Scientists suggested decades ago that there might be water ice and other frozen volatiles trapped at Mercury's poles. The idea received a boost in 1991, when the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico detected unusually radar-bright patches at Mercury's poles, spots that reflected radio waves in the way one would expect if there were water ice. Many of these patches corresponded to the location of large impact craters mapped by the Mariner 10 spacecraft in the 1970s. But because Mariner saw less than 50 percent of the planet, planetary scientists lacked a complete diagram of the poles to compare with the images. MESSENGER's arrival at Mercury last year changed that. Images from the spacecraft's Mercury Dual Imaging System taken in 2011 and earlier this year confirmed that radar-bright features at Mercury's north and south poles are within shadowed regions on Mercury's surface, findings that are consistent with the water-ice hypothesis. To read

  10. Methionine-Mediated Repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a Pleiotropic Regulatory System Involving Methionyl Transfer Ribonucleic Acid and the Product of Gene eth2

    PubMed Central

    Cherest, H.; Surdin-Kerjan, Y.; De Robichon-Szulmajster, H.

    1971-01-01

    Detailed study of methionine-mediated repression of enzymes involved in methionine biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to classification of these enzymes into two distinct regulatory groups. Group I comprises four enzymes specifically involved in different parts of methionine biosynthesis, namely, homoserine-O-transacetylase, homocysteine synthetase, adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase, and sulfite reductase. Repressibility of these enzymes is greatly decreased in strains carrying a genetically impaired methionyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase (mutation ts− 296). Conditions leading to absence of repression in the mutant strain have been correlated with a sharp decrease in bulk tRNAmet charging, whereas conditions which restore repressibility of group I enzymes also restore tRNAmet charging. These findings implicate methionyl-tRNA in the regulatory process. However, the absence of a correlation in the wild type between methionyl-tRNA charging and the levels of methionine group I enzymes suggests that only a minor iso accepting species of tRNAmet may be devoted with a regulatory function. Repressibility of the same four enzymes (group I) was also decreased in strains carrying the regulatory mutation eth2r. Although structural genes coding for two of these enzymes, as well as mutations ts− 296 and eth2r segregate independently to each other, synthesis of group I enzymes is coordinated. The pleiotropic regulatory system involved seems then to comprise beside a “regulatory methionyl tRNAmet,” another element, product of gene eth2, which might correspond either to an aporepressor protein or to the “regulatory tRNAmet” itself. Regulation of group II enzymes is defined by response to exogenous methionine, absence of response to either mutations ts− 296 and eth2r, and absence of coordinacy with group I enzymes. However, the two enzymes which belong to this group and are both involved in threonine and methionine biosynthesis undergo

  11. State of the Venus Atmosphere from Venus Express at the time of MESSENGER FLy- By

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, S. S.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Titov, D.; Piccione, G.; Baines, K. H.; Robinson, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) and the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) instruments on Venus Express spacecraft have been observing Venus since orbit insertion in April 2006. The state of the atmosphere in 2006 was in the form of a hemispheric vortex centered over the south pole, and presumably, another one in the northen hemisphere. The VMC and VIRTIS data have been used to determine cloud motions as well as the structure and organization of the atmospheric circulation from the the data collected since June 2006. In June 2007, the MESSENGER spacecraft flew-past Venus and also observed Venus on approach and departure from Venus. We report on the atmosphere of Venus as it appeared during this period.

  12. Light is a Messenger - The Life and Science of William Lawrence Bragg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Graeme K.

    2004-10-01

    Light is a Messenger , is the first biography of William Lawrence Bragg, who was only 25 when he won the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics-the youngest person ever to win a Nobel Prize. It describes how bragg discovered how to use X-rays to determine the arrangement of atoms in crystals and his pivotal role in developing this technique to the point that the structures of the most complex molecules known to man-the proteins and nucelic acids-could be solved. Although Bragg's Nobel Prize was for Physics, his research profoundly affected chemistry and the new field of molecular biology, of which he became a founding figure. This book explains how these revolutionary scientific events occurred while Bragg struggled to emerge from the shadow of his father, Sir William Bragg, and amidst a career-long rivalry with the brilliant American chemist, Linus Pauling.

  13. Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Burst in the Multi-Messenger Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzati, Davide

    2016-12-01

    The detection of gravitational waves (GW) from binary black hole mergers has been an historical, transformative event in physics and astronomy, heralded by most as the beginning of multi-messenger astronomy. With the increase of sensitivity over the next few years, LIGO and Virgo are predicted to detect mergers from neutron-star (NS) binaries. These are expected to be the first true multi-messenger sources, being the progenitors of short-duration gamma-ray burst (SGRB). The simultaneous detection of a gravitational, electromagnetic, and possibly neutrino signals from the same source would dramatically enhance the scientific output of each individual detection. Important details of the connection between SGRBs and NS binary mergers are however poorly known. These include the nature of the merging compact objects, their equation of state, the physics of SGRB jets - such as their Lorentz factors and opening angles, and the possibility of small temporal delays among the GW, n! eutrino, and gamma-ray signals. In view of the expected increased sensitivity of LIGO during the upcoming observing period and beyond, there is urgent need of improving our understanding of the physics of SGRBs to support the detection of GWs (and possibly neutrinos) and to develop a context in which the expected multi-messenger signal can be properly interpreted and its potential fully exploited. To achieve such goals, we propose to carry out a comprehensive study of relativistic jets from compact binary mergers, exploiting the most recent advances in numerical techniques developed within this research group. The ansatz of this study will be that within a short time after a compact merger a relativistic jet is created. Subsequently, the jet interacts with the merger environment, imprinting a signature that can be detected in the temporal and spectral properties of the prompt radiation, both in its electromagnetic and neutrino components. Analogous dynamical effects have been observed and studied

  14. MESSENGER observations of transient bursts of energetic electrons in Mercury's magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Ho, George C; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Gold, Robert E; Baker, Daniel N; Slavin, James A; Anderson, Brian J; Korth, Haje; Starr, Richard D; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Solomon, Sean C

    2011-09-30

    The MESSENGER spacecraft began detecting energetic electrons with energies greater than 30 kilo-electron volts (keV) shortly after its insertion into orbit about Mercury. In contrast, no energetic protons were observed. The energetic electrons arrive as bursts lasting from seconds to hours and are most intense close to the planet, distributed in latitude from the equator to the north pole, and present at most local times. Energies can exceed 200 keV but often exhibit cutoffs near 100 keV. Angular distributions of the electrons about the magnetic field suggest that they do not execute complete drift paths around the planet. This set of characteristics demonstrates that Mercury's weak magnetic field does not support Van Allen-type radiation belts, unlike all other planets in the solar system with internal magnetic fields.

  15. The synthesis of polyadenylated messenger RNA in herpes simplex type I virus infected BHK cells.

    PubMed

    Harris, T J; Wildy, P

    1975-09-01

    The pattern of polyadenylated messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis in BHK cell monolayers, infected under defined conditions with herpes simplex type I virus has been investigated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or pulse-labelled RNA isolated by oligo dT-cellulose chromatography. Two classes of mRNA molecules were synthesized in infected cells; these were not detected in uninfected cells. The rate of synthesis of the larger, 18 to 30S RNA class reached a maximum soon after injection and then declined, whereas the rate of synthesis of the 7 to 11 S RNA class did not reach a maximum until much later and did not decline. In the presence of cytosine arabinoside, the rate of mRNA synthesis in infected cells was reduced but the electrophoretic pattern remained the same.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of non-hydrolysable diphosphoinositol polyphosphate second messengers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingxuan; Dul, Barbara E; Trevisan, Alexandra J; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2013-01-01

    The diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (PP-IPs) are a central group of eukaryotic second messengers. They regulate numerous processes, including cellular energy homeostasis and adaptation to environmental stresses. To date, most of the molecular details in PP-IP signalling have remained elusive, due to a lack of appropriate methods and reagents. Here we describe the expedient synthesis of methylene-bisphosphonate PP-IP analogues. Their characterization revealed that the analogues exhibit significant stability and mimic their natural counterparts very well. This was further confirmed in two independent biochemical assays, in which our analogues potently inhibited phosphorylation of the protein kinase Akt and hydrolytic activity of the Ddp1 phosphohydrolase. The non-hydrolysable PP-IPs thus emerge as important tools and hold great promise for a variety of applications.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of non-hydrolysable diphosphoinositol polyphosphate second messengers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingxuan; Dul, Barbara E.; Trevisan, Alexandra J.; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    The diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (PP-IPs) are a central group of eukaryotic second messengers. They regulate numerous processes, including cellular energy homeostasis and adaptation to environmental stresses. To date, most of the molecular details in PP-IP signalling have remained elusive, due to a lack of appropriate methods and reagents. Here we describe the expedient synthesis of methylene-bisphosphonate PP-IP analogues. Their characterization revealed that the analogues exhibit significant stability and mimic their natural counterparts very well. This was further confirmed in two independent biochemical assays, in which our analogues potently inhibited phosphorylation of the protein kinase Akt and hydrolytic activity of the Ddp1 phosphohydrolase. The non-hydrolysable PP-IPs thus emerge as important tools and hold great promise for a variety of applications. PMID:23378892

  18. Probing the Milky Way electron density using multi-messenger astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane

    2015-04-01

    Multi-messenger observations of ultra-compact binaries in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation supply highly complementary information, providing new ways of characterizing the internal dynamics of these systems, as well as new probes of the galaxy itself. Electron density models, used in pulsar distance measurements via the electron dispersion measure, are currently not well constrained. Simultaneous radio and gravitational wave observations of pulsars in binaries provide a method of measuring the average electron density along the line of sight to the pulsar, thus giving a new method for constraining current electron density models. We present this method and assess its viability with simulations of the compact binary component of the Milky Way using the public domain binary evolution code, BSE. This work is supported by NASA Award NNX13AM10G.

  19. MESSENGER Observations of Rapid and Impulsive Magnetic Reconnection in Mercury's Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, J.; Wei, Y.; Pu, Z. Y.; Wang, X. G.; Wan, W. X.; Slavin, J. A.; Cao, X.; Raines, J. M.; Zhang, H.; Xiao, C. J.; Du, A. M.; Wang, R. S.; Dewey, R. M.; Chai, L. H.; Rong, Z. J.; Li, Y.

    2018-06-01

    The nature of magnetic reconnection in planetary magnetospheres may differ between various planets. We report the first observations of a rapidly evolving magnetic reconnection process in Mercury’s magnetotail by the MESSENGER spacecraft. The reconnection process was initialized in the plasma sheet and then evolved into the lobe region during a ∼35 s period. The tailward reconnection fronts of primary and secondary flux ropes with clear Hall signatures and energetic electron bursts were observed. The reconnection timescale of a few seconds is substantially shorter than that of terrestrial magnetospheric plasmas. The normalized reconnection rate during a brief quasi-steady period is estimated to be ∼0.2 on average. The observations show the rapid and impulsive nature of the exceedingly driven reconnection in Mercury’s magnetospheric plasma that may be responsible for the much more dynamic magnetosphere of Mercury.

  20. The major-element composition of Mercury's surface from MESSENGER X-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nittler, Larry R; Starr, Richard D; Weider, Shoshana Z; McCoy, Timothy J; Boynton, William V; Ebel, Denton S; Ernst, Carolyn M; Evans, Larry G; Goldsten, John O; Hamara, David K; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Schlemm, Charles E; Solomon, Sean C; Sprague, Ann L

    2011-09-30

    X-ray fluorescence spectra obtained by the MESSENGER spacecraft orbiting Mercury indicate that the planet's surface differs in composition from those of other terrestrial planets. Relatively high Mg/Si and low Al/Si and Ca/Si ratios rule out a lunarlike feldspar-rich crust. The sulfur abundance is at least 10 times higher than that of the silicate portion of Earth or the Moon, and this observation, together with a low surface Fe abundance, supports the view that Mercury formed from highly reduced precursor materials, perhaps akin to enstatite chondrite meteorites or anhydrous cometary dust particles. Low Fe and Ti abundances do not support the proposal that opaque oxides of these elements contribute substantially to Mercury's low and variable surface reflectance.

  1. Radioactive elements on Mercury's surface from MESSENGER: implications for the planet's formation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Peplowski, Patrick N; Evans, Larry G; Hauck, Steven A; McCoy, Timothy J; Boynton, William V; Gillis-Davis, Jeffery J; Ebel, Denton S; Goldsten, John O; Hamara, David K; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Nittler, Larry R; Solomon, Sean C; Rhodes, Edgar A; Sprague, Ann L; Starr, Richard D; Stockstill-Cahill, Karen R

    2011-09-30

    The MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer measured the average surface abundances of the radioactive elements potassium (K, 1150 ± 220 parts per million), thorium (Th, 220 ± 60 parts per billion), and uranium (U, 90 ± 20 parts per billion) in Mercury's northern hemisphere. The abundance of the moderately volatile element K, relative to Th and U, is inconsistent with physical models for the formation of Mercury requiring extreme heating of the planet or its precursor materials, and supports formation from volatile-containing material comparable to chondritic meteorites. Abundances of K, Th, and U indicate that internal heat production has declined substantially since Mercury's formation, consistent with widespread volcanism shortly after the end of late heavy bombardment 3.8 billion years ago and limited, isolated volcanic activity since.

  2. MESSENGER observations of the composition of Mercury's ionized exosphere and plasma environment.

    PubMed

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H; Raines, Jim M; Gloeckler, George; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Slavin, James A; Koehn, Patrick L; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; McNutt, Ralph L; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    The region around Mercury is filled with ions that originate from interactions of the solar wind with Mercury's space environment and through ionization of its exosphere. The MESSENGER spacecraft's observations of Mercury's ionized exosphere during its first flyby yielded Na+, O+, and K+ abundances, consistent with expectations from observations of neutral species. There are increases in ions at a mass per charge (m/q) = 32 to 35, which we interpret to be S+ and H2S+, with (S+ + H2S+)/(Na+ + Mg+) = 0.67 +/- 0.06, and from water-group ions around m/q = 18, at an abundance of 0.20 +/- 0.03 relative to Na+ plus Mg+. The fluxes of Na+, O+, and heavier ions are largest near the planet, but these Mercury-derived ions fill the magnetosphere. Doubly ionized ions originating from Mercury imply that electrons with energies less than 1 kiloelectron volt are substantially energized in Mercury's magnetosphere.

  3. Topography of the Northern Hemisphere of Mercury from MESSENGER Laser Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber,Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Hauck, Steven A., Jr.; Peale, Stanton J.; Barnouin, Oliver S.; Head, James W.; Johnson, Catherine L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Laser altimetry by the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a topographic model of the northern hemisphere of Mercury. The dynamic range of elevations is considerably smaller than those of Mars or the Moon. The most prominent feature is an extensive lowland at high northern latitudes that hosts the volcanic northern plains. Within this lowland is a broad topographic rise that experienced uplift after plains emplacement. The interior of the 1500-km-diameter Caloris impact basin has been modified so that part of the basin floor now stands higher than the rim. The elevated portion of the floor of Caloris appears to be part of a quasi-linear rise that extends for approximately half the planetary circumference at mid-latitudes. Collectively, these features imply that long-wavelength changes to Mercury s topography occurred after the earliest phases of the planet s geological history.

  4. Ring finger protein 10 is a novel synaptonuclear messenger encoding activation of NMDA receptors in hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Dinamarca, Margarita C; Guzzetti, Francesca; Karpova, Anna; Lim, Dmitry; Mitro, Nico; Musardo, Stefano; Mellone, Manuela; Marcello, Elena; Stanic, Jennifer; Samaddar, Tanmoy; Burguière, Adeline; Caldarelli, Antonio; Genazzani, Armando A; Perroy, Julie; Fagni, Laurent; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Kreutz, Michael R; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Luca, Monica Di

    2016-01-01

    Synapses and nuclei are connected by bidirectional communication mechanisms that enable information transfer encoded by macromolecules. Here, we identified RNF10 as a novel synaptonuclear protein messenger. RNF10 is activated by calcium signals at the postsynaptic compartment and elicits discrete changes at the transcriptional level. RNF10 is enriched at the excitatory synapse where it associates with the GluN2A subunit of NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Activation of synaptic GluN2A-containing NMDARs and induction of long term potentiation (LTP) lead to the translocation of RNF10 from dendritic segments and dendritic spines to the nucleus. In particular, we provide evidence for importin-dependent long-distance transport from synapto-dendritic compartments to the nucleus. Notably, RNF10 silencing prevents the maintenance of LTP as well as LTP-dependent structural modifications of dendritic spines. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12430.001 PMID:26977767

  5. Properties of Hermean plasma belt: Numerical simulations and comparison with MESSENGER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herčík, David; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Å tverák, Å. těpán.; Hellinger, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Using a global hybrid model and test particle simulations we present a detailed analysis of the Hermean plasma belt structure. We investigate characteristic properties of quasi-trapped particle population characteristics and its behavior under different orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field. The plasma belt region is constantly supplied with solar wind protons via magnetospheric flanks and tail current sheet region. Protons inside the plasma belt region are quasi-trapped in the magnetic field of Mercury and perform westward drift along the planet. This region is well separated by a magnetic shell and has higher average temperatures and lower bulk proton current densities than the surrounding area. On the dayside the population exhibits loss cone distribution function matching the theoretical loss cone angle. The simulation results are in good agreement with in situ observations of MESSENGER's (MErcury Surface Space ENvironment GEochemistry, and Ranging) MAG and FIPS instruments.

  6. Postage for the messenger: Designating routes for Nuclear mRNA Export

    PubMed Central

    Natalizio, Barbara J.; Wente, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription of messenger(m) RNA occurs in the nucleus, making the translocation of mRNA across the nuclear envelope (NE) boundary a critical determinant of proper gene expression and cell survival. A major mRNA export route occurs via the NXF1-dependent pathway through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the NE. However, recent findings have discovered new evidence supporting the existence of multiple mechanisms for crossing the NE, including both NPC-mediated and NE budding-mediated pathways. An analysis of the trans-acting factors and cis components that define these pathways reveals shared elements as well as mechanistic differences. We review here the current understanding of the mechanisms that characterize each pathway and highlight the determinants that influence mRNA transport fate. PMID:23583578

  7. Common observations of solar X-rays from SPHINX/CORONAS-PHOTON and XRS/MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepa, Anna; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara; Siarkowski, Marek; Mrozek, Tomasz; Gryciuk, Magdalena; Phillips, Kenneth

    SphinX was a soft X-ray spectrophotometer constructed in the Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences. The instrument was launched on 30 January 2009 aboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite as a part of TESIS instrument package. SphinX measured total solar X-ray flux in the energy range from 1 to 15 keV during the period of very low solar activity from 20 February to 29 November 2009. For these times the solar detector (X-ray Spectrometer - XRS) onboard MESSENGER also observed the solar X-rays from a different vantage point. XRS measured the radiation in similar energy range. We present results of the comparison of observations from both instruments and show the preliminary results of physical analysis of spectra for selected flares.

  8. The Air Forces on a Model of the Sperry Messenger Airplane Without Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max M; Diehl, Walter S

    1926-01-01

    This is a report on a scale effect research which was made in the variable-density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the request of the Army Air Service. A 1/10 scale model of the sperry messenger airplane with USA-5 wings was tested without a propeller at various Reynolds numbers up to the full scale value. Two series of tests were: the first on the original model which was of the usual simplified construction, and the second on a modified model embodying a great amount of detail. The experimental results show that the scale effect is almost entirely confined to the drag. It was also found that the model should be geometrically similar to the full-scale airplane if the test data are to be directly applicable to full scale.

  9. Effects of local structural transformation of lipid-like compounds on delivery of messenger RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Luo, Xiao; Deng, Binbin; Giancola, Jolynn B.; McComb, David W.; Schmittgen, Thomas D.; Dong, Yizhou

    2016-02-01

    Lipid-like nanoparticles (LLNs) have shown great potential for RNA delivery. Lipid-like compounds are key components in LLNs. In this study, we investigated the effects of local structural transformation of lipid-like compounds on delivery of messenger RNA. Our results showed that position change of functional groups on lipid-like compounds can dramatically improve delivery efficiency. We then optimized formulation ratios of TNT-b10 LLNs, a lead material, increasing delivery efficiency over 2-fold. More importantly, pegylated TNT-b10 LLNs is stable for over four weeks and is over 10-fold more efficient than that of its counterpart TNT-a10 LLNs. Additionally, the optimal formulation O-TNT-b10 LLNs is capable of delivering mRNA encoding luciferase in vivo. These results provide useful insights into the design of next generation LLNs for mRNA delivery.

  10. MESSENGER Magnetic Field Observations of Upstream Ultra-Low Frequency Waves at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Boardsen, S.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Anderosn, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2012-01-01

    The region upstream from a planetary bow shock is a natural plasma laboratory containing a variety of wave particle phenomena. The study of foreshocks other than the Earth's is important for extending our understanding of collisionless shocks and foreshock physics since the bow shock strength varies with heliocentric distance from the Sun, and the sizes of the bow shocks are different at different planets. The Mercury's bow shock is unique in our solar system as it is produced by low Mach number solar wind blowing over a small magnetized body with a predominately radial interplanetary magnetic field. Previous observations of Mercury upstream ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves came exclusively from two Mercury flybys of Mariner 10. The MESSENGER orbiter data enable us to study of upstream waves in the Mercury's foreshock in depth. This paper reports an overview of upstream ULF waves in the Mercury's foreshock using high-time resolution magnetic field data, 20 samples per second, from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The most common foreshock waves have frequencies near 2 Hz, with properties similar to the I-Hz waves in the Earth's foreshock. They are present in both the flyby data and in every orbit of the orbital data we have surveyed. The most common wave phenomenon in the Earth's foreshock is the large-amplitude 30-s waves, but similar waves at Mercury have frequencies at near 0.1 Hz and occur only sporadically with short durations (a few wave cycles). Superposed on the "30-s" waves, there are spectral peaks at near 0.6 Hz, not reported previously in Mariner 10 data. We will discuss wave properties and their occurrence characteristics in this paper.

  11. Modeling the Solar Probe Plus Dust Environment: Comparison with MESSENGER Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, S. B.; Strikwerda, T.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s Solar Probe Plus mission will be the first to approach the Sun as close as 9 solar radii from the surface. This mission will provide the only in-situ observations of the Sun’s corona. In the absence of observational data (e.g. Helios, Pioneer), specifically at distances less than 0.4 AU, the precise ambient dust distributions at these distances remain unknown and limited to extrapolative models for distances < 1 AU (e.g. Mann et al. 2004). For the Solar Probe Plus mission, it has become critical to characterize the inner solar system dust environment in order to examine potential impacts on spacecraft health and attitude. We have implemented the Mann et al. (2004) and Grün et al. (1985) dust distribution theory along with Mie scattering effects to determine the magnitude of solar irradiance scattered towards an optical sensor such as a star tracker as a function of ecliptic latitude and longitude for distances 0.05 to 1 AU. Background irradiance data from NASA’s MESSENGER mission (down to 0.3 AU) reveal trends consistent with our model predictions, potentially validating Mann et al. (2004) and Grün et al. (1985) theory, but perhaps suggesting an enhancement of dust density short ward of 0.3 AU. This paper will present the scattering model and analysis of MESSENGER data gathered to date, during the phasing orbits, and includes star tracker background irradiance, irradiance distribution over the sky, and effects on star magnitude sensitivity and position accuracy.

  12. The Velocity Distribution Of Pickup He+ Measured at 0.3 AU by MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Fisk, Lennard A.; Gloeckler, George; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-06-01

    During its interplanetary trajectory in 2007-2009, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvrionment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft passed through the gravitational focusing cone for interstellar helium multiple times at a heliocentric distance R ≈ 0.3 AU. Observations of He+ interstellar pickup ions made by the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer sensor on MESSENGER during these transits provide a glimpse into the structure of newly formed inner heliospheric pickup-ion distributions. This close to the Sun, these ions are picked up in a nearly radial interplanetary magnetic field. Compared with the near-Earth environment, pickup ions observed near 0.3 AU will not have had sufficient time to be energized substantially. Such an environment results in a nearly pristine velocity distribution function that should depend only on pickup-ion injection velocities (related to the interstellar gas), pitch-angle scattering, and cooling processes. From measured energy-per-charge spectra obtained during multiple spacecraft observational geometries, we have deduced the phase-space density of He+ as a function of magnetic pitch angle. Our measurements are most consistent with a distribution that decreases nearly monotonically with increasing pitch angle, rather than the more commonly modeled isotropic or hemispherically symmetric forms. These results imply that pitch-angle scattering of He+ may not be instantaneous, as is often assumed, and instead may reflect the velocity distribution of initially injected particles. In a slow solar wind stream, we find a parallel-scattering mean free path of λ || ~ 0.1 AU and a He+ production rate of ~0.05 m-3 s-1 within 0.3 AU.

  13. Cyclic di-GMP: the First 25 Years of a Universal Bacterial Second Messenger

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y.; Gomelsky, Mark

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Twenty-five years have passed since the discovery of cyclic dimeric (3′→5′) GMP (cyclic di-GMP or c-di-GMP). From the relative obscurity of an allosteric activator of a bacterial cellulose synthase, c-di-GMP has emerged as one of the most common and important bacterial second messengers. Cyclic di-GMP has been shown to regulate biofilm formation, motility, virulence, the cell cycle, differentiation, and other processes. Most c-di-GMP-dependent signaling pathways control the ability of bacteria to interact with abiotic surfaces or with other bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Cyclic di-GMP plays key roles in lifestyle changes of many bacteria, including transition from the motile to the sessile state, which aids in the establishment of multicellular biofilm communities, and from the virulent state in acute infections to the less virulent but more resilient state characteristic of chronic infectious diseases. From a practical standpoint, modulating c-di-GMP signaling pathways in bacteria could represent a new way of controlling formation and dispersal of biofilms in medical and industrial settings. Cyclic di-GMP participates in interkingdom signaling. It is recognized by mammalian immune systems as a uniquely bacterial molecule and therefore is considered a promising vaccine adjuvant. The purpose of this review is not to overview the whole body of data in the burgeoning field of c-di-GMP-dependent signaling. Instead, we provide a historic perspective on the development of the field, emphasize common trends, and illustrate them with the best available examples. We also identify unresolved questions and highlight new directions in c-di-GMP research that will give us a deeper understanding of this truly universal bacterial second messenger. PMID:23471616

  14. Serotonergic transmission at Merkel discs: modulation by exogenously applied chemical messengers and involvement of Ih currents.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weipang; Kanda, Hirosato; Ikeda, Ryo; Ling, Jennifer; Gu, Jianguo G

    2017-05-01

    The Merkel disc is a main type of tactile end organ consisting of Merkel cells and Aβ-afferent endings that responds to tactile stimulation with slowly adapting type 1 (SA1) afferent impulses. Our recent study has shown that Merkel discs in whisker hair follicles are serotonergic synapses using endogenous serotonin to transmit tactile signals from Merkel cells to Aβ-afferent endings. In this study, we hypothesize that tactile sensitivity of Merkel discs can be modulated by chemical messengers. We tested this hypothesis by determining whether and how SA1 responses of mouse whisker hair follicles may be affected by exogenously applied chemical messengers. We found that SA1 responses were potentiated by serotonin at low concentration (10 μM) but almost completely occluded by serotonin at high concentration (2 mM). In contrast, SA1 responses were not significantly affected by ATP and its metabolically stable analog α,β-methylene-ATP, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and histamine. SA1 responses were also not affected by antagonists for P2X receptors, ionotropic glutamate receptors, and ionotropic GABA and glycine receptors. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings reconfirm the presence of both ionotropic and metabotropic 5-HT receptors on afferent neurons and their terminals innervating whisker hair follicles. All whisker afferent neurons expressed hyperpolarization-activated inward currents (I h ), which are potentiated by serotonin through the activation of metabotropic 5-HT receptors. Taken together, the findings substantiate the serotonergic mechanism of tactile transmission at Merkel discs and identify the involvement of I h currents in postsynaptic excitatory actions of serotonin. In addition, the findings do not favor any significant involvement of ATP, glutamate, histamine, GABA, or glycine in tactile transmission at the Merkel discs of whisker hair follicles. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger with his audience at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Nov. 26, 2002. NASA Dryden is located on Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert.

  16. The Effects of a Synchronous Communication Tool (Yahoo Messenger) on Online Learners' Sense of Community and Their Multimedia Authoring Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shiang-Kwei

    2008-01-01

    Literature suggests that developing a community of learners is the key to a successful online-learning experience. In this study, the instructor of a multimedia authoring course adopted a synchronous communication tool (Yahoo Messenger) to interact with learners orally on a weekly basis and, thereby, to establish a sense among the learners that…

  17. The Message or the Messenger: Reflection on the Volatility of Evoking Novice Teachers' Courageous Conversations on Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amobi, Funmi A.

    2007-01-01

    Every teacher is a messenger. The message that a teacher communicates and portrays is acquired formally and informally through systematic study, and environmental and socialization processes. While formal study happens consciously within a particular period of time, experiential learning that impinges on the development of the message happens all…

  18. Just How Important Is the Messenger versus the Message? The Case of Framing Physician-Assisted Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider-Markel, Donald P.; Joslyn, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    As a political issue, death and dying topics only sometimes reach the political agenda. However, some issues, such as physician-assisted suicide (PAS) have been highly salient. This article explores attitudes toward PAS by examining the malleability of opinion when respondents are exposed to issue frames and when specific messengers present those…

  19. FATHEAD MINNOW VITELLOGENIN: COMPLEMENTARY DNA SEQUENCE AND MESSENGER RNA AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION AFTER 17B-ESTRADIOL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) in oviparous animals has been proposed as a sensitive indicator of invironmental contaminants that activate the estrogen receptor. In the present study, a sensitive ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) for VTG messenger RNA (mRNA) was developed for ...

  20. Models and Messengers of Resilience: A Theoretical Model of College Students' Resilience, Regulatory Strategy Use, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus L.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Kestler, Jessica L.; Cordova, Jackie R.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a theoretical model of college students' ratings of messengers of resilience and models of resilience, students' own perceived resilience, regulatory strategy use and achievement. A total of 116 undergraduates participated in this study. The results of a path analysis indicated that ratings of models of resilience had a direct effect on…

  1. Gene Expression in Archaea: Studies of Transcriptional Promoters, Messenger RNA Processing, and Five Prime Untranslated Regions in "Methanocaldococcus Jannashchii"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression in Archaea is less understood than those in Bacteria and Eucarya. In general, three steps are involved in gene expression--transcription, RNA processing, and translation. To expand our knowledge of these processes in Archaea, I have studied transcriptional promoters, messenger RNA processing, and 5'-untranslated regions in…

  2. The Effectiveness of Using WhatsApp Messenger as One of Mobile Learning Techniques to Develop Students' Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fattah, Said Fathy El Said Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to determine the effectiveness of using a WhatsApp Messenger as one of mobile learning techniques to develop students' writing skills. Participants were 30 second year college students, English department from a private university in Saudi Arabia. The experimental group (N = 15) used WhatsApp technology to develop…

  3. Sharing Planetary Exploration: The Education and Public Outreach Program for the NASA MESSENGER Mission to Orbit Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Stockman, S.; Chapman, C. R.; Leary, J. C.; McNutt, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Program of the MESSENGER mission to the planet Mercury, supported by the NASA Discovery Program, is a full partnership between the project's science and engineering teams and a team of professionals from the EPO community. The Challenger Center for Space Science Education (CCSSE) and the Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE) are developing sets of MESSENGER Education Modules targeting grade-specific education levels across K-12. These modules are being disseminated through a MESSENGER EPO Website developed at Montana State University, an Educator Fellowship Program managed by CCSSE to train Fellows to conduct educator workshops, additional workshops planned for NASA educators and members of the Minority University - SPace Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN), and existing inner-city science education programs (e.g., the CASE Summer Science Institute in Washington, D.C.). All lessons are mapped to national standards and benchmarks by MESSENGER EPO team members trained by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061, all involve user input and feedback and quality control by the EPO team, and all are thoroughly screened by members of the project science and engineering teams. At the college level, internships in science and engineering are provided to students at minority institutions through a program managed by MU-SPIN, and additional opportunities for student participation across the country are planned as the mission proceeds. Outreach efforts include radio spots (AAAS), museum displays (National Air and Space Museum), posters and traveling exhibits (CASE), general language books (AAAS), programs targeting underserved communities (AAAS, CCSSE, and MU-SPIN), and a documentary highlighting the scientific and technical challenges involved in exploring Mercury and how the MESSENGER team has been meeting these challenges. As with the educational elements, science and engineering team members

  4. A METABOLITE OF METHOXYCHLOR,2,2-BIS(P-HYDOXYPHENYL)-1,1,1- TRICHLOROETHANE REDUCES TESTOSTERONE BIOSYNTHESIS IN RAT LEYDIG CELLS THROUGH SUPPRESSION OF STEADY-STATE MESSENGER RIBONUCLEIC ACID LEVELS OF THE CHOLESTEROL SIDE-CHAIN CLEAVAGE ENZYME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Postnatal development of Leydig cells involves transformation through three stages: progenitor, immature, and adult Leydig cells. The process of differentiation is accompanied by a progressive increase in the capacity of Leydig cells to produce testosterone (T). T promotes the ma...

  5. The effect of 648 nm diode laser irradiation on second messengers in senescent human keratinocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins Evans, D.; Abrahamse, H.

    2009-02-01

    Background/purpose: Stress induced premature senescence (SIPS) is defined as the long-term effect of subcytotoxic stress on proliferative cell types. Cells in SIPS display differences at the level of protein expression which affect energy metabolism, defense systems, redox potential, cell morphology and transduction pathways. This study aimed to determine the effect of laser irradiation on second messengers in senescent cells and to establish if that effect can be directly linked to changes in cellular function such as cell viability or proliferation. Materials and Methods: Human keratinocyte cell cultures were modified to induce premature senescence using repeated sub-lethal stresses of 200 uM H2O2 or 5% OH every day for four days with two days recovery. SIPS was confirmed by senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining. Control conditions included normal, repeated stress of 500 uM H2O2 to induce apoptosis and 200 uM PBN as an anti-oxidant or free radical scavenger. Cells were irradiated with 1.5 J/cm2 on day 1 and 4 using a 648 nm diode laser (3.3 mW/cm2) and cellular responses were measured 1 h post irradiation. The affect on second messengers was assessed by measuring cAMP, cGMP, nitric oxide and intracellular calcium (Ca2+) while functional changes were assessed using cell morphology, ATP cell viability, LDH membrane integrity and WST-1 cell proliferation. Results: Results indicate an increase in NO and a decrease in cGMP and Ca2+ in 200 uM H2O2 irradiated cells while PBN irradiated cells showed a decrease in cAMP and an increase in ATP viability and cell proliferation. Conclusion: Laser irradiation influences cell signaling which ultimately changes the biological function of senescent cells. If laser therapy can stimulate the biological function of senescent cells it may be beneficial to conditions such as immune senescence, skin ageing, muscle atrophy, premature ageing of arteries in patients with advanced heart disease, neurodegenerative disorders and

  6. Groundbased Observations of sodium at Mercury during the First MESSENGER Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.; Mouawad, N.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Groundbased observations of the sodium exospheric emission at Mercury taken at the McMathPierce Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona, were conducted during the period of January 1018, 2008. During these observations, we mapped the distribution of sodium D2 emission over the planet. The procedure for mapping sodium using an image slicer and tiptilt image stabilization has been described by Potter et al. [1]. The emission maps were used to construct maps of sodium column density. Herein we discuss the temporal and spatial variability of the sodium emission on the observed side of planet. Maps of surface reflectance in the continuum near the sodium D2 line (left ) and column abundance of sodium in the exosphere (right) are shown for January 12, 13 and 14, in Figures 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The maximum column density was in the range 1.15 to 1.40 x 1011 atoms/cm2 during this period. The sodium distribution is uneven, with higher values of column density at high southern and northern E P S C EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00311, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 latitudes. This may be the effect of solar radiation acceleration [2] which was near its maximum value, ranging from 164 to 171 cm/sec2, or 0.44 to 0.46 of surface gravity. As a consequence of high radiation pressure, sodium atoms are driven to high latitudes. However, the distribution for January 12 shows a considerable excess in high southern latitudes, suggesting a source of sodium at those latitudes. This dataset brackets observations taken with the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) instrument [3] onboard the MESSENGER spacecraft [4] during the first flyby of the planet, January 14, 2008. An analogy between both data sets will be discussed. References [1] Potter, A.E., Plymate C., Keller C., Killen R.M., and Morgan T.H. (2006) Adv. Space Res. 38, 599603. [2] Potter, A.E., R. M. Killen, M

  7. MESSENGER Educator Fellows Taking the Nation on a Ride to the Innermost Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhala, H. A.; Goldstein, J. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J. P.; Hallau, K. G.; Hirshon, B.; Weir, H. M.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Exploration of the mysterious planet Mercury offers an unprecedented opportunity for teachers, students, and citizens to tag along for the ride, and the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) Educator Fellows are making sure classrooms across the U.S. are treated to quite a show. The Fellows, a nationally selected team of 30 master science educator volunteers, conduct workshops to teachers on how to bring educational materials developed in support of the mission into the classroom. The goal of the program is to provide teachers and school districts with exceptional educational materials and professional development strongly tied to the space science curriculum, and the materials are designed to inspire the next generation of America's scientists and engineers through NASA missions. Since the program's inception in 2003, more than 17,000 educators have been trained by the Fellows. On the basis of data gathered from the Fellows, this figure could translate to over two million student experiences. The success of the Fellowship program can also be gauged by determining how well it has maintained its volunteer corps over the years. The Fellows, selected to the program through a national announcement of opportunity every two years, reflect a geographically and institutionally diverse mix of individuals from a variety of settings such as science centers, museums, school districts, and universities. The Fellows sign up to the program for two years at a time, and at the end of their term they have the option to reapply. To keep the number of Fellows at 30 in each cadre, new Fellows are recruited to replace those who have retired. The current, fourth cadre of Fellows includes 30 individuals in 19 states and territories. Of these, seven have been in the program since the first cadre, and the other 23 include Fellows from the second, third, and fourth recruitment campaigns in 2006, 2008, and 2010. The current cadre is conducting its work

  8. Survey of Coherent Approximately 1 Hz Waves in Mercury's Inner Magnetosphere from MESSENGER Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boardsen, Scott A.; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    We summarize observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft of highly coherent waves at frequencies between 0.4 and 5 Hz in Mercury's inner magnetosphere. This survey covers the time period from 24 March to 25 September 2011, or 2.1 Mercury years. These waves typically exhibit banded harmonic structure that drifts in frequency as the spacecraft traverses the magnetic equator. The waves are seen at all magnetic local times, but their observed rate of occurrence is much less on the dayside, at least in part the result of MESSENGER's orbit. On the nightside, on average, wave power is maximum near the equator and decreases with increasing magnetic latitude, consistent with an equatorial source. When the spacecraft traverses the plasma sheet during its equatorial crossings, wave power is a factor of 2 larger than for equatorial crossings that do not cross the plasma sheet. The waves are highly transverse at large magnetic latitudes but are more compressional near the equator. However, at the equator the transverse component of these waves increases relative to the compressional component as the degree of polarization decreases. Also, there is a substantial minority of events that are transverse at all magnetic latitudes, including the equator. A few of these latter events could be interpreted as ion cyclotron waves. In general, the waves tend to be strongly linear and characterized by values of the ellipticity less than 0.3 and wave-normal angles peaked near 90 deg. Their maxima in wave power at the equator coupled with their narrow-band character suggests that these waves might be generated locally in loss cone plasma characterized by high values of the ratio beta of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure. Presumably both electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and electromagnetic ion Bernstein waves can be generated by ion loss cone distributions. If proton beta decreases with increasing magnetic latitude along a field line, then electromagnetic ion Bernstein waves are predicted

  9. Thermal Effects on Camera Focal Length in Messenger Star Calibration and Orbital Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, S.; Elgner, S.; Preusker, F.; Stark, A.; Oberst, J.

    2018-04-01

    We analyse images taken by the MErcury Surface, Space ENviorment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft for the camera's thermal response in the harsh thermal environment near Mercury. Specifically, we study thermally induced variations in focal length of the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS). Within the several hundreds of images of star fields, the Wide Angle Camera (WAC) typically captures up to 250 stars in one frame of the panchromatic channel. We measure star positions and relate these to the known star coordinates taken from the Tycho-2 catalogue. We solve for camera pointing, the focal length parameter and two non-symmetrical distortion parameters for each image. Using data from the temperature sensors on the camera focal plane we model a linear focal length function in the form of f(T) = A0 + A1 T. Next, we use images from MESSENGER's orbital mapping mission. We deal with large image blocks, typically used for the production of a high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM). We analyzed images from the combined quadrangles H03 and H07, a selected region, covered by approx. 10,600 images, in which we identified about 83,900 tiepoints. Using bundle block adjustments, we solved for the unknown coordinates of the control points, the pointing of the camera - as well as the camera's focal length. We then fit the above linear function with respect to the focal plane temperature. As a result, we find a complex response of the camera to thermal conditions of the spacecraft. To first order, we see a linear increase by approx. 0.0107 mm per degree temperature for the Narrow-Angle Camera (NAC). This is in agreement with the observed thermal response seen in images of the panchromatic channel of the WAC. Unfortunately, further comparisons of results from the two methods, both of which use different portions of the available image data, are limited. If leaving uncorrected, these effects may pose significant difficulties in the photogrammetric analysis

  10. MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Magnetic Tail Loading and Unloading during its Third Flyby of Mercury: Substorms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Gloeckler, George; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-05-01

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury on September 29, 2009, a variable interplanetary magnetic field produced a series of several minute enhancements of the tail magnetic field by factors of ~ 2 to 3.5. The magnetic field flaring during these intervals indicates that they result from loading of the tail with magnetic flux transferred from the dayside magnetosphere. The unloading intervals were associated with plasmoids and traveling compression regions which are well known signatures of tail reconnection. The peak tail magnetic flux during the smallest loading events equaled 30% of the magnetic flux emanating from Mercury, and may have reached 100% for the largest event. In this case the dayside magnetic shielding is reduced and solar wind flux impacting the surface may be greatly enhanced. Despite the intensity of these events and their similarity to terrestrial substorm magnetic flux dynamics, no energetic charged particles with energies greater than 36 keV were observed. This absence of energetic particles constitutes a deepening puzzle for the view that the Mercury magnetosphere system is undergoing dynamical processes analogous to those at Earth during substorm events.

  11. Systemic delivery of factor IX messenger RNA for protein replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Suvasini; Tonnu, Nina; Tachikawa, Kiyoshi; Limphong, Pattraranee; Vega, Jerel B.; Karmali, Priya P.; Chivukula, Pad; Verma, Inder M.

    2017-01-01

    Safe and efficient delivery of messenger RNAs for protein replacement therapies offers great promise but remains challenging. In this report, we demonstrate systemic, in vivo, nonviral mRNA delivery through lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) to treat a Factor IX (FIX)-deficient mouse model of hemophilia B. Delivery of human FIX (hFIX) mRNA encapsulated in our LUNAR LNPs results in a rapid pulse of FIX protein (within 4–6 h) that remains stable for up to 4–6 d and is therapeutically effective, like the recombinant human factor IX protein (rhFIX) that is the current standard of care. Extensive cytokine and liver enzyme profiling showed that repeated administration of the mRNA–LUNAR complex does not cause any adverse innate or adaptive immune responses in immune-competent, hemophilic mice. The levels of hFIX protein that were produced also remained consistent during repeated administrations. These results suggest that delivery of long mRNAs is a viable therapeutic alternative for many clotting disorders and for other hepatic diseases where recombinant proteins may be unaffordable or unsuitable. PMID:28202722

  12. Unusual Stability of Messenger RNA in Snake Venom Reveals Gene Expression Dynamics of Venom Replenishment

    PubMed Central

    Currier, Rachel B.; Calvete, Juan J.; Sanz, Libia; Harrison, Robert A.; Rowley, Paul D.; Wagstaff, Simon C.

    2012-01-01

    Venom is a critical evolutionary innovation enabling venomous snakes to become successful limbless predators; it is therefore vital that venomous snakes possess a highly efficient venom production and delivery system to maintain their predatory arsenal. Here, we exploit the unusual stability of messenger RNA in venom to conduct, for the first time, quantitative PCR to characterise the dynamics of gene expression of newly synthesised venom proteins following venom depletion. Quantitative PCR directly from venom enables real-time dynamic studies of gene expression in the same animals because it circumvents the conventional requirement to sacrifice snakes to extract mRNA from dissected venom glands. Using qPCR and proteomic analysis, we show that gene expression and protein re-synthesis triggered by venom expulsion peaks between days 3–7 of the cycle of venom replenishment, with different protein families expressed in parallel. We demonstrate that venom re-synthesis occurs very rapidly following depletion of venom stores, presumably to ensure venomous snakes retain their ability to efficiently predate and remain defended from predators. The stability of mRNA in venom is biologically fascinating, and could significantly empower venom research by expanding opportunities to produce transcriptomes from historical venom stocks and rare or endangered venomous species, for new therapeutic, diagnostic and evolutionary studies. PMID:22879897

  13. Mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle generates lipid-related second messengers by phospholipase activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Shansky, Janet; Karlisch, Patricia; Solerssi, Rosa Lopez

    1991-01-01

    Repetitive mechanical stimulation of cultured avian skeletal muscle increases the synthesis of prostaglandins E2 and F2(alpha) which regulate protein turnover rates and muscle cell growth. Mechnical stimulation significantly increases the breakdown rate of (3)H-arachidonic acid labelled phospholipids, releasing free (3)H-arachidonic acid, and the rate-limiting precursor of prostaglandin synthesis. Mechanical stimulation also significantly increases (3)H-arachidonic acid labelled diacylglycerol formation and intracellular levels of inositol phosphates from myo-2-(3)H inositol labelled phospholipids. Phospholipase A2, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC), and phospholipase D (PLD) are activated by stretch. The lipase inhibitors bromophenacylbromide and RHC80267 together reduce stretch-induced prostaglandin production by 73-83 percent. The stretch-induced increases in prostaglandin production, (3)H-arachidonic acid labelled phospholipid breakdown, and (3)H-arachidonic acid labelled diacylglycerol formation occur independently of cellular electrical activity (tetrodotoxin insensitive) whereas the formation of inositol phosphates from myo-2-(3)H inositol labelled phospholipids are dependent on cellular electrical activity. These results indicate that mechanical stimulation increases the lipid-related second messengers arachidonic acid, diacylglycerol, and prostaglandins through activation of specific phospholipases such as PLA2 and PLD, but not by activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC.

  14. Multi-messenger studies of compact binary mergers in the in the ngVLA era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    We explore some of the scientific opportunities that the next generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) will open in the field of multi-messenger time-domain astronomy. We focus on compact binary mergers, golden astrophysical targets of ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors such as advanced LIGO. A decade from now, a large number of these mergers is likely to be discovered by a world-wide network of GW detectors. We discuss how a radio array with 10 times the sensitivity of the current Karl G. Jansky VLA and 10 times the resolution, would enable resolved radio continuum studies of binary merger hosts, probing regions of the galaxy undergoing star formation (which can be heavily obscured by dust and gas), AGN components, and mapping the offset distribution of the mergers with respect to the host galaxy light. For compact binary mergers containing at least one neutron star (NS), from which electromagnetic counterparts are expected to exist, we show how the ngVLA would enable direct size measurements of the relativistic merger ejecta and probe, for the first time directly, their dynamics.

  15. A Bayesian approach to multi-messenger astronomy: identification of gravitational-wave host galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, XiLong; Messenger, Christopher; Heng, Ik Siong

    We present a general framework for incorporating astrophysical information into Bayesian parameter estimation techniques used by gravitational wave data analysis to facilitate multi-messenger astronomy. Since the progenitors of transient gravitational wave events, such as compact binary coalescences, are likely to be associated with a host galaxy, improvements to the source sky location estimates through the use of host galaxy information are explored. To demonstrate how host galaxy properties can be included, we simulate a population of compact binary coalescences and show that for ∼8.5% of simulations within 200 Mpc, the top 10 most likely galaxies account for a ∼50% ofmore » the total probability of hosting a gravitational wave source. The true gravitational wave source host galaxy is in the top 10 galaxy candidates ∼10% of the time. Furthermore, we show that by including host galaxy information, a better estimate of the inclination angle of a compact binary gravitational wave source can be obtained. We also demonstrate the flexibility of our method by incorporating the use of either the B or K band into our analysis.« less

  16. Phloroglucinol functions as an intracellular and intercellular chemical messenger influencing gene expression in Pseudomonas protegens.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Jennifer C; Buchanan, Alex; Vining, Oliver; Kidarsa, Teresa A; Chang, Jeff H; McPhail, Kerry L; Loper, Joyce E

    2016-10-01

    Bacteria can be both highly communicative and highly competitive in natural habitats and antibiotics are thought to play a role in both of these processes. The soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 produces a spectrum of antibiotics, two of which, pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), function in intracellular and intercellular communication, both as autoinducers of their own production. Here, we demonstrate that phloroglucinol, an intermediate in DAPG biosynthesis, can serve as an intercellular signal influencing the expression of pyoluteorin biosynthesis genes, the production of pyoluteorin, and inhibition of Pythium ultimum, a phytopathogenic oomycete sensitive to pyoluteorin. Through analysis of RNAseq data sets, we show that phloroglucinol had broad effects on the transcriptome of Pf-5, significantly altering the transcription of more than two hundred genes. The effects of nanomolar versus micromolar concentrations of phloroglucinol differed both quantitatively and qualitatively, influencing the expression of distinct sets of genes or having opposite effects on transcript abundance of certain genes. Therefore, our results support the concept of hormesis, a phenomenon associated with signalling molecules that elicit distinct responses at different concentrations. Phloroglucinol is the first example of an intermediate of antibiotic biosynthesis that functions as a chemical messenger influencing gene expression in P. protegens. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Chemical Heterogeneity on Mercury's Surface Revealed by the MESSENGER X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weider, Shoshana Z.; Nittler, Larry R.; Starr, Richard D.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Stockstill-Cahill, Karen R.; Byrne, Paul K.; Denevi, Brett W.; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    We present the analysis of 205 spatially resolved measurements of the surfacecomposition of Mercury from MESSENGERs X-Ray Spectrometer. The surfacefootprints of these measurements are categorized according to geological terrain. Northernsmooth plains deposits and the plains interior to the Caloris basin differ compositionallyfrom older terrain on Mercury. The older terrain generally has higher MgSi, SSi, andCaSi ratios, and a lower AlSi ratio than the smooth plains. Mercurys surface mineralogyis likely dominated by high-Mg mafic minerals (e.g., enstatite), plagioclase feldspar, andlesser amounts of Ca, Mg, andor Fe sulfides (e.g., oldhamite). The compositionaldifference between the volcanic smooth plains and the older terrain reflects differentabundances of these minerals and points to the crystallization of the smooth plains from amore chemically evolved magma source. High-degree partial melts of enstatite chondritematerial provide a generally good compositional and mineralogical match for much ofthe surface of Mercury. An exception is Fe, for which the low surface abundance onMercury is still higher than that of melts from enstatite chondrites and may indicate anexogenous contribution from meteoroid impacts.

  18. The Gravity Field, Orientation, and Ephemeris of Mercury from MESSENGER Observations After Three Years in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazarico, Erwan M.; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Gregory; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed three years of radio tracking data from the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury and determined the gravity field, planetary orientation, and ephemeris of the innermost planet. With improvements in spatial coverage, force modeling, and data weighting, we refined an earlier global gravity field both in quality and resolution, and we present here a spherical harmonic solution to degree and order 50. In this field, termed HgM005, uncertainties in low-degree coefficients are reduced by an order of magnitude relative to the earlier global field, and we obtained a preliminary value of the tidal Love number k(sub 2) of 0.451+/-0.014. We also estimated Mercury's pole position, and we obtained an obliquity value of 2.06 +/- 0.16 arcmin, in good agreement with analysis of Earth-based radar observations. From our updated rotation period (58.646146 +/- 0.000011 days) and Mercury ephemeris, we verified experimentally the planet's 3: 2 spin-orbit resonance to greater accuracy than previously possible. We present a detailed analysis of the HgM005 covariance matrix, and we describe some near-circular frozen orbits around Mercury that could be advantageous for future exploration.

  19. Large Impact Basins on Mercury: Global Distribution, Characteristics, and Modification History from MESSENGER Orbital Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Head, James W.; Baker, David M. H.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Klimczak, Christian; Strom, Robert G.; Chapman, Clark R.; Prockter, Louise M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The formation of large impact basins (diameter D greater than or equal to 300 km) was an important process in the early evolution of Mercury and influenced the planet's topography, stratigraphy, and crustal structure. We catalog and characterize this basin population on Mercury from global observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft, and we use the new data to evaluate basins suggested on the basis of the Mariner 10 flybys. Forty-two certain or probable impact basins are recognized a few additional basins that may have been degraded to the point of ambiguity are plausible on the basis of new data but are classified as uncertain. The spatial density of large basins (D greater than or equal to 500 km) on Mercury is lower than that on the Moon. Morphological characteristics of basins on Mercury suggest that on average they are more degraded than lunar basins. These observations are consistent with more efficient modification, degradation, and obliteration of the largest basins on Mercury than on the Moon. This distinction may be a result of differences in the basin formation process (producing fewer rings), greater relaxation of topography after basin formation (subduing relief), and/or higher rates of volcanism during the period of heavy bombardment on Mercury compared to the Moon (burying basin rings and interiors).

  20. Evidence for expression of eosinophil-associated IL-12 messenger RNA and immunoreactivity in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Nutku, E; Gounni, A S; Olivenstein, R; Hamid, Q

    2000-08-01

    Eosinophils are a source of cytokines within the airways of asthmatic individuals that may exert an important immunoregulatory influence. We examined IL-12 messenger (m)RNA and protein expression in eosinophils from peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained from subjects with atopic asthma (n = 7), patients with chronic bronchitis (n = 5), and nonatopic healthy control subjects (n = 7). To further define this IL-12(+) population of eosinophils for the expression of other cytokines, we colocalized IL-12 and IL-5 within the peripheral blood eosinophils. To detect IL-12 mRNA and protein expression, we used in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry techniques. The double-immunocytochemistry technique was used to localize IL-12 protein to BAL eosinophils and to colocalize IL-5 and IL-12 in peripheral blood eosinophils. IL-12 mRNA and immunoreactive protein were localized to peripheral blood eosinophils. BAL fluid-derived eosinophils from asthmatic subjects were also reactive to IL-12. The percentage of peripheral blood eosinophils expressing mRNA for IL-12 was significantly lower in asthmatic subjects compared with that found in eosinophils obtained from patients with chronic bronchitis (P<.001) and control patients (P <.05). Colocalization studies demonstrated that the percentages of IL-12(+) eosinophils that are also IL-5(+) were 72% in asthmatic subjects and only 11% in control subjects (P<.001). These results suggest that eosinophils are a potential source of IL-12. Eosinophil-derived IL-12 may contribute and modulate the local allergic inflammatory responses.

  1. FMRP acts as a key messenger for dopamine modulation in the forebrain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hansen; Wu, Long-Jun; Kim, Susan S; Lee, Frank J S; Gong, Bo; Toyoda, Hiroki; Ren, Ming; Shang, Yu-Ze; Xu, Hui; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Zhuo, Min

    2008-08-28

    The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein that controls translational efficiency and regulates synaptic plasticity. Here, we report that FMRP is involved in dopamine (DA) modulation of synaptic potentiation. AMPA glutamate receptor subtype 1 (GluR1) surface expression and phosphorylation in response to D1 receptor stimulation were reduced in cultured Fmr1(-/-) prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons. Furthermore, D1 receptor signaling was impaired, accompanied by D1 receptor hyperphosphorylation at serine sites and subcellular redistribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in both PFC and striatum of Fmr1(-/-) mice. FMRP interacted with GRK2, and pharmacological inhibition of GRK2 rescued D1 receptor signaling in Fmr1(-/-) neurons. Finally, D1 receptor agonist partially rescued hyperactivity and enhanced the motor function of Fmr1(-/-) mice. Our study has identified FMRP as a key messenger for DA modulation in the forebrain and may provide insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying fragile X syndrome.

  2. Messages Do Diffuse Faster than Messengers: Reconciling Disparate Estimates of the Morphogen Bicoid Diffusion Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Sigaut, Lorena; Pearson, John E.; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

    2014-01-01

    The gradient of Bicoid (Bcd) is key for the establishment of the anterior-posterior axis in Drosophila embryos. The gradient properties are compatible with the SDD model in which Bcd is synthesized at the anterior pole and then diffuses into the embryo and is degraded with a characteristic time. Within this model, the Bcd diffusion coefficient is critical to set the timescale of gradient formation. This coefficient has been measured using two optical techniques, Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), obtaining estimates in which the FCS value is an order of magnitude larger than the FRAP one. This discrepancy raises the following questions: which estimate is "correct''; what is the reason for the disparity; and can the SDD model explain Bcd gradient formation within the experimentally observed times? In this paper, we use a simple biophysical model in which Bcd diffuses and interacts with binding sites to show that both the FRAP and the FCS estimates may be correct and compatible with the observed timescale of gradient formation. The discrepancy arises from the fact that FCS and FRAP report on different effective (concentration dependent) diffusion coefficients, one of which describes the spreading rate of the individual Bcd molecules (the messengers) and the other one that of their concentration (the message). The latter is the one that is more relevant for the gradient establishment and is compatible with its formation within the experimentally observed times. PMID:24901638

  3. Variations in the abundance of iron on Mercury's surface from MESSENGER X-Ray Spectrometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weider, Shoshana Z.; Nittler, Larry R.; Starr, Richard D.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-06-01

    We present measurements of Mercury's surface composition from the analysis of MESSENGER X-Ray Spectrometer data acquired during 55 large solar flares, which each provide a statistically significant detection of Fe X-ray fluorescence. The Fe/Si data display a clear dependence on phase angle, for which the results are empirically corrected. Mercury's surface has a low total abundance of Fe, with a mean Fe/Si ratio of ˜0.06 (equivalent to ˜1.5 wt% Fe). The absolute Fe/Si values are subject to a number of systematic uncertainties, including the phase-angle correction and possible mineral mixing effects. Individual Fe/Si measurements have an intrinsic error of ˜10%. Observed Fe/Si values display small variations (significant at two standard deviations) from the planetary average value across large regions in Mercury's southern hemisphere. Larger differences are observed between measured Fe/Si values from more spatially resolved footprints on volcanic smooth plains deposits in the northern hemisphere and from those in surrounding terrains. Fe is most likely contained as a minor component in sulfide phases (e.g., troilite, niningerite, daubréelite) and as Fe metal, rather than within mafic silicates. Variations in surface reflectance (i.e., differences in overall reflectance and spectral slope) across Mercury are unlikely to be caused by variations in the abundance of Fe.

  4. Messenger RNA-based therapeutics for the treatment of apoptosis-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Akitsugu; Uchida, Satoshi; Ishii, Takehiko; Itaka, Keiji; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-10-28

    Gene therapy is a promising approach for treating diseases that are closely associated with excessive apoptosis, because the gene can effectively and sustainably introduce anti-apoptotic factors into cells. However, DNA delivery poses the risk of random genomic integration, leading to overexpression of the delivered gene and cancer development. Messenger RNA (mRNA) can evade integration events in target cells. We examined the use of mRNA-based therapeutics for introducing anti-apoptotic factors by using a mouse model of fulminant hepatitis. For introducing mRNA into the liver, a synthesised polymer-based carrier of polyplex nanomicelles was used for hydrodynamic intravenous injection. Using GFP as a reporter, we demonstrate that mRNA delivery induced efficient protein expression in almost 100% of liver cells, while plasmid DNA (pDNA) delivery provided a smaller percentage of GFP-positive cells. Analyses using Cy5-labelled mRNA and pDNA revealed that efficient expression by mRNA was attributed to a simple intracellular mechanism, without the need for nuclear entry. Consistent with this observation, Bcl-2 mRNA was more effective on reducing apoptosis in the liver of mice with fulminant hepatitis than Bcl-2 pDNA. Therefore, mRNA-based therapeutics combined with an effective delivery system such as polyplex nanomicelles is a promising treatment for intractable diseases associated with excessive apoptosis.

  5. Role of messenger RNA-ribosome complex in complementary DNA display.

    PubMed

    Naimuddin, Mohammed; Ohtsuka, Isao; Kitamura, Koichiro; Kudou, Motonori; Kimura, Shinnosuke

    2013-07-15

    In vitro display technologies such as ribosome display and messenger RNA (mRNA)/complementary DNA (cDNA) display are powerful methods that can generate library diversities on the order of 10(10-14). However, in mRNA and cDNA display methods, the end use diversity is two orders of magnitude lower than initial diversity and is dependent on the downstream processes that act as limiting factors. We found that in our previous cDNA display protocol, the purification of protein fusions by the use of streptavidin matrices from cell-free translation mixtures had poor efficiency (∼10-15%) that seriously affected the diversity of the purified library. Here, we have investigated and optimized the protocols that provided remarkable purification efficiencies. The stalled ribosome in the mRNA-ribosome complex was found to impede this purification efficiency. Among the various conditions tested, destabilization of ribosomes by appropriate concentration of metal chelating agents in combination with an optimal temperature of 30°C were found to be crucial and effective for nearly complete isolation of protein fusions from the cell-free translation system. Thus, this protocol provided 8- to 10-fold increased efficiency of purification over the previous method and results in retaining the diversity of the library by approximately an order of magnitude-important for directed evolution. We also discuss the possible effects in the fabrication of protein chips. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multi-messenger Light Curves from Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Internal Shock Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Heinze, Jonas; Murase, Kohta; Winter, Walter

    2017-03-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are promising as sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. In the internal shock scenario, blobs of plasma emitted from a central engine collide within a relativistic jet and form shocks, leading to particle acceleration and emission. Motivated by present experimental constraints and sensitivities, we improve the predictions of particle emission by investigating time-dependent effects from multiple shocks. We produce synthetic light curves with different variability timescales that stem from properties of the central engine. For individual GRBs, qualitative conclusions about model parameters, neutrino production efficiency, and delays in high-energy gamma-rays can be deduced from inspection of the gamma-ray light curves. GRBs with fast time variability without additional prominent pulse structure tend to be efficient neutrino emitters, whereas GRBs with fast variability modulated by a broad pulse structure can be inefficient neutrino emitters and produce delayed high-energy gamma-ray signals. Our results can be applied to quantitative tests of the GRB origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and have the potential to impact current and future multi-messenger searches.

  7. Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA MESSENGER mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury's ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results confirm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a significantly refined uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η = (-6.6 ± 7.2) × 10-5. By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β = 1 + (-1.6 ± 1.8) × 10-5 and the Sun's gravitational oblateness, J2⊙J2⊙ = (2.246 ± 0.022) × 10-7. Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, GM⊙°/GM⊙GM⊙°/GM⊙ = (-6.13 ± 1.47) × 10-14, which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain ∣∣G°∣∣/GG°/G to be <4 × 10-14 per year.

  8. Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA MESSENGER mission.

    PubMed

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T

    2018-01-18

    The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury's ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results confirm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a significantly refined uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η = (-6.6 ± 7.2) × 10 -5 . By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β = 1 + (-1.6 ± 1.8) × 10 -5 and the Sun's gravitational oblateness, [Formula: see text] = (2.246 ± 0.022) × 10 -7 . Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, [Formula: see text] = (-6.13 ± 1.47) × 10 -14 , which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain [Formula: see text] to be <4 × 10 -14 per year.

  9. The intranuclear mobility of messenger RNA binding proteins is ATP dependent and temperature sensitive

    PubMed Central

    Calapez, Alexandre; Pereira, Henrique M.; Calado, Angelo; Braga, José; Rino, José; Carvalho, Célia; Tavanez, João Paulo; Wahle, Elmar; Rosa, Agostinho C.; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria

    2002-01-01

    fAter being released from transcription sites, messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) must reach the nuclear pore complexes in order to be translocated to the cytoplasm. Whether the intranuclear movement of mRNPs results largely from Brownian motion or involves molecular motors remains unknown. Here we have used quantitative photobleaching techniques to monitor the intranuclear mobility of protein components of mRNPs tagged with GFP. The results show that the diffusion coefficients of the poly(A)-binding protein II (PABP2) and the export factor TAP are significantly reduced when these proteins are bound to mRNP complexes, as compared with nonbound proteins. The data further show that the mobility of wild-type PABP2 and TAP, but not of a point mutant variant of PABP2 that fails to bind to RNA, is significantly reduced when cells are ATP depleted or incubated at 22°C. Energy depletion has only minor effects on the intranuclear mobility of a 2,000-kD dextran (which corresponds approximately in size to 40S mRNP particles), suggesting that the reduced mobility of PABP2 and TAP is not caused by a general alteration of the nuclear environment. Taken together, the data suggest that the mobility of mRNPs in the living cell nucleus involves a combination of passive diffusion and ATP-dependent processes. PMID:12473688

  10. Second messenger production in avian medullary nephron segments in response to peptide hormones.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, D L; Reddy, V; Plaga, K

    1999-03-01

    We examined the sites of peptide hormone activation within medullary nephron segments of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) kidney by measuring rates of hormone-induced generation of cyclic nucleotide second messenger. Thin descending limbs, thick ascending limbs, and collecting ducts had baseline activity of adenylyl cyclase that resulted in cAMP accumulation of 207 +/- 56, 147 +/- 31, and 151 +/- 41 fmol. mm-1. 30 min-1, respectively. In all segments, this activity increased 10- to 20-fold in response to forskolin. Activity of adenylyl cyclase in the thin descending limb was stimulated approximately twofold by parathyroid hormone (PTH) but not by any of the other hormones tested [arginine vasotocin (AVT), glucagon, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), or isoproterenol, each at 10(-6) M]. Thick ascending limb was stimulated two- to threefold by both AVT and PTH; however, glucagon and isoproterenol had no effect, and ANP stimulated neither cAMP nor cGMP accumulation. Adenylyl cyclase activity in the collecting duct was stimulated fourfold by AVT but not by the other hormones; likewise, ANP did not stimulate cGMP accumulation in this segment. These data support a tubular action of AVT and PTH in the avian renal medulla.

  11. Messenger RNA- versus retrovirus-based induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming strategies: analysis of genomic integrity.

    PubMed

    Steichen, Clara; Luce, Eléanor; Maluenda, Jérôme; Tosca, Lucie; Moreno-Gimeno, Inmaculada; Desterke, Christophe; Dianat, Noushin; Goulinet-Mainot, Sylvie; Awan-Toor, Sarah; Burks, Deborah; Marie, Joëlle; Weber, Anne; Tachdjian, Gérard; Melki, Judith; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne

    2014-06-01

    The use of synthetic messenger RNAs to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is particularly appealing for potential regenerative medicine applications, because it overcomes the common drawbacks of DNA-based or virus-based reprogramming strategies, including transgene integration in particular. We compared the genomic integrity of mRNA-derived iPSCs with that of retrovirus-derived iPSCs generated in strictly comparable conditions, by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variation (CNV) analyses. We showed that mRNA-derived iPSCs do not differ significantly from the parental fibroblasts in SNP analysis, whereas retrovirus-derived iPSCs do. We found that the number of CNVs seemed independent of the reprogramming method, instead appearing to be clone-dependent. Furthermore, differentiation studies indicated that mRNA-derived iPSCs differentiated efficiently into hepatoblasts and that these cells did not load additional CNVs during differentiation. The integration-free hepatoblasts that were generated constitute a new tool for the study of diseased hepatocytes derived from patients' iPSCs and their use in the context of stem cell-derived hepatocyte transplantation. Our findings also highlight the need to conduct careful studies on genome integrity for the selection of iPSC lines before using them for further applications. ©AlphaMed Press.

  12. POEMMA (Probe Of Extreme Multi-Messenger Astrophysics) Science and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinto, Angela V.; Perkins, Jeremy S.; POEMMA Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In this poster we describe the preliminary design of POEMMA (Probe Of Extreme Multi-Messenger Astrophysics). The two satellites flying in formation consists of an innovative Schmidt telescope design optimized for low energy threshold and large geometry factor for observations. The 4 meter mirror was designed to fit in a dual manifest launch vehicle. A novel corrector lens and fast optics are design to optimized the full field of view to 45 degrees. The large focal surface will be populated by two systems: a multi-anode PMT (MAPMT) array for fluorescence detection and a Silicon PM (SiPM) array for Cherenkov detection around the limb of the Earth. At an altitude of 525 km, the LEO orbit will have a 28.5o inclination the mission can be launched from KSC and have a mission life of 3 years with a 5 year goal. The mission will improve by orders of magnitude the observations of ultra-high energy cosmic rays above tens of EeV and search for neutrinos above tens of PeVs.

  13. Messages do diffuse faster than messengers: reconciling disparate estimates of the morphogen bicoid diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed

    Sigaut, Lorena; Pearson, John E; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

    2014-06-01

    The gradient of Bicoid (Bcd) is key for the establishment of the anterior-posterior axis in Drosophila embryos. The gradient properties are compatible with the SDD model in which Bcd is synthesized at the anterior pole and then diffuses into the embryo and is degraded with a characteristic time. Within this model, the Bcd diffusion coefficient is critical to set the timescale of gradient formation. This coefficient has been measured using two optical techniques, Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), obtaining estimates in which the FCS value is an order of magnitude larger than the FRAP one. This discrepancy raises the following questions: which estimate is "correct''; what is the reason for the disparity; and can the SDD model explain Bcd gradient formation within the experimentally observed times? In this paper, we use a simple biophysical model in which Bcd diffuses and interacts with binding sites to show that both the FRAP and the FCS estimates may be correct and compatible with the observed timescale of gradient formation. The discrepancy arises from the fact that FCS and FRAP report on different effective (concentration dependent) diffusion coefficients, one of which describes the spreading rate of the individual Bcd molecules (the messengers) and the other one that of their concentration (the message). The latter is the one that is more relevant for the gradient establishment and is compatible with its formation within the experimentally observed times.

  14. Mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle generates lipid-related second messengers by phospholipase activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.; Shansky, J.; Karlisch, P.; Solerssi, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Repetitive mechanical stimulation of cultured avian skeletal muscle increases the synthesis of prostaglandins (PG) E2 and F2 alpha which regulate protein turnover rates and muscle cell growth. These stretch-induced PG increases are reduced in low extracellular calcium medium and by specific phospholipase inhibitors. Mechanical stimulation increases the breakdown rate of 3H-arachidonic acid labelled phospholipids, releasing free 3H-arachidonic acid, the rate-limiting precursor of PG synthesis. Mechanical stimulation also increases 3H-arachidonic acid labelled diacylglycerol formation and intracellular levels of inositol phosphates from myo-[2-3H]inositol labelled phospholipids. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC), and phospholipase D (PLD) are all activated by stretch. The stretch-induced increases in PG production, 3H-arachidonic acid labelled phospholipid breakdown, and 3H-arachidonic acid labelled diacylglycerol formation occur independently of cellular electrical activity (tetrodotoxin insensitive) whereas the formation of inositol phosphates from myo-[2-3H]inositol labelled phospholipids is dependent on cellular electrical activity. These results indicate that mechanical stimulation increases the lipid-related second messengers arachidonic acid, diacylglycerol, and PG through activation of specific phospholipases such as PLA2 and PLD, but not by activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC.

  15. Role of WhatsApp Messenger in the Laboratory Management System: A Boon to Communication.

    PubMed

    Dorwal, Pranav; Sachdev, Ritesh; Gautam, Dheeraj; Jain, Dharmendra; Sharma, Pooja; Tiwari, Assem Kumar; Raina, Vimarsh

    2016-01-01

    The revolution of internet and specifically mobile internet has occurred at a blinding pace over the last decade. With the advent of smart phones, the hand held device has become much more than a medium of voice calling. Healthcare has been catching up with the digital revolution in the form of Hospital Information System and Laboratory Information System. However, the advent of instant messaging services, which are abundantly used by the youth, can be used to improve communication and coordination among the various stake holders in the healthcare sector. We have tried to look at the impact of using the WhatsApp messenger service in the laboratory management system, by forming multiple groups of the various subsections of the laboratory. A total of 35 members used this service for a period of 3 months and their response was taken on a scale of 1 to 10. There was significant improvement in the communication in the form of sharing photographic evidence, information about accidents, critical alerts, duty rosters, academic activities and getting directives from seniors. There was also some increase in the load of adding information to the application and disturbance in the routine activities; but the benefits far outweighed the minor hassles. We thereby suggest and foresee another communication revolution which will change the way information is shared in a healthcare sector, with hospital specific dedicated apps.

  16. Black-legged kittiwakes as messengers of Atlantification in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Vihtakari, Mikko; Welcker, Jorg; Moe, Børge; Chastel, Olivier; Tartu, Sabrina; Hop, Haakon; Bech, Claus; Descamps, Sébastien; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2018-01-19

    Climate warming is rapidly altering marine ecosystems towards a more temperate state on the European side of the Arctic. However, this "Atlantification" has rarely been confirmed, as long-term datasets on Arctic marine organisms are scarce. We present a 19-year time series (1982-2016) of diet samples from black-legged kittiwakes as an indicator of the changes in a high Arctic marine ecosystem (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard). Our results highlight a shift from Arctic prey dominance until 2006 to a more mixed diet with high contribution of Atlantic fishes. Capelin, an Atlantic species, dominated the diet composition in 2007, marking a shift in the food web. The occurrence of polar cod, a key Arctic fish species, positively correlated with sea ice index, whereas Atlantic species demonstrated the opposite correlation indicating that the diet shift was likely connected with recent climate warming. Kittiwakes, which gather available fish and zooplankton near the sea surface to feed their chicks, can act as messengers of ecosystem change. Changes in their diet reveal that the Kongsfjord system has drifted in an Atlantic direction over the last decade.

  17. Zinc as a second messenger of mitogenic induction. Effects on diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Grummt, F; Weinmann-Dorsch, C; Schneider-Schaulies, J; Lux, A

    1986-03-01

    DNA synthesis and adenosine(5')tetraphosphate(5')adenosine (Ap4A) levels decrease in cells treated with EDTA. The inhibitory effect of EDTA can be reversed with micromolar amounts of ZnCl2. ZnCl2 in micromolar concentrations also inhibits Ap4A hydrolase and stimulates amino acid-dependent Ap4A synthesis, suggesting that Zn2+ is modulating intracellular Ap4A pools. Serum addition to G1-arrested cells enhances uptake of Zn, whereas serum depletion leads to a fivefold decrease of the rates of zinc uptake. These results are discussed by regarding Zn2+ as a putative 'second messenger' of mitogenic induction and Ap4A as a possible 'third messenger' and trigger of DNA synthesis.

  18. Synaptic plasticity in the medial vestibular nuclei: role of glutamate receptors and retrograde messengers in rat brainstem slices.

    PubMed

    Grassi, S; Pettorossi, V E

    2001-08-01

    The analysis of cellular-molecular events mediating synaptic plasticity within vestibular nuclei is an attempt to explain the mechanisms underlying vestibular plasticity phenomena. The present review is meant to illustrate the main results, obtained in vitro, on the mechanisms underlying long-term changes in synaptic strength within the medial vestibular nuclei. The synaptic plasticity phenomena taking place at the level of vestibular nuclei could be useful for adapting and consolidating the efficacy of vestibular neuron responsiveness to environmental requirements, as during visuo-vestibular recalibration and vestibular compensation. Following a general introduction on the most salient features of vestibular compensation and visuo-vestibular adaptation, which are two plastic events involving neuronal circuitry within the medial vestibular nuclei, the second and third sections describe the results from rat brainstem slice studies, demonstrating the possibility to induce long-term potentiation and depression in the medial vestibular nuclei, following high frequency stimulation of the primary vestibular afferents. In particular the mechanisms sustaining the induction and expression of vestibular long-term potentiation and depression, such as the role of various glutamate receptors and retrograde messengers have been described. The relevant role of the interaction between the platelet-activating factor, acting as a retrograde messenger, and the presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors, in determining the full expression of vestibular long-term potentiation is also underlined. In addition, the mechanisms involved in vestibular long-term potentiation have been compared with those leading to long-term potentiation in the hippocampus to emphasize the most significant differences emerging from vestibular studies. The fourth part, describes recent results demonstrating the essential role of nitric oxide, another retrograde messenger, in the induction of vestibular

  19. Solving the muon g -2 anomaly in deflected anomaly mediated SUSY breaking with messenger-matter interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Wenyu; Yang, Jin Min

    2017-10-01

    We propose to introduce general messenger-matter interactions in the deflected anomaly mediated supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking (AMSB) scenario to explain the gμ-2 anomaly. Scenarios with complete or incomplete grand unified theory (GUT) multiplet messengers are discussed, respectively. The introduction of incomplete GUT mulitiplets can be advantageous in various aspects. We found that the gμ-2 anomaly can be solved in both scenarios under current constraints including the gluino mass bounds, while the scenarios with incomplete GUT representation messengers are more favored by the gμ-2 data. We also found that the gluino is upper bounded by about 2.5 TeV (2.0 TeV) in scenario A and 3.0 TeV (2.7 TeV) in scenario B if the generalized deflected AMSB scenarios are used to fully account for the gμ-2 anomaly at 3 σ (2 σ ) level. Such a gluino should be accessible in the future LHC searches. Dark matter (DM) constraints, including DM relic density and direct detection bounds, favor scenario B with incomplete GUT multiplets. Much of the allowed parameter space for scenario B could be covered by the future DM direct detection experiments.

  20. Insight into the messenger role of reactive oxygen intermediates in immunostimulated hemocytes from the scallop Argopecten purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Oyanedel, Daniel; Gonzalez, Roxana; Brokordt, Katherina; Schmitt, Paulina; Mercado, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) are metabolites produced by aerobic cells which have been linked to oxidative stress. Evidence reported in vertebrates indicates that ROI can also act as messengers in a variety of cellular signaling pathways, including those involved in innate immunity. In a recent study, an inhibitor of NF-kB transcription factors was identified in the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, and its functional characterization suggested that it may regulate the expression of the big defensin antimicrobial peptide ApBD1. In order to give new insights into the messenger role of ROI in the immune response of bivalve mollusks, the effect of ROI production on gene transcription of ApBD1 was assessed in A. purpuratus. The results showed that 48 h-cultured hemocytes were able to display phagocytic activity and ROI production in response to the β-glucan zymosan. The immune stimulation also induced the transcription of ApBD1, which was upregulated in cultured hemocytes. After neutralizing the ROI produced by the stimulated hemocytes with the antioxidant trolox, the transcription of ApBD1 was reduced near to base levels. The results suggest a potential messenger role of intracellular ROI on the regulation of ApBD1 transcription during the immune response of scallops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MESSENGER, MErcury: Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging; A Mission to Orbit and Explore the Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    MESSENGER is a scientific mission to Mercury. Understanding this extraordinary planet and the forces that have shaped it is fundamental to understanding the processes that have governed the formation, evolution, and dynamics of the terrestrial planets. MESSENGER is a MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging mission to orbit Mercury for one Earth year after completing two flybys of that planet following two flybys of Venus. The necessary flybys return significant new data early in the mission, while the orbital phase, guided by the flyby data, enables a focused scientific investigation of this least-studied terrestrial planet. Answers to key questions about Mercury's high density, crustal composition and structure, volcanic history, core structure, magnetic field generation, polar deposits, exosphere, overall volatile inventory, and magnetosphere are provided by an optimized set of miniaturized space instruments. Our goal is to gain new insight into the formation and evolution of the solar system, including Earth. By traveling to the inner edge of the solar system and exploring a poorly known world, MESSENGER fulfills this quest.

  2. Mercury: a final prediction for internal thermal and physical structure, prior to MESSENGER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, A. J.

    2008-05-01

    The confirmation by the NASA MESSENGER spacecraft that Mercury has an internal magnetic field that is well described by a dipole nearly aligned with the spin axis strongly suggests that the planet may have an outer core of molten metal (S. Solomon, MESSENGER news release of 30 January 2008). The existence of an internal layer of liquid has also been invoked to explain radar measurements of the large amplitude of the longitudinal libration of Mercury relative to the value expected for a wholly solid planet (J.L. Margot et al 2007 Science 316 710). The existence of molten metal in the planet`s interior is surprising since previous numerical models for the thermal evolution of the planet, calculated on the basis of the heat released by the decay of the radioactive isotopes of U and Th, indicated that the present temperature at the edge of the metal core is only ~ 1200 K (cf. Siegfried & Solomon 1974 Icarus 23 192) . This value is well below the melting temperature Tm = 2030 K of Fe-Ni alloy at the core/mantle boundary (CMB) pressure of ~ 70 kbar. Those earlier thermal calculations were, however, based on low abundances of U and Th found in lunar samples. Prentice (2008 LPSC 2008 abs. # 1945.pdf - see URL below) has put forward a new model for the bulk chemical composition of Mercury. It is based on the idea that this planet condensed from a gas ring that was cast off by the protosolar cloud close to the planet`s present orbit. The temperature of the gas ring Tn at the moment of detachment from the cloud is 1628 K and the pressure on the mean orbit of the ring is 0.168 bar. Because Tn is so high, the condensate contains a much reduced proportion of magnesium silicates relative to metals. This is because metals have a much lower vapour pressure than those silicates. The condensate consists mostly of Fe-Ni-Cr-Co-V (mass fraction 0.671), gehlenite (0.190) and Mg-silicates (0.081). What is really important in the gas ring model of solar system origin, however, is that the

  3. Physics of gamma-ray bursts and multi-messenger signals from double neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, He

    My dissertation includes two parts: Physics of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs): Gamma-ray bursts are multi-wavelength transients, with both prompt gamma-ray emission and late time afterglow emission observed by telescopes in different wavelengths. I have carried out three investigations to understand GRB prompt emission and afterglow. Chapter 2 develops a new method, namely, "Stepwise Filter Correlation" method, to decompose the variability components in a light curve. After proving its reliability through simulations, we apply this method to 266 bright GRBs and find that the majority of the bursts have clear evidence of superposition of fast and slow variability components. Chapter 3 gives a complete presentation of the analytical approximations for synchrotron self-compton emission for all possible orders of the characteristic synchrotron spectral breaks (nua, nu m, and nuc). We identify a "strong absorption" regime whennua > nuc, and derive the critical condition for this regime. The external shock theory is an elegant theory to model GRB afterglows. It invokes a limit number of model parameters, and has well predicted spectral and temporal properties. Chapter 4 gives a complete reference of all the analytical synchrotron external shock afterglow models by deriving the temporal and spectral indices of all the models in all spectral regimes. This complete reference will serve as a useful tool for afterglow observers to quickly identify relevant models to interpret their data and identify new physics when the models fail. Milti-messenger signals from double neutron star merger: As the multi-messenger era of astronomy ushers in, the second part of the dissertation studies the possible electromagnetic (EM) and neutrino emission counterparts of double neutron star mergers. Chapter 6 suggests that if double neutron star mergers leave behind a massive magnetar rather than a black hole, the magnetar wind could push the ejecta launched during the merger process, and under

  4. Calibration, Projection, and Final Image Products of MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, Brett W.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Murchie, Scott L.; Becker, Kris J.; Blewett, David T.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Hash, Christopher D.; Hawkins, S. Edward; Keller, Mary R.; Laslo, Nori R.; Nair, Hari; Robinson, Mark S.; Seelos, Frank P.; Stephens, Grant K.; Turner, F. Scott; Solomon, Sean C.

    2018-02-01

    We present an overview of the operations, calibration, geodetic control, photometric standardization, and processing of images from the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER spacecraft's mission at Mercury (18 March 2011-30 April 2015). We also provide a summary of all of the MDIS products that are available in NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS). Updates to the radiometric calibration included slight modification of the frame-transfer smear correction, updates to the flat fields of some wide-angle camera (WAC) filters, a new model for the temperature dependence of narrow-angle camera (NAC) and WAC sensitivity, and an empirical correction for temporal changes in WAC responsivity. Further, efforts to characterize scattered light in the WAC system are described, along with a mosaic-dependent correction for scattered light that was derived for two regional mosaics. Updates to the geometric calibration focused on the focal lengths and distortions of the NAC and all WAC filters, NAC-WAC alignment, and calibration of the MDIS pivot angle and base. Additionally, two control networks were derived so that the majority of MDIS images can be co-registered with sub-pixel accuracy; the larger of the two control networks was also used to create a global digital elevation model. Finally, we describe the image processing and photometric standardization parameters used in the creation of the MDIS advanced products in the PDS, which include seven large-scale mosaics, numerous targeted local mosaics, and a set of digital elevation models ranging in scale from local to global.

  5. Is inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate a new second messenger

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.A.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    Hormone-stimulated hydrolysis of inositol (Ins) lipids results in the rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, the second messenger for intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization. Recently, a more polar inositol phosphate, Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ as well as its probable hydrolysis product Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ have been reported to accumulate in carbachol-stimulated brain slices. Vasopressin addition to hepatocytes prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)-Ins also showed a rapid increase of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/, which was similar to that of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, while the accumulation of Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ was slower. In order to examine whether Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ has any functional effects on Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis, it was synthesizedmore » enzymatically from (/sup 3/H)-Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ using a partially purified phosphoinositol kinase activity from rat brain cortex. (/sup 3/H)-labeled inositol phosphates were separated by anion exchange chromatography and analyzed by HPLC using ammonium formate/phosphoric acid gradient elution. Preliminary experiments indicate that Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ up to 10 ..mu..M does not release Ca/sup 2 +/ from vesicular pools in saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes. It has a slight inhibitory effect on Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release. The effect of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ on plasma membrane Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes are presently being investigated.« less

  6. Gene probe for P0 messenger RNA used to index acrylamide toxic neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, B; Jones, K; Gupta, S; Pringle, J; Mezei, C

    1991-01-01

    Cumulative exposure to the neurotoxicant acrylamide produces axonal damage in the distal ends of both central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nerve fibers and subsequent hind-limb paralysis. The messenger RNA which codes for the PNS myelin glycoprotein P0 (P0-mRNA) was used to monitor this toxic neuropathy in Sprague Dawley rats prior to, concurrent with, and subsequent to, ultrastructurally and immunocytochemically defined nerve damage. Rats were dosed every other day with acrylamide (50 mg/kg, IP) and sampled intermittently throughout a 4 week exposure period. Slot blot and Northern gel analyses of the proximal and distal sciatic nerve were used to determine a quantitated measure of P0-mRNA. Twenty-four hours after the first treatment, in the absence of ultrastructural damage, P0-mRNA increased 55% over control levels in the distal sciatic nerve. After 12 treatments, and concomitant with the appearance of spinal cord and PNS neuropathic damage and hindlimb dysfunction, P0-mRNA decreased 45% below control levels. Levels of P0-mRNA from rats exposed to 12 treatments of acrylamide but allowed to recover for 40 days, returned to 79% of control values to reflect the regeneration and remyelination occurring in the distal sciatic nerve. In spite of these fluctuations in levels of P0-mRNA, immunocytochemical staining of P0 protein in plastic sections of the distal sciatic nerve was present throughout all sample times. These results suggest that changes in neural specific mRNAs are sensitive to neurotoxic damage and can be used to monitor the pathogenesis of nerve degeneration.

  7. Venus Upper Clouds and the UV Absorber From MESSENGER/MASCS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; García-Muñoz, A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Peralta, J.; Holsclaw, G.; McClintock, W. M.; Sanz-Requena, J. F.

    2018-01-01

    One of the most intriguing, long-standing questions regarding Venus's atmosphere is the origin and distribution of the unknown UV absorber, responsible for the absorption band detected at the near-UV and blue range of Venus's spectrum. In this work, we use data collected by Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) spectrograph on board the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission during its second Venus flyby in June 2007 to address this issue. Spectra range from 0.3 μm to 1.5 μm including some gaseous H2O and CO2 bands, as well as part of the SO2 absorption band and the core of the UV absorption. We used the NEMESIS radiative transfer code and retrieval suite to investigate the vertical distribution of particles in the equatorial atmosphere and to retrieve the imaginary refractive indices of the UV absorber, assumed to be well mixed with Venus's small mode 1 particles. The results show a homogeneous equatorial atmosphere, with cloud tops (height for unity optical depth) at 75 ± 2 km above surface. The UV absorption is found to be centered at 0.34 ± 0.03 μm with a full width at half maximum of 0.14 ± 0.01 μm. Our values are compared with previous candidates for the UV aerosol absorber, among which disulfur oxide (S2O) and dioxide disulfur (S2O2) provide the best agreement with our results.

  8. School-based participatory health education for malaria control in Ghana: engaging children as health messengers.

    PubMed

    Ayi, Irene; Nonaka, Daisuke; Adjovu, Josiah K; Hanafusa, Shigeki; Jimba, Masamine; Bosompem, Kwabena M; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Boakye, Daniel A; Kobayashi, Jun

    2010-04-18

    School children have been increasingly recognized as health messengers for malaria control. However, little evidence is available. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of school-based malaria education intervention on school children and community adults. This study was conducted in the Dangme-East district of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana, between 2007 and 2008. Trained schoolteachers designed participatory health education activities and led school children to disseminate messages related to malaria control to their communities. Three schools and their respective communities were chosen for the study and assigned to an intervention group (one school) and a control group (two schools). Questionnaire-based interviews and parasitological surveys were conducted before and after the intervention, with the intervention group (105 children, 250 community adults) and the control group (81 children, 133 community adults). Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests were used to analyse differences in knowledge, practices, and parasite prevalence between pre- and post-intervention. After the intervention, the misperception that malaria has multiple causes was significantly improved, both among children and community adults. Moreover, the community adults who treated a bed net with insecticide in the past six months, increased from 21.5% to 50.0% (p < 0.001). Parasite prevalence in school children decreased from 30.9% to 10.3% (p = 0.003). These positive changes were observed only in the intervention group. This study suggests that the participatory health education intervention contributed to the decreased malaria prevalence among children. It had a positive impact not only on school children, but also on community adults, through the improvement of knowledge and practices. This strategy can be applied as a complementary approach to existing malaria control strategies in West African countries where school health management systems have been strengthened.

  9. A Novel Route Controlling Begomovirus Resistance by the Messenger RNA Surveillance Factor Pelota

    PubMed Central

    Lapidot, Moshe; Karniel, Uri; Gelbart, Dana; Fogel, Doron; Evenor, Dalia; Kutsher, Yaarit; Makhbash, Zion; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Chen, Lea; Reuveni, Moshe; Levin, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a devastating disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) that can be effectively controlled by the deployment of resistant cultivars. The TYLCV-resistant line TY172 carries a major recessive locus for TYLCV resistance, designated ty-5, on chromosome 4. In this study, the association between 27 polymorphic DNA markers, spanning the ty-5 locus, and the resistance characteristics of individual plants inoculated with TYLCV in 51 segregating recombinant populations were analyzed. These analyses localized ty-5 into a 425 bp region containing two transversions: one in the first exon of a gene encoding the tomato homolog of the messenger RNA surveillance factor Pelota (Pelo), and a second in its proximal promoter. Analyses of susceptible and resistant lines revealed that the relative transcript level of the gene remained unchanged, regardless of whether the plants were infected with TYLCV or not. This suggests that the polymorphism discovered in the coding region of the gene controls the resistance. Silencing of Pelo in a susceptible line rendered the transgenic plants highly resistant, while in the resistant line TY172 had no effect on symptom development. In addition, over-expression of the susceptible allele of the gene in the resistant TY172 line rendered it susceptible, while over-expression of the resistant allele in susceptible plants had no effect. These results confirm that Pelo is the gene controlling resistance at the ty-5 locus. Pelo, implicated in the ribosome recycling-phase of protein synthesis, offers an alternative route to promote resistance to TYLCV and other viruses. PMID:26448569

  10. The ribosome uses two active mechanisms to unwind messenger RNA during translation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaohui; Wen, Jin-Der; Lancaster, Laura; Noller, Harry F; Bustamante, Carlos; Tinoco, Ignacio

    2011-07-06

    The ribosome translates the genetic information encoded in messenger RNA into protein. Folded structures in the coding region of an mRNA represent a kinetic barrier that lowers the peptide elongation rate, as the ribosome must disrupt structures it encounters in the mRNA at its entry site to allow translocation to the next codon. Such structures are exploited by the cell to create diverse strategies for translation regulation, such as programmed frameshifting, the modulation of protein expression levels, ribosome localization and co-translational protein folding. Although strand separation activity is inherent to the ribosome, requiring no exogenous helicases, its mechanism is still unknown. Here, using a single-molecule optical tweezers assay on mRNA hairpins, we find that the translation rate of identical codons at the decoding centre is greatly influenced by the GC content of folded structures at the mRNA entry site. Furthermore, force applied to the ends of the hairpin to favour its unfolding significantly speeds translation. Quantitative analysis of the force dependence of its helicase activity reveals that the ribosome, unlike previously studied helicases, uses two distinct active mechanisms to unwind mRNA structure: it destabilizes the helical junction at the mRNA entry site by biasing its thermal fluctuations towards the open state, increasing the probability of the ribosome translocating unhindered; and it mechanically pulls apart the mRNA single strands of the closed junction during the conformational changes that accompany ribosome translocation. The second of these mechanisms ensures a minimal basal rate of translation in the cell; specialized, mechanically stable structures are required to stall the ribosome temporarily. Our results establish a quantitative mechanical basis for understanding the mechanism of regulation of the elongation rate of translation by structured mRNAs. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  11. Mercury's Solar Wind Interaction as Characterized by Magnetospheric Plasma Mantle Observations With MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Jamie M.; Slavin, James A.; Raines, Jim M.; DiBraccio, Gina A.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze 94 traversals of Mercury's southern magnetospheric plasma mantle using data from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The mean and median proton number densities in the mantle are 1.5 and 1.3 cm-3, respectively. For sodium number density these values are 0.004 and 0.002 cm-3. Moderately higher densities are observed on the magnetospheric dusk side. The mantle supplies up to 1.5 × 108 cm-2 s-1 and 0.8 × 108 cm-2 s-1 of proton and sodium flux to the plasma sheet, respectively. We estimate the cross-electric magnetospheric potential from each observation and find a mean of 19 kV (standard deviation of 16 kV) and a median of 13 kV. This is an important result as it is lower than previous estimations and shows that Mercury's magnetosphere is at times not as highly driven by the solar wind as previously thought. Our values are comparable to the estimations for the ice giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, but lower than Earth. The estimated potentials do have a very large range of values (1-74 kV), showing that Mercury's magnetosphere is highly dynamic. A correlation of the potential is found to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) magnitude, supporting evidence that dayside magnetic reconnection can occur at all shear angles at Mercury. But we also see that Mercury has an Earth-like magnetospheric response, favoring -BZ IMF orientation. We find evidence that -BX orientations in the IMF favor the southern cusp and southern mantle. This is in agreement with telescopic observations of exospheric emission, but in disagreement with modeling.

  12. Mercury's solar wind interaction as characterized by magnetospheric plasma mantle observations with MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, J. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; DiBraccio, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze 94 traversals of Mercury's magnetospheric plasma mantle using data from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The mean and median proton number density in the mantle are 1.5 and 1.3 cm-3, respectively. For sodium number density these values are 0.004 and 0.002 cm-3. Moderately higher densities are observed on the magnetospheric dusk side. The mantle supplies up to 1.5 x 108 cm-2 s-1 and 0.8 x 108cm-2 s-1 of proton and sodium flux to the plasma sheet, respectively. We estimate the cross-electric magnetospheric potential from each observation and find a mean of 19 kV (standard deviation of 16 kV) and a median of 13 kV. This is an important result as it is lower than previous estimations and shows that Mercury's magnetosphere is at times not as highly driven by the solar wind as previously thought. Our values are comparable to the estimations for the ice giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, but lower than Earth. The estimated potentials do have a very large range of values (1 - 74 kV), showing that Mercury's magnetosphere is highly dynamic. A correlation of the potential is found to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) magnitude, supporting evidence that dayside magnetic reconnection can occur at all shear angles at Mercury. But we also see that Mercury has an Earth-like magnetospheric response, favoring -BZ IMF orientation. We find evidence that -BX orientations in the IMF favor the southern cusp and southern mantle. This is in agreement with telescopic observations of exospheric emission, but in disagreement with modeling.

  13. MESSENGER and Mariner 10 Flyby Observations of Magnetotail Structure and Dynamics at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian Jay; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Imber, Suzanne M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The first (M1), second (M2), and third (M3) MESSENGER flybys of Mercury traversed the planet's magnetotail from 1.25 to 3.25 RM downstream of the planet, where R(sub M) is Mercury's radius (2440 km). The encounters took place under northward, southward, and variable-polarity interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), respectively. The magnetic field strength B in Mercury's magnetotail follows a power law decrease with increasing antisunward distance |X|, B approximately |X|(sup G), with G varying from -5.4 for northward to -1.6 for southward IMF. Low-latitude boundary layers (LLBLs) containing strong northward magnetic field were detected at the tail flanks during two of the flybys. The observed thickness of the LLBL was 33% and 16% of the radius of the tail during M1 and M3, respectively, but the boundary layer was completely absent during M2. Clear signatures of tail reconnection are evident in the M2 and M3 magnetic field measurements. Plasmoids and traveling compression regions were observed during M2 and M3 with typical durations of approximately 1-3 s, suggesting diameters of approximately 500-1500 km. Overall, the response of Mercury's magnetotail to the steady southward IMF during M2 appeared very similar to steady magnetospheric convection events at Earth, which are believed to be driven by quasi-continuous reconnection. In contrast, the M3 measurements are dominated by tail loading and unloading events that resemble the large-scale magnetic field reconfigurations observed during magnetospheric substorms at Earth.

  14. Integration of the Second Messenger c-di-GMP into the Chemotactic Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Matthew H.; Bible, Amber N.; Fang, Xin; Gooding, Jessica R.; Campagna, Shawn R.; Gomelsky, Mark; Alexandre, Gladys

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Elevated intracellular levels of the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP are known to suppress motility and promote sessility. Bacterial chemotaxis guides motile cells in gradients of attractants and repellents over broad concentration ranges, thus allowing bacteria to quickly adapt to changes in their surroundings. Here, we describe a chemotaxis receptor that enhances, as opposed to suppresses, motility in response to temporary increases in intracellular c-di-GMP. Azospirillum brasilense’s preferred metabolism is adapted to microaerophily, and these motile cells quickly navigate to zones of low oxygen concentration by aerotaxis. We observed that changes in oxygen concentration result in rapid changes in intracellular c-di-GMP levels. The aerotaxis and chemotaxis receptor, Tlp1, binds c-di-GMP via its C-terminal PilZ domain and promotes persistent motility by increasing swimming velocity and decreasing swimming reversal frequency, which helps A. brasilense reach low-oxygen zones. If c-di-GMP levels remain high for extended periods, A. brasilense forms nonmotile clumps or biofilms on abiotic surfaces. These results suggest that association of increased c-di-GMP levels with sessility is correct on a long-term scale, while in the short-term c-di-GMP may actually promote, as opposed to suppress, motility. Our data suggest that sensing c-di-GMP by Tlp1 functions similar to methylation-based adaptation. Numerous chemotaxis receptors contain C-terminal PilZ domains or other sensory domains, suggesting that intracellular c-di-GMP as well as additional stimuli can be used to modulate adaptation of bacterial chemotaxis receptors. PMID:23512960

  15. Calcium-Mediated Signaling during Sandalwood Somatic Embryogenesis. Role for Exogenous Calcium as Second Messenger1

    PubMed Central

    Anil, Veena S.; Rao, K. Sankara

    2000-01-01

    The possible involvement of Ca2+-mediated signaling in the induction/regulation of somatic embryogenesis from pro-embryogenic cells of sandalwood (Santalum album) has been investigated. 45Ca2+-uptake studies and fura-2 fluorescence ratio photometry were used to measure changes in [Ca2+]cyt of pro-embryogenic cells in response to culture conditions conducive for embryo development. Sandalwood pro-embryogenic cell masses (PEMs) are obtained in the callus proliferation medium that contains the auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Subculture of PEMs into the embryo differentiation medium, which lacks 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and has higher osmoticum, results in a 4-fold higher 45Ca2+ incorporation into the symplast. Fura-2 ratiometric analysis corroboratively shows a 10- to 16-fold increase in the [Ca2+]cyt of PEMs, increasing from a resting concentration of 30 to 50 nm to 650 to 800 nm. Chelation of exogenous Ca2+ with ethyleneglycol-bis(aminoethyl ether)-N,N′-tetraacetic acid arrests such an elevation in [Ca2+]cyt. Exogenous Ca2+ when chelated or deprived also arrests embryo development and inhibits the accumulation of a sandalwood Ca2+-dependent protein kinase. However, such culture conditions do not cause cell death as the PEMs continue to proliferate to form larger cell clumps. Culture treatment with N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide reduced embryogenic frequency by 85%, indicating that blockage of Ca2+-mediated signaling pathway(s) involving sandalwood Ca2+-dependent protein kinase and/or calmodulin causes the inhibition of embryogenesis. The observations presented are evidence to suggest a second messenger role for exogenous Ca2+ during sandalwood somatic embryogenesis. PMID:10938349

  16. Calcium-mediated signaling during sandalwood somatic embryogenesis. Role for exogenous calcium as second messenger.

    PubMed

    Anil, V S; Rao, K S

    2000-08-01

    The possible involvement of Ca(2+)-mediated signaling in the induction/regulation of somatic embryogenesis from pro-embryogenic cells of sandalwood (Santalum album) has been investigated. (45)Ca(2+)-uptake studies and fura-2 fluorescence ratio photometry were used to measure changes in [Ca(2+)](cyt) of pro-embryogenic cells in response to culture conditions conducive for embryo development. Sandalwood pro-embryogenic cell masses (PEMs) are obtained in the callus proliferation medium that contains the auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Subculture of PEMs into the embryo differentiation medium, which lacks 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and has higher osmoticum, results in a 4-fold higher (45)Ca(2+) incorporation into the symplast. Fura-2 ratiometric analysis corroboratively shows a 10- to 16-fold increase in the [Ca(2+)](cyt) of PEMs, increasing from a resting concentration of 30 to 50 nM to 650 to 800 nM. Chelation of exogenous Ca(2+) with ethyleneglycol-bis(aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid arrests such an elevation in [Ca(2+)](cyt). Exogenous Ca(2+) when chelated or deprived also arrests embryo development and inhibits the accumulation of a sandalwood Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase. However, such culture conditions do not cause cell death as the PEMs continue to proliferate to form larger cell clumps. Culture treatment with N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide reduced embryogenic frequency by 85%, indicating that blockage of Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway(s) involving sandalwood Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase and/or calmodulin causes the inhibition of embryogenesis. The observations presented are evidence to suggest a second messenger role for exogenous Ca(2+) during sandalwood somatic embryogenesis.

  17. Quantitative analyses and transcriptomic profiling of circulating messenger RNAs as biomarkers of rat liver injury.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Barbara A; Brees, Dominique J; Singh, Reetu; Watkins, Paul B; Andersen, Melvin E; Loy, James; Thomas, Russell S

    2010-06-01

    Serum aminotransferases have been the clinical standard for evaluating liver injury for the past 50-60 years. These tissue enzymes lack specificity, also tracking injury to other tissues. New technologies assessing tissue-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) release into blood should provide greater specificity and permit indirect assessment of gene expression status of injured tissue. To evaluate the potential of circulating mRNAs as biomarkers of liver injury, rats were treated either with hepatotoxic doses of D-(+)-galactosamine (DGAL) or acetaminophen (APAP) or a myotoxic dose of bupivacaine HCl (BPVC). Plasma, serum, and liver samples were obtained from each rat. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were increased by all three compounds, whereas circulating liver-specific mRNAs were only increased by the hepatotoxicants. With APAP, liver-specific mRNAs were significantly increased in plasma at doses that had no effect on serum aminotransferases or liver histopathology. Characterization of the circulating mRNAs by sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed that the liver-specific mRNAs were associated with both necrotic debris and microvesicles. DGAL treatment also induced a shift in the size of plasma microvesicles, consistent with active release of microvesicles following liver injury. Finally, gene expression microarray analysis of the plasma following DGAL and APAP treatment revealed chemical-specific profiles. The comparative analysis of circulating liver mRNAs with traditional serum transaminases and histopathology indicated that the circulating liver mRNAs were more specific and more sensitive biomarkers of liver injury. Further, the possibility of identifying chemical-specific transcriptional profiles from circulating mRNAs could open a range of possibilities for identifying the etiology of drug/chemical-induced liver injury.

  18. Constraints on Mercury's Na Exosphere: Combined MESSENGER and Ground-Based Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouawad, Nelly; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Potter, Andrew E.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; Benna, Mehdi; Naidu, Shantanu

    2010-01-01

    We have used observations of sodium emission obtained with the McMath-Pierce solar telescope and MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) to constrain models of Mercury's sodium exosphere, The distribution of sodium in Mercury's exosphere during the period January 12-15. 2008. was mapped using the McMath-Pierce solar telescope with the 5" X 5" image slicer to observe the D-line emission. On January 14, 2008, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) channel on MASCS sampled the sodium in Mercury's anti-sunward tail region. We find that the bound exosphere has an equivalent temperature of 900-1200 K, and that this temperature can be achieved if the sodium is ejected either by photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) with a 1200 K Maxwellian velocity distribution, or by thermal accommodation of a hotter source. We were not able to discriminate between the two assumed velocity distributions of the ejected particles for the PSD. but the velocity distributions require different values of the thermal accommodation coefficient and result in different upper limits on impact vaporization, We were able to place a strong constraint on the impact vaporization rate that results in the release of neutral Na atoms with an upper limit of 2.1 x 10(exp 6) sq cm/s, The variability of the week-long ground-based observations can be explained by variations in the sources, including both PSD and ion-enhanced PSD, as well as possible temporal enhancements in meteoroid vaporization. Knowledge of both dayside and anti-sunward tail morphologies and radiances are necessary to correctly deduce the exospheric source rates, processes, velocity distribution, and surface interaction.

  19. Morphometry of impact craters on Mercury from MESSENGER altimetry and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susorney, Hannah C. M.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Johnson, Catherine L.

    2016-06-01

    Data acquired by the Mercury Laser Altimeter and the Mercury Dual Imaging System on the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit about Mercury provide a means to measure the geometry of many of the impact craters in Mercury's northern hemisphere in detail for the first time. The combination of topographic and imaging data permit a systematic evaluation of impact crater morphometry on Mercury, a new calculation of the diameter Dt at which craters transition with increasing diameter from simple to complex forms, and an exploration of the role of target properties and impact velocity on final crater size and shape. Measurements of impact crater depth on Mercury confirm results from previous studies, with the exception that the depths of large complex craters are typically shallower at a given diameter than reported from Mariner 10 data. Secondary craters on Mercury are generally shallower than primary craters of the same diameter. No significant differences are observed between the depths of craters within heavily cratered terrain and those of craters within smooth plains. The morphological attributes of craters that reflect the transition from simple to complex craters do not appear at the same diameter; instead flat floors first appear with increasing diameter in craters at the smallest diameters, followed with increasing diameter by reduced crater depth and rim height, and then collapse and terracing of crater walls. Differences reported by others in Dt between Mercury and Mars (despite the similar surface gravitational acceleration on the two bodies) are confirmed in this study. The variations in Dt between Mercury and Mars cannot be adequately attributed to differences in either surface properties or mean projectile velocity.

  20. Faraday rotation fluctuations of MESSENGER radio signals through the equatorial lower corona near solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wexler, D. B.; Jensen, E. A.; Hollweg, J. V.; Heiles, C.; Efimov, A. I.; Vierinen, J.; Coster, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    Faraday rotation (FR) of transcoronal radio transmissions from spacecraft near superior conjunction enables study of the temporal variations in coronal plasma density, velocity, and magnetic field. The MESSENGER spacecraft 8.4 GHz radio, transmitting through the corona with closest line-of-sight approach 1.63-1.89 solar radii and near-equatorial heliolatitudes, was recorded soon after the deep solar minimum of solar cycle 23. During egress from superior conjunction, FR gradually decreased, and an overlay of wave-like FR fluctuations (FRFs) with periods of hundreds to thousands of seconds was found. The FRF power spectrum was characterized by a power law relation, with the baseline spectral index being -2.64. A transient power increase showed relative flattening of the spectrum and bands of enhanced spectral power at 3.3 mHz and 6.1 mHz. Our results confirm the presence of coronal FRF similar to those described previously at greater solar offset. Interpreted as Alfvén waves crossing the line of sight radially near the proximate point, low-frequency FRF convey an energy flux density higher than that of the background solar wind kinetic energy, but only a fraction of that required to accelerate the solar wind. Even so, this fraction is quite variable and potentially escalates to energetically significant values with relatively modest changes in estimated magnetic field strength and electron concentration. Given the uncertainties in these key parameters, as well as in solar wind properties close to the Sun at low heliolatitudes, we cannot yet confidently assign the quantitative role for Alfvén wave energy from this region in driving the slow solar wind.

  1. Parathyroid hormone induces c-fos and c-jun messenger RNA in rat osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clohisy, J. C.; Scott, D. K.; Brakenhoff, K. D.; Quinn, C. O.; Partridge, N. C.

    1992-01-01

    PTH is a potent regulator of osteoblast gene expression, yet the nuclear events that mediate PTH action are poorly understood. We were interested in identifying immediate early genes which may regulate PTH-altered gene expression in the osteoblast. Therefore, we examined the effects of PTH on c-fos and c-jun gene expression in a rat osteoblastic cell line (UMR 106-01). Under control conditions, c-fos and c-jun mRNAs were present at low basal levels. After PTH treatment, c-fos mRNA abundance dramatically increased, with a maximal and transient response at 30 min. PTH also stimulated an increase in c-jun mRNA, but in a biphasic manner, with maximal levels at 30 min and 2 h. These responses were dose dependent, not altered by cotreatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, and preceded PTH-induced expression of matrix metallo-proteinase-1 mRNA. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrated an increased rate of c-fos and c-jun transcription after PTH exposure. To determine the signal transduction pathways involved, second messenger analogs were tested for their ability to mimic the effects of PTH. 8-Bromo-cAMP and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused increases in the abundance of c-fos and c-jun transcripts. Ionomycin had no effect on the expression of these genes. Pretreatment of the cells with PMA resulted in a decrease in basal c-jun expression, but did not alter the PTH-mediated increase in c-fos, c-jun, or matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNAs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  2. Medical Information Exchange: Pattern of Global Mobile Messenger Usage among Otolaryngologists.

    PubMed

    Siegal, Gil; Dagan, Elad; Wolf, Michael; Duvdevani, Shay; Alon, Eran E

    2016-11-01

    Information technology has revolutionized health care. However, the development of dedicated mobile health software has been lagging, leading to the use of general mobile applications to fill in the void. The use of such applications has several legal, ethical, and regulatory implications. We examined the experience and practices governing the usage of a global mobile messenger application (WhatsApp) for mobile health purposes in a national cohort of practicing otolaryngologists in Israel, a known early adaptor information technology society. Cross-sectional data were collected from practicing otolaryngologists and otolaryngology residents via self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was composed of a demographic section, a section surveying the practices of mobile application use, mobile health application use, and knowledge regarding institutional policies governing the transmission of medical data. The sample included 22 otolaryngology residents and 47 practicing otolaryngologists. Of the physicians, 83% worked in academic centers, and 88% and 40% of the physicians who worked in a hospital setting or a community clinic used WhatsApp for medical use, respectively. Working with residents increased the medical usage of WhatsApp from 50% to 91% (P = .006). Finally, 72% were unfamiliar with any institutional policy regarding the transfer of medical information by personal smartphones. Mobile health is becoming an integral part of modern medical systems, improving accessibility, efficiency, and possibly quality of medical care. The need to incorporate personal mobile devices in the overall information technology standards, guidelines, and regulation is becoming more acute. Nonetheless, practices must be properly instituted to prevent unwanted consequences. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  3. RNomics in Drosophila melanogaster: identification of 66 candidates for novel non-messenger RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guozhong; Klämbt, Christian; Bachellerie, Jean-Pierre; Brosius, Jürgen; Hüttenhofer, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    By generating a specialised cDNA library from four different developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster, we have identified 66 candidates for small non-messenger RNAs (snmRNAs) and have confirmed their expression by northern blot analysis. Thirteen of them were expressed at certain stages of D.melanogaster development, only. Thirty-five species belong to the class of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), divided into 15 members from the C/D subclass and 20 members from the H/ACA subclass, which mostly guide 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation, respectively, of rRNA and snRNAs. These also include two outstanding C/D snoRNAs, U3 and U14, both functioning as pre-rRNA chaperones. Surprisingly, the sequence of the Drosophila U14 snoRNA reflects a major change of function of this snoRNA in Diptera relative to yeast and vertebrates. Among the 22 snmRNAs lacking known sequence and structure motifs, five were located in intergenic regions, two in introns, five in untranslated regions of mRNAs, eight were derived from open reading frames, and two were transcribed opposite to an intron. Interestingly, detection of two RNA species from this group implies that certain snmRNA species are processed from alternatively spliced pre-mRNAs. Surprisingly, a few snmRNA sequences could not be found on the published D.melanogaster genome, which might suggest that more snmRNA genes (as well as mRNAs) are hidden in unsequenced regions of the genome. PMID:12736298

  4. Fox-2 protein regulates the alternative splicing of scleroderma-associated lysyl hydroxylase 2 messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puneet; Yeowell, Heather N

    2010-04-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis [SSc]) is a complex connective tissue disorder characterized by hardening and thickening of the skin. One hallmark of scleroderma is excessive accumulation of collagen accompanied by increased levels of pyridinoline collagen crosslinks derived from hydroxylysine residues in the collagen telopeptide domains. Lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), an important alternatively spliced enzyme in collagen biosynthesis, acts as a collagen telopeptide hydroxylase. Changes in the pattern of LH2 alternative splicing, favoring increased inclusion of the alternatively spliced LH2 exon 13A, thereby increasing the levels of the long transcript of LH2 (LH2[long]), are linked to scleroderma disease. This study was undertaken to examine the role played by RNA binding protein Fox-2 in regulating exon 13A inclusion, which leads to the generation of scleroderma-associated LH2(long) messenger RNA (mRNA). Phylogenetic sequence analysis of introns flanking exon 13A was performed. A tetracycline-inducible system in T-Rex 293 cells was used to induce Fox-2 protein, and endogenous LH2(long) mRNA was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. An LH2 minigene was designed, validated, and used in Fox-2 overexpression and mutagenesis experiments. Knockdown of Fox-2 was performed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from SSc patients. Overexpression of Fox-2 enhanced the inclusion of exon 13A and increased the generation of LH2(long) mRNA, whereas knockdown of Fox-2 decreased LH2(long) transcripts. Mutational analysis of an LH2 minigene demonstrated that 2 of the 4 Fox binding motifs flanking LH2 exon 13A are required for inclusion of exon 13A. In early passage fibroblasts derived from patients with scleroderma, the knockdown of Fox-2 protein significantly decreased the endogenous levels of LH2(long) mRNA. Our findings indicate that Fox-2 plays an integral role in the regulation of LH2 splicing. Knockdown of Fox-2 and other methods to decrease

  5. The Expansion Segments of 28S Ribosomal RNA Extensively Match Human Messenger RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Michael S.; Balasubramaniam, Ambikaipakan; Sallee, Floyd R.; Parker, Steven L.

    2018-01-01

    Eukaryote ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) have expanded in the course of phylogeny by addition of nucleotides in specific insertion areas, the expansion segments. These number about 40 in the larger (25–28S) rRNA (up to 2,400 nucleotides), and about 12 in the smaller (18S) rRNA (<700 nucleotides). Expansion of the larger rRNA shows a clear phylogenetic increase, with a dramatic rise in mammals and especially in hominids. Substantial portions of expansion segments in this RNA are not bound to ribosomal proteins, and may engage extraneous interactants, including messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Studies on the ribosome-mRNA interaction have focused on proteins of the smaller ribosomal subunit, with some examination of 18S rRNA. However, the expansion segments of human 28S rRNA show much higher density and numbers of mRNA matches than those of 18S rRNA, and also a higher density and match numbers than its own core parts. We have studied that with frequent and potentially stable matches containing 7–15 nucleotides. The expansion segments of 28S rRNA average more than 50 matches per mRNA even assuming only 5% of their sequence as available for such interaction. Large expansion segments 7, 15, and 27 of 28S rRNA also have copious long (≥10-nucleotide) matches to most human mRNAs, with frequencies much higher than in other 28S rRNA parts. Expansion segments 7 and 27 and especially segment 15 of 28S rRNA show large size increase in mammals compared to other metazoans, which could reflect a gain of function related to interaction with non-ribosomal partners. The 28S rRNA expansion segment 15 shows very high increments in size, guanosine, and cytidine nucleotide content and mRNA matching in mammals, and especially in hominids. With these segments (but not with other 28S rRNA or any 18S rRNA expansion segments) the density and number of matches are much higher in 5′-terminal than in 3′-terminal untranslated mRNA regions, which may relate to mRNA mobilization via 5′ termini. Matches

  6. Phosphatidic acid as a second messenger in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Effects on activation of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Agwu, D E; McPhail, L C; Sozzani, S; Bass, D A; McCall, C E

    1991-01-01

    Receptor-mediated agonists, such as FMLP, induce an early, phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA) which may play a role in the activation of NADPH oxidase in human PMN. We have determined the effect of changes in PA production on O2 consumption in intact PMN and the level of NADPH oxidase activity measured in a cell-free assay. Pretreatment of cells with various concentrations of propranolol enhanced (less than or equal to 200 microM) or inhibited (greater than 300 microM) PLD-induced production of PA (mass and radiolabel) in a manner that correlated with enhancement or inhibition of O2 consumption in PMN stimulated with 1 microM FMLP in the absence of cytochalasin B. The concentration-dependent effects of propranolol on FMLP-induced NADPH oxidase activation was confirmed by direct assay of the enzyme in subcellular fractions. In PA extracted from cells pretreated with 200 microM propranolol before stimulation with 1 microM FMLP, phospholipase A1 (PLA1)-digestion for 90 min, followed by quantitation of residual PA, showed that a minimum of 44% of PA in control (undigested) sample was diacyl-PA; alkylacyl-PA remained undigested by PLA1. Propranolol was also observed to have a concentration-dependent enhancement of mass of 1,2-DG formed in PMN stimulated with FMLP. DG levels reached a maximum at 300 microM propranolol and remained unchanged up to 500 microM propranolol. However, in contrast to PA levels, the level of DG produced did not correlate with NADPH oxidase activation. Exogenously added didecanoyl-PA activated NADPH oxidase in a concentration-dependent manner (1-300 microM) in a reconstitution assay using membrane and cytosolic fractions from unstimulated PMN. In addition, PA synergized with SDS for oxidase activation. Taken together, these results indicate that PA plays a second messenger role in the activation of NADPH oxidase in human PMN and that regulation of phospholipase D is a key step in the activation pathway. Images

  7. Mercury's lithospheric thickness and crustal density, as inferred from MESSENGER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, P. B.; Mazarico, E.; Genova, A.; Smith, D. E.; Neumann, G. A.; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The gravity field and topography of Mercury measured by the MESSENGER spacecraft have provided insights into the thickness of the planet's elastic lithosphere, Te. We localized the HgM006 free-air gravity anomaly and gtmes_125v03 shape datasets to search for theoretical elastic thickness solutions that best fit a variety of localized coherence spectra between Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. We adopted a crustal density of ρcrust =2700 kg m-3 for the Bouguer gravity correction, but density uncertainty did not markedly affect the elastic thickness estimates. A best-fit solution in the northern smooth plains (NSP) gives an elastic thickness of Te =30-60 km at the time of formation of topography for a range of ratios of top to bottom loading from 1 to 5. For a mechanical lithosphere with a thickness of ~2Te and a temperature of 1600 °C at the base, this solution is consistent with a geothermal gradient of 9-18 K km-1. A similar coherence analysis exterior to the NSP produces an elastic thickness estimate of Te =20-50 km, albeit with a poorer fit. Coherence in the northern hemisphere as a whole does not approach zero at any wavelength, because of the presence of variations in crustal thickness that are unassociated with elastic loading. The ratios and correlations of gravity and topography at intermediate wavelengths (harmonic degree l between 30 and 50) also constrain regional crustal densities. We localized gravity and topography with a moving Slepian taper and calculated regionally averaged crustal densities with the approximation ρcrust=Zl/(2πG), where Zl is the localized admittance and G is the gravitational constant. The only regional density estimates greater than 2000 kg m-3 for l=30 correspond to the NSP. Density estimates outside of the NSP were unreasonably low, even for highly porous crust. We attribute these low densities to the confounding effects of crustal thickness variations and Kaula filtering of the gravity dataset at the highest harmonic

  8. Gingival Toll-like receptor and cytokine messenger RNA levels in equine periodontitis and oral health.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, R; Lappin, D F; Dixon, P M; Bennett, D; Riggio, M P

    2017-05-01

    Equine periodontitis is a common and painful condition. However, the disease often goes unnoticed by owners and is thus a major welfare concern. The aetiopathogenesis of the condition remains poorly understood and has been investigated in few studies. The innate immune system is known to play an important role in human periodontitis, but its role in equine periodontitis has not been examined. To quantify the messenger (m)RNA levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokines in gingival tissue from orally healthy horses and those affected by periodontitis. Observational study. Gingival tissue samples were taken post-mortem from 13 horses with no clinical signs of oral disease and 20 horses with periodontitis. mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. The statistical significance of results was assessed using appropriate t tests. mRNA levels of all TLRs and cytokines were upregulated in equine periodontitis. Significant increases in mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR9, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 (P≤0.05) and IFN-γ (P≤0.01) were observed for both unweighted and age-weighted analyses of diseased gingival tissue samples compared with healthy gingival samples. In comparisons of samples of periodontitis lesions with healthy gingival control samples from the same horse, significant increases in mRNA levels of TLR4, TLR9, IL-10, IFN-γ (P≤0.05), TLR2, IL-1β and IL-12p35 (P≤0.01) were observed. This study has provided an initial insight into the involvement of the immune system in equine periodontitis. Increased mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 indicate substantial microbial challenge in diseased gingival tissue. A mixed Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine response is produced in equine periodontitis. Further studies are required to more fully characterise the role of the innate immune system in this disease. © 2016

  9. HYBRIDIZATION PROPERTIES OF DNA SEQUENCES DIRECTING THE SYNTHESIS OF MESSENGER RNA AND HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR RNA

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jay R.; Perry, Robert P.

    1971-01-01

    The relationship of the DNA sequences from which polyribosomal messenger RNA (mRNA) and heterogeneous nuclear RNA (NRNA) of mouse L cells are transcribed was investigated by means of hybridization kinetics and thermal denaturation of the hybrids. Hybridization was performed in formamide solutions at DNA excess. Under these conditions most of the hybridizing mRNA and NRNA react at values of Dot (DNA concentration multiplied by time) expected for RNA transcribed from the nonrepeated or rarely repeated fraction of the genome. However, a fraction of both mRNA and NRNA hybridize at values of Dot about 10,000 times lower, and therefore must be transcribed from highly redundant DNA sequences. The fraction of NRNA hybridizing to highly repeated sequences is about 1.7 times greater than the corresponding fraction of mRNA. The hybrids formed by the rapidly reacting fractions of both NRNA and mRNA melt over a narrow temperature range with a midpoint about 11°C below that of native L cell DNA. This indicates that these hybrids consist of partially complementary sequences with approximately 11% mismatching of bases. Hybrids formed by the slowly reacting fraction of NRNA melt within 4°–6°C of native DNA, indicating very little, if any, mismatching of bases. Hybrids of the slowly reacting components of mRNA, formed under conditions of sufficiently low RNA input, have a high thermal stability, similar to that observed for hybrids of the slowly reacting NRNA component. However, when higher inputs of mRNA are used, hybrids are formed which have a strikingly lower thermal stability. This observation can be explained by assuming that there is sufficient similarity among the relatively rare DNA sequences coding for mRNA so that under hybridization conditions, in which these DNA sequences are not truly in excess, reversible hybrids exhibiting a considerable amount of mispairing are formed. The fact that a comparable phenomenon has not been observed for NRNA may mean that there is

  10. Venus upper clouds and the UV-absorber from MESSENGER/MASCS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia Munoz, Antonio; Irwin, Patrick; Peralta, Javier; Holsclaw, Greg; McClintock, William

    2014-11-01

    In June 2007, the MESSENGER spacecraft performed its second Venus flyby on its route to Mercury. The spacecraft’s MASCS instrument (VIRS channel) acquired numerous spectra of the sunlight reflected from the equatorial region of the planet at wavelengths from the near ultraviolet (300nm) to the near infrared (1450 nm). In this work we present an analysis of the data and their spectral and spatial variability following the mission footprint on the Venus disk. In order to reproduce the observed reflectivity and obtain information on the upper clouds and the unknown UV absorber, we use the NEMESIS retrieval code, including SO2 , CO2 and H2O absorption together with absorption and scattering by mode-1, -2 and -3 cloud particles. This spectral range provides sensitivity to the uppermost cloud levels, above 60 km. Vertical profiles of the mode-1 and mode-2 particles have been retrieved along the equatorial region of Venus, with average retrieved sounding levels of 70 +/- 2 km at 1 micron, in good agreement with previous investigations. This spectral range is also very interesting because of the existence of a mysterious absorber in the blue and UV side of the reflected spectra, whose origin remains as one of the key questions about the Venus atmosphere. Here we report a comparison with some of the previously proposed absorbers: (1) sulfur-related compounds (amorphous and liquid sulfur, S3, S4, S8, S2O); (2) chlorine related species (Cl2, FeCl3); (3) organics (C3O2, Croconic acid). Preliminary results show that the first group provides better fits to the data, although combinations of the proposed agents might be required in order to produce better results. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN projects AYA2009- 10701, AYA2012-38897-C02-01, and AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, PRICIT-S2009/ESP-1496, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13, and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. S.P.-H. acknowledges support from the Jose Castillejo Program funded by Ministerio de Educaci

  11. Three Pillars of Success: The Partners, The Messenger, The Communication Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.; Ryan, W. B. F.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    Our ability to deal with climate impacts in coastal cities and bring change, hinges on our ability to effectively communicate impacts. Incorporating sea level rise and climate impacts into city planning and community action plans is too often done in response to a devastating impact rather than through preventative planning. In New York the impact came in the form of Hurricane Sandy. Prior to Sandy, NYC, NY State and regional scientists had prepared planning documents, reports and communications directed at public officials and decision makers, warning of potential impacts from a changing climate. Presentations and reports identified the most exposed locations and infrastructure, but disbelief and a false sense of time mired any meaningful change. Effective communication about climate and impacts is at the root of planning and resilience. To be meaningful it must come from a trusted messenger, use well vetted materials that address both larger climate processes and drivers and local impacts, be accessible to the non-science community, and incorporate multiple modes of communication. The Polar Explorer: Sea Level app is a tool that has been used to this end (http://www.polarexplorer.org). An interactive multi-layered communication tool, it uses vetted data structured through a series of commonly asked questions and displayed through visualizations. We have been partnering with New York State, local community groups, and state and educational organizations to reach a broad cross section of the public with information useful for planning. We have co-presented at conferences for local planning and advisory groups, and incorporated the use of the app into local planning charrettes and have found the visualizations, interactivity of the delivery and the layered scaffolding make the app a useful tool for planners and decision makers. The app includes the physical science drivers of climate change and the social science impacts, and a look at the past the present and

  12. Compact, Passively Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser for the MESSENGER Mission to the Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Danny J.; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Li, Steven X.; Lindauer, Steven J.; Afzal, Robert S.; Yu, Antony

    2004-01-01

    A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been developed for the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument which is an instrument on the MESSENGER mission to the planet Mercury. The laser achieves 5.4 percent efficiency with a near diffraction limited beam. It has passed all space flight environmental tests at system, instrument, and satellite integration. The laser design draws on a heritage of previous laser altimetry missions, specifically ISESAT and Mars Global Surveyor; but incorporates thermal management features unique to the requirements of an orbit of the planet Mercury.

  13. The first Messenger data supporting main theses of the wave planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2008-09-01

    The first fundamental statement of the wave planetology [1-6 & others] is about ubiquity of tectonic dichotomy. All celestial bodies move, as it was established by I. Kepler, in non-round but elliptical orbits. This means that they all notwithstanding their sizes, masses, physical states and chemical compositions have alternating increasing and decreasing accelerations producing forces (Newton: F = m·a) warping celestial bodies. This wave warping rotating bodies (but all bodies rotate!) is decomposed into four orthogonal and diagonal directions of standing waves. An interference of these directions gives tectonic blocks of three kinds: uplifting (+), subsiding (-) and neutral (0). The block sizes depend on warping wavelengths. The fundamental wave long 2πR (R - a body radius) is present in all bodies thus making one hemisphere rising and the opposite one falling (more precise relation is 1/3 to 2/3 or 2/3 to 1/3). A geometrical proof of this relation is given in [6] where two famous tectonic dichotomies of Earth and Mars were explained by one wave reason. This ubiquitous phenomenon was described as the first theorem of the wave planetology: "Celestial bodies are dichotomous". There are many examples proving it among planets, satellites and asteroids, even Sun is dichotomous. But up to recent time the studied partially Mercury's surface was not a good example of this phenomenon as not fully visible Caloris basin didn't show its real dimension. Now, after the Messenger flyby we know that it is about 1500 km in diameter, that is about 1/3 of the Mercury's diameter and the rule is not violated. The third theorem of the wave planetary tectonics states: "Celestial bodies are granular". This means that celestial bodies are warped by individual waves lengths of which are inversely proportional to their orbital frequencies: higher frequency - finer granules, lower frequency - larger granules (Fig. 1). Observations fully support it not only in sense of granules diameters

  14. Cancer-Associated Perturbations in Alternative Pre-messenger RNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Bell, Brendan; Revil, Timothée; Venables, Julian P; Prinos, Panagiotis; Elela, Sherif Abou; Chabot, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    For most of our 25,000 genes, the removal of introns by pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing represents an essential step toward the production of functional messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Alternative splicing of a single pre-mRNA results in the production of different mRNAs. Although complex organisms use alternative splicing to expand protein function and phenotypic diversity, patterns of alternative splicing are often altered in cancer cells. Alternative splicing contributes to tumorigenesis by producing splice isoforms that can stimulate cell proliferation and cell migration or induce resistance to apoptosis and anticancer agents. Cancer-specific changes in splicing profiles can occur through mutations that are affecting splice sites and splicing control elements, and also by alterations in the expression of proteins that control splicing decisions. Recent progress in global approaches that interrogate splicing diversity should help to obtain specific splicing signatures for cancer types. The development of innovative approaches for annotating and reprogramming splicing events will more fully establish the essential contribution of alternative splicing to the biology of cancer and will hopefully provide novel targets and anticancer strategies. Metazoan genes are usually made up of several exons interrupted by introns. The introns are removed from the pre-mRNA by RNA splicing. In conjunction with other maturation steps, such as capping and polyadenylation, the spliced mRNA is then transported to the cytoplasm to be translated into a functional protein. The basic mechanism of splicing requires accurate recognition of each extremity of each intron by the spliceosome. Introns are identified by the binding of U1 snRNP to the 5' splice site and the U2AF65/U2AF35 complex to the 3' splice site. Following these interactions, other proteins and snRNPs are recruited to generate the complete spliceosomal complex needed to excise the intron. While many introns are constitutively

  15. Intense energetic electron flux enhancements in Mercury's magnetosphere: An integrated view with high‐resolution observations from MESSENGER

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, Ryan M.; Lawrence, David J.; Goldsten, John O.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Korth, Haje; Slavin, James A.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Anderson, Brian J.; Ho, George C.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Raines, Jim M.; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury has provided a wealth of new data about energetic particle phenomena. With observations from MESSENGER's Energetic Particle Spectrometer, as well as data arising from energetic electrons recorded by the X‐Ray Spectrometer and Gamma‐Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS) instruments, recent work greatly extends our record of the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic electrons at Mercury. The combined data sets include measurements from a few keV up to several hundred keV in electron kinetic energy and have permitted relatively good spatial and temporal resolution for many events. We focus here on the detailed nature of energetic electron bursts measured by the GRNS system, and we place these events in the context of solar wind and magnetospheric forcing at Mercury. Our examination of data at high temporal resolution (10 ms) during the period March 2013 through October 2014 supports strongly the view that energetic electrons are accelerated in the near‐tail region of Mercury's magnetosphere and are subsequently “injected” onto closed magnetic field lines on the planetary nightside. The electrons populate the plasma sheet and drift rapidly eastward toward the dawn and prenoon sectors, at times executing multiple complete drifts around the planet to form “quasi‐trapped” populations. PMID:27830111

  16. Observations of Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves Along the Dusk-Side Boundary of Mercury's Magnetosphere During MESSENGER's Third Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boardsen, Scott A.; Sundberg, Torgjoern; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Solomon, Sean C.; Blomberg, Lars G.

    2010-01-01

    During the third MESSENGER flyby of Mercury on 29 September 2009, 15 crossings of the dusk-side magnetopause were observed in the magnetic field data over a 2-min period, during which the spacecraft traveled a distance of 0.2 R(sub M) (where R(sub M) is Mercury's radius). The quasi-periodic nature of the magnetic field variations during the crossings, the characteristic time separations of approx.16 s between pairs of crossings, and the variations of the magnetopause normal directions indicate that the signals are likely the signature of surface waves highly steepened at their leading edge that arose from the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. At Earth, the Kelvin- Helmholtz instability is believed to lead to the turbulent transport of solar wind plasma into Earth's plasma sheet. This solar wind entry mechanism could also be important at Mercury. Citation: Boardsen, S. A., T. Sundberg, J. A.Slavin, B. J. Anderson, H. Korth, S. C. Solomon, and L. G. Blomberg (2010), Observations of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves along the dusk-side boundary of Mercury s magnetosphere during MESSENGER's third flyby,

  17. Intense energetic electron flux enhancements in Mercury's magnetosphere: An integrated view with high-resolution observations from MESSENGER.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel N; Dewey, Ryan M; Lawrence, David J; Goldsten, John O; Peplowski, Patrick N; Korth, Haje; Slavin, James A; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Anderson, Brian J; Ho, George C; McNutt, Ralph L; Raines, Jim M; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C

    2016-03-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury has provided a wealth of new data about energetic particle phenomena. With observations from MESSENGER's Energetic Particle Spectrometer, as well as data arising from energetic electrons recorded by the X-Ray Spectrometer and Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS) instruments, recent work greatly extends our record of the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic electrons at Mercury. The combined data sets include measurements from a few keV up to several hundred keV in electron kinetic energy and have permitted relatively good spatial and temporal resolution for many events. We focus here on the detailed nature of energetic electron bursts measured by the GRNS system, and we place these events in the context of solar wind and magnetospheric forcing at Mercury. Our examination of data at high temporal resolution (10 ms) during the period March 2013 through October 2014 supports strongly the view that energetic electrons are accelerated in the near-tail region of Mercury's magnetosphere and are subsequently "injected" onto closed magnetic field lines on the planetary nightside. The electrons populate the plasma sheet and drift rapidly eastward toward the dawn and prenoon sectors, at times executing multiple complete drifts around the planet to form "quasi-trapped" populations.

  18. A whole new Mercury: MESSENGER reveals a dynamic planet at the last frontier of the inner solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Catherine L.; Hauck, , Steven A.

    2016-11-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission yielded a wealth of information about the innermost planet. For the first time, visible images of the entire planet, absolute altimetry measurements and a global gravity field, measurements of Mercury's surface composition, magnetic field, exosphere, and magnetosphere taken over more than four Earth years are available. From these data, two overarching themes emerge. First, multiple data sets and modeling efforts point toward a dynamic ancient history. Signatures of graphite in the crust suggest solidification of an early magma ocean, image data show extensive volcanism and tectonic features indicative of subsequent global contraction, and low-altitude measurements of magnetic fields reveal an ancient magnetic field. Second, the present-day Mercury environment is far from quiescent. Convective motions in the outer core support a modern magnetic field whose strength and geometry are unique among planets with global magnetic fields. Furthermore, periodic and aperiodic variations in the magnetosphere and exosphere have been observed, some of which couple to the surface and the planet's deep interior. Finally, signatures of geologically recent volatile activity at the surface have been detected. Mercury's early history and its present-day environment have common elements with the other inner solar system bodies. However, in each case there are also crucial differences and these likely hold the key to further understanding of Mercury and terrestrial planet evolution. MESSENGER's exploration of Mercury has enabled a new view of the innermost planet, and more importantly has set the stage for much-needed future exploration.

  19. Germination Potential of Dormant and Nondormant Arabidopsis Seeds Is Driven by Distinct Recruitment of Messenger RNAs to Polysomes

    PubMed Central

    Basbouss-Serhal, Isabelle; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette

    2015-01-01

    Dormancy is a complex evolutionary trait that temporally prevents seed germination, thus allowing seedling growth at a favorable season. High-throughput analyses of transcriptomes have led to significant progress in understanding the molecular regulation of this process, but the role of posttranscriptional mechanisms has received little attention. In this work, we have studied the dynamics of messenger RNA association with polysomes and compared the transcriptome with the translatome in dormant and nondormant seeds of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) during their imbibition at 25°C in darkness, a temperature preventing germination of dormant seeds only. DNA microarray analysis revealed that 4,670 and 7,028 transcripts were differentially abundant in dormant and nondormant seeds in the transcriptome and the translatome, respectively. We show that there is no correlation between transcriptome and translatome and that germination regulation is also largely translational, implying a selective and dynamic recruitment of messenger RNAs to polysomes in both dormant and nondormant seeds. The study of 5′ untranslated region features revealed that GC content and the number of upstream open reading frames could play a role in selective translation occurring during germination. Gene Ontology clustering showed that the functions of polysome-associated transcripts differed between dormant and nondormant seeds and revealed actors in seed dormancy and germination. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the essential role of selective polysome loading in this biological process. PMID:26019300

  20. Ubiquitous learning model using interactive internet messenger group (IIMG) to improve engagement and behavior for smart campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umam, K.; Mardi, S. N. S.; Hariadi, M.

    2017-01-01

    The recent popularity of internet messenger based smartphone technologies has motivated some university lecturers to use them for educational activities. These technologies have enormous potential to enhance the teaching and ubiquitous learning experience for smart campus development. However, the design ubiquitous learning model using interactive internet messenger group (IIMG) and empirical evidence that would favor a broad application of mobile and ubiquitous learning in smart campus settings to improve engagement and behavior is still limited. In addition, the expectation that mobile learning could improve engagement and behavior on smart campus cannot be confirmed because the majority of the reviewed studies followed instructions paradigms. This article aims to present ubiquitous learning model design and showing learners’ experiences in improved engagement and behavior using IIMG for learner-learner and learner-lecturer interactions. The method applied in this paper includes design process and quantitative analysis techniques, with the purpose of identifying scenarios of ubiquitous learning and realize the impressions of learners and lecturers about engagement and behavior aspect, and its contribution to learning.

  1. Second-messenger regulation of sodium transport in mammalian airway epithelia.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, A; Steel, D M; Alton, E W; Geddes, D M

    1992-01-01

    1. Sodium absorption is the dominant ion transport process in conducting airways and is a major factor regulating the composition of airway surface liquid. However, little is known about the control of airway sodium transport by intracellular regulatory pathways. 2. In sheep tracheae and human bronchi mounted in Ussing chambers under short circuit conditions, the sodium current can be isolated by pretreating tissues with acetazolamide (100 microM) to inhibit bicarbonate secretion, bumetanide (100 microM) to inhibit chloride secretion and phloridzin (200 microM) to inhibit sodium-glucose cotransport. This sodium current consists of amiloride-sensitive (57%) and amiloride-insensitive (43%) components. 3. The regulation of the isolated sodium current by three second messenger pathways was studied using the calcium ionophore A23187 to elevate intracellular calcium, a combination of forskolin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor zardaverine to elevate intracellular cyclic AMP, and the phorbol ester 12,13-phorbol dibutyrate (PDB) to stimulate protein kinase C. 4. In sheep trachea, A23187 produces a dose-related inhibition of the sodium current with maximal effect (38% of ISC) at 10 microM and IC50 1 microM. This response affects both the amiloride-sensitive and insensitive components of the sodium current and is not altered by prior stimulation of protein kinase C or elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP. In human bronchi, A23187 (10 microM) produced a significantly greater inhibition of ISC (68%), a response which was unaffected by prior treatment with PDB or forskolin-zardaverine. 5. In sheep trachea, stimulation of protein kinase C with PDB produced a dose-related inhibition of ISC maximal (56% of ISC) at 50 nM (IC50 7 nM). This response was abolished by amiloride (100 microM) pretreatment suggesting a selective effect on the amiloride-sensitive component of the sodium current. The response was not altered by prior elevation of intracellular calcium or cyclic AMP. PDB

  2. Venus Measurements by the MESSENGER Gamma-Ray and X-Ray Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. A.; Starr, R. D.; Goldsten, J. O.; Schlemm, C. E.; Boynton, W. V.

    2007-12-01

    The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS), which is a part of the Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer Instrument, and the X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) on the MESSENGER spacecraft made calibration measurements during the Venus flyby on June 5, 2007. The purpose of these instruments is to determine elemental abundances on the surface of Mercury. The GRS measures gamma-rays emitted from element interactions with cosmic rays impinging on the surface, while the XRS measures X-ray emissions induced on the surface by the incident solar flux. The GRS sensor is a high-resolution high-purity Ge detector cooled by a Stirling cryocooler, surrounded by a borated-plastic anticoincidence shield. The GRS is sensitive to gamma-rays up to ~10 MeV and can identify most major elements, sampling down to depths of about ten centimeters. Only the shield was powered on for this flyby in order to conserve cooler lifetime. Gamma-rays were observed coming from Venus as well as from the spacecraft. Although the Venus gamma-rays originate from its thick atmosphere rather than its surface, the GRS data from this encounter will provide useful calibration data from a source of known composition. In particular, the data will be useful for determining GRS sensitivity and pointing options for the Mercury flybys, the first of which will be in January 2008. The X-ray spectrum of a planetary surface is dominated by a combination of the fluorescence and scattered solar X-rays. The most prominent fluorescent lines are the Kα lines from the major elements Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Ti, and Fe (1-10 keV). The sampling depth is less than 100 u m. The XRS is similar in design to experiments flown on Apollo 15 and 16 and the NEAR-Shoemaker mission. Three large-area gas-proportional counters view the planet, and a small Si-PIN detector mounted on the spacecraft sunshade monitors the Sun. The energy resolution of the gas proportional counters (~850 eV at 5.9 keV) is sufficient to resolve the X-ray lines above 2 keV, but Al and Mg

  3. CCL20 and IL22 Messenger RNA Expression After Adalimumab vs Methotrexate Treatment of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Goldminz, Ari M.; Suarez-Farinas, Mayte; Wang, Andrew C.; Dumont, Nicole; Krueger, James G.; Gottlieb, Alice B.

    2018-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Methotrexate is a first-line systemic agent for treating of psoriasis, although its onset of effects is slower and overall it is less effective than tumor necrosis factor blockers. OBJECTIVE To differentiate the response of psoriatic disease to adalimumab and methotrexate sodium. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Single-center, randomized, assessor-blind, 2-arm clinical trial of 30 patients from the outpatient dermatology center of Tufts Medical Center, enrolled from August 18, 2009, to October 11, 2011. Patients aged 18 to 85 years with chronic plaque-type psoriasis, a minimum Physician Global Assessment score of 3 (higher scores indicate more severe disease), and a psoriatic plaque of at least 2 cm were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to receive subcutaneous adalimumab or oral methotrexate. Skin biopsy specimens obtained at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 4, and 16 were given a histologic grade by blinded assessors to evaluate treatment response. Analyses were conducted from April 16, 2013, to January 5, 2015. INTERVENTIONS A 16-week course of subcutaneous adalimumab (40 mg every 2 weeks after a loading dose) or low-dosage oral methotrexate sodium (7.5–25 mg/wk). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Changes in genomic, immunohistochemical, and messenger RNA (mRNA) profiles. RESULTS Methotrexate responders experienced significant downregulation of helper T-cell– related (TH1, TH17, and TH22) mRNA expression compared with methotrexate nonresponders. Comparisons among adalimumab-treated patients were limited by the number of nonresponders (n = 1). Between adalimumab and methotrexate responders, we found no significant differences in gene expression at any study point or in the expression of T-cell–related mRNA at week 16. Adalimumab responders demonstrated early downregulation of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) mRNA (mean [SE] at week 2, −1.83 [0.52], P < .001; week 16, −3.55 [0.54], P < .001) compared with late downregulation for methotrexate responders

  4. Identification of messenger RNA of fetoplacental source in maternal plasma of women with normal pregnancies and pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Ayala Ramírez, Paola; García Robles, Reggie; Rojas, Juan Diego; Bermúdez, Martha; Bernal, Jaime

    2012-07-01

    to quantify placenta-specific RNA in plasma of women carrying foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction and pregnant women with normal pregnancies. 8 pregnant women with foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction were studied as well as 18 women with uncomplicated pregnancies in the third pregnancy trimester. Total free RNA was quantified in maternal plasma by spectrophotometry and the gene expression of hPL (Human Placental Lactogen) at the messenger RNA level through technical Real Time-Chain Reaction Polymerase. plasma RNA of fetoplacental origin was successfully detected in 100% of pregnant women. There were no statistically significant differences between the values of total RNA extracted from plasma (p= 0.5975) nor in the messenger RNA expression of hPL gene (p= 0.5785) between cases and controls. messenger RNA of fetoplacental origin can be detected in maternal plasma during pregnancy.

  5. Identification of messenger RNA of fetoplacental source in maternal plasma of women with normal pregnancies and pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    García Robles, Reggie; Rojas, Juan Diego; Bermúdez, Martha; Bernal, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to quantify placenta-specific RNA in plasma of women carrying foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction and pregnant women with normal pregnancies. Methods: 8 pregnant women with foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction were studied as well as 18 women with uncomplicated pregnancies in the third pregnancy trimester. Total free RNA was quantified in maternal plasma by spectrophotometry and the gene expression of hPL (Human Placental Lactogen) at the messenger RNA level through technical Real Time-Chain Reaction Polymerase. Results: plasma RNA of fetoplacental origin was successfully detected in 100% of pregnant women. There were no statistically significant differences between the values of total RNA extracted from plasma (p= 0.5975) nor in the messenger RNA expression of hPL gene (p= 0.5785) between cases and controls. Conclusion: messenger RNA of fetoplacental origin can be detected in maternal plasma during pregnancy. PMID:24893189

  6. Dietary ribonucleic acid suppresses inflammation of adipose tissue and improves glucose intolerance that is mediated by immune cells in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tohru; Taki, Tomoyo; Nakamoto, Akiko; Tazaki, Shiho; Arakawa, Mai; Nakamoto, Mariko; Tsutsumi, Rie; Shuto, Emi

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that immune cells play an important role in differentiation of inflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue, which contributes to systemic chronic inflammation. Dietary ribonucleic acid (RNA) has been shown to modulate immune function. We hypothesized that RNA affects immune cell function in adipose tissue and then improves inflammatory response in adipose tissue. C57/BL6 mice and recombination activating gene-1 (RAG-1) knockout mice on a C57BL/6 mice background were fed a high-fat diet containing 1% RNA for 12 wk. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Supplementation of dietary RNA in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet resulted in a smaller area under the curve (AUC) after oral glucose administration than that for control mice. The mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines in adipose tissue and serum interleukin-6 levels were reduced by dietary RNA supplementation. Interestingly, reduction of the AUC value by RNA supplementation was abolished in T and B cell-deficient RAG-1 knockout mice. These results indicate that RNA improves inflammation in adipose tissue and reduces the AUC value following oral glucose administration in a T and B cell-dependent manner.

  7. Effect of the Intelligent Health Messenger Box on health care professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to hand hygiene and hand bacteria counts.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Mohsen; Ghanizadeh, Ghader; Fattahipour, Rasoul; Khalaji, Kazem; Pakpour, Amir H; Koenig, Harold G

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of the Intelligent Health Messenger Box in promoting hand hygiene using a quasiexperimental design. Knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices related to hand hygiene as well as hand bacteria counts and amount of liquid soap used were measured. The intervention involved broadcasting preventive audio messages. All outcomes showed significant change after the intervention compared with before. The Intelligent Health Messenger Box can serve as a practical way to improve hand hygiene. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. siRNAs targeted to certain polyadenylation sites promote specific, RISC-independent degradation of messenger RNAs.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Timothy A; Crooke, Stanley T

    2012-07-01

    While most siRNAs induce sequence-specific target mRNA cleavage and degradation in a process mediated by Ago2/RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), certain siRNAs have also been demonstrated to direct target RNA reduction through deadenylation and subsequent degradation of target transcripts in a process which involves Ago1/RISC and P-bodies. In the current study, we present data suggesting that a third class of siRNA exist, which are capable of promoting target RNA reduction that is independent of both Ago and RISC. These siRNAs bind the target messenger RNA at the polyA signal and are capable of redirecting a small amount of polyadenylation to downstream polyA sites when present, however, the majority of the activity appears to be due to inhibition of polyadenylation or deadenylation of the transcript, followed by exosomal degradation of the immature mRNA.

  9. Structural insights into the role of diphthamide on elongation factor 2 in messenger RNA reading frame maintenance.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Simone; Demeshkina, Natalia; Mancera-Martinez, Eder; Melnikov, Sergey; Simonetti, Angelita; Myasnikov, Alexander; Yusupov, Marat; Yusupova, Gulnara; Hashem, Yaser

    2018-06-07

    One of the most critical steps of protein biosynthesis is the coupled movement of messenger RNA (mRNA), that encodes genetic information, with transfer RNAs (tRNAs) on the ribosome. In eukaryotes this process is catalyzed by a conserved G-protein, the elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which carries a unique post-translational modification, called diphthamide, found in all eukaryotic species. Here we present near-atomic resolution cryo-EM structures of yeast 80S ribosome complexes containing mRNA, tRNA and eEF2 trapped in different GTP-hydrolysis states which provide further structural insights on the role of diphthamide in the mechanism of translation fidelity in eukaryotes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. DNA Methylation of MMP9 Is Associated with High Levels of MMP-9 Messenger RNA in Periapical Inflammatory Lesions.

    PubMed

    Campos, Kelma; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; Silva, Renato Menezes; Letra, Ariadne; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the major class of enzymes responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix components and participate in the pathogenesis of periapical inflammatory lesions. MMP expression may be regulated by DNA methylation. The purpose of the present investigation was to analyze the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts and to test the hypothesis that, in these lesions, their transcription may be modulated by DNA methylation. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the DNA methylation pattern of the MMP2 gene in 13 fresh periapical granuloma samples and 10 fresh radicular cyst samples. Restriction enzyme digestion was used to assess methylation of the MMP9 gene in 12 fresh periapical granuloma samples and 10 fresh radicular cyst samples. MMP2 and MMP9 messenger RNA transcript levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. All periapical lesions and healthy mucosa samples showed partial methylation of the MMP2 gene; however, periapical granulomas showed higher MMP2 mRNA expression levels than healthy mucosa (P = .014). A higher unmethylated profile of the MMP9 gene was found in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts compared with healthy mucosa. In addition, higher MMP9 mRNA expression was observed in the periapical lesions compared with healthy tissues. The present study suggests that the unmethylated status of the MMP9 gene in periapical lesions may explain the observed up-regulation of messenger RNA transcription in these lesions. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface mapping via unsupervised classification of remote sensing: application to MESSENGER/MASCS and DAWN/VIRS data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, M.; Le Scaon, R.; Helbert, J.; Maturilli, A.

    2017-12-01

    Machine-learning achieved unprecedented results in high-dimensional data processing tasks with wide applications in various fields. Due to the growing number of complex nonlinear systems that have to be investigated in science and the bare raw size of data nowadays available, ML offers the unique ability to extract knowledge, regardless the specific application field. Examples are image segmentation, supervised/unsupervised/ semi-supervised classification, feature extraction, data dimensionality analysis/reduction.The MASCS instrument has mapped Mercury surface in the 400-1145 nm wavelength range during orbital observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft. We have conducted k-means unsupervised hierarchical clustering to identify and characterize spectral units from MASCS observations. The results display a dichotomy: a polar and equatorial units, possibly linked to compositional differences or weathering due to irradiation. To explore possible relations between composition and spectral behavior, we have compared the spectral provinces with elemental abundance maps derived from MESSENGER's X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS).For the Vesta application on DAWN Visible and infrared spectrometer (VIR) data, we explored several Machine Learning techniques: image segmentation method, stream algorithm and hierarchical clustering.The algorithm successfully separates the Olivine outcrops around two craters on Vesta's surface [1]. New maps summarizing the spectral and chemical signature of the surface could be automatically produced.We conclude that instead of hand digging in data, scientist could choose a subset of algorithms with well known feature (i.e. efficacy on the particular problem, speed, accuracy) and focus their effort in understanding what important characteristic of the groups found in the data mean. [1] E Ammannito et al. "Olivine in an unexpected location on Vesta's surface". In: Nature 504.7478 (2013), pp. 122-125.

  12. Global Inventory and Characterization of Pyroclastic Deposits on Mercury: New Insights into Pyroclastic Activity from MESSENGER Orbital Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudge, Timothy A.; Head, James W.; Kerber, Laura; Blewett, David T.; Denevi, Brett W.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Gwinner, Klaus; Helbert, Joern; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present new observations of pyroclastic deposits on the surface of Mercury from data acquired during the orbital phase of the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. The global analysis of pyroclastic deposits brings the total number of such identified features from 40 to 51. Some 90% of pyroclastic deposits are found within impact craters. The locations of most pyroclastic deposits appear to be unrelated to regional smooth plains deposits, except some deposits cluster around the margins of smooth plains, similar to the relation between many lunar pyroclastic deposits and lunar maria. A survey of the degradation state of the impact craters that host pyroclastic deposits suggests that pyroclastic activity occurred on Mercury over a prolonged interval. Measurements of surface reflectance by MESSENGER indicate that the pyroclastic deposits are spectrally distinct from their surrounding terrain, with higher reflectance values, redder (i.e., steeper) spectral slopes, and a downturn at wavelengths shorter than approximately 400nm (i.e., in the near-ultraviolet region of the spectrum). Three possible causes for these distinctive characteristics include differences in transition metal content, physical properties (e.g., grain size), or degree of space weathering from average surface material on Mercury. The strength of the near-ultraviolet downturn varies among spectra of pyroclastic deposits and is correlated with reflectance at visible wavelengths. We suggest that this interdeposit variability in reflectance spectra is the result of either variable amounts of mixing of the pyroclastic deposits with underlying material or inherent differences in chemical and physical properties among pyroclastic deposits.

  13. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ - ({phi} - {phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/2{sigma}{sup 2}], where {phi}more » is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, {phi}{sub 0} is the distribution centroid, and {sigma} determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R < 1 AU, allows us to determine a lower limit to the radial dependence of the 71-112 keV electron peak intensities measured along IMF lines. We find five events for which the nominal magnetic footpoint of MESSENGER was less than 20 Degree-Sign apart from the nominal footpoint of a spacecraft near 1 AU. Although the expected theoretical radial dependence for the peak intensity of the events observed along the same field line can be approximated by a functional form R {sup -{alpha}} with {alpha} < 3, we find two events for which {alpha} > 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.« less

  14. WhatsApp messenger as a tool to supplement medical education for medical students on clinical attachment.

    PubMed

    Raiman, Lewis; Antbring, Richard; Mahmood, Asad

    2017-01-06

    Instant messaging applications have the potential to improve and facilitate communication between hospital doctors and students, hence generating and improving learning opportunities. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of instant messaging communication to supplement medical education for medical students whilst on clinical attachment. A total of 6 WhatsApp Messenger (WhatsApp Inc.) groups were created for medical students on clinical attachment. These were used to provide communication within Problem Based Learning (PBL) groups for a duration of 8 weeks. The frequency and type of communication were recorded. Students' opinions were evaluated through a structured interview process at the end of the study period. A thematic analysis was performed on the content of the instant messaging groups and on the results of the structured interviews. All of the participants were active in their respective messaging groups (19 students and 6 tutors). A total of 582 messages, 22 images and 19 webpage links were sent. Thematic analysis on content of the instant messaging groups identified the following themes: organisational, educational and social. Thematic analysis on the content of interviews identified themes such as the ease of use of instant messaging, benefit of instant messaging to foster understanding and learning, and the ability to access recorded discussions. The findings of this study illustrate a method by which communication within PBL groups can be facilitated by the use of instant messaging. The results indicate the feasibility and acceptability of WhatsApp Messenger in supplementing PBL teaching for medical students, and provides a framework for studies to investigate use amongst larger cohorts of students.

  15. redox Signaling by 8-nitro-cyclic guanosine monophosphate: nitric oxide- and reactive oxygen species-derived electrophilic messenger.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shigemoto; Akaike, Takaaki

    2013-10-10

    Emerging evidence has revealed that nitric oxide (NO)- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-derived electrophiles formed in cells mediate signal transduction for responses to oxidative stress. The cyclic nucleotide with a nitrated guanine moiety-8-nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP)-first identified in 2007 as a second messenger for NO and ROS-has certain unique properties that its parental cGMP lacks. For example, it can react with particular protein Cys thiols because of its electrophilicity and can cause unique post-translational modifications of redox-sensor proteins such as Keap1 and H-Ras. Site-specific S-guanylation of Keap1 at Cys434 induced NO- and ROS-mediated adaptive responses to oxidative stress. H-Ras Cys184 S-guanylation was recently found to be involved in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades as manifested by cellular senescence and heart failure in mouse cardiac hypertrophy models. The latest finding related to the concept of electrophile-based redox signaling is a potent regulatory function of endogenously produced hydrogen sulfide for redox signaling via 8-nitro-cGMP. Electrophile modification of 8-nitro-cGMP, as a second messenger for NO and ROS, by hydrogen sulfide (i.e., electrophile sulfhydration) can most likely effect physiological regulation of cellular redox signaling. Continued investigation of the precise function of cellular hydrogen sulfide that may control electrophile-dependent redox cellular signaling, most typically via 8-nitro-cGMP formation, may provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress responses, oxidative stress-related pathology and disease control, and development of therapeutics for various diseases.

  16. Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger with his audience at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-26

    Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger with his audience at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Nov. 26, 2002. NASA Dryden is located on Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert.

  17. Expression of endothelin-1 and constitutional nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA in saphenous vein endothelial cells exposed to arterial flow shear stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Z G; Li, H H; Zhang, B R

    1997-11-01

    It has long been speculated that increased blood flow shear stress might be one of the major factors affecting the patency of grafted saphenous vein in coronary artery bypass operations. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms for so-called "shear stress damage" have not yet been well elucidated. Endothelial cells harvested from human saphenous vein were cultured in vitro and then exposed to a high arterial level flow shear stress in the parallel flow chamber. The expression levels of endothelin-1 and constitutional nitric oxide synthase by the endothelial cells were evaluated semiquantitatively at the gene transcription (messenger RNA) level using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After 7 hours of exposure to arterial level shear stress, the expression of constitutional nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA by saphenous vein endothelial cells was significantly reduced, whereas the expression of endothelin-1 messenger RNA was substantially increased. These changes were more predominant at 24 hours. Arterial level flow shear stress could cause important changes in the gene transcription level in saphenous vein endothelial cells within a short period of time. The functional alterations of saphenous vein endothelial cells, as manifested by the increased expression of endothelin-1 and decreased expression of nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA, might play a crucial role in the vein graft remodeling process.

  18. WhatsApp Messenger as a Learning Tool: An Investigation of Pre-Service Teachers' Learning without Instructor Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alenazi, Ali A.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which pre-service teachers can utilize WhatsApp Messenger to create an effective learning platform without instructor interference. Twenty-six male pre-service teachers created a WhatsApp group and interacted through it independently for nine weeks. Each pre-service teacher was required to share a minimum of…

  19. Functional role of oppA encoding an oligopeptide-binding protein from Lactobacillus salivarius Ren in bile tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohong; Li, Dan; Ma, Xiayin; An, Haoran; Zhai, Zhengyuan; Ren, Fazheng; Hao, Yanling

    2015-08-01

    Lactobacillus salivarius is a member of the indigenous microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and some L. salivarius strains are considered as probiotics. Bile tolerance is a crucial property for probiotic bacteria to survive the transit through the GIT and exert their beneficial effects. In this work, the functional role of oppA encoding an oligopeptide transporter substrate-binding protein from L. salivarius Ren in bile salt tolerance was investigated. In silico analysis revealed that the oppA gene encodes a 61.7-kDa cell surface-anchored hydrophilic protein with a canonical lipoprotein signal peptide. Homologous overexpression of OppA was shown to confer 20-fold higher tolerance to 0.5 % oxgall in L. salivarius Ren. Furthermore, the recombinant strain exhibited 1.8-fold and 3.6-fold higher survival when exposed to the sublethal concentration of sodium taurocholate and sodium taurodeoxycholate, respectively, while no significant change was observed when exposed to sodium glycocholate and sodium glycodeoxycholate (GDCA). Our results indicate that OppA confers specific resistance to taurine-conjugated bile salts in L. salivarius Ren. In addition, the OppA overexpression strain also showed significant increased resistance to heat and salt stresses, suggesting the protective role of OppA against multiple stresses in L. salivarius Ren.

  20. Evaluation of messenger plant activator as a preharvest and postharvest treatment of sweet cherry fruit under a controlled atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Akbudak, Bulent; Tezcan, Himmet; Eris, Atilla

    2009-08-01

    The preservation methods as an alternative to chemical control to prevent postharvest quality losses of sweet cherry were examined. The efficacy of preharvest and postharvest messenger (M) treatments on sweet cherry cv. '0900 Ziraat' was tested under a controlled atmosphere in 2004 and 2005. The factors investigated included the separate or combined effect of low oxygen, high carbon dioxide and M on the quality and fungal pathogens of sweet cherries in a normal atmosphere (NA) and in a controlled atmosphere (CA). Cherries were placed at six different atmosphere combinations (0.03%:21% [NA, control], 5%:5%, 10%:5%, 15%:5%, 20%:5% and 25%:5% CO(2):O(2)) at 0°C and 90% relative humidity for up to 8 weeks. Mass values were higher in cherries stored under NA compared with CA. Initial firmness was 1.45 kg and 1.41 kg in fruits without messenger (WM) and in M fruits, respectively; and was measured as 0.30-0.59 kg in WM and 0.57-0.95 kg in M at the end of the trials. The highest acidity and ascorbic acid values were recorded at the end of storage from the fruit stored under CA + M. The CA + M treatment proved the most effective with regard to delaying the maturity and preserving the fruit quality in sweet cherries during storage. Moreover, the CA + M treatments reduced the rotten fruit from 24.06% to 3.80% in cv. '0900 Ziraat'. Better fruit quality was obtained under CA + M compared with NA and CA. The fungi most frequently isolated from sweet cherries were Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Monilinia fructicola, Alternaria alternata and Rhizopus stolonifer. It was concluded that sweet cherry cv. '0900 Ziraat' could be stored successfully under CA (20%:5%) + M, and partially under CA (25%:5%) + M, conditions for more than 60 days. Thus, it is recommended that CO(2) levels for sweet cherry storage can be increased above 15% with M.

  1. Venus's winds and temperatures during the MESSENGER's flyby: towards a three-dimensional instantaneous state of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, J.; Lee, Y. J.; Hueso, R.; Clancy, R. T.; Sandor, B. J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Lellouch, E.; Rengel, M.; Machado, P.; Omino, M.; Piccialli, A.; Imamura, T.; Horinouchi, T.; Murakami, S.; Ogohara, K.; Luz, D.; Peach, D.

    2017-09-01

    The atmosphere of the Earth or Mars globally rotates with a speed similar to the rotation of the planet (approximately 24 h). The rotation of Venus is of about 243 days, much slower than the Earth, but when scientists measured the winds by tracking the clouds of Venus, they discovered that the atmosphere rotates 60 times faster! No one has explained yet what originates this "superrotation", and we do not know well what happens either above or below the clouds. The technique of "Doppler shift" has been used to measure winds above the clouds, but results are "chaotic" and different to interpret. Thanks to a worldwide collaboration in June 2007 between NASA (MESSENGER), ESA (Venus Express), and many observatories (VLT in Chile, JCMT in Hawaii, HHSMT in Arizona, or IRAM in Spain), the authors combined the different data to obtain, for the first time, the instantaneous 3-D structure of the winds on Venus at the clouds and also above, very important for new Venus models to start "forecasts" of the Venus weather with "data assimilation". We also discovered that the superrotation seems unexpectedly different on the night of Venus and that it varies its altitude depending on the day.

  2. Complete nucleotide sequences of the coat protein messenger RNAs of brome mosaic virus and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus.

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, R; Kaesberg, P

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the subgenomic coat protein messengers (RNA4's) of two related bromoviruses, brome mosaic virus (BMV) and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), have been determined by direct RNA and CDNA sequencing without cloning. BMV RNA4 is 876 b long including a 5' noncoding region of nine nucleotides and a 3' noncoding region of 300 nucleotides. CCMV RNA 4 is 824 b long, including a 5' noncoding region of 10 nucleotides and a 3' noncoding region of 244 nucleotides. The encoded coat proteins are similar in length (188 amino acids for BMV and 189 amino acids for CCMV) and display about 70% homology in their amino acid sequences. Length difference between the two RNAs is due mostly to a single deletion, in CCMV with respect to BMV, of about 57 b immediately following the coding region. Allowing for this deletion the RNAs are indicate that mutations leading to divergence were constrained in the coding region primarily by the requirement of maintaining a favorable coat protein structure and in the 3' noncoding region primarily by the requirement of maintaining a favorable RNA spatial configuration. PMID:6895941

  3. Venus's winds and temperatures during the MESSENGER's flyby: An approximation to a three-dimensional instantaneous state of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, J.; Lee, Y. J.; Hueso, R.; Clancy, R. T.; Sandor, B. J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Lellouch, E.; Rengel, M.; Machado, P.; Omino, M.; Piccialli, A.; Imamura, T.; Horinouchi, T.; Murakami, S.; Ogohara, K.; Luz, D.; Peach, D.

    2017-04-01

    Even though many missions have explored the Venus atmospheric circulation, its instantaneous state is poorly characterized. In situ measurements vertically sampling the atmosphere exist for limited locations and dates, while remote sensing observations provide only global averages of winds at altitudes of the clouds: 47, 60, and 70 km. We present a three-dimensional global view of Venus's atmospheric circulation from data obtained in June 2007 by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) and Venus Express spacecrafts, together with ground-based observations. Winds and temperatures were measured for heights 47-110 km from multiwavelength images and spectra covering 40°N-80°S and local times 12 h-21 h. Dayside westward winds exhibit day-to-day changes, with maximum speeds ranging 97-143 m/s and peaking at variable altitudes within 75-90 km, while on the nightside these peak below cloud tops at ˜60 km. Our results support past reports of strong variability of the westward zonal superrotation in the transition region, and good agreement is found above the clouds with results from the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) Venus general circulation model.

  4. Electrochemical Branched-DNA Assay for Polymerase Chain Reaction-Free Detection and Quantification of Oncogenes in Messenger RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ai Cheng; Dai, Ziyu; Chen, Baowei

    2008-12-01

    We describe a novel electrochemical branched-DNA (bDNA) assay for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-free detection and quantification of p185 BCR-ABL leukemia fusion transcript in the population of messenger RNA (mRNA) extracted from cell lines. The bDNA amplifier carrying high loading of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) tracers was used to amplify targets signal. The targets were captured on microplate well surfaces through cooperative sandwich hybridization prior to the labeling of bDNA. The activity of captured ALP was monitored by square-wave voltammetric (SWV) analysis of the electroactive enzymatic product in the presence of 1-napthyl-phosphate. The specificity and sensitivity of assay enabled direct detection ofmore » target transcript in as little as 4.6 ng mRNA without PCR amplification. In combination with the use of a well-quantified standard, the electrochemical bDNA assay was capable of direct use for a PCR-free quantitative analysis of target transcript in total mRNA population. The approach thus provides a simple, sensitive, accurate and quantitative tool alternate to the RQ-PCR for early disease diagnosis.« less

  5. Maternal provision of non-sex-specific transformer messenger RNA in sex determination of the wasp Asobara tabida.

    PubMed

    Geuverink, E; Verhulst, E C; van Leussen, M; van de Zande, L; Beukeboom, L W

    2018-02-01

    In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis, known as maternal effect genomic imprinting sex determination (MEGISD). Here, we characterize the sex determination cascade of Asobara tabida, another hymenopteran parasitoid. We show the presence of the conserved sex determination genes doublesex (dsx), transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra2) orthologues in As. tabida. Of these, At-dsx and At-tra are sex-specifically spliced, indicating a conserved function in sex determination. At-tra and At-tra2 mRNA is maternally provided to embryos but, in contrast to most studied insects, As. tabida females transmit a non-sex-specific splice form of At-tra mRNA to the eggs. In this respect, As. tabida sex determination differs from the MEGISD mechanism. How the paternal genome can induce female development in the absence of maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced mRNA remains an open question. Our study reports a hitherto unknown variant of maternal effect sex determination and accentuates the diversity of insect sex determination mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Entomological Society.

  6. Biomass conversion inhibitors furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural induce formation of messenger RNP granules and attenuate translation activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Aya; Kawai, Takao; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Izawa, Shingo

    2013-03-01

    Various forms of stress can cause an attenuation of bulk translation activity and the accumulation of nontranslating mRNAs into cytoplasmic messenger RNP (mRNP) granules termed processing bodies (P-bodies) and stress granules (SGs) in eukaryotic cells. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), derived from lignocellulosic biomass, inhibit yeast growth and fermentation as stressors. Since there is no report regarding their effects on the formation of cytoplasmic mRNP granules, here we investigated whether furfural and HMF cause the assembly of yeast P-bodies and SGs accompanied by translational repression. We found that furfural and HMF cause the attenuation of bulk translation activity and the assembly of cytoplasmic mRNP granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Notably, a combination of furfural and HMF induced the remarkable repression of translation initiation and SG formation. These findings provide new information about the physiological effects of furfural and HMF on yeast cells, and also suggest the potential usefulness of cytoplasmic mRNP granules as a warning sign or index of the deterioration of cellular physiological status in the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  7. Biomass Conversion Inhibitors Furfural and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Induce Formation of Messenger RNP Granules and Attenuate Translation Activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Iwaki, Aya; Kawai, Takao; Yamamoto, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Various forms of stress can cause an attenuation of bulk translation activity and the accumulation of nontranslating mRNAs into cytoplasmic messenger RNP (mRNP) granules termed processing bodies (P-bodies) and stress granules (SGs) in eukaryotic cells. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), derived from lignocellulosic biomass, inhibit yeast growth and fermentation as stressors. Since there is no report regarding their effects on the formation of cytoplasmic mRNP granules, here we investigated whether furfural and HMF cause the assembly of yeast P-bodies and SGs accompanied by translational repression. We found that furfural and HMF cause the attenuation of bulk translation activity and the assembly of cytoplasmic mRNP granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Notably, a combination of furfural and HMF induced the remarkable repression of translation initiation and SG formation. These findings provide new information about the physiological effects of furfural and HMF on yeast cells, and also suggest the potential usefulness of cytoplasmic mRNP granules as a warning sign or index of the deterioration of cellular physiological status in the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:23275506

  8. Modeling the Solar Dust Environment at 9.5 Solar Radii: Revealing Radiance Trends with MESSENGER Star Tracker Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, S. B.; Strikwerda, T.; Lario, D.; Raouafi, N.; Decker, R.

    2010-12-01

    The main components of interplanetary dust are created through destruction, erosion, and collision of asteroids and comets (e.g. Mann et al. 2006). Solar radiation forces distribute these interplanetary dust particles throughout the solar system. The percent contribution of these source particulates to the net interplanetary dust distribution can reveal information about solar nebula conditions, within which these objects are formed. In the absence of observational data (e.g. Helios, Pioneer), specifically at distances less than 0.3 AU, the precise dust distributions remain unknown and limited to 1 AU extrapolative models (e.g. Mann et al. 2003). We have developed a model suitable for the investigation of scattered dust and electron irradiance incident on a sensor for distances inward of 1 AU. The model utilizes the Grün et al. (1985) and Mann et al. (2004) dust distribution theory combined with Mie theory and Thomson electron scattering to determine the magnitude of solar irradiance scattered towards an optical sensor as a function of helio-ecliptic latitude and longitude. MESSENGER star tracker observations (launch to 2010) of the ambient celestial background combined with Helios data (Lienert et al. 1982) reveal trends in support of the model predictions. This analysis further emphasizes the need to characterize the inner solar system dust environment in anticipation of near-Solar missions.

  9. Relationship between subclinical rejection and genotype, renal messenger RNA, and plasma protein transforming growth factor-beta1 levels.

    PubMed

    Hueso, Miguel; Navarro, Estanis; Moreso, Francesc; Beltrán-Sastre, Violeta; Ventura, Francesc; Grinyó, Josep M; Serón, Daniel

    2006-05-27

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) is increased in allograft rejection and its production is associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The contribution of SNPs at codons 10 and 25 of the TGF-beta(1) gene to renal allograft damage was assessed in 6-month protocol biopsies and their association with TGF-beta(1) production. TGF-beta(1) genotypes were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/restriction fragment length polymorphism. Intragraft TGF-beta(1) messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured by real-time PCR and TGF-beta(1) plasma levels were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Eighty consecutive patients were included. Allele T at codon 10 (risk ratio, 6.7; P = 0.02) and an episode of acute rejection before protocol biopsy (risk ratio, 6.2; P = 0.01) were independent predictors of subclinical rejection (SCR). TGF-beta(1) plasma levels, but not those of TGF-beta(1) mRNA, were increased in patients with SCR (2.59 ng/mL +/- 0.91 [n = 22] vs. 2.05 ng/mL +/- 0.76 [n = 43]; P = 0.01). There was no association between allele T and TGF-beta(1) plasma or intragraft levels. Allele T at codon 10 of the TGF-beta(1) gene is associated with a higher incidence of SCR.

  10. The peripheral messenger RNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β genes in Alzheimer's disease patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jian-Hua; Ng, Tze-Pin; Li, Chun-Bo; Lu, Guang-Hua; He, Wei; Qian, Yi-Ping; Wang, Jing-Hua; Yu, Shun-Ying

    2012-12-01

    To explore the peripheral leucocytic messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) gene in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Using TaqMan relative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed leucocytic gene expression of GSK-3β in 48 AD patients and 49 healthy controls. Clinical data of AD patients were also collected. The mRNA expression level of the GSK-3β gene was significantly higher in the AD group (3.13±0.62) than in the normal group (2.77±0.77). Correlational analyses showed that the mRNA expression level of GSK-3β gene in AD patients was associated with the age of onset (P=0.047), age (P=0.055), and Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale total score (P=0.062) and subscores: aggressiveness score (P=0.073) and anxieties and phobias score (P=0.067). Through multivariate regression model, older age, higher anxieties and phobias score and aggressiveness score were associated with higher mRNA expression level of GSK-3β gene. In AD patients, the mRNA expression level of the GSK-3β gene is increased and may be related to age and behavioural pathology in AD. © 2012 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2012 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  11. HPLC-based quantification of bacterial housekeeping nucleotides and alarmone messengers ppGpp and pppGpp.

    PubMed

    Varik, Vallo; Oliveira, Sofia Raquel Alves; Hauryliuk, Vasili; Tenson, Tanel

    2017-09-08

    Here we describe an HPLC-based method to quantify bacterial housekeeping nucleotides and the signaling messengers ppGpp and pppGpp. We have replicated and tested several previously reported HPLC-based approaches and assembled a method that can process 50 samples in three days, thus making kinetically resolved experiments feasible. The method combines cell harvesting by rapid filtration, followed by acid extraction, freeze-drying with chromatographic separation. We use a combination of C18 IPRP-HPLC (GMP unresolved and co-migrating with IMP; GDP and GTP; AMP, ADP and ATP; CTP; UTP) and SAX-HPLC in isocratic mode (ppGpp and pppGpp) with UV detection. The approach is applicable to bacteria without the requirement of metabolic labelling with 32P-labelled radioactive precursors. We applied our method to quantify nucleotide pools in Escherichia coli BW25113 K12-strain both throughout the growth curve and during acute stringent response induced by mupirocin. While ppGpp and pppGpp levels vary drastically (40- and ≥8-fold, respectively) these changes are decoupled from the quotients of the housekeeping pool and guanosine and adenosine housekeeping nucleotides: NTP/NDP/NMP ratio remains stable at 6/1/0.3 during both normal batch culture growth and upon acute amino acid starvation.

  12. The Bacterial Second Messenger Cyclic di-GMP Regulates Brucella Pathogenesis and Leads to Altered Host Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mike; Harms, Jerome S; Marim, Fernanda M; Armon, Leah; Hall, Cherisse L; Liu, Yi-Ping; Banai, Menachem; Oliveira, Sergio C; Splitter, Gary A; Smith, Judith A

    2016-12-01

    Brucella species are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, a chronic debilitating disease significantly impacting global health and prosperity. Much remains to be learned about how Brucella spp. succeed in sabotaging immune host cells and how Brucella spp. respond to environmental challenges. Multiple types of bacteria employ the prokaryotic second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) to coordinate responses to shifting environments. To determine the role of c-di-GMP in Brucella physiology and in shaping host-Brucella interactions, we utilized c-di-GMP regulatory enzyme deletion mutants. Our results show that a ΔbpdA phosphodiesterase mutant producing excess c-di-GMP displays marked attenuation in vitro and in vivo during later infections. Although c-di-GMP is known to stimulate the innate sensor STING, surprisingly, the ΔbpdA mutant induced a weaker host immune response than did wild-type Brucella or the low-c-di-GMP guanylate cyclase ΔcgsB mutant. Proteomics analysis revealed that c-di-GMP regulates several processes critical for virulence, including cell wall and biofilm formation, nutrient acquisition, and the type IV secretion system. Finally, ΔbpdA mutants exhibited altered morphology and were hypersensitive to nutrient-limiting conditions. In summary, our results indicate a vital role for c-di-GMP in allowing Brucella to successfully navigate stressful and shifting environments to establish intracellular infection. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Messenger Observations Inside 1 AU of Low-Frequency Magnetic Waves due to Inner Source Pickup Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. W.; Argall, M. R.; Schwadron, N.; Joyce, C.; Isenberg, P. A.; Vasquez, B. J.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Wave excitation by pickup protons inside 1 AU have not been previously reported. Waves excited by pickup protons have a characteristic signature, a spectral peak at and above the proton gyrofrequency, that demonstrates a significant lack of particle energization beyond the initial pickup proton energy combined with pitch-angle scattering. Interstellar Hydrogen atoms cannot penetrate significantly inside about 3.5 AU due to loss of these atoms through ionization. Since the waves reported here, which are observed by the Messenger spacecraft during the cruise phase to Mercury, are not seen near the Mercury and Venus planetary encounters and there is no evidence of low-frequency waves that would indicate proximity to comets, we conclude that these waves originate from pickup protons created by the interaction of solar wind with dust relatively close to the Sun, inside 0.4 AU (Schwadron et al. 2000; Schwadron & Geiss 2000). This is the so-called inner source of pickup protons. We will present our analyses of these wave observations.Schwadron et al., J. Geophys. Res., 105, 7465, 2000.Schwadron & Geiss, J. Geophys. Res., 10, 7473, 2000.

  14. Mutual friends' social support and self-disclosure in face-to-face and instant messenger communication.

    PubMed

    Trepte, Sabine; Masur, Philipp K; Scharkow, Michael

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated long-term effects of self-disclosure on social support in face-to-face and instant messenger (IM) communication between mutual friends. Using a representative sample of 583 German IM users, we explored whether self-disclosure and positive experiences with regard to social support would dynamically interact in the form of a reinforcing spiral across three measurement occasions. If mutual friends self-disclose today, will they receive more social support 6 months later? In turn, will this affect their willingness to self-disclose another 6 months later? We further analyzed spill-over effects from face-to-face to IM communication and vice versa. We found that self-disclosure predicted social support and vice versa in IM communication, but not in face-to-face communication. In light of these results, the impact of IM communication on how individuals maneuver friendships through the interplay between self-disclosure and social support are discussed.

  15. Observations of magnetic field, plasma, and energetic particles during MESSENGER's flyby of Mercury on January 14, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimigis, Stamatios; Acuna, Mario; Anderson, Brian; Baker, Daniel N.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert; Ho, George; McNutt, Ralph L.; Slavin, James; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    Our knowledge of Mercury's magnetosphere had been derived from two Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975 that established the presence of an intrinsic magnetic field and of some energetic and plasma electrons. Launched on August 3, 2004, MESSENGER executed the first of three flybys of Mercury on January 14, 2008. The Magnetometer provided high-resolution (0.047-nT) observations of the field, establishing firmly its dipolar nature but with substantial external components, well-defined bow shock and magnetopause crossings both inbound and outbound, and large-amplitude waves in yet to be delineated regions. The Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) instrument consists of two sensors: The Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS), a novel fish-eye lens sensor, observed for the first time in Mercury's magnetosphere low-energy ions consisting of both heated solar wind and heavier (M/Q˜4) ions most likely originating in Mercury's exosphere and/or surface. The Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) searched for ions and electrons having E˜ 15 keV, expected to be observed on the basis of Mariner 10 results, but detected none. Count rates for both ions and electrons during magnetospheric traversal were indistinguishable from background, a generous upper limit being less than 0.1 percent of the intensities reported for Mariner 10. The interplanetary magnetic field was pointing generally northward both prior to entry and after spacecraft exit from the magnetosphere. The observations provide new constraints on existing models of solar wind's interaction with the planet.

  16. Prediction of Fetal Growth Restriction by Analyzing the Messenger RNAs of Angiogenic Factor in the Plasma of Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Shin; Ventura, Walter; Sterrantino, Anna Freni; Kawashima, Akihiro; Koide, Keiko; Hori, Kyoko; Farina, Antonio; Sekizawa, Akihiko

    2015-06-01

    To predict the occurrence of fetal growth restriction (FGR) by analyzing messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 [Flt-1]) in maternal blood. Eleven women with FGR were matched with 88 controls. Plasma samples were obtained during each trimester. The Flt-1 mRNA expression levels were compared between groups. Predicted probabilities were calculated, and sensitivity-specificity (receiver-operating characteristic [ROC]) curves were assessed based on regression models for each trimester measurement and possible combinations of measurements. The mRNA levels of the FGR group during all trimesters were significantly higher than those of the control group. The ROC curve of combined first and second trimester data yielded a detection rate of 60% at a 10% false-positive rate, with an area under curve of 0.79. The Flt-1 mRNA expression in maternal blood can be used as a marker to predict the development of FGR, long before a clinical diagnosis is made. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor II messenger RNA-binding protein-3 is an independent prognostic factor in uterine leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Nobuko; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Taguchi, Kenichi; Hiraki, Yuka; Oya, Masafumi; Oshiro, Yumi; Mine, Mari; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Kohashi, Kenichi; Sonoda, Kenzo; Kato, Kiyoko; Oda, Yoshinao

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic factors of uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS). We reviewed 60 cases of surgically resected ULMSs and investigated conventional clinicopathological factors, together with the expression of insulin-like growth factor II messenger RNA-binding protein-3 (IMP3), hormone receptors and cell cycle regulatory markers by immunohistochemistry. Mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) mutation analysis was also performed. Univariate analyses revealed that advanced stage (P < 0.0001), older age (P = 0.0244) and IMP3 expression (P = 0.0011) were significant predictors of a poor outcome. Multivariate analysis revealed advanced stage (P < 0.0001) and IMP3 (P = 0.0373) as independent predictors of a poor prognosis. Expressions of cell cycle markers and hormone receptors, and MED12 mutations (12% in ULMSs) were not identified as prognostic markers in this study. IMP3 expression in ULMS could be a marker of a poor prognosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Observations of Mercury's Surface-Bounded Exosphere from Orbit: Results from the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer aboard the MESSENGER Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClintock, W. E.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Killen, R. M.; Merkel, A. W.; Sarantos, M.; Solomon, S. C.; Vervack, R. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS), on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, conducted orbital observations of Mercury's dayside and nightside exosphere from 29 March 2011 to the end of the mission on 30 April 2015. Over slightly more than four Earth-years, MASCS measured emission profiles versus altitude for calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), and magnesium (Mg) at a daily cadence. These species exhibit different spatial distributions, suggesting distinct source processes. MASCS observed seasonal variations in all three species that are remarkably repeatable from one Mercury year to the next, and did so consistently during the entire 17-Mercury-year duration of the orbital phase of the mission. Whereas MASCS has characterized the seasonal variation, it has provided, at best, only weak evidence for the episodic behavior observed in ground-based studies of Na. Joint analyses of MASCS observations and surface precipitation patterns for energetic particles inferred from observations by the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) and the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) on MESSENGER have not yielded clear correlations. This lack of correlation may be due in part to the MASCS observational geometries. MASCS has conducted a number of searches for other, weakly emitting species. Hydrogen data from the orbital phase are consistent with profiles observed during MESSENGER's flybys of Mercury. Oxygen detections have proven elusive, and the previously reported observation with a brightness of 4 R may only be an upper limit. Ongoing analysis of weak species data suggests that additional species are present.

  19. MESSENGER and Venus Express Observations of the Near-tail of Venus: Magnetic Flux Transport, Current Sheet Structure, and Flux Rope Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Sarantos, M.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Barabash, S.; Benna, M.; Fraenz, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R. E.; hide

    2008-01-01

    At 23:08 UT on 5 June 2007 the MESSENGER spacecraft reached its closest approach altitude (338 km) during its second flyby of Venus en route to its 2011 orbit insertion at Mercury. Whereas no measurements were collected during MESSENGER'S first Venus flyby in October 2006, the Magnetometer (MAG) and the Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) operated successfully throughout this second encounter. Venus provides the solar system's best example to date of a solar wind - ionosphere planetary interaction. We present MESSENGER observations of the near-tail of Venus with emphasis on determining the time scales for magnetic flux transport, the structure of the cross-tail current sheet at very low altitudes (approx. 300 to 1000 km), and the nature and origin of a magnetic flux rope observed in the current sheet. The availability of the simultaneous Venus Express upstream measurements provides a unique opportunity to examine the influence of solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field conditions on this planet's solar wind interaction at solar minimum.

  20. The Ribosome Shape Directs mRNA Translocation through Entrance and Exit Dynamics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The protein-synthesizing ribosome undergoes large motions to effect the translocation of tRNAs (transfer ribonucleic acids) and mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid); here the domain motions of this system are explored with a coarse-grained elastic network model using normal mode analysis. Crystal struc...

  1. WhatsApp Messenger is useful and reproducible in the assessment of tibial plateau fractures: inter- and intra-observer agreement study.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Koch, Hilton Augusto; Mendes, Carlos Henrique; Bergamin, André; de Souza, Felipe Serrão; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer agreement in the initial diagnosis and classification by means of plain radiographs and CT scans of tibial plateau fractures photographed and sent via WhatsApp Messenger. The increasing popularity of smartphones has driven the development of technology for data transmission and imaging and generated a growing interest in the use of these devices as diagnostic tools. The emergence of WhatsApp Messenger technology, which is available for various platforms used by smartphones, has led to an improvement in the quality and resolution of images sent and received. The images (plain radiographs and CT scans) were obtained from 13 cases of tibial plateau fractures using the iPhone 5 (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) and were sent to six observers via the WhatsApp Messenger application. The observers were asked to determine the standard deviation and type of injury, the classification according to the Schatzker and the Luo classifications schemes, and whether the CT scan changed the classification. The six observers independently assessed the images on two separate occasions, 15 days apart. The inter- and intra-observer agreement for both periods of the study ranged from excellent to perfect (0.75<κ<1.0) across all survey questions. When asked if the inclusion of the CT images would change their final X-ray classification (Schatzker or Luo), the inter- and intra-observer agreement was perfect (k=1) on both assessment occasions. We found an excellent inter- and intra-observer agreement in the imaging assessment of tibial plateau fractures sent via WhatsApp Messenger. The authors now propose the systematic use of the application to facilitate faster documentation and obtaining the opinion of an experienced consultant when not on call. Finally, we think the use of the WhatsApp Messenger as an adjuvant tool could be broadened to other clinical centres to assess its viability in other skeletal and non

  2. Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis by Cucumber Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth D.; Purves, William K.

    1970-01-01

    When intact etiolated 2-day cucumber (Cucumis sativus) embryos were treated with indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellin A7 (GA7), or kinetin, chromatin derived from the embryonic axes exhibited an increased capacity to support RNA synthesis in either the presence or the absence of bacterial RNA polymerase. An IAA effect on cucumber RNA polymerase activity was evident after 4 hours of hormone treatment; the IAA effect on DNA template activity (bacterial RNA polymerase added) occurred after longer treatments (12 hours). GA7 also promoted template activity, but again only after a prior stimulation of endogenous chromatin activity. After 12 hours of kinetin treatment, both endogenous chromatin and DNA template activities were substantially above control values, but longer kinetin treatments caused these activities to decline in magnitude. When chromatin was prepared from hypocotyl segments that were floated on a GA7 solution, a GA-induced increase in endogenous chromatin activity occurred, but only if cotyledon tissue was left attached to the segments during the period of hormone treatment. Age of the seedling tissue had a profound influence on the chromatin characteristics. With progression of development from the 2-day to the 4-day stage, the endogenous chromatin activity declined while the DNA template activity increased. PMID:16657509

  3. Mercury's gravity field, tidal Love number k2, and spin axis orientation revealed with MESSENGER radio tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, A. K.; Margot, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    We are conducting an independent analysis of two-way Doppler and two-way range radio tracking data from the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury from 2011 to 2015. Our goals are to estimate Mercury's gravity field and to obtain independent estimates of the tidal Love number k2 and spin axis orientation. Our gravity field solution reproduces existing values with high fidelity, and prospects for recovery of the other quantities are excellent. The tidal Love number k2 provides powerful constraints on interior models of Mercury, including the mechanical properties of the mantle and the possibility of a solid FeS layer at the top of the core. Current gravity analyses cannot rule out a wide range of values (k2=43-0.50) and a variety of plausible interior models. We are seeking an independent estimate of tidal Love number k2 with improved errors to further constrain these models. Existing gravity-based solutions for Mercury's spin axis orientation differ from those of Earth-based radar and topography-based solutions. This difference may indicate an error in one of the determinations, or a real difference between the orientations about which the gravity field and the crust rotate, which can exist in a variety of plausible configuration. Securing an independent estimate of the spin axis orientation is vital because this quantity has a profound impact on the determination of the moment of inertia and interior models. We have derived a spherical harmonic solution of the gravity field to degree and order 40 as well as estimates of the tidal Love number k2 and spin axis orientation.

  4. Mercury’s gravity field, tidal Love number k2, and spin axis orientation revealed with MESSENGER radio tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Ashok Kumar; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2015-11-01

    We are conducting an independent analysis of two-way Doppler and two-way range radio tracking data from the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury from 2011 to 2015. Our goals are to estimate Mercury’s gravity field and to obtain independent estimates of the tidal Love number k2 and spin axis orientation. Our gravity field solution reproduces existing values with high fidelity, and prospects for recovery of the other quantities are excellent.The tidal Love number k2 provides powerful constraints on interior models of Mercury, including the mechanical properties of the mantle and the possibility of a solid FeS layer at the top of the core. Current gravity analyses cannot rule out a wide range of values (k2=43-0.50) and a variety of plausible interior models. We are seeking an independent estimate of tidal Love number k2 with improved errors to further constrain these models.Existing gravity-based solutions for Mercury's spin axis orientation differ from those of Earth-based radar and topography-based solutions. This difference may indicate an error in one of the determinations, or a real difference between the orientations about which the gravity field and the crust rotate, which can exist in a variety of plausible configuration. Securing an independent estimate of the spin axis orientation is vital because this quantity has a profound impact on the determination of the moment of inertia and interior models.We have derived a spherical harmonic solution of the gravity field to degree and order 40 as well as estimates of the tidal Love number k2 and spin axis orientation

  5. Correlation of genetic risk and messenger RNA expression in a Th17/IL23 pathway analysis in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Karin; van Sommeren, Suzanne; Westra, Harm-Jan; Veenstra, Monique; Lamberts, Letitia E; Modderman, Rutger; Dijkstra, Gerard; Fu, Jingyuan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Franke, Lude; Weersma, Rinse K; van Diemen, Cleo C

    2014-05-01

    The Th17/IL23 pathway has both genetically and biologically been implicated in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. So far, it is unknown whether and how associated risk variants affect expression of the genes encoding for Th17/IL23 pathway proteins. Ten IBD-associated SNPs residing near Th17/IL23 genes were used to construct a genetic risk model in 753 Dutch IBD cases and 1045 controls. In an independent cohort of 40 Crohn's disease, 40 ulcerative colitis, and 40 controls, the genetic risk load and presence of IBD were correlated to quantitative PCR-generated messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of 9 representative Th17/IL23 genes in both unstimulated and PMA/CaLo stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In 1240 individuals with various immunological diseases with whole genome genotype and mRNA-expression data, we also assessed correlation between genetic risk load and differential mRNA expression and sought for SNPs affecting expression of all currently known Th17/IL23 pathway genes (cis-expression quantitative trait locus). The presence of IBD, but not the genetic risk load, was correlated to differential mRNA expression for IL6 in unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and to IL23A and RORC in response to stimulation. The cis-expression quantitative trait locus analysis showed little evidence for correlation between genetic risk load and mRNA expression of Th17/IL23 genes, because we identified for only 2 of 22 Th17/IL23 genes a cis-expression quantitative trait locus single nucleotide polymorphism that is also associated to IBD (STAT3 and CCR6). Our results suggest that only the presence of IBD and not the genetic risk load alters mRNA expression levels of IBD-associated Th17/IL23 genes.

  6. Multi-messenger Astronomy of Gravitational-wave Sources with Flexible Wide-area Radio Transient Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yancey, Cregg C.; Bear, Brandon E.; Akukwe, Bernadine; Chen, Kevin; Dowell, Jayce; Gough, Jonathan D.; Kanner, Jonah; Kavic, Michael; Obenberger, Kenneth; Shawhan, Peter; Simonetti, John H.; -Wei Tsai, Gregory B. Taylor, Jr.

    2015-10-01

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ˜30 s time window and ˜200-500 deg2 sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ˜2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  7. Pigment Translocation in Caridean Shrimp Chromatophores: Receptor Type, Signal Transduction, Second Messengers, and Cross Talk Among Multiple Signaling Cascades.

    PubMed

    Milograna, Sarah Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Márcia Regina; Bell, Fernanda Tinti; McNamara, John Campbell

    2016-11-01

    Pigment aggregation in shrimp chromatophores is triggered by red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH), a neurosecretory peptide whose plasma membrane receptor may be a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). While RPCH binding activates the Ca 2+ /cGMP signaling cascades, a role for cyclic AMP (cAMP) in pigment aggregation is obscure, as are the steps governing Ca 2+ release from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). A role for the antagonistic neuropeptide, pigment dispersing homone (α-PDH) is also unclear. In red, ovarian chromatophores from the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi, we show that a G-protein antagonist (AntPG) strongly inhibits RPCH-triggered pigment aggregation, suggesting that RPCH binds to a GPCR, activating an inhibitory G-protein. Decreasing cAMP levels may cue pigment aggregation, since cytosolic cAMP titers, when augmented by cholera toxin, forskolin or vinpocentine, completely or partially impair pigment aggregation. Triggering opposing Ca 2+ /cGMP and cAMP cascades by simultaneous perfusion with lipid-soluble cyclic nucleotide analogs induces a "tug-of-war" response, pigments aggregating in some chromatosomes with unpredictable, oscillatory movements in others. Inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase accelerates aggregation and reduces dispersion velocities, suggesting a role in phosphorylation events, possibly regulating SER Ca 2+ release and pigment aggregation. The second messengers IP 3 and cADPR do not stimulate SER Ca 2+ release. α-PDH does not sustain pigment dispersion, suggesting that pigment translocation in caridean chromatophores may be regulated solely by RPCH, since PDH is not required. We propose a working hypothesis to further unravel key steps in the mechanisms of pigment translocation within crustacean chromatophores that have remained obscure for nearly a century. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. MULTI-MESSENGER ASTRONOMY OF GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE SOURCES WITH FLEXIBLE WIDE-AREA RADIO TRANSIENT SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Yancey, Cregg C.; Shawhan, Peter; Bear, Brandon E.

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may bemore » tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ∼30 s time window and ∼200–500 deg{sup 2} sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ∼2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.« less

  9. The CLAVATA signaling pathway mediating stem cell fate in shoot meristems requires Ca(2+) as a secondary cytosolic messenger.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsuan; Zhu, Yingfang; Ma, Yi; Berkowitz, Gerald A

    2016-02-01

    CLAVATA1 (CLV1) is a receptor protein expressed in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) that translates perception of a non-cell-autonomous CLAVATA3 (CLV3) peptide signal into altered stem cell fate. CLV3 reduces expression of WUSCHEL (WUS) and FANTASTIC FOUR 2 (FAF2) in the SAM. Expression of WUS and FAF2 leads to maintenance of undifferentiated stem cells in the SAM. CLV3 binding to CLV1 inhibits expression of these genes and controls stem cell fate in the SAM through an unidentified signaling pathway. Cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations, cyclic nucleotide (cGMP)-activated Ca(2+) channels, and cGMP have been linked to signaling downstream of receptors similar to CLV1. Hence, we hypothesized that cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation mediates the CLV3 ligand/CLV1 receptor signaling that controls meristem stem cell fate. CLV3 application to Arabidopsis seedlings results in elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) and cGMP. CLV3 control of WUS was prevented in a genotype lacking a functional cGMP-activated Ca(2+) channel. In wild-type plants, CLV3 inhibition of WUS and FAF2 expression was impaired by treatment with either a Ca(2+) channel blocker or a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. When CLV3-dependent repression of WUS is blocked, altered control of stem cell fate leads to an increase in SAM size; we observed a larger SAM size in seedlings treated with the Ca(2+) channel blocker. These results suggest that the CLV3 ligand/CLV1 receptor system initiates a signaling cascade that elevates cytosolic Ca(2+), and that this cytosolic secondary messenger is involved in the signal transduction cascade linking CLV3/CLV1 to control of gene expression and stem cell fate in the SAM. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Morphological differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells by dimethyl sulfoxide activation of lipid second messengers.

    PubMed

    Clejan, S; Dotson, R S; Wolf, E W; Corb, M P; Ide, C F

    1996-04-10

    Quantitative changes in the lipid second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) were studied in the rat neuroblastoma N1E-115 following exposure to the differentiating agent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Relatively high basal levels of DAG are present in these cells, and addition of 2% DMSO elicited a biphasic increase in DAG levels, dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+. Exposure to DMSO also elicited a rapid increase in inositol phosphate and a slight increase in phosphatidic acid (PA), trailing that of DAG. The molecular species (MS) of DAG were analyzed. Within 60 s of DMSO application there were transient increases of DAG representative of phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis. At longer intervals, more DAG originated from phosphatidylcholine. The MS composition of newly formed PA resembled that of PI and native DAG. Inhibition studies indicated that DAG is formed in the DMSO-treated cells by phospholipases C and that PA formed later is a result of DAG phosphorylation and not activity of phospholipase D (PLD). Undifferentiated cells exhibited an active PLD pathway. In contrast, PLD in DMSO-differentiated cells was not active. In examining the involvement of the sphingomyelin pathway, DMSO exposure was found to increase ceramide levels with a concomitant decrease in sphingomyelin. Addition of the exogenous, soluble analog C6-ceramide to undifferentiated cells resulted in dramatic reductions in DAG and PA levels and PLD activity. These results indicate that DMSO treatment inactivates PLD while activating phospholipases C and the sphingomyelin pathway, suggesting a "switch" between signal transduction pathways in the undifferentiated and differentiated states of N1E-115.

  11. Relationship between expression of muscle-specific uncoupling protein 2 messenger RNA and genetic selection toward growth in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Peterson, B C; Waldbieser, G C

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that increased growth in channel catfish is associated with expression of the genes that code for uncoupling proteins (UCP) 2 and 3, members of the mitochondrial channel proteins involved in nutrient sensing and metabolism. The specific objective was to contrast the levels of UCP2 messenger RNA (mRNA) in fast vs slow growing catfish as well as in fed vs fasted catfish. Two distinct UCP2 transcripts were identified and named UCP2a and UCP2b, respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence of catfish UCP2s were highly similar to UCP2 and other UCPs from other fish and mammals (>75%). Expression of UCP2a mRNA was detectable at very low levels in various metabolically active tissues, whereas the expression of UCP2b mRNA was readily detectable in the muscle and heart. In a 21-wk feeding study, fish that grew faster had a greater percent body fat at the end of the study (P < 0.01). Expression of UCP2b mRNA tended to be lower (P < 0.10) in fast growing fish in the middle of the study although levels were similar at the beginning and the end of the study. In the fed vs fasted study, expression of UCP2b mRNA in muscle was increased (P < 0.05) in fish assigned to 30 d of fasting. Our results suggest that, based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities and tissue mRNA distribution, catfish UCP2b may be the analog to UCP3. Moreover, our results suggest selection toward growth and associated fat accumulation appears to be independent of muscle UCP2b mRNA expression and UCP2b-mediated mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CIRCULATING THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR MESSENGER RNA AS A MARKER OF TUMOR AGGRESSIVENESS IN PATIENTS WITH PAPILLARY THYROID MICROCARCINOMA.

    PubMed

    Aliyev, Altay; Gupta, Manjula; Nasr, Christian; Hatipoglu, Betul; Milas, Mira; Siperstein, Allan; Berber, Eren

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor messenger RNA (TSHR mRNA) is detectable in the peripheral blood of patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTmC). The aim of this study was to analyze the utility of TSHR mRNA status as a marker of tumor aggressiveness in patients with PTmC. Preoperative TSHR mRNA values were obtained in 152 patients who underwent thyroidectomy and were found to have PTmC on final pathology. Clinical parameters were analyzed from an institutional review board-approved database using χ(2) and t tests. Preoperatively, TSHR mRNA was detected in the peripheral blood in 46% of patients, which was less than that for macroscopic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (80%) but higher than for benign thyroid disease (18%) (P<.001). The focus of cancer was larger in the TSHR mRNA-positive group compared to the negative group (0.41 vs. 0.30 cm, respectively, P = .015). The prevalence of tall-cell variant was higher in the TSHR mRNA positive group. The rates of lymph node (LN) metastasis (16% vs. 10%), multifocality (46% vs. 49%), and extra-thyroidal extension (10% vs. 5%) were similar between the TSHR mRNA-positive and-negative groups, respectively. In patients 45 years or older, rate of LN metastasis was higher in those who were TSHR mRNA positive (10%) versus negative (2%) (P = .039). TSHR mRNA positivity predicted a higher likelihood of radioactive iodine treatment (36% vs. 17%, P = .009) postoperatively. This study shows that TSHR mRNA, which is a marker of circulating thyroid cancer cells, is detectable in about half of patients with PTmC. The positivity of this marker predicts a higher likelihood of LN involvement in patients with PTmC who are 45 years or older.

  13. Integrative analysis of long non-coding RNAs and messenger RNA expression profiles in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qing; Li, Xue; Xu, Chuxin; Zeng, Lulu; Ye, Jianqing; Guo, Yang; Huang, Zikun; Li, Junming

    2018-03-01

    Thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported and represent an important subset of pervasive genes associated with a broad range of biological functions. Abnormal expression levels of lncRNAs have been demonstrated in multiple types of human disease. However, the role of lncRNAs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains poorly understood. In the present study, the expression patterns of lncRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in SLE using Human lncRNA Array v3.0 (8x60 K; Arraystar, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA). The microarray results indicated that 8,868 lncRNAs (3,657 upregulated and 5,211 downregulated) and 6,876 mRNAs (2,862 upregulated and 4,014 downregulated) were highly differentially expressed in SLE samples compared with the healthy group. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of lncRNA target prediction indicated the presence of 474 matched lncRNA‑mRNA pairs for 293 differentially expressed lncRNAs (fold change, ≥3.0) and 381 differentially expressed mRNAs (fold change, ≥3.0). The most enriched pathways were 'Transcriptional misregulation in cancer' and 'Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation'. Furthermore, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction data verified six abnormal lncRNAs and mRNAs in SLE. The results indicate that the lncRNA expression profile in SLE was significantly changed. In addition, a range of SLE‑associated lncRNAs were identified. Thus, the present results provide important insights regarding lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of SLE.

  14. Clinical significance of preoperative and postoperative cytokeratin 19 messenger RNA level in peripheral blood of esophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Y-F; Chen, C-G; Yue, J; Ma, Z; Yu, Z-T

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the correlation between preoperative/postoperative Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) messenger RNA (mRNA) level in peripheral blood (PB) and the clinical significance in esophageal cancer patients with different clinicopathological factors. We detected the preoperative and postoperative CK19 mRNA level in the PB of 139 esophageal cancer patients who underwent complete resection and evaluated its clinical significance. We found that both the preoperative and postoperative CK19 mRNA level increased in the esophageal cancer patients with lymph node metastasis, relapse or distant metastasis compared with that in cancers without lymph node metastasis, relapse or distant metastasis. High postoperative CK19 mRNA levels indicate a short disease-free survival (DFS) for the whole cohort esophageal cancer patients, whereas the high preoperative CK19 mRNA levels only indicate a short DFS for the esophageal cancer patients with squamous cell carcinoma, TNM III stage, and lymph node metastasis. The dynamic change of CK19 mRNA levels could indicate the prognosis of esophageal cancer patients. The patients with decreasing CK19 mRNA level after surgery had good prognosis, and the patients with changeless CK19 mRNA level had poor prognosis. Taken together, CK19 mRNA levels could be a promising marker in assessing prognosis or assigning treatment for the esophageal cancer patients according to different clinicopathological factors. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  15. Regulation of Ras Exchange Factors and Cellular Localization of Ras Activation by Lipid Messengers in T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Jesse E.; Rubio, Ignacio; Roose, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    The Ras-MAPK signaling pathway is highly conserved throughout evolution and is activated downstream of a wide range of receptor stimuli. Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs) catalyze GTP loading of Ras and play a pivotal role in regulating receptor-ligand induced Ras activity. In T cells, three families of functionally important RasGEFs are expressed: RasGRF, RasGRP, and Son of Sevenless (SOS)-family GEFs. Early on it was recognized that Ras activation is critical for T cell development and that the RasGEFs play an important role herein. More recent work has revealed that nuances in Ras activation appear to significantly impact T cell development and selection. These nuances include distinct biochemical patterns of analog versus digital Ras activation, differences in cellular localization of Ras activation, and intricate interplays between the RasGEFs during distinct T cell developmental stages as revealed by various new mouse models. In many instances, the exact nature of these nuances in Ras activation or how these may result from fine-tuning of the RasGEFs is not understood. One large group of biomolecules critically involved in the control of RasGEFs functions are lipid second messengers. Multiple, yet distinct lipid products are generated following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and bind to different domains in the RasGRP and SOS RasGEFs to facilitate the activation of the membrane-anchored Ras GTPases. In this review we highlight how different lipid-based elements are generated by various enzymes downstream of the TCR and other receptors and how these dynamic and interrelated lipid products may fine-tune Ras activation by RasGEFs in developing T cells. PMID:24027568

  16. Multi-messenger astronomy of gravitational-wave sources with flexible wide-area radio transient surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavic, Michael; Cregg C. Yancey, Brandon E. Bear, Bernadine Akukwe, Kevin Chen, Jayce Dowell, Jonathan D. Gough, Jonah Kanner, Kenneth Obenberger, Peter Shawhan, John H. Simonetti , Gregory B. Taylor , Jr-Wei Tsai

    2016-01-01

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ˜30 s time window and ˜200-500 deg(2) sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ˜2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  17. RNomics: an experimental approach that identifies 201 candidates for novel, small, non-messenger RNAs in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Kiefmann, Martin; Meier-Ewert, Sebastian; O’Brien, John; Lehrach, Hans; Bachellerie, Jean-Pierre; Brosius, Jürgen

    2001-01-01

    In mouse brain cDNA libraries generated from small RNA molecules we have identified a total of 201 different expressed RNA sequences potentially encoding novel small non-messenger RNA species (snmRNAs). Based on sequence and structural motifs, 113 of these RNAs can be assigned to the C/D box or H/ACA box subclass of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), known as guide RNAs for rRNA. While 30 RNAs represent mouse homologues of previously identified human C/D or H/ACA snoRNAs, 83 correspond to entirely novel snoRNAs. Among these, for the first time, we identified four C/D box snoRNAs and four H/ACA box snoRNAs predicted to direct modifications within U2, U4 or U6 small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). Furthermore, 25 snoRNAs from either class lacked antisense elements for rRNAs or snRNAs. Therefore, additional snoRNA targets have to be considered. Surprisingly, six C/D box snoRNAs and one H/ACA box snoRNA were expressed exclusively in brain. Of the 88 RNAs not belonging to either snoRNA subclass, at least 26 are probably derived from truncated heterogeneous nuclear RNAs (hnRNAs) or mRNAs. Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) are located on five RNA sequences and may represent rare examples of transcribed SINEs. The remaining RNA species could not as yet be assigned either to any snmRNA class or to a part of a larger hnRNA/mRNA. It is likely that at least some of the latter will represent novel, unclassified snmRNAs. PMID:11387227

  18. Chemical Messengers of Inflammation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-29

    the skin grafts is 10 to 12 days. We can prolong this up to 15 days with the bacterial product at the moment. We are in the process of making more of...lymphocyte function both in vitro and in vivo. Preliminary studies have indicated that the polyamine, when dimerized, will, in fact, delay skin graft rejection

  19. Comparison of circulating, hepatocyte specific messenger RNA and microRNA as biomarkers for chronic hepatitis B and C.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Zhanqing; Dai, Fahui; Shi, Bisheng; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xinxin; Zang, Guoqing; Zhang, Jiming; Chen, Xiaorong; Qian, Fangxing; Hu, Yunwen; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2014-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs have been widely recognized as a novel category of biomarker in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Other reports revealed that fragments of organ specific messenger RNAs are also detectable in serum/plasma and can be utilized as sensitive indicators of liver pathology and cancer. In order to assess the sensitivity and reliability of these two class of RNAs as marker of hepatitis B or C induced chronic liver disease, we collected plasma samples from 156 chronic hepatitis B or C patients (HBV active n = 112, HBV carrier n = 19, hepatitis C n = 25) and 22 healthy donors and quantified their circulating mRNA for albumin, HP (haptoglobin), CYP2E1 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily E) and ApoA2 (Apolipoprotein A2) in conjunction with microRNA-122, a well established marker for acute and chronic liver injury. We found that plasma microRNA-122 level is significantly elevated in patients with active HBV but not in HBV carriers. Furthermore, microRNA-122 is not elevated in HCV patients even though their median serum alanine aminotransferase (sALT) was three fold of the healthy donors. Nevertheless, circulating mRNAs, especially albumin mRNA, showed much more sensitivity in distinguishing active hepatitis B, hepatitis B carrier or HCV patients from healthy control. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis suggested that circulating mRNAs and miRNAs are much more related to HBsAg titre than to sALT. Immunoprecipitation of HBsAg in HBV patients' plasma resulted in enrichment of albumin and HP mRNA suggesting that fragments of liver specific transcripts can be encapsidated into HBsAg particles. Taken together, our results suggest that hepatocyte specific transcripts in plasma like albumin mRNA showed greater sensitivity and specificity in differentiating HBV or HCV induced chronic liver disease than microRNA-122. Circulating mRNA fragments merit more attention in the quest of next generation biomarkers for

  20. Comparison of Circulating, Hepatocyte Specific Messenger RNA and microRNA as Biomarkers for Chronic Hepatitis B and C

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Zhanqing; Dai, Fahui; Shi, Bisheng; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xinxin; Zang, Guoqing; Zhang, Jiming; Chen, Xiaorong; Qian, Fangxing; Hu, Yunwen; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2014-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs have been widely recognized as a novel category of biomarker in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Other reports revealed that fragments of organ specific messenger RNAs are also detectable in serum/plasma and can be utilized as sensitive indicators of liver pathology and cancer. In order to assess the sensitivity and reliability of these two class of RNAs as marker of hepatitis B or C induced chronic liver disease, we collected plasma samples from 156 chronic hepatitis B or C patients (HBV active n = 112, HBV carrier n = 19, hepatitis C n = 25) and 22 healthy donors and quantified their circulating mRNA for albumin, HP (haptoglobin), CYP2E1 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily E) and ApoA2 (Apolipoprotein A2) in conjunction with microRNA-122, a well established marker for acute and chronic liver injury. We found that plasma microRNA-122 level is significantly elevated in patients with active HBV but not in HBV carriers. Furthermore, microRNA-122 is not elevated in HCV patients even though their median serum alanine aminotransferase (sALT) was three fold of the healthy donors. Nevertheless, circulating mRNAs, especially albumin mRNA, showed much more sensitivity in distinguishing active hepatitis B, hepatitis B carrier or HCV patientsfrom healthy control. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis suggested that circulating mRNAs and miRNAs are much more related to HBsAg titre than to sALT. Immunoprecipitation of HBsAg in HBV patients’ plasma resulted in enrichment of albumin and HP mRNA suggesting that fragments of liver specific transcripts can be encapsidated into HBsAg particles. Taken together, our results suggest that hepatocyte specific transcripts in plasma like albumin mRNA showed greater sensitivity and specificity in differentiating HBV or HCV induced chronic liver disease than microRNA-122. Circulating mRNA fragments merit more attention in the quest of next generation biomarkers for

  1. Rapid, transient, and dose-dependent expression of Hsp70 messenger RNA in the rat brain after morphine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ammon-Treiber, Susanne; Grecksch, Gisela; Stumm, Ralf; Riechert, Uta; Tischmeyer, Helga; Reichenauer, Anke; Höllt, Volker

    2004-01-01

    Induction of Hsp70 in the brain has been reported after intake of drugs of abuse like amphetamine and lysergic acid diethylamide. In this investigation, gene expression of Hsp70 and other heat shock genes in the rat brain was studied in response to morphine. Twenty milligrams per kilogram morphine intraperitoneally resulted in a marked induction of Hsp70 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the frontal cortex with a maximum increase of 13.2-fold after 2 hours. A moderate increase of Hsp27 mRNA expression (6.7-fold) could be observed after 4 hours, whereas mRNA expression of Hsp90 and of the constitutive Hsc70 did not exceed a mean factor of 1.8-fold during the 24 hours interval. The increase in Hsp70 mRNA was dose dependent, showing a significant elevation after doses ranging from 10 to 50 mg/kg morphine. In situ hybridization revealed enhanced Hsp70 mRNA expression mainly in cortical areas, in the hippocampus, in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, in the locus coeruleus, as well in the pineal body. The double in situ hybridization technique revealed increased Hsp70 mRNA expression mainly in VGLUT1-positive neurons and to a lesser extent in olig1-positive oligodendroglia. Immunohistochemistry revealed a marked increase of Hsp70 protein in neuronal cells and blood vessels after 12 hours. In contrast to animal experiments, morphine did not increase Hsp70 mRNA expression in vitro in μ-opioid receptor (MOR1)–expressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells, suggesting no direct MOR1-mediated cellular effect. To exclude a body temperature–related morphine effect on Hsp70 mRNA expression, the temperature was recorded. Five to 20 mg/kg resulted in hyperthermia (maximum 40.6°), whereas a high dose (50 mg/kg) that produced the highest mRNA induction, showed a clear hypothermia (minimum 37.2°C). These findings argue against the possibility that Hsp70 induction by morphine is caused by its effect on body temperature. It may be speculated that

  2. 5'-Phosphorothiolate Dinucleotide Cap Analogues: Reagents for Messenger RNA Modification and Potent Small-Molecular Inhibitors of Decapping Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, Blazej A; Sikorski, Pawel J; Fac-Dabrowska, Kaja; Nowicka, Anna; Warminski, Marcin; Kubacka, Dorota; Nowak, Elzbieta; Nowotny, Marcin; Kowalska, Joanna; Jemielity, Jacek

    2018-05-09

    The 5' cap consists of 7-methylguanosine (m 7 G) linked by a 5'-5'-triphosphate bridge to messenger RNA (mRNA) and acts as the master regulator of mRNA turnover and translation initiation in eukaryotes. Cap analogues that influence mRNA translation and turnover (either as small molecules or as part of an RNA transcript) are valuable tools for studying gene expression, which is often also of therapeutic relevance. Here, we synthesized a series of 15 dinucleotide cap (m 7 GpppG) analogues containing a 5'-phosphorothiolate (5'-PSL) moiety (i.e., an O-to-S substitution within the 5'-phosphoester) and studied their biological properties in the context of three major cap-binding proteins: translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and two decapping enzymes, DcpS and Dcp2. While the 5'-PSL moiety was neutral or slightly stabilizing for cap interactions with eIF4E, it significantly influenced susceptibility to decapping. Replacing the γ-phosphoester with the 5'-PSL moiety (γ-PSL) prevented β-γ-pyrophosphate bond cleavage by DcpS and conferred strong inhibitory properties. Combining the γ-PSL moiety with α-PSL and β-phosphorothioate (PS) moiety afforded first cap-derived hDcpS inhibitor with low nanomolar potency. Susceptibility to Dcp2 and translational properties were studied after incorporation of the new analogues into mRNA transcripts by RNA polymerase. Transcripts containing the γ-PSL moiety were resistant to cleavage by Dcp2. Surprisingly, superior translational properties were observed for mRNAs containing the α-PSL moiety, which were Dcp2-susceptible. The overall protein expression measured in HeLa cells for this mRNA was comparable to mRNA capped with the translation augmenting β-PS analogue reported previously. Overall, our study highlights 5'-PSL as a synthetically accessible cap modification, which, depending on the substitution site, can either reduce susceptibility to decapping or confer superior translational properties on the mRNA. The 5'-PSL

  3. Proteomic Profiling and Differential Messenger RNA Expression Correlate HSP27 and Serpin Family B Member 1 to Apical Periodontitis Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cavalla, Franco; Biguetti, Claudia; Jain, Sameer; Johnson, Cleverick; Letra, Ariadne; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Silva, Renato Menezes

    2017-09-01

    Understanding protein expression profiles of apical periodontitis may contribute to the discovery of novel diagnostic or therapeutic molecular targets. Periapical tissue samples (n = 5) of patients with lesions characterized as nonhealing were submitted for proteomic analysis. Two differentially expressed proteins (heat shock protein 27 [HSP27] and serpin family B member 1 [SERPINB1]) were selected for characterization, localization by immunofluorescence, and association with known biomarkers of acute inflammatory response in human apical periodontitis (n = 110) and healthy periodontal ligaments (n = 26). Apical periodontitis samples were categorized as stable/inactive (n = 70) or progressive/active (n = 40) based on the ratio of expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG). Next, the expression of HSP27, SERPINB1, C-X-C motif Chemokine Receptor 1 (CXCR1), matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP8), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and cathepsin G (CTSG) messenger RNA was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data analysis was performed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, analysis of variance, and the Pearson test. P values <.05 were considered statistically significant. Proteomic analysis revealed 48 proteins as differentially expressed in apical periodontitis compared with a healthy periodontium, with 30 of these proteins found to be expressed in all 4 lesions. The expression of HSP27 and SERPINB1 was ∼2-fold higher in apical periodontitis. Next, an increased expression of HSP27 was detected in epithelial cells, whereas SERPINB1 expression was noted in neutrophils and epithelial cells. HSP27 and SERPINB1 transcripts were highly expressed in stable/inactive lesions (P < .05). Significant negative correlations were found between the expression of HSP27 and SERPINB1 with biomarkers of acute inflammation including CXCR1, MPO, and CTSG. Our data suggest HSP27 and SERPINB1 as potential regulators of the inflammatory

  4. Geologic map and structural analysis of the Victoria quadrangle (H2) of Mercury based on NASA MESSENGER images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galluzzi, V.; Di Achille, G.; Ferranti, L.; Rothery, D. A.; Palumbo, P.

    The first stratigraphic and geologic study of Mercury was released by Trask & Guest (1975) followed by Spudis & Guest (1988, and references therein), whose work was based on the images taken by Mariner 10 covering 42% of the total surface of Mercury. The planet has been officially divided into fifteen quadrangles: 2 polar, 5 equatorial and 8 at midlatitudes. Quadrangle H2 (= Hermes sheet n.2), named ``Victoria'' (20oN - 65oN Lon.; 270oE - 0o Lat.), was partially mapped by McGill & King (1983), though a wide area (˜64%) remained unmapped due to the lack of imagery. Following the terrain units recognized and described by the above authors, we have produced a geologic map of the entire quadrangle using MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging) images. The images taken by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) allowed us to map geologic and tectonic features in much greater detail than the previously published map (mapping scale range between 1:300k and 1:600k). We classified craters larger than 20 km using three relative age classes, which are a simplification of the past five degradation classes defined by McCauley et al. (1981). Victoria quadrangle is characterized by a localized N-S thrust array constituted by Victoria Rupes, Endeavour Rupes and Antoniadi Dorsum to the East and by a more diffuse system of NE-SW oriented fault arrays to the West: the two systems seem to be separated by a tectonic bulge. The Victoria-Endeavour-Antoniadi system has been interpreted as a fold-and-thrust belt by Byrne et al. (2014) and a previous study made on craters cross-cut by its thrusts reveals fault dips of 15-20o and a near dip slip motion (Galluzzi et al., 2015). This geologic map has the aim to build a regional model of its structural framework. Deciphering the geological setting of this quadrangle will bring important insights for understanding the tectonic evolution of the whole planet

  5. Reference genes for real-time PCR quantification of messenger RNAs and microRNAs in mouse model of obesity.

    PubMed

    Matoušková, Petra; Bártíková, Hana; Boušová, Iva; Hanušová, Veronika; Szotáková, Barbora; Skálová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing health problem worldwide. Among other ways, nutritional intervention using phytochemicals is important method for treatment and prevention of this disease. Recent studies have shown that certain phytochemicals could alter the expression of specific genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) that play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of obesity. For study of the obesity and its treatment, monosodium glutamate (MSG)-injected mice with developed central obesity, insulin resistance and liver lipid accumulation are frequently used animal models. To understand the mechanism of phytochemicals action in obese animals, the study of selected genes expression together with miRNA quantification is extremely important. For this purpose, real-time quantitative PCR is a sensitive and reproducible method, but it depends on proper normalization entirely. The aim of present study was to identify the appropriate reference genes for mRNA and miRNA quantification in MSG mice treated with green tea catechins, potential anti-obesity phytochemicals. Two sets of reference genes were tested: first set contained seven commonly used genes for normalization of messenger RNA, the second set of candidate reference genes included ten small RNAs for normalization of miRNA. The expression stability of these reference genes were tested upon treatment of mice with catechins using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. Selected normalizers for mRNA quantification were tested and validated on expression of quinone oxidoreductase, biotransformation enzyme known to be modified by catechins. The effect of selected normalizers for miRNA quantification was tested on two obesity- and diabetes- related miRNAs, miR-221 and miR-29b, respectively. Finally, the combinations of B2M/18S/HPRT1 and miR-16/sno234 were validated as optimal reference genes for mRNA and miRNA quantification in liver and 18S/RPlP0/HPRT1 and sno234/miR-186 in small intestine of MSG mice. These

  6. Reprogramming human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells to islet-like cells with the use of in vitro-synthesized pancreatic-duodenal homebox 1 messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Li; Hu, Pei; Guo, Xing Rong; Yan, Ding; Yuan, Yahong; Yan, Shi Rong; Li, Dong Sheng

    2014-11-01

    Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (hUC-MSCs) hold great potential as a therapeutic candidate to treat diabetes, owing to their unlimited source and ready availability. In this study, we differentiated hUC-MSCs with in vitro-synthesized pancreatic-duodenal homebox 1 (PDX1) messenger (m)RNA into islet-like cell clusters. hUC-MSCs were confirmed by both biomarker detection and functional differentiation. In vitro-synthesized PDX1 messenger RNA can be transfected into hUC-MSCs efficiently. The upregulated expression of PDX1 protein can be detected 4 h after transfection and remains detectable for 36 h. The induction of islet-like structures was confirmed by means of morphology and dithizone staining. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction results revealed the expression of some key pancreatic transcription factors, such as PDX1, NeuroD, NKX6.1, Glut-2 and insulin in islet-like cell clusters. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that differentiated cells express both insulin and C-peptide. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis validated the insulin secretion of islet-like cell clusters in response to the glucose stimulation. Our results demonstrate the use of in vitro-synthesized PDX1 messenger RNA to differentiate hUC-MSCs into islet-like cells and pave the way toward the development of reprogramming and directed-differentiation methods for the expression of encoded proteins. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dependence of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field on Heliocentric Distance between 0.3 and 1.7 AU from MESSENGER, ACE and MAVEN data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanneson, C.; Johnson, C.; Al Asad, M.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetometer data from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER), Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) and Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft were used to characterize the variation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) with heliocentric distance from 0.3 to 1.7 AU. MESSENGER and ACE data form a set of simultaneous observations that spans eight years, from March 2007 until April 2015, with ACE observations continuing until the present. MAVEN data have been collected since November 2014. Furthermore, for the period 2008-2015, MESSENGER and ACE observations were taken over the same range of heliocentric distances: 0.31-0.47 AU and 0.94-1.00 AU respectively. The IMF varies with the solar sunspot cycle, and so data taken simultaneously at different heliocentric distances allow solar-cycle effects to be decoupled from the radial evolution of the IMF. The data were averaged temporally by taking 1-hour means, and median values were then computed in 0.01-AU bins. For the time interval spanned by all observations, the median value of the magnitude of the IMF decreases steadily from 30.1 nT at 0.3 AU to 4.3 nT at 1.0 AU and 2.5 nT at 1.6 AU. The magnitude of the IMF was found to decay with heliocentric distance according to an inverse power law with an exponent equal to the adiabatic index for an ideal monatomic gas, 5/3, within 95% confidence limits. The magnitude of the radial component decays with distance as an inverse square law within 95% confidence limits. We also consider temporal variations of the heliocentric-dependence of the IMF over the current solar cycle by computing power law fits to the simultaneous MESSENGER and ACE observations using a moving window. Our study complements the recent study of Gruesbeck et al. (2017) that used Juno data to consider the variation in IMF properties over the heliocentric distance range 1 to 6 AU.

  8. Exploring Mercury's Surface-Bound Exosphere with the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer: AN Overview of Observations during the First Messenger Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClintock, W. E.; Bradley, E. T.; Izenberg, N. R.; Killen, R. M.; Kochte, M. C.; Lankton, M. R.; Mouawad, N.; Sprague, A. L.; Vervack, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury's surface-bound exosphere is the interface between the planet's surface and the external stimuli that interact with it. Its composition and structure are controlled by surface, magnetosphere, and solar-wind processes. Prior to the MESSENGER mission the exosphere was known to contain H, He, and O from Mariner 10 observations, as well as Na, K, and Ca that were discovered during ground-based observations. Na has been extensively studied since its discovery in 1985, including observations of a neutral Na tail first reported in 2002. Undetected species, including Mg, Fe, Al, and S, are also expected to exist in the exosphere. MESSENGER's initial flyby of Mercury, which occurred on January 14, 2008, offered the first opportunity to measure the planet's neutral tail from space. As the spacecraft approached the planet from the nightside, the UltraViolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) channel of the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) scanned the tail beginning at altitudes of 24,500 km behind Mercury's nightside surface and covering a region of space approximately three planet diameters tall and centered on the Sun-Mercury line. The UVVS measured emissions from Na during the entire observation. It also observed neutral hydrogen beginning approximately 5,000 km above the nightside surface. The spatial distributions of both species were seen to be asymmetric, with enhanced densities occurring in the northern hemisphere. UVVS observations of Ca, which were made as the spacecraft traversed the nightside exosphere, exhibited enhanced emission toward the dawn terminator, with north-south behavior similar to that of Na and H. These observations suggest that the relatively high-energy source processes that give rise to species observed in the tail were localized near the northern and morning hemispheres during the flyby. This inference is supported by magnetic field observations made with the MESSENGER Magnetometer, which observed a strong

  9. Inhibitors of second messenger pathways and Ca(2+)-induced exposure of phosphatidylserine in red blood cells of patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Gbotosho, O T; Cytlak, U M; Hannemann, A; Rees, D C; Tewari, S; Gibson, J S

    2014-07-01

    The present work investigates the contribution of various second messenger systems to Ca(2+)-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure in red blood cells (RBCs) from sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. The Ca(2+) dependence of PS exposure was confirmed using the Ca(2+) ionophore bromo-A23187 to clamp intracellular Ca(2+) over 4 orders of magnitude in high or low potassium-containing (HK or LK) saline. The percentage of RBCs showing PS exposure was significantly increased in LK over HK saline. This effect was reduced by the Gardos channel inhibitors, clotrimazole and charybdotoxin. Nevertheless, although Ca(2+) loading in the presence of an outwardly directed electrochemical gradient for K(+) stimulated PS exposure, substantial exposure still occurred in HK saline. Under the conditions used inhibitors of other second messenger systems (ABT491, quinacrine, acetylsalicylic acid, 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin, GW4869 and zVAD-fmk) did not inhibit the relationship between [Ca(2+)] and PS exposure. Inhibitors of phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, platelet-activating factor, sphingomyelinase and caspases, therefore, were without effect on Ca(2+)-induced PS exposure in RBCs, incubated in either HK or LK saline.

  10. Topographic Rise in the Northern Smooth Plains of Mercury: Characteristics from Messenger Image and Altimetry Data and Candidate Modes of Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER observations from orbit around Mercury have revealed that a large contiguous area of smooth plains occupies much of the high northern latitudes and covers an area in excess of approx.6% of the surface of the planet [1] (Fig. 1). Smooth surface morphology, embayment relationships, color data, candidate flow fronts, and a population of partly to wholly buried craters provide evidence for the volcanic origin of these plains and their emplacement in a flood lava mode to depths at least locally in excess of 1 km. The age of these plains is similar to that of plains associated with and postdating the Caloris impact basin, confirming that volcanism was a globally extensive process in the post-heavy bombardment history of Mercury [1]. No specific effusive vent structures, constructional volcanic edifices, or lava distributary features (leveed flow fronts or sinuous rilles) have been identified in the contiguous plains, although vent structures and evidence of high-effusion-rate flood eruptions are seen in adjacent areas [1]. Subsequent to the identification and mapping of the extensive north polar smooth plains, data from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on MESSENGER revealed the presence of a broad topographic rise in the northern smooth plains that is 1,000 km across and rises more than 1.5 km above the surrounding smooth plains [2] (Fig. 2). The purpose of this contribution is to characterize the northern plains rise and to outline a range of hypotheses for its origin.

  11. Separate analysis of human papillomavirus E6 and E7 messenger RNAs to predict cervical neoplasia progression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuling; Lachkar, Bouchra; Zhang, Shuang; Xu, Chenyang; Tenjimbayashi, Yuri; Shikama, Ayumi; Tasaka, Nobutaka; Akiyama, Azusa; Sakurai, Manabu; Nakao, Sari; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Onuki, Mamiko; Matsumoto, Koji; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Toyomi

    2018-01-01

    A few studies previously suggested that human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 messenger RNA (mRNA) may exist uniformly in all grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), whereas the detection rate of E7 mRNA may increase with disease progression from low-grade CIN to invasive carcinoma. The aim of this study was to clarify the different roles of E6 and E7 mRNAs in cervical carcinogenesis. The presence of each E6 and E7 mRNA was analyzed in 171 patients with pathologically-diagnosed CIN or cervical carcinoma. We utilized a RT-PCR assay based on consensus primers which could detect E6 mRNA (full-length E6/E7 transcript) and E7 mRNAs (spliced E6*/E7 transcripts) separately for various HPV types. E7 mRNAs were detected in 6% of CIN1, 12% of CIN2, 24% of CIN3, and 54% of cervical carcinoma. The presence of E7 mRNAs was significantly associated with progression from low-grade CIN to invasive carcinoma in contrast with E6 mRNA or high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA (p = 0.00011, 0.80 and 0.54). The presence of both E6 and E7 mRNAs was significantly associated with HPV16/18 DNA but not with HR-HPV DNA (p = 0.0079 and 0.21), while the presence of E6 mRNA was significantly associated with HR-HPV DNA but not with HPV16/18 DNA (p = 0.036 and 0.089). The presence of both E6 and E7 mRNAs showed high specificity and low sensitivity (100% and 19%) for detecting CIN2+ by contrast with the positivity for HR-HPV DNA showing low specificity and high sensitivity (19% and 89%). The positive predictive value for detecting CIN2+ was even higher by the presence of both E6 and E7 mRNAs than by the positivity for HR-HPV DNA (100% vs. 91%). In 31 patients followed up for CIN1-2, the presence of both E6 and E7 mRNAs showed significant association with the occurrence of upgraded abnormal cytology in contrast with E6 mRNA, HR-HPV DNA, or HPV16/18 DNA (p = 0.034, 0.73, 0.53, and 0.72). Our findings support previous studies according to which E7 mRNA is more closely involved in cervical carcinogenesis than

  12. Space-Weathering on Mercury: Inferences Based on Comparison of MESSENGER Spectral Data and Experimental Space Weathering Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis-Davis, J. J.; Blewett, D. T.; Lawrence, D. J.; Izenberg, N. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Holsclaw, G. M.; Domingue, D. L.

    2009-12-01

    agglutinates) but are smaller than values obtained from lunar spectra with the methods used here (15-25 nm). We can also infer that silicates in Mercury's high reflectance plains are potentially iron poor, precluding thick vapor deposits coating - both spectral data sets lack a 1-μm absorption and the experimental iron particles are suspended in an iron-free silica gel. Thus, our conclusion on the basis of spectral comparison is that SMFe on Mercury is potentially smaller than on the Moon and that Ostwald ripening is not a major influence on the surface of Mercury. The absence of pronounced darkening of the equatorial regions of Mercury in images from Mariner 10 and MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System supports also suggest an apparent lack of Ostwald ripening.

  13. Vanillin Inhibits Translation and Induces Messenger Ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) Granule Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Application and Validation of High-Content, Image-Based Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Yohei; Izawa, Shingo; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Vanillin, generated by acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose, acts as a potent inhibitor of the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the cellular processes affected by vanillin using high-content, image-based profiling. Among 4,718 non-essential yeast deletion mutants, the morphology of those defective in the large ribosomal subunit showed significant similarity to that of vanillin-treated cells. The defects in these mutants were clustered in three domains of the ribosome: the mRNA tunnel entrance, exit and backbone required for small subunit attachment. To confirm that vanillin inhibited ribosomal function, we assessed polysome and messenger ribonucleoprotein granule formation after treatment with vanillin. Analysis of polysome profiles showed disassembly of the polysomes in the presence of vanillin. Processing bodies and stress granules, which are composed of non-translating mRNAs and various proteins, were formed after treatment with vanillin. These results suggest that vanillin represses translation in yeast cells. PMID:23637899

  14. Translational Control of Hemoglobin Synthesis by an Initiation Factor Required for Recycling of Ribosomes and for their Binding to Messenger RNA

    PubMed Central

    Kaempfer, Raymond; Kaufman, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    The continued recycling of ribosomes during protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocyte lysates at 37° requires an initiation factor whose activity is rapidly lost in the absence of added heme. Partially purified factor (i) fully maintains the polysomes; (ii) inhibits the association of 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits into single ribosomes; (iii) promotes the quantitative entry of added 60S subunits into polysomes; (iv) allows the accumulation of ribosomal subunits, instead of single ribosomes, when initiation is blocked with aurin tricarboxylate; and (v) is absolutely required for the binding of globin messenger RNA to ribosomes. These properties suggest that this mammalian initiation factor functions analogously to bacterial IF-3. In addition, the translational control of globin synthesis by heme is exerted, directly or indirectly, through this factor. PMID:4508325

  15. Toward high-resolution global topography of Mercury from MESSENGER orbital stereo imaging: A prototype model for the H6 (Kuiper) quadrangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusker, Frank; Stark, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Gwinner, Klaus; Roatsch, Thomas; Watters, Thomas R.

    2017-08-01

    We selected approximately 10,500 narrow-angle camera (NAC) and wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury acquired from orbit by MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) with an average resolution of 150 m/pixel to compute a digital terrain model (DTM) for the H6 (Kuiper) quadrangle, which extends from 22.5°S to 22.5°N and from 288.0°E to 360.0°E. From the images, we identified about 21,100 stereo image combinations consisting of at least three images each. We applied sparse multi-image matching to derive approximately 250,000 tie-points representing 50,000 ground points. We used the tie-points to carry out a photogrammetric block adjustment, which improves the image pointing and the accuracy of the ground point positions in three dimensions from about 850 m to approximately 55 m. We then applied high-density (pixel-by-pixel) multi-image matching to derive about 45 billion tie-points. Benefitting from improved image pointing data achieved through photogrammetric block adjustment, we computed about 6.3 billion surface points. By interpolation, we generated a DTM with a lateral spacing of 221.7 m/pixel (192 pixels per degree) and a vertical accuracy of about 30 m. The comparison of the DTM with Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) profiles obtained over four years of MESSENGER orbital operations reveals that the DTM is geometrically very rigid. It may be used as a reference to identify MLA outliers (e.g., when MLA operated at its ranging limit) or to map offsets of laser altimeter tracks, presumably caused by residual spacecraft orbit and attitude errors. After the relevant outlier removals and corrections, MLA profiles show excellent agreement with topographic profiles from H6, with a root mean square height difference of only 88 m.

  16. Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part O. ACE Competency Based Job Descriptions: #72--Ward Clerk; #73--Account Clerk; #74--Mail Handler (Messenger); #75--Payroll Clerk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.

    This twelfth of fifteen sets of Adult Competency Education (ACE) Based Job Descriptions in the ACE kit contains job descriptions for Ward Clerk, Account Clerk, Mail Handler (Messenger), and Payroll Clerk. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes this information: occupational title, D.O.T. code, ACE number, career ladder, D.O.T. general…

  17. Viewing Mercury's Surface-bound Exosphere from Orbit: Eighteen Months of Observations by the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer aboard the MESSENGER Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClintock, W. E.; Benna, M.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T.; Killen, R. M.; Merkel, A. W.; Sarantos, M.; Solomon, S. C.; Sprague, A. L.; Vervack, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Prior to the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, Mercury's surface-bounded exosphere was known to contain H and He, observed by Mariner 10, as well as Na, K, and Ca, observed from the ground. The exosphere is the interface between the planet's surface and the surrounding space environment. Its composition and structure are controlled by interactions among the surface, magnetosphere, solar wind, sunlight, and impacting meteoroids. When species are liberated from the surface with sufficient energy, they can be accelerated by solar radiation pressure to form an anti-sunward tail. During three flybys en route to orbit, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) channel of the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) aboard MESSENGER discovered Mg in the tail and detected Ca+ in a narrow region centered ~ 2.5 Mercury radii anti-sunward of the planet's terminator. UVVS began routine orbital observations of both the dayside and nightside exosphere on March 29, 2011. It regularly measures altitude profiles for all previously detected neutral species with the exception of He and K. The former has no emission features within the UVVS wavelength range (115-600 nm), and the latter has only one relatively weak feature there. A single component of Ca is usually observed at lower altitudes (~2000 km) and exhibits the strong equatorial, dawn enhancement observed during the flybys. Mg distributions exhibit two components. The more energetic component has been detected at high altitudes, up to 4000 km above the surface on both the dayside and nightside, and shows a dawn enhancement similar to Ca. Dayside distributions of Na exhibit two components with e-folding heights comparable to profiles above the poles obtained during the third flyby. Concentrations of all three species exhibit seasonal variability. The best studied of these is Na, for which maximum dayside density occurs at a Mercury true anomaly angle

  18. Follicular progesterone concentrations and messenger RNA expression of MATER and OCT-4 in immature bovine oocytes as predictors of developmental competence.

    PubMed

    Urrego, R; Herrera-Puerta, E; Chavarria, N A; Camargo, O; Wrenzycki, C; Rodriguez-Osorio, N

    2015-04-15

    The ability of bovine embryos to develop to the blastocyst stage and to implant and generate healthy offspring depends greatly on the competence of the oocyte. Oocyte competence is attributed to its close communication with the follicular environment and to its capacity to synthesize and store substantial amounts of messenger RNA. Higher developmental competence of bovine oocytes has been associated with both the expression of a cohort of developmental genes and the concentration of sex steroids in the follicular fluid. The aim of this study was to identify differences in the expression of FST in cumulus cells and OCT-4 and MATER in oocytes and the influence of the follicular progesterone and follicular estrogen concentration on the competence of bovine oocytes retrieved 30 minutes or 4 hours after slaughter. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were left in postmortem ovaries for 30 minutes (group I) or 4 hours (group II) at 30 °C. Aspirated oocytes were then subjected to IVM, IVF, and IVC or were evaluated for MATER and OCT-4 messenger RNA abundance by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA was isolated from pools of 100 oocytes for each experimental replicate. Progesterone and estradiol concentration in follicular fluid was evaluated by immunoassay using an IMMULITE 2000 analyzer. Three repeats of in vitro embryo production were performed with a total of 455 (group I) and 470 (group II) COCs. There were no significant differences between the cleavage rates (72 hours postinsemination [hpi]) between both groups (63.5% vs. 69.1%). However, blastocyst (168 hpi) and hatching (216 hpi) rates were higher (P < 0.05) in group II compared with those of group I (21.3% vs. 30.7% and 27.6% vs. 51.5%, respectively). Group II oocytes exhibited the highest MATER and OCT-4 abundance (P < 0.05). Follicular estradiol concentration was not different between both the groups, whereas the progesterone concentration was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in group II follicles. These

  19. Lidocaine attenuation testing: An in vivo investigation of putative LQT3-associated variants in the SCN5A-encoded sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Heather N; Bos, J Martijn; Kapplinger, Jamie D; Meskill, Jana M; Ye, Dan; Ackerman, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) accounts for 5%-10% of long QT syndrome and results from gain-of-function mutations in the SCN5A-encoded sodium channel. Approximately 2% of healthy individuals host rare SCN5A variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Distinction of true LQT3-causative mutations from background genetic noise is essential. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of the lidocaine attenuation test (LAT) in evaluating patients with possible LQT3. We reviewed the LAT results and medical records for 25 patients with a possible LQT3-associated SCN5A variant. The LAT involved a loading dose of 1 mg/kg of intravenous lidocaine followed by continuous infusion at 50 μg/(kg⋅min) for 20 minutes. If the corrected QT interval shortened by ≥30 ms, the LAT was defined as positive. Sixteen patients (64%) had a positive LAT, 6 of which demonstrated the E1784K variant. A positive LAT correlated in 86% of cases with abnormal in vitro channel function (mean corrected QT interval attenuation 43 ± 3 ms vs 25 ± 5 ms for wild-type variants; P = .03). Four of 5 patients (80%) with a VUS had a positive LAT (T1304M [2 patients], L1786P, and R800L). The T1304M variant demonstrated abnormal in vitro function and a positive LAT, opening the door for a potential variant promotion from VUS to likely pathogenic. The LAT may help distinguish true LQT3-causative mutations from an otherwise noncontributory VUS. Given that lidocaine acts as a late sodium current blocker, a positive LAT may enable the early identification of a pathological accentuation of the late sodium current that could be targeted therapeutically. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A chloroplast retrograde signal, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate, acts as a secondary messenger in abscisic acid signaling in stomatal closure and germination.

    PubMed

    Pornsiriwong, Wannarat; Estavillo, Gonzalo M; Chan, Kai Xun; Tee, Estee E; Ganguly, Diep; Crisp, Peter A; Phua, Su Yin; Zhao, Chenchen; Qiu, Jiaen; Park, Jiyoung; Yong, Miing Tiem; Nisar, Nazia; Yadav, Arun Kumar; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Rathjen, John; Cazzonelli, Christopher I; Wilson, Philippa B; Gilliham, Matthew; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Pogson, Barry J

    2017-03-21

    Organelle-nuclear retrograde signaling regulates gene expression, but its roles in specialized cells and integration with hormonal signaling remain enigmatic. Here we show that the SAL1-PAP (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'- phosphate) retrograde pathway interacts with abscisic acid (ABA) signaling to regulate stomatal closure and seed germination in Arabidopsis . Genetically or exogenously manipulating PAP bypasses the canonical signaling components ABA Insensitive 1 (ABI1) and Open Stomata 1 (OST1); priming an alternative pathway that restores ABA-responsive gene expression, ROS bursts, ion channel function, stomatal closure and drought tolerance in ost1 -2. PAP also inhibits wild type and abi1 -1 seed germination by enhancing ABA sensitivity. PAP-XRN signaling interacts with ABA, ROS and Ca 2+ ; up-regulating multiple ABA signaling components, including lowly-expressed Calcium Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs) capable of activating the anion channel SLAC1. Thus, PAP exhibits many secondary messenger attributes and exemplifies how retrograde signals can have broader roles in hormone signaling, allowing chloroplasts to fine-tune physiological responses.

  1. A chloroplast retrograde signal, 3’-phosphoadenosine 5’-phosphate, acts as a secondary messenger in abscisic acid signaling in stomatal closure and germination

    PubMed Central

    Pornsiriwong, Wannarat; Estavillo, Gonzalo M; Chan, Kai Xun; Tee, Estee E; Ganguly, Diep; Crisp, Peter A; Phua, Su Yin; Zhao, Chenchen; Qiu, Jiaen; Park, Jiyoung; Yong, Miing Tiem; Nisar, Nazia; Yadav, Arun Kumar; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Rathjen, John; Cazzonelli, Christopher I; Wilson, Philippa B; Gilliham, Matthew; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Pogson, Barry J

    2017-01-01

    Organelle-nuclear retrograde signaling regulates gene expression, but its roles in specialized cells and integration with hormonal signaling remain enigmatic. Here we show that the SAL1-PAP (3′-phosphoadenosine 5′- phosphate) retrograde pathway interacts with abscisic acid (ABA) signaling to regulate stomatal closure and seed germination in Arabidopsis. Genetically or exogenously manipulating PAP bypasses the canonical signaling components ABA Insensitive 1 (ABI1) and Open Stomata 1 (OST1); priming an alternative pathway that restores ABA-responsive gene expression, ROS bursts, ion channel function, stomatal closure and drought tolerance in ost1-2. PAP also inhibits wild type and abi1-1 seed germination by enhancing ABA sensitivity. PAP-XRN signaling interacts with ABA, ROS and Ca2+; up-regulating multiple ABA signaling components, including lowly-expressed Calcium Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs) capable of activating the anion channel SLAC1. Thus, PAP exhibits many secondary messenger attributes and exemplifies how retrograde signals can have broader roles in hormone signaling, allowing chloroplasts to fine-tune physiological responses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23361.001 PMID:28323614

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of circulating thyrotropin receptor messenger RNA combined with neck ultrasonography in patients with Bethesda III-V thyroid cytology.

    PubMed

    Aliyev, Altay; Patel, Jinesh; Brainard, Jennifer; Gupta, Manjula; Nasr, Christian; Hatipoglu, Betul; Siperstein, Allan; Berber, Eren

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the usefulness of thyrotropin receptor messenger RNA (TSHR-mRNA) combined with neck ultrasonography (US) in the management of thyroid nodules with Bethesda III-V cytology. Cytology slides of patients with a preoperative fine needle aspiration (FNA) and TSHR-mRNA who underwent thyroidectomy between 2002 and 2011 were recategorized based on the Bethesda classification. Results of thyroid FNA, TSHR-mRNA, and US were compared with the final pathology. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. There were 12 patients with Bethesda III, 112 with Bethesda IV, and 58 with Bethesda V cytology. The sensitivity of TSHR-mRNA in predicting cancer was 33%, 65%, and 79 %, and specificity was 67%, 66%, and 71%, for Bethesda III, IV, and V categories, respectively. For the same categories, the PPV of TSHR-mRNA was 25%, 33%, and 79%, respectively; whereas the NPV was 75%, 88%, and 71%, respectively. The addition of neck US to TSHR-mRNA increased the NPV to 100% for Bethesda III, and 86%, for Bethesda IV, and 82% for Bethesda V disease. This study documents the potential usefulness of TSHR-mRNA for thyroid nodules with Bethesda III-V FNA categories. TSHR-mRNA may be used to exclude Bethesda IV disease. A large sample analysis is needed to determine its accuracy for Bethesda category III nodules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of the messenger RNA for the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel SK3 in the adult rat brain and correlation with immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, S; Carletti, R; Bunnemann, B; Plumpton, C; Merlo Pich, E; Terstappen, G C

    2001-01-01

    Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels are voltage independent potassium channels which modulate the firing patterns of neurons by activating the slow component of the afterhyperpolarization. The genes encoding a family of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels have been cloned and up to now three known members have been described and named small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type 1, small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type 2 and small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type 3; the distribution of their messenger RNA in the rat CNS has already been performed but only in a limited detail. The present study represents the first detailed analysis of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type 3 mRNA distribution in the adult rat brain and resulted in a strong to moderate expression of signal in medial habenular nucleus, substantia nigra compact part, suprachiasmatic nucleus, ventral tegmental area, lateral septum, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Immunohistological experiments were also performed and confirmed the presence of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type 3 protein in medial habenular nucleus, locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe. Given the importance of dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area for serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic transmission respectively, our results pose the morphological basis for further studies on the action of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type 3 in serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic transmission.

  4. Reductions of {sup 56}Fe heavy-particle irradiation-induced deficits in striatal muscarinic receptor sensitivity by selective cross-activation/inhibition of second-messenger systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, J.A.; Villalobos-Molina, R.; Rabin, B.M.

    Recent experiments have revealed radiation-induced losses of sensitivity of rodent neostriatal muscarinic receptors to stimulation by cholinergic agonists that appears as reduction in oxotremorine enhancement of K{sup +}-evoked dopamine release. These losses were postulated to be the result of radiation-induced alterations early in phosphoinositide-mediated signal transduction. Additional findings indicated that if the ligand-receptor-G protein interface was bypassed no radiation deficits were seen. In the present study, radiation-induced deficits in K{sup +}-evoked dopamine release were examined in perifused striatal tissue obtained from rats exposed to 0,0.1 or 1.0 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles. Results showed that these deficits could be reducedmore » by co-applying combinations of various pharmacological agents that were known to have differential effects on various second messengers such as 1,4,5-inositoltrisphosphate (IP{sub 3}). Combinations included oxotremorine-carbachol, and either oxotremorine or carbachol with arginine vasopressin or arachidonic acid. These results are discussed in terms of putative radiation-induced changes in receptor-containing membranes which alter receptor-G protein coupling/uncoupling. 49 refs., 4 figs.« less

  5. Covalent Strategies for Targeting Messenger and Non-Coding RNAs: An Updated Review on siRNA, miRNA and antimiR Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Grijalvo, Santiago; Alagia, Adele

    2018-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based therapy has become an alternative to classical approaches in the search of novel therapeutics involving gene-related diseases. Several mechanisms have been described in which demonstrate the pivotal role of oligonucleotide for modulating gene expression. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and more recently siRNAs and miRNAs have made important contributions either in reducing aberrant protein levels by sequence-specific targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs) or restoring the anomalous levels of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are involved in a good number of diseases including cancer. In addition to formulation approaches which have contributed to accelerate the presence of ASOs, siRNAs and miRNAs in clinical trials; the covalent linkage between non-viral vectors and nucleic acids has also added value and opened new perspectives to the development of promising nucleic acid-based therapeutics. This review article is mainly focused on the strategies carried out for covalently modifying siRNA and miRNA molecules. Examples involving cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), carbohydrates, polymers, lipids and aptamers are discussed for the synthesis of siRNA conjugates whereas in the case of miRNA-based drugs, this review article makes special emphasis in using antagomiRs, locked nucleic acids (LNAs), peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) as well as nanoparticles. The biomedical applications of siRNA and miRNA conjugates are also discussed. PMID:29415514

  6. The nucleotides they are a-changin': function of RNA binding proteins in post-transcriptional messenger RNA editing and modification in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Marianne C; Anderson, Stephen J; Gregory, Brian D

    2018-06-05

    During and after transcription, the fate of an RNA molecule is almost entirely directed by the cohorts of interacting RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). RBPs regulate all stages of the life cycle of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule, including splicing, polyadenylation, transport out of the nucleus, RNA stability, and translation. In addition to these functions, RBPs can function to modify or edit the sequences encoded by the RNA. While the sequence for each transcript is determined in the genome, by the time an RNA reaches its final fate, the sequence may have been edited, where one nucleotide is converted to another, or modified, where a chemical group, or sometimes others moieties, are covalently linked to a nucleotide base. These changes to the RNA sequence have major consequences on the function of the RNA. Additionally, variation in the levels of the RBPs that perform the editing or modification can drastically affect the fitness of an organism. Here, we review RBPs that are known to edit or modify RNA ribonucleotides, focusing on the RNA editing ability of the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins and the RBPs that modify adenosine to N 6 - methyladenosine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation of transforming growth factor-β messenger RNA (TGF-β mRNA) expression with cellular immunoassays in Triamcinolone-treated captive hybrid striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, Craig A.; Ottinger, Christopher A.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S.

    2000-01-01

    Assessing fish immune status with molecular markers has been hampered by a lack of specific reagents. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method (reverse transcription quantitative–competitive PCR, RT-qcPCR) for measuring transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) transcription from a broad range of teleost fish has recently been developed. The quantitative PCR now permits monitoring production of this important immunosuppressive cytokine in response to immunomodulating agents and conditions. We examined anterior kidney and spleen mononuclear cells from hybrid striped bass (female striped bass Morone saxatilis× male white bass M. chrysops) for production of TGF-β messenger RNA (mRNA) in response to administration of the synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone. We also compared TGF-β transcription with anterior kidney macrophage bactericidal activity and splenic lymphocyte blastogenesis. Anterior kidney mononuclear cell TGF-β mRNA levels decreased, whereas bactericidal activity increased. Spleen TGF-β mRNA levels did not change significantly, and splenic lymphocyte pokeweed mitogen stimulation index increased in triamcinolone-treated fish. Since triamcinolone is used therapeutically as a suppressive immunomodulator, the enhanced immune functions indicated by the cellular immunoassays were unexpected; however, the inverse response of TGF-β production and macrophage bactericidal activity was consistent with the known relationship between TGF-β and macrophage activation in mammals. Induced immunomodulation in hybrid striped bass was detectable by both traditional cellular immunoassays and the new RT-qcPCR for TGF-β.

  8. Dual specificity and novel structural folding of yeast phosphodiesterase-1 for hydrolysis of second messengers cyclic adenosine and guanosine 3',5'-Monophosphate

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Yuanyuan; Cui, Wenjun; Huang, Manna; ...

    2014-08-05

    Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) decompose second messengers cAMP and cGMP that play critical roles in many physiological processes. PDE1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been subcloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant yPDE1 has a K M of 110 μM and a k cat of 16.9 s⁻¹ for cAMP and a K M of 105 μM and a k cat of 11.8 s₅⁻¹ for cGMP. Thus, the specificity constant (k cat/K McAMP)/(k cat/K M cGMP) of 1.4 indicates a dual specificity of yPDE1 for hydrolysis of both cAMP and cGMP. The crystal structures of unliganded yPDE1 and its complex with GMPmore » at 1.31 Å resolution reveal a new structural folding that is different from those of human PDEs but is partially similar to that of some other metalloenzymes such as metallo-β-lactamase. In spite of their different structures and divalent metals, yPDE1 and human PDEs may share a common mechanism for hydrolysis of cAMP and cGMP.« less

  9. cCMP, cUMP, cTMP, cIMP and cXMP as possible second messengers: development of a hypothesis based on studies with soluble guanylyl cyclase α(1)β(1).

    PubMed

    Beste, Kerstin Y; Seifert, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate are second messengers that regulate multiple physiological functions. The existence of additional cyclic nucleotides in mammalian cells was postulated many years ago, but technical problems hampered development of the field. Using highly specific and sensitive mass spectrometry methods, soluble guanylyl cyclase has recently been shown to catalyze the formation of several cyclic nucleotides in vitro. This minireview discusses the broad substrate-specificity of soluble guanylyl cyclase and the possible second messenger roles of cyclic nucleotides other than adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. We hope that this article stimulates productive and critical research in an area that has been neglected for many years.

  10. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of Animal Toxin Genes for Vaccine Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-27

    amino acids have been modified to pyroglutamate . The function of this modification is not known. There are additional venom components that are...been constructed from the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) isolated from venom glands of different poisonous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and...ribonucleic acid (mRNA) isolated from venom glands of different poisonous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and snails. The gene banks thus created con

  11. Interferon Gamma Messenger RNA Signature in Tumor Biopsies Predicts Outcomes in Patients with Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma or Urothelial Cancer Treated with Durvalumab.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Brandon W; Morehouse, Christopher; Streicher, Katie L; Brohawn, Philip; Pilataxi, Fernanda; Gupta, Ashok; Ranade, Koustubh

    2018-05-01

    To identify a predictive biomarker for durvalumab, an anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody. RNA sequencing of 97 advanced-stage non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) biopsies from a nonrandomized phase 1b/2 clinical trial (1108/NCT01693562) were profiled to identify a predictive signature; 62 locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer (UC) tumors from the same study were profiled to confirm predictive utility of the signature. Thirty NSCLC patients provided pre- and posttreatment tumors for messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis. NSCLC with ≥25% tumor cells and UC with ≥25% tumor or immune cells stained for PD-L1 at any intensity were scored PD-L1 positive (PD-L1+). Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to adjust for gender, age, prior therapies, histology, ECOG, liver metastasis, and smoking. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) was calculated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).  In the NSCLC discovery set, a four-gene interferon gamma (IFNγ)-positive (IFNγ+) signature comprising IFNγ, CD274, LAG3, and CXCL9 was associated with higher overall response rates, longer median progression-free survival, and overall survival compared with signature-low patients. IFNγ+-signature NSCLC patients had improved survival regardless of immunohistochemistry (IHC) PD-L1 status. These associations were replicated in a UC cohort. The IFNγ+ signature was induced twofold (P = 0.003) by durvalumab after 8 weeks of therapy in NSCLC patients, and baseline signature was associated with TMB but not survival in TCGA data.  The IFNγ+ mRNA signature may assist in identifying patients with improved outcomes to durvalumab, independent of PD-L1 assessed by IHC. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Polyamine regulates tolerance to water stress in leaves of white clover associated with antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes via involvement in calcium messenger system and hydrogen peroxide signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhou; Zhang, Yan; Peng, Dandan; Wang, Xiaojuan; Peng, Yan; He, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Xinquan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Linkai; Yan, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous polyamine (PA) may play a critical role in tolerance to water stress in plants acting as a signaling molecule activator. Water stress caused increases in endogenous PA content in leaves, including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm). Exogenous application of Spd could induce the instantaneous H2O2 burst and accumulation of cytosolic free Ca2+, and activate NADPH oxidase and CDPK gene expression in cells. To a great extent, PA biosynthetic inhibitor reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 accumulation, free cytosolic Ca2+ release, antioxidant enzyme activities and genes expression leading to aggravate water stress-induced oxidative damage, while these suppressing effects were alleviated by the addition of exogenous Spd, indicating PA was involved in water stress-induced H2O2 and cytosolic free Ca2+ production as well as stress tolerance. Dehydrin genes (Y2SK, Y2K, and SK2) were showed to be highly responsive to exogenous Spd. PA-induced antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes expression could be blocked by the scavenger of H2O2 and the inhibitors of H2O2 generation or Ca2+ channels blockers, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as the inhibitor of CDPK. These findings suggested that PA regulated tolerance to water stress in white clover associated with antioxidant defenses and dehydrins via involvement in the calcium messenger system and H2O2 signaling pathways. PA-induced H2O2 production required Ca2+ release, while PA-induced Ca2+ release was also essential for H2O2 production, suggesting an interaction between PA-induced H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling. PMID:26528187

  13. Evaluation of a Salmonella Strain Lacking the Secondary Messenger C-di-GMP and RpoS as a Live Oral Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    García, Begoña; Gil, Carmen; García-Ona, Enrique; Burgui, Saioa; Casares, Noelia; Hervás-Stubbs, Sandra; Lasarte, Juan José; Lasa, Iñigo

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases transmitted through the consumption of contaminated food, with chicken and pig related products being key reservoirs of infection. Although numerous studies on animal vaccination have been performed in order to reduce Salmonella prevalence, there is still a need for an ideal vaccine. Here, with the aim of constructing a novel live attenuated Salmonella vaccine candidate, we firstly analyzed the impact of the absence of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) in Salmonella virulence. C-di-GMP is an intracellular second messenger that controls a wide range of bacterial processes, including biofilm formation and synthesis of virulence factors, and also modulates the host innate immune response. Our results showed that a Salmonella multiple mutant in the twelve genes encoding diguanylate cyclase proteins that, as a consequence, cannot synthesize c-di-GMP, presents a moderate attenuation in a systemic murine infection model. An additional mutation of the rpoS gene resulted in a synergic attenuating effect that led to a highly attenuated strain, referred to as ΔXIII, immunogenic enough to protect mice against a lethal oral challenge of a S. Typhimurium virulent strain. ΔXIII immunogenicity relied on activation of both antibody and cell mediated immune responses characterized by the production of opsonizing antibodies and the induction of significant levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17 and IL-10. ΔXIII was unable to form a biofilm and did not survive under desiccation conditions, indicating that it could be easily eliminated from the environment. Moreover, ΔXIII shows DIVA features that allow differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals. Altogether, these results show ΔXIII as a safe and effective live DIVA vaccine. PMID:27537839

  14. Speed and accuracy of mobile BlackBerry Messenger to transmit chest radiography images from a small community emergency department to a geographically remote referral center.

    PubMed

    Scheuermeyer, Frank; Grunau, Brian; Cheyne, Jay; Grafstein, Eric; Christenson, Jim; Ho, Kendall

    2016-06-01

    Small emergency departments (EDs) may rely on radiologists at remote centers for interpretations of chest radiographs (CXRs). We investigated systematic transmission of CXR images from a small ED to a geographically remote referral center using the mobile BlackBerry Messenger (BBM) application. Investigators obtained de-identified CXR images of consecutive ED patients via mobile phone camera. Each CXR image, along with a brief clinical history, was sent via BBM to an emergency physician located at a remote referral site, and the receiving physician replied via BBM to confirm reception. All communications, image generation, and image analysis was conducted on mobile phones. The primary outcome was the proportion of BBMs received within two minutes of sending; the secondary outcome was the proportion of BBM replies to the sending physician within five minutes. Image accuracy-comparing the radiologist's interpretation with the receiving emergency physician's interpretation-was estimated using predefined criteria. Of 1281 consecutive ED patients, 231 (18.0 %) had CXRs obtained, 320 CXRs were analyzed and 611 BBMs sent. All BBMs (100.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 99.4-00.0) arrived within two minutes; 595 BBMs (97.4%, 95% CI 95.8-98.4) were replied to within five minutes. Of the 58 CXRs with abnormalities requiring intervention, there were 55 concordances (overall agreement 94.2%, 95% CI 85.9-98.3; kappa 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-1.0) CONCLUSION: Systematic transmission of CXR images from a small ED to a remote large center using mobile phones may be a safe and effective strategy to rapidly communicate important patient information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. In situ changes in the relative abundance of human epidermal cytokine messenger RNA levels following exposure to the poison ivy/oak contact allergen urushiol.

    PubMed

    Boehm, K D; Yun, J K; Strohl, K P; Trefzer, U; Häffner, A; Elmets, C A

    1996-06-01

    Abstract: Epidermal keratinocytes in culture have been shown to produce many cytokines, and their proteins have been identified in skin tissue samples. It has therefore been assumed that these cytokines are transcribed in vivo by the epidermis in response to contact allergens. In this report, in situ hybridization was used to detect the messenger RNAs for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in samples of human skin prior to and at various times after application of urushiol, the immunogenic component of poison ivy/oak. In sensitive subjects, IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha mRNAs showed a progressive increase in transcript levels that paralleled the clinical and histological features of the inflammatory process. The time-course of the IL-1 beta response differed from that of IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha, in that there was an early (by 6 h after urushiol administration) elevation in IL-1 beta mRNA that occurred before there was evidence of inflammation and had returned to background levels by 72 h when the reaction had reached its peak. In contrast to urushiol-sensitive subjects, urushiol-anergic individuals did not exhibit an increase in IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha mRNA levels. The data provide evidence for an in vivo role for epidermal IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha transcription in the regulation of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha polypeptide levels in the epidermis in response to this common contact allergen.

  16. Lower glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-kDa isoform messenger RNA and protein levels in the prefrontal cortex in schizoaffective disorder but not schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Glausier, Jill R; Kimoto, Sohei; Fish, Kenneth N; Lewis, David A

    2015-01-15

    Altered gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been associated with cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Levels of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase 67-kDa isoform (GAD67) in the PFC have been consistently reported to be lower in patients with these disorders, but the status of the second GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-kDa isoform (GAD65), remains unclear. GAD65 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were quantified in PFC area 9 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction from 62 subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 matched healthy comparison subjects. In a subset of subject pairs, GAD65 relative protein levels were quantified by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Mean GAD65 mRNA levels were 13.6% lower in subjects with schizoaffective disorder but did not differ in subjects with schizophrenia relative to their matched healthy comparison subjects. In the subjects with schizoaffective disorder, mean GAD65 protein levels were 19.4% lower and were correlated with GAD65 mRNA levels. Lower GAD65 mRNA and protein levels within subjects with schizoaffective disorder were not attributable to factors commonly comorbid with the diagnosis. In concert with previous studies, these findings suggest that schizoaffective disorder is associated with lower levels of both GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA and protein in the PFC, whereas subjects with schizophrenia have lower mean levels of only GAD67 mRNA and protein. Because cognitive function is generally better preserved in patients with schizoaffective disorder relative to patients with schizophrenia, these findings may support an interpretation that GAD65 downregulation provides a homeostatic response complementary to GAD67 downregulation that serves to reduce inhibition in the face of lower PFC network activity. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc

  17. MESSENGER's Special Delivery: Gas and Dust Production from Comets 2P/Encke and C/2012 S1 (ISON) at Small Heliocentric Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Y. R.; Vervack, R. J., Jr.; Knight, M. M.; McCandliss, S. R.; Dello Russo, N.; Feldman, P.; Lisse, C. M.; Tamblyn, P.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of comets when they are close to the Sun can potentially reveal interesting aspects of their behavior, composition, and structure, thanks to the rapid change both of seasons on the nucleus and of the local insolation environment. However this is typically a difficult time to make observations from Earth, so studies of comets that are near the Sun generally require special facilities. In late 2013, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft observed comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and 2P/Encke from its vantage point at Mercury when both comets were poorly located for most Earth-based telescopes. The observations included visible-wavelength, multi-filter imaging as well as ultraviolet spectroscopy, using the MDIS and MASCS instruments. Both comets were observed down to about 0.3 AU from the Sun. In Encke's case, it was followed through perihelion, which has rarely been done before. In ISON's case, it was observed while rapidly changing in the days preceding its catastrophic breakup just before perihelion. The data let us constrain the dust and gas production rates of both comets over several weeks, and we can investigate how the rates change with time, rotational phase, and heliocentric distance. We will present preliminary analyses of this time-series photometry and spectroscopy, and compare results to other studies of these comets' behavior when they are farther from the Sun. This work is supported by NASA grant NNX16AJ02G, and makes use of data from the Planetary Data System.

  18. Analysis of aberrant pre-messenger RNA splicing resulting from mutations in ATP8B1 and efficient in vitro rescue by adapted U1 small nuclear RNA.

    PubMed

    van der Woerd, Wendy L; Mulder, Johanna; Pagani, Franco; Beuers, Ulrich; Houwen, Roderick H J; van de Graaf, Stan F J

    2015-04-01

    ATP8B1 deficiency is a severe autosomal recessive liver disease resulting from mutations in the ATP8B1 gene characterized by a continuous phenotypical spectrum from intermittent (benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis; BRIC) to progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC). Current therapeutic options are insufficient, and elucidating the molecular consequences of mutations could lead to personalized mutation-specific therapies. We investigated the effect on pre-messenger RNA splicing of 14 ATP8B1 mutations at exon-intron boundaries using an in vitro minigene system. Eleven mutations, mostly associated with a PFIC phenotype, resulted in aberrant splicing and a complete absence of correctly spliced product. In contrast, three mutations led to partially correct splicing and were associated with a BRIC phenotype. These findings indicate an inverse correlation between the level of correctly spliced product and disease severity. Expression of modified U1 small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) complementary to the splice donor sites strongly improved or completely rescued splicing for several ATP8B1 mutations located at donor, as well as acceptor, splice sites. In one case, we also evaluated exon-specific U1 snRNAs that, by targeting nonconserved intronic sequences, might reduce possible off-target events. Although very effective in correcting exon skipping, they also induced retention of the short downstream intron. We systematically characterized the molecular consequences of 14 ATP8B1 mutations at exon-intron boundaries associated with ATP8B1 deficiency and found that the majority resulted in total exon skipping. The amount of correctly spliced product inversely correlated with disease severity. Compensatory modified U1 snRNAs, complementary to mutated donor splice sites, were able to improve exon definition very efficiently and could be a novel therapeutic strategy in ATP8B1 deficiency as well as other genetic diseases. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study

  19. Hemorrhage and Subsequent Allogenic Red Blood Cell Transfusion are Associated With Characteristic Monocyte Messenger RNA Expression Patterns in Patients After Multiple Injury—A Genome Wide View

    PubMed Central

    Bogner, Viktoria; Baker, Henry V.; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Moldawer, L. L.; Mutschler, Wolf; Biberthaler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As outcome to severe trauma is frequently affected by massive blood loss and consecutive hemorrhagic shock, replacement of red blood cell (RBC) units remains indispensable. Administration of RBC units is an independent risk factor for adverse outcome in patients with trauma. The impact of massive blood transfusion or uncrossmatched blood transfusion on the patients’ immune response in the early posttraumatic period remains unclear. Material Thirteen patients presenting with blunt multiple injuries (Injury Severity Score >16) were studied. Monocytes were obtained on admission and at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after trauma. Biotinylated complementary RNA targets were hybridized to Affymetrix HG U 133A microarrays. The data were analyzed by a supervised analysis based on whether the patients received massive blood transfusions, and then subsequently, by hierarchical clustering, and by Ingenuity pathway analysis. Results Supervised analysis identified 224 probe sets to be differentially expressed (p < 0.001) in patients who received massive blood transfusion, when compared with those who did not. In addition, 331 probe sets were found differentially expressed (p < 0.001) in patients who received uncrossmatched RBC units in comparison with those who exclusively gained crossmatched ones. Functional pathway analysis of the respectively identified gene expression profiles suggests a contributory role by the AKT/PI3Kinase pathway, the mitogen-activated protein-kinase pathway, the Ubiquitin pathway, and the diverse inflammatory networks. Conclusion We exhibited for the first time a serial, sequential screening analysis of monocyte messenger RNA expression patterns in patients with multiple trauma indicating a strongly significant association between the patients’ genomic response in blood monocytes and massive or uncross-matched RBC substitution. PMID:19820587

  20. Growth differentiation factor 3 is induced by bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) and BMP-7 and increases luteinizing hormone receptor messenger RNA expression in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jia; Yoshino, Osamu; Osuga, Yutaka; Akiyama, Ikumi; Harada, Miyuki; Koga, Kaori; Fujimoto, Akihisa; Yano, Tetsu; Taketani, Yuji

    2012-04-01

    To examine the relevance of growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cytokines in human ovary. Molecular studies. Research laboratory. Eight women undergoing salpingo-oophorectomy and 30 women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Localizing GDF-3 protein in human ovaries; granulosa cells (GC) cultured with GDF-3, BMP-6, or BMP-7 followed by RNA extraction. The localization of GDF-3 protein in normal human ovaries via immunohistochemical analysis, GDF-3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression evaluation via quantitative real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and evaluation of the effect of GDF-3 on leuteinizing hormone (LH) receptor mRNA expression via quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In the ovary, BMP cytokines, of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, are known as a luteinization inhibitor by suppressing LH receptor expression in GC. Growth differentiation factor 3, a TGF-β superfamily cytokine, is recognized as an inhibitor of BMP cytokines in other cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that GDF-3 was strongly detected in the GC of antral follicles. An in vitro assay revealed that BMP-6 or BMP-7 induced GDF-3 mRNA in GC. Also, GDF-3 increased LH receptor mRNA expression and inhibited the effect of BMP-7, which suppressed the LH receptor mRNA expression in GC. GDF-3, induced with BMP-6 and BMP-7, might play a role in folliculogenesis by inhibiting the effect of BMP cytokines. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.