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Sample records for a-exposed atlantic cod

  1. Harvesting Atlantic Cod under Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oremus, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature links the growth of a fishery to climate variability. This study uses an age-structured bioeconomic model to compare optimal harvest in the Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod fishery under a variable climate versus a static climate. The optimal harvest path depends on the relationship between fishery growth and the interest rate, with higher interest rates dictating greater harvests now at the cost of long-term stock sustainability. Given the time horizon of a single generation of fishermen under assumptions of a static climate, the model finds that the economically optimal management strategy is to harvest the entire stock in the short term and allow the fishery to collapse. However, if the biological growth of the fishery is assumed to vary with climate conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, there will always be pulses of high growth in the stock. During some of these high-growth years, the growth of the stock and its economic yield can exceed the growth rate of the economy even under high interest rates. This implies that it is not economically optimal to exhaust the New England cod fishery if NAO is included in the biological growth function. This finding may have theoretical implications for the management of other renewable yet exhaustible resources whose growth rates are subject to climate variability.

  2. Cod Collapse and the Climate in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, K. C.; Oremus, K. L.; Gaines, S.

    2014-12-01

    Effective fisheries management requires forecasting population changes. We find a negative relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and subsequently surveyed biomass and catch of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, off the New England coast. A 1-unit NAO increase is associated with a 17% decrease in surveyed biomass of age-1 cod the following year. This relationship persists as the cod mature, such that observed NAO can be used to forecast future adult biomass. We also document that an NAO event lowers catch for up to 15 years afterward. In contrast to forecasts by existing stock assessment models, our NAO-driven statistical model successfully hindcasts the recent collapse of New England cod fisheries following strong NAO events in 2007 and 2008 (see figure). This finding can serve as a template for forecasting other fisheries affected by climatic conditions.

  3. Behavioral responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben Moland; Moland, Even; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Knutsen, Halvor

    2015-05-01

    Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4 years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30-80 cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a significant effect of sea temperature on cod depth use and activity level in coastal Skagerrak. During summer, cod were found in deeper waters when sea surface temperature increased. Further, this effect of temperature was stronger on larger cod. Diel vertical migration, which consists in a nighttime rise to shallow feeding habitats, was stronger among smaller cod. As surface temperature increased beyond ∼15°C, their vertical migration was limited to deeper waters. In addition to larger diel vertical migrations, smaller cod were more active and travelled larger distances compared to larger specimens. Cold temperatures during winter tended, however, to reduce the magnitude of diel vertical migrations, as well as the activity level and distance moved by those smaller individuals. Our findings suggest that future and ongoing rises in sea surface temperature may increasingly deprive cod in this region from shallow feeding areas during summer, which may be detrimental for local populations of the species.

  4. Behavioral responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben Moland; Moland, Even; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Knutsen, Halvor

    2015-01-01

    Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4 years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30–80 cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a significant effect of sea temperature on cod depth use and activity level in coastal Skagerrak. During summer, cod were found in deeper waters when sea surface temperature increased. Further, this effect of temperature was stronger on larger cod. Diel vertical migration, which consists in a nighttime rise to shallow feeding habitats, was stronger among smaller cod. As surface temperature increased beyond ∼15°C, their vertical migration was limited to deeper waters. In addition to larger diel vertical migrations, smaller cod were more active and travelled larger distances compared to larger specimens. Cold temperatures during winter tended, however, to reduce the magnitude of diel vertical migrations, as well as the activity level and distance moved by those smaller individuals. Our findings suggest that future and ongoing rises in sea surface temperature may increasingly deprive cod in this region from shallow feeding areas during summer, which may be detrimental for local populations of the species. PMID:26045957

  5. Exophiala angulospora causes systemic inflammation in atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Gjessing, Mona Cecilie; Davey, Marie; Kvellestad, Agnar; Vrålstad, Trude

    2011-10-06

    Species of Exophiala are opportunistic fungal pathogens that may infect a broad range of warm- and cold-blooded animals, including salmonids and Atlantic cod. In the present study, we observed abnormal swimming behaviour and skin pigmentation and increased mortality in cod kept in an indoor tank. Necropsy revealed foci of different sizes with a greyish to brownish colour in internal organs of diseased fish. The foci consisted of ramifying darkly pigmented fungal hyphae surrounded by distinct layers of inflammatory cells, including macrophage-like cells. In the inner layer with many hyphae, the macrophage-like cells were dead. We observed no apparent restriction of fungal growth by the inflammatory response. A darkly pigmented fungus was repeatedly isolated in pure culture from foci of diseased fish and identified as Exophiala angulospora using morphological and molecular characters. This species has not been previously reported to cause disease in cod, but has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen of both marine and freshwater fish. Based on the morphology and sequence analysis presented here, we conclude that E. angulospora caused the observed chronic multifocal inflammation in internal organs of cod, leading to severe disease and mortality.

  6. Cod Collapse and Climate in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oremus, K. L.; Meng, K. C.; Gaines, S.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the determinants of fish population dynamics is crucial to the recovery of many fisheries. Current research emphasizes the role of environmental conditions in driving fish populations, but the magnitude of and mechanisms behind these effects on crucial populations are not well established. Despite aggressive management efforts, New England cod fisheries have been in decline for several decades and have now reached unprecedented lows. We find a strong negative relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and subsequent adult cod biomass and catch. In the Gulf of Maine fishery, a 1-unit NAO increase is associated with a 13% decrease in the biomass of age-1 cod the following year, a decrease that persists as the affected cohort matures. We further detect that a 1-unit NAO increase can lower commercial catch for up to 19 subsequent years, suggesting that fishing practices may be inadvertently exacerbating NAO's direct biological effects. These results imply that 18% and 32% of the overall decline in adult biomass and catch, respectively, since 1980 can be attributed to the NAO's recent multi-decadal positive phase. The Georges Bank cod fishery displays similar patterns. Because there is a delay between an NAO event and subsequent declines in adult biomass, our finding implies that already observed NAO events can be used in stock forecasts, providing lead time for adaptive policy. More broadly, our approach can inform forecasting efforts for other fisheries strongly affected by natural and anthropogenic climatic variation.

  7. Mitochondrial acclimation potential to ocean acidification and warming of Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Leo, Elettra; Kunz, Kristina L; Schmidt, Matthias; Storch, Daniela; Pörtner, Hans-O; Mark, Felix C

    2017-01-01

    Ocean acidification and warming are happening fast in the Arctic but little is known about the effects of ocean acidification and warming on the physiological performance and survival of Arctic fish. In this study we investigated the metabolic background of performance through analyses of cardiac mitochondrial function in response to control and elevated water temperatures and P CO 2 of two gadoid fish species, Polar cod ( Boreogadus saida ), an endemic Arctic species, and Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ), which is a temperate to cold eurytherm and currently expanding into Arctic waters in the wake of ocean warming. We studied their responses to the above-mentioned drivers and their acclimation potential through analysing the cardiac mitochondrial function in permeabilised cardiac muscle fibres after 4 months of incubation at different temperatures (Polar cod: 0, 3, 6, 8 °C and Atlantic cod: 3, 8, 12, 16 °C), combined with exposure to present (400μatm) and year 2100 (1170μatm) levels of CO 2 . OXPHOS, proton leak and ATP production efficiency in Polar cod were similar in the groups acclimated at 400μatm and 1170μatm of CO 2 , while incubation at 8 °C evoked increased proton leak resulting in decreased ATP production efficiency and decreased Complex IV capacity. In contrast, OXPHOS of Atlantic cod increased with temperature without compromising the ATP production efficiency, whereas the combination of high temperature and high P CO 2 depressed OXPHOS and ATP production efficiency. Polar cod mitochondrial efficiency decreased at 8 °C while Atlantic cod mitochondria were more resilient to elevated temperature; however, this resilience was constrained by high P CO 2 . In line with its lower habitat temperature and higher degree of stenothermy, Polar cod has a lower acclimation potential to warming than Atlantic cod.

  8. Phenotypic flexibility of digestive system in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Blier, P U; Dutil, J-D; Lemieux, H; Bélanger, F; Bitetera, L

    2007-02-01

    This study examined the restoration of the digestive capacity of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus) following a long period of food deprivation. Fifty cod (48 cm, 1 kg) were food-deprived for 68 days and then fed in excess with capelin (Mallotus villosus Müller) on alternate days. Ten fish were sampled after 0, 2, 6, 14 and 28 days and the mass of the pyloric caeca, intestine and carcass determined. Two metabolic enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase) were assayed in white muscle, pyloric caeca and intestine, and trypsin activity was measured in the pyloric caeca. A delay of 14 days was required before body mass started to increase markedly, whereas most of the increase in mass of both the pyloric caeca and intestine relative to fish length occurred earlier in the experiment. By day 14, the activities of trypsin and citrate synthase in the pyloric caeca as well as citrate synthase in the intestine had reached maxima. The growth of the digestive tissues and restoration of their metabolic capacities thus occur early upon refeeding and are likely required for recovery growth to take place. The phenotypic flexibility of the cod digestive system is therefore remarkable: increases in trypsin activity and size of pyloric caeca resulted in a combined 29-fold increase in digestive capacity of the fish during the refeeding period. Our study suggests that Atlantic cod are able to cope with marked fluctuations in food availability in their environment by making a rapid adjustment of their digestive capacity as soon as food availability increases.

  9. Multidimensionality of behavioural phenotypes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Meager, Justin J; Fernö, Anders; Skjæraasen, Jon Egil; Järvi, Torbjörn; Rodewald, Petra; Sverdrup, Gisle; Winberg, Svante; Mayer, Ian

    2012-06-25

    Much of the inter-individual variation observed in animal behaviour is now attributed to the existence of behavioural phenotypes or animal personalities. Such phenotypes may be fundamental to fisheries and aquaculture, yet there have been few detailed studies of this phenomenon in exploited marine animals. We investigated the behavioural and neuroendocrine responses of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), to situations reflecting critical ecological challenges: predator attacks and territorial challenges. Both hatchery-reared and wild fish were tested and behavioural profiles were compared with baseline conditions. We then used an objective, multivariate approach, rather than assigning individuals along one-dimensional behavioural axes, to examine whether distinct behavioural phenotypes were present. Our results indicate that two distinct behavioural phenotypes were evident in fish from each background. In hatchery-reared fish, phenotypes displayed divergent locomotor activity, sheltering, brain monoamine concentrations and responses to competitive challenges. In wild fish, phenotypes were distinguished primarily by locomotor activity, sheltering and responsiveness to predator stimuli. Hatcheries presumably represent a more stressful social environment, and social behaviour and neuroendocrine responses were important in discerning behavioural phenotypes in hatchery fish, whereas antipredator responses were important in discerning phenotypes in wild fish that have previously encountered predators. In both fish types, behavioural and physiological traits that classified individuals into phenotypes were not the same as those that were correlated across situations. These results highlight the multidimensionality of animal personalities, and that the processes that regulate one suite of behavioural traits may be very different to the processes that regulate other behaviours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ice-age survival of Atlantic cod: agreement between palaeoecology models and genetics

    PubMed Central

    Bigg, Grant R; Cunningham, Clifford W; Ottersen, Geir; Pogson, Grant H; Wadley, Martin R; Williamson, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Scant scientific attention has been given to the abundance and distribution of marine biota in the face of the lower sea level, and steeper latitudinal gradient in climate, during the ice-age conditions that have dominated the past million years. Here we examine the glacial persistence of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) populations using two ecological-niche-models (ENM) and the first broad synthesis of multi-locus gene sequence data for this species. One ENM uses a maximum entropy approach (Maxent); the other is a new ENM for Atlantic cod, using ecophysiological parameters based on observed reproductive events rather than adult distribution. Both the ENMs were tested for present-day conditions, then used to hindcast ranges at the last glacial maximum (LGM) ca 21 kyr ago, employing climate model data. Although the LGM range of Atlantic cod was much smaller, and fragmented, both the ENMs agreed that populations should have been able to persist in suitable habitat on both sides of the Atlantic. The genetic results showed a degree of trans-Atlantic divergence consistent with genealogically continuous populations on both sides of the North Atlantic since long before the LGM, confirming the ENM results. In contrast, both the ENMs and the genetic data suggest that the Greenland G. morhua population post-dates the LGM. PMID:17999951

  11. Genomic analysis of the host response to nervous necrosis virus in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Aleksei; Kileng, Øyvind; Skugor, Stanko; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Afanasyev, Sergey; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Sommer, Ann-Inger; Jensen, Ingvill

    2013-07-01

    Genome sequencing combined with transcriptome profiling promotes exploration of defence against pathogens and discovery of immune genes. Based on sequences from the recently released genome of Atlantic cod, a genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray (ACIQ-1) was designed and used for analyses of gene expression in the brain during infection with nervous necrosis virus (NNV). A challenge experiment with NNV was performed with Atlantic cod juveniles and brain samples from virus infected and uninfected fish were used for microarray analysis. Expression of virus induced genes increased at 5 days post challenge and persisted at stable level to the last sampling at 25 days post challenge. A large fraction of the up-regulated genes (546 features) were known or expected to have immune functions and most of these have not previously been characterized in Atlantic cod. Transcriptomic changes induced by the virus involved strong activation of genes associated with interferon and tumour necrosis factor related responses and acute inflammation. Up-regulation of genes involved in adaptive immunity suggested a rapid recruitment of B and T lymphocytes to the NNV infected brain. QPCR analyses of 15 candidate genes of innate immunity showed rapid induction by poly(I:C) in Atlantic cod larvae cells suggesting an antiviral role. Earliest and greatest expression changes after poly I:C stimulation was observed for interferon regulatory factors IRF4 and IRF7. Comparative studies between teleost species provided new knowledge about the evolution of innate antiviral immunity in fish. A number of genes is present or responds to viruses only in fish. Innate immunity of Atlantic cod is characterized by selective expansion of several medium-sized multigene families with ribose binding domains. An interesting finding was the high representation of three large gene families among the early antiviral genes, including tripartite motif proteins (TRIM) and proteins with PRY-SPRY and NACHT domains. The

  12. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, Timothy B.; Boswell, Kevin M.; McAdam, Bruce J.; Wells, R. J. David; Marteinsdóttir, Gudrún

    2012-01-01

    The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15–16 April 2009). We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON), as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1–5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20–0.25 m s−1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0–1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  13. Characterization of Atlantic Cod Spawning Habitat and Behavior in Icelandic Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Timothy B.; Boswell, Kevin M.; McAdam, Bruce J.; Wells, R. J. David; Marteinsdóttir, Guđrún

    2012-01-01

    The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15–16 April 2009). We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON), as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1–5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20–0.25 m s−1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0–1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor. PMID:23236471

  14. Three chromosomal rearrangements promote genomic divergence between migratory and stationary ecotypes of Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Berg, Paul R; Star, Bastiaan; Pampoulie, Christophe; Sodeland, Marte; Barth, Julia M I; Knutsen, Halvor; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-03-17

    Identification of genome-wide patterns of divergence provides insight on how genomes are influenced by selection and can reveal the potential for local adaptation in spatially structured populations. In Atlantic cod - historically a major marine resource - Northeast-Arctic- and Norwegian coastal cod are recognized by fundamental differences in migratory and non-migratory behavior, respectively. However, the genomic architecture underlying such behavioral ecotypes is unclear. Here, we have analyzed more than 8.000 polymorphic SNPs distributed throughout all 23 linkage groups and show that loci putatively under selection are localized within three distinct genomic regions, each of several megabases long, covering approximately 4% of the Atlantic cod genome. These regions likely represent genomic inversions. The frequency of these distinct regions differ markedly between the ecotypes, spawning in the vicinity of each other, which contrasts with the low level of divergence in the rest of the genome. The observed patterns strongly suggest that these chromosomal rearrangements are instrumental in local adaptation and separation of Atlantic cod populations, leaving footprints of large genomic regions under selection. Our findings demonstrate the power of using genomic information in further understanding the population dynamics and defining management units in one of the world's most economically important marine resources.

  15. Adaptation to Low Salinity Promotes Genomic Divergence in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Paul R.; Jentoft, Sissel; Star, Bastiaan; Ring, Kristoffer H.; Knutsen, Halvor; Lien, Sigbjørn; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; André, Carl

    2015-01-01

    How genomic selection enables species to adapt to divergent environments is a fundamental question in ecology and evolution. We investigated the genomic signatures of local adaptation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) along a natural salinity gradient, ranging from 35‰ in the North Sea to 7‰ within the Baltic Sea. By utilizing a 12 K SNPchip, we simultaneously assessed neutral and adaptive genetic divergence across the Atlantic cod genome. Combining outlier analyses with a landscape genomic approach, we identified a set of directionally selected loci that are strongly correlated with habitat differences in salinity, oxygen, and temperature. Our results show that discrete regions within the Atlantic cod genome are subject to directional selection and associated with adaptation to the local environmental conditions in the Baltic- and the North Sea, indicating divergence hitchhiking and the presence of genomic islands of divergence. We report a suite of outlier single nucleotide polymorphisms within or closely located to genes associated with osmoregulation, as well as genes known to play important roles in the hydration and development of oocytes. These genes are likely to have key functions within a general osmoregulatory framework and are important for the survival of eggs and larvae, contributing to the buildup of reproductive isolation between the low-salinity adapted Baltic cod and the adjacent cod populations. Hence, our data suggest that adaptive responses to the environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea may contribute to a strong and effective reproductive barrier, and that Baltic cod can be viewed as an example of ongoing speciation. PMID:25994933

  16. Effects of Loma morhua (Microsporidia) infection on the cardiorespiratory performance of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua (L).

    PubMed

    Powell, M D; Gamperl, A K

    2016-02-01

    The microsporidian Loma morhua infects Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the wild and in culture and results in the formation of xenomas within the gill filaments, heart and spleen. Given the importance of the two former organs to metabolic capacity and thermal tolerance, the cardiorespiratory performance of cod with a naturally acquired infection of Loma was measured during an acute temperature increase (2 °C h(-1)) from 10 °C to the fish's critical thermal maximum (CT(Max)). In addition, oxygen consumption and swimming performance were measured during two successive critical swimming speed (U(crit)) tests at 10 °C. While Loma infection had a negative impact on cod cardiac function at warm temperatures, and on metabolic capacity in both the CT(Max) and U(crit) tests (i.e. a reduction of 30-40%), it appears that the Atlantic cod can largely compensate for these Loma-induced cardiorespiratory limitations. For example, (i) CT(Max) (21.0 ± 0.3 °C) and U(crit) (~1.75 BL s(-1)) were very comparable to those reported in previous studies using uninfected fish from the same founder population; and (ii) our data suggest that tissue oxygen extraction, and potentially the capacity for anaerobic metabolism, is enhanced in fish infected with this microsporidian. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. An improved genome assembly uncovers prolific tandem repeats in Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Tørresen, Ole K; Star, Bastiaan; Jentoft, Sissel; Reinar, William B; Grove, Harald; Miller, Jason R; Walenz, Brian P; Knight, James; Ekholm, Jenny M; Peluso, Paul; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Skage, Morten; Lien, Sigbjørn; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Nederbragt, Alexander J

    2017-01-18

    The first Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) genome assembly published in 2011 was one of the early genome assemblies exclusively based on high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. Since then, rapid advances in sequencing technologies have led to a multitude of assemblies generated for complex genomes, although many of these are of a fragmented nature with a significant fraction of bases in gaps. The development of long-read sequencing and improved software now enable the generation of more contiguous genome assemblies. By combining data from Illumina, 454 and the longer PacBio sequencing technologies, as well as integrating the results of multiple assembly programs, we have created a substantially improved version of the Atlantic cod genome assembly. The sequence contiguity of this assembly is increased fifty-fold and the proportion of gap-bases has been reduced fifteen-fold. Compared to other vertebrates, the assembly contains an unusual high density of tandem repeats (TRs). Indeed, retrospective analyses reveal that gaps in the first genome assembly were largely associated with these TRs. We show that 21% of the TRs across the assembly, 19% in the promoter regions and 12% in the coding sequences are heterozygous in the sequenced individual. The inclusion of PacBio reads combined with the use of multiple assembly programs drastically improved the Atlantic cod genome assembly by successfully resolving long TRs. The high frequency of heterozygous TRs within or in the vicinity of genes in the genome indicate a considerable standing genomic variation in Atlantic cod populations, which is likely of evolutionary importance.

  18. Chapter 3. Effects of climate change and commercial fishing on Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Mieszkowska, Nova; Genner, Martin J; Hawkins, Stephen J; Sims, David W

    2009-01-01

    During the course of the last century, populations of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. have undergone dramatic declines in abundance across their biogeographic range, leading to debate about the relative roles of climatic warming and overfishing in driving these changes. In this chapter, we describe the geographic distributions of this important predator of North Atlantic ecosystems and document extensive evidence for limitations of spatial movement and local adaptation from population genetic markers and electronic tagging. Taken together, this evidence demonstrates that knowledge of spatial population ecology is critical for evaluating the effects of climate change and commercial harvesting. To explore the possible effects of climate change on cod, we first describe thermal influences on individual physiology, growth, activity and maturation. We then evaluate evidence that temperature has influenced population-level processes including direct effects on recruitment through enhanced growth and activity, and indirect effects through changes to larval food resources. Although thermal regimes clearly define the biogeographic range of the species, and strongly influence many aspects of cod biology, the evidence that population declines across the North Atlantic are strongly linked to fishing activity is now overwhelming. Although there is considerable concern about low spawning stock biomasses, high levels of fishing activity continues in many areas. Even with reduced fishing effort, the potential for recovery from low abundance may be compromised by unfavourable climate and Allee effects. Current stock assessment and management approaches are reviewed, alongside newly advocated methods for monitoring stock status and recovery. However, it remains uncertain whether the rebuilding of cod to historic population sizes and demographic structures will be possible in a warmer North Atlantic.

  19. Spawning behavior in Atlantic cod: analysis by use of data storage tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, Timothy B.; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjalmur; Marteinsdóttir, Gudrún

    2014-01-01

     Electronic data storage tags (DSTs) were implanted into Atlantic cod captured in Icelandic waters from 2002 to 2007 and the depth profiles recovered from these tags (females: n = 31, males: n = 27) were used to identify patterns consistent with published descriptions of cod courtship and spawning behavior. The individual periods of time that males spent exhibiting behavior consistent with being present in a spawning aggregation—i.e. periods consisting of a clear tidal signature in the DST depth profile associated with an individual remaining on or near the substrate—were longer than those of females. Over the course of a spawning season, male cod spent approximately twice the amount of time in spawning aggregations than females, but female cod visited more aggregations per unit time. On average, males participated in approximately 57% more putative spawning events, i.e. vertical ascents potentially corresponding to gamete release, than did females. However, males <85 cm total length participated in the same number of putative spawning events as females of comparable size. In both sexes, larger individuals and/or individuals that spent a longer period of time within an aggregation participated in a larger number of putative spawning events. Although further validation and refinement is necessary, particularly in the identification of spawning events, the ability offered by DSTs to quantify cod spawning behavior may aid in the development of management and conservation plans.

  20. Preferred temperature of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua with different haemoglobin genotypes at normoxia and moderate hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maria Faldborg; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2003-01-01

    Atlantic cod Gadus morhua has polymorphic haemoglobin, which can be separated into two homozygous types, HbI-1 and HbI-2, and one heterozygous type HbI-1/2. The geographical distribution of Atlantic cod with the different haemoglobin types varies, with the HbI(2) allele occurring at high frequency in northern regions, and the HbI(1) allele dominant in warmer areas. To determine if temperature is a selective parameter in the distribution of the haemoglobin types, the preferred temperature of the homozygous genotypes HbI-1 and HbI-2 was measured. We found that HbI-2 cod preferred a temperature of 8.2+/-1.5 degrees C while HbI-1 cod preferred 15.4+/-1.1 degrees C, and this preference was significant. The effect of hypoxia (35% oxygen saturation) on the preferred temperature was also measured. Previous studies showed that the preferred temperature of fish decreases during hypoxia, and this was the case for HbI-1 cod, which preferred 9.8+/-1.8 degrees C during hypoxia, whereas HbI-2 cod did not show this effect. The results indicate that environmental temperature changes will lead to a distributional change in the different haemoglobin types of Atlantic cod, global warming providing an advantage for HbI-1 cod. However, since HbI-1 cod prefer a low temperature under hypoxic conditions, a combination of increased water temperature and hypoxia could be unfavourable for Atlantic cod stocks.

  1. A Novel Method for Predicting Anisakid Nematode Infection of Atlantic Cod Using Rough Set Theory.

    PubMed

    Wąsikowska, Barbara; Sobecka, Ewa; Bielat, Iwona; Legierko, Monika; Więcaszek, Beata

    2018-03-01

    Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) is one of the most important fish species in the fisheries industries of many countries; however, these fish are often infected with parasites. The detection of pathogenic larval nematodes is usually performed in fish processing facilities by visual examination using candling or by digesting muscles in artificial digestive juices, but these methods are both time and labor intensive. This article presents an innovative approach to the analysis of cod parasites from both the Atlantic and Baltic Sea areas through the application of rough set theory, one of the methods of artificial intelligence, for the prediction of food safety in a food production chain. The parasitological examinations were performed focusing on nematode larvae pathogenic to humans, e.g., Anisakis simplex, Contracaecum osculatum, and Pseudoterranova decipiens. The analysis allowed identification of protocols with which it is possible to make preliminary estimates of the quantity and quality of parasites found in cod catches before detailed analyses are performed. The results indicate that the method used can be an effective analytical tool for these types of data. To achieve this goal, a database is needed that contains the patterns intensity of parasite infections and the conditions of commercial fish species in different localities in their distributions.

  2. Composition and structure of the parasite faunas of cod, Gadus morhua L. (Teleostei: Gadidae), in the North East Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Perdiguero-Alonso, Diana; Montero, Francisco E; Raga, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-07-18

    Although numerous studies on parasites of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. have been conducted in the North Atlantic, comparative analyses on local cod parasite faunas are virtually lacking. The present study is based on examination of large samples of cod from six geographical areas of the North East Atlantic which yielded abundant baseline data on parasite distribution and abundance. A total of 826 fish was sampled in the Baltic, Celtic, Irish and North seas, Icelandic waters and Trondheimsfjord (Norway) in 2002 (spring and autumn) and 2003 (spring). The gills and internal organs (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, pyloric caeca, liver, heart, spleen, gall bladder and gonads) were examined for macroparasites following a standardised protocol. The taxonomic consistency of the identification was ensured thorough the entire study. We discuss some problems in parasite identification, outline the composition of the parasite faunas in cod in the six North East Atlantic regions, provide novel data on parasite prevalence and abundance and a comparative assessment of the structure of the regional parasite faunas with respect to the higher-level taxonomic groupings, host specificity and zoogeographical distribution of the parasites. Altogether 57 different parasite forms were found including seven new host records (Diclidophora merlangi, Rhipidocotyle sp., Fellodistomum sp., Steringotrema sp., Cucullanus sp., Spinitectus sp., and Chondracanthus ornatus). The predominant groups of cod parasites were trematodes (19 species) and nematodes (13 species) including larval anisakids which comprised 58.2% of the total number of individuals. Our study reveals relatively rich regional parasite faunas in cod from the North East Atlantic which are dominated by generalist parasites with Arcto-Boreal distribution. Further, it provides more detailed data on the distribution in the North East Atlantic of the majority of cod parasites which may serve as baselines for future studies on the

  3. Factors regulating early life history dispersal of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from coastal Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Ryan R E; deYoung, Brad; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Gregory, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    To understand coastal dispersal dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), we examined spatiotemporal egg and larval abundance patterns in coastal Newfoundland. In recent decades, Smith Sound, Trinity Bay has supported the largest known overwintering spawning aggregation of Atlantic cod in the region. We estimated spawning and dispersal characteristics for the Smith Sound-Trinity Bay system by fitting ichthyoplankton abundance data to environmentally-driven, simplified box models. Results show protracted spawning, with sharply increased egg production in early July, and limited dispersal from the Sound. The model for the entire spawning season indicates egg export from Smith Sound is 13%•day(-1) with a net mortality of 27%•day(-1). Eggs and larvae are consistently found in western Trinity Bay with little advection from the system. These patterns mirror particle tracking models that suggest residence times of 10-20 days, and circulation models indicating local gyres in Trinity Bay that act in concert with upwelling dynamics to retain eggs and larvae. Our results are among the first quantitative dispersal estimates from Smith Sound, linking this spawning stock to the adjacent coastal waters. These results illustrate the biophysical interplay regulating dispersal and connectivity originating from inshore spawning of coastal northwest Atlantic.

  4. Factors Regulating Early Life History Dispersal of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) from Coastal Newfoundland

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Ryan R. E.; deYoung, Brad; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; Gregory, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    To understand coastal dispersal dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), we examined spatiotemporal egg and larval abundance patterns in coastal Newfoundland. In recent decades, Smith Sound, Trinity Bay has supported the largest known overwintering spawning aggregation of Atlantic cod in the region. We estimated spawning and dispersal characteristics for the Smith Sound-Trinity Bay system by fitting ichthyoplankton abundance data to environmentally-driven, simplified box models. Results show protracted spawning, with sharply increased egg production in early July, and limited dispersal from the Sound. The model for the entire spawning season indicates egg export from Smith Sound is 13%•day−1 with a net mortality of 27%•day–1. Eggs and larvae are consistently found in western Trinity Bay with little advection from the system. These patterns mirror particle tracking models that suggest residence times of 10–20 days, and circulation models indicating local gyres in Trinity Bay that act in concert with upwelling dynamics to retain eggs and larvae. Our results are among the first quantitative dispersal estimates from Smith Sound, linking this spawning stock to the adjacent coastal waters. These results illustrate the biophysical interplay regulating dispersal and connectivity originating from inshore spawning of coastal northwest Atlantic. PMID:24058707

  5. Low plastic ingestion rate in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from Newfoundland destined for human consumption collected through citizen science methods.

    PubMed

    Liboiron, Max; Liboiron, France; Wells, Emily; Richárd, Natalie; Zahara, Alexander; Mather, Charles; Bradshaw, Hillary; Murichi, Judyannet

    2016-12-15

    Marine microplastics are a contaminant of concern because their small size allows ingestion by a wide range of marine life. Using citizen science during the Newfoundland recreational cod fishery, we sampled 205 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) destined for human consumption and found that 5 had eaten plastic, an ingestion prevalence rate of 2.4%. This ingestion rate for Atlantic cod is the second lowest recorded rate in the reviewed published literature (the lowest is 1.4%), and the lowest for any fish in the North Atlantic. This is the first report for plastic ingestion in fish in Newfoundland, Canada, a province dependent on fish for sustenance and livelihoods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diet affects the redox system in developing Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae.

    PubMed

    Penglase, Samuel; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Furmanek, Tomasz; Rønnestad, Ivar; Karlsen, Ørjan; van der Meeren, Terje; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-08-01

    The growth and development of marine fish larvae fed copepods is superior to those fed rotifers, but the underlying molecular reasons for this are unclear. In the following study we compared the effects of such diets on redox regulation pathways during development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae. Cod larvae were fed a control diet of copepods or the typical rotifer/Artemia diet commonly used in commercial marine fish hatcheries, from first feeding until after metamorphosis. The oxidised and reduced glutathione levels, the redox potential, and the mRNA expression of 100 genes in redox system pathways were then compared between treatments during larval development. We found that rotifer/Artemia-fed cod larvae had lower levels of oxidised glutathione, a more reduced redox potential, and altered expression of approximately half of the redox system genes when compared to copepod-fed larvae. This rotifer/Artemia diet-induced differential regulation of the redox system was greatest during periods of suboptimal growth. Upregulation of the oxidative stress response transcription factor, nrf2, and NRF2 target genes in rotifer/Artemia fed larvae suggest this diet induced an NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response. Overall, the data demonstrate that nutritional intake plays a role in regulating the redox system in developing fish larvae. This may be a factor in dietary-induced differences observed in larval growth. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal growth potential of Atlantic cod by the end of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Butzin, Martin; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2016-12-01

    Ocean warming may lead to smaller body sizes of marine ectotherms, because metabolic rates increase exponentially with temperature while the capacity of the cardiorespiratory system to match enhanced oxygen demands is limited. Here, we explore the impact of rising sea water temperatures on Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), an economically important fish species. We focus on changes in the temperature-dependent growth potential by a transfer function model combining growth observations with climate model ensemble temperatures. Growth potential is expressed in terms of asymptotic body weight and depends on water temperature. We consider changes between the periods 1985-2004 and 2081-2100, assuming that future sea water temperatures will evolve according to climate projections for IPCC AR5 scenario RCP8.5. Our model projects a response of Atlantic cod to future warming, differentiated according to ocean regions, leading to increases of asymptotic weight in the Barents Sea, while weights are projected to decline at the southern margin of the biogeographic range. Southern spawning areas will disappear due to thermal limitation of spawning stages. These projections match the currently observed biogeographic shifts and the temperature- and oxygen-dependent decline in routine aerobic scope at southern distribution limits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Constant proportion harvest policies: dynamic implications in the Pacific halibut and Atlantic cod fisheries.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz; Li, Nianpeng; Conrad, Jon M; Zeeman, Mary-Lou

    2011-07-01

    Overfishing, pollution and other environmental factors have greatly reduced commercially valuable stocks of fish. In a 2006 Science article, a group of ecologists and economists warned that the world may run out of seafood from natural stocks if overfishing continues at current rates. In this paper, we explore the interaction between a constant proportion harvest policy and recruitment dynamics. We examine the discrete-time constant proportion harvest policy discussed in Ang et al. (2009) and then expand the framework to include stock-recruitment functions that are compensatory and overcompensatory, both with and without the Allee effect. We focus on constant proportion policies (CPPs). CPPs have the potential to stabilize complex overcompensatory stock dynamics, with or without the Allee effect, provided the rates of harvest stay below a threshold. If that threshold is exceeded, CPPs are known to result in the sudden collapse of a fish stock when stock recruitment exhibits the Allee effect. In case studies, we analyze CPPs as they might be applied to Gulf of Alaska Pacific halibut fishery and the Georges Bank Atlantic cod fishery based on harvest rates from 1975 to 2007. The best fit models suggest that, under high fishing mortalities, the halibut fishery is vulnerable to sudden population collapse while the cod fishery is vulnerable to steady decline to zero. The models also suggest that CPP with mean harvesting levels from the last 30 years can be effective at preventing collapse in the halibut fishery, but these same policies would lead to steady decline to zero in the Atlantic cod fishery. We observe that the likelihood of collapse in both fisheries increases with increased stochasticity (for example, weather variability) as predicted by models of global climate change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiovascular and haematological responses of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to acute temperature increase.

    PubMed

    Gollock, M J; Currie, S; Petersen, L H; Gamperl, A K

    2006-08-01

    For fish to survive large acute temperature increases (i.e. >10.0 degrees C) that may bring them close to their critical thermal maximum (CTM), oxygen uptake at the gills and distribution by the cardiovascular system must increase to match tissue oxygen demand. To examine the effects of an acute temperature increase ( approximately 1.7 degrees C h(-1) to CTM) on the cardiorespiratory physiology of Atlantic cod, we (1) carried out respirometry on 10.0 degrees C acclimated fish, while simultaneously measuring in vivo cardiac parameters using Transonic probes, and (2) constructed in vitro oxygen binding curves on whole blood from 7.0 degrees C acclimated cod at a range of temperatures. Both cardiac output (Q) and heart rate (fh) increased until near the fish's CTM (22.2+/-0.2 degrees C), and then declined rapidly. Q(10) values for Q and fh were 2.48 and 2.12, respectively, and increases in both parameters were tightly correlated with O(2) consumption. The haemoglobin (Hb)-oxygen binding curve at 24.0 degrees C showed pronounced downward and rightward shifts compared to 20.0 degrees C and 7.0 degrees C, indicating that both binding capacity and affinity decreased. Further, Hb levels were lower at 24.0 degrees C than at 20.0 degrees C and 7.0 degrees C. This was likely to be due to cell swelling, as electrophoresis of Hb samples did not suggest protein denaturation, and at 24.0 degrees C Hb samples showed peak absorbance at the expected wavelength (540 nm). Our results show that cardiac function is unlikely to limit metabolic rate in Atlantic cod from Newfoundland until close to their CTM, and we suggest that decreased blood oxygen binding capacity may contribute to the plateau in oxygen consumption.

  10. Juvenile Atlantic cod behavior appears robust to near-future CO2 levels.

    PubMed

    Jutfelt, Fredrik; Hedgärde, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification caused by the anthropogenic release of CO2 is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems. One unexpected impact of elevated water CO2 levels is that behavioral alterations may occur in tropical reef fish and certain temperate fish species. These effects appear to alter many different types of sensory and cognitive functions; if widespread and persistent, they have the potential to cause ecosystem changes. We investigated whether economically and ecologically important Atlantic cod also display behavioral abnormalities by exposing 52 juvenile cod to control conditions (500 μatm, duplicate tanks) or an end-of-the-century ocean acidification scenario (1000 μatm, duplicate tanks) for one month, during which time the fish were examined for a range of behaviors that have been reported to be affected by elevated CO2 in other fish. The behaviors were swimming activity, as measured by number of lines crossed per minute, the emergence from shelter, determined by how long it took the fish to exit a shelter after a disturbance, relative lateralization (a measure of behavioral turning side preference), and absolute lateralization (the strength of behavioral symmetry). We found no effect of CO2 treatment on any of the four behaviors tested: activity (F = 1.61, p = 0.33), emergence from shelter (F = 0.13, p = 0.76), relative lateralization (F = 2.82, p = 0.50), and absolute lateralization (F = 0.80, p = 0.26). Our results indicate that the behavior of Atlantic cod could be resilient to the impacts of near-future levels of water CO2.

  11. Forecasting future recruitment success for Atlantic cod in the warming and acidifying Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Koenigstein, Stefan; Dahlke, Flemming T; Stiasny, Martina H; Storch, Daniela; Clemmesen, Catriona; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2018-01-01

    Productivity of marine fish stocks is known to be affected by environmental and ecological drivers, and global climate change is anticipated to alter recruitment success of many stocks. While the direct effects of environmental drivers on fish early life stage survival can be quantified experimentally, indirect effects in marine ecosystems and the role of adaptation are still highly uncertain. We developed an integrative model for the effects of ocean warming and acidification on the early life stages of Atlantic cod in the Barents Sea, termed SCREI (Simulator of Cod Recruitment under Environmental Influences). Experimental results on temperature and CO 2 effects on egg fertilization, egg and larval survival and development times are incorporated. Calibration using empirical time series of egg production, temperature, food and predator abundance reproduces age-0 recruitment over three decades. We project trajectories of recruitment success under different scenarios and quantify confidence limits based on variation in experiments. A publicly accessible web version of the SCREI model can be run under www.oceanchange.uni-bremen.de/;SCREI. Severe reductions in average age-0 recruitment success of Barents Sea cod are projected under uncompensated warming and acidification toward the middle to end of this century. Although high population stochasticity was found, considerable rates of evolutionary adaptation to acidification and shifts in organismal thermal windows would be needed to buffer impacts on recruitment. While increases in food availability may mitigate short-term impacts, an increase in egg production achieved by stock management could provide more long-term safety for cod recruitment success. The SCREI model provides a novel integration of multiple driver effects in different life stages and enables an estimation of uncertainty associated with interindividual and ecological variation. The model thus helps to advance toward an improved empirical foundation for

  12. Development and experimental validation of a 20K Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) oligonucleotide microarray based on a collection of over 150,000 ESTs.

    PubMed

    Booman, Marije; Borza, Tudor; Feng, Charles Y; Hori, Tiago S; Higgins, Brent; Culf, Adrian; Léger, Daniel; Chute, Ian C; Belkaid, Anissa; Rise, Marlies; Gamperl, A Kurt; Hubert, Sophie; Kimball, Jennifer; Ouellette, Rodney J; Johnson, Stewart C; Bowman, Sharen; Rise, Matthew L

    2011-08-01

    The collapse of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) wild populations strongly impacted the Atlantic cod fishery and led to the development of cod aquaculture. In order to improve aquaculture and broodstock quality, we need to gain knowledge of genes and pathways involved in Atlantic cod responses to pathogens and other stressors. The Atlantic Cod Genomics and Broodstock Development Project has generated over 150,000 expressed sequence tags from 42 cDNA libraries representing various tissues, developmental stages, and stimuli. We used this resource to develop an Atlantic cod oligonucleotide microarray containing 20,000 unique probes. Selection of sequences from the full range of cDNA libraries enables application of the microarray for a broad spectrum of Atlantic cod functional genomics studies. We included sequences that were highly abundant in suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries, which were enriched for transcripts responsive to pathogens or other stressors. These sequences represent genes that potentially play an important role in stress and/or immune responses, making the microarray particularly useful for studies of Atlantic cod gene expression responses to immune stimuli and other stressors. To demonstrate its value, we used the microarray to analyze the Atlantic cod spleen response to stimulation with formalin-killed, atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, resulting in a gene expression profile that indicates a strong innate immune response. These results were further validated by quantitative PCR analysis and comparison to results from previous analysis of an SSH library. This study shows that the Atlantic cod 20K oligonucleotide microarray is a valuable new tool for Atlantic cod functional genomics research.

  13. Effects of alkylphenols on redox status in first spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Hasselberg, Linda; Meier, Sonnich; Svardal, Asbjørn

    2004-07-30

    Offshore oil production releases large amounts of lipophilic compounds in produced water and into the ocean. The discharge of produced water from the Norwegian petroleum sector has increased from 26 million m3 in 1993 to 120 million m3 in 2001, and it continues to increase. Produced water contains significant amounts of alkylphenols, which have been reported to be estrogenic, causing endocrine disruption in fish. In year 2000, approximately 44 tons of alkylphenols were released on the Norwegian continental shelf in connection with discharge of produced water. Except from being estrogenic, relatively little is known about the effects of alkylphenols when released in the marine environment. Our objective was to study how alkylphenols affect the redox status in first spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) of both sexes. Model compounds tested included 4-tert-butylphenol (C4), 4-n-pentylphenol (C5), 4-n-hexylphenol (C6) and 4-n-heptylphenol (C7), all found in produced water. First spawning Atlantic cod were force-fed a mixture of these four alkylphenols, ranging between 0.02 and 80 ppm or 5 ppm 17beta-estradiol (E2), for 1 or 4 weeks. Increased hepatic total glutathione concentration in response to alkylphenol exposure was detected in female fish compared to control group after 1-week exposure, an effect not seen after 4 weeks. Furthermore, hepatic total glutathione concentration was sex dependent, where male fish sampled after 4 weeks had higher levels of glutathione than female fish. Increased glutathione reductase catalytic activities in both male and female fish were seen after exposure to 0.02 ppm alkylphenol mixture in 4 weeks. The glutathione S-transferase activity was only affected in male fish exposed to 0.02 ppm alkylphenols, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity increased in female fish exposed to 0.02 ppm alkylphenol mixture for 1 week. The increase of hepatic total glutathione content as well as the effects on glutathione reductase activities

  14. Residency, site fidelity and habitat use of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at an offshore wind farm using acoustic telemetry.

    PubMed

    Reubens, Jan T; Pasotti, Francesca; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

    2013-09-01

    Because offshore wind energy development is fast growing in Europe it is important to investigate the changes in the marine environment and how these may influence local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. One of the species affected by these ecosystem changes is Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), a heavily exploited, commercially important fish species. In this research we investigated the residency, site fidelity and habitat use of Atlantic cod on a temporal scale at windmill artificial reefs in the Belgian part of the North Sea. Acoustic telemetry was used and the Vemco VR2W position system was deployed to quantify the movement behaviour. In total, 22 Atlantic cod were tagged and monitored for up to one year. Many fish were present near the artificial reefs during summer and autumn, and demonstrated strong residency and high individual detection rates. When present within the study area, Atlantic cod also showed distinct habitat selectivity. We identified aggregation near the artificial hard substrates of the wind turbines. In addition, a clear seasonal pattern in presence was observed. The high number of fish present in summer and autumn alternated with a period of very low densities during the winter period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Climate warming causes life-history evolution in a model for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Holt, Rebecca E; Jørgensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Climate change influences the marine environment, with ocean warming being the foremost driving factor governing changes in the physiology and ecology of fish. At the individual level, increasing temperature influences bioenergetics and numerous physiological and life-history processes, which have consequences for the population level and beyond. We provide a state-dependent energy allocation model that predicts temperature-induced adaptations for life histories and behaviour for the North-East Arctic stock (NEA) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to climate warming. The key constraint is temperature-dependent respiratory physiology, and the model includes a number of trade-offs that reflect key physiological and ecological processes. Dynamic programming is used to find an evolutionarily optimal strategy of foraging and energy allocation that maximizes expected lifetime reproductive output given constraints from physiology and ecology. The optimal strategy is then simulated in a population, where survival, foraging behaviour, growth, maturation and reproduction emerge. Using current forcing, the model reproduces patterns of growth, size-at-age, maturation, gonad production and natural mortality for NEA cod. The predicted climate responses are positive for this stock; under a 2°C warming, the model predicted increased growth rates and a larger asymptotic size. Maturation age was unaffected, but gonad weight was predicted to more than double. Predictions for a wider range of temperatures, from 2 to 7°C, show that temperature responses were gradual; fish were predicted to grow faster and increase reproductive investment at higher temperatures. An emergent pattern of higher risk acceptance and increased foraging behaviour was also predicted. Our results provide important insight into the effects of climate warming on NEA cod by revealing the underlying mechanisms and drivers of change. We show how temperature-induced adaptations of behaviour and several life

  16. Recruitment Variability in North Atlantic Cod and Match-Mismatch Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Trond; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.; Lough, R. Gregory; Sundby, Svein

    2011-01-01

    Background Fisheries exploitation, habitat destruction, and climate are important drivers of variability in recruitment success. Understanding variability in recruitment can reveal mechanisms behind widespread decline in the abundance of key species in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. For fish populations, the match-mismatch theory hypothesizes that successful recruitment is a function of the timing and duration of larval fish abundance and prey availability. However, the underlying mechanisms of match-mismatch dynamics and the factors driving spatial differences between high and low recruitment remain poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We used empirical observations of larval fish abundance, a mechanistic individual-based model, and a reanalysis of ocean temperature data from 1960 to 2002 to estimate the survival of larval cod (Gadus morhua). From the model, we quantified how survival rates changed during the warmest and coldest years at four important cod spawning sites in the North Atlantic. The modeled difference in survival probability was not large for any given month between cold or warm years. However, the cumulative effect of higher growth rates and survival through the entire spawning season in warm years was substantial with 308%, 385%, 154%, and 175% increases in survival for Georges Bank, Iceland, North Sea, and Lofoten cod stocks, respectively. We also found that the importance of match-mismatch dynamics generally increased with latitude. Conclusions/Significance Our analyses indicate that a key factor for enhancing survival is the duration of the overlap between larval and prey abundance and not the actual timing of the peak abundance. During warm years, the duration of the overlap between larval fish and their prey is prolonged due to an early onset of the spring bloom. This prolonged season enhances cumulative growth and survival, leading to a greater number of large individuals with enhanced potential for survival to recruitment

  17. Climate warming causes life-history evolution in a model for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Rebecca E.; Jørgensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Climate change influences the marine environment, with ocean warming being the foremost driving factor governing changes in the physiology and ecology of fish. At the individual level, increasing temperature influences bioenergetics and numerous physiological and life-history processes, which have consequences for the population level and beyond. We provide a state-dependent energy allocation model that predicts temperature-induced adaptations for life histories and behaviour for the North-East Arctic stock (NEA) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to climate warming. The key constraint is temperature-dependent respiratory physiology, and the model includes a number of trade-offs that reflect key physiological and ecological processes. Dynamic programming is used to find an evolutionarily optimal strategy of foraging and energy allocation that maximizes expected lifetime reproductive output given constraints from physiology and ecology. The optimal strategy is then simulated in a population, where survival, foraging behaviour, growth, maturation and reproduction emerge. Using current forcing, the model reproduces patterns of growth, size-at-age, maturation, gonad production and natural mortality for NEA cod. The predicted climate responses are positive for this stock; under a 2°C warming, the model predicted increased growth rates and a larger asymptotic size. Maturation age was unaffected, but gonad weight was predicted to more than double. Predictions for a wider range of temperatures, from 2 to 7°C, show that temperature responses were gradual; fish were predicted to grow faster and increase reproductive investment at higher temperatures. An emergent pattern of higher risk acceptance and increased foraging behaviour was also predicted. Our results provide important insight into the effects of climate warming on NEA cod by revealing the underlying mechanisms and drivers of change. We show how temperature-induced adaptations of behaviour and several life

  18. Microbiological, chemical and sensory spoilage analysis of raw Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stored under modified atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Kuuliala, L; Al Hage, Y; Ioannidis, A-G; Sader, M; Kerckhof, F-M; Vanderroost, M; Boon, N; De Baets, B; De Meulenaer, B; Ragaert, P; Devlieghere, F

    2018-04-01

    During fish spoilage, microbial metabolism leads to the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), characteristic off-odors and eventual consumer rejection. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the development of intelligent packaging technologies by identifying and quantifying VOCs that indicate spoilage of raw Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) under atmospheres (%v/v CO 2 /O 2 /N 2 ) 60/40/0, 60/5/35 and air. Spoilage was examined by microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses over storage time at 4 or 8 °C. Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) was used for quantifying selected VOCs and amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used for the characterization of the cod microbiota. OTUs classified within the Photobacterium genus increased in relative abundance over time under all storage conditions, suggesting that Photobacterium contributed to spoilage and VOC production. The onset of exponential VOC concentration increase and sensory rejection occurred at high total plate counts (7-7.5 log). Monitoring of early spoilage thus calls for sensitivity for low VOC concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ocean Acidification Effects on Atlantic Cod Larval Survival and Recruitment to the Fished Population

    PubMed Central

    Stiasny, Martina H.; Mittermayer, Felix H.; Sswat, Michael; Voss, Rüdiger; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Chierici, Melissa; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Mortensen, Atle; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    How fisheries will be impacted by climate change is far from understood. While some fish populations may be able to escape global warming via range shifts, they cannot escape ocean acidification (OA), an inevitable consequence of the dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in marine waters. How ocean acidification affects population dynamics of commercially important fish species is critical for adapting management practices of exploited fish populations. Ocean acidification has been shown to impair fish larvae’s sensory abilities, affect the morphology of otoliths, cause tissue damage and cause behavioural changes. Here, we obtain first experimental mortality estimates for Atlantic cod larvae under OA and incorporate these effects into recruitment models. End-of-century levels of ocean acidification (~1100 μatm according to the IPCC RCP 8.5) resulted in a doubling of daily mortality rates compared to present-day CO2 concentrations during the first 25 days post hatching (dph), a critical phase for population recruitment. These results were consistent under different feeding regimes, stocking densities and in two cod populations (Western Baltic and Barents Sea stock). When mortality data were included into Ricker-type stock-recruitment models, recruitment was reduced to an average of 8 and 24% of current recruitment for the two populations, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of including vulnerable early life stages when addressing effects of climate change on fish stocks. PMID:27551924

  20. Ocean Acidification Effects on Atlantic Cod Larval Survival and Recruitment to the Fished Population.

    PubMed

    Stiasny, Martina H; Mittermayer, Felix H; Sswat, Michael; Voss, Rüdiger; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Chierici, Melissa; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Mortensen, Atle; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    How fisheries will be impacted by climate change is far from understood. While some fish populations may be able to escape global warming via range shifts, they cannot escape ocean acidification (OA), an inevitable consequence of the dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in marine waters. How ocean acidification affects population dynamics of commercially important fish species is critical for adapting management practices of exploited fish populations. Ocean acidification has been shown to impair fish larvae's sensory abilities, affect the morphology of otoliths, cause tissue damage and cause behavioural changes. Here, we obtain first experimental mortality estimates for Atlantic cod larvae under OA and incorporate these effects into recruitment models. End-of-century levels of ocean acidification (~1100 μatm according to the IPCC RCP 8.5) resulted in a doubling of daily mortality rates compared to present-day CO2 concentrations during the first 25 days post hatching (dph), a critical phase for population recruitment. These results were consistent under different feeding regimes, stocking densities and in two cod populations (Western Baltic and Barents Sea stock). When mortality data were included into Ricker-type stock-recruitment models, recruitment was reduced to an average of 8 and 24% of current recruitment for the two populations, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of including vulnerable early life stages when addressing effects of climate change on fish stocks.

  1. Spatiotemporal SNP analysis reveals pronounced biocomplexity at the northern range margin of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    PubMed Central

    Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Hedeholm, Rasmus Berg; Wisz, Mary S; Pampoulie, Christophe; Meldrup, Dorte; Bonanomi, Sara; Retzel, Anja; Olsen, Steffen Malskær; Nielsen, Einar Eg

    2013-01-01

    Accurate prediction of species distribution shifts in the face of climate change requires a sound understanding of population diversity and local adaptations. Previous modeling has suggested that global warming will lead to increased abundance of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the ocean around Greenland, but the dynamics of earlier abundance fluctuations are not well understood. We applied a retrospective spatiotemporal population genomics approach to examine the temporal stability of cod population structure in this region and to search for signatures of divergent selection over a 78-year period spanning major demographic changes. Analyzing >900 gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in 847 individuals, we identified four genetically distinct groups that exhibited varying spatial distributions with considerable overlap and mixture. The genetic composition had remained stable over decades at some spawning grounds, whereas complete population replacement was evident at others. Observations of elevated differentiation in certain genomic regions are consistent with adaptive divergence between the groups, indicating that they may respond differently to environmental variation. Significantly increased temporal changes at a subset of loci also suggest that adaptation may be ongoing. These findings illustrate the power of spatiotemporal population genomics for revealing biocomplexity in both space and time and for informing future fisheries management and conservation efforts. PMID:23789034

  2. Spatiotemporal SNP analysis reveals pronounced biocomplexity at the northern range margin of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Hedeholm, Rasmus Berg; Wisz, Mary S; Pampoulie, Christophe; Meldrup, Dorte; Bonanomi, Sara; Retzel, Anja; Olsen, Steffen Malskær; Nielsen, Einar Eg

    2013-06-01

    Accurate prediction of species distribution shifts in the face of climate change requires a sound understanding of population diversity and local adaptations. Previous modeling has suggested that global warming will lead to increased abundance of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the ocean around Greenland, but the dynamics of earlier abundance fluctuations are not well understood. We applied a retrospective spatiotemporal population genomics approach to examine the temporal stability of cod population structure in this region and to search for signatures of divergent selection over a 78-year period spanning major demographic changes. Analyzing >900 gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in 847 individuals, we identified four genetically distinct groups that exhibited varying spatial distributions with considerable overlap and mixture. The genetic composition had remained stable over decades at some spawning grounds, whereas complete population replacement was evident at others. Observations of elevated differentiation in certain genomic regions are consistent with adaptive divergence between the groups, indicating that they may respond differently to environmental variation. Significantly increased temporal changes at a subset of loci also suggest that adaptation may be ongoing. These findings illustrate the power of spatiotemporal population genomics for revealing biocomplexity in both space and time and for informing future fisheries management and conservation efforts.

  3. Trans-species polymorphism at antimicrobial innate immunity cathelicidin genes of Atlantic cod and related species

    PubMed Central

    Árnason, Einar

    2015-01-01

    Natural selection, the most important force in evolution, comes in three forms. Negative purifying selection removes deleterious variation and maintains adaptations. Positive directional selection fixes beneficial variants, producing new adaptations. Balancing selection maintains variation in a population. Important mechanisms of balancing selection include heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent advantage of rarity, and local and fluctuating episodic selection. A rare pathogen gains an advantage because host defenses are predominantly effective against prevalent types. Similarly, a rare immune variant gives its host an advantage because the prevalent pathogens cannot escape the host’s apostatic defense. Due to the stochastic nature of evolution, neutral variation may accumulate on genealogical branches, but trans-species polymorphisms are rare under neutrality and are strong evidence for balancing selection. Balanced polymorphism maintains diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in vertebrates. The Atlantic cod is missing genes for both MHC-II and CD4, vital parts of the adaptive immune system. Nevertheless, cod are healthy in their ecological niche, maintaining large populations that support major commercial fisheries. Innate immunity is of interest from an evolutionary perspective, particularly in taxa lacking adaptive immunity. Here, we analyze extensive amino acid and nucleotide polymorphisms of the cathelicidin gene family in Atlantic cod and closely related taxa. There are three major clusters, Cath1, Cath2, and Cath3, that we consider to be paralogous genes. There is extensive nucleotide and amino acid allelic variation between and within clusters. The major feature of the results is that the variation clusters by alleles and not by species in phylogenetic trees and discriminant analysis of principal components. Variation within the three groups shows trans-species polymorphism that is older than speciation and that is suggestive of

  4. Ocean Acidification Portends Acute Habitat Compression for Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) in a Physiologically-informed Metabolic Rate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Raye, G.; Weng, K.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean acidification affects organisms on a biochemical scale, yet its societal impacts manifest from changes that propagate through entire populations. Successful forecasting of the effects of ocean acidification therefore depends on at least two steps: (1) deducing systemic physiology based on subcellular stresses and (2) scaling individual physiology up to ecosystem processes. Predictions that are based on known biological processes (process-based models) may fare better than purely statistical models in both these steps because the latter are less robust to novel environmental conditions. Here we present a process-based model that uses temperature, pO2, and pCO2 to predict maximal aerobic scope in Atlantic cod. Using this model, we show that (i) experimentally-derived physiological parameters are sufficient to capture the response of cod aerobic scope to temperature and oxygen, and (ii) subcellular pH effects can be used to predict the systemic physiological response of cod to an acidified ocean. We predict that acute pH stress (on a scale of hours) could limit the mobility of Atlantic cod during diel vertical migration across a pCO2 gradient, promoting habitat compression. Finally, we use a global sensitivity analysis to identify opportunities for the improvement of model uncertainty as well as some physiological adaptations that could mitigate climate stresses on cod in the future.

  5. Molecular ontogenesis of digestive capability and associated endocrine control in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae.

    PubMed

    Kortner, Trond M; Overrein, Ingrid; Oie, Gunvor; Kjørsvik, Elin; Bardal, Tora; Wold, Per-Arvid; Arukwe, Augustine

    2011-10-01

    We have profiled the expression of twelve genes, in order to provide an overview on the molecular ontogeny of digestive capability with the associated endocrine control during Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larval development. Enzyme activity levels for the key digestive enzyme, trypsin, was also measured. Specifically, transcripts for trypsin, amylase, lipolytic enzymes: bile salt activated lipase (BAL), phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and Acyl CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM), regulatory peptides: neuropeptide Y (NPY), orexin (OX) cholecystokinin (CCK) and cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript (CART), the somatotropic factors: growth hormone (GH), preprosomatostatin 1 (PPSS1) and thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) were analyzed using quatitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Trypsin and BAL mRNA levels peaked at approximately day 17 and 25 post-hatch, respectively, and thereafter displayed a decreasing pattern until metamorphosis. GH mRNA levels decreased moderately from 3 to 33dph, and thereafter, an increase was observed until 46dph. TRα mRNA levels showed a fluctuating pattern peaking at day 39 post-hatch. TRβ mRNA levels were too low to obtain quantitative measurements. Amylase mRNA slightly increased from day 3 to 17 post-hatch, and thereafter showed a steady decrease until day 60. Interestingly, PLA2 mRNA expression showed a consistent increase throughout the study period, indicating an increasingly important role during larval development. Overall, data from this study indicate that cod larvae show differential developmental mode of expression patterns for key genes and endocrine factors that regulate digestive capability, growth and development. These data are discussed in relation to larval trypsin enzyme activity and previous reports for other teleost species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rested and stressed farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) chilled in ice or slurry and effects on quality.

    PubMed

    Digre, Hanne; Erikson, Ulf; Aursand, Ida G; Gallart-Jornet, Lorena; Misimi, Ekrem; Rustad, Turid

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to investigate (1) whether rested harvest of farmed cod was better maintained by chilling with slurry rather than by traditional ice storage, (2) whether chilling with slurry would be a feasible chilling method to assure low core temperatures (≤0 °C) at packing of gutted fish, and (3) the effects of superchilling compared with traditional ice on selected quality parameters of cod during storage. In the experiment, seawater slurry at -2.0 ± 0.3 °C was used. Anesthetized (AQUI-S™), percussion stunned, and stressed cod chilled in slurry were compared. Cod stored on ice were used as reference group. The fish were evaluated at the day of slaughter, and after 7 and 14 d of storage according to handling stress (initial muscle pH, muscle twitches, rigor mortis), core temperatures, quality index method, microbial counts, weight changes, salt and water content, water distribution, pH, adenosine triphosphate-degradation products, K-value, water-holding capacity, fillet color, and texture. Chilling cod in slurry was more rapid than chilling in ice. Prechilling (1 d) of cod in slurry before subsequent ice storage resulted in lower quality 7 d postmortem compared with both ice and continuous slurry storage. The potential advantages of superchilling became more prominent after 14 d with lower microbiological activity, better maintenance of freshness (lower total quality index scores and lower K-values) compared with fish stored on ice. A drawback with slurry-stored fish was that cloudy eyes developed earlier, in addition to weight gain and salt uptake compared to ice-stored fish. Practical Application: Chilling is an essential operation in any fish-processing plant. This manuscript addresses different applications of slurry ice in the processing and storage of Atlantic cod. Cod quality was assessed after 7 and 14 d of iced and superchilled storage.

  7. Seasonal variations in seminal plasma and sperm characteristics of wild-caught and cultivated Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Butts, I A E; Litvak, M K; Trippel, E A

    2010-04-15

    The objective was to investigate changes, throughout the spawning season, in body size attributes and quantitative semen characteristics of wild-caught and cultivated Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. Sperm velocity increased significantly throughout the spawning season of cod from both origins. Curvilinear velocity (VCL; 30 sec post-activation) increased from 78.9+/-6.5 to 128.2+/-6.5 microm/sec (mean+/-SEM) between the beginning and end of the spawning season, respectively, for wild-caught cod, whereas for cultivated fish, it increased from 26.6+/-2.4 to 48.9+/-3.1 microm/sec between January and March. Spermatocrit did not undergo a significant seasonal change in wild-caught cod but did thicken for cultivated cod (24.6+/-4.2% in January to 40.5+/-4.4% in April; P<0.01). Sperm head area, perimeter, length, and width declined significantly at the end of the spawning season of cod from both origins (all P values<0.01). Seminal plasma osmolality and Na(+) ion concentration followed a dome-shaped function through the spawning season for both wild-caught and cultivated cod (P<0.05). For cultivated cod, seminal plasma pH was significantly lower at the start of the spawning season (P<0.001), whereas Ca(2+) increased then decreased (P<0.05). Body size attributes, spermatocrit, and seminal plasma constituents had significant relationships with sperm activity variables. These relationships varied as a function of time post-activation, month, and fish origin. Our findings may be used to (i) assess spermiation stage without killing males; (ii) optimize semen collection for hatchery production; (iii) characterize the potential impact of farming on sperm quality; and (iv) improve success of sperm cryopreservation and short-term storage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of ocean acidification increase embryonic sensitivity to thermal extremes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Dahlke, Flemming T; Leo, Elettra; Mark, Felix C; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Storch, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Thermal tolerance windows serve as a powerful tool for estimating the vulnerability of marine species and their life stages to increasing temperature means and extremes. However, it remains uncertain to which extent additional drivers, such as ocean acidification, modify organismal responses to temperature. This study investigated the effects of CO 2 -driven ocean acidification on embryonic thermal sensitivity and performance in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, from the Kattegat. Fertilized eggs were exposed to factorial combinations of two PCO 2 conditions (400 μatm vs. 1100 μatm) and five temperature treatments (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 °C), which allow identifying both lower and upper thermal tolerance thresholds. We quantified hatching success, oxygen consumption (MO 2 ) and mitochondrial functioning of embryos as well as larval morphometrics at hatch and the abundance of acid-base-relevant ionocytes on the yolk sac epithelium of newly hatched larvae. Hatching success was high under ambient spawning conditions (3-6 °C), but decreased towards both cold and warm temperature extremes. Elevated PCO 2 caused a significant decrease in hatching success, particularly at cold (3 and 0 °C) and warm (12 °C) temperatures. Warming imposed limitations to MO 2 and mitochondrial capacities. Elevated PCO 2 stimulated MO 2 at cold and intermediate temperatures, but exacerbated warming-induced constraints on MO 2 , indicating a synergistic interaction with temperature. Mitochondrial functioning was not affected by PCO 2 . Increased MO 2 in response to elevated PCO 2 was paralleled by reduced larval size at hatch. Finally, ionocyte abundance decreased with increasing temperature, but did not differ between PCO 2 treatments. Our results demonstrate increased thermal sensitivity of cod embryos under future PCO 2 conditions and suggest that acclimation to elevated PCO 2 requires reallocation of limited resources at the expense of embryonic growth. We conclude that ocean acidification

  9. Gastrointestinal microbial community changes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) exposed to crude oil.

    PubMed

    Bagi, Andrea; Riiser, Even Sannes; Molland, Hilde Steine; Star, Bastiaan; Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Sydnes, Magne Olav; Pampanin, Daniela Maria

    2018-04-02

    The expansion of offshore oil exploration increases the risk of marine species being exposed to oil pollution in currently pristine areas. The adverse effects of oil exposure through toxic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been well studied in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Nevertheless, the fate of conjugated metabolites in the intestinal tract and their effect on the diversity of intestinal microbial community in fish is less understood. Here, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition of Atlantic cod after 28 days of exposure to crude oil (concentration range 0.0-0.1 mg/L). Analysis of PAH metabolites in bile samples confirmed that uptake and biotransformation of oil compounds occurred as a result of the exposure. Various evidence for altered microbial communities was found in fish exposed to high (0.1 mg/L) and medium (0.05 mg/L) concentrations of oil when compared to fish exposed to low oil concentration (0.01 mg/L) or no oil (control). First, altered banding patterns were observed on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for samples pooled from each treatment group. Secondly, based on 16S rRNA sequences, higher levels of oil exposure were associated with a loss of overall diversity of the gut microbial communities. Furthermore, 8 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found to have significantly different relative abundances in samples from fishes exposed to high and medium oil concentrations when compared to samples from the control group and low oil concentration. Among these, only one OTU, a Deferribacterales, had increased relative abundance in samples from fish exposed to high oil concentration. The results presented herein contribute to a better understanding of the effects of oil contamination on the gut microbial community changes in fish and highlight the importance of further studies into the area. Our findings suggest that increased relative abundance of bacteria belonging to the order

  10. EST resources and establishment and validation of a 16k cDNA microarray from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Rolf B; Malde, Ketil; Mittelholzer, Christian; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Nilsen, Frank

    2011-03-01

    The Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is an important species both for traditional fishery and increasingly also in fish farming. The Atlantic cod is also under potential threat from various environmental changes such as pollution and climate change, but the biological impact of such changes are not well known, in particular when it comes to sublethal effects that can be difficult to assert. Modern molecular and genomic approaches have revolutionized biological research during the last decade, and offer new avenues to study biological functions and e.g. the impact of anthropogenic activities at different life-stages for a given organism. In order to develop genomic data and genomic tools for Atlantic cod we conducted a program were we constructed 20 cDNA libraries, and produced and analyzed 44006 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from these. Several tissues are represented in the multiple cDNA libraries, that differ in either sexual maturation or immulogical stimulation. This approach allowed us to identify genes that are expressed in particular tissues, life-stages or in response to specific stimuli, and also gives us information about potential functions of the transcripts. The ESTs were used to construct a 16k cDNA microarray to further investigate the cod transcriptome. Microarray analyses were preformed on pylorus, pituitary gland, spleen and testis of sexually maturing male cod. The four different tissues displayed tissue specific transcriptomes demonstrating that the cDNA array is working as expected and will prove to be a powerful tool in further experiments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Variation in embryonic mortality and maternal transcript expression among Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) broodstock: a functional genomics study.

    PubMed

    Rise, Matthew L; Nash, Gordon W; Hall, Jennifer R; Booman, Marije; Hori, Tiago S; Trippel, Edward A; Gamperl, A Kurt

    2014-12-01

    Early life stage mortality is an important issue for Atlantic cod aquaculture, yet the impact of the cod maternal (egg) transcriptome on egg quality and mortality during embryonic development is poorly understood. In the present work, we studied embryonic mortality and maternal transcript expression using eggs from 15 females. Total mortality at 7days post-fertilization (7 dpf, segmentation stage) was used as an indice of egg quality. A 20,000 probe (20K) microarray experiment compared the 7hours post-fertilization (7 hpf, ~2-cell stage) egg transcriptome of the two lowest quality females (>90% mortality at 7 dpf) to that of the highest quality female (~16% mortality at 7 dpf). Forty-three microarray probes were consistently differentially expressed in both low versus high quality egg comparisons (25 higher expressed in low quality eggs, and 18 higher expressed in high quality eggs). The microarray experiment also identified many immune-relevant genes [e.g. interferon (IFN) pathway genes ifngr1 and ifrd1)] that were highly expressed in eggs of all 3 females regardless of quality. Twelve of the 43 candidate egg quality-associated genes, and ifngr1, ifrd1 and irf7, were included in a qPCR study with 7 hpf eggs from all 15 females. Then, the genes that were confirmed by qPCR to be greater than 2-fold differentially expressed between 7 hpf eggs from the lowest and highest quality females (dcbld1, ddc, and acy3 more highly expressed in the 2 lowest quality females; kpna7 and hacd1 more highly expressed in the highest quality female), and the 3 IFN pathway genes, were included in a second qPCR study with unfertilized eggs. While some maternal transcripts included in these qPCR studies were associated with extremes in egg quality, there was little correlation between egg quality and gene expression when all females were considered. Both dcbld1 and ddc showed greater than 100-fold differences in transcript expression between females and were potentially influenced by

  12. Study of the plasma proteome of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): Effect of exposure to two PAHs and their corresponding diols.

    PubMed

    Skogland Enerstvedt, Karianne; Sydnes, Magne O; Pampanin, Daniela M

    2017-09-01

    Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the marine environment represents a risk to marine life and humans. In this study, plasma samples from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were analysed by shotgun mass spectrometry to investigate the plasma proteome in response to exposure to single PAHs (naphthalene or chrysene) and their corresponding metabolites (dihydrodiols). In total, 369 proteins were identified and ranked according to their relative abundance. The levels of 12 proteins were found significantly altered in PAH exposed fish and are proposed as new biomarker candidates. Eleven proteins were upregulated, primarily immunoglobulin components, and one protein was downregulated (antifreeze protein type IV.) The uniformity of the upregulated proteins suggests a triggered immune response in the exposed fish. Overall, the results provide valuable knowledge for future studies of the Atlantic cod plasma proteome and generate grounds for establishing new plasma protein biomarkers for environmental monitoring of PAH related exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Egg buoyancy variability in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Mi; Folkvord, Arild; Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd; Agnalt, Ann Lisbeth; Thorsen, Anders; Sundby, Svein

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have found strong evidences for Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) egg retention in fjords, which are caused by the combination of vertical salinity structure, estuarine circulation, and egg specific gravity, supporting small-scaled geographical differentiations of local populations. Here, we assess the variability in egg specific gravity for selected local populations of this species, that is, two fjord-spawning populations and one coastal-spawning population from Northern Norway (66-71°N/10-25°E). Eggs were naturally spawned by raised broodstocks (March to April 2009), and egg specific gravity was measured by a density-gradient column. The phenotype of egg specific gravity was similar among the three local populations. However, the associated variability was greater at the individual level than at the population level. The noted gradual decrease in specific gravity from gastrulation to hatching with an increase just before hatching could be a generic pattern in pelagic marine fish eggs. This study provides needed input to adequately understand and model fish egg dispersal.

  14. Spatial ecology of coastal Atlantic cod Gadus morhua associated with parasite load.

    PubMed

    Aalvik, I M; Moland, E; Olsen, E M; Stenseth, N C

    2015-08-01

    Acoustic tags and receivers were used to investigate the spatial ecology of coastal Atlantic cod Gadus morhua (n = 32, mean fork length: 50 cm, range: 33-80 cm) on the Norwegian Skagerrak coast in 2012. Monthly home ranges (HR), swimming activity and depth use varied considerably among individuals and through the months of June, July and August. HR sizes for the period ranged from 0.25 to 5.20 km2 (mean = 2.30 km2. Two thirds of the tagged G. morhua were infected with black spot disease Cryptocotyle lingua parasites; these fish had larger HRs and occupied deeper water compared with non-infected fish. The infected fish also tended to be more active in terms of horizontal swimming. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, any environmental change that modifies G. morhua behaviour may therefore also alter the parasite load of the population, and its conservation and fishery status. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Underwater sound from vessel traffic reduces the effective communication range in Atlantic cod and haddock.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jenni A; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Hatch, Leila T

    2017-11-07

    Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary is located in Massachusetts Bay off the densely populated northeast coast of the United States; subsequently, the marine inhabitants of the area are exposed to elevated levels of anthropogenic underwater sound, particularly due to commercial shipping. The current study investigated the alteration of estimated effective communication spaces at three spawning locations for populations of the commercially and ecologically important fishes, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Both the ambient sound pressure levels and the estimated effective vocalization radii, estimated through spherical spreading models, fluctuated dramatically during the three-month recording periods. Increases in sound pressure level appeared to be largely driven by large vessel activity, and accordingly exhibited a significant positive correlation with the number of Automatic Identification System tracked vessels at the two of the three sites. The near constant high levels of low frequency sound and consequential reduction in the communication space observed at these recording sites during times of high vocalization activity raises significant concerns that communication between conspecifics may be compromised during critical biological periods. This study takes the first steps in evaluating these animals' communication spaces and alteration of these spaces due to anthropogenic underwater sound.

  16. Severe tissue damage in Atlantic cod larvae under increasing ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommel, Andrea Y.; Maneja, Rommel; Lowe, David; Malzahn, Arne M.; Geffen, Audrey J.; Folkvord, Arild; Piatkowski, Uwe; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification, caused by increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (refs , , ), is one of the most critical anthropogenicthreats to marine life. Changes in seawater carbonate chemistry have the potential to disturb calcification, acid-base regulation, blood circulation and respiration, as well as the nervous system of marine organisms, leading to long-term effects such as reduced growth rates and reproduction. In teleost fishes, early life-history stages are particularly vulnerable as they lack specialized internal pH regulatory mechanisms. So far, impacts of relevant CO2 concentrations on larval fish have been found in behaviour and otolith size, mainly in tropical, non-commercial species. Here we show detrimental effects of ocean acidification on the development of a mass-spawning fish species of high commercial importance. We reared Atlantic cod larvae at three levels of CO2, (1) present day, (2) end of next century and (3) an extreme, coastal upwelling scenario, in a long-term ( months) mesocosm experiment. Exposure to CO2 resulted in severe to lethal tissue damage in many internal organs, with the degree of damage increasing with CO2 concentration. As larval survival is the bottleneck to recruitment, ocean acidification has the potential to act as an additional source of natural mortality, affecting populations of already exploited fish stocks.

  17. Compounds of parasitic roundworm absorbing in the visible region: target molecules for detection of roundworm in Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Stormo, Svein K; Ernstsen, Arild; Nilsen, Heidi; Heia, Karsten; Sivertsen, Agnar H; Elvevoll, Edel

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to contribute to the development of technology that will be able to replace manual operations in processing of fish fillets. Removal of parasites, black lining, remnants of skin, and bloodstains are costly and time-consuming operations to the fish processing industry. The presence of parasites in fish products tends to spoil consumers' appetites. Recent reports questioning the safety of eating cod infected with parasites might lower consumer acceptance of seafood. Presently, parasites are detected and removed manually. An average efficiency of about 75% under commercial conditions has been reported. In this study, we focused on biochemical differences between cod muscle and the prevalent anisakine nematode species (Anisakis simplex and Pseudoterranova decipiens) infecting Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector, substances absorbing in the range 300 to 600 nm were identified in extracts from parasite material. These substances were not detected in extracts from cod tissue. Significant biochemical differences between cod muscle and parasite material have thus been demonstrated.

  18. Inferring genetic connectivity in real populations, exemplified by coastal and oceanic Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Spies, Ingrid; Hauser, Lorenz; Jorde, Per Erik; Knutsen, Halvor; Punt, André E; Rogers, Lauren A; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2018-05-08

    Genetic data are commonly used to estimate connectivity between putative populations, but translating them to demographic dispersal rates is complicated. Theoretical equations that infer a migration rate based on the genetic estimator F ST , such as Wright's equation, F ST ≈ 1/(4 N e m + 1), make assumptions that do not apply to most real populations. How complexities inherent to real populations affect migration was exemplified by Atlantic cod in the North Sea and Skagerrak and was examined within an age-structured model that incorporated genetic markers. Migration was determined under various scenarios by varying the number of simulated migrants until the mean simulated level of genetic differentiation matched a fixed level of genetic differentiation equal to empirical estimates. Parameters that decreased the N e / N t ratio (where N e is the effective and N t is the total population size), such as high fishing mortality and high fishing gear selectivity, increased the number of migrants required to achieve empirical levels of genetic differentiation. Higher maturity-at-age and lower selectivity increased N e / N t and decreased migration when genetic differentiation was fixed. Changes in natural mortality, fishing gear selectivity, and maturity-at-age within expected limits had a moderate effect on migration when genetic differentiation was held constant. Changes in population size had the greatest effect on the number of migrants to achieve fixed levels of F ST , particularly when genetic differentiation was low, F ST ≈ 10 -3 Highly variable migration patterns, compared with constant migration, resulted in higher variance in genetic differentiation and higher extreme values. Results are compared with and provide insight into the use of theoretical equations to estimate migration among real populations. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  19. Temperature Modulates the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Intestinal Ion Transport in Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Marian Y.; Michael, Katharina; Kreiss, Cornelia M.; Stumpp, Meike; Dupont, Sam; Tseng, Yung-Che; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    CO2-driven seawater acidification has been demonstrated to enhance intestinal bicarbonate secretion rates in teleosts, leading to an increased release of CaCO3 under simulated ocean acidification scenarios. In this study, we investigated if increasing CO2 levels stimulate the intestinal acid–base regulatory machinery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and whether temperatures at the upper limit of thermal tolerance stimulate or counteract ion regulatory capacities. Juvenile G. morhua were acclimated for 4 weeks to three CO2 levels (550, 1200, and 2200 μatm) covering present and near-future natural variability, at optimum (10°C) and summer maximum temperature (18°C), respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the subcellular localization of ion transporters, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), Na+/H+-exchanger 3 (NHE3), Na+/HCO3− cotransporter (NBC1), pendrin-like Cl−/HCO3− exchanger (SLC26a6), V-type H+-ATPase subunit a (VHA), and Cl− channel 3 (CLC3) in epithelial cells of the anterior intestine. At 10°C, proteins and mRNA were generally up-regulated for most transporters in the intestinal epithelium after acclimation to higher CO2 levels. This supports recent findings demonstrating increased intestinal HCO3− secretion rates in response to CO2 induced seawater acidification. At 18°C, mRNA expression and protein concentrations of most ion transporters remained unchanged or were even decreased, suggesting thermal compensation. This response may be energetically favorable to retain blood HCO3− levels to stabilize pHe, but may negatively affect intestinal salt and water resorption of marine teleosts in future oceans. PMID:27313538

  20. Temperature Modulates the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Intestinal Ion Transport in Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Hu, Marian Y; Michael, Katharina; Kreiss, Cornelia M; Stumpp, Meike; Dupont, Sam; Tseng, Yung-Che; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    CO2-driven seawater acidification has been demonstrated to enhance intestinal bicarbonate secretion rates in teleosts, leading to an increased release of CaCO3 under simulated ocean acidification scenarios. In this study, we investigated if increasing CO2 levels stimulate the intestinal acid-base regulatory machinery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and whether temperatures at the upper limit of thermal tolerance stimulate or counteract ion regulatory capacities. Juvenile G. morhua were acclimated for 4 weeks to three CO2 levels (550, 1200, and 2200 μatm) covering present and near-future natural variability, at optimum (10°C) and summer maximum temperature (18°C), respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the subcellular localization of ion transporters, including Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA), Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger 3 (NHE3), Na(+)/[Formula: see text] cotransporter (NBC1), pendrin-like Cl(-)/[Formula: see text] exchanger (SLC26a6), V-type H(+)-ATPase subunit a (VHA), and Cl(-) channel 3 (CLC3) in epithelial cells of the anterior intestine. At 10°C, proteins and mRNA were generally up-regulated for most transporters in the intestinal epithelium after acclimation to higher CO2 levels. This supports recent findings demonstrating increased intestinal [Formula: see text] secretion rates in response to CO2 induced seawater acidification. At 18°C, mRNA expression and protein concentrations of most ion transporters remained unchanged or were even decreased, suggesting thermal compensation. This response may be energetically favorable to retain blood [Formula: see text] levels to stabilize pHe, but may negatively affect intestinal salt and water resorption of marine teleosts in future oceans.

  1. Effects of temperature on specific dynamic action in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2015-02-01

    Growth requires that energy is directed towards ingestion, digestion, absorption and assimilation of a meal; energy expenditures are often expressed as the specific dynamic action (SDA). While SDA is an important part of fish energy budgets and strongly affected by water temperature, temperature effects are not known across a wide temperature range in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. The objective of this study was to examine effects of temperature (2, 5, 10, 15 or 20 °C) on the energetic cost and time used for SDA in juvenile G. morhua by intermittent flow respirometry. At each temperature, G. morhua were fed a meal of herring (Clupea harengus) corresponding to 5 % of the body mass. Standard metabolic rates measured pre-feeding and post-feeding metabolic rates were measured to determine SDA. The study showed that SDA coefficients (%, SDA energy divided by meal energy) were significantly lower at 2 and 10 °C (5.4-6.3 %) compared to 5, 15 and 20 °C (10.4-12.4 %), while SDA duration increased significantly from 80 h at 10 °C to 130-160 h at 2, 15 and 20 °C and reached a maximum of 250 h at 5 °C. The significant decrease in SDA duration at 10 °C combined with a low SDA coefficient suggests that water temperatures close to 10 °C may represent the optimum temperatures for SDA in this population of G. morhua. Our results suggest that SDA is not a simple function of temperature, but may vary with temperature in a more complex fashion.

  2. Slow Adaptation in the Face of Rapid Warming Leads to the Collapse of Atlantic Cod in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershing, A. J.; Alexander, M. A.; Hernandez, C.; Kerr, L. A.; Le Bris, A.; Mills, K.; Nye, J. A.; Record, N.; Scannell, H. A.; Scott, J. D.; Sherwood, G. D.; Thomas, A. C.

    2016-02-01

    Climate change is altering conditions in all marine ecosystems, but the pace of change is not uniform. Rapid changes in environmental conditions pose a challenge for resource management, especially when available tools or policies assume the environment is stationary. Between 2004 and 2013, the Gulf of Maine and northwest Atlantic Shelf warmed at a rate that few large marine ecosystems have ever experienced. This warming was associated with a northward shift in the Gulf Stream and with Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The unprecedented warming led to reduced recruitment and enhanced mortality of Atlantic cod. Fisheries management has built-in feedbacks designed to reduce quotas as populations decline, but the management process could not keep pace with the rapid temperature-related changes in the Gulf of Maine cod stock. Future recovery of this fishery now depends on both sound management and favorable temperatures. The experience in the Gulf of Maine highlights the need to incorporate environmental factors into resource management and to build resiliency in coupled social-ecological systems. It also highlights a need for scientific and policy guidance for managing species threatened by future warming.

  3. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M.; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500–1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400–1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change. PMID:24403343

  4. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-02-22

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500-1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400-1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change.

  5. Low impact of exposure to environmentally relevant doses of 226Ra in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) embryonic cells.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Berntssen, Marc H G; Hylland, Ketil; Eriksen, Dag Ø; Holen, Elisabeth

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether (226)Ra, a radionuclide present in produced water from oil platforms in the North Sea and other offshore drilling areas, could affect vulnerable early life stages of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Blastula-stage embryonic cells (EC) from fertilized eggs of Atlantic cod were isolated and exposed to environmental relevant concentrations of (226)Ra and transcription of selected genes quantified. The results showed a weak, but significant up-regulation of GPx3 and HSP70 transcripts after 48 h of exposure to 2.11 Bq/L. In EC exposed to three (226)Ra concentrations (2.11, 23 and 117 Bq/L) for 12 h, metallothionein, HSP90AA, thioredoxin and caspase 8 were significantly up-regulated in cells exposed to 117 Bq/L, whereas thioredoxin was also significantly up-regulated in EC exposed to 23 Bq/L. When EC were exposed to the same (226)Ra concentrations for 48 h, only heme oxygenase was significantly up-regulated in the 23 Bq/L exposure group. The results suggest that environmentally relevant activities of (226)Ra may induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in fish ECs. Exposure of Atlantic cod EC to Cd, selected as a model toxicant, supported the ability of EC around blastula stage to respond to toxicants by altered transcription. Due to dilution, environmentally relevant concentrations of radionuclides present in produced water would be expected to pose a minor threat to early life stages of fish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Skeletal muscle growth dynamics and the influence of first-feeding diet in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Tu A.; Galloway, Trina F.; Bardal, Tora; Halseth, Christine K.; Øie, Gunvor

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dynamics between hypertrophy (increase in cell size) and hyperplasia (increase in cell numbers) of white and red muscle in relation to body size [standard length (SL)], and the influence of the first-feeding diets on muscle growth were investigated in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua). Cod larvae were fed copepod nauplii or rotifers of different nutritional qualities from 4 to 29 days post hatching (dph), Artemia nauplii from 20 to 40 dph and a formulated diet from 36 to 60 dph. The short period of feeding with cultivated copepod nauplii had a positive effect on both muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy after the copepod/rotifer phase (19 dph), and a positive long term effect on muscle hypertrophy (60 dph). The different nutritional qualities of rotifers did not significantly affect muscle growth. We suggest here a model of the dynamics between hyperplasia and hypertrophy of red and white muscle fibre cells in relation to cod SL (4 to 30 mm), where the different red and white muscle growth phases clearly coincided with different metamorphosis stages in cod larvae. These shifts could be included as biomarkers for the different stages of development during metamorphosis. The main dietary muscle effect was that hypertrophic growth of red muscle fibres was stronger in cod larvae that were fed copepods than in larvae that were fed rotifers, both in relation to larval age and size. Red muscle fibres are directly involved in larval locomotory performance, but may also play an important role in the larval myogenesis. This can have a long term effect on growth potential and fish performance. PMID:27612513

  7. Effects of amino acid supplementations on metabolic and physiological parameters in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) under stress.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Marcelino; Herves, María Antonia; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Skar, Kristin; Mogren, Hanne; Mortensen, Atle; Puvanendran, Velmurugu

    2017-04-01

    The effects of tryptophan (Trp) and phenylalanine (Phe) diet supplementation on the stress and metabolism of the Atlantic cod have been studied. Fish were fed diet supplemented with Trp or Phe or control diet for 1 week. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were subjected to air exposure or heat shock. Following samples of blood, liver and muscle were taken from the fish and were analyzed for stress and metabolic indicators. After an air exposure, plasma cortisol levels in fish fed with Trp and Phe diets were lower compared to the fish fed the control diet. Diets containing both amino acids increased significantly the liver transaminase activities in juvenile cod. During thermal stress, high Trp contents had significant effects on fructose biphosphatase activity though Phe did not. Overall, activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, and phosphofructokinase increased significantly for both amino acid diets. For the thermal stress, fish had the highest values of those activities for the 3Trp diet. Trp content in the diet had significant effects on the transaminase activity in muscle during air stress compared to fish fed control and Phe diets. Muscle alanine transaminase activity for thermal stress in fish fed any diet was not significantly different from the control. Both Trp and Phe supplementations reduced the stress markers in the cod; hence, they could be used as additives for the stress attenuation. However, they also raised the activity of key enzymes in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, mainly the Trp diets.

  8. Adhesion of mechanically and chemically dispersed crude oil droplets to eggs of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Sørensen, Lisbet; Carvalho, Patricia Almeira; Meier, Sonnich; Booth, Andy M; Altin, Dag; Farkas, Julia; Nordtug, Trond

    2018-05-30

    Crude oil accidentally spilled into the marine environment undergoes natural weathering processes that result in oil components being dissolved into the water column or present in particulate form as dispersed oil droplets. Oil components dissolved in seawater are typically considered as more bioavailable to pelagic marine organisms and the main driver of crude oil toxicity, however, recent studies indicate that oil droplets may also contribute. The adhesion of crude oil droplets onto the eggs of pelagic fish species may cause enhanced transfer of oil components via the egg surface causing toxicity during the sensitive embryonic developmental stage. In the current study, we utilized an oil droplet dispersion generator to generate defined oil droplets sizes/concentrations and exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) to investigate if the potential for dispersed oil droplets to adhere onto the surface of eggs was species-dependent. The influence of a commercial chemical dispersant on the adhesion process was also studied. A key finding was that the adhesion of oil droplets was significantly higher for haddock than cod, highlighting key differences and exposure risks between the two species. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the differences in oil droplet adhesion may be driven by the surface morphology of the eggs. Another important finding was that the adhesion capacity of oil droplets to fish eggs is significantly reduced (cod 37.3%, haddock 41.7%) in the presence of the chemical dispersant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Oil droplet fouling and differential toxicokinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in embryos of Atlantic haddock and cod.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Lisbet; Sørhus, Elin; Nordtug, Trond; Incardona, John P; Linbo, Tiffany L; Giovanetti, Laura; Karlsen, Ørjan; Meier, Sonnich

    2017-01-01

    The impact of crude oil pollution on early life stages (ELS) of fish, including larvae and embryos, has received considerable attention in recent years. Of the organic components present in crude oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered the main class of compounds responsible for toxic effects in marine organisms. Although evidence suggests that they are more toxic, alkylated PAHs remain much less studied than their unsubstituted congeners. Recently, it was established that embryos of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) are particularly sensitive to dispersed crude oil, and it was hypothesized that this was caused by direct interaction with crude oil droplets, which adhered to the chorion of exposed embryos. Such a phenomenon would increase the potential for uptake of less water-soluble compounds, including alkylated PAHs. In the current study, we compared the uptake of parent and alkylated PAHs in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock embryos exposed to dispersed crude oil at a range of environmentally relevant concentrations (10-600 μg oil/liter seawater). Although the species are biologically very similar, the cod chorion does not become fouled with oil droplets, even when the two species are exposed to dispersions of crude oil droplets under similar conditions. A close correlation between the degree of fouling and toxicological response (heart defects, craniofacial malformation) was observed. Oil droplet fouling in haddock led to both quantitative and qualitative differences in PAH uptake. Finally, kinetic data on a large suite of PAHs showed differential elimination, suggesting differential metabolism of unsubstituted versus alkylated compounds.

  10. Polymorphism, selection and tandem duplication of transferrin genes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) - Conserved synteny between fish monolobal and tetrapod bilobal transferrin loci

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The two homologous iron-binding lobes of transferrins are thought to have evolved by gene duplication of an ancestral monolobal form, but any conserved synteny between bilobal and monolobal transferrin loci remains unexplored. The important role played by transferrin in the resistance to invading pathogens makes this polymorphic gene a highly valuable candidate for studying adaptive divergence among local populations. Results The Atlantic cod genome was shown to harbour two tandem duplicated serum transferrin genes (Tf1, Tf2), a melanotransferrin gene (MTf), and a monolobal transferrin gene (Omp). Whereas Tf1 and Tf2 were differentially expressed in liver and brain, the Omp transcript was restricted to the otoliths. Fish, chicken and mammals showed highly conserved syntenic regions in which monolobal and bilobal transferrins reside, but contrasting with tetrapods, the fish transferrin genes are positioned on three different linkage groups. Sequence alignment of cod Tf1 cDNAs from Northeast (NE) and Northwest (NW) Atlantic populations revealed 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) causing the replacement of 16 amino acids, including eight surface residues revealed by the modelled 3D-structures, that might influence the binding of pathogens for removal of iron. SNP analysis of a total of 375 individuals from 14 trans-Atlantic populations showed that the Tf1-NE variant was almost fixed in the Baltic cod and predominated in the other NE Atlantic populations, whereas the NW Atlantic populations were more heterozygous and showed high frequencies of the Tf-NW SNP alleles. Conclusions The highly conserved synteny between fish and tetrapod transferrin loci infers that the fusion of tandem duplicated Omp-like genes gave rise to the modern transferrins. The multiple nonsynonymous substitutions in cod Tf1 with putative structural effects, together with highly divergent allele frequencies among different cod populations, strongly suggest evidence for positive

  11. Polymorphism, selection and tandem duplication of transferrin genes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)--conserved synteny between fish monolobal and tetrapod bilobal transferrin loci.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Øivind; De Rosa, Maria Cristina; Pirolli, Davide; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Petersen, Petra E; André, Carl

    2011-05-25

    The two homologous iron-binding lobes of transferrins are thought to have evolved by gene duplication of an ancestral monolobal form, but any conserved synteny between bilobal and monolobal transferrin loci remains unexplored. The important role played by transferrin in the resistance to invading pathogens makes this polymorphic gene a highly valuable candidate for studying adaptive divergence among local populations. The Atlantic cod genome was shown to harbour two tandem duplicated serum transferrin genes (Tf1, Tf2), a melanotransferrin gene (MTf), and a monolobal transferrin gene (Omp). Whereas Tf1 and Tf2 were differentially expressed in liver and brain, the Omp transcript was restricted to the otoliths. Fish, chicken and mammals showed highly conserved syntenic regions in which monolobal and bilobal transferrins reside, but contrasting with tetrapods, the fish transferrin genes are positioned on three different linkage groups. Sequence alignment of cod Tf1 cDNAs from Northeast (NE) and Northwest (NW) Atlantic populations revealed 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) causing the replacement of 16 amino acids, including eight surface residues revealed by the modelled 3D-structures, that might influence the binding of pathogens for removal of iron. SNP analysis of a total of 375 individuals from 14 trans-Atlantic populations showed that the Tf1-NE variant was almost fixed in the Baltic cod and predominated in the other NE Atlantic populations, whereas the NW Atlantic populations were more heterozygous and showed high frequencies of the Tf-NW SNP alleles. The highly conserved synteny between fish and tetrapod transferrin loci infers that the fusion of tandem duplicated Omp-like genes gave rise to the modern transferrins. The multiple nonsynonymous substitutions in cod Tf1 with putative structural effects, together with highly divergent allele frequencies among different cod populations, strongly suggest evidence for positive selection and local adaptation in

  12. Atlantic cod actively avoid CO2 and predator odour, even after long-term CO2 exposure.

    PubMed

    Jutfelt, Fredrik; Hedgärde, Maria

    2013-12-27

    The rising atmospheric CO2 level is continuously driving the dissolution of more CO2 into the oceans, and some emission scenarios project that the surface waters may reach 1000 μatm by the end of the century. It is not known if fish can detect moderately elevated CO2 levels, and if they avoid areas with high CO2. If so, avoidance behaviour to water with high CO2 could affect movement patterns and migrations of fish in the future. It is also being increasingly recognized that fish behaviour can be altered by exposure to CO2. Therefore this study investigated how long-term exposure to elevated pCO2 affects predator avoidance and CO2 avoidance in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The fish were exposed to control water or CO2-enriched water (1000 μatm) for six weeks before being subjected to tests of behaviour. Despite long term exposure to elevated pCO2 the cod still strongly avoided the smell of a predator. These data are surprising because several coral reef fish have demonstrated reversal of olfactory responses after CO2 exposure, turning avoidance of predator cues into preference for predator cues. Fish from both treatment groups also demonstrated strong avoidance of CO2 when presented with the choice of control or CO2-acidified water, indicating that habituation to the CO2 sensory stimuli is negligible. As Atlantic cod maintained normal behavioural responses to olfactory cues, they may be tolerant to CO2-induced behavioural changes. The results also suggest that despite the long-term exposure to CO2-acidified water, the fish still preferred the control water over CO2-acidified water. Therefore, in the future, fish may alter their movements and migrations in search of waters with a lower CO2 content.

  13. Atlantic cod actively avoid CO2 and predator odour, even after long-term CO2 exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The rising atmospheric CO2 level is continuously driving the dissolution of more CO2 into the oceans, and some emission scenarios project that the surface waters may reach 1000 μatm by the end of the century. It is not known if fish can detect moderately elevated CO2 levels, and if they avoid areas with high CO2. If so, avoidance behaviour to water with high CO2 could affect movement patterns and migrations of fish in the future. It is also being increasingly recognized that fish behaviour can be altered by exposure to CO2. Therefore this study investigated how long-term exposure to elevated pCO2 affects predator avoidance and CO2 avoidance in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The fish were exposed to control water or CO2-enriched water (1000 μatm) for six weeks before being subjected to tests of behaviour. Results Despite long term exposure to elevated pCO2 the cod still strongly avoided the smell of a predator. These data are surprising because several coral reef fish have demonstrated reversal of olfactory responses after CO2 exposure, turning avoidance of predator cues into preference for predator cues. Fish from both treatment groups also demonstrated strong avoidance of CO2 when presented with the choice of control or CO2-acidified water, indicating that habituation to the CO2 sensory stimuli is negligible. Conclusions As Atlantic cod maintained normal behavioural responses to olfactory cues, they may be tolerant to CO2-induced behavioural changes. The results also suggest that despite the long-term exposure to CO2-acidified water, the fish still preferred the control water over CO2-acidified water. Therefore, in the future, fish may alter their movements and migrations in search of waters with a lower CO2 content. PMID:24373523

  14. Effects of alkylphenols on CYP1A and CYP3A expression in first spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Hasselberg, Linda; Meier, Sonnich; Svardal, Asbjørn; Hegelund, Tove; Celander, Malin C

    2004-05-12

    Alkylphenols are continuously released into the ocean as a result of offshore oil production. Alkylphenols, including 4-tert-butylphenol (C4), 4n-pentylphenol (C5), 4n-hexylphenol (C6), and 4n-heptylphenol (C7), up to 237 ppb concentrations, have been detected in produced water from oil platforms. Previous studies have shown that alkylphenols induce vitellogenesis in fish. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) of both sexes were force-fed with various doses ranging between 0.02 and 80 ppm of a mixture of alkylphenols (C4:C5:C6:C7 ratio 1:1:1:1) or 5 ppm 17 beta-estradiol. We investigated effects on hepatic CYP1A and CYP3A protein expression in protein blots, using antibodies against scup (Stenotomus chrysops) CYP1A1 and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) CYP3A. There was a sexually dimorphic expression of CYP1A and CYP3A protein levels, with females expressing higher levels than males. Treatment of male Atlantic cod with 17 beta-estradiol resulted in increased CYP1A and CYP3A protein levels. Exposure to alkylphenols resulted in a dose-dependent increase of CYP1A and CYP3A protein expression in males, but not in females. However, this increase of CYP1A protein levels was not reflected on the CYP1A-mediated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, implying that alkylphenols inhibited the CYP1A enzyme activity in vivo. In vitro inhibition studies with pooled liver microsomes from Atlantic cod confirmed that the alkylphenols mixture efficiently inhibited the CYP1A activity (IC50=10 microM), although the inhibitory effect of each individual alkylphenol varied. The IC50 values for each individual alkylphenol on the CYP1A activity were, in a descending order of magnitude: [C7>C6>C5>C4], ranging from 12 to 300 microM with decreased length of the 4-alkyl chain. The effect of alkylphenols on the CYP3A activity in vitro in liver microsomes also was investigated, using the fluorescent 7-benzyloxy-4-[trifluoromethyl]-coumarin (BFC) as a diagnostic CYP3A substrate. The alkylphenol

  15. Will you swim into my parlour? In situ observations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) interactions with baited pots, with implications for gear design

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Philip; Favaro, Brett

    2017-01-01

    Pots (also known as traps) are baited fishing gears widely used in commercial fisheries, and are being considered as a tool for harvesting Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Pots produce lower environmental impacts than many other fishing gears, but they will only be a viable fishing strategy if they are efficient and selective at catching their target species. To study the behaviour of cod in and around pots, and how those behaviours affect pot efficiency, we used long-duration underwater video cameras to assess two models of cod pot deployed in the nearshore waters of Fogo Island, NL. We examined the number of cod that approached the pot, the number and proportion that successfully completed entries into the pot openings, and the number that exited, and related these factors to the direction of water movement. We observed very few entry attempts relative to the number of approaches by cod, and only 22% of all entry attempts were successful. We observed that 50% of approaches, 70% of entry attempts, and 73% of successful entrances occurred against the current, and 25% of cod were able to exit the pot following capture. Based on our observations, we suggest that future cod pots should have a greater number of entrances, or a mechanism to ensure that entrances rotate in line with the current, in order to maximize their catch efficiency for cod. PMID:28194312

  16. Will you swim into my parlour? In situ observations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) interactions with baited pots, with implications for gear design.

    PubMed

    Meintzer, Phillip; Walsh, Philip; Favaro, Brett

    2017-01-01

    Pots (also known as traps) are baited fishing gears widely used in commercial fisheries, and are being considered as a tool for harvesting Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Pots produce lower environmental impacts than many other fishing gears, but they will only be a viable fishing strategy if they are efficient and selective at catching their target species. To study the behaviour of cod in and around pots, and how those behaviours affect pot efficiency, we used long-duration underwater video cameras to assess two models of cod pot deployed in the nearshore waters of Fogo Island, NL. We examined the number of cod that approached the pot, the number and proportion that successfully completed entries into the pot openings, and the number that exited, and related these factors to the direction of water movement. We observed very few entry attempts relative to the number of approaches by cod, and only 22% of all entry attempts were successful. We observed that 50% of approaches, 70% of entry attempts, and 73% of successful entrances occurred against the current, and 25% of cod were able to exit the pot following capture. Based on our observations, we suggest that future cod pots should have a greater number of entrances, or a mechanism to ensure that entrances rotate in line with the current, in order to maximize their catch efficiency for cod.

  17. Evidence from data storage tags for the presence of lunar and semilunar behavioral cycles in spawning Atlantic cod

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, Timothy B.; McAdam, Bruce J.; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjalmur; Marteinsdóttir, Gudrún

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental processes determining the timing and success of reproduction is of critical importance to developing effective management strategies of marine fishes. Unfortunately it has proven difficult to comprehensively study the reproductive behavior of broadcast-spawning fishes. The use of electronic data storage tags (DSTs) has the potential to provide insights into the behavior of fishes. These tags allow for data collection over relatively large spatial and temporal scales that can be correlated to predicted environmental conditions and ultimately be used to refine predictions of year class strength. In this paper we present data retrieved from DSTs demonstrating that events putatively identified as Atlantic cod spawning behavior is tied to a lunar cycle with a pronounced semi-lunar cycle within it. Peak activity occurs around the full and new moon with no evidence of relationship with day/night cycles.

  18. Size-dependent social attraction and repulsion explains the decision of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua to enter baited pots.

    PubMed

    Anders, N; Fernö, A; Humborstad, O-B; Løkkeborg, S; Rieucau, G; Utne-Palm, A C

    2017-12-01

    The present study tested whether the presence of already retained fishes inside baited fish pots acted as a social attraction and affected the entrance probability of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in a fjord in northern Norway. Video analysis revealed that the probability of an entrance initially increased with the presence of low numbers of fishes inside the pot, but subsequently decreased at a critical number of caught fishes. The critical number was dependent on the size of the G. morhua attempting to enter. This demonstrates that social attraction and repulsion play a role in G. morhua pot fishing and has important implications for the capture efficiency of fisheries executed with pots. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Effects of hypoxic exposure during feeding on SDA and postprandial cardiovascular physiology in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Jane W; Axelsson, Michael; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Seth, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Some Atlantic cod in the Bornholm Basin undertake vertical foraging migrations into severely hypoxic bottom water. Hypoxic conditions can reduce the postprandial increase in gastrointestinal blood flow (GBF). This could subsequently postpone or reduce the postprandial increase in oxygen consumption (MO(2)), i.e. the SDA, leading to a disturbed digestion. Additionally, a restricted oxygen uptake could result in an oxygen debt that needs to be compensated for upon return to normoxic waters and this may also affect the ability to process the food. Long-term cardio-respiratory measurements were made on fed G. morhua in order to understand how the cardio-respiratory system of feeding fish respond to a period of hypoxia and a subsequent return to normoxia. These were exposed to 35% water oxygen saturation for 90 minutes, equivalent to the time and oxygen level cod voluntarily endure when searching for food in the Bornholm Basin. We found that i) gastric and intestinal blood flows, cardiac output and MO(2) increased after feeding, ii) gastric and intestinal blood flows were spared in hypoxia, and iii) there were no indications of an oxygen debt at the end of the hypoxic period. The magnitude and time course of the measured variables are similar to values obtained from fish not exposed to the hypoxic period. In conclusion, when cod in the field search for and ingest prey under moderate hypoxic conditions they appear to stay within safe limits of oxygen availability as we saw no indications of an oxygen debt, or negative influence on digestive capacity, when simulating field observations.

  20. Oil droplet fouling and differential toxicokinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in embryos of Atlantic haddock and cod

    PubMed Central

    Sørhus, Elin; Nordtug, Trond; Incardona, John P.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Giovanetti, Laura; Karlsen, Ørjan; Meier, Sonnich

    2017-01-01

    The impact of crude oil pollution on early life stages (ELS) of fish, including larvae and embryos, has received considerable attention in recent years. Of the organic components present in crude oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered the main class of compounds responsible for toxic effects in marine organisms. Although evidence suggests that they are more toxic, alkylated PAHs remain much less studied than their unsubstituted congeners. Recently, it was established that embryos of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) are particularly sensitive to dispersed crude oil, and it was hypothesized that this was caused by direct interaction with crude oil droplets, which adhered to the chorion of exposed embryos. Such a phenomenon would increase the potential for uptake of less water-soluble compounds, including alkylated PAHs. In the current study, we compared the uptake of parent and alkylated PAHs in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock embryos exposed to dispersed crude oil at a range of environmentally relevant concentrations (10–600 μg oil/liter seawater). Although the species are biologically very similar, the cod chorion does not become fouled with oil droplets, even when the two species are exposed to dispersions of crude oil droplets under similar conditions. A close correlation between the degree of fouling and toxicological response (heart defects, craniofacial malformation) was observed. Oil droplet fouling in haddock led to both quantitative and qualitative differences in PAH uptake. Finally, kinetic data on a large suite of PAHs showed differential elimination, suggesting differential metabolism of unsubstituted versus alkylated compounds. PMID:28678887

  1. Synergies between climate and management for Atlantic cod fisheries at high latitudes.

    PubMed

    Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd; Bogstad, Bjarte; Devine, Jennifer A; Gjøsæter, Harald; Howell, Daniel; Ingvaldsen, Randi B; Nash, Richard D M; Skjæraasen, Jon Egil

    2014-03-04

    The widespread depletion of commercially exploited marine living resources is often seen as a general failure of management and results in criticism of contemporary management procedures. When populations show dramatic and positive changes in population size, this invariably leads to questions about whether favorable climatic conditions or good management (or both) were responsible. The Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua) stock has recently increased markedly and the spawning stock biomass is now at an unprecedented high. We identify the crucial social and environmental factors that made this unique growth possible. The relationship between vital rates of Barents Sea cod stock productivity (recruitment, growth, and mortality) and environment is investigated, followed by simulations of population size under different management scenarios. We show that the recent sustained reduction in fishing mortality, facilitated by the implementation of a "harvest control rule," was essential to the increase in population size. Simulations show that a drastic reduction in fishing mortality has resulted in a doubling of the total population biomass compared with that expected under the former management regime. However, management alone was not solely responsible. We document that prevailing climate, operating through several mechanistic links, positively reinforced management actions. Heightened temperature resulted in an increase in the extent of the suitable feeding area for Barents Sea cod, likely offering a release from density-dependent effects (for example, food competition and cannibalism) through prolonged overlap with prey and improved adult stock productivity. Management and climate may thus interact to give a positive outlook for exploited high-latitude marine resources.

  2. A moderate increase in ambient temperature modulates the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) spleen transcriptome response to intraperitoneal viral mimic injection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) reared in sea-cages can experience large variations in temperature, and these have been shown to affect their immune function. We used the new 20K Atlantic cod microarray to investigate how a water temperature change which, simulates that seen in Newfoundland during the spring-summer (i.e. from 10°C to 16°C, 1°C increase every 5 days) impacted the cod spleen transcriptome response to the intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimic (polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, pIC). Results The temperature regime alone did not cause any significant increases in plasma cortisol levels and only minor changes in spleen gene transcription. However, it had a considerable impact on the fish spleen transcriptome response to pIC [290 and 339 significantly differentially expressed genes between 16°C and 10°C at 6 and 24 hours post-injection (HPI), respectively]. Seventeen microarray-identified transcripts were selected for QPCR validation based on immune-relevant functional annotations. Fifteen of these transcripts (i.e. 88%), including DHX58, STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, RSAD2 and IκBα, were shown by QPCR to be significantly induced by pIC. Conclusions The temperature increase appeared to accelerate the spleen immune transcriptome response to pIC. We found 41 and 999 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 10°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. In contrast, there were 656 and 246 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 16°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. Our results indicate that the modulation of mRNA expression of genes belonging to the NF-κB and type I interferon signal transduction pathways may play a role in controlling temperature-induced changes in the spleen’s transcript expression response to pIC. Moreover, interferon effector genes such as ISG15 and RSAD2 were differentially expressed between fish injected with pIC at 10°C vs. 16

  3. A moderate increase in ambient temperature modulates the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) spleen transcriptome response to intraperitoneal viral mimic injection.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tiago S; Gamperl, A Kurt; Booman, Marije; Nash, Gordon W; Rise, Matthew L

    2012-08-28

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) reared in sea-cages can experience large variations in temperature, and these have been shown to affect their immune function. We used the new 20K Atlantic cod microarray to investigate how a water temperature change which, simulates that seen in Newfoundland during the spring-summer (i.e. from 10°C to 16°C, 1°C increase every 5 days) impacted the cod spleen transcriptome response to the intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimic (polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, pIC). The temperature regime alone did not cause any significant increases in plasma cortisol levels and only minor changes in spleen gene transcription. However, it had a considerable impact on the fish spleen transcriptome response to pIC [290 and 339 significantly differentially expressed genes between 16°C and 10°C at 6 and 24 hours post-injection (HPI), respectively]. Seventeen microarray-identified transcripts were selected for QPCR validation based on immune-relevant functional annotations. Fifteen of these transcripts (i.e. 88%), including DHX58, STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, RSAD2 and IκBα, were shown by QPCR to be significantly induced by pIC. The temperature increase appeared to accelerate the spleen immune transcriptome response to pIC. We found 41 and 999 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 10°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. In contrast, there were 656 and 246 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 16°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. Our results indicate that the modulation of mRNA expression of genes belonging to the NF-κB and type I interferon signal transduction pathways may play a role in controlling temperature-induced changes in the spleen's transcript expression response to pIC. Moreover, interferon effector genes such as ISG15 and RSAD2 were differentially expressed between fish injected with pIC at 10°C vs. 16°C at 6HPI. These results

  4. Synergies between climate and management for Atlantic cod fisheries at high latitudes

    PubMed Central

    Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd; Bogstad, Bjarte; Devine, Jennifer A.; Gjøsæter, Harald; Howell, Daniel; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Nash, Richard D. M.; Skjæraasen, Jon Egil

    2014-01-01

    The widespread depletion of commercially exploited marine living resources is often seen as a general failure of management and results in criticism of contemporary management procedures. When populations show dramatic and positive changes in population size, this invariably leads to questions about whether favorable climatic conditions or good management (or both) were responsible. The Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua) stock has recently increased markedly and the spawning stock biomass is now at an unprecedented high. We identify the crucial social and environmental factors that made this unique growth possible. The relationship between vital rates of Barents Sea cod stock productivity (recruitment, growth, and mortality) and environment is investigated, followed by simulations of population size under different management scenarios. We show that the recent sustained reduction in fishing mortality, facilitated by the implementation of a “harvest control rule,” was essential to the increase in population size. Simulations show that a drastic reduction in fishing mortality has resulted in a doubling of the total population biomass compared with that expected under the former management regime. However, management alone was not solely responsible. We document that prevailing climate, operating through several mechanistic links, positively reinforced management actions. Heightened temperature resulted in an increase in the extent of the suitable feeding area for Barents Sea cod, likely offering a release from density-dependent effects (for example, food competition and cannibalism) through prolonged overlap with prey and improved adult stock productivity. Management and climate may thus interact to give a positive outlook for exploited high-latitude marine resources. PMID:24550465

  5. Genetic and morphological variation in Echinorhynchus gadi Zoega in Müller, 1776 (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L.

    PubMed

    Sobecka, E; Szostakowska, B; MacKenzie, K; Hemmingsen, W; Prajsnar, S; Eydal, M

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have shown considerable variability in morphological features and the existence of genetically distinct sibling species in the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus gadi Zoega in Müller, 1776. The aim of the present study was to follow up and extend those earlier studies by using a combination of DNA analysis and morphometrics to investigate differences between samples of E. gadi from Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. caught at five fishing grounds in the Baltic Sea and three in different parts of the North Atlantic. Twelve morphological features were measured in 431 specimens of E. gadi, 99 individuals were studied by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphosm (PCR-RFLP), and selected PCR products were sequenced. The molecular analyses showed the nucleotide sequences of E. gadi rDNA from cod caught at all the sampling sites to be identical. The comparative morphological study, in contrast, revealed significant differences between samples of E. gadi from different sampling sites and showed the separation of E. gadi into two groups corresponding approximately to the systematic classification of cod into the two subspecies, Atlantic G. morhua morhua and Baltic G. morhua callarias. The E. gadi infrapopulation size had a significant effect on some of the morphological features. The results are discussed in relation to cod population biology, the hydrography of the study area and the history of the Baltic Sea formation.

  6. Precision-cut liver slices of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): an in vitro system for studying the effects of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Eide, M; Karlsen, O A; Kryvi, H; Olsvik, P A; Goksøyr, A

    2014-08-01

    The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is an economically important species commonly consumed by humans. The widespread distribution of cod in the North Atlantic Ocean makes it vulnerable to effluents from human activities, such as coastal industries and offshore petroleum exploration. It has been demonstrated that many effluents have adverse effects on cod reproduction and health, e.g. by disrupting endocrine signaling pathways. The liver, expressing important components of the biotransformation and the endocrine system, is one of the main target organs. Thus, reliable and reproducible in vitro systems of the liver are important for studying effects of environmental contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) as an alternative in vitro system for toxicological studies of the Atlantic cod liver. Slices of 8 mm in diameter and 250 μm thickness were prepared and cultivated from immature cod. Several analyses to measure the liver slice viability were performed: enzyme assays, histology, and morphometric analysis, all confirming cell viability for up to 72 h in culture. The liver slices were also exposed to two well-known model environmental contaminants, β-naphthoflavone (BNF) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), representing established agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER), respectively. The results showed increased transcription of the target genes cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and vitellogenin (VTG), both well-established biomarkers for exposure of fish to the selected compounds. In conclusion, PCLS is a promising in vitro system for toxicological studies of cod liver cells. The liver slices are viable in culture for several days and respond to environmental contaminants in a dose- and time-specific manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the response of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) in the high-latitude regions of the North Atlantic during the warm periods of the 1920s-1960s and the 1990s-2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, Ken

    2009-10-01

    Concern about future anthropogenic warming has lead to demands for information on what might happen to fish and fisheries under various climate-change scenarios. One suggestion has been to use past events as a proxy for what will happen in the future. In this paper a comparison between the responses of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) to two major warm periods in the North Atlantic during the 20th century is carried out to determine how reliable the past might be as a predictor of the future. The first warm period began during the 1920s, remained relatively warm through the 1960s, and was limited primarily to the northern regions (>60°N). The second warm period, which again covered the northern regions but also extended farther south (30°N), began in the 1990s and has continued into the present century. During the earlier warm period, the most northern of the cod stocks (West Greenland, Icelandic, and Northeast Arctic cod in the Barents Sea) increased in abundance, individual growth was high, recruitment was strong, and their distribution spread northward. Available plankton data suggest that these cod responses were driven by bottom-up processes. Fishing pressure increased during this period of high cod abundance and the northern cod stocks began to decline, as early as the 1950s in the Barents Sea but during the 1960s elsewhere. Individual growth declined as temperatures cooled and the cod distributions retracted southward. During the warming in the 1990s, the spawning stock biomass of cod in the Barents Sea again increased, recruitment rose, and the stock spread northward, but the individual growth did not improve significantly. Cod off West Greenland also have shown signs of improving recruitment and increasing biomass, albeit they are still very low in comparison to the earlier warming period. The abundance of Icelandic cod, on the other hand, has remained low through the recent warm period and spawning stock biomass and total biomass are at levels near the

  8. Single and mixture effects of aquatic micropollutants studied in precision-cut liver slices of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Bizarro, Cristina; Eide, Marta; Hitchcock, Daniel J; Goksøyr, Anders; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren

    2016-08-01

    The low concentrations of most contaminants in the aquatic environment individually may not affect the normal function of the organisms on their own. However, when combined, complex mixtures may provoke unexpected effects even at low amounts. Selected aquatic micropollutants such as chlorpyrifos, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were tested singly and in mixtures at nM to μM concentrations using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Fish liver is a target organ for contaminants due to its crucial role in detoxification processes. In order to understand the effects on distinct key liver metabolic pathways, transcription levels of various genes were measured, including cyp1a1 and cyp3a, involved in the metabolism of organic compounds, including toxic ones, and the catabolism of bile acids and steroid hormones; cyp7a1, fabp and hmg-CoA, involved in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis; cyp24a1, involved in vitamin D metabolism; and vtg, a key gene in xenoestrogenic response. Only EE2 had significant effects on gene expression in cod liver slices when exposed singly at the concentrations tested. However, when exposed in combinations, effects not detected in single exposure conditions arose, suggesting complex interactions between studied pollutants that could not be predicted from the results of individual exposure scenarios. Thus, the present work highlights the importance of assessing mixtures when describing the toxic effects of micropollutants to fish liver metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ocean warming and acidification modulate energy budget and gill ion regulatory mechanisms in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Kreiss, C M; Michael, K; Lucassen, M; Jutfelt, F; Motyka, R; Dupont, S; Pörtner, H-O

    2015-10-01

    Ocean warming and acidification are threatening marine ecosystems. In marine animals, acidification is thought to enhance ion regulatory costs and thereby baseline energy demand, while elevated temperature also increases baseline metabolic rate. Here we investigated standard metabolic rates (SMR) and plasma parameters of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after 3-4 weeks of exposure to ambient and future PCO2 levels (550, 1200 and 2200 µatm) and at two temperatures (10, 18 °C). In vivo branchial ion regulatory costs were studied in isolated, perfused gill preparations. Animals reared at 18 °C responded to increasing CO2 by elevating SMR, in contrast to specimens at 10 °C. Isolated gills at 10 °C and elevated PCO2 (≥1200 µatm) displayed increased soft tissue mass, in parallel to increased gill oxygen demand, indicating an increased fraction of gill in whole animal energy budget. Altered gill size was not found at 18 °C, where a shift in the use of ion regulation mechanisms occurred towards enhanced Na(+)/H(+)-exchange and HCO3 (-) transport at high PCO2 (2200 µatm), paralleled by higher Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. This shift did not affect total gill energy consumption leaving whole animal energy budget unaffected. Higher Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities in the warmth might have compensated for enhanced branchial permeability and led to reduced plasma Na(+) and/or Cl(-) concentrations and slightly lowered osmolalities seen at 18 °C and 550 or 2200 µatm PCO2 in vivo. Overall, the gill as a key ion regulation organ seems to be highly effective in supporting the resilience of cod to effects of ocean warming and acidification.

  10. Potential fitness benefits from mate selection in the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Rudolfsen, G; Figenschou, L; Folstad, I; Nordeide, J T; Søreng, E

    2005-01-01

    Little evidence of benefits from female mate choice has been found when males provide no parental care or resources. Yet, good genes models of sexual selection suggest that elaborated male sexual characters are reliable signals of mate quality and that the offspring of males with elaborate sexual ornaments will perform better than those of males with less elaborate ornaments. We used cod (Gadus morhua L.), an externally fertilizing species where males provide nothing but sperm, to examine the potential of optimal mate selection with respect to offspring survival. By applying in vitro fertilizations, we crossed eight females with nine males in all possible combinations and reared each of the 72 sib groups. We found that offspring survival was dependent on which female was mated with which male and that optimal mate selection has the potential to increase mean offspring survival from 31.9 to 55.6% (a 74% increase). However, the size of the male sexual ornaments and sperm quality (i.e. sperm velocity and sperm density) could not predict offspring survival. Thus, even if there may be large fitness benefits of mate selection, we might not yet have identified the male characteristics generating high offspring survival.

  11. Life on the edge: O2 binding in Atlantic cod red blood cells near their southern distribution limit is not sensitive to temperature or haemoglobin genotype

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Samantha L.; Metcalfe, Julian; Righton, David A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Atlantic cod are a commercially important species believed to be threatened by warming seas near their southern, equatorward upper thermal edge of distribution. Limitations to circulatory O2 transport, in particular cardiac output, and the geographic distribution of functionally different haemoglobin (Hb) genotypes have separately been suggested to play a role in setting thermal tolerance in this species. The present study assessed the thermal sensitivity of O2 binding in Atlantic cod red blood cells with different Hb genotypes near their upper thermal distribution limit and modelled its consequences for the arterio-venous O2 saturation difference, Sa–vO2, another major determinant of circulatory O2 supply rate. The results showed statistically indistinguishable red blood cell O2 binding between the three HbI genotypes in wild-caught Atlantic cod from the Irish Sea (53° N). Red blood cells had an unusually low O2 affinity, with reduced or even reversed thermal sensitivity between pH 7.4 and 7.9, and 5.0 and 20.0°C. This was paired with strongly pH-dependent affinity and cooperativity of red blood cell O2 binding (Bohr and Root effects). Modelling of Sa–vO2 at physiological pH, temperature and O2 partial pressures revealed a substantial capacity for increases in Sa–vO2 to meet rising tissue O2 demands at 5.0 and 12.5°C, but not at 20°C. Furthermore, there was no evidence for an increase of maximal Sa–vO2 with temperature. It is suggested that Atlantic cod at such high temperatures may solely depend on increases in cardiac output and blood O2 capacity, or thermal acclimatisation of metabolic rate, for matching circulatory O2 supply to tissue demand. PMID:28148818

  12. Life on the edge: O2 binding in Atlantic cod red blood cells near their southern distribution limit is not sensitive to temperature or haemoglobin genotype.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Samantha L; Metcalfe, Julian; Righton, David A; Berenbrink, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Atlantic cod are a commercially important species believed to be threatened by warming seas near their southern, equatorward upper thermal edge of distribution. Limitations to circulatory O 2 transport, in particular cardiac output, and the geographic distribution of functionally different haemoglobin (Hb) genotypes have separately been suggested to play a role in setting thermal tolerance in this species. The present study assessed the thermal sensitivity of O 2 binding in Atlantic cod red blood cells with different Hb genotypes near their upper thermal distribution limit and modelled its consequences for the arterio-venous O 2 saturation difference, Sa-v O 2 , another major determinant of circulatory O 2 supply rate. The results showed statistically indistinguishable red blood cell O 2 binding between the three HbI genotypes in wild-caught Atlantic cod from the Irish Sea (53° N). Red blood cells had an unusually low O 2 affinity, with reduced or even reversed thermal sensitivity between pH 7.4 and 7.9, and 5.0 and 20.0°C. This was paired with strongly pH-dependent affinity and cooperativity of red blood cell O 2 binding (Bohr and Root effects). Modelling of Sa-v O 2  at physiological pH, temperature and O 2 partial pressures revealed a substantial capacity for increases in Sa-v O 2  to meet rising tissue O 2 demands at 5.0 and 12.5°C, but not at 20°C. Furthermore, there was no evidence for an increase of maximal Sa-v O 2  with temperature. It is suggested that Atlantic cod at such high temperatures may solely depend on increases in cardiac output and blood O 2 capacity, or thermal acclimatisation of metabolic rate, for matching circulatory O 2 supply to tissue demand. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Extracellular glucose can fuel metabolism in red blood cells from high glycemic Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) but not low glycemic short-horned sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius).

    PubMed

    Driedzic, William R; Clow, Kathy A; Short, Connie E

    2014-11-01

    Energy metabolism was assessed in red blood cells (RBCs) from Atlantic cod and short-horned sculpin, two species that have markedly different levels of blood glucose. The objective was to determine whether the level of extracellular glucose has an impact on rates of glucose metabolism. The blood glucose level was 2.5 mmol l(-1) in Atlantic cod and 0.2 mmol l(-1) in short-horned sculpin, respectively. Oxygen consumption, lactate production and glucose utilization were measured in whole blood and related to grams of RBCs. Glucose utilization was assessed by measuring both glucose disappearance and the production of (3)H2O from [2-(3)H]-glucose. RBCs from both species have an aerobic-based metabolism. In Atlantic cod, extracellular glucose is sufficient to provide the sum of glucosyl equivalents to support both oxidative metabolism and lactate production. In contrast, extracellular glucose can account for only 10% of the metabolic rate in short-horned sculpin RBCs. In both species, about 70% of glucose enters the RBCs via facilitated transport. The difference in rates of extracellular glucose utilization is related to the extremely low levels of blood glucose in short-horned sculpin. In this species energy metabolism by RBCs must be supported by alternative fuels. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Impacts of regular and random noise on the behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    PubMed Central

    Nedelec, Sophie L.; Simpson, Stephen D.; Morley, Erica L.; Nedelec, Brendan; Radford, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise impacts behaviour and physiology in many species, but responses could change with repeat exposures. As repeat exposures can vary in regularity, identifying regimes with less impact is important for regulation. We use a 16-day split-brood experiment to compare effects of regular and random acoustic noise (playbacks of recordings of ships), relative to ambient-noise controls, on behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Short-term noise caused startle responses in newly hatched fish, irrespective of rearing noise. Two days of both regular and random noise regimes reduced growth, while regular noise led to faster yolk sac use. After 16 days, growth in all three sound treatments converged, although fish exposed to regular noise had lower body width–length ratios. Larvae with lower body width–length ratios were easier to catch in a predator-avoidance experiment. Our results demonstrate that the timing of acoustic disturbances can impact survival-related measures during development. Much current work focuses on sound levels, but future studies should consider the role of noise regularity and its importance for noise management and mitigation measures. PMID:26468248

  15. An assessment of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua distribution and growth using diver operated stereo-video surveys.

    PubMed

    Elliott, S A M; Ahti, P A; Heath, M R; Turrell, W R; Bailey, D M

    2016-08-01

    Stereo-video scuba transects were conducted during daylight hours from June to September 2013 within a proposed marine protected area (MPA) in the Firth of Clyde, west of Scotland. More juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua of fork length (LF ) range 6-11 cm were observed in substrata containing mixed gravel, including maerl, than in boulder-cobble substrata with high algal cover, or sand with low density seagrass. Community composition was significantly different between substratum types. A decrease in G. morhua abundance was observed over the period of data collection. Over time, mean and variance in G. morhua LF increased, indicating multiple recruitment events. Protecting mixed gravel substrata could be a beneficial management measure to support the survival and recruitment of juvenile G. morhua; other substrata might be important at night given their diel migratory behaviour. Stereo-video cameras provide a useful non-destructive fisheries-independent method to monitor species abundance and length measurements. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Impacts of regular and random noise on the behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Sophie L; Simpson, Stephen D; Morley, Erica L; Nedelec, Brendan; Radford, Andrew N

    2015-10-22

    Anthropogenic noise impacts behaviour and physiology in many species, but responses could change with repeat exposures. As repeat exposures can vary in regularity, identifying regimes with less impact is important for regulation. We use a 16-day split-brood experiment to compare effects of regular and random acoustic noise (playbacks of recordings of ships), relative to ambient-noise controls, on behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Short-term noise caused startle responses in newly hatched fish, irrespective of rearing noise. Two days of both regular and random noise regimes reduced growth, while regular noise led to faster yolk sac use. After 16 days, growth in all three sound treatments converged, although fish exposed to regular noise had lower body width-length ratios. Larvae with lower body width-length ratios were easier to catch in a predator-avoidance experiment. Our results demonstrate that the timing of acoustic disturbances can impact survival-related measures during development. Much current work focuses on sound levels, but future studies should consider the role of noise regularity and its importance for noise management and mitigation measures. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. Harvest Pressure on Coastal Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) from Recreational Fishing Relative to Commercial Fishing Assessed from Tag-Recovery Data.

    PubMed

    Kleiven, Alf Ring; Fernandez-Chacon, Albert; Nordahl, Jan-Harald; Moland, Even; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben Moland

    2016-01-01

    Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity. However, knowledge about the magnitude of recreational catches relative to commercial catches in coastal fisheries is generally sparse. Coastal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a target species for recreational fishers in the North Atlantic. In Norway, recreational fishers are allowed to use a variety of traps and nets as well as long-line and rod and line when fishing for cod. From 2005 to 2013, 9729 cod (mean size: 40 cm, range: 15-93 cm) were tagged and released in coastal Skagerrak, southeast Norway. Both high-reward (NOK 500) and low-reward tags (NOK 50) were used in this study. Because some harvested fish (even those posting high-reward tags) may go unreported by fishers, reporting rates were estimated from mark-recovery models that incorporate detection parameters in their structure, in addition to survival and mortality estimates. During 2005 to 2013, a total of 1707 tagged cod were recovered and reported by fishers. We estimate the overall annual survival to be 33% (SE 1.5). Recreational rod and line fishing were responsible for 33.7% (SE 2.4) of total mortality, followed by commercial fisheries (15.1% SE 0.8) and recreational fixed gear (6.8% SE 0.4). Natural mortality was 44.4% (SE 2.5) of total mortality. Our findings suggest that recreational fishing-rod and line fishing in particular-is responsible for a substantial part of fishing mortality exerted on coastal cod in southern Norway.

  18. Harvest Pressure on Coastal Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) from Recreational Fishing Relative to Commercial Fishing Assessed from Tag-Recovery Data

    PubMed Central

    Kleiven, Alf Ring; Fernandez-Chacon, Albert; Nordahl, Jan-Harald; Moland, Even; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben Moland

    2016-01-01

    Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity. However, knowledge about the magnitude of recreational catches relative to commercial catches in coastal fisheries is generally sparse. Coastal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a target species for recreational fishers in the North Atlantic. In Norway, recreational fishers are allowed to use a variety of traps and nets as well as long-line and rod and line when fishing for cod. From 2005 to 2013, 9729 cod (mean size: 40 cm, range: 15–93 cm) were tagged and released in coastal Skagerrak, southeast Norway. Both high-reward (NOK 500) and low-reward tags (NOK 50) were used in this study. Because some harvested fish (even those posting high-reward tags) may go unreported by fishers, reporting rates were estimated from mark-recovery models that incorporate detection parameters in their structure, in addition to survival and mortality estimates. During 2005 to 2013, a total of 1707 tagged cod were recovered and reported by fishers. We estimate the overall annual survival to be 33% (SE 1.5). Recreational rod and line fishing were responsible for 33.7% (SE 2.4) of total mortality, followed by commercial fisheries (15.1% SE 0.8) and recreational fixed gear (6.8% SE 0.4). Natural mortality was 44.4% (SE 2.5) of total mortality. Our findings suggest that recreational fishing—rod and line fishing in particular—is responsible for a substantial part of fishing mortality exerted on coastal cod in southern Norway. PMID:26959371

  19. Discrimination between weaned and unweaned Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in capture-based aquaculture (CBA) by X-ray imaging and radio-frequency metal detector.

    PubMed

    Misimi, Ekrem; Martinsen, Svein; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Erikson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of two detection methods for use in discrimination and sorting of adult Atlantic cod (about 2 kg) in the small scale capture-based aquaculture (CBA). Presently, there is no established method for discrimination of weaned and unweaned cod in CBA. Generally, 60-70% of the wild-caught cod in the CBA are weaned into commercial dry feed. To increase profitability for the fish farmers, unweaned cod must be separated from the stock, meaning the fish must be sorted into two groups - unweaned and weaned from moist feed. The challenges with handling of large numbers of fish in cages, defined the limits of the applied technology. As a result, a working model was established, focusing on implementing different marking materials added to the fish feed, and different technology for detecting the feed presence in the fish gut. X-ray imaging in two modes (planar and dual energy band) and sensitive radio-frequency metal detection were the detection methods that were chosen for the investigations. Both methods were tested in laboratory conditions using dead fish with marked feed inserted into the gut cavity. In particular, the sensitive radio-frequency metal detection method with carbonyl powder showed very promising results in detection of marked feed. Results show also that Dual energy band X-ray imaging may have potential for prediction of fat content in the feed. Based on the investigations it can be concluded that both X-ray imaging and sensitive radio-frequency metal detector technology have the potential for detecting cod having consumed marked feed. These are all technologies that may be adapted to large scale handling of fish from fish cages. Thus, it may be possible to discriminate between unweaned and weaned cod in a large scale grading situation. Based on the results of this study, a suggestion for evaluation of concept for in-situ sorting system is presented.

  20. Effects of long-term temperature acclimation on thyroid hormone deiodinase function, plasma thyroid hormone levels, growth, and reproductive status of male Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Cyr, D G; Idler, D R; Audet, C; McLeese, J M; Eales, J G

    1998-01-01

    The recent collapse of the Northwestern Atlantic cod fisheries has coincided with a cooling of water temperatures. During this time the condition factor of cod has been poor. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of long-term temperature acclimation on growth reproduction and thyroid function in laboratory held Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). One of the key parameters used to assess thyroid function is the peripheral metabolism of L-thyroxine (T4) by microsomal deiodinase enzymes. Deiodinase function has not been described for gadid fish. T4 outer-ring deiodinating activity (apparent K(m) 1-2 nM) was confined primarily to liver. Its properties resembled those for hepatic T4ORD activity of other teleosts and the mammalian type II deiodinase. The T4ORD activity of cod liver exceeded that of salmonids and could explain the high plasma T3 levels (10-18 ng/ml), which were 2-5 times greater than T4 levels. T4 and T3 inner-ring deiodination was confined mainly to brain. In order to determine the effects of long-term temperature acclimation on cod, somatic growth, reproduction, and thyroidal status were assessed monthly in 400-900-g satiation-fed male Atlantic cod captured in June from the St. Lawrence Estuary and then acclimated from August to the following June under a natural photoperiod at 2-4 degrees C (LT) or 6-10 degrees C (HT). Reproductive status was determined from the gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasma testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) levels, and the appearance of milt; thyroidal status was determined from plasma T4 and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) levels and hepatic T4ORD activity to produce biologically active T3. Testis maturation (high levels of 1 and 11-KT, and milt release) occurred in April and May and was uninfluenced by acclimation temperature. LT cod grew more slowly than HT cod. Differences in body weight were particularly evident from December to February. In conclusion, (i) cod possess outer- and inner

  1. A review of the contributions of fisheries and climate variability to contrasting dynamics in two Arcto-boreal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks: Persistent high productivity in the Barents Sea and collapse on the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, George R.; Nakken, Odd; Brattey, John

    2013-07-01

    Stocks of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) across the North Atlantic and adjacent seas have been fished intensively for years, and many are now severely depleted. In order to promote recovery and sustainable harvesting, it is essential to understand factors that have contributed to the declines and to variability in rates of recovery. Considerable insight may be gleaned by comparing and contrasting the histories of the Northeast Arctic (NEA) cod in the Barents Sea - Svalbard area of the northeast Atlantic and the “northern cod” on the Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) shelf in the northwest Atlantic. These two stocks, which were among the 3 largest cod stocks during the middle of the 20th century, are Arcto-boreal, and have many species of prey and predators in common. The biomass of NEA cod has varied considerably over time, and in 2009 was a little above 60% of its maximum observed level, which occurred in the late 1940s and early 1950s. In contrast, the biomass of NL cod decreased steadily from the early 1960s to the late 1970s, increased somewhat during the 1980s, and crashed during the early 1990s to an extremely low level, at which it remained for a decade before showing recent indications of improvement. Although both stocks were influenced by similar changes in harvesting strategies and environmental circumstances, both biotic and abiotic, there are two events which stand out as being particularly influential. First, crises developed in the management of both stocks in the late 1980s. For NEA cod, the crisis was environmental, caused by the collapse of capelin (Mallotus villosus), the main food for adult cod, whereas for NL cod the crisis was caused by a sudden large reduction in scientific perception of stock size. The difference in response to these crises strongly influenced subsequent stock dynamics. Catches of NEA cod were reduced considerably, preventing severe overharvesting of the cod that at that time experienced low productivity, whereas catches of NL

  2. Regional changes in vertebra morphology during ontogeny reflect the life history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    PubMed Central

    Fjelldal, Per G; Totland, Geir K; Hansen, Tom; Kryvi, Harald; Wang, Xiyuan; Søndergaard, Jens L; Grotmol, Sindre

    2013-01-01

    This study examined vertebra formation, morphology, regional characters, and bending properties of the vertebral column of Atlantic cod throughout its life cycle (0–6 years). The first structure to form was the foremost neural arch, 21 days post hatching (dph), and the first vertebra centrum to form – as a chordacentrum – was the 3rd centrum at 28 dph. Thereafter, the notochord centra developed in a regular sequence towards the head and caudal fin. All vertebrae were formed within 50 dph. The vertebral column consisted of 52 (± 2) vertebrae (V) and could be divided into four distinct regions: (i) the cervical region (neck) (V1 and V2), characterized by short vertebra centra, prominent neural spines and absence of articulations with ribs; (ii) the abdominal region (trunk) (V3–V19), characterized by vertebrae with wing-shaped transverse processes (parapophyses) that all articulate with a rib; (iii) the caudal region (tail) (V20–V40), where the vertebra centra have haemal arches with prominent haemal spines; (iv) the ural region (V41 to the last vertebra), characterized by broad neural and haemal spines, providing sites of origin for muscles inserting on the fin rays – lepidotrichs – of the tail fin. The number of vertebrae in the cervical, abdominal and caudal regions was found to be constant, whereas in the ural region, numbers varied from 12 to 15. Geometric modelling based on combination of vertebra lengths, diameters and intervertebral distances showed an even flexibility throughout the column, except in the ural region, where flexibility increased. Throughout ontogeny, the vertebra centra of the different regions followed distinct patterns of growth; the relative length of the vertebrae increased in the cervical and abdominal regions, and decreased in the caudal and ural regions with increasing age. This may reflect changes in swimming mode with age, and/or that the production of large volumes of gametes during sexual maturation requires a

  3. Historical changes in genotypic frequencies at the Pantophysin locus in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in Icelandic waters: evidence of fisheries-induced selection?

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsdóttir, Klara B; Pardoe, Heidi; Magnússon, Árni; Björnsson, Höskuldur; Pampoulie, Christophe; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Marteinsdóttir, Guðrún

    2011-01-01

    The intense fishing mortality imposed on Atlantic cod in Icelandic waters during recent decades has resulted in marked changes in stock abundance, as well as in age and size composition. Using a molecular marker known to be under selection (Pan I) along with a suite of six neutral microsatellite loci, we analysed an archived data set and revealed evidence of distinct temporal changes in the frequencies of genotypes at the Pan I locus among spawning Icelandic cod, collected between 1948 and 2002, a period characterized by high fishing pressure. Concurrently, temporal stability in the composition of the microsatellite loci was established within the same data set. The frequency of the Pan IBB genotype decreased over a period of six decades, concomitant with considerable spatial and technical changes in fishing effort that resulted in the disappearance of older individuals from the fishable stock. Consequently, these changes have likely led to a change in the genotype frequencies at this locus in the spawning stock of Icelandic cod. The study highlights the value of molecular genetic approaches that combine functional and neutral markers examined in the same set of individuals for investigations of the selective effects of harvesting and reiterates the need for an evolutionary dimension to fisheries management. PMID:25568005

  4. An evaluation of the duration of efficacy of emamectin benzoate in the control of Caligus curtus Müller infestations in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L.

    PubMed

    Hamre, L A; Lunestad, B T; Hannisdal, R; Samuelsen, O B

    2011-06-01

    The duration of efficacy of emamectin benzoate in the control of Caligus curtus infestations in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., was studied following an administration of 50 μg kg⁻¹ for seven consecutive days. No lice were found on medicated fish when challenged 1 week (challenge 1) or 5 weeks (challenge 2) following termination of medication, whereas the mean abundance of lice among the unmedicated fish was 17.9 and 19.3 lice per fish in challenge 1 and 2, respectively. Muscle concentrations of 19.5 ± 8.2 ng g⁻¹ and 3.4 ± 0.9 ng g⁻¹, respectively, and skin concentrations of 23.1 ± 10.8 and 4.2 ± 1.0 ng g⁻¹, respectively, were found 27 and 55 days following the termination of medication. Tissue concentrations and the duration of efficacy indicate a dosing regime for emamectin in cod, similar to the regime used for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Copepods enhance nutritional status, growth and development in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae — can we identify the underlying factors?

    PubMed Central

    van der Meeren, Terje; Rønnestad, Ivar; Mangor-Jensen, Anders; Galloway, Trina F.; Kjørsvik, Elin; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The current commercial production protocols for Atlantic cod depend on enriched rotifers and Artemia during first-feeding, but development and growth remain inferior to fish fed natural zooplankton. Two experiments were conducted in order to identify the underlying factors for this phenomenon. In the first experiment (Exp-1), groups of cod larvae were fed either (a) natural zooplankton, mainly copepods, increasing the size of prey as the larvae grew or (b) enriched rotifers followed by Artemia (the intensive group). In the second experiment (Exp-2), two groups of larvae were fed as in Exp-1, while a third group was fed copepod nauplii (approximately the size of rotifers) throughout the larval stage. In both experiments, growth was not significantly different between the groups during the first three weeks after hatching, but from the last part of the rotifer feeding period and onwards, the growth of the larvae fed copepods was higher than that of the intensive group. In Exp-2, the growth was similar between the two copepod groups during the expeimental period, indicating that nutrient composition, not prey size caused the better growth on copepods. Analyses of the prey showed that total fatty acid composition and the ratio of phospholipids to total lipids was slightly different in the prey organisms, and that protein, taurine, astaxanthin and zinc were lower on a dry weight basis in rotifers than in copepods. Other measured nutrients as DHA, all analysed vitamins, manganese, copper and selenium were similar or higher in the rotifers. When compared to the present knowledge on nutrient requirements, protein and taurine appeared to be the most likely limiting nutrients for growth in cod larvae fed rotifers and Artemia. Larvae fed rotifers/Artemia had a higher whole body lipid content than larvae fed copepods at the end of the experiment (stage 5) after the fish had been fed the same formulated diet for approximately 2 weeks. PMID:26038712

  6. Use of hydrolysates from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) viscera as a complex nitrogen source for lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Aspmo, Stein Ivar; Horn, Svein Jarle; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2005-07-01

    Hydrolysates of cod viscera were tested as an alternative to commonly used complex nitrogen sources (peptones and/or extracts) for the type strains of the lactic acid bacteria Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Comparative studies with MRS-like media containing different nitrogen sources showed that all the fish hydrolysates performed equally well or better than commercial extracts/peptones for all selected lactic acid bacteria.

  7. Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals perturbation of lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) treated with PCB 153.

    PubMed

    Yadetie, Fekadu; Oveland, Eystein; Døskeland, Anne; Berven, Frode; Goksøyr, Anders; Karlsen, Odd André

    2017-04-01

    PCB 153 is one of the most abundant PCB congeners detected in biological samples. It is a persistent compound that is still present in the environment despite the ban on production and use of PCBs in the late 1970s. It has strong tendencies to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in biota, and studies have suggested that it is an endocrine and metabolic disruptor. In order to study mechanisms of toxicity, we exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to various doses of PCB 153 (0, 0.5, 2 and 8mg/kg body weight) for two weeks and examined the effects on expression of liver proteins using label-free quantitative proteomics. Label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the liver proteome resulted in the quantification of 1272 proteins, of which 78 proteins were differentially regulated in the PCB 153-treated dose groups compared to the control group. Functional enrichment analysis showed that pathways significantly affected are related to lipid metabolism, cytoskeletal remodeling, cell cycle and cell adhesion. Importantly, the main effects appear to be on lipid metabolism, with up-regulation of enzymes in the de novo fatty acid synthesis pathway, consistent with previous transcriptomics results. Increased plasma triglyceride levels were also observed in the PCB 153 treated fish, in agreement with the induction of the lipogenic genes and proteins. The results suggest that PCB 153 perturbs lipid metabolism in the Atlantic cod liver. Elevated levels of lipogenic enzymes and plasma triglycerides further suggest increased synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Ontogeny and Brain Distribution Dynamics of the Appetite Regulators NPY, CART and pOX in Larval Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hoang T. M. D.; Angotzi, Anna Rita; Ebbesson, Lars O. E.; Karlsen, Ørjan

    2016-01-01

    Similar to many marine teleost species, Atlantic cod undergo remarkable physiological changes during the early life stages with concurrent and profound changes in feeding biology and ecology. In contrast to the digestive system, very little is known about the ontogeny and the localization of the centers that control appetite and feed ingestion in the developing brain of fish. We examined the expression patterns of three appetite regulating factors (orexigenic: neuropeptide Y, NPY; prepro-orexin, pOX and anorexigenic: cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, CART) in discrete brain regions of developing Atlantic cod using chromogenic and double fluorescent in situ hybridization. Differential temporal and spatial expression patterns for each appetite regulator were found from first feeding (4 days post hatch; dph) to juvenile stage (76 dph). Neurons expressing NPY mRNA were detected in the telencephalon (highest expression), diencephalon, and optic tectum from 4 dph onward. CART mRNA expression had a wider distribution along the anterior-posterior brain axis, including both telencephalon and diencephalon from 4 dph. From 46 dph, CART transcripts were also detected in the olfactory bulb, region of the nucleus of medial longitudinal fascicle, optic tectum and midbrain tegmentum. At 4 and 20 dph, pOX mRNA expression was exclusively found in the preoptic region, but extended to the hypothalamus at 46 and 76 dph. Co-expression of both CART and pOX genes were also observed in several hypothalamic neurons throughout larval development. Our results show that both orexigenic and anorexigenic factors are present in the telencephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon in cod larvae. The telencephalon mostly contains key factors of hunger control (NPY), while the diencephalon, and particularly the hypothalamus may have a more complex role in modulating the multifunctional control of appetite in this species. As the larvae develop, the overall progression in temporal and

  9. The Ontogeny and Brain Distribution Dynamics of the Appetite Regulators NPY, CART and pOX in Larval Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.).

    PubMed

    Le, Hoang T M D; Angotzi, Anna Rita; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Karlsen, Ørjan; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Similar to many marine teleost species, Atlantic cod undergo remarkable physiological changes during the early life stages with concurrent and profound changes in feeding biology and ecology. In contrast to the digestive system, very little is known about the ontogeny and the localization of the centers that control appetite and feed ingestion in the developing brain of fish. We examined the expression patterns of three appetite regulating factors (orexigenic: neuropeptide Y, NPY; prepro-orexin, pOX and anorexigenic: cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, CART) in discrete brain regions of developing Atlantic cod using chromogenic and double fluorescent in situ hybridization. Differential temporal and spatial expression patterns for each appetite regulator were found from first feeding (4 days post hatch; dph) to juvenile stage (76 dph). Neurons expressing NPY mRNA were detected in the telencephalon (highest expression), diencephalon, and optic tectum from 4 dph onward. CART mRNA expression had a wider distribution along the anterior-posterior brain axis, including both telencephalon and diencephalon from 4 dph. From 46 dph, CART transcripts were also detected in the olfactory bulb, region of the nucleus of medial longitudinal fascicle, optic tectum and midbrain tegmentum. At 4 and 20 dph, pOX mRNA expression was exclusively found in the preoptic region, but extended to the hypothalamus at 46 and 76 dph. Co-expression of both CART and pOX genes were also observed in several hypothalamic neurons throughout larval development. Our results show that both orexigenic and anorexigenic factors are present in the telencephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon in cod larvae. The telencephalon mostly contains key factors of hunger control (NPY), while the diencephalon, and particularly the hypothalamus may have a more complex role in modulating the multifunctional control of appetite in this species. As the larvae develop, the overall progression in temporal and

  10. The impact of a moderate chronic temperature increase on spleen immune-relevant gene transcription depends on whether Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are stimulated with bacterial versus viral antigens.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tiago S; Gamperl, A Kurt; Nash, Gord; Booman, Marije; Barat, Ashoktaru; Rise, Matthew L

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to elevated temperature is an inherent feature of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) sea-cage culture in some regions (e.g., Newfoundland) and may also become an increasingly prevalent challenge for wild fish populations because of accelerated climate change. Therefore, understanding how elevated temperatures impacts the immune response of this commercially important species may help to reduce the potential negative impacts of such challenges. Previously, we investigated the impacts of moderately elevated temperature on the antiviral responses of Atlantic cod (Hori et al. 2012) and reported that elevated temperature modulated the spleen transcriptome response to polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC, a viral mimic). Herein, we report a complementary microarray study that investigated the impact of the same elevated temperature regime on the Atlantic cod spleen transcriptome response to intraperitoneal (IP) injection of formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida (ASAL). Fish were held at two different temperatures (10 °C and 16 °C) prior to immune stimulation and sampled 6 and 24 h post-injection (HPI). In this experiment, we identified 711 and 666 nonredundant ASAL-responsive genes at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. These included several known antibacterial genes, including hepcidin, cathelicidin, ferritin heavy subunit, and interleukin 8. However, we only identified 15 differentially expressed genes at 6HPI and 2 at 24HPI (FDR 1%) when comparing ASAL-injected fish held at 10 °C versus 16 °C. In contrast, the same comparisons with pIC-injected fish yielded 290 and 339 differentially expressed genes (FDR 1%) at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. These results suggest that moderately elevated temperature has a lesser effect on the Atlantic cod spleen transcriptome response to ASAL (i.e., the antibacterial response) than to pIC (i.e., antiviral response). Thus, the impacts of high temperatures on the cod's immune response may be pathogen dependent.

  11. Evidence for a regulatory loop between cholecystokinin (CCK) and tryptic enzyme activity in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Tillner, Robert; Rønnestad, Ivar; Harboe, Torstein; Ueberschär, Bernd

    2013-11-01

    In order to maximize protein digestion, the release of enzymes into the gut lumen is closely controlled by a regulatory loop. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is among the enteric hormones that play a key role in the control of digestive enzyme secretion, but its role in first-feeding larvae is still unclear and may differ between species. However, in all marine fish larvae that have not developed a stomach by first-feeding, trypsin is the most important proteolytic enzyme. In order to examine the regulation and feedback mechanisms in the gut of larval cod, we therefore studied the interactions between cholecystokinin and tryptic enzyme activity following the administration of solutions containing test substances directly into the gut. We tube-fed a single dose of physiological saline solution containing either CCK, CCK antagonist, trypsin inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin (PHA; a possible trigger for the digestive response) or physiological saline alone, while a further control group was left untreated. We then followed the response in CCK and tryptic enzyme activity for 0.5-8h after the administration. We performed the experiment on larvae at 26day post first-feeding, which is before the stomach has evolved and the size of the larvae allows easier handling. Individual larvae were analyzed for CCK and tryptic enzyme activity using radioimmunoassay and fluorimetric techniques respectively. Both factors varied over time in the untreated control group, possibly due to an endogenous daily rhythm. The higher CCK levels at 4h and 8h in the saline-injected group may be caused by reflexes initiated by distension of the gut. An increase in tryptic enzyme activity after injection of CCK supports the hypothesis that this hormone plays a part in the release of pancreatic enzymes in larval cod at this developmental stage. However, administration of a CCK antagonist and a trypsin inhibitor did not reveal conclusive results, probably due to the relatively low concentrations used. The response

  12. Adjustments of molecular key components of branchial ion and pH regulation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to ocean acidification and warming.

    PubMed

    Michael, Katharina; Kreiss, Cornelia M; Hu, Marian Y; Koschnick, Nils; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Dupont, Sam; Pörtner, Hans-O; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Marine teleost fish sustain compensation of extracellular pH after exposure to hypercapnia by means of efficient ion and acid-base regulation. Elevated rates of ion and acid-base regulation under hypercapnia may be stimulated further by elevated temperature. Here, we characterized the regulation of transepithelial ion transporters (NKCC1, NBC1, SLC26A6, NHE1 and 2) and ATPases (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and V-type H(+) ATPase) in gills of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after 4 weeks of exposure to ambient and future PCO2 levels (550 μatm, 1200 μatm, 2200 μatm) at optimum (10 °C) and summer maximum temperature (18 °C), respectively. Gene expression of most branchial ion transporters revealed temperature- and dose-dependent responses to elevated PCO2. Transcriptional regulation resulted in stable protein expression at 10 °C, whereas expression of most transport proteins increased at medium PCO2 and 18 °C. mRNA and protein expression of distinct ion transport proteins were closely co-regulated, substantiating cellular functional relationships. Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities were PCO2 independent, but increased with acclimation temperature, whereas H(+) ATPase capacities were thermally compensated but decreased at medium PCO2 and 10 °C. When functional capacities of branchial ATPases were compared with mitochondrial F1Fo ATP-synthase strong correlations of F1Fo ATP-synthase and ATPase capacities generally indicate close coordination of branchial aerobic ATP demand and supply. Our data indicate physiological plasticity in the gills of cod to adjust to a warming, acidifying ocean within limits. In light of the interacting and non-linear, dose-dependent effects of both climate factors the role of these mechanisms in shaping resilience under climate change remains to be explored. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular identification and transmission studies of X-cell parasites from Atlantic cod Gadus morhua (Gadiformes: Gadidae) and the northern black flounder Pseudopleuronectes obscurus (Pleuronectiformes: Pleuronectidae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidermal pseudotumours from Hippoglossoides dubius and Acanthogobius flavimanus in Japan and gill lesions in Limanda limanda from the UK have been shown to be caused by phylogenetically related protozoan parasites, known collectively as X-cells. However, the phylogenetic position of the X-cell group is not well supported within any of the existing protozoan phyla and they are currently thought to be members of the Alveolata. Ultrastructural features of X-cells in fish pseudotumours are somewhat limited and no typical environmental stages, such as spores or flagellated cells, have been observed. The life cycles for these parasites have not been demonstrated and it remains unknown how transmission to a new host occurs. In the present study, pseudobranchial pseudotumours from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, in Iceland and epidermal pseudotumours from the northern black flounder, Pseudopleuronectes obscurus, in Japan were used in experimental transmission studies to establish whether direct transmission of the parasite is achievable. In addition, X-cells from Atlantic cod were sequenced to confirm whether they are phylogenetically related to other X-cells and epidermal pseudotumours from the northern black flounder were analysed to establish whether the same parasite is responsible for infecting different flatfish species in Japan. Results Phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequence data from Atlantic cod X-cells show that they are a related parasite that occupies a basal position to the clade containing other X-cell parasites. The X-cell parasite causing epidermal pseudotumours in P. obscurus is the same parasite that causes pseudotumours in H. dubius. Direct, fish to fish, transmission of the X-cell parasites used in this study, via oral feeding or injection, was not achieved. Non-amoeboid X-cells are contained within discrete sac-like structures that are loosely attached to epidermal pseudotumours in flatfish; these X-cells are

  14. Are Atlantic cod in Store Lungegårdsvann, a seawater recipient in Bergen, affected by environmental contaminants? A qRT-PCR survey.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Lie, Kai K; Goksøyr, Anders; Midtun, Torbjørn; Frantzen, Sylvia; Maage, Amund

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the transcriptional levels of selected genes in liver and head kidney of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua sampled in Store Lungegårdsvann, a seawater recipient situated in the middle of the city of Bergen, Norway, for effects of contaminants released from municipal sewage effluents and former dump sites. Five males and six females were caught with fish traps in Store Lungegårdsvann in 2006. Cod from a location near Jondal in the Hardanger Fjord were used as controls (five males and four females). The following 12 genes were picked as potential markers of contaminant exposure: cytochrome P-450 1A (CYP1A), cytochrome P-450 2C33-like (CYP2C33-like), cytochrome P-450 3C (CYP3C), glutathione S-transcriptase pi (GST) (detoxification and biotransformation), Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) (oxidative stress), vitellogenin A (VtgA), vitellogenin B (VtgB), zona pellucida 2 (ZP2) (effects of estrogen disruptors), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) (radiation). The results showed that two males caught in Store Lungegårdsvann possessed high transcriptional levels of VtgA, VtgB, and ZP2 mRNA in the liver. In addition, CYP1A was 4.9-fold higher expressed in males from Store Lungegårdsvann compared to males from the reference population. CYP2C33-like mRNA expression was significantly higher (1.8-fold) in females from Store Lungegårdsvann than in females from the reference population. CYP1A was significantly lower (4.7-fold) expressed in head kidney of females from Store Lungegårdsvann than in females from Hardanger Fjord. In a follow-up examination with sexually mature cod sampled in Store Lungegårdsvann in 2007, the livers were shown to contain high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dioxin-like PCB. In conclusion, fish inhabiting Store Lungegårdsvann are exposed not only to endocrine disruptors but also to other contaminants that

  15. Computer vision-based evaluation of pre- and postrigor changes in size and shape of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets during rigor mortis and ice storage: effects of perimortem handling stress.

    PubMed

    Misimi, E; Erikson, U; Digre, H; Skavhaug, A; Mathiassen, J R

    2008-03-01

    The present study describes the possibilities for using computer vision-based methods for the detection and monitoring of transient 2D and 3D changes in the geometry of a given product. The rigor contractions of unstressed and stressed fillets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were used as a model system. Gradual changes in fillet shape and size (area, length, width, and roundness) were recorded for 7 and 3 d, respectively. Also, changes in fillet area and height (cross-section profiles) were tracked using a laser beam and a 3D digital camera. Another goal was to compare rigor developments of the 2 species of farmed fish, and whether perimortem stress affected the appearance of the fillets. Some significant changes in fillet size and shape were found (length, width, area, roundness, height) between unstressed and stressed fish during the course of rigor mortis as well as after ice storage (postrigor). However, the observed irreversible stress-related changes were small and would hardly mean anything for postrigor fish processors or consumers. The cod were less stressed (as defined by muscle biochemistry) than the salmon after the 2 species had been subjected to similar stress bouts. Consequently, the difference between the rigor courses of unstressed and stressed fish was more extreme in the case of salmon. However, the maximal whole fish rigor strength was judged to be about the same for both species. Moreover, the reductions in fillet area and length, as well as the increases in width, were basically of similar magnitude for both species. In fact, the increases in fillet roundness and cross-section height were larger for the cod. We conclude that the computer vision method can be used effectively for automated monitoring of changes in 2D and 3D shape and size of fish fillets during rigor mortis and ice storage. In addition, it can be used for grading of fillets according to uniformity in size and shape, as well as measurement of

  16. Deformation of the notochord by pressure from the swim bladder may cause malformation of the vertebral column in cultured Atlantic cod Gadus morhua larvae: a case study.

    PubMed

    Grotmol, Sindre; Kryvi, Harald; Totland, Geir K

    2005-06-01

    This study describes a malformation that frequently occurs in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in intensive culture systems. The malformation is characterised by a slight upward tilt of the head and an indented dorsal body contour at the transition between the head and the trunk, and is first evident to the fish farmer when the cod reach the juvenile stage. These abnormalities are associated with malformations of the neurocranium, the cranial region of the vertebral column and the cranial part of the epaxial lateral muscles. The pathogenesis involves deformation of the notochord, which can be observed in larvae about 7 d post-hatch (dph) and onwards. The deformation consists of an increase in dorsal curvature of the notochord in the region above the swim bladder. In the same region, the notochord has an abnormal cross-sectional outline, characterised by a groove-shaped, longitudinal impression along the ventral surface of the sheath. In most cases, the swim bladder fills the impression, and in severely affected larvae it forms a hernia-like lesion in the notochord. The deformation of the notochord seems to be conveyed to the vertebral body anlagen (chordacentra), which in teleosts are formed by mineralisation within the notochordal sheath. The vertebral bodies adopt an abnormal wedge shape, with a ventral concavity, and the neural arches are most often S-shaped. A continuous range of degrees of the malformation can be observed. All these pathomorphological characteristics are compatible with the notion that the notochord has been subjected to an upward mechanical force, probably generated by a persistent increase in pressure between the swim bladder and the notochord during the period of development of the vertebral anlagen. Our results thus indicate that the critical time window with regard to development of the malformation is from 18 to 36 dph, when the initial formation of the vertebrae takes place. Chronic overinflation of the swim bladder or pathological dilatation

  17. RNA-Seq analysis of transcriptome responses in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) precision-cut liver slices exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and 17α-ethynylestradiol.

    PubMed

    Yadetie, Fekadu; Zhang, Xiaokang; Hanna, Eileen Marie; Aranguren-Abadía, Libe; Eide, Marta; Blaser, Nello; Brun, Morten; Jonassen, Inge; Goksøyr, Anders; Karlsen, Odd André

    2018-06-07

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) pathway, and endocrine disruptors acting through the estrogen receptor pathway are among environmental pollutants of major concern. In this work, we exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) to BaP (10 nM and 1000 nM), ethynylestradiol (EE2) (10 nM and 1000 nM), and equimolar mixtures of BaP and EE2 (10 nM and 1000 nM) for 48 h, and performed RNA-Seq based transcriptome mapping followed by systematic bioinformatics analyses. Our gene expression analysis showed that several genes were differentially expressed in response to BaP and EE2 treatments in PCLS. Strong up-regulation of genes coding for the cytochrome P450 1a (Cyp1a) enzyme and the Ahr repressor (Ahrrb) was observed in BaP treated PCLS. EE2 treatment of liver slices strongly up-regulated genes coding for precursors of vitellogenin (Vtg) and eggshell zona pellucida (Zp) proteins. As expected, pathway enrichment and network analysis showed that the Ahr and estrogen receptor pathways are among the top affected by BaP and EE2 treatments, respectively. Interestingly, two genes coding for fibroblast growth factor 3 (Fgf3) and fibroblast growth factor 4 (Fgf4) were up-regulated by EE2 in this study. To our knowledge, the fgf3 and fgf4 genes have not previously been described in relation to estrogen signaling in fish liver, and these results suggest the modulation of the FGF signaling pathway by estrogens in fish. The signature expression profiles of top differentially expressed genes in response to the single compound (BaP or EE2) treatment were generally maintained in the expression responses to the equimolar binary mixtures. However, in the mixture-treated groups, BaP appeared to have anti-estrogenic effects as observed by lower number of differentially expressed putative EE2 responsive genes. Our in-depth quantitative analysis of changes in liver transcriptome

  18. Effects of 17alpha-methyltestosterone exposure on steroidogenesis and cyclin-B mRNA expression in previtellogenic oocytes of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Kortner, Trond M; Arukwe, Augustine

    2007-11-01

    Steroid hormone (estrogens and androgens) synthesis and regulation involve a large number of enzymes and potential biochemical pathways. In the context of these biochemical pathways, it is believed that the true rate-limiting step in acute steroid production is the movement of cholesterol across the mitochondrial membrane by the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and the subsequent conversion to pregnenolone by cytochrome P450-mediated side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme. Oocyte development is a complex process that is triggered by the maturation-promoting factor (MPF) involving cyclin-B as a regulatory factor. In the present study, we evaluated the endocrine effects of 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) on steroidogenic pathways of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), using an in vitro previtellogenic oocyte culture technique that is based on an agarose floating method. Tissue was cultured in a humidified incubator at 10 degrees C for 1, 5, 10 and 20 days with different concentrations of the synthetic androgen MT (0 (control), 1, 10, 100 and 1000 microM) dissolved in ethanol (0.3%). Gene expressions for StAR, P450scc, aromatase-alpha (P450aromA) and cyclin-B were detected using validated real-time PCR with specific primer pairs. Cellular localization of the StAR protein and P450scc were performed using the immunohistochemical technique with antisera prepared against synthetic peptide for both proteins. Steroid hormones (estradiol-17beta: E2 and testosterone: T) levels were estimated using enzyme immunoassay. Our data showed significant concentration-specific increase (at day 1 and 5) and decrease (at day 10 and 20) of the StAR mRNA expression after exposure to MT. P450scc expression showed a MT concentration-specific decrease during the exposure periods and cyclin-B mRNA expression was decreased in MT concentration-dependent manner at days 10 and 20 (reaching almost total inhibition after exposure to 1000 microM MT). MT exposure produced variable effects on the P

  19. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P < 0.001) final weight than cod fed the FO diet (50.8 ± 10.3 g/fish). Cod fed 100CO15CM had a lower (P < 0.001) final weight (35.0 ± 8.0 g) than those fed 100CO (43.6 ± 8.9 g) and 100COSEFM (46.7 ± 10.7 g). Cod tissues in the 100COSEFM treatment were most impacted by dietary fatty acid profile. Multivariate statistics revealed that FO and 100COSEFM tissue fatty acid profiles were 21 to 31% different, depending on tissue type. The full replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P < 0.001) elongation of 18:3ω3 of 1.6%. These results suggest that excess 18:3ω3 from camelina oil caused some fatty acid

  20. Impact of long-term moderate hypercapnia and elevated temperature on the energy budget of isolated gills of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Kreiss, Cornelia M; Michael, Katharina; Bock, Christian; Lucassen, Magnus; Pörtner, Hans-O

    2015-04-01

    Effects of severe hypercapnia have been extensively studied in marine fishes, while knowledge on the impacts of moderately elevated CO2 levels and their combination with warming is scarce. Here we investigate ion regulation mechanisms and energy budget in gills from Atlantic cod acclimated long-term to elevated PCO2 levels (2500 μatm) and temperature (18°C). Isolated perfused gill preparations were established to determine gill thermal plasticity during acute exposures (10-22°C) and in vivo costs of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, protein and RNA synthesis. Maximum enzyme capacities of F1Fo-ATPase, H(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were measured in vitro in crude gill homogenates. After whole animal acclimation to elevated PCO2 and/or warming, branchial oxygen consumption responded more strongly to acute temperature change. The fractions of gill respiration allocated to protein and RNA synthesis remained unchanged. In gills of fish CO2-exposed at both temperatures, energy turnover associated with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was reduced by 30% below rates of control fish. This contrasted in vitro capacities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, which remained unchanged under elevated CO2 at 10°C, and earlier studies which had found a strong upregulation under severe hypercapnia. F1Fo-ATPase capacities increased in hypercapnic gills at both temperatures, whereas Na(+)/K(+)ATPase and H(+)-ATPase capacities only increased in response to elevated CO2 and warming indicating the absence of thermal compensation under CO2. We conclude that in vivo ion regulatory energy demand is lowered under moderately elevated CO2 levels despite the stronger thermal response of total gill respiration and the upregulation of F1Fo-ATPase. This effect is maintained at elevated temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimized conditions for primary culture of pituitary cells from the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The importance of osmolality, pCO₂, and pH.

    PubMed

    Hodne, Kjetil; von Krogh, Kristine; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Sand, Olav; Haug, Trude M

    2012-09-01

    Protocols for primary cultures of teleost cells are commonly only moderately adjusted from similar protocols for mammalian cells, the main adjustment often being of temperature. Because aquatic habitats are in general colder than mammalian body temperatures and teleosts have gills in direct contact with water, pH and buffer capacity of blood and extracellular fluid are different in fish and mammals. Plasma osmolality is generally higher in marine teleosts than in mammals. Using Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as a model, we have optimized these physiological parameters to maintain primary pituitary cells in culture for an extended period without loosing key properties. L-15 medium with adjusted osmolality, adapted to low pCO(2) (3.8mm Hg) and temperature (12°C), and with pH 7.85, maintained the cells in a physiologically sounder state than traditional culture medium, significantly improving cell viability compared to the initial protocol. In the optimized culture medium, resting membrane potential and response to releasing hormone were stable for at least two weeks, and the proportion of cells firing action potentials during spawning season was about seven times higher than in the original culture medium. The cells were moderately more viable when the modified medium was supplemented with newborn calf serum or artificial serum substitute. Compared to serum-free L-15 medium, expression of key genes (lhb, fshb, and gnrhr2a) was better maintained in medium containing SSR, whereas NCS tended to decrease the expression level. Although serum-free medium is adequate for many applications, serum supplement may be preferable for experiments dependent on membrane integrity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of elevated dissolved carbon dioxide and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, given singly and in combination, on steroidogenic and biotransformation pathways of Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Preus-Olsen, Gunnhild; Olufsen, Marianne O; Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Letcher, Robert J; Arukwe, Augustine

    2014-10-01

    In the aquatic environments, the predicted changes in water temperature, pO2 and pCO2 could result in hypercapnic and hypoxic conditions for aquatic animals. These conditions are thought to affect several basic cellular and physiological mechanisms. Yet, possible adverse effects of elevated CO2 (hypercapnia) on teleost fish, as well as combined effects with emerging and legacy environmental contaminants are poorly investigated. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were divided into groups and exposed to three different water bath PFOS exposure regimes (0 (control), 100 and 200 μg L(-1)) for 5 days at 1h/day, followed by three different CO2-levels (normocapnia, moderate (0.3%) and high (0.9%)). The moderate CO2 level is the predicted near future (within year 2300) level, while 0.9% represent severe hypercapnia. Tissue samples were collected at 3, 6 and 9 days after initiated CO2 exposure. Effects on the endocrine and biotransformation systems were examined by analyzing levels of sex steroid hormones (E2, T, 11-KT) and transcript expression of estrogen responsive genes (ERα, Vtg-α, Vtg-β, ZP2 and ZP3). In addition, transcripts for genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (cyp1a and cyp3a) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) were analyzed. Hypercapnia alone produced increased levels of sex steroid hormones (E2, T, 11-KT) with concomitant mRNA level increase of estrogen responsive genes, while PFOS produced weak and time-dependent effects on E2-inducible gene transcription. Combined PFOS and hypercapnia exposure produced increased effects on sex steroid levels as compared to hypercapnia alone, with transcript expression patterns that are indicative of time-dependent interactive effects. Exposure to hypercapnia singly or in combination with PFOS produced modulations of the biotransformation and hypoxic responses that were apparently concentration- and time-dependent. Loading plots of principal component analysis (PCA) produced a significant

  3. Seasonal and annual variation in the diet of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in relation to the abundance of capelin (Mallotus villosus) off eastern Newfoundland, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Methven, David A.; Piatt, John F.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of capelin as prey for cod has long been known (Thompson, 1943; and see Lilly (1987) for a review); however, no studies have been conducted on how the highly dynamic seasonal and yearly variations in capelin abundance affect cod diet. We studied the occurrence of capelin in cod stomachs in relation to the relative abundance of capelin at Witless Bay, Newfoundland (47°15’N 52°46’W), during June, July and August, 1982-1984. The mean number of capelin per stomach and the per cent occurrence of stomachs containing capelin were determined for each collection of stomachs. A total of 680 stomachs were examined. Cod were sampled from those caught in gillnets by fishermen and averaged 66 cm ± 8 (s.d.) in 1983 and 62 cm ± 8 (s.d.) in 1984. Relative abundance of capelin in the local habitat was determined by conducting hydroacoustic surveys around Gull Island in Witless Bay, the same area where cod were collected for stomach content analysis. Only hydroacoustic surveys conducted within three days of cod stomach collections were analyzed. Further details of hydroacoustic surveys including quantifications of acoustic echograms are described in Piatt (1989).

  4. The role of extracellular matrix components in pin bone attachments during storage-a comparison between farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and cod (Gadus morhua L.).

    PubMed

    Rønning, Sissel B; Østbye, Tone-Kari; Krasnov, Aleksei; Vuong, Tram T; Veiseth-Kent, Eva; Kolset, Svein O; Pedersen, Mona E

    2017-04-01

    Pin bones represent a major problem for processing and quality of fish products. Development of methods of removal requires better knowledge of the pin bones' attachment to the muscle and structures involved in the breakdown during loosening. In this study, pin bones from cod and salmon were dissected from fish fillets after slaughter or storage on ice for 5 days, and thereafter analysed with molecular methods, which revealed major differences between these species before and after storage. The connective tissue (CT) attaches the pin bone to the muscle in cod, while the pin bones in salmon are embedded in adipose tissue. Collagens, elastin, lectin-binding proteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are all components of the attachment site, and this differ between salmon and cod, resulting in a CT in cod that is more resistant to enzymatic degradation compared to the CT in salmon. Structural differences are reflected in the composition of transcriptome. Microarray analysis comparing the attachment sites of the pin bones with a reference muscle sample showed limited differences in salmon. In cod, on the other hand, the variances were substantial, and the gene expression profiles suggested difference in myofibre structure, metabolism and cell processes between the pin bone attachment site and the reference muscle. Degradation of the connective tissue occurs closest to the pin bones and not in the neighbouring tissue, which was shown using light microscopy. This study shows that the attachment of the pin bones in cod and salmon is different; therefore, the development of methods for removal should be tailored to each individual species.

  5. Environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in flounder (Platichthys flesus), herring (Clupea harengus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from chemical munitions dumping zones in the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Baršienė, Janina; Butrimavičienė, Laura; Grygiel, Wlodzimierz; Lang, Thomas; Michailovas, Aleksandras; Jackūnas, Tomas

    2014-05-01

    The data on environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity levels as well as on genotoxicity risk in flounder (Platichthys flesus), herring (Clupea harengus) and cod (Gadus morhua) collected in 2010-2012 at 42 stations located in chemical munitions dumping areas of the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The frequency of micronuclei, nuclear buds and nucleoplasmic bridges in erythrocytes was used as genotoxicity endpoint and the induction of fragmented-apoptotic, bi-nucleated and 8-shaped erythrocytes as cytotoxicity endpoint. The most significantly increased geno-cytotoxicity levels were determined in fish collected near known chemical munitions dumpsites. Extremely high genotoxicity risk for flounder were identified at 21 out of 24 stations, for herring at 29 out of 31 and for cod at 5 out of 10 stations studied. The reference level of genotoxicity was not recorded at any of the stations revealing that in the sampling area fish were affected generally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Injection-salting and cold-smoking of farmed atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at different stages of Rigor Mortis: effect on physical properties.

    PubMed

    Akse, L; Birkeland, S; Tobiassen, T; Joensen, S; Larsen, R

    2008-10-01

    Processing of fish is generally conducted postrigor, but prerigor processing is associated with some potential advantages. The aim of this study was to study how 5 processing regimes of cold-smoked cod and salmon conducted at different stages of rigor influenced yield, fillet shrinkage, and gaping. Farmed cod and salmon was filleted, salted by brine injection of 25% NaCl, and smoked for 2 h at different stages of rigor. Filleting and salting prerigor resulted in increased fillet shrinkage and less increase in weight during brine injection, which in turn was correlated to the salt content of the fillet. These effects were more pronounced in cod fillets when compared to salmon. Early processing reduced fillet gaping and fillets were evaluated as having a firmer texture. In a follow-up trial with cod, shrinkage and weight gain during injection was studied as an effect of processing time postmortem. No changes in weight gain were observed for fillets salted the first 24 h postmortem; however, by delaying the processing 12 h postmortem, the high and rapid shrinking of cod fillets during brine injection was halved.

  7. Climate induced temperature effects on growth performance, fecundity and recruitment in marine fish: developing a hypothesis for cause and effect relationships in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) and common eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pörtner, H. O.; Berdal, B.; Blust, R.; Brix, O.; Colosimo, A.; De Wachter, B.; Giuliani, A.; Johansen, T.; Fischer, T.; Knust, R.; Lannig, G.; Naevdal, G.; Nedenes, A.; Nyhammer, G.; Sartoris, F. J.; Serendero, I.; Sirabella, P.; Thorkildsen, S.; Zakhartsev, M.

    2001-12-01

    Effects of global warming on animal distribution and performance become visible in many marine ecosystems. The present study was designed to develop a concept for a cause and effect understanding with respect to temperature changes and to explain ecological findings based on physiological processes. The concept is based on a wide comparison of invertebrate and fish species with a special focus on recent data obtained in two model species of fish. These fish species are both characterized by northern and southern distribution limits in the North Atlantic: eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus), as a typical non-migrating inhabitant of the coastal zone and the cod ( Gadus morhua), as a typical inhabitant of the continental shelf with a high importance for fisheries. Mathematical modelling demonstrates a clear significant correlation between climate induced temperature fluctuations and the recruitment of cod stocks. Growth performance in cod is optimal at temperatures close to 10°C, regardless of the population investigated in a latitudinal cline. However, temperature specific growth rates decrease at higher latitudes. Also, fecundity is less in White Sea than in North and Baltic Sea cod or eelpout populations. These findings suggest that a cold-induced shift in energy budget occurs which is unfavorable for growth performance and fecundity. Thermal tolerance limits shift depending on latitude and are characterized by oxygen limitation at both low or high temperatures. Oxygen supply to tissues is optimized at low temperature by a shift in hemoglobin isoforms and oxygen binding properties to lower affinities and higher unloading potential. Protective stimulation of heat shock protein synthesis was not observed. According to a recent model of thermal tolerance the downward shift of tolerance limits during cold adaptation is associated with rising mitochondrial densities and, thus, aerobic capacity and performance in the cold, especially in eurythermal species. At the same time

  8. Flesh quality and biochemistry of light-manipulated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and the significance of collagen cross-links on fillet firmness and gaping.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ørjan; Johnsen, Chris André

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether light-manipulation, causing accelerated or delayed maturation, could be used as a tool to improve fillet gaping score and texture of farmed cod (Gadus morhua L.) harvested during summer. Control and accelerated groups had completed spawning by the time of harvest, and expressed sexual dimorphism in various biometric and flesh quality parameters. Pyridinoline cross-links, a key biochemical parameter investigated, were positively correlated with texture (r(2) = 0.4), as also were cathepsin B&L and sex. Gaping was also impacted by pyridinoline cross-links, together with body mass and maturation. Interestingly, the level of gaping was significantly reduced with a pyridinoline cross-link concentration of >2500 pmols g(-1) dry mass. In conclusion, light-manipulation can be used as a tool to improve flesh texture of farmed cod with a low gaping score, but with compromise of increased dress out percentage for the accelerated group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcriptional responses in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after exposure to mercury-contaminated sediments obtained near the wreck of the German WW2 submarine U-864, and from Bergen Harbor, Western Norway.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Brattås, Marianne; Lie, Kai K; Goksøyr, Anders

    2011-04-01

    The main aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of mercury (Hg)-enriched sediments on fish. Sediments near the sunken German WW2 submarine U-864, which according to historical documents included 67 tons of metallic Hg in its cargo, are enriched of Hg leaking from the wreckage. Juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were exposed to two field-collected polluted sediments (U-864: inorganic Hg and Bergen Harbor (Vågen): inorganic Hg, PCB and PAH) or two comparable reference sediments for 5 weeks in the laboratory, and transcriptional responses evaluated in gills and liver. Gills of fish exposed to the Hg-enriched sunken WW2 submarine U-864 sediment contained four fold higher Hg levels compared to the control fish. An increase in Hg content in liver in the U-864 fish was also observed. The transcriptional results showed that calreticulin, HSP70 and heme oxygenase mRNA were significantly up-regulated in gills in fish exposed to the Hg-enriched sediments, whereas calreticulin, heme oxygenase, transferrin and WAP65 were significantly up-regulated and glutathione peroxidase 4B and zona pellucida 3 were significantly down-regulated in liver tissue. In gills and liver of cod exposed to the mixed-contaminated Vågen sediment, CYP1A showed the highest induction. In conclusion, the experiment shows that sediment-bound Hg is available to the fish and affects the transcription of oxidative stress responsive enzymes, suggesting that the Hg-enriched sediments may negatively affect the local wildlife. Furthermore, the mixed contaminated sediments of Vågen affected similar responses in addition to Ah-receptor mediated responses reflecting exposure to PAHs and PCBs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Type of carbohydrate in feed affects the expression of small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and interleukins in skeletal muscle of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.).

    PubMed

    Tingbø, M G; Pedersen, M E; Grøndahl, F; Kolset, S O; Veiseth-Kent, E; Enersen, G; Hannesson, K O

    2012-09-01

    Aquaculture requires feed that ensures rapid growth and healthy fish. Higher inclusion of plant ingredients is desirable, as marine resources are limited. In this study we investigated the effects of higher starch inclusion in feed on muscular extracellular matrix and interleukin expression in farmed cod. Starch was replaced by complex fibers in the low-starch diet to keep total carbohydrate inclusion similar. Blood glucose and fructosamine levels were elevated in the high-starch group. The group fed a high-starch diet showed up-regulation on mRNA level of proteoglycans biglycan and decorin. ELISA confirmed the real-time PCR results on protein level for biglycan and also showed increase of lumican. For decorin the protein levels were decreased in the high-starch group, in contrast to real-time PCR results. Disaccharide analyses using HPLC showed reduction of glycosaminoglycans. Further, there was up-regulation of interleukin-1β and -10 on mRNA level in muscle. This study shows that the muscular extracellular matrix composition is affected by diet, and that a high-starch diet results in increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes similar to diabetes in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding climate impacts on recruitment and spatial dynamics of Atlantic cod in the Gulf of Maine: Integration of observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge, Jeffrey A.; Kovach, Adrienne I.; Churchill, James H.; Kerr, Lisa A.; Morrison, John R.; Beardsley, Robert C.; Berlinsky, David L.; Chen, Changsheng; Cadrin, Steven X.; Davis, Cabell S.; Ford, Kathryn H.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Howell, W. Huntting; Ji, Rubao; Jones, Rebecca J.; Pershing, Andrew J.; Record, Nicholas R.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Sherwood, Graham D.; Tallack, Shelly M. L.; Townsend, David W.

    2010-10-01

    We put forward a combined observing and modeling strategy for evaluating effects of environmental forcing on the dynamics of spatially structured cod populations spawning in the western Gulf of Maine. Recent work indicates at least two genetically differentiated complexes in this region: a late spring spawning, coastal population centered in Ipswich Bay, and a population that spawns in winter inshore and on nearshore banks in the Gulf of Maine and off southern New England. The two populations likely differ in trophic interactions and in physiological and behavioral responses to different winter and spring environments. Coupled physical-biological modeling has advanced to the point where within-decade forecasting of environmental conditions for recruitment to each of the two populations is feasible. However, the modeling needs to be supported by hydrographic, primary production and zooplankton data collected by buoys, and by data from remote sensing and fixed station sampling. Forecasts of environmentally driven dispersal and growth of planktonic early life stages, combined with an understanding of possible population-specific predator fields, usage of coastal habitat by juveniles and adult resident and migratory patterns, can be used to develop scenarios for spatially explicit population responses to multiple forcings, including climate change, anthropogenic impacts on nearshore juvenile habitat, connectivity among populations and management interventions such as regional fisheries closures.

  12. New England Cod Collapse and the Climate.

    PubMed

    Meng, Kyle C; Oremus, Kimberly L; Gaines, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    To improve fishery management, there is an increasing need to understand the long-term consequences of natural and anthropogenic climate variability for ecological systems. New England's iconic cod populations have been in decline for several decades and have recently reached unprecedented lows. We find that 17% of the overall decline in Gulf of Maine cod biomass since 1980 can be attributed to positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). This is a consequence of three results: i) a 1-unit increase in the NAO winter index is associated with a 17% decrease in the spring biomass of age-1 cod the following year; ii) this NAO-driven decrease persists as the affected cohort matures; iii) fishing practices appear to exacerbate NAO's direct biological effect such that, since 1913, a 1-unit increase in the NAO index lowers subsequent cod catch for up to 19 years. The Georges Bank cod stock displays similar patterns. Because we statistically detect a delay between the NAO and subsequent declines in adult biomass, our findings imply that observed current NAO conditions can be used in stock forecasts, providing lead time for adaptive policy. More broadly, our approach can inform forecasting efforts for other fish populations strongly affected by natural and anthropogenic climatic variation.

  13. New England Cod Collapse and the Climate

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Kyle C.; Oremus, Kimberly L.; Gaines, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    To improve fishery management, there is an increasing need to understand the long-term consequences of natural and anthropogenic climate variability for ecological systems. New England’s iconic cod populations have been in decline for several decades and have recently reached unprecedented lows. We find that 17% of the overall decline in Gulf of Maine cod biomass since 1980 can be attributed to positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). This is a consequence of three results: i) a 1-unit increase in the NAO winter index is associated with a 17% decrease in the spring biomass of age-1 cod the following year; ii) this NAO-driven decrease persists as the affected cohort matures; iii) fishing practices appear to exacerbate NAO’s direct biological effect such that, since 1913, a 1-unit increase in the NAO index lowers subsequent cod catch for up to 19 years. The Georges Bank cod stock displays similar patterns. Because we statistically detect a delay between the NAO and subsequent declines in adult biomass, our findings imply that observed current NAO conditions can be used in stock forecasts, providing lead time for adaptive policy. More broadly, our approach can inform forecasting efforts for other fish populations strongly affected by natural and anthropogenic climatic variation. PMID:27463967

  14. Geologic history of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1976-01-01

    Cape Cod, a sandy peninsula built mostly during the Ice Age, juts into the Atlantic Ocean like a crooked arm. Because of its exposed location, Cape Cod was visited by many early explorers. Although clear-cut evidence is lacking, the Vikings may have sighted this land about 1,000 years ago. It was visited by Samuel de Champlain in 1605, and his detailed descriptions and charts have helped present-day scientists to determine the rate of growth of Nauset Beach marsh and Nauset spit. Bartholomew Gosnold, a lesser known explorer, settled for a short time on the Elizabeth Islands to the southwest and gave Cape Cod its name in 1602. The Pilgrims first landed in America on the tip of Lower Cape Cod after they were turned back from their more southerly destination by shoals between Cape Cod and Nantucket Island. On Cape Cod they found potable water and food and had their first fight with the natives. The Pilgrims, however, decided that this land was too isolated, too exposed, and too sandy to support them, and they sailed across Cape Cod Bay to establish Plymouth. These features remain today. Small villages are separated by large areas of forest, dune, beach, and marsh. This unspoiled natural beauty makes Cape Cod one of the most favored vacation areas for the people living in the thickly settled Northeastern States. Cape Cod is of particular interest to geologists because it was formed by glaciers very recently in terms of geologic time. During the Great Ice Age, (the Pleistocene Epoch which began 2 to 3 million years ago), glaciers advanced from the north into the temperate regions of the Earth. Glacial ice covered the land at least four times. Each advance was accompanied by a worldwide lowering of sea level because the source of the ice was water from the seas. When the glaciers melted, the climate and sea level were probably much like they are today. In fact, some scientists believe that the Earth is presently between glacial episodes and that ice once again will

  15. Cape Cod, MA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Cape Cod, (41.5N, 71.0W) is a very young geological feature, formed after the retreat of the last glaciers some 15,000 years ago. The cape is made up of outwash sands laid down by rivers of melt water from glaciers which pushed as far south as Long Island. The cape itself then lay many miles inland but as the glaciers melted, the water level of the world's oceans rose to their present level. Storm waves, wind and tides then formed the Cape Cod hook.

  16. Effects of climate change on the survival of larval cod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, T.; Stock, C. A.; Drinkwater, K. F.; Curchitser, E. N.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding how climate change may impact important commercial fisheries is critical for developing sustainable fisheries management strategies. In this study, we used simulations from an Earth System Model (NOAA GFDL ESM2.1) coupled with an individual-based model (IBM) for larval fish to provide a first assessment of the potential importance of climate-change driven changes in primary productivity and temperature on cod recruitment in the North Atlantic to the year 2100. ESM model output was averaged for 5 regions, each with an area of 5x5 on a latitude-longitude grid, and representing the geographic boundaries of the current cod range. The physical and environmental data were incorporated into a mechanistic IBM used to simulate the critical early phases in the life of larval fish (e.g. cod) in a changing environment. Large phytoplankton production was predicted to decrease in most regions, thereby lowering the number of meso-zooplankton in the water column. Meso-zooplankton is the most important prey item for larval cod and a reduction in their numbers have strong impacts on larval cod survival. The combination of lowered prey abundance with increased energy requirement for growth and metabolism through increased temperature had a negative impact on cod recruitment in all modeled regions of the North Atlantic. The probability of survival past the larval stages was reduced with 20-30% at all five spawning grounds by the year 2100. Together, these results suggest climate change could have significant impacts on the survival of larval cod in the North Atlantic.

  17. Genomics of Arctic cod

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sage, George K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Gravley, Megan C.; Menning, Damian; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) is an abundant marine fish that plays a vital role in the marine food web. To better understand the population genetic structure and the role of natural selection acting on the maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), a molecule often associated with adaptations to temperature, we analyzed genetic data collected from 11 biparentally-inherited nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and nucleotide sequence data from from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cytb) gene and, for a subset of individuals, the entire mitogenome. In addition, due to potential of species misidentification with morphologically similar Polar cod (Arctogadus glacialis), we used ddRAD-Seq data to determine the level of divergence between species and identify species-specific markers. Based on the findings presented here, Arctic cod across the Pacific Arctic (Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas) comprise a single panmictic population with high genetic diversity compared to other gadids. High genetic diversity was indicated across all 13 protein-coding genes in the mitogenome. In addition, we found moderate levels of genetic diversity in the nuclear microsatellite loci, with highest diversity found in the Chukchi Sea. Our analyses of markers from both marker classes (nuclear microsatellite fragment data and mtDNA cytb sequence data) failed to uncover a signal of microgeographic genetic structure within Arctic cod across the three regions, within the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, or between near-shore or offshore habitats. Further, data from a subset of mitogenomes revealed no genetic differentiation between Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas populations for Arctic cod, Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis), or Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus). However, we uncovered significant differences in the distribution of microsatellite alleles between the southern Chukchi and central and eastern Beaufort Sea samples of Arctic cod. Finally, using ddRAD-Seq data, we

  18. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    Cod liver oil contains certain "fatty acids" that prevent the blood from clotting easily. These fatty acids also reduce pain and swelling. ... Morue, Huile de Poisson, Liver Oil, N-3 Fatty Acids, Omega 3, Oméga 3, Omega 3 Fatty Acids, ...

  19. A comparative study of quality and safety of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets during cold storage, as affected by different thawing methods of pre‐rigor frozen headed and gutted fish

    PubMed Central

    Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Backi, Christoph Josef; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore; Karlsdóttir, Magnea G

    2017-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND The catch of marine whitefish is typically seasonal, whereas the land‐based processing industry has a need for all‐year stable supply of raw materials. This challenge can be met by applying fish frozen at sea. When using frozen fish, the methods employed for thawing may influence the safety and quality of the final product. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of novel thawing strategies in order to provide an all‐year supply of high‐quality and safe cod products. RESULTS Comparative investigations of quality and safety factors after thawing in water, with and without air circulation, and contact thawing were performed. The parameters included water‐holding capacity, thawing loss, drip loss, cooking yield, sensory evaluation and microbiological analyses (including total volatile bases nitrogen). Water thawing with air circulation provided faster thawing than water thawing without air circulation and contact thawing. For all three methods, the quality of the thawed fish was acceptable and the shelf life of the fillets during chilled storage was between 10 and 14 days post‐filleting. CONCLUSION The results show that controlled freezing of cod, followed by appropriate thawing, may provide the processing industry with an all‐year delivery of raw materials, without compromising quality and safety of the final product. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:28862323

  20. Trophic structure of the Barents Sea fish assemblage with special reference to the cod stock recoverability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, Andrey V.

    2009-04-01

    The species composition and trophic structure of the Barents Sea fish assemblage is analysed based on data from research survey trawls and diet analyses of various species. Atlantic cod was the dominant fish species encountered, accounting for more than 55% by abundance or biomass. Only five fish species (long rough dab, thorny skate, Greenland halibut, deepwater redfish and saithe) were sufficiently abundant to be considered as possible food competitors with cod in the Barents Sea. However, possible trophic competition is not high, due to low spatial and temporal overlap between cod and these other species. Analyses of fish assemblages and trophic structures of the Barents Sea and other areas (North Sea, Western Greenland, Newfoundland-Labrador shelf) suggest that Barents Sea cod is the only cod stock for which the ability to recover may not be restricted by trophic relations among fishes, due to a lack of other abundant predatory species and low potential for competition caused by spatial-temporal changes.

  1. Space Radar Image of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the famous 'hook' of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The Cape, which juts out into the Atlantic Ocean about 100 kilometers (62 miles) southeast of Boston, actually consists of sandy debris left behind by the great continental ice sheets when they last retreated from southern New England about 20,000 years ago. Today's landscape consists of sandy forests, fields of scrub oak and other bushes and grasses, salt marshes, freshwater ponds, as well as the famous beaches and sand dunes. In this image, thickly forested areas appear green, marshes are dark blue, ponds and sandy areas are black, and developed areas are mostly pink. The dark L-shape in the lower center is the airport runways in Hyannis, the Cape's largest town. The dark X-shape left of the center is Otis Air Force Base. The Cape Cod Canal, above and left of center, connects Buzzards Bay on the left with Cape Cod Bay on the right. The northern tip of the island of Martha's Vineyard is seen in the lower left. The tip of the Cape, in the upper right, includes the community of Provincetown, which appears pink, and the protected National Seashore areas of sand dunes that parallel the Atlantic coast east of Provincetown. Scientists are using radar images like this one to study delicate coastal environments and the effects of human activities on the ecosystem and landscape. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994. The image is 81.7 kilometers by 43.1 kilometers (50.7 miles by 26.7 miles) and is centered at 41.8 degrees north latitude, 70.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. SIR

  2. TaqMan DNA technology confirms likely overestimation of cod (Gadus morhua L.) egg abundance in the Irish Sea: implications for the assessment of the cod stock and mapping of spawning areas using egg-based methods.

    PubMed

    Fox, C J; Taylor, M I; Pereyra, R; Villasana, M I; Rico, C

    2005-03-01

    Recent substantial declines in northeastern Atlantic cod stocks necessitate improved biological knowledge and the development of techniques to complement standard stock assessment methods (which largely depend on accurate commercial catch data). In 2003, an ichthyoplankton survey was undertaken in the Irish Sea and subsamples of 'cod-like' eggs were analysed using a TaqMan multiplex, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay (with specific probes for cod, haddock and whiting). The TaqMan method was readily applied to the large number of samples (n = 2770) generated during the survey and when combined with a manual DNA extraction protocol had a low failure rate of 6%. Of the early stage 'cod-like' eggs (1.2-1.75 mm diameter) positively identified: 34% were cod, 8% haddock and 58% whiting. As previous stock estimates based on egg surveys for Irish Sea cod assumed that the majority of 'cod-like' eggs were from cod, the TaqMan results confirm that there was probably substantial contamination by eggs of whiting and haddock that would have inflated estimates of the stock biomass.

  3. MISR Looks at Cape Cod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Each year in late November the United States observes the Thanksgiving holiday, commemorating the harvest festival celebrated by the Plymouth colonists and the Native Americans who helped them survive the devastating winter of 1620. Plymouth, Massachusetts, where the Mayflower Pilgrims landed, is located on the west side of Cape Cod Bay, shown in this MISR vertical-viewing (nadir) camera image. This nearly cloud-free picture was acquired on April 13, 2000 during Terra orbit 1708.

    South of the distinctively-shaped Cape Cod are Nantucket Island and Martha's Vineyard. Further west is Block Island, south of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Montauk Point on the eastern tip of Long Island, New York, is visible at the lower left. On the mainland, Providence and Boston appear as gray patches. Jutting out from the Massachusetts coastline, northeast of Boston, is Cape Ann, location of the city of Gloucester, which was settled soon after the Pilgrim's arrival in Plymouth. Gloucester is the oldest fishing port in the eastern United States.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  4. Calcium from salmon and cod bone is well absorbed in young healthy men: a double-blinded randomised crossover design.

    PubMed

    Malde, Marian K; Bügel, Susanne; Kristensen, Mette; Malde, Ketil; Graff, Ingvild E; Pedersen, Jan I

    2010-07-20

    Calcium (Ca) - fortified foods are likely to play an important role in helping the consumer achieve an adequate Ca intake, especially for persons with a low intake of dairy products. Fish bones have a high Ca content, and huge quantities of this raw material are available as a by-product from the fish industry. Previously, emphasis has been on producing high quality products from fish by-products by use of bacterial proteases. However, documentation of the nutritional value of the enzymatically rinsed Ca-rich bone fraction remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to assess the bioavailability of calcium in bones of Atlantic salmon (oily fish) and Atlantic cod (lean fish) in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Ca absorption was measured in 10 healthy young men using 47Ca whole body counting after ingestion of a test meal extrinsically labelled with the 47Ca isotope. The three test meals contained 800 mg of Ca from three different calcium sources: cod bones, salmon bones and control (CaCO3). Mean Ca absorption (+/- SEE) from the three different Ca sources were 21.9 +/- 1.7%, 22.5 +/- 1.7% and 27.4 +/- 1.8% for cod bones, salmon bones, and control (CaCO3), respectively. We conclude that bones from Atlantic salmon and Atlantic cod are suitable as natural Ca sources in e.g. functional foods or as supplements.

  5. Calcium from salmon and cod bone is well absorbed in young healthy men: a double-blinded randomised crossover design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Calcium (Ca) - fortified foods are likely to play an important role in helping the consumer achieve an adequate Ca intake, especially for persons with a low intake of dairy products. Fish bones have a high Ca content, and huge quantities of this raw material are available as a by-product from the fish industry. Previously, emphasis has been on producing high quality products from fish by-products by use of bacterial proteases. However, documentation of the nutritional value of the enzymatically rinsed Ca-rich bone fraction remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to assess the bioavailability of calcium in bones of Atlantic salmon (oily fish) and Atlantic cod (lean fish) in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Methods Ca absorption was measured in 10 healthy young men using 47Ca whole body counting after ingestion of a test meal extrinsically labelled with the 47Ca isotope. The three test meals contained 800 mg of Ca from three different calcium sources: cod bones, salmon bones and control (CaCO3). Results Mean Ca absorption (± SEE) from the three different Ca sources were 21.9 ± 1.7%, 22.5 ± 1.7% and 27.4 ± 1.8% for cod bones, salmon bones, and control (CaCO3), respectively. Conclusion We conclude that bones from Atlantic salmon and Atlantic cod are suitable as natural Ca sources in e.g. functional foods or as supplements. PMID:20646299

  6. 77 FR 22611 - Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission; Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [1730-SZM] Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission; Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Cod National Seashore, 99 Marconi Site Road, Wellfleet, MA 02667. Dated: April 9, 2012. George E...

  7. WASTEWATER RENOVATION AND RETRIEVAL ON CAPE COD

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapidly increasing population on maritime Cape Cod has generated considerable interest in alternative wastewater disposal techniques which promise to maintain high groundwater quality and promote its conservation. The authors undertake an assessment of agricultural spray-irriga...

  8. Historical Arctic Logbooks Provide Insights into Past Diets and Climatic Responses of Cod

    PubMed Central

    Townhill, Bryony L.; Maxwell, David; Engelhard, Georg H.; Simpson, Stephen D.; Pinnegar, John K.

    2015-01-01

    Gadus morhua (Atlantic cod) stocks in the Barents Sea are currently at levels not seen since the 1950s. Causes for the population increase last century, and understanding of whether such large numbers will be maintained in the future, are unclear. To explore this, we digitised and interrogated historical cod catch and diet datasets from the Barents Sea. Seventeen years of catch data and 12 years of prey data spanning 1930–1959 cover unexplored spatial and temporal ranges, and importantly capture the end of a previous warm period, when temperatures were similar to those currently being experienced. This study aimed to evaluate cod catch per unit effort and prey frequency in relation to spatial, temporal and environmental variables. There was substantial spatio-temporal heterogeneity in catches through the time series. The highest catches were generally in the 1930s and 1940s, although at some localities more cod were recorded late in the 1950s. Generalized Additive Models showed that environmental, spatial and temporal variables are all valuable descriptors of cod catches, with the highest occurring from 15–45°E longitude and 73–77°N latitude, at bottom temperatures between 2 and 4°C and at depths between 150 and 250 m. Cod diets were highly variable during the study period, with frequent changes in the relative frequencies of different prey species, particularly Mallotus villosus (capelin). Environmental variables were particularly good at describing the importance of capelin and Clupea harengus (herring) in the diet. These new analyses support existing knowledge about how the ecology of the region is controlled by climatic variability. When viewed in combination with more recent data, these historical relationships will be valuable in forecasting the future of Barents Sea fisheries, and in understanding how environments and ecosystems may respond. PMID:26331271

  9. Who’s your mama? Riverine hybridisation of threatened freshwater Trout Cod and Murray Cod

    PubMed Central

    Unmack, Peter J.; Dyer, Fiona J.; Lintermans, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Rates of hybridization and introgression are increasing dramatically worldwide because of translocations, restocking of organisms and habitat modifications; thus, determining whether hybridization is occuring after reintroducing extirpated congeneric species is commensurately important for conservation. Restocking programs are sometimes criticized because of the genetic consequences of hatchery-bred fish breeding with wild populations. These concerns are important to conservation restocking programs, including those from the Australian freshwater fish family, Percichthyidae. Two of the better known Australian Percichthyidae are the Murray Cod, Maccullochella peelii and Trout Cod, Maccullochella macquariensis which were formerly widespread over the Murray Darling Basin. In much of the Murrumbidgee River, Trout Cod and Murray Cod were sympatric until the late 1970s when Trout Cod were extirpated. Here we use genetic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data together with mitochondrial sequences to examine hybridization and introgression between Murray Cod and Trout Cod in the upper Murrumbidgee River and consider implications for restocking programs. We have confirmed restocked riverine Trout Cod reproducing, but only as inter-specific matings, in the wild. We detected hybrid Trout Cod–Murray Cod in the Upper Murrumbidgee, recording the first hybrid larvae in the wild. Although hybrid larvae, juveniles and adults have been recorded in hatcheries and impoundments, and hybrid adults have been recorded in rivers previously, this is the first time fertile F1 have been recorded in a wild riverine population. The F1 backcrosses with Murray cod have also been found to be fertile. All backcrosses noted were with pure Murray Cod. Such introgression has not been recorded previously in these two species, and the imbalance in hybridization direction may have important implications for restocking programs. PMID:27812407

  10. 77 FR 9699 - Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission; Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [1730-SZM] Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission; Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... National Seashore, 99 Marconi Site Road, Wellfleet, MA 02667. Date: February 7, 2012. George E. Price, Jr...

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC RIGHT WHALE SPRING FEEDING HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great South Channel region of the southwestern Gulf of Maine, between George's Bank and Cape Cod, is the primary spring feeding ground for the western North Atlantic population of the I northern right whale, E. glacialis .Since this whale is so endangered, it is critical to i...

  12. LATITUDINAL GRADIENTS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN ATLANTIC ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates from estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North America from Cape Cod, MA, to Biscayne Bay, FL, were compared. Benthic data were collected over a 5 year period (1990 to 1995) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Envi...

  13. Ancient DNA reveals the Arctic origin of Viking Age cod from Haithabu, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Star, Bastiaan; Boessenkool, Sanne; Gondek, Agata T.; Nikulina, Elena A.; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Pampoulie, Christophe; Knutsen, Halvor; André, Carl; Nistelberger, Heidi M.; Dierking, Jan; Petereit, Christoph; Heinrich, Dirk; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Jentoft, Sissel

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the range and chronology of historic trade and long-distance transport of natural resources is essential for determining the impacts of past human activities on marine environments. However, the specific biological sources of imported fauna are often difficult to identify, in particular if species have a wide spatial distribution and lack clear osteological or isotopic differentiation between populations. Here, we report that ancient fish-bone remains, despite being porous, brittle, and light, provide an excellent source of endogenous DNA (15–46%) of sufficient quality for whole-genome reconstruction. By comparing ancient sequence data to that of modern specimens, we determine the biological origin of 15 Viking Age (800–1066 CE) and subsequent medieval (1066–1280 CE) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) specimens from excavation sites in Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Archaeological context indicates that one of these sites was a fishing settlement for the procurement of local catches, whereas the other localities were centers of trade. Fish from the trade sites show a mixed ancestry and are statistically differentiated from local fish populations. Moreover, Viking Age samples from Haithabu, Germany, are traced back to the North East Arctic Atlantic cod population that has supported the Lofoten fisheries of Norway for centuries. Our results resolve a long-standing controversial hypothesis and indicate that the marine resources of the North Atlantic Ocean were used to sustain an international demand for protein as far back as the Viking Age. PMID:28784790

  14. Ancient DNA reveals the Arctic origin of Viking Age cod from Haithabu, Germany.

    PubMed

    Star, Bastiaan; Boessenkool, Sanne; Gondek, Agata T; Nikulina, Elena A; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Pampoulie, Christophe; Knutsen, Halvor; André, Carl; Nistelberger, Heidi M; Dierking, Jan; Petereit, Christoph; Heinrich, Dirk; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Jentoft, Sissel; Barrett, James H

    2017-08-22

    Knowledge of the range and chronology of historic trade and long-distance transport of natural resources is essential for determining the impacts of past human activities on marine environments. However, the specific biological sources of imported fauna are often difficult to identify, in particular if species have a wide spatial distribution and lack clear osteological or isotopic differentiation between populations. Here, we report that ancient fish-bone remains, despite being porous, brittle, and light, provide an excellent source of endogenous DNA (15-46%) of sufficient quality for whole-genome reconstruction. By comparing ancient sequence data to that of modern specimens, we determine the biological origin of 15 Viking Age (800-1066 CE) and subsequent medieval (1066-1280 CE) Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) specimens from excavation sites in Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Archaeological context indicates that one of these sites was a fishing settlement for the procurement of local catches, whereas the other localities were centers of trade. Fish from the trade sites show a mixed ancestry and are statistically differentiated from local fish populations. Moreover, Viking Age samples from Haithabu, Germany, are traced back to the North East Arctic Atlantic cod population that has supported the Lofoten fisheries of Norway for centuries. Our results resolve a long-standing controversial hypothesis and indicate that the marine resources of the North Atlantic Ocean were used to sustain an international demand for protein as far back as the Viking Age.

  15. Chemical quality of ground water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frimpter, M.H.; Gay, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    Cape Cod is a 440 square mile hook-shaped peninsula which extends 40 miles into the Atlantic. Freshwater in Pleistocene sand and gravel deposits is the source of supply for nearly 100 municipal and thousands of private domestic wells. Most ground water on Cape Cod is of good chemical quality for drinking and other uses. It is characteristically low in dissolved solids and is soft. In 90 percent of the samples analyzed, dissolved solids were less than 100 mg/l (milligrams per liter) and pH was less than 7.0. Highway deicing salt, sea-water flooding due to storms , and saltwater intrusion due to ground-water withdrawal are sources of sodium chloride contamination. Chloride concentrations have increased from 20 to 140 mg/l, owing to saltwater intrusion at Provincetown 's wells in Truro. In Yarmouth, contaminated ground water near a salt-storage area contained as much as 1,800 mg/l chloride. Heavy metals, insecticides, and herbicides were not found at concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's recommended limits for public drinking-water supplies, but iron and manganese in some samples exceeded those limits. Ninety percent of 84 samples analyzed for nitrate reported as nitrogen contained less than 1.3 mg/l and 80 percent contained 0.5 mg/l or less of nitrate as nitrogen. Water containing nitrogen in excess of 0.5 mg/l has probably been affected by municipal or domestic sewage or fertilizer, and water with less than this amount may have been affected by them. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Mechanistic insights into the effects of climate change on larval cod.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Trond; Stock, Charles; Drinkwater, Kenneth F; Curchitser, Enrique N

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the biophysical mechanisms that shape variability in fisheries recruitment is critical for estimating the effects of climate change on fisheries. In this study, we used an Earth System Model (ESM) and a mechanistic individual-based model (IBM) for larval fish to analyze how climate change may impact the growth and survival of larval cod in the North Atlantic. We focused our analysis on five regions that span the current geographical range of cod and are known to contain important spawning populations. Under the SRES A2 (high emissions) scenario, the ESM-projected surface ocean temperatures are expected to increase by >1 °C for 3 of the 5 regions, and stratification is expected to increase at all sites between 1950-1999 and 2050-2099. This enhanced stratification is projected to decrease large (>5 μm ESD) phytoplankton productivity and mesozooplankton biomass at all 5 sites. Higher temperatures are projected to increase larval metabolic costs, which combined with decreased food resources will reduce larval weight, increase the probability of larvae dying from starvation and increase larval exposure to visual and invertebrate predators at most sites. If current concentrations of piscivore and invertebrate predators are maintained, larval survival is projected to decrease at all five sites by 2050-2099. In contrast to past observed responses to climate variability in which warm anomalies led to better recruitment in cold-water stocks, our simulations indicated that reduced prey availability under climate change may cause a reduction in larval survival despite higher temperatures in these regions. In the lower prey environment projected under climate change, higher metabolic costs due to higher temperatures outweigh the advantages of higher growth potential, leading to negative effects on northern cod stocks. Our results provide an important first large-scale assessment of the impacts of climate change on larval cod in the North Atlantic. © 2013 John

  17. A modified method for COD determination of solid waste, using a commercial COD kit and an adapted disposable weighing support.

    PubMed

    André, L; Pauss, A; Ribeiro, T

    2017-03-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an essential parameter in waste management, particularly when monitoring wet anaerobic digestion processes. An adapted method to determine COD was developed for solid waste (total solids >15%). This method used commercial COD tubes and did not require sample dilution. A homemade plastic weighing support was used to transfer the solid sample into COD tubes. Potassium hydrogen phthalate and glucose used as standards showed an excellent repeatability. A small underestimation of the theoretical COD value (standard values around 5% lower than theoretical values) was also observed, mainly due to the intrinsic COD of the weighing support and to measurement uncertainties. The adapted COD method was tested using various solid wastes in the range of 1-8 mg COD , determining the COD of dried and ground cellulose, cattle manure, straw and a mixed-substrate sample. This new adapted method could be used to monitor and design dry anaerobic digestion processes.

  18. Climate and population density drive changes in cod body size throughout a century on the Norwegian coast

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Lauren A.; Stige, Leif C.; Olsen, Esben M.; Knutsen, Halvor; Chan, Kung-Sik; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how populations respond to changes in climate requires long-term, high-quality datasets, which are rare for marine systems. We estimated the effects of climate warming on cod lengths and length variability using a unique 91-y time series of more than 100,000 individual juvenile cod lengths from surveys that began in 1919 along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. Using linear mixed-effects models, we accounted for spatial population structure and the nested structure of the survey data to reveal opposite effects of spring and summer warming on juvenile cod lengths. Warm summer temperatures in the coastal Skagerrak have limited juvenile growth. In contrast, warmer springs have resulted in larger juvenile cod, with less variation in lengths within a cohort, possibly because of a temperature-driven contraction in the spring spawning period. A density-dependent reduction in length was evident only at the highest population densities in the time series, which have rarely been observed in the last decade. If temperatures rise because of global warming, nonlinearities in the opposing temperature effects suggest that negative effects of warmer summers will increasingly outweigh positive effects of warmer springs, and the coastal Skagerrak will become ill-suited for Atlantic cod. PMID:21245301

  19. Use of existing hydrographic infrastructure to forecast the environmental spawning conditions for Eastern Baltic cod.

    PubMed

    von Dewitz, Burkhard; Tamm, Susanne; Höflich, Katharina; Voss, Rüdiger; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2018-01-01

    The semi-enclosed nature and estuarine characteristics, together with its strongly alternating bathymetry, make the Baltic Sea prone to much stronger interannual variations in the abiotic environment, than other spawning habitats of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Processes determining salinity and oxygen conditions in the basins are influenced both by long term gradual climate change, e.g. global warming, but also by short-term meteorological variations and events. Specifically one main factor influencing cod spawning conditions, the advection of highly saline and well-oxygenated water masses from the North Sea, is observed in irregular frequencies and causes strong interannual variations in stock productivity. This study investigates the possibility to use the available hydrographic process knowledge to predict the annual spawning conditions for Eastern Baltic cod in its most important spawning ground, the Bornholm Basin, only by salinity measurements from a specific location in the western Baltic. Such a prediction could serve as an environmental early warning indicator to inform stock assessment and management. Here we used a hydrodynamic model to hindcast hydrographic property fields for the last 40+ years. High and significant correlations were found for months early in the year between the 33m salinity level in the Arkona Basin and the oxygen-dependent cod spawning environment in the Bornholm Basin. Direct prediction of the Eastern Baltic cod egg survival in the Bornholm Basin based on salinity values in the Arkona Basin at the 33 m depth level is shown to be possible for eggs spawned by mid-age and young females, which currently predominate the stock structure. We recommend to routinely perform short-term predictions of the Eastern Baltic cod spawning environment, in order to generate environmental information highly relevant for stock dynamics. Our statistical approach offers the opportunity to make best use of permanently existing infrastructure in the

  20. Use of existing hydrographic infrastructure to forecast the environmental spawning conditions for Eastern Baltic cod

    PubMed Central

    Tamm, Susanne; Höflich, Katharina; Voss, Rüdiger; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2018-01-01

    The semi-enclosed nature and estuarine characteristics, together with its strongly alternating bathymetry, make the Baltic Sea prone to much stronger interannual variations in the abiotic environment, than other spawning habitats of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Processes determining salinity and oxygen conditions in the basins are influenced both by long term gradual climate change, e.g. global warming, but also by short-term meteorological variations and events. Specifically one main factor influencing cod spawning conditions, the advection of highly saline and well-oxygenated water masses from the North Sea, is observed in irregular frequencies and causes strong interannual variations in stock productivity. This study investigates the possibility to use the available hydrographic process knowledge to predict the annual spawning conditions for Eastern Baltic cod in its most important spawning ground, the Bornholm Basin, only by salinity measurements from a specific location in the western Baltic. Such a prediction could serve as an environmental early warning indicator to inform stock assessment and management. Here we used a hydrodynamic model to hindcast hydrographic property fields for the last 40+ years. High and significant correlations were found for months early in the year between the 33m salinity level in the Arkona Basin and the oxygen-dependent cod spawning environment in the Bornholm Basin. Direct prediction of the Eastern Baltic cod egg survival in the Bornholm Basin based on salinity values in the Arkona Basin at the 33 m depth level is shown to be possible for eggs spawned by mid-age and young females, which currently predominate the stock structure. We recommend to routinely perform short-term predictions of the Eastern Baltic cod spawning environment, in order to generate environmental information highly relevant for stock dynamics. Our statistical approach offers the opportunity to make best use of permanently existing infrastructure in the

  1. Satellite monitoring temperature conditions spawning area of the Northeast Arctic cod in the Norwegian Sea and assessment its abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyushin, George; Bulatova, Tatiana; Klochkov, Dmitriy; Troshkov, Anatoliy; Kruzhalov, Michail

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the attempt to consider the relationship between sea surface anomalies of temperature (SST anomalies °C) in spawning area of the Norwegian Arctic cod off the Lofoten islands in coastal zone of the Norwegian Sea and modern cod total stock biomass including forecasting assessment of future cod generation success. Continuous long-term database of the sea surface temperature (SST) was created on the NOAA satellites data. Mean monthly SST and SST anomalies are computed for the selected area on the basis of the weekly SST maps for the period of 1998-2012. These maps were plotted with the satellite SST data, as well as information of vessels, byoies and coastal stations. All data were classified by spawning seasons (March-April) and years. The results indicate that poor and low middle generations of cod (2001, 2006, 2007) occurred in years with negative or extremely high positive anomalies in the spawning area. The SST anomalies in years which were close to normal or some more normal significances provide conditions for appearance strong or very strong generations of cod (1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009). Temperature conditions in concrete years influence on different indexes of cod directly. So, the mean temperature in spawning seasons in years 1999-2005 was ≈5,0°C and SST anomaly - +0,35°C, by the way average year significances indexes of cod were: total stock biomass - 1425,0 th.t., total spawning biomass - 460,0 th.t., recruitment (age 3+) - 535,0 mln. units and landings - 530,0 th.t. In spawning seasons 2006-2012 years the average data were following: mean SST ≈6,0°C, SST anomaly - +1,29°C, total stock biomass - 2185,0 th.t., total spawning biomass - 1211,0 th.t., recruitment (age 3+) - 821,0 mln. units and landings - 600,0 th.t. The SST and SST anomalies (the NOAA satellite data) characterize increase of decrease in input of warm Atlantic waters which form numerous eddies along the flows of the main warm currents thus creating

  2. A Murray Cod Assemblage: Re/Considering Riverscape Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Alistair James

    2018-01-01

    This article enacts Deleuze and Guattari's (1987) concept "assemblage" to craft a riverScape pedagogy that is informed by, and responsive to, the Murray Cod, the river, and its circumstances. The Murray Cod, the largest fish species in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, has diverse cultural meanings. Cod are at once a creation being of…

  3. Cod Gadus morhua and climate change: processes, productivity and prediction.

    PubMed

    Brander, K M

    2010-11-01

    Environmental factors act on individual fishes directly and indirectly. The direct effects on rates and behaviour can be studied experimentally and in the field, particularly with the advent of ever smarter tags for tracking fishes and their environment. Indirect effects due to changes in food, predators, parasites and diseases are much more difficult to estimate and predict. Climate can affect all life-history stages through direct and indirect processes and although the consequences in terms of growth, survival and reproductive output can be monitored, it is often difficult to determine the causes. Investigation of cod Gadus morhua populations across the whole North Atlantic Ocean has shown large-scale patterns of change in productivity due to lower individual growth and condition, caused by large-scale climate forcing. If a population is being heavily exploited then a drop in productivity can push it into decline unless the level of fishing is reduced: the idea of a stable carrying capacity is a dangerous myth. Overexploitation can be avoided by keeping fishing mortality low and by monitoring and responding rapidly to changes in productivity. There are signs that this lesson has been learned and that G. morhua will continue to be a mainstay of the human diet. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Analysis of the Cape Cod tracer data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezzedine, Souheil; Rubin, Yoram

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of the Cape Cod test was performed using several first- and higher-order theoretical models. We compare conditional and unconditional solutions of the transport equation and employ them for analysis of the experimental data. We consider spatial moments, mass breakthrough curves, and the distribution of the solute mass in space. The concentration measurements were also analyzed using theoretical models for the expected value and variance of concentration. The theoretical models we employed are based on the spatial correlation structure of the conductivity field, without any fitting of parameters to the tracer data, and hence we can test the predictive power of the theories tested. The effects of recharge on macrodispersion are investigated, and it is shown that recharge provides a reasonable explanation for the enhanced lateral spread of the Cape Cod plume. The compendium of the experimental results presented here is useful for testing of theoretical and numerical models.

  5. The acute phase response of cod (Gadus morhua L.): expression of immune response genes.

    PubMed

    Audunsdottir, Sigridur S; Magnadottir, Bergljot; Gisladottir, Berglind; Jonsson, Zophonias O; Bragason, Birkir Th

    2012-02-01

    An acute phase response (APR) was experimentally induced in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) by intramuscular injection of turpentine oil. The change in the expression of immune related genes was monitored in the anterior kidney and the spleen over a period of 7 days. The genes examined were two types of pentraxins, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-I), the complement component C3, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), transferrin, cathelicidin, and hepcidin. All genes were constitutively expressed in both organs and their expression amplified by the turpentine injection. A pattern of response was observed both with respect to the organ preference and to the timing of a maximum response. The increased gene expression of the pentraxins, ApoA-I and C3 was restricted to the anterior kidney, the gene expression of IL-1β, cathelicidin, and transferrin increased in both organs, while hepcidin gene expression was only significantly increased in the spleen. The pentraxins and ApoA-I appear to be early mediators of APR in cod, possibly stimulating C3 and IL-1β response, while the antimicrobial peptides may play a minor role. The increase in transferrin gene expression in both organs, and apparent indifference to cortisol release associated with the turpentine injection, suggests that this could be a typical acute phase protein in cod. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Creatine kinase and mitochondrial respiration in hearts of trout, cod and freshwater turtle.

    PubMed

    Birkedal, R; Gesser, H

    2003-08-01

    The importance of the creatine kinase system in the cardiac muscle of ectothermic vertebrates is unclear. Mammalian cardiac muscle seems to be structurally organized in a manner that compartmentalizes the intracellular environment as evidenced by the substantially higher mitochondrial apparent Km for ADP in skinned fibres compared to isolated mitochondria. A mitochondrial fraction of creatine kinase is functionally coupled to the mitochondrial respiration, and the transport of phosphocreatine and creatine as energy equivalents of ATP and ADP, respectively, increases the mitochondrial apparent ADP affinity, i.e. lowers the Km. This function of creatine kinase seems to be absent in hearts of frog species. To find out whether this applies to hearts of ectothermic vertebrate species in general, we investigated the effect of creatine on the mitochondrial respiration of saponin-skinned fibres from the ventricle of rainbow trout, Atlantic cod and freshwater turtle. For all three species, the apparent Km for ADP appeared to be substantially higher than for isolated mitochondria. Creatine lowered this Km in trout and turtle, thus indicating a functional coupling between mitochondrial creatine kinase and respiration. However, creatine had no effect on Km in cod ventricle. In conclusion, the creatine kinase-system in trout and turtle hearts seems to fulfil the same functions as in the mammalian heart, i.e. facilitating energy transport and communication between cellular compartments. In cod heart, however, this does not seem to be the case.

  7. Forecasting the major influences of predation and environment on cod recovery in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Nicolas; Chassot, Emmanuel; Duplisea, Daniel E; Hammill, Mike O

    2014-01-01

    The northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (NGSL) stock of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), historically the second largest cod population in the Western Atlantic, has known a severe collapse during the early 1990 s and is currently considered as endangered by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. As for many fish populations over the world which are currently being heavily exploited or overfished, urgent management actions in the form of recovery plans are needed for restoring this stock to sustainable levels. Stochastic projections based on a statistical population model incorporating predation were conducted over a period of 30 years (2010-2040) to assess the expected outcomes of alternative fishing strategies on the stock recovery under different scenarios of harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) abundance and environmental conditions. This sensitivity study shows that water temperature is key in the rebuilding of the NGSL cod stock. Model projections suggest that maintaining the current management practice under cooler water temperatures is likely to maintain the species in an endangered status. Under current or warmer conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, partial recovery might only be achieved by significant reductions in both fishing and predation pressure. In the medium-term, a management strategy that reduces catch could be favoured over a complete moratorium so as to minimize socio-economic impacts on the industry.

  8. Forecasting the Major Influences of Predation and Environment on Cod Recovery in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Nicolas; Chassot, Emmanuel; Duplisea, Daniel E.; Hammill, Mike O.

    2014-01-01

    The northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (NGSL) stock of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), historically the second largest cod population in the Western Atlantic, has known a severe collapse during the early 1990 s and is currently considered as endangered by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. As for many fish populations over the world which are currently being heavily exploited or overfished, urgent management actions in the form of recovery plans are needed for restoring this stock to sustainable levels. Stochastic projections based on a statistical population model incorporating predation were conducted over a period of 30 years (2010–2040) to assess the expected outcomes of alternative fishing strategies on the stock recovery under different scenarios of harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) abundance and environmental conditions. This sensitivity study shows that water temperature is key in the rebuilding of the NGSL cod stock. Model projections suggest that maintaining the current management practice under cooler water temperatures is likely to maintain the species in an endangered status. Under current or warmer conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, partial recovery might only be achieved by significant reductions in both fishing and predation pressure. In the medium-term, a management strategy that reduces catch could be favoured over a complete moratorium so as to minimize socio-economic impacts on the industry. PMID:24523852

  9. Evidence of segregated spawning in a single marine fish stock: Sympatric divergence of ecotypes in icelandic cod?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, T.B.; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjalmur; McAdam, B.J.; Marteinsdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of intraspecific diversity and population structure within marine fish species, yet there is little direct evidence of the isolating mechanisms that maintain it or documentation of its ecological extent. We analyzed depth and temperature histories collected by electronic data storage tags retrieved from 104 Atlantic cod at liberty ???1 year to evaluate a possible isolating mechanisms maintaining population structure within the Icelandic cod stock. This stock consists of two distinct behavioral types, resident coastal cod and migratory frontal cod, each occurring within two geographically distinct populations. Despite being captured together on the same spawning grounds, we show the behavioral types seem reproductively isolated by fine-scale differences in spawning habitat selection, primarily depth. Additionally, the different groups occupied distinct seasonal thermal and bathymetric niches that generally demonstrated low levels of overlap throughout the year. Our results indicate that isolating mechanisms, such as differential habitat selection during spawning, might contribute to maintaining diversity and fine-scale population structure in broadcast-spawning marine fishes.

  10. Effect of White Charcoal on COD Reduction in Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pijarn, Nuchanaporn; Butsee, Manipa; Buakul, Kanokwan; Seng, Hasan; Sribuarai, Tinnphat; Phonprasert, Pongtep; Taneeto, Kla; Atthameth, Prasertsil

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the COD reduction in wastewater between using coconut shell and coconut spathe white charcoal from Khlong Wat NongPra-Ong, Krathumbaen, SamutSakhon province, Thailand. The waste water samples were collected using composite sampling method. The experimental section can be divided into 2 parts. The first part was study the optimum of COD adsorption time using both white charcoals. The second part was study the optimum amount of white charcoal for chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction. The pre-treatment of wastewater was examined in parameters include temperature, alkalinity (pH), conductivity, turbidity, suspended solid (SS), total dissolved solid (TDS), and COD. The results show that both white charcoals can reduce COD of wastewater. The pH of pre-treatment wastewater had pH 9 but post-treatment wastewaters using both white charcoals have pH 8. The COD of pre-treatment wastewater had COD as 258 mg/L but post-treatment wastewater using coconut shell white charcoal had COD steady at 40 mg/L in 30 min and the amount of white charcoals 4 g. The COD of post-treatment wastewater using coconut spathe white charcoal had COD steady at 71 mg/L in 30 min and the amount of white charcoals 4 g. Therefore comparison of COD reduction between coconut shell white charcoal versus coconut spathe white charcoal found that the coconut shell white charcoal had efficiency for COD reduction better than coconut spathe white charcoal.

  11. CodY-Dependent Regulation of Sporulation in Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, Kathryn L; Edwards, Adrianne N; Daou, Nadine; Bouillaut, Laurent; McBride, Shonna M

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile must form a spore to survive outside the gastrointestinal tract. The factors that trigger sporulation in C. difficile remain poorly understood. Previous studies have suggested that a link exists between nutritional status and sporulation initiation in C. difficile In this study, we investigated the impact of the global nutritional regulator CodY on sporulation in C. difficile strains from the historical 012 ribotype and the current epidemic 027 ribotype. Sporulation frequencies were increased in both backgrounds, demonstrating that CodY represses sporulation in C. difficile The 027 codY mutant exhibited a greater increase in spore formation than the 012 codY mutant. To determine the role of CodY in the observed sporulation phenotypes, we examined several factors that are known to influence sporulation in C. difficile Using transcriptional reporter fusions and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, we found that two loci associated with the initiation of sporulation, opp and sinR, are regulated by CodY. The data demonstrate that CodY is a repressor of sporulation in C. difficile and that the impact of CodY on sporulation and expression of specific genes is significantly influenced by the strain background. These results suggest that the variability of CodY-dependent regulation is an important contributor to virulence and sporulation in current epidemic isolates. This report provides further evidence that nutritional state, virulence, and sporulation are linked in C. difficile This study sought to examine the relationship between nutrition and sporulation in C. difficile by examining the global nutritional regulator CodY. CodY is a known virulence and nutritional regulator of C. difficile, but its role in sporulation was unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CodY is a negative regulator of sporulation in two different ribotypes of C. difficile We also demonstrate that CodY regulates known effectors of sporulation, Opp and Sin

  12. CodY-Dependent Regulation of Sporulation in Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Nawrocki, Kathryn L.; Edwards, Adrianne N.; Daou, Nadine; Bouillaut, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile must form a spore to survive outside the gastrointestinal tract. The factors that trigger sporulation in C. difficile remain poorly understood. Previous studies have suggested that a link exists between nutritional status and sporulation initiation in C. difficile. In this study, we investigated the impact of the global nutritional regulator CodY on sporulation in C. difficile strains from the historical 012 ribotype and the current epidemic 027 ribotype. Sporulation frequencies were increased in both backgrounds, demonstrating that CodY represses sporulation in C. difficile. The 027 codY mutant exhibited a greater increase in spore formation than the 012 codY mutant. To determine the role of CodY in the observed sporulation phenotypes, we examined several factors that are known to influence sporulation in C. difficile. Using transcriptional reporter fusions and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, we found that two loci associated with the initiation of sporulation, opp and sinR, are regulated by CodY. The data demonstrate that CodY is a repressor of sporulation in C. difficile and that the impact of CodY on sporulation and expression of specific genes is significantly influenced by the strain background. These results suggest that the variability of CodY-dependent regulation is an important contributor to virulence and sporulation in current epidemic isolates. This report provides further evidence that nutritional state, virulence, and sporulation are linked in C. difficile. IMPORTANCE This study sought to examine the relationship between nutrition and sporulation in C. difficile by examining the global nutritional regulator CodY. CodY is a known virulence and nutritional regulator of C. difficile, but its role in sporulation was unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CodY is a negative regulator of sporulation in two different ribotypes of C. difficile. We also demonstrate that CodY regulates known effectors of

  13. Comment on “Slow adaptation in the face of rapid warming leads to collapse of the Gulf of Maine cod fishery”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Michael C.; Deroba, Jonathan J.; Legault, Christopher M.; Brooks, Elizabeth N.

    2016-04-01

    Pershing et al. (Reports, 13 November, p. 809) concluded that failure to account for temperature in the assessment and management of Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod caused overfishing. We argue that the “extra mortality” calculation driving this conclusion is an artifact. Environmental factors affect all stocks, but attribution of additional mortality to temperature alone by Pershing et al. is unsupported by the data.

  14. 9 CFR 2.79 - C.O.D. shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false C.O.D. shipments. 2.79 Section 2.79 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.79 C.O.D. shipments. (a) No carrier or intermediate handler shall accept...

  15. 9 CFR 2.79 - C.O.D. shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false C.O.D. shipments. 2.79 Section 2.79 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... any animal for transportation, in commerce, upon any C.O.D. or other basis where any money is to be...

  16. 9 CFR 2.79 - C.O.D. shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false C.O.D. shipments. 2.79 Section 2.79 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... any animal for transportation, in commerce, upon any C.O.D. or other basis where any money is to be...

  17. 9 CFR 2.79 - C.O.D. shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false C.O.D. shipments. 2.79 Section 2.79 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... any animal for transportation, in commerce, upon any C.O.D. or other basis where any money is to be...

  18. EPA Cape Cod 208 Plan 2015 Update Approval Letter

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA approval letter re: certification by the Governor of MA that the Cape Cod WQM Plan Update is consistent with CWA section 208(b)(3) & accepted the Commonwealth’s reaffirmation of the existing designations of Cape Cod Towns as waste management agencies.

  19. 42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE AT 46T DAY OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION. "BUILDING TOPPED OFF, 7 JULY, 1974. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  20. Could Seals Prevent Cod Recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Brian R.; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-01-01

    Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which they were formerly productive and supported sustainable fisheries. Here we investigate how a cod (Gadus morhua) population in the Baltic Sea whose biomass was reduced due to a combination of high exploitation and deteriorating environmental conditions might recover and develop in the 21st century in an ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows that the cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations) are realistic but success in achieving these goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment. PMID:21573062

  1. 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW OF "A" FACE (LEFT) WITH CLEANING SYSTEM INSTALLED (NOW REMOVED) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT) WITH CONSTRUCTION CRANE IN USE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  2. 17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW WITH PROJECT NEARING COMPLETION. VIEW SHOWS "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE OF RADAR ARRAY SYSTEM. NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  3. 43. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "C" FACE (RIGHT) AND "B" FACE BEING PREPARED FOR INSTALLATION. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  4. 46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH ALL METAL SIDING INSTALLED AND WITH EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM NEARING OCMPLETION ON "B" FACE (RIGHT). VIEW ALSO SHOWS TRAVELING "CLEANING" SYSTEM ON "B" FACE - NOW REMOVED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  5. 45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT). NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  6. 78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    .... 080219213-3470-01] RIN 0648-AT31 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American... lobster trap fishery in Lobster Conservation Management Area 2 (Federal nearshore waters in Southern New England; Area 2), and in the Outer Cape Cod Lobster Conservation Management Area (Federal nearshore waters...

  7. Ecological Condition of Coastal Ocean Waters Along the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Bight: 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of an assessment of ecological condition in coastal-ocean waters of the U.S. mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB), along the U.S. continental shelf from Cape Cod, MA and Nantucket Shoals to the northeast to Cape Hatteras to the south, based on sampling conduc...

  8. ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE ESTUARIES OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF COASTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring the estuaries of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastlines from Cape Cod, MA to Brownsville, TX was performed annually from 1990-1997 to assess ecological conditions on a regional basis for four biogeographic provinces. These province estimates - Virginian, Carolinia...

  9. Cape Cod Transit Task Force : Five-Year Public Transportation Plan

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Transportation's Volpe National Transportation Systems : Center has been working in cooperation with the Cape Cod Regional Transit : Authority, the Cape Cod Commission, and other organizations participating on : the Cape Cod Tr...

  10. Molecular modeling study of CodX reveals importance of N-terminal and C-terminal domain in the CodWX complex structure of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Navaneethakrishnan; Gajendrarao, Poornima; Eom, Soo Hyun; Kwon, Yong Jung; Cheong, Gang-Won; Lee, Keun Woo

    2008-08-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, CodW peptidase and CodX ATPase function together as a distinctive ATP-dependent protease called CodWX, which participates in protein degradation and regulates cell division. The molecular structure of CodX and the assembly structure of CodW-CodX have not yet been resolved. Here we present the first three-dimensional structure of CodX N-terminal (N) and C-terminal (C) domain including possible structure of intermediate (I) domain based on the crystal structure of homologous Escherichia coli HslU ATPase. Moreover, the biologically relevant CodWX (W(6)W(6)X(6)) octadecamer complex structure was constructed using the recently identified CodW-HslU hybrid crystal structure. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation shows a reasonably stable structure of modeled CodWX and explicit behavior of key segments in CodX N and C domain: nucleotide binding residues, GYVG pore motif and CodW-CodX interface. Predicted structure of the possible I domain is flexible in nature with highly coiled hydrophobic region (M153-M206) that could favor substrate binding and entry. Electrostatic surface potential observation unveiled charge complementarity based CodW-CodX interaction pattern could be a possible native interaction pattern in the interface of CodWX. CodX GYVG pore motif structural features, flexible nature of glycine (G92 and G95) residues and aromatic ring conformation preserved Y93 indicated that it may follow the similar mode during the proteolysis mechanism as in the HslU closed state. This molecular modeling study uncovers the significance of CodX N and C domain in CodWX complex and provides possible explanations which would be helpful to understand the CodWX-dependent proteolysis mechanism of B. subtilis.

  11. Seasonal distribution and abundance of fishes and decapod crustaceans in a Cape Cod estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Able, K.W.; Fahay, M.P.; Heck, K.L.; Roman, C.T.; Lazzari, M.A.; Kaiser, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Sampling in several habitat types (sand/mud, eelgrass, sand, gravel, macroalgae/mud) during all seasons with a variety of gears in Nauset Marsh, Massachusetts during 1985-1987 found a fauna consisting of 35 fish and 10 decapod crustacean species. Although most of the abundant species were found in several habitat types, species richness and habitat use appeared to be highest for vegetated habitats (eelgrass, macroalgae). The fishes and decapods were numerically dominated by cold-water taxa; however, numerous fish species, represented by rare individuals of predominantly southern forms, enriched the fauna. Species composition of Nauset Marsh could be distinguished from estuaries south of Cape Cod and even from the south shore of the cape. Both fishes and decapods were most abundant during the summer, apparently due to the contributions from spring and summer spawning in the estuary and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean. The location of Nauset Marsh and other estuaries on Cape Cod provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the importance of this region as a faunal boundary to estuarine species.

  12. "XANSONS for COD": a new small BOINC project in crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverov, Vladislav S.; Khrapov, Nikolay P.

    2018-04-01

    "XANSONS for COD" (http://xansons4cod.com) is a new BOINC project aimed at creating the open-access database of simulated x-ray and neutron powder diffraction patterns for nanocrystalline phase of materials from the collection of the Crystallography Open Database (COD). The project uses original open-source software XaNSoNS to simulate diffraction patterns on CPU and GPU. This paper describes the scientific problem this project solves, the project's internal structure, its operation principles and organization of the final database.

  13. EAARL topography: Cape Cod National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2007-01-01

    This Web site contains 90 Lidar-derived bare earth topography maps and GIS files for the Cape Cod National Seashore. These Lidar-derived topography maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine topography wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to coastal resource managers.

  14. Evaluation Plan for the Cape Cod Advanced Public Transportation System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-06-01

    The Cape Cod Regional Transit Authority (CCRTA) Advanced Public Transportation System (APTS) project is an application of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to fixed route and paratransit operations in a rural transit setting. The purpose of th...

  15. 78 FR 32612 - Collect on Delivery (COD)-Service Features

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ..., will retire the current manual PS Form 3849-D, Notice to Sender of Undelivered COD Mail. The primary function served by PS Form 3849-D can be provided by USPS Package Intercept service, which allows mailers...

  16. Cod Fractions In Mechanical-Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płuciennik-Koropczuk, Ewelina; Jakubaszek, Anita; Myszograj, Sylwia; Uszakiewicz, Sylwia

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents results of studies concerning the designation of COD fraction in the raw, mechanically treated and biologically treated wastewater. The test object was a wastewater treatment plant with the output of over 20,000 PE. The results were compared with data received in the ASM models. During investigation following fractions of COD were determined: dissolved non-biodegradable SI, dissolved easily biodegradable SS, in organic suspension slowly degradable XS and in organic suspension non-biodegradable XI. Methodology for determining the COD fraction was based on the guidelines ATV-A 131. The real percentage of each fraction in total COD in raw wastewater are different from data received in ASM models.

  17. Electric Trams : Lessons Learned at Cape Cod National Seashore

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-08-31

    In seeking to obtain environmentally friendly replacement vehicles for its parking shuttle service, Cape Cod National Seashore set out to procure two hybrid-electric trams in 1998. Ultimately, battery-powered trams were delivered with multiple safety...

  18. Cape Cod National Seashore parking management system pilot synthesis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-27

    The Cape Cod National Seashore (CACO) has undertaken a program to improve parking management at its beach parking lots, and to provide information about parking availability to CACO visitors. This project will build upon work already accomplished, to...

  19. Food web dynamics affect Northeast Arctic cod recruitment.

    PubMed

    Hjermann, Dag Ø; Bogstad, Bjarte; Eikeset, Anne Maria; Ottersen, Geir; Gjøsaeter, Harald; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2007-03-07

    Proper management of ecosystems requires an understanding of both the species interactions as well as the effect of climate variation. However, a common problem is that the available time-series are of different lengths. Here, we present a general approach for studying the dynamic structure of such interactions. Specifically, we analyse the recruitment of the world's largest cod stock, the Northeast Arctic cod. Studies based on data starting in the 1970-1980s indicate that this stock is affected by temperature through a variety of pathways. However, the value of such studies is somewhat limited by the fact that they are based on a quite specific ecological and climatic situation. Recently, this stock has consisted of fairly young fish and the spawning stock has consisted of relatively few age groups. In this study, we develop a model for the effect of capelin (the cod's main prey) and herring on cod recruitment since 1973. Based on this model, we analyse data on cod, herring and temperature going back to 1921 and find that food-web effects explain a significant part of the cod recruitment variation back to around 1950.

  20. Climate variability and marine ecosystem impacts: a North Atlantic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, L. S.; Lear, W. H.

    In recent decades it has been recognized that in the North Atlantic climatic variability has been largely driven by atmospheric forcing related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO index began a pronounced decline around 1950 to a low in the 1960s. From 1970 onward the NAO index increased to its most extreme and persistent positive phase during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Changes in the pattern of the NAO have differential impacts on the opposite sides of the North Atlantic and differential impacts in the north and south. The changes in climate resulting from changes in the NAO appear to have had substantial impacts on marine ecosystems, in particular, on fish productivity, with the effects varying from region to region. An examination of several species and stocks, e.g. gadoids, herring and plankton in the Northeast Atlantic and cod and shellfish in the Northwest Atlantic, indicates that there is a link between long-term trends in the NAO and the productivity of various components of the marine ecosystem. While broad trends are evident, the mechanisms are poorly understood. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of how this climate variability affects the productivity of various components of the North Atlantic marine ecosystem.

  1. Lobster and cod benefit from small-scale northern marine protected areas: inference from an empirical before–after control-impact study

    PubMed Central

    Moland, Even; Olsen, Esben Moland; Knutsen, Halvor; Garrigou, Pauline; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Kleiven, Alf Ring; André, Carl; Knutsen, Jan Atle

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly implemented as tools to conserve and manage fisheries and target species. Because there are opportunity costs to conservation, there is a need for science-based assessment of MPAs. Here, we present one of the northernmost documentations of MPA effects to date, demonstrated by a replicated before–after control-impact (BACI) approach. In 2006, MPAs were implemented along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast offering complete protection to shellfish and partial protection to fish. By 2010, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) had increased by 245 per cent in MPAs, whereas CPUE in control areas had increased by 87 per cent. Mean size of lobsters increased by 13 per cent in MPAs, whereas increase in control areas was negligible. Furthermore, MPA-responses and population development in control areas varied significantly among regions. This illustrates the importance of a replicated BACI design for reaching robust conclusions and management decisions. Partial protection of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was followed by an increase in population density and body size compared with control areas. By 2010, MPA cod were on average 5 cm longer than in any of the control areas. MPAs can be useful management tools in rebuilding and conserving portions of depleted lobster populations in northern temperate waters, and even for a mobile temperate fish species such as the Atlantic cod. PMID:23303544

  2. Comparison of the Northeast Arctic cod year class strength (at the age of 3+) with the SST anomalies in main spawning ground (the Norwegian Shelf Waters) by results of analysis satellite monitoring data during last years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyushin, George

    2015-04-01

    Continuous long-term database (1998-2014) on the sea surface temperature (SST) comprising results of regional satellite monitoring (the Norwegian and the Barents seas) is used to resolve several applied problems. Authors have analyzed indirect influence the SST (the NOAA satellite data) on modern cod total stock biomass (abundance of the Northeast Arctic cod at age 3+). In this study, we went on the consideration of the relationship between the SST anomalies for March-April in the main spawning ground of the cod off the Lofoten islands in the Norwegian Shelf Waters and forecasting assessment of future cod generation success and its future abundance of 3 year old. Mean monthly SST and SST anomalies are computed for the selected area on the basis of the weekly SST maps which made by using the NOAA satellites data for the period 1998-2014. Comparison of the SST anomalies in the main spawning ground with abundance of the cod year class at age 3+ shows that survival of the cod generations was inhibited on the whole as negative (below -0,1C) well as positive SST anomalies (above +1,3C) during March and April. Finally, the results indicate that poor and low middle generations of cod at age 3+ (2002, 2004, 2010) occurred in years with negative or extremely high positive the SST anomalies in the spawning area. The SST anomalies in years which were close to normal significances provide conditions for appearance middle or strong generations of cod (2001-2003, 2005-2009, 2011-2013). So, the SST and SST anomalies (by the NOAA satellite data) characterize of increase in input of warm Atlantic waters which form numerous eddies along the main stream thus creating favorable conditions for spawning and development of the cod larvae and fry and provide them with food stock, finally direct influence on forming total stock biomass of cod and helping its population forecast. Key words: satellite monitoring of SST, the Northeast Arctic cod, spawning ground, forecast of the cod year class

  3. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). Bay Anchovy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Mexico coasts, from Cape Cod, species of anchovies have been Massachusetts, to Yucatan , Mexico recorded from the Mid-Atlantic Region, (Hildebrand 1963...bay anchovies were food web (Figure 3). It is an apparently unaffected by water important source of nutrition for many temperatures exceeding 32 0 C

  4. 76 FR 18504 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...-BA65 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries..., 2011, NMFS published a proposed rule to modify Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) base quotas for all domestic...); amend the Atlantic tunas possession at sea and landing regulations to allow removal of Atlantic tunas...

  5. Growth dynamics of Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) and Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) in the Northern Bering and Chukchi Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helser, T.; Anderl, D.

    2016-02-01

    Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) and Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) are two circumpolar gadids that serve as critically important species responsible for energy transfer in Arctic food webs of the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas. To understand the potential effects of sea ice loss and warming temperatures on these species' basic life history, information such as growth is needed. Yet to date, limited effort has been dedicated to the study of their growth dynamics. Based on a large sample of otoliths collected in the first comprehensive ecosystem integrated survey in the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas, procedures were developed to reliably estimate age from otolith microstructure and were used to study the growth dynamics of saffron and Arctic cod. Saffron cod attained larger asymptotic sizes (L∞ = 363 mm) and achieved their maximum size at a faster rate (K = 0.378) than Arctic cod (L∞ = 209 mm; K = 0.312). For both species, regional differences in growth were found (p<0.01). Saffron cod grew to a significantly larger size at age in the northern Bering Sea when compared to the Chukchi Sea, particularly at younger ages. Arctic cod grew to smaller a asymptotic size but at faster rates in the more northerly central (L∞ = 197 mm; K = 0.324) and southern Chukchi Sea (L∞ = 221 mm; K = 0.297) when compared to the northern Bering Sea (L∞ = 266 mm; K = 0.171), suggesting a possible cline in growth rates with more northerly latitudes. A 30 year retrospective comparison of age data indicate that both species exhibited a decline is maximum size accompanied by higher instantaneous rates growth in more recent years.

  6. Growth dynamics of saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) and Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) in the Northern Bering and Chukchi Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helser, Thomas E.; Colman, Jamie R.; Anderl, Delsa M.; Kastelle, Craig R.

    2017-01-01

    Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) and Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) are two circumpolar gadids that serve as critically important species responsible for energy transfer in Arctic food webs of the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas. To understand the potential effects of sea ice loss and warming temperatures on these species' basic life history, information such as growth is needed. Yet to date, limited effort has been dedicated to the study of their growth dynamics. Based on a large sample of otoliths collected in the first comprehensive ecosystem integrated survey in the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas, procedures were developed to reliably estimate age from otolith growth zones and were used to study the growth dynamics of saffron and Arctic cod. Annual growth zone assignment was validated using oxygen isotope signatures in otoliths and otolith morphology analyzed and compared between species. Saffron cod attained larger asymptotic sizes (L∞=363 mm) and achieved their maximum size at a faster rate (K=0.378) than Arctic cod (L∞=209 mm; K=0.312). For both species, regional differences in growth were found (p<0.01). Saffron cod grew to a significantly larger size at age in the northern Bering Sea when compared to the Chukchi Sea, particularly at younger ages. Arctic cod grew to smaller asymptotic size but at faster rates in the more northerly central (L∞=197 mm;K=0.324) and southern Chukchi Sea (L∞=221 mm;K=0.297) when compared to the northern Bering Sea (L∞=266 mm;K=0.171), suggesting a possible cline in growth rates with more northerly latitudes. Comparison of growth to two periods separated by 30 years indicate that both species exhibited a decline in maximum size accompanied by higher instantaneous growth rates in more recent years.

  7. Climate influence on Baltic cod, sprat, and herring stock-recruitment relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margonski, Piotr; Hansson, Sture; Tomczak, Maciej T.; Grzebielec, Ryszard

    2010-10-01

    A wide range of possible recruitment drivers were tested for key exploited fish species in the Baltic Sea Regional Advisory Council (RAC) area: Eastern Baltic Cod, Central Baltic Herring, Gulf of Riga Herring, and sprat. For each of the stocks, two hypotheses were tested: (i) recruitment is significantly related to spawning stock biomass, climatic forcing, and feeding conditions and (ii) by acknowledging these drivers, management decisions can be improved. Climate impact expressed by climatic indices or changes in water temperature was included in all the final models. Recruitment of the herring stock appeared to be influenced by different factors: the spawning stock biomass, winter Baltic Sea Index prior to spawning, and potentially the November-December sea surface temperature during the winter after spawning were important to Gulf of Riga Herring, while the final models for Central Baltic Herring included spawning stock biomass and August sea surface temperature. Recruitment of sprat appeared to be influenced by July-August temperature, but was independent of the spawning biomass when SSB > 200,000 tons. Recruitment of Eastern Baltic Cod was significantly related to spawning stock biomass, the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index, and the reproductive volume in the Gotland Basin in May. All the models including extrinsic factors significantly improved prediction ability as compared to traditional models, which account for impacts of the spawning stock biomass alone. Based on the final models the minimum spawning stock biomass to derive the associated minimum recruitment under average environmental conditions was calculated for each stock. Using uncertainty analyses, the spawning stock biomass required to produce associated minimum recruitment was presented with different probabilities considering the influence of the extrinsic drivers. This tool allows for recruitment to be predicted with a required probability, that is, higher than the average 50% estimated

  8. H2O2_COD_EPA; MEC_acclimation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    H2O2_COD_EPA: Measurements of hydrogen peroxide and COD concentrations for water samples from the MEC reactors.MEC_acclimation: raw data for current and voltage of the anode in the MEC reactor.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Sim, J., J. An, E. Elbeshbishy, R. Hodon, and H. Lee. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells. Bioresource Technology. Elsevier Online, New York, NY, USA, 195: 31-36, (2015).

  9. Nitrite Interference with Soluble COD Measurements from Aerobically Treated Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Fernanda M; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2017-06-01

      This study aimed to determine the interference of nitrite () with soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements from the effluent of landfill leachate treated by sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Synthetic wastewater assimilating young and old landfill leachate was used as influent for SBR1 and SBR2, respectively. A mixture of raw wastewater and landfill leachate was used as influent for SBR3. Due to the high ammonia concentration in the influent, different levels of partial nitrification were observed in all the reactors and was detected in the effluents. Theoretically, when is present in the effluent, 1 mg/L of accounts for 1.1 mg/L of COD (i.e., 1.1 mg COD/mg ) due to the oxidation of to . It was found that the value of 1.1 mg COD/mg was 3 times higher than the values obtained in the experiments with SBR1 and SBR3. In addition, the values obtained in the experiments with SBR2 were much higher than 1.1 mg COD/mg . These results suggest that the theoretical value of 1.1 mg COD/mg cannot be applied to predict the COD values caused by nitrite in the tested wastewaters. To obtain

  10. Causes and projections of abrupt climate-driven ecosystem shifts in the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Beaugrand, Grégory; Edwards, Martin; Brander, Keith; Luczak, Christophe; Ibanez, Frederic

    2008-11-01

    Warming of the global climate is now unequivocal and its impact on Earth' functional units has become more apparent. Here, we show that marine ecosystems are not equally sensitive to climate change and reveal a critical thermal boundary where a small increase in temperature triggers abrupt ecosystem shifts seen across multiple trophic levels. This large-scale boundary is located in regions where abrupt ecosystem shifts have been reported in the North Atlantic sector and thereby allows us to link these shifts by a global common phenomenon. We show that these changes alter the biodiversity and carrying capacity of ecosystems and may, combined with fishing, precipitate the reduction of some stocks of Atlantic cod already severely impacted by exploitation. These findings offer a way to anticipate major ecosystem changes and to propose adaptive strategies for marine exploited resources such as cod in order to minimize social and economic consequences.

  11. Cape Cod National Seashore : satellite maintenance facility feasibility study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-30

    This report analyzes the benefits and costs of a potential satellite vehicle maintenance facility on the outer portion of Cape Cod. A satellite facility had been proposed as a means of servicing the local transit vehicles that bring visitors to Cape ...

  12. RESEARCH FOR NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS ON CAPE COD SERIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess nitrogen causes the quality of estuary waters to decrease and impacts the ability of people to use those waters. Because of a lawsuit, towns on Cape Cod are required to address the excess nitrogen that flows into the Cape’s estuaries. These towns are examining both t...

  13. Delineation of groundwater recharge areas, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    For additional information on the hydrology and geology of western Cape Cod, the reader is referred to the following reports: LeBlanc and others (1986), Barlow and Hess (1993), Masterson and others (1997a), Masterson and others (1997b), Masterson and others (1998), Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Inc. (1998) and Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. (1999).

  14. Arctic Climate Change: A Tale of Two Cod Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arctic cod play an important role in the Arctic trophic hierarchy as the consumer of primary productivity and a food source for many marine fish and mammals. Shifts in their distribution and abundance could have cascading affects in the marine environment. This paper investigates...

  15. Linking North Atlantic Teleconnections to Latitudinal Variability of Wave Climate Along the North American Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provancha, C.; Adams, P. N.; Hegermiller, C.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Shoreline change via coastal erosion and accretion is largely influenced by variations in ocean wave climate. Identifying the sources of these variations is challenging because the timing of wave energy delivery varies over multiple timescales within ocean basins. We present the results of an investigation of USACE Wave Information Studies hindcast hourly wave heights, periods, and directions along the North American Atlantic coast from 1980-2012, designed to explore links between wave climate and teleconnection patterns. Trends in median and extreme significant wave heights (SWHs) demonstrate that mean monthly SWHs increased from 1 to 5 cm/yr along the roughly 3000 km reach of study area, with changes in hurricane season waves appearing to be most influential in producing the overall trends. Distributions of SWHs categorized by North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase, show that positive-period NAO SWHs are greater than negative-period NAO SWHs along the entire eastern seaboard (25°N to 45°N). The most prominent wave direction off Cape Cod, MA during positive-period NAO is approximately 105°, as compared to approximately 75° during negative-period NAO. Prominent wave directions between Cape Canaveral, FL, and Savannah, GA exhibit a similar shift but during opposite phases of the NAO. The results of this analysis suggest that the atmosphere-ocean interactions associated with contrasting NAO phases can significantly change the wave climate observed offshore along the North American Atlantic coast, altering alongshore wave energy fluxes and sediment transport patterns along the coast.

  16. Cape Cod National Seashore intelligent transportation systems implementation plan: final report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-03-18

    The Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) is providing technical support to the Cape Cod National Seashore in the planning of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). In collaboration with the Cape Cod Commission, National Se...

  17. Rearing Water Treatment Induces Microbial Selection Influencing the Microbiota and Pathogen Associated Transcripts of Cod (Gadus morhua) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Vestrum, Ragnhild I.; Attramadal, Kari J. K.; Winge, Per; Li, Keshuai; Olsen, Yngvar; Bones, Atle M.; Vadstein, Olav; Bakke, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that K-selection and microbial stability in the rearing water increases survival and growth of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae, and that recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are compatible with this. Here, we have assessed how water treatment influenced the larval microbiota and host responses at the gene expression level. Cod larvae were reared with two different rearing water systems: a RAS and a flow-through system (FTS). The water microbiota was examined using a 16S rDNA PCR/DGGE strategy. RNA extracted from larvae at 8, 13, and 17 days post hatching was used for microbiota and microarray gene expression analysis. Bacterial cDNA was synthesized and used for 16S rRNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing of larval microbiota. Both water and larval microbiota differed significantly between the systems, and the larval microbiota appeared to become more dissimilar between systems with time. In total 4 phyla were identified for all larvae: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. The most profound difference in larval microbiota was a high abundance of Arcobacter (Epsilonproteobacteria) in FTS larvae (34 ± 9% of total reads). Arcobacter includes several species that are known pathogens for humans and animals. Cod larval transcriptome responses were investigated using an oligonucleotide gene expression microarray covering approximately 24,000 genes. Interestingly, FTS larvae transcriptional profiles revealed an overrepresentation of upregulated transcripts associated with responses to pathogens and infections, such as c1ql3-like, pglyrp-2-like and zg16, compared to RAS larvae. In conclusion, distinct water treatment systems induced differences in the larval microbiota. FTS larvae showed up-regulation of transcripts associated with responses to microbial stress. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that RAS promotes K-selection and microbial stability by maintaining a microbial load close to the carrying capacity

  18. Rearing Water Treatment Induces Microbial Selection Influencing the Microbiota and Pathogen Associated Transcripts of Cod (Gadus morhua) Larvae.

    PubMed

    Vestrum, Ragnhild I; Attramadal, Kari J K; Winge, Per; Li, Keshuai; Olsen, Yngvar; Bones, Atle M; Vadstein, Olav; Bakke, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that K-selection and microbial stability in the rearing water increases survival and growth of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) larvae, and that recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are compatible with this. Here, we have assessed how water treatment influenced the larval microbiota and host responses at the gene expression level. Cod larvae were reared with two different rearing water systems: a RAS and a flow-through system (FTS). The water microbiota was examined using a 16S rDNA PCR/DGGE strategy. RNA extracted from larvae at 8, 13, and 17 days post hatching was used for microbiota and microarray gene expression analysis. Bacterial cDNA was synthesized and used for 16S rRNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing of larval microbiota. Both water and larval microbiota differed significantly between the systems, and the larval microbiota appeared to become more dissimilar between systems with time. In total 4 phyla were identified for all larvae: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. The most profound difference in larval microbiota was a high abundance of Arcobacter (Epsilonproteobacteria) in FTS larvae (34 ± 9% of total reads). Arcobacter includes several species that are known pathogens for humans and animals. Cod larval transcriptome responses were investigated using an oligonucleotide gene expression microarray covering approximately 24,000 genes. Interestingly, FTS larvae transcriptional profiles revealed an overrepresentation of upregulated transcripts associated with responses to pathogens and infections, such as c1ql3-like , pglyrp-2-like and zg16, compared to RAS larvae. In conclusion, distinct water treatment systems induced differences in the larval microbiota. FTS larvae showed up-regulation of transcripts associated with responses to microbial stress. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that RAS promotes K-selection and microbial stability by maintaining a microbial load close to the carrying

  19. Long-term change in a behavioural trait: truncated spawning distribution and demography in Northeast Arctic cod.

    PubMed

    Opdal, Anders Frugård; Jørgensen, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Harvesting may be a potent driver of demographic change and contemporary evolution, which both may have great impacts on animal populations. Research has focused on changes in phenotypic traits that are easily quantifiable and for which time series exist, such as size, age, sex, or gonad size, whereas potential changes in behavioural traits have been under-studied. Here, we analyse potential drivers of long-term changes in a behavioural trait for the Northeast Arctic stock of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, namely choice of spawning location. For 104 years (1866-1969), commercial catches were recorded annually and reported by county along the Norwegian coast. During this time period, spawning ground distribution has fluctuated with a trend towards more northerly spawning. Spawning location is analysed against a suite of explanatory factors including climate, fishing pressure, density dependence, and demography. We find that demography (age or age at maturation) had the highest explanatory power for variation in spawning location, while climate had a limited effect below statistical significance. As to potential mechanisms, some effects of climate may act through demography, and explanatory variables for demography may also have absorbed direct evolutionary change in migration distance for which proxies were unavailable. Despite these caveats, we argue that fishing mortality, either through demographic or evolutionary change, has served as an effective driver for changing spawning locations in cod, and that additional explanatory factors related to climate add no significant information. © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Long-term change in a behavioural trait: truncated spawning distribution and demography in Northeast Arctic cod

    PubMed Central

    Opdal, Anders Frugård; Jørgensen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting may be a potent driver of demographic change and contemporary evolution, which both may have great impacts on animal populations. Research has focused on changes in phenotypic traits that are easily quantifiable and for which time series exist, such as size, age, sex, or gonad size, whereas potential changes in behavioural traits have been under-studied. Here, we analyse potential drivers of long-term changes in a behavioural trait for the Northeast Arctic stock of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, namely choice of spawning location. For 104 years (1866–1969), commercial catches were recorded annually and reported by county along the Norwegian coast. During this time period, spawning ground distribution has fluctuated with a trend towards more northerly spawning. Spawning location is analysed against a suite of explanatory factors including climate, fishing pressure, density dependence, and demography. We find that demography (age or age at maturation) had the highest explanatory power for variation in spawning location, while climate had a limited effect below statistical significance. As to potential mechanisms, some effects of climate may act through demography, and explanatory variables for demography may also have absorbed direct evolutionary change in migration distance for which proxies were unavailable. Despite these caveats, we argue that fishing mortality, either through demographic or evolutionary change, has served as an effective driver for changing spawning locations in cod, and that additional explanatory factors related to climate add no significant information. PMID:25336028

  1. A sampler for capturing larval and juvenile Atlantic menhaden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.D.; Hedrick, L.R.; Margraf, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in capturing larval and juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus for use in laboratory studies required the design and construction of a sampling device that would allow us to make collections of live fish from open-water areas. Our device for capturing 1-2.5-in larval-juvenile fish was constructed of a stainless steel frame that supported a 9.84-ft-long (3-m-long)5 cone plankton net with a 3.28-ft-diameter (1-m-diameter) opening and a 0.04-in (1-mm) mesh size. Although the plankton net was similar to that used during typical larval fish collections, the cod end was constructed of Plexiglas and was nearly watertight; this prevented impingement and injury to larval fish and provided a calm-water environment. The cod end was designed for quick release from the plankton net, and the entire cod end could be submerged into a 75-gal onboard holding tank. This design and technique obviated the netting or emerging of fish from the water until they were returned to the laboratory. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  2. Stability of compounded trilostane suspension in cod liver oil.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Jesse; Brown, Stacy

    2017-10-01

    Trilostane is a synthetic steroid analog used to treat canine hyperadrenocorticism. For small dogs, the dose found in commercially available dosage forms of trilostane is sometimes too high. Compounding trilostane in a liquid diluent provides an option for more precise dosing and adjustments, and can be easier to administer, versus a tablet or capsule. Trilostane suspends well in cod liver oil, which is generally palatable to dogs. The stability of a compounded trilostane suspension in cod liver oil stored at room temperature was investigated for 90 days. Compounded trilostane retained stability, defined as maintaining 90-105% labeled value, for 60 days when stored in amber glass bottles. However, drug potency fell >10% below the labeled value when stored in amber plastic bottles after 7 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A rapid liquid chromatography determination of free formaldehyde in cod.

    PubMed

    Storey, Joseph M; Andersen, Wendy C; Heise, Andrea; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Lohne, Jack; Thomas, Terri; Madson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A rapid method for the determination of free formaldehyde in cod is described. It uses a simple water extraction of formaldehyde which is then derivatised with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form a sensitive and specific chromophore for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) detection. Although this formaldehyde derivative has been widely used in past tissue analysis, this paper describes an improved derivatisation procedure. The formation of the DNPH formaldehyde derivative has been shortened to 2 min and a stabilising buffer has been added to the derivative to increase its stability. The average recovery of free formaldehyde in spiked cod was 63% with an RSD of 15% over the range of 25-200 mg kg(-1) (n = 48). The HPLC procedure described here was also compared to a commercial qualitative procedure - a swab test for the determination of free formaldehyde in fish. Several positive samples were compared by both methods.

  4. The CodY regulator is essential for virulence in Streptococcus suis serotype 2

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Liping; Zhu, Jiawen; Chang, Haitao; Gao, Xiaoping; Gao, Cheng; Wei, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Fangyan; Bei, Weicheng

    2016-01-01

    The main role of CodY, a global regulatory protein in most low G + C gram-positive bacteria, is in transcriptional repression. To study the functions of CodY in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2), a mutant codY clone named ∆codY was constructed to explore the phenotypic variation between ∆codY and the wild-type strain. The result showed that the codY mutation significantly inhibited cell growth, adherence and invasion ability of S. suis 2 to HEp-2 cells. The codY mutation led to decreased binding of the pathogen to the host cells, easier clearance by RAW264.7 macrophages and decreased growth ability in fresh blood of Cavia porcellus. The codY mutation also attenuated the virulence of S. suis 2 in BALB/c mice. Morphological analysis revealed that the codY mutation decreased the thickness of the capsule of S. suis 2 and changed the surface structures analylized by SDS-PAGE. Finally, the codY mutation altered the expressions of many virulence related genes, including sialic acid synthesis genes, leading to a decreased sialic acid content in capsule. Overall, mutation of codY modulated bacterial virulence by affecting the growth and colonization of S. suis 2, and at least via regulating sialic acid synthesis and capsule thickness. PMID:26883762

  5. COD::CIF::Parser: an error-correcting CIF parser for the Perl language.

    PubMed

    Merkys, Andrius; Vaitkus, Antanas; Butkus, Justas; Okulič-Kazarinas, Mykolas; Kairys, Visvaldas; Gražulis, Saulius

    2016-02-01

    A syntax-correcting CIF parser, COD::CIF::Parser , is presented that can parse CIF 1.1 files and accurately report the position and the nature of the discovered syntactic problems. In addition, the parser is able to automatically fix the most common and the most obvious syntactic deficiencies of the input files. Bindings for Perl, C and Python programming environments are available. Based on COD::CIF::Parser , the cod-tools package for manipulating the CIFs in the Crystallography Open Database (COD) has been developed. The cod-tools package has been successfully used for continuous updates of the data in the automated COD data deposition pipeline, and to check the validity of COD data against the IUCr data validation guidelines. The performance, capabilities and applications of different parsers are compared.

  6. COD removal characteristics in air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; He, Weihua; Ren, Lijiao; Stager, Jennifer; Evans, Patrick J; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    Exoelectrogenic microorganisms in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) compete with other microorganisms for substrate. In order to understand how this affects removal rates, current generation, and coulombic efficiencies (CEs), substrate removal rates were compared in MFCs fed a single, readily biodegradable compound (acetate) or domestic wastewater (WW). Removal rates based on initial test conditions fit first-order kinetics, but rate constants varied with circuit resistance. With filtered WW (100Ω), the rate constant was 0.18h(-)(1), which was higher than acetate or filtered WW with an open circuit (0.10h(-)(1)), but CEs were much lower (15-24%) than acetate. With raw WW (100Ω), COD removal proceeded in two stages: a fast removal stage with high current production, followed by a slower removal with little current. While using MFCs increased COD removal rate due to current generation, secondary processes will be needed to reduce COD to levels suitable for discharge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 15276 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    .... 110210132-1133-01] RIN 0648-BA65 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... 14, 2011, NMFS published a proposed rule to modify Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) base quotas for all...

  8. Improved COD Measurements for Organic Content in Flowback Water with High Chloride Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Isabel; Park, Ho Il; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2016-03-01

    An improved method was used to determine chemical oxygen demand (COD) as a measure of organic content in water samples containing high chloride content. A contour plot of COD percent error in the Cl(-)-Cl(-):COD domain showed that COD errors increased with Cl(-):COD. Substantial errors (>10%) could occur in low Cl(-):COD regions (<300) for samples with low (<10 g/L) and high chloride concentrations (>25 g/L). Applying the method to flowback water samples resulted in COD concentrations ranging in 130 to 1060 mg/L, which were substantially lower than the previously reported values for flowback water samples from Marcellus Shale (228 to 21 900 mg/L). It is likely that overestimations of COD in the previous studies occurred as result of chloride interferences. Pretreatment with mercuric sulfate, and use of a low-strength digestion solution, and the contour plot to correct COD measurements are feasible steps to significantly improve the accuracy of COD measurements.

  9. Rising seas and sinking coastal marshes: Implications to Atlantic waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Prosser, D.J.; Sanders, G.

    2000-01-01

    Along the mid-Atlantic U.S. coast, relative sea level rise (RSLR) is higher than the global average of 1.5-2.0 mm/yr, ranging from about 2.5 in parts of Virginia and Delaware to about 4.0 in New Jersey (Atlantic City and Sandy Hook) and near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Very few data exist on marsh elevation changes, but information from some areas in Virginia, New Jersey and New York suggest that marsh islands are not 'keeping pace' with this RSLR. We began a study in 1999 that addresses changes in sea level and marsh elevation at sites from Cape Cod to s. Virginia known to be important areas for migratory waterbirds, including waterfowl, shorebirds, wading birds, and seabirds. Marsh monitoring sites have been established and data on microhabitat use by birds during all 4 seasons is being collected at these sites. Species expected to be most vulnerable to RSLR in these marshes are breeding species such as Laughing Gulls, Common, Gull-billed and Forster's terns, Clapper Rails, and American Black Ducks. Most of these species are of special concern at state, regional, or national levels. We show how important this region to these species from a flyway perspective, with> 70% of all Atlantic coast Laughing Gulls and Forster's Terns nesting from New Jersey to Virginia.

  10. Saduria entomon infected with Hysterothylacium aduncum found in situ in the stomach of cod (Gadus morhua) from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, J; Nadolna-Ałtyn, K; Szostakowska, B; Pachur, M; Podolska, M

    2017-10-12

    The parasite fauna of cod (Gadus morhus) is well described, but the life cycles of Baltic cod parasites are known only in general terms. Invertebrates commonly found in the stomach of cod are recognized as intermediate hosts in the life cycles of nematodes or acanthocephalans. The aim of this study was to determine the source of infection of Baltic cod with parasites found in situ in invertebrates present in the cod stomach. Our results indicate that Saduria entomon is both a source of infection of Baltic cod with parasites and an intermediate host in the life cycle of Hysterothylacium aduncum in the Baltic Sea.

  11. 77 FR 62257 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Herring River Restoration Project, Cape Cod National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Herring River Restoration Project, Cape Cod National Seashore... Herring River Restoration Project in Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. The DEIS provides a... a press release to area media. ADDRESSES: The DEIS for the Herring River Restoration Project will be...

  12. 77 FR 9852 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Cape Cod National Seashore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service 36 CFR Part 7 RIN 1024-AD88 Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Cape Cod National Seashore AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The National Park Service is amending special regulations for Cape Cod...

  13. Statistical Assessment of Cetacean Stranding Events in Cape Cod Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellar, R.; Pulkkinen, A.; Moore, K.; Reeb, D.; Karakoylu, E.; Uritskaya, O.

    2017-01-01

    Cetacean (whales, dolphins and porpoises) mass strandings are a longstanding mystery in the field of marine biology that continue to be recorded in coastal environments around the world. For each of these events, anywhere from a few to several hundred otherwise healthy animals strand in onshore environments, often for no apparent reason. While the causes of these events remain unclear, anthropogenic and naturogenic mechanisms have been suggested. We present results of an inter-disciplinary study that draws expertise from space weather, marine mammal biology and ecology, and marine mammal stranding response. This study assessed 16 years of cetacean stranding events in the Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA) area concurrently with a large dataset of meteorological, geophysical, biological, oceanographic and space weather data to produce inferences about possible causes for these unexplained events.

  14. Sorption of chlorobenzenes to cape cod aquifer sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    Sorption of tetra- and pentachlorobenzene by sediment from a glacial outwash aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, was evaluated. Particle size and mineralogical fractions (separated based on paramagnetic susceptibility) were characterized with respect to sediment organic carbon (SOC), mineralogy, surface area, metal oxide coatings, and spatial variability. SOC increases by a factor of 10 as particle size decreases from 500-1000 to ?? 25 % in the <63-??m fraction, and SOC is preferentially associated with the magnetic minerals. Sorption increases with decreasing particle size (increasing SOC, magnetic minerals, surface area, and metal oxyhydroxides), and the magnetic mineral fraction has greater sorption than the bulk or nonmagnetic fractions. Removal of SOC decreases sorption proportional to the decrease in SOC and results in a nonlinear isotherm.

  15. Molecular architecture of the ATP-dependent CodWX protease having an N-terminal serine active site

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min Suk; Kim, Soon Rae; Kwack, Pyeongsu; Lim, Byung Kook; Ahn, Sung Won; Rho, Young Min; Seong, Ihn Sik; Park, Seong-Chul; Eom, Soo Hyun; Cheong, Gang-Won; Chung, Chin Ha

    2003-01-01

    CodWX in Bacillus subtilis is an ATP-dependent, N-terminal serine protease, consisting of CodW peptidase and CodX ATPase. Here we show that CodWX is an alkaline protease and has a distinct molecular architecture. ATP hydrolysis is required for the formation of the CodWX complex and thus for its proteolytic function. Remarkably, CodX has a ‘spool-like’ structure that is formed by interaction of the intermediate domains of two hexameric or heptameric rings. In the CodWX complex, CodW consisting of two stacked hexameric rings (WW) binds to either or both ends of a CodX double ring (XX), forming asymmetric (WWXX) or symmetric cylindrical particles (WWXXWW). CodWX can also form an elongated particle, in which an additional CodX double ring is bound to the symmetric particle (WWXXWWXX). In addition, CodWX is capable of degrading EzrA, an inhibitor of FtsZ ring formation, implicating it in the regulation of cell division. Thus, CodWX appears to constitute a new type of protease that is distinct from other ATP-dependent proteases in its structure and proteolytic mechanism. PMID:12805205

  16. Long-term effects of the transient COD concentration on the performance of microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Mateo, S; Gonzalez Del Campo, A; Lobato, J; Rodrigo, M; Cañizares, P; Fernandez-Morales, F J

    2016-07-08

    In this work, the long-term effects of transient chemical oxygen demands (COD) concentrations over the performance of a microbial fuel cell were studied. From the obtained results, it was observed that the repetitive change in the COD loading rate during 12 h conditioned the behavior of the system during periods of up to 7 days. The main modifications were the enhancement of the COD consumption rate and the exerted current. These enhancements yielded increasing Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) when working with COD concentrations of 300 mg/L, but constant CEs when working with COD concentrations from 900 to 1800 mg/L. This effect could be explained by the higher affinity for the substrate of Geobacter than that of the nonelectrogenic organisms such as Clostridia. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:883-890, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Biodegradation of COD in Household Wastewater with Aerobic Biofilm Technology by Adding Sediment Drainage Sewerage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumiyati, Sri; Purwanto; Sutrisno, Endro; Sudarno; Arthawidya, Jalu; Izzudin, Humam

    2018-02-01

    Household wastewater contains contaminants that harm the environment. One of the pollutants found COD. If being discharged into the environment directly, COD concentrations exceeding the existing quality standard will disrupt the ecosystem in the receiving water body. One of the technologies that can degrade COD is biofilm technology with honeycomb tube media. This research aims to analyze the decrease of COD concentration present in wastewater household with biofilm technology of honeycomb media. The reactor used in was made of glass with a thickness of 4 mm, a volume of 18 litres and operated continuously. The media used is made of a PVC pipe, cut to 3 cm in size and then glued to one another, forming a honey comb. The results showed that there has been a decrease in COD concentration of household wastewater.

  18. Diet of Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua) studied by using citizen science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoksen, Siri Elise; Reiss, Henning

    2018-04-01

    The Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua) is a keystone species in the food web of northern Norwegian fjords. Their relatively stationary populations might specifically depend on local food resources, but the diet of cod has rarely been studied in fjord systems. Using a citizen science approach, where recreational anglers and tourists participated in the sampling, we studied small-scale differences in the diet composition of cod in a fjord system in northern Norway. We compared the cod diet from the MPA Saltstraumen, characterised by strong tidal currents and a highly diverse and abundant fauna, with the inner fjord area of Skjerstadfjord. The diet composition of cod significantly differed between both areas within the fjord. Although fish was the dominant prey in both areas, cod consumed > 40% invertebrates in terms of weight, even in the cod size class of 70-99 cm. The invertebrate prey also caused the observed spatial differences. In Saltstraumen, brittle stars (Ophiuroidea), crabs (Brachyura) and sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) were important food sources for cod, while sea urchins (Echinoidea), clams (Bivalvia), shrimps (Caridea) and krill (Euphausiacea) dominated the diet in the inner Skjerstadfjord. The high densities of sessile fauna in the dynamic environment of Saltstraumen, was only partly reflected in the diet of cod, with only Holothuroidea found in 17% of the stomachs. High rates of empty stomachs (24%), cannibalism as well as a higher proportion of low-energy prey in the diet of large cod, may indicate a shortage of high quality food in Skjerstadfjord. The samples for this study were collected through a citizen science campaign. This approach might provide opportunities to be used for coastal ecological monitoring with potential applications in local ecosystem management strategies through public involvement.

  19. Operation Atlantic Resolve

    Science.gov Websites

    Ukraine, Defense Secretary Ash Carter told service members aboard the USS San Antonio in Estonia. Story . Story U.S. Soldiers, Airmen Train With Latvian Service Members U.S. and Latvian troops conducted airborne training in Latvia while supporting Operation Atlantic Resolve, which focuses on joint training

  20. Episodic Eolian Sand Deposition in the Past 4000 Years in Cape COD National Seashore, Massachusetts, USA in Response to Possible Hurricane/storm and Anthropogenic Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, Steven

    2015-02-01

    The eolian sand depositional record for a dune field within Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts is posit as a sensitive indicator of environmental disturbances in the late Holocene from a combination of factors such as hurricane/storm and forest fire occurrence, and anthropogenic activity. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic observations, particularly the burial of spodosol-like soils, and associated 14C and OSL ages that are concordant indicate at least six eolian depositional events at ca. 3750, 2500, 1800, 960, 430 and <250 years ago. The two oldest events are documented at just one locality and thus, the pervasiveness of this eolian activity is unknown. However, the four younger events are identified in three or more sites and show evidence for dune migration and sand sheet accretion. The timing of eolian deposition, particularly the initiation age, corresponds to documented periods of increased storminess/hurricane activity in the North Atlantic Ocean at ca. 2.0 to 1.6, and 1.0 ka and also a wetter coastal climate, which suppressed the occurrence of forest fire. Thus, local droughts are not associated with periods of dune movement in this mesic environment. Latest eolian activity on outer Cape Cod commenced in the past 300 to 500 years and may reflect multiple factors including broad-scale landscape disturbance with European colonization, an increased incidence of forest fires and heightened storminess. Eolian systems of Cape Cod appear to be sensitive to landscape disturbance and prior to European settlement may reflect predominantly hurricane/storm disturbance, despite generally mesic conditions in past 4 ka.

  1. Structural and biophysical analysis of interactions between cod and human uracil-DNA N-glycosylase (UNG) and UNG inhibitor (Ugi)

    SciTech Connect

    Assefa, Netsanet Gizaw; Niiranen, Laila; University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku

    2014-08-01

    A structural and biophysical study of the interactions between cod and human uracil-DNA N-glycosylase (UNG) and their inhibitor Ugi is presented. The stronger interaction between cod UNG and Ugi can be explained by a greater positive electrostatic surface potential. Uracil-DNA N-glycosylase from Atlantic cod (cUNG) shows cold-adapted features such as high catalytic efficiency, a low temperature optimum for activity and reduced thermal stability compared with its mesophilic homologue human UNG (hUNG). In order to understand the role of the enzyme–substrate interaction related to the cold-adapted properties, the structure of cUNG in complex with a bacteriophage encoded natural UNG inhibitor (Ugi)more » has been determined. The interaction has also been analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The crystal structure of cUNG–Ugi was determined to a resolution of 1.9 Å with eight complexes in the asymmetric unit related through noncrystallographic symmetry. A comparison of the cUNG–Ugi complex with previously determined structures of UNG–Ugi shows that they are very similar, and confirmed the nucleotide-mimicking properties of Ugi. Biophysically, the interaction between cUNG and Ugi is very strong and shows a binding constant (K{sub b}) which is one order of magnitude larger than that for hUNG–Ugi. The binding of both cUNG and hUNG to Ugi was shown to be favoured by both enthalpic and entropic forces; however, the binding of cUNG to Ugi is mainly dominated by enthalpy, while the entropic term is dominant for hUNG. The observed differences in the binding properties may be explained by an overall greater positive electrostatic surface potential in the protein–Ugi interface of cUNG and the slightly more hydrophobic surface of hUNG.« less

  2. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Daugbjerg Christensen, Nanna; Korbut, Rozalia; Kania, Per; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-06-15

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts for these parasites. Here, we report from an investigation of 368 cod (total length [TL] 6-49 cm; caught in ICES Subdivision 25) that the infection level of juvenile cod (TL 6-30 cm) with larvae of C. osculatum and P. decipiens is absent or very low, whereas it increases drastically in larger cod (TL 31-48 cm). A third nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum was rarely found. The study indicates that the prey animals for large cod act as transport hosts for the parasite larvae. Analyses of stomach contents of cod caught in the same area (2007-2014) showed that small benthic organisms (including polychaetes Harmothoë sarsi) are preferred food items by small cod, the isopod Saduria entomon is taken by all size classes, and sprat Sprattus sprattus are common prey items for cod larger than 30 cm. Parasitological investigations (microscopic and molecular analyses) of H. sarsi (100 specimens) and S. entomon (40 specimens) did not reveal infection in these invertebrates, but 11.6% of sprat (265 specimens examined) was shown to be infected with 1-8 C. osculatum third stage larvae per fish. Analyses of sprat stomach contents confirmed that copepods and cladocerans are the main food items of sprat. These observations suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts. One cannot exclude the possibility that the size-dependent C. osculatum infection of cod may contribute (indirectly or directly) to the differential mortality of larger cod

  3. 75 FR 19561 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters) length... meters) length overall using hook-and-line or pot gear in the BSAI under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on March... 400 metric tons of Pacific cod remain in the 2010 Pacific cod apportionment for catcher vessels less...

  4. Removal of slowly biodegradable COD in combined thermophilic UASB and MBBR systems.

    PubMed

    Ji, M; Yu, J; Chen, H; Yue, P L

    2001-09-01

    Starch, cellulose and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) are common substrates of the slowly biodegradable COD (SBCOD) in industrial wastewaters. Removal of the individual and mixed SbCOD substrates was investigated in a combined system of thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (TUASB) reactor (55 degrees C) and aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). The removal mechanisms of the three SBCOD substrates were quite different. Starch-COD was almost equally utilized and removed in the two reactors. Cellulose-COD was completely (97-98%) removed from water in the TUASB reactor by microbial entrapment and sedimentation of the cellulose fibers. PVA alone was hardly biodegraded and removed by the combined reactors. However, PVA-COD could be removed to some extent in a binary solution of starch (77%) plus PVA (23%). The PVA macromolecules in the binary solution actually affected the microbial activity in the TUASB reactor resulting accumulation of volatile fatty acids, which shifted the overall COD removal from the TUASB to the MBBR reactor where SBCOD including PVA-COD was removed. Since the three SBCOD substrates were removed by different mechanisms, the combined reactors showed a better and more stable performance than individual reactors.

  5. Specific inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum extends the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, P; Garcia Munoz, L; Mejlholm, O

    1998-09-01

    Inhibition of the specific spoilage organism, Photobacterium phosphoreum, was studied in model substrates and in modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets. The objective was to determine how inhibition of this organism influenced spoilage. The spoilage reactions limiting shelf life were studied rather than the development of a new product. In naturally contaminated modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets, 500 ppm Na2CaEDTA reduced the growth rate of P. phosphoreum by 40% and shelf life was increased proportionally by 40%, from 15 to 17 days to 21 to 23 days at 0 degree C. In aerobically stored cod fillets other microorganisms were responsible for spoilage and Na2CaEDTA had no effect on shelf life. The extension of the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod therefore was a result of the reduced growth of P. phosphoreum and no other microbial or nonmicrobial spoilage reactions limited shelf life. These results confirmed P. phosphoreum as the specific spoilage organism in modified-atmosphere-packed cod and showed the organism to have an extensive spoilage domain. Consequently, any preservation procedure able to reduce growth of P. phosphoreum is likely to extend shelf life of packed cod. However, the effect of different inhibitory compounds in model systems as well as results from packed cod indicated the need to include product studies in the screening of antimicrobials and in the development of preservation procedures.

  6. Seafloor environments in Cape Cod Bay, a large coastal embayment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H.J.; Rendigs, R. R.; List, J.H.; Signell, R.P.

    1996-01-01

    Cape Cod Bay is a glacial, semi-enclosed embayment that has a patchy distribution of modern seafloor sedimentary environments of erosion or nondeposition, deposition, and sediment reworking. Sidescan-sonar records and supplemental bathymetric, sedimentary, subbottom, and physical- oceanographic data indicate that the characteristics and distribution of these three categories of bottom environments are controlled by a combination of geologic and oceanographic processes that range from episodic to long-term and from regional to local. (1) Environments of erosion or nondeposition comprise exposares of bedrock, glacial drift, and coarse lag deposits that contain sediments (where present) ranging from boulder fields to gravelly coarse-to-medium sands. These environments are dominant on the shallow margins of the bay (water depths <30 m) where they reflect sediment resuspension, winnowing, and transport during modern northerly storms. (2) Environments of deposition are blanketed by fine-grained sediments ranging from muds to muddy fine sands. These environments are dominant across the floor of the central basin (water depths= 30-60 m) where fine- grained sediments (derived from regional and local sources and emplaced primarily during episodic wind- and density-driven flow) settle through the water column and accumulate under weak bottom currents during nonstorm conditions. (3) Environments of sediment reworking contain patches with diverse textures ranging from gravelly sands to muds. These environments occupy much of the transitional slopes between the margins and the basin floor and reflect a combination of erosion and deposition. The patchy distribution of sedimentary environments within the bay reflects not only regional changes in processes between the margins and the basin but local changes within each part of the bay as well. Small-scale patchiness is caused by local changes in the strengths of wave- and wind-driven currents and (on the margins) by local

  7. Seafloor environments in Cape Cod Bay, a large coastal embayment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H.J.; Rendigs, R. R.; List, J.H.; Signell, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    Cape Cod Bay is a glacial, semi-enclosed embayment that has a patchy distribution of modern seafloor sedimentary environments of erosion or nondeposition, deposition, and sediment reworking. Sidescan-sonar records and supplemental bathymetric, sedimentary, subbottom, and physical-oceanographic data indicate that the characteristics and distribution of these three categories of bottom environments are controlled by a combination of geologic and oceanographic processes that range from episodic to long-term and from regional to local. (1) Environments of erosion or nondeposition comprise exposures of bedrock, glacial drift, and coarse lag deposits that contain sediments (where present) ranging from boulder fields to gravelly coarse-to-medium sands. These environments are dominant on the shallow margins of the bay (water depths < 30 m) where they reflect sediment resuspension, winnowing, and transport during modern northerly storms. (2) Environments of deposition are blanketed by fine-grained sediments ranging from muds to muddy fine sands. These environments are dominant across the floor of the central basin (water depths = 30–60 m) where fine-grained sediments (derived from regional and local sources and emplaced primarily during episodic wind- and density-driven flow) settle through the water column and accumulate under weak bottom currents during nonstorm conditions. (3) Environments of sediment reworking contain patches with diverse textures ranging from gravelly sands to muds. These environments occupy much of the transitional slopes between the margins and the basin floor and reflect a combination of erosion and deposition.The patchy distribution of sedimentary environments within the bay reflects not only regional changes in processes between the margins and the basin but local changes within each part of the bay as well. Small-scale patchiness is caused by local changes in the strengths of wave- and wind-driven currents and (on the margins) by local

  8. CodY Promotes Sporulation and Enterotoxin Production by Clostridium perfringens Type A Strain SM101

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jihong; Freedman, John C.; Evans, Daniel R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium perfringens type D strains cause enterotoxemia and enteritis in livestock via epsilon toxin production. In type D strain CN3718, CodY was previously shown to increase the level of epsilon toxin production and repress sporulation. C. perfringens type A strains producing C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) cause human food poisoning and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Sporulation is critical for C. perfringens type A food poisoning since spores contribute to transmission and resistance in the harsh food environment and sporulation is essential for CPE production. Therefore, the current study asked whether CodY also regulates sporulation and CPE production in SM101, a derivative of C. perfringens type A food-poisoning strain NCTC8798. An isogenic codY-null mutant of SM101 showed decreased levels of spore formation, along with lower levels of CPE production. A complemented strain recovered wild-type levels of both sporulation and CPE production. When this result was coupled with the earlier results obtained with CN3718, it became apparent that CodY regulation of sporulation varies among different C. perfringens strains. Results from quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis clearly demonstrated that, during sporulation, codY transcript levels remained high in SM101 but rapidly declined in CN3718. In addition, abrB gene expression patterns varied significantly between codY-null mutants of SM101 and CN3718. Compared to the levels in their wild-type parents, the level of abrB gene expression decreased in the CN3718 codY-null mutant strain but significantly increased in the SM101 codY-null mutant strain, demonstrating CodY-dependent regulation differences in abrB expression between these two strains. This difference appears to be important since overexpression of the abrB gene in SM101 reduced the levels of sporulation and enterotoxin production, supporting the involvement of AbrB repression in regulating C. perfringens sporulation. PMID:28052992

  9. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Research progress of on-line automatic monitoring of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Youfa; Fu, Xing; Gao, Xiaolu; Li, Lianyin

    2018-02-01

    With the increasingly stricter control of pollutant emission in China, the on-line automatic monitoring of water quality is particularly urgent. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a comprehensive index to measure the contamination caused by organic matters, and thus it is taken as one important index of energy-saving and emission reduction in China’s “Twelve-Five” program. So far, the COD on-line automatic monitoring instrument has played an important role in the field of sewage monitoring. This paper reviews the existing methods to achieve on-line automatic monitoring of COD, and on the basis, points out the future trend of the COD on-line automatic monitoring instruments.

  11. Seasonal Temperature Estimates From Late Holocene Barents Sea cod Otoliths: Problems and Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, C.; Folkvord, A.; Geffen, A.; Høie, H.

    2008-12-01

    Realistic models of climate change require accurate data of past seasonal temperature regimes. In many marine settings this is difficult to achieve using the marine sedimentary record. This study tests the feasibility to use archaeological cod otoliths to reconstruct changes in the seasonal temperature cycle in the Barents Sea. Potentially, stable oxygen isotope records from cod otoliths could be used to produce records of Holocene temperature change on a seasonal time scale. Human settlements along the coast of northern Norway have exploited the cod (Gadus morhua) population of the Barents Sea from the earliest occupation, through the middle ages, to the present day. A pilot project has been carried out in Bergen to exploit the availability of a collection of cod otoliths from archeological excavations that is housed by the Bergen Museum. Cod otoliths from archaeological excavations in northern Norway, 26 specimens from from Måsøy (Finnmark) and 17 specimens from Vanna (Troms), were selected for this study. These specimens were AMS radiocarbon dated and the ages are spanning approximately 1400 to 1780 AD. Most of the otoliths are from cod that were captured during the Little Ice Age. Seasonal growth patterns were identifiable in the archeological otoliths, comparable to those in modern otoliths. Micromilling was used to sample for stable oxygen isotopes over a 2-year growth period in each of a total of 43 fossil cod otoliths. There are large differences in the temperature ranges experienced by the fish over the 2-year period analyzed. For the Måsøy specimens the temperature range experienced by the fish is between 2.7 to 9.9 °C. The Vanna cod experienced temperature ranges between 1.7 to 7.2 °C. The maximum temperature ranges for both Vanna and Måsøy specimens are higher than the seasonal instrumental measurements for the 0-200 m depth interval in the Kola section in the Barents Sea. The cod otoliths in our study have not yet been divided into different

  12. Effect of influent COD/SO4(2-) ratios on UASB treatment of a synthetic sulfate-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong; Jing, Zhaoqian; Sudo, Yuta; Niu, Qigui; Du, Jingru; Wu, Jiang; Li, Yu-You

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO4(2-)) ratio on the anaerobic treatment of synthetic chemical wastewater containing acetate, ethanol, and sulfate, was investigated using a UASB reactor. The experimental results show that at a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 20 and a COD loading rate of 25.2gCODL(-1)d(-1), a COD removal of as high as 87.8% was maintained. At a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 0.5 (sulfate concentration 6000mgL(-1)), however, the COD removal was 79.2% and the methane yield was 0.20LCH4gCOD(-1). The conversion of influent COD to methane dropped from 80.5% to 54.4% as the COD/SO4(2-) ratio decreased from 20 to 0.5. At all the COD/SO4(2-) ratios applied, over 79.4% of the total electron flow was utilized by methane-producing archaea (MPA), indicating that methane fermentation was the predominant reaction. The majority of the methane was produced by acetoclastic MPA at high COD/SO4(2-) ratios and both acetoclastic and hydrogenthrophic MPA at low COD/SO4(2-) ratios. Only at low COD/SO4(2-) ratios were SRB species such as Desulfovibrio found to play a key role in ethanol degradation, whereas all the SRB species were found to be incomplete oxidizers at both high and low COD/SO4(2-) ratios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Two Distinct Roles of Atlantic SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical Atlantic SST and Atlantic Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct roles of the Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) SST and the Atlantic Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the Atlantic Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative Atlantic Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two Atlantic indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.

  14. Historic changes in length distributions of three Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks: Evidence of growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Svedäng, Henrik; Hornborg, Sara

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how combinations of fishing effort and selectivity affect productivity is central to fisheries research. We investigate the roles of fishing regulation in comparison with ecosystem status for Baltic Sea cod stock productivity, growth performance, and population stability. This case study is interesting because three cod populations with different exploitation patterns and stock status are located in three adjacent but partially, ecologically different areas. In assessing stock status, growth, and productivity, we use survey information and rather basic stock parameters without relying on age readings. Because there is an urgent interest of better understanding of the current development of the Eastern Baltic cod stock, we argue that our approach represents partly a novel way of interpreting monitoring information together with catch data in a simplified yet more informative way. Our study reports how the Eastern and Western Baltic cod have gone toward more truncated size structures between 1991 and 2016, in particular for the Eastern Baltic cod, whereas the Öresund cod show no trend. We suggest that selective fishing may disrupt fish population dynamic stability and that lower natural productivity might amplify the effects of selective fishing. In support of earlier findings on a density-dependent growth of Eastern Baltic cod, management is advised to acknowledge that sustainable exploitation levels for Eastern Baltic cod are much more limited than perceived in regular assessments. Of more general importance, our results emphasize the need to embrace a more realistic view on what ecosystems can produce regarding tractable fish biomass to facilitate a more ecosystem-based fisheries management.

  15. Comparing growth rates of Arctic Cod Boreogadus saida across the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frothingham, A. M.; Norcross, B.

    2016-02-01

    Dramatic changes to the Arctic have highlighted the need for a greater understanding of the present ecosystem. Arctic Cod, Boreogadus saida, commonly dominate fish assemblages in the Arctic region and inhabit two geographically unique seas in the U.S. Due to the importance of Arctic Cod in the Arctic food web, establishing current benchmark information such as growth rates, will provide a better understanding as to how the species will adapt to the effects of climate change. To investigate differences in Arctic Cod life history across nearly 1500 km of vital habitat, growth rates were examined using a von Bertalanffy growth equation. Arctic Cod were collected from 2009 to 2014 from the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Arctic Cod collected from the Chukchi Sea had an overall smaller maximum achievable length (210 mm) compared to the Beaufort Sea (253 mm) despite a larger sample size in the Chukchi Sea (n=1569) than the Beaufort Sea (n=1140). Growth rates indicated faster growth in the Chukchi Sea (K =0.33) than in the Beaufort Sea (K= 0.29). Arctic Cod collected from the Chukchi Sea had similar achievable maximum lengths throughout, but those collected from the southern Chukchi Sea grew at faster rates (K=0.45).Arctic Cod in the eastern Beaufort Sea region had a higher overall maximum achievable length (243 mm) than in the western Beaufort Sea region (186 mm). Knowledge about contemporary growth rates of Arctic Cod in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas can be used in future comparisons to evaluate potential effects of increasing climate change and anthropogenic influences.

  16. Construct Troop Formation Center Environmental Assessment Cape Cod Air Force Station, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Endangered Species Program (MNHESP) conducted a floristic inventory of Cape Cod AFS. Two naturally occurring pine barren vegetation communities were...identified on Cape Cod AFS, pitch pine – scrub oak barren and northern pine barren with oak trees. The majority of the area along the access road...just north of the installation is northern pine barren with oak trees. Pitch pine and scarlet oak dominate the area with white oak, black oak, and

  17. Impact of influent COD/N ratio on disintegration of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinghai; Hao, Tianwei; Wei, Li; Mackey, Hamish R; Lin, Ziqiao; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2014-10-01

    Disintegration of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is a challenging issue in the long-term operation of an AGS system. Chemical oxygen demand (COD)-to-nitrogen (N) ratio (COD/N), often variable in industrial wastewaters, could be a destabilizing factor causing granule disintegration. This study investigates the impact of this ratio on AGS disintegration and identifies the key causes, through close monitoring of AGS changes in its physical and chemical characteristics, microbial community and treatment performance. For specific comparison, two lab-scale air-lift type sequencing batch reactors, one for aerobic granular and the other for flocculent sludge, were operated in parallel with three COD/N ratios (4, 2, 1) applied in the influent of each reactor. The decreased COD/N ratios of 2 and 1 strongly influenced the stability of AGS with regard to physical properties and nitrification efficiency, leading to AGS disintegration when the ratio was decreased to 1. Comparatively the flocculent sludge maintained relatively stable structure and nitrification efficiency under all tested COD/N ratios. The lowest COD/N ratio resulted in a large microbial community shift and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) reduction in both flocculent and granular sludges. The disintegration of AGS was associated with two possible causes: 1) reduction in net tyrosine production in the EPS and 2) a major microbial community shift including reduction in filamentous bacteria leading to the collapse of granule structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Restoration practicesin Brazil's Atlantic rainforest.

    Treesearch

    Jorge Correa de Lima Palidon; Maisa dos Santos Guapyassu

    2005-01-01

    The atlantic Rain Forst (Mata Atlantica) extends along the southern coast of Brazil and inland into Argentina and Paraguay. Originally covering 15% of the land area of Brazil, it was a region of an estimated 1.3 million km2 (MMA 2000). Today, remnants of the Atlantic Forest represents about 8% of the original area, or some 94,000 km2...

  19. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichsen, H.-H.; von Dewitz, B.; Lehmann, A.; Bergström, U.; Hüssy, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study the drift of eastern Baltic cod larvae and juveniles spawned within the historical eastern Baltic cod spawning grounds was investigated by detailed drift model simulations for the years 1971-2010, to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental suitability in the nursery areas of juvenile cod settlement. The results of the long-term model scenario runs, where juvenile cod were treated as simulated passively drifting particles, enabled us to find strong indications for long-term variations of settlement and potentially the reproduction success of the historically important eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds. Only low proportions of juveniles hatched in the Arkona Basin and in the Gotland Basin were able to settle in their respective spawning ground. Ocean currents were either unfavorable for the juveniles to reach suitable habitats or transported the juveniles to nursery grounds of neighboring subdivisions. Juveniles which hatched in the Bornholm Basin were most widely dispersed and showed the highest settlement probability, while the second highest settlement probability and horizontal dispersal was observed for juveniles originating from the Gdansk Deep. In a long-term perspective, wind-driven transport of larvae/juveniles positively affected the settlement success predominately in the Bornholm Basin and in the Bay of Gdansk. The Bornholm Basin has the potential to contribute on average 54% and the Bay of Gdansk 11% to the production of juveniles in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, transport of juveniles surviving to the age of settlement with origin in the Bornholm Basin contributed on average 13 and 11% to the total settlement in the Arkona Basin and in the Gdansk Deep, respectively. The time-series of the simulated occupied juvenile cod habitat in the Bornholm Basin and in the Gdansk Deep showed a similar declining trend as the Fulton's K condition factor of demersal 1-group cod, which may confirm the importance of oxygen-dependent habitat

  20. Potential of hydrolysis of particulate COD in extended anaerobic conditions to enhance biological phosphorous removal.

    PubMed

    Jabari, P; Yuan, Q; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2016-11-01

    The effect of anaerobic hydrolysis of particulate COD (pCOD) on biological phosphorous removal in extended anaerobic condition was investigated through (i) sequencing batch reactors (SBR)s with anaerobic hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.8, 2, and 4 h; (ii) batch tests using biomass from a full scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) plant; and (iii) activated sludge modeling (BioWin 4.1 simulation). The results from long-term SBRs operation showed that phosphorus removal was correlated to the ratio of filtered COD (FCOD) to total phosphorus (TP) in the influent. Under conditions with low FCOD/TP ratio (average of 20) in the influent, extending anaerobic HRT to 4 h in the presence of pCOD did not significantly improve overall phosphorous removal. During the period with high FCOD/TP ratio (average of 37) in the influent, all SBRs removed phosphorous completely, and the long anaerobic HRT did not have negative effect on overall phosphorous removal. The batch tests also showed that pCOD at different concentration during 4 h test did not affect the rate of anaerobic phosphorus release. The rate of anaerobic hydrolysis of pCOD was significantly low and extending the anaerobic HRT was ineffective. The simulation (BioWin 4.1) of SBRs with low influent FCOD/TP ratio showed that the default kinetics of anaerobic hydrolysis in ASM2d overestimated phosphorous removal in the SBRs (high anaerobic hydrolysis of pCOD). The default anaerobic hydrolysis rate in BioWin 4.1 (ten times lower) could produce similar phosphorous removal to that in the experiment. Results showed that the current kinetics of anaerobic hydrolysis in ASM2d could lead to considerable error in predicting phosphorus removal in processes with extended anaerobic HRT. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2377-2385. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. North Atlantic Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Reminiscent of the distinctive swirls in a Van Gogh painting, millions of microscopic plants color the waters of the North Atlantic with strokes of blue, turquoise, green, and brown. Fed by nutrients that have built up during the winter and the long, sunlit days of late spring and early summer, the cool waters of the North Atlantic come alive every year with a vivid display of color. The microscopic plants, called phytoplankton, that give the water this color are the base of the marine food chain. Some species of phytoplankton are coated with scales of calcium (chalk), which turn the water electric blue. Chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments in others give the water a deep green hue. The proliferation of many different species in various stages of growth and decay provides many nuances of color in this concentrated bloom. The bloom stretches across hundreds of kilometers, well beyond the edges of this photo-like image, captured on June 23, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The upper left edge of the image is bounded by Greenland. Iceland is in the upper right. Plumes of dust are blowing off the island, probably adding nutrients to the surface waters to its south. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  2. 75 FR 30730 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ...-XW54 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine... Atlantic tunas General category daily Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) retention limit should be adjusted for... criteria regarding inseason adjustments. This action applies to Atlantic tunas General category permitted...

  3. 78 FR 34879 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Atlantic City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Atlantic City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is..., held on the Atlantic Ocean, offshore of Atlantic City, New Jersey. The marine event formerly originated...

  4. CodY Promotes Sporulation and Enterotoxin Production by Clostridium perfringens Type A Strain SM101.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihong; Freedman, John C; Evans, Daniel R; McClane, Bruce A

    2017-03-01

    Clostridium perfringens type D strains cause enterotoxemia and enteritis in livestock via epsilon toxin production. In type D strain CN3718, CodY was previously shown to increase the level of epsilon toxin production and repress sporulation. C. perfringens type A strains producing C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) cause human food poisoning and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Sporulation is critical for C. perfringens type A food poisoning since spores contribute to transmission and resistance in the harsh food environment and sporulation is essential for CPE production. Therefore, the current study asked whether CodY also regulates sporulation and CPE production in SM101, a derivative of C. perfringens type A food-poisoning strain NCTC8798. An isogenic codY -null mutant of SM101 showed decreased levels of spore formation, along with lower levels of CPE production. A complemented strain recovered wild-type levels of both sporulation and CPE production. When this result was coupled with the earlier results obtained with CN3718, it became apparent that CodY regulation of sporulation varies among different C. perfringens strains. Results from quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis clearly demonstrated that, during sporulation, codY transcript levels remained high in SM101 but rapidly declined in CN3718. In addition, abrB gene expression patterns varied significantly between codY -null mutants of SM101 and CN3718. Compared to the levels in their wild-type parents, the level of abrB gene expression decreased in the CN3718 codY -null mutant strain but significantly increased in the SM101 codY -null mutant strain, demonstrating CodY-dependent regulation differences in abrB expression between these two strains. This difference appears to be important since overexpression of the abrB gene in SM101 reduced the levels of sporulation and enterotoxin production, supporting the involvement of AbrB repression in regulating C. perfringens sporulation. Copyright © 2017

  5. Structure of the Branched-chain Amino Acid and GTP-sensing Global Regulator, CodY, from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Levdikov, Vladimir M; Blagova, Elena; Young, Vicki L; Belitsky, Boris R; Lebedev, Andrey; Sonenshein, Abraham L; Wilkinson, Anthony J

    2017-02-17

    CodY is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and GTP sensor and a global regulator of transcription in low G + C Gram-positive bacteria. It controls the expression of over 100 genes and operons, principally by repressing during growth genes whose products are required for adaptations to nutrient limitation. However, the mechanism by which BCAA binding regulates transcriptional changes is not clear. It is known that CodY consists of a GAF (c G MP-stimulated phosphodiesterases, a denylate cyclases, F hlA) domain that binds BCAAs and a winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) domain that binds to DNA, but the way in which these domains interact and the structural basis of the BCAA dependence of this interaction are unknown. To gain new insights, we determined the crystal structure of unliganded CodY from Bacillus subtilis revealing a 10-turn α-helix linking otherwise discrete GAF and wHTH domains. The structure of CodY in complex with isoleucine revealed a reorganized GAF domain. In both complexes CodY was tetrameric. Size exclusion chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) experiments showed that CodY is a dimer at concentrations found in bacterial cells. Comparison of structures of dimers of unliganded CodY and CodY-Ile derived from the tetramers showed a splaying of the wHTH domains when Ile was bound; splaying is likely to account for the increased affinity of Ile-bound CodY for DNA. Electrophoretic mobility shift and SEC-MALLS analyses of CodY binding to 19-36-bp operator fragments are consistent with isoleucine-dependent binding of two CodY dimers per duplex. The implications of these observations for effector control of CodY activity are discussed. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) by direct and indirect means.

    PubMed

    Fox, Clive J; Taylor, Martin; Dickey-Collas, Mark; Fossum, Petter; Kraus, Gerd; Rohlf, Norbert; Munk, Peter; van Damme, Cindy J G; Bolle, Loes J; Maxwell, David L; Wright, Peter J

    2008-07-07

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey to cover the whole North Sea. Also, this survey, conducted in 2004, was the first to make extensive use of DNA-based molecular methods to unambiguously identify early developmental stage cod eggs. We compare the findings from the plankton survey with estimated egg production inferred from the distribution of mature cod in contemporaneous trawl surveys. Results from both approaches were in general agreement and showed hot spots of egg production around the southern and eastern edges of the Dogger Bank, in the German Bight, the Moray Firth and to the east of the Shetlands. These areas broadly coincide with known spawning locations from the period 1940 to 1970. We were, however, unable to directly detect significant numbers of cod eggs at the historic spawning ground off Flamborough (northeast coast of England). The results demonstrate that most of the major spawning grounds of cod in the North Sea are still active but that some localized populations may have been reduced to the point where it is now difficult to detect the presence of eggs in the plankton.

  7. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) by direct and indirect means

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Clive J; Taylor, Martin; Dickey-Collas, Mark; Fossum, Petter; Kraus, Gerd; Rohlf, Norbert; Munk, Peter; van Damme, Cindy J.G; Bolle, Loes J; Maxwell, David L; Wright, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey to cover the whole North Sea. Also, this survey, conducted in 2004, was the first to make extensive use of DNA-based molecular methods to unambiguously identify early developmental stage cod eggs. We compare the findings from the plankton survey with estimated egg production inferred from the distribution of mature cod in contemporaneous trawl surveys. Results from both approaches were in general agreement and showed hot spots of egg production around the southern and eastern edges of the Dogger Bank, in the German Bight, the Moray Firth and to the east of the Shetlands. These areas broadly coincide with known spawning locations from the period 1940 to 1970. We were, however, unable to directly detect significant numbers of cod eggs at the historic spawning ground off Flamborough (northeast coast of England). The results demonstrate that most of the major spawning grounds of cod in the North Sea are still active but that some localized populations may have been reduced to the point where it is now difficult to detect the presence of eggs in the plankton. PMID:18397869

  8. Decolorization and COD reduction of dyeing wastewater from a cotton textile mill using thermolysis and coagulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Prasad, B; Mishra, I M; Chand, Shri

    2008-05-01

    The decolorization and reduction of COD of dyeing wastewater from a cotton textile mill was conducted using catalytic thermal treatment (thermolysis) accompanied with/without coagulation. Thermolysis in presence of a homogeneous copper sulphate catalyst was found to be the most effective in comparison to other catalysts (FeCl(3), FeSO(4), CuO, ZnO and PAC) used. A maximum reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color of dyeing wastewater of 66.85% and 71.4%, respectively, was observed with a catalyst concentration of 5 kg/m(3) at pH 8. Commercial alum was found most effective coagulant among various coagulants (aluminum potassium sulphate, PAC, FeCl(3) and FeSO(4)) tested during coagulation operations, resulting in 58.57% COD and 74% color reduction at pH 4 and coagulant dose of 5 kg/m(3). Coagulation of the clear fluid (supernatant) obtained after treatment by thermolysis at the conditions previously used resulted in an overall reduction of 89.91% COD and 94.4% color at pH 4 and a coagulant dose of 2 kg/m(3). The application of thermolysis followed by coagulation, thus, is the most effective treatment method in removing nearly 90% COD and 95% color at a lower dose of coagulant (2 kg/m(3)). The sludge thus produced would contain lower inorganic mass coagulant and, therefore, less amount of inorganic sludge.

  9. Impaired insulin signaling pathways affect ovarian steroidogenesis in cows with COD.

    PubMed

    Gareis, N C; Huber, E; Hein, G J; Rodríguez, F M; Salvetti, N R; Angeli, E; Ortega, H H; Rey, F

    2018-05-01

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) represents an important cause of infertility in dairy cattle and is associated with multiple physiological disorders. Steroidogenesis, which is necessary to ensure normal ovarian functions, involves multiple enzymatic pathways coordinated by insulin and other proteins. We have previously shown that cows with COD have an altered insulin response. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated further alterations in intermediates downstream of the PI3K pathway and pathways mediated by ERK as critical signals for the expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the ovaries of control cows and cows with spontaneous COD. To this end, we evaluated the gene and protein expression of pan-AKT, mTOR, ERK1/2, and steroidogenic enzymes by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Steroid hormone concentrations were assessed at systemic and intrafollicular level. Results showed altered expression of intermediate molecules of the insulin signaling pathway, whose action might modify the synthetic pathway of steroidogenic hormones. Similarly, the expression of steroidogenic enzymes and the concentration of progesterone in serum and follicular fluid were altered. These alterations support the hypothesis that systemic factors contribute to the development and/or maintenance of COD, and that metabolic hormones within follicles such as insulin exert determinant effects on ovarian functionality in cows with COD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on COD removal mechanism and reaction kinetics of oilfield wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xian-Qing; Jing, Bo; Chen, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Qian; Chen, Wu

    2017-11-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal mechanism and reaction kinetics were mainly studied in the treatment of oilfield oily sewage containing polymer by three-dimensional electrode reactor. The results proved that the residual active oxides O 3 , H 2 O 2 , •OH and active chlorine in the system of electrochemical reaction could be effectively detected, and the COD removal mechanism was co-oxidation of active oxides; Under these experimental conditions: the electrolysis current of 6 A, surface/volume ratio of 6/25(cm 2 ·L -1 ), the reaction time of 50 min, the COD cr of treated sewage was no more than 50 mg·L -1 ; the removal reaction of COD conformed to apparent second-order reaction kinetic model, the correlation coefficient R 2 was 0.9728, and the apparent reaction rate constant was k = 3.58 × 10 -4 (L·min -1 ·mg -1 ·m -2 ). To reach the goal, the COD cr was no more than 50 mg·L -1 in treated sewage, and the theory minimum processing time was 45.73 min. The verification of experimental results was consistent with kinetic equations.

  11. Stable Isotope Evidence for Late Medieval (14th–15th C) Origins of the Eastern Baltic Cod (Gadus morhua) Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Orton, David C.; Makowiecki, Daniel; de Roo, Tessa; Johnstone, Cluny; Harland, Jennifer; Jonsson, Leif; Heinrich, Dirk; Enghoff, Inge Bødker; Lõugas, Lembi; Van Neer, Wim; Ervynck, Anton; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Amundsen, Colin; Jones, Andrew K. G.; Locker, Alison; Hamilton-Dyer, Sheila; Pope, Peter; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Richards, Michael; O'Connell, Tamsin C.; Barrett, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1) development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2) large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ13C and δ15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249). The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years. PMID:22110675

  12. Physical oceanographic investigation of Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geyer, W. Rockwell; Gardner, George B.; Brown, Wendell S.; Irish, James D.; Butman, Bradford; Loder, T.C.; Signell, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    This physical oceanographic study of the Massachusetts Bays (fig. 1) was designed to provide for the first time a bay-wide description of the circulation and mixing processes on a seasonal basis. Most of the measurements were conducted between April 1990 and June 1991 and consisted of moored observations to study the current flow patterns (fig. 2), hydrographic surveys to document the changes in water properties (fig. 3), high-resolution surveys of velocity and water properties to provide information on the spatial variability of the flow, drifter deployments to measure the currents, and acquisition of satellite images to provide a bay-wide picture of the surface temperature and its spatial variability. A longterm objective of the Massachusetts Bays program is to develop an understanding of the transport of water, dissolved substances and particles throughout the bays. Because horizontal and vertical transport is important to biological, chemical, and geological processes in Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays, this physical oceanographic study will have broad application and will improve the ability to manage and monitor the water and sediment quality of the Bays. Key results are:There is a marked seasonal variation in stratification in the bays, from well mixed conditions during the winter to strong stratification in the summertime. The stratification acts as a partial barrier to exchange between the surface waters and the deeper waters and causes the motion of the surface waters to be decoupled from the more sluggish flow of the deep waters. During much of the year, there is weak but persistent counterclockwise flow around the bays, made up of southwesterly flow past Cape Ann, southward flow along the western shore, and outflow north of Race Point. The data suggest that this residual flow pattern reverses in fall. Fluctuations caused by wind and density variations are typically larger than the long-term mean. With the exception of western Massachusetts Bay, flushing

  13. Optimizing electrocoagulation process using experimental design for COD removal from unsanitary landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Ogedey, Aysenur; Tanyol, Mehtap

    2017-12-01

    Leachate is the most difficult wastewater to be treated due to its complex content and high pollution release. For this reason, since it is not possible to be treated with a single process, a pre-treatment is needed. In the present study, a batch electrocoagulation reactor containing aluminum and iron electrodes was used to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) from landfill leachate (Tunceli, Turkey). Optimization of COD elimination was carried out with response surface methodology to describe the interaction effect of four main process independent parameters (current density, inter-electrode distance, pH and time of electrolysis). The optimum current density, inter-electrode distance, pH and time of electrolysis for maximum COD removal (43%) were found to be 19.42 mA/m 2 , 0.96 cm, 7.23 and 67.64 min, respectively. The results shown that the electrocoagulation process can be used as a pre-treatment step for leachate.

  14. North Atlantic Coastal Tidal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North Atlantic coastal wetlands. The book c...

  15. North Atlantic Deep Water Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, T. (Editor); Broecker, W. S. (Editor); Hansen, J. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Various studies concerning differing aspects of the North Atlantic are presented. The three major topics under which the works are classified include: (1) oceanography; (2) paleoclimate; and (3) ocean, ice and climate modeling.

  16. Lipid and fatty acid compositions of cod ( Gadus morhua), haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Duan; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Milley, Joyce E.; Lall, Santosh P.

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare lipid and fatty acid composition of cod, haddock and halibut. Three groups of cod (276 g ± 61 g), haddock (538 g ± 83 g) and halibut (3704 g ± 221 g) were maintained with commercial feeds mainly based on fish meal and marine fish oil for 12 weeks prior to sampling. The fatty acid compositions of muscle and liver were determined by GC/FID after derivatization of extracted lipids into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Lipids were also fractionated into neutral and polar lipids using Waters silica Sep-Pak?. The phospholipid fraction was further separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and the FAME profile was obtained. Results of the present study showed that cod and haddock were lean fish and their total muscle lipid contents were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively, with phospholipid constituting 83.6% and 87.5% of the total muscle lipid, respectively. Halibut was a medium-fat fish and its muscle lipid content was 8%, with 84% of the total muscle lipid being neutral lipid. Total liver lipid contents of cod, haddock and halibut were 36.9%, 67.2% and 30.7%, respectively, of which the neutral lipids accounted for the major fraction (88.1%-97.1%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant in cod and haddock muscle neutral lipid. Monounsaturated fatty acid level was the highest in halibut muscle neutral lipid. Fatty acid compositions of phospholipid were relatively constant. In summary, the liver of cod and haddock as lean fish was the main lipid reserve organ, and structural phospholipid is the major lipid form in flesh. However, as a medium-fat fish, halibut stored lipid in both their liver and muscle.

  17. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Delphine; Rochette, Sébastien; Llope, Marcos; Licandro, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L.) stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature) and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey) effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST) from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability.

  18. Habitat choice by juvenile cod ( Gadus morhua L.) on sandy soft bottoms with different vegetation types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Å.; Pihl, L.; Wennhage, H.

    1997-08-01

    Habitat choice by juvenile cod ( Gadus morhua L.) on sandy bottoms with different vegetation types was studied in laboratory. The experiment was conducted day and night in flow-through tanks on two different size-classes of cod (7-13 and 17-28 cm TL). Four habitats, typical of shallow soft bottoms on the Swedish west coast: Fucus vesiculosus, Zostera marina, Cladophora sp. and bare sand, were set up pair-wise in six combinations. The main difference between habitats in this study was vegetation structure, since all parameters except vegetation type was considered equal for both sides of the experimental tanks and natural prey was eliminated. The results showed a difference in habitat utilization by juvenile cod between day (light) and night (dark). During day time the fishes showed a significant preference for vegetation, while nocturnally no significant choice of habitat was made. Both size-classes preferred Fucus, considered the most complex habitat in this study, when this was available. The smaller size-class seemed to be able to utilize the other vegetation types as well, always preferring vegetation over sand. Larger juvenile cod, on the other hand, appeared to be restricted to Fucus. This difference in habitat choice by the two size-classes might be due to a greater dependence on shelter from predation by the smaller juveniles, causing them to associate more strongly with vegetation. The larger juveniles avoided Cladophora, since they might have difficulties in entering the compact structure of this filamentous algae. Availability of vegetation at day time, as a predation refuge, as well as of open sandy areas for feeding during night, thus seems to be important for juvenile cod. It is concluded that eutrophication-induced changes in habitat structure, such as increased dominance by filamentous algae, could alter the availability of predation refuges and foraging habitats for juvenile cod.

  19. Relationships between water quality parameters in rivers and lakes: BOD5, COD, NBOPs, and TOC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaewoong; Lee, Seunghyun; Yu, Soonju; Rhew, Doughee

    2016-04-01

    Biological oxygen demand (BOD5) or chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis is widely used to evaluate organic pollutants in water systems as well as the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants. However, both analysis methods have restrictions such as being insensitive, imprecise, time-consuming, and the production of chemical waste. Therefore, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis for organic pollutants has been considered for an alternative analysis instead of BOD5 or COD. Several studies have investigated the replacement of BOD5 or COD with TOC in wastewater samples; however, few studies have investigated the relationships between water quality parameters in rivers and lakes. Therefore, this study evaluated the relationships between BOD5, COD, or NBOPs and TOC by the analysis of national water quality monitoring data of rivers and lakes for 5 years. High correlation coefficients (r) of 0.87 and 0.66 between BOD5 and TOC (p < 0.05) were obtained for rivers and lakes, respectively, and strong correlation coefficients (r) of 0.93 and 0.75 were observed between COD and TOC (p < 0.05) for rivers and lakes, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) between NBOPs and TOC was 0.93 for rivers and 0.72 for lakes. The coefficients of determination (R 2) were 0.75 and 0.44 between BOD5 and TOC for rivers and lakes as well as were 0.87 and 0.57 between COD and TOC for rivers and lakes, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R 2) between NBOPs and TOC was 0.73 for rivers and 0.52 for lakes.

  20. Science for the stewardship of the groundwater resources of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Masterson, John P.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of drinking water and a major source of freshwater for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Groundwater discharged from aquifers also supports freshwater pond and stream ecosystems and coastal wetlands. Six hydraulically distinct groundwater-flow systems (lenses) have been delineated on Cape Cod. Of the approximately 450 million gallons per day of water that enters these lenses as recharge from precipitation, about 69 percent discharges directly to the coast, about 24 percent discharges to streams, and almost 7 percent is withdrawn by public-supply wells. In most areas, groundwater in the sand and gravel aquifers is shallow and susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources and saltwater intrusion. Continued land development and population growth on Cape Cod have created concerns that potable water will become less available and that the quantity and quality of water flowing to natural discharge areas such as ponds, streams, and coastal waters will continue to decline. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been investigating groundwater and surface-water resources on Cape Cod for more than 50 years. Recent studies highlighted in this fact sheet have focused on the sources of water to public-supply wells, ponds, streams, and coastal areas; the transport and discharge of nitrogen derived from domestic and municipal disposal of wastewater; and the effects of climate change on groundwater and surface-water resources. Other USGS activities include long-term monitoring of groundwater and pond levels and field research on groundwater contamination at the USGS Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Research Site (http://ma.water.usgs.gov/MMRCape/) near the Joint Base Cape Cod (JBCC), formerly the Massachusetts Military Reservation.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Variability of the North Sea Cod Recruitment in Relation to Temperature and Zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Delphine; Rochette, Sébastien; Llope, Marcos; Licandro, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L.) stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature) and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey) effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST) from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability. PMID:24551103

  2. 76 FR 14377 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ...; telephone: (866) 358- 6255. Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place... Information Officer, South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N...

  3. 75 FR 44228 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... at the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council office, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North... Iverson, Public Information Officer, South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive...

  4. 75 FR 11133 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... of the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North Charleston...: Kim Iverson, Public Information Officer, South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place...

  5. [Proboscis worm, Echinorhynchus gadi (Zoega) from a relict cod of Lake Mogil'noye].

    PubMed

    Kulachkova, V G; Timofeeva, T A

    1977-01-01

    Data on the extensiveness and intensity of infection of Kildin island cod with Echinorhynchus gadi in various seasons are given. E. gadi was proved to have a one-year life cycle and Gammarus duebeni as an intermediate host in the lake. A change of the parasite generations occurs in late summer--autumn. A high extensiveness (100%) and intensity of Kildin cod infection with E. gadi depends on the feeding habits (monophagy) and narrow distribution range of the host. Infection intensity is directly correlated with the fish age. Selfregulation of the parasite quantity in the host's intenstine is an important factor affecting the existence of E. gadi population in Lake Mogilnoye.

  6. [Spatial distribution of COD and the correlations with other parameters in the northern region of Lake Taihu].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-lin; Yang, Long-yuan; Qin, Bo-qiang; Gao, Guang; Luo, Lian-cong; Zhu, Guang-wei; Liu, Ming-liang

    2008-06-01

    Spatial variation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration was documented and significant correlations between COD concentration and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption, fluorescence, DOC concentration were found based on a cruise sampling in the northern region of Lake Taihu in summer including 42 samplings. The possible source of COD was also discussed using every two cruise samplings in summer and winter, respectively. The COD concentration ranged from 3.77 to 7.96 mg x L(-1) with a mean value of (5.90 +/- 1.54) mg x L(-1). The mean COD concentrations in Meiliang Bay and the central lake basin were (6.93 +/- 0.89) mg x L(-1) and (4.21 +/- 0.49) mg x L(-1) respectively. A significant spatial difference was found between Meiliang Bay and the central lake basin in COD concentration, CDOM absorption coefficient, fluorescence, DOC and phytoplankton pigment concentrations, decreasing from the river mouth to inner bay, outer bay and the central lake basin. Significant correlations between COD concentration and CDOM absorption, fluorescence, DOC concentration, suggested that COD concentration could be estimated and organic pollution could be assessed using CDOM absorption retrieved from remote sensing images. Significant and positive correlation was found between COD concentration and chlorophyll a concentration in summer. However, the correlation was weak or no correlation was found in winter. Furthermore, a significant higher COD concentration was found in summer than in winter (p < 0.001). Our results indicated that degradation of phytoplankton blooms was the main source of COD in summer, except for river terrestrial input.

  7. Systems Level Analyses Reveal Multiple Regulatory Activities of CodY Controlling Metabolism, Motility and Virulence in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Lobel, Lior; Herskovits, Anat A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria sense and respond to many environmental cues, rewiring their regulatory network to facilitate adaptation to new conditions/niches. Global transcription factors that co-regulate multiple pathways simultaneously are essential to this regulatory rewiring. CodY is one such global regulator, controlling expression of both metabolic and virulence genes in Gram-positive bacteria. Branch chained amino acids (BCAAs) serve as a ligand for CodY and modulate its activity. Classically, CodY was considered to function primarily as a repressor under rich growth conditions. However, our previous studies of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes revealed that CodY is active also when the bacteria are starved for BCAAs. Under these conditions, CodY loses the ability to repress genes (e.g., metabolic genes) and functions as a direct activator of the master virulence regulator gene, prfA. This observation raised the possibility that CodY possesses multiple functions that allow it to coordinate gene expression across a wide spectrum of metabolic growth conditions, and thus better adapt bacteria to the mammalian niche. To gain a deeper understanding of CodY’s regulatory repertoire and identify direct target genes, we performed a genome wide analysis of the CodY regulon and DNA binding under both rich and minimal growth conditions, using RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq techniques. We demonstrate here that CodY is indeed active (i.e., binds DNA) under both conditions, serving as a repressor and activator of different genes. Further, we identified new genes and pathways that are directly regulated by CodY (e.g., sigB, arg, his, actA, glpF, gadG, gdhA, poxB, glnR and fla genes), integrating metabolism, stress responses, motility and virulence in L. monocytogenes. This study establishes CodY as a multifaceted factor regulating L. monocytogenes physiology in a highly versatile manner. PMID:26895237

  8. Thawed cod fillets spoil less rapidly than unfrozen fillets when stored under modified atmosphere at 2 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Guldager, H S; Bøknaes, N; Osterberg, C; Nielsen, J; Dalgaard, P

    1998-09-01

    The effect of two months of frozen storage at -20 degrees C on the spoilage characteristics and shelf life of thawed and modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod fillets stored at 2 degrees C was studied. Thawed MAP cod fillets were compared with fresh cod fillets stored in CO2-containing modified atmospheres with and without added oxygen. The shelf life of 11 to 12 days in the fresh MAP cod was extended to more than 20 days in the thawed MAP cod at 2 degrees C. This shelf life extension was most likely due to the inactivation of the spoilage bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum during frozen storage as reflected both in chemical analyses and sensory evaluation. In contrast to fresh MAP cod fillets no significant production of trimethylamine occurred and almost no amine odor and taste were detected during 20 days of chill storage of thawed MAP cod fillets. The use of frozen fillets as raw material not only provides a more stable product in MAP but also allows much greater flexibility for production and distribution. However, a slightly increased concentration of dimethylamine, a larger drip loss, and detection of weak frozen storage flavor were observed in the thawed MAP cod fillets.

  9. 75 FR 3874 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Participating in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    .... 0810141351-9087-02] RIN 0648-XT95 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Participating in the Amendment 80 Limited Access Fishery in Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable...

  10. 77 FR 54838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-XC205 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska Management Area AGENCY: National Marine... Alaska management area. This action is necessary to allow the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific cod...

  11. 75 FR 69597 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    .... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XA038 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  12. 75 FR 19562 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... gear to catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters) length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line or pot... vessels will not be able to harvest 400 mt of the B season apportionment of the 2010 Pacific cod TAC...)(iii)(A), NMFS apportions 400 mt of Pacific cod from the B season jig gear apportionment to catcher...

  13. 75 FR 52478 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters) length... catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters) LOA using hook-and-line or pot gear specified for the BSAI... 679. NMFS closed directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters...

  14. 76 FR 37763 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...-AY53 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of Alaska... the uncertainty regarding the distribution of Pacific cod catch, enhance stability among the sectors... available for public review and comment. The groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the Gulf...

  15. 78 FR 17884 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line Gear in...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) greater than or equal to... of the 2013 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs greater than or equal to 50 feet (15...

  16. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b) The...

  17. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b) The...

  18. 77 FR 14305 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using jig gear in...

  19. 77 FR 6683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in...

  20. 77 FR 8177 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in...

  1. 76 FR 73513 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to Pacific Cod Fishing in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... miles of shore adjacent to the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). The affected... Cod Fishing in the Parallel Fishery in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... limits access by Federally permitted vessels to the parallel fishery for Pacific cod in three ways. First...

  2. [Distributions of COD and petroleum hydrocarbons and their relationships with occurrence of red tide in East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuansong; Wang, Xiulin; Shi, Xiaoyong; Han, Xiurong; Sun, Xia; Zhu, Chenjian; Lu, Rong

    2003-07-01

    Based on the data of COD and petroleum hydrocarbons collected in the cruise from April 25 to May 2, 2002 in intensive red tide occurrence areas in East China Sea, the distribution of COD, and petroleum hydrocarbons and the eutrophication index(EI) were analyzed. The results showed that the EI and COD value were both high in coastal water, and decreased gradually away from shore. After the preliminary study on the relationships between correlative factors and occurrence of red tide, it was found that high EI and COD were necessary. There would be great chances for the red tide to break out under conditions that the EI was between 2.5 and 15 and COD concentration was between 0.8 to 1.4 mg.L-1 in seawater, along with the favorable temperature and salinity.

  3. The effect of COD loading on the granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal system and the recoverability.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shenjing; Sun, Peide; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Lujun; Zheng, Xiongliu; Han, Jingyi; Yan, Tao

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the effect of varied COD loading (200, 400, 500, 600 and 800 mg L(-1)) on stability and recoverability of granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system was investigated during continuously 53-d operation. Results showed that COD loading higher than 500 mg L(-1) could obviously deteriorate the granular EBPR system and result in sludge bulking with filamentous bacteria. High COD loading also changed the transformation patterns of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and inhibited the EPS secretion, which completely destroyed the stability and integrality of granules. Results of FISH indicated that glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other microorganisms had a competitive advantage over PAOs with higher COD loading. The community composition and EBPR performance were recovered irreversibly in long time operation when COD loading was higher than 500 mg L(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneous removal of AOX and COD from real recycled paper wastewater using GAC-SBBR.

    PubMed

    Osman, Wan Hasnidah Wan; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Rahman, Rakmi Abd

    2013-05-30

    A lab-scale granular activated carbon sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR), a combined adsorption and biological process, was developed to treat real wastewater from a recycled paper mill. In this study, one-consortia of mixed culture (4000-5000 mg/L) originating from recycled paper mill activated sludge from Kajang, Malaysia was acclimatized. The GAC-SBBR was fed with real wastewater taken from the same recycled paper mill, which had a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and adsorbable organic halides (AOX). The operational duration of the GAC-SBBR was adjusted from 48 h to 24, 12 and finally 8 h to evaluate the effect of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the simultaneous removal of COD and AOX. The COD and AOX removals were in the range of 53-92% and 26-99%, respectively. From this study, it was observed that the longest HRT (48 h) yielded a high removal of COD and AOX, at 92% and 99%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. COASTAL CONDITIONS IN THE VIRGINIAN PROVINCE (CAPE COD TO CAPE HENRY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) collected ecological condition data during 1990 through 1993 from the estuarine waters of the Virginian Biogeographic Province (Cape Henry to Cape Cod) to answer broad-scale questions on environmental conditions...

  6. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt....

  7. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt....

  8. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt....

  9. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt....

  10. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt....

  11. 76 FR 15888 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Cape Cod National Seashore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... the public of the regulatory change. The proposed rule follows an extensive environmental analysis... rule would implement the Cape Cod National Seashore Hunting Program Environmental Impact Statement of... posted without change to http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal information provided. For...

  12. 75 FR 64955 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Correction to Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...; Correction to Cod Landing Limit for Handgear A Vessels in the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... multispecies limited access Handgear A (HA) permitted vessels fishing in the common pool fishery for the... vessels fishing under common pool regulations at Sec. 648.82(b)(6) state that ``The [300 lb (136.1 kg...

  13. 76 FR 61060 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Correction to Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Fishery; Correction to Cod Landing Limit for Handgear B Vessels in the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY... multispecies open access Handgear B permitted vessels fishing in the common pool fishery for the remainder of... landing limits for Handgear B (HB) vessels fishing under common pool regulations at Sec. 648.88(a)(1...

  14. Application of a structured decision making process for nitrogen pollution management on Cape Cod

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant release of reactive nitrogen into coastal water bodies has resulted in declining water quality in Southern New England. The Three Bays Preservation Association, in collaboration with the Cape Cod Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and local water resou...

  15. Selection in the host structures the microbiota associated with developing cod larvae (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Bakke, Ingrid; Coward, Eivind; Andersen, Tom; Vadstein, Olav

    2015-10-01

    Marine fish larvae are immature upon hatching, and share their environment with high numbers of bacteria. The microbial communities associated with developing fish larvae might be structured by other factors than those important in developing terrestrial animals. Here, we analysed the beta (β)-diversity of the microbiota associated with developing cod larvae and compared it with the bacterial communities in water and live feed by applying pyrosequencing of bar coded v4 16S rDNA amplicons. A total of 15 phyla were observed in the cod larval microbiota. Proteobacteria was the most abundant, followed by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The composition and diversity of the cod larval microbiota changed considerably with age. The temporal and spatial patterns of β-diversity could not be explained by stochastic processes, and did not coincide with changes in the rearing conditions. Furthermore, the larval microbiota was highly distinct from the water and the live feed microbiota, particularly at early developmental stages. However, the similarity between larval and water microbiota increased with age. This study suggests that strong selection in the host structures the cod larval microbiota. The changes in community structure observed with increasing age can be explained by altered selection pressure due to development of the intestinal system. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON NITROGEN IN CAPE COD EMBAYMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of studying potential effects of climate change on impairments resulting from nitrogen loadings in the salt water embayments of Cape Cod. The report includes a recommended plan for studying these impacts, an estimate of t...

  17. Cape Cod National Seashore alternative transportation systems long range planning study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-05-01

    This project involves the development of short-range and long-range plans for alternative transportation to, from, and within the Cape Cod National Seashore. The five-year plan notes that improved public transportation services are needed both to mit...

  18. Final Environmental Assessment, Construct Guard House at Cape Cod Air Force Station, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Pine - Scrub Oak Forest Northern Pine Barren with Oak Forest... barren vegetation communities were identified on Cape Cod AFS, pitch pine – scrub oak barren and northern pine barren with oak trees. The majority of...area on the east side of the access road just north of the installation is northern pine barren with oak trees. Pitch pine and scarlet oak

  19. Assessing impacts of simulated oil spills on the Northeast Arctic cod fishery.

    PubMed

    Carroll, JoLynn; Vikebø, Frode; Howell, Daniel; Broch, Ole Jacob; Nepstad, Raymond; Augustine, Starrlight; Skeie, Geir Morten; Bast, Radovan; Juselius, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    We simulate oil spills of 1500 and 4500m 3 /day lasting 14, 45, and 90days in the spawning grounds of the commercial fish species, Northeast Arctic cod. Modeling the life history of individual fish eggs and larvae, we predict deviations from the historical pattern of recruitment to the adult population due to toxic oil exposures. Reductions in survival for pelagic stages of cod were 0-10%, up to a maximum of 43%. These reductions resulted in a decrease in adult cod biomass of <3% for most scenarios, up to a maximum of 12%. In all simulations, the adult population remained at full reproductive potential with a sufficient number of juveniles surviving to replenish the population. The diverse age distribution helps protect the adult cod population from reductions in a single year's recruitment after a major oil spill. These results provide insights to assist in managing oil spill impacts on fisheries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Predation rates by North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) - Predictions from models on gastric evacuation and bioenergetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansson, S.; Rudstam, L. G.; Kitchell, J.F.; Hilden, M.; Johnson, B.L.; Peppard, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    We compared four different methods for estimating predation rates by North Sea cod (Gadus moi hua). Three estimates, based on gastric evacuation rates, came from an ICES multispecies working group and the fourth from a bioenergetics model. The bioenergetics model was developed from a review of literature on cod physiology. The three gastric evacuation rate models produced very different prey consumption estimates for small (2 kg) fish. For most size and age classes, the bioenergetics model predicted food consumption rates intermediate to those predicted by the gastric evacuation models. Using the standard ICES model and the average population abundance and age structure for 1974-1989, annual, prey consumption by the North Sea cod population (age greater than or equal to 1) was 840 kilotons. The other two evacuation rate models produced estimates of 1020 and 1640 kilotons, respectively. The bioenergetics model estimate was 1420 kilotons. The major differences between models were due to consumption rate estimates for younger age groups of cod. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

  1. Dose of Biocoagulant-Mixing Rate Combinations for Optimum Reduction of COD in Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patricia, Maria Faustina; Purwono; Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief

    2018-02-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) in domestic wastewater can be treated using flocculation-coagulation process with addition of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in powder form as biocoagulant. The fungal cell wall of Oyster mushroom comprises of chitin that is high polyelectrolyte and can be function as an absorbent of heavy metals in wastewater. The effectiveness of flocculation-coagulation process in treating wastewater depends on dose of coagulant and mixing rate. Therefore, this study aims to determine the best combination of three variation of dose of biocoagulant which are 600 mg/l, 1000 mg/l, and 2000 mg/l and mixing rate which are 100 rpm, 125 rpm, and 150 rpm that give the most reduction of COD in the wastewater. The result indicates that the combination of 1000 mg/l of biocoagulant and 100 rpm of mixing rate were found to be the most optimum combination to treat COD in the wastewater with COD reduction of 47.7%.

  2. Nitrogen and COD removal from domestic and synthetic wastewater in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2013-09-01

    Comparisons of the performance of constructed-wetland systems (CWs) for treating domestic wastewater in the laboratory and field may use pathogen-free synthetic wastewater to avoid regulatory health concerns. However, little to no data are available describing the relative treatment efficiencies of CWs to both actual and synthetic domestic wastewaters so as to enable such comparison. To fill this gap, treatment performances with respect to organics (chemical organic demand; COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) and a similar-strength synthetic wastewater under planted and non-planted subsurface-flow CWs are determined. One pair of CWs was planted with cattails in May 2008, whereas the adjacent system was non-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each CWs, and effluent samples were collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species regularly during four different periods over six months. Overall, statistically significant greater removal of COD (-12%) and nitrogen (-5%) occurred from the synthetic as compared with the domestic wastewater from the planted and non-planted CWs. Effluent BOD5/COD ratios from the synthetic wastewater CWs averaged nearly twice that from the domestic wastewater CWs (0.17 vs 0.10), reflecting greater concentrations of readily degraded compounds. That removal fractions were consistent across the mid-range loading rates to the CWs suggests that the synthetic wastewater can be used in testing laboratory CWs with reasonable success in application of their results to the field.

  3. Estuaries Matter: Connecting Recreation and Sense of Place to Resilience on Cape Cod

    EPA Science Inventory

    People have been living on Cape Cod or visiting its beautiful land and seascapes for generations, and it holds a special place in New England’s heart with many people greatly attached to it. Part of the attraction of the area is the access to water-based recreation in ponds...

  4. 78 FR 66763 - Notice of December 2, 2013, Meeting for Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-NERO-CACO-14058; PPNECACOS0, PPMPSD1Z.YM0000] Notice of December 2, 2013, Meeting for Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission AGENCY: National... National Seashore Advisory Commission will be held on Monday, December 2, 2013, at 1:00 p.m. (EASTERN...

  5. 77 FR 74694 - Notice of January 14, 2013, Meeting for Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-NERO-CACO-11835; PPNECACOS0, PPMPSD1Z.YM0000] Notice of January 14, 2013, Meeting for Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission AGENCY: National... meeting will consist of the following: 1. Adoption of Agenda 2. Approval of Minutes of Previous Meeting...

  6. 78 FR 23783 - Notice of May 13, 2013, Meeting for Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-NERO-CACO-12710; PPNECACOS0, PPMPSD1Z.YM0000] Notice of May 13, 2013, Meeting for Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park.... Adoption of Agenda 2. Approval of Minutes of Previous Meeting (March 25, 2013) 3. Reports of Officers 4...

  7. ProAtlantic - The Atlantic Checkpoint - Data Availability and Adequacy in the Atlantic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, F.

    2017-12-01

    DG MAREs Atlantic Checkpoint is a basin scale wide monitoring system assessment activity based upon targeted end-user applications. It is designed to be a benchmark for the assessment of hydrographic, geological, habitat, climate and fisheries data existence and availability in the Atlantic basin. DG MAREs Atlantic Checkpoint service will be delivered by the ProAtlantic project. The objective of this project is to investigate, through appropriate methodologies in the framework of 11 key marine challenges, how current international and national data providers - e.g. EMODNet, Copernicus - meet the requirements of the stakeholders and deliver fit for purpose data. By so doing, the main thematic and geographic gaps will be readily identified in the Atlantic basin for future consideration by DG MARE. For each challenge, specific web products in the form of maps, metadata, spreadsheets and reports will be delivered. These products are not an end by themselves but rather a means of showing whether data were available, let alone accessible. For example, the Fisheries Impact Challenge outputs include data grids (VMS/Seabed) and data adequacy reports. Production of gridded data layers in order to show the extent of fisheries impact on the seafloor involved the identification, acquisition and collation of data sources for the required data types (VMS/Seabed/Habitats Data) in the Atlantic basin. The resulting spatial coverage of these grids indicates the relatively low level of data availability and adequacy across the Atlantic basin. Aside from the data delivered by programmes such as EMODNet and Copernicus, there are a lot of initiatives by regional bodies such as OSPAR and ICES that consist of assembling and disseminating data to address specific issues. Several international projects have delivered research, data collection, and networking around several of the Atlantic Checkpoint challenge topics, namely MPAs, renewable energy assessment, seabed mapping, oil spill

  8. Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste.

    PubMed

    Dubber, Donata; Gray, Nicholas F

    2010-10-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is widely used for wastewater monitoring, design, modeling and plant operational analysis. However this method results in the production of hazardous wastes including mercury and hexavalent chromium. The study examined the replacement of COD with total organic carbon (TOC) for general performance monitoring by comparing their relationship with influent and effluent samples from 11 wastewater treatment plants. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) was also included in the comparison as a control. The results show significant linear relationships between TOC, COD and BOD5 in settled (influent) domestic and municipal wastewaters, but only between COD and TOC in treated effluents. The study concludes that TOC can be reliably used for the generic replacement of both COD (COD=49.2+3.00*TOC) and BOD5 (BOD5=23.7+1.68*TOC) in influent wastewaters but only for COD (COD=7.25+2.99*TOC) in final effluents.

  9. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National... moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the moratorium, as required by the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act...

  10. 76 FR 44834 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; Northern Area Trophy Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    .... 110210132-1275-02] RIN 0648-XA550 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries... category fishery for large medium and giant (``trophy'') Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) for the remainder of.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations implemented under the authority of the Atlantic Tunas Convention Act (16...

  11. 77 FR 3637 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    .... 110210132-1275-02] RIN 0648-XA948 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries... category fishery for large medium and giant Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) until the General category reopens...: Regulations implemented under the authority of the Atlantic Tunas Convention Act (16 U.S.C. 971 et seq.) and...

  12. 77 FR 38011 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    .... 110210132-1275-02] RIN 0648-XC055 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... northern area fishery for large medium and giant Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) for the remainder of 2012... INFORMATION: Regulations implemented under the authority of the Atlantic Tunas Convention Act (16 U.S.C. 971...

  13. 77 FR 19175 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...-XA920 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications AGENCY... INFORMATION: Atlantic bluefin tuna, bigeye tuna, albacore tuna, yellowfin tuna, and skipjack tuna (hereafter referred to as ``Atlantic tunas'') are managed under the dual authority of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery...

  14. 78 FR 11788 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    .... 120306154-2241-02] RIN 0648-XC506 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries... category fishery for large medium and giant Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) until the General category reopens... implemented under the authority of the Atlantic Tunas Convention Act (16 U.S.C. 971 et seq.) and the Magnuson...

  15. 75 FR 35767 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a.... Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N...

  16. 77 FR 22285 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of a public meeting of the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's Technical Shrimp Review Panel. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) will hold a meeting of its Technical Shrimp...

  17. 76 FR 57709 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...-BA17.e Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine... of Intent; control date for Atlantic shark landings; request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice... would consider catch shares for the Atlantic shark fisheries. NMFS published an Advanced Notice of...

  18. 76 FR 67121 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    .... 110913585-1625-01] RIN 0648-BB36 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2012 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition, NMFS proposes season openings based on...

  19. Staphylococcus aureus hyaluronidase is a CodY-regulated virulence factor.

    PubMed

    Ibberson, Carolyn B; Jones, Crystal L; Singh, Shweta; Wise, Matthew C; Hart, Mark E; Zurawski, Daniel V; Horswill, Alexander R

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen that causes a diverse range of bacterial infections. Invasive S. aureus strains secrete an extensive arsenal of hemolysins, immunomodulators, and exoenzymes to cause disease. Our studies have focused on the secreted enzyme hyaluronidase (HysA), which cleaves the hyaluronic acid polymer at the β-1,4 glycosidic bond. In the study described in this report, we have investigated the regulation and contribution of this enzyme to S. aureus pathogenesis. Using the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library (NTML), we identified eight insertions that modulate extracellular levels of HysA activity. Insertions in the sigB operon, as well as in genes encoding the global regulators SarA and CodY, significantly increased HysA protein levels and activity. By altering the availability of branched-chain amino acids, we further demonstrated CodY-dependent repression of HysA activity. Additionally, through mutation of the CodY binding box upstream of hysA, the repression of HysA production was lost, suggesting that CodY is a direct repressor of hysA expression. To determine whether HysA is a virulence factor, a ΔhysA mutant of a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) USA300 strain was constructed and found to be attenuated in a neutropenic, murine model of pulmonary infection. Mice infected with this mutant strain exhibited a 4-log-unit reduction in bacterial burden in their lungs, as well as reduced lung pathology and increased levels of pulmonary hyaluronic acid, compared to mice infected with the wild-type, parent strain. Taken together, these results indicate that S. aureus hyaluronidase is a CodY-regulated virulence factor. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Identification of hydraulic conductivity structure in sand and gravel aquifers: Cape Cod data set

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleston, J.R.; Rojstaczer, S.A.; Peirce, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates commonly used geostatistical methods to assess reproduction of hydraulic conductivity (K) structure and sensitivity under limiting amounts of data. Extensive conductivity measurements from the Cape Cod sand and gravel aquifer are used to evaluate two geostatistical estimation methods, conditional mean as an estimate and ordinary kriging, and two stochastic simulation methods, simulated annealing and sequential Gaussian simulation. Our results indicate that for relatively homogeneous sand and gravel aquifers such as the Cape Cod aquifer, neither estimation methods nor stochastic simulation methods give highly accurate point predictions of hydraulic conductivity despite the high density of collected data. Although the stochastic simulation methods yielded higher errors than the estimation methods, the stochastic simulation methods yielded better reproduction of the measured In (K) distribution and better reproduction of local contrasts in In (K). The inability of kriging to reproduce high In (K) values, as reaffirmed by this study, provides a strong instigation for choosing stochastic simulation methods to generate conductivity fields when performing fine-scale contaminant transport modeling. Results also indicate that estimation error is relatively insensitive to the number of hydraulic conductivity measurements so long as more than a threshold number of data are used to condition the realizations. This threshold occurs for the Cape Cod site when there are approximately three conductivity measurements per integral volume. The lack of improvement with additional data suggests that although fine-scale hydraulic conductivity structure is evident in the variogram, it is not accurately reproduced by geostatistical estimation methods. If the Cape Cod aquifer spatial conductivity characteristics are indicative of other sand and gravel deposits, then the results on predictive error versus data collection obtained here have significant practical

  1. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  2. Co-Inactivation of GlnR and CodY Regulators Impacts Pneumococcal Cell Wall Physiology.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Calum; Bootsma, Hester J; Aldridge, Christine; Manuse, Sylvie; Gisch, Nicolas; Schwudke, Dominik; Hermans, Peter W M; Grangeasse, Christophe; Polard, Patrice; Vollmer, Waldemar; Claverys, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    CodY, a nutritional regulator highly conserved in low G+C Gram-positive bacteria, is essential in Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). A published codY mutant possessed suppressing mutations inactivating the fatC and amiC genes, respectively belonging to iron (Fat/Fec) and oligopeptide (Ami) ABC permease operons, which are directly repressed by CodY. Here we analyzed two additional published codY mutants to further explore the essentiality of CodY. We show that one, in which the regulator of glutamine/glutamate metabolism glnR had been inactivated by design, had only a suppressor in fecE (a gene in the fat/fec operon), while the other possessed both fecE and amiC mutations. Independent isolation of three different fat/fec suppressors thus establishes that reduction of iron import is crucial for survival without CodY. We refer to these as primary suppressors, while inactivation of ami, which is not essential for survival of codY mutants and acquired after initial fat/fec inactivation, can be regarded as a secondary suppressor. The availability of codY- ami+ cells allowed us to establish that CodY activates competence for genetic transformation indirectly, presumably by repressing ami which is known to antagonize competence. The glnR codY fecE mutant was then found to be only partially viable on solid medium and hypersensitive to peptidoglycan (PG) targeting agents such as the antibiotic cefotaxime and the muramidase lysozyme. While analysis of PG and teichoic acid composition uncovered no alteration in the glnR codY fecE mutant compared to wildtype, electron microscopy revealed altered ultrastructure of the cell wall in the mutant, establishing that co-inactivation of GlnR and CodY regulators impacts pneumococcal cell wall physiology. In light of rising levels of resistance to PG-targeting antibiotics of natural pneumococcal isolates, GlnR and CodY constitute potential alternative therapeutic targets to combat this debilitating pathogen, as co

  3. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″ W...

  4. Movements of Atlantic Sturgeon of the Gulf of Maine inside and outside the geographically defined Distinct Population Segment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wippelhauser, Gail S.; Sulikowski, James; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Altenritter, Megan; Kieffer, Micah; Kinnison, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Identification of potential critical habitat, seasonal distributions, and movements within and between river systems is important for protecting the Gulf of Maine (GOM) Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Sturgeon. To accomplish these objectives, we captured Atlantic Sturgeon in four GOM rivers (Penobscot, Kennebec system, Saco, and Merrimack), and tagged 144 (83.3–217.4 cm TL) internally with uniquely coded acoustic transmitters. Tagged fish were detected between 2006 to 2014 by primary receiver arrays deployed in the four GOM rivers or opportunistically on a secondary group of receivers deployed within the GOM and along the continental shelf. Atlantic Sturgeon tagged in the four rivers were documented at three spawning areas in the Kennebec system in June and July, including one that became accessible in 1999 when the Edwards Dam was removed. After being tagged, the majority (74%) of Atlantic sturgeon were detected in the estuaries of the four GOM rivers, primarily from May through October. Tagged fish spent most of their time in saline water in the Saco River and Merrimack River, moved into brackish water in the Penobscot River, and were found in saline, brackish, and fresh water in the Kennebec system. Approximately 70% of the tagged fish were detected in GOM coastal waters, and aggregated in the Bay of Fundy (May–January), offshore of the Penobscot River (September-February and May), offshore of the Kennebec River (September–February), in Saco Bay and the Scarborough River (July–November), and along the eastern Massachusetts coast between Cape Ann and Cape Cod (April–February). Nine tagged Atlantic sturgeon (7%) left the GOM, three of which moved as far north as Halifax in Canada and six moved as far south as the James River in Virginia. Information from this study will be used to make recommendations to avoid, reduce or mitigate the impacts of in-water projects and on Atlantic sturgeon.

  5. Spatio-temporal dynamics of a fish predator: Density-dependent and hydrographic effects on Baltic Sea cod population

    PubMed Central

    Bartolino, Valerio; Tian, Huidong; Bergström, Ulf; Jounela, Pekka; Aro, Eero; Dieterich, Christian; Meier, H. E. Markus; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Bland, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of spatial population dynamics is crucial for the successful management of exploited species and ecosystems. However, the underlying mechanisms of spatial distribution are generally complex due to the concurrent forcing of both density-dependent species interactions and density-independent environmental factors. Despite the high economic value and central ecological importance of cod in the Baltic Sea, the drivers of its spatio-temporal population dynamics have not been analytically investigated so far. In this paper, we used an extensive trawl survey dataset in combination with environmental data to investigate the spatial dynamics of the distribution of the Eastern Baltic cod during the past three decades using Generalized Additive Models. The results showed that adult cod distribution was mainly affected by cod population size, and to a minor degree by small-scale hydrological factors and the extent of suitable reproductive areas. As population size decreases, the cod population concentrates to the southern part of the Baltic Sea, where the preferred more marine environment conditions are encountered. Using the fitted models, we predicted the Baltic cod distribution back to the 1970s and a temporal index of cod spatial occupation was developed. Our study will contribute to the management and conservation of this important resource and of the ecosystem where it occurs, by showing the forces shaping its spatial distribution and therefore the potential response of the population to future exploitation and environmental changes. PMID:28207804

  6. [Pollution load and the first flush effect of BOD5 and COD in urban runoff of Wenzhou City].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Bi, Chun-juan; Chen, Zhen-lou; Zhou, Dong

    2013-05-01

    Four typical rainfalls were monitored in two different research areas of Wenzhou Municipality. Concentrations of BOD5 and COD in six different urban runoffs were measured. In addition the event mean concentration (EMC), M (V) curve and BOD5/COD of pollutant were calculated. The results showed that concentrations of BOD5 and COD in different urban runoffs of Wenzhou ranged from ND to 69.21 mg x L(-1) and ND to 636 mg x L(-1). Concentrations of BOD5 and COD in different urban runoffs were decreasing over time, so it is greatly significant to manage the initial runoff for reducing organic pollution. Judged by EMC of BOD5 and COD in these five rainfalls, concentrations of pollutant in some urban runoffs were out of the integrated wastewater discharge standard. If these runoffs flowed into river, it would cause environmental pressure to the next level receiving water bodies. According to the M (V) curve, the first flush effect of COD in most urban runoffs was common; while the first flush effect of BOD5 was same as that of COD. The result also showed that organic pollution was serious at the beginning of runoff. The underlying surface type could affect the concentration of BOD5 and COD in urban runoff. While the results of BOD5/COD also suggested that biodegradation was considered as one of the effective ways to decrease the pollution load of organics in urban runoff, and the best management plans (BMPs) should be selected for various urban runoff types for the treatment of organic pollution.

  7. Temperature-Dependent Lipid Storage of Juvenile Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) and Co-Occurring North Pacific Gadids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeman, L.; Laurel, B.; Spencer, M. L.; Iseri, P.; Sremba, A. L.

    2016-02-01

    Climate change impacts on Arctic ecosystems will largely be determined by temperature-dependent bioenergetics of resident and invading forage fish species. In this study, we experimentally measured total lipids and lipid class storage in the liver and muscle of juvenile Arctic gadids (Arctic cod, Boreogadus saida and saffron cod, Eleginus gracilis) and two North Pacific gadids (walleye pollock, Gadus chalcogrammus and Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus). Experiments were conducted over a 6-wk period across five temperatures (0, 5, 9, 16 and 20 °C) at the Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport, OR, USA. Results indicated clear physiological differences among species in terms of temperature-dependent growth and lipid storage. Arctic cod exhibited highest growth and lipid storage (27 mg/g WW) at the coldest temperature (0 °C) compared to the other gadids, with near maximum growth at 5 °C and onset of mortality above 9 °C. In contrast, saffron cod growth rates steadily increased at temperatures beyond 16 °C, but lipid storage was low overall with only slightly higher lipid storage at warm temperatures (10 to 17 mg/g WW). Both walleye pollock and Pacific cod showed a domed response with increased lipid storage and growth at intermediate temperatures (9 - 12°C) and reduced growth and lipid storage at cold and warm maxima. We did not observe a trade-off between growth rate and lipid accumulation in any species. These results suggest that saffron cod can thrive in a warming Arctic but will be energetically inferior as a prey item to the more temperature-sensitive Arctic cod. Alternatively, North Pacific gadids can energetically resemble Arctic cod at warmer temperatures and could theoretically be an important prey item if their range extends northward with continued climate change.

  8. [Ni(cod) 2][Al(OR F) 4], a Source for Naked Nickel(I) Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Miriam M.; Himmel, Daniel; Kacprzak, Sylwia

    The straightforward synthesis of the cationic, purely organometallic Ni I salt [Ni(cod) 2] +[Al(OR F) 4] - was realized through a reaction between [Ni(cod) 2] and Ag[Al(OR F) 4] (cod=1,5-cyclooctadiene). Crystal-structure analysis and EPR, XANES, and cyclic voltammetry studies confirmed the presence of a homoleptic NiI olefin complex. Weak interactions between the metal center, the ligands, and the anion provide a good starting material for further cationic NiI complexes.

  9. Daytime variations of absorbing aerosols above clouds in the southeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. Y.; Christopher, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The daytime variation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) above maritime stratocumulus clouds in the southeast Atlantic is investigated by merging geostationary data from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) with NASA A-Train data sets. SEVIRI's 15-minute above cloud AOD and below aerosol cloud optical depth (COD) retrieval provides the opportunity to assess their direct radiative forcing using actual cloud and aerosol properties instead of using fixed values from polar-orbiting measurements. The impact of overlying aerosols above clouds on the cloud mask products are compared with active spaceborne lidar to examine the performance of the product. Uncertainty analyses of aerosol properties on the estimation of optical properties and radiative forcing are addressed.

  10. Witches in the Atlantic World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslaw, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the Atlantic world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)

  11. CcpA and CodY Coordinate Acetate Metabolism in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Nam; Burne, Robert A

    2017-04-01

    In the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans , phosphotransacetylase (Pta) and acetate kinase (Ack) convert pyruvate into acetate with the concomitant generation of ATP. The genes for this pathway are tightly regulated by multiple environmental and intracellular inputs, but the basis for differential expression of the genes for Pta and Ack in S. mutans had not been investigated. Here, we show that inactivation in S. mutans of ccpA or codY reduced the activity of the ackA promoter, whereas a ccpA mutant displayed elevated pta promoter activity. The interactions of CcpA with the promoter regions of both genes were observed using electrophoretic mobility shift and DNase protection assays. CodY bound to the ackA promoter region but only in the presence of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). DNase footprinting revealed that the upstream region of both genes contains two catabolite-responsive elements ( cre1 and cre2 ) that can be bound by CcpA. Notably, the cre2 site of ackA overlaps with a CodY-binding site. The CcpA- and CodY-binding sites in the promoter region of both genes were further defined by site-directed mutagenesis. Some differences between the reported consensus CodY binding site and the region protected by S. mutans CodY were noted. Transcription of the pta and ackA genes in the ccpA mutant strain was markedly different at low pH relative to transcription at neutral pH. Thus, CcpA and CodY are direct regulators of transcription of ackA and pta in S. mutans that optimize acetate metabolism in response to carbohydrate, amino acid availability, and environmental pH. IMPORTANCE The human dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans is remarkably adept at coping with extended periods of carbohydrate limitation during fasting periods. The phosphotransacetylase-acetate kinase (Pta-Ack) pathway in S. mutans modulates carbohydrate flux and fine-tunes the ability of the organisms to cope with stressors that are commonly encountered in the oral cavity. Here, we

  12. U.S. eastern seaboard with Cape Cod taken from Atlantis during STS-106

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-06

    STS106-710-060 (8-20 September 2000) --- One of the STS-106 crew members on board the Space Shuttle Atlantis used a handheld 70mm camera to photograph this image of Cape Cod and parts of Massachusetts. Partial sun glint highlights the coastline and brings out subtle details in the waters around Massachusetts. The maximum advance of an ice sheet 23,000 years ago is marked by the unique shape of Cape Cod and by the islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard. Rocks and debris left at the edges of the ice fronts made parts of the landscape slightly higher and more resistant to erosion. Glacial retreat and sea level rise covered the lower ground and gave us the more modern coastline that we are familiar with. The city of New Bedford can be located near the coast and just below the circular lakes of Long Pond, Great Quiittacas Pond, and Assawompset Pond.

  13. Using CSLD Method to Calculate COD Pollution Load of Wei River Watershed above Huaxian Section, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lei; Song, JinXi; Liu, WanQing

    2017-12-01

    Huaxian Section is the last hydrological and water quality monitoring section of Weihe River Watershed. Weihe River Watershed above Huaxian Section is taken as the research objective in this paper and COD is chosen as the water quality parameter. According to the discharge characteristics of point source pollutions and non-point source pollutions, a new method to estimate pollution loads—characteristic section load(CSLD) method is suggested and point source pollution and non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Huaxian Section are calculated in the rainy, normal and dry season in the year 2007. The results show that the monthly point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Huaxian Section discharge stably and the monthly non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Huaxian Section change greatly and the non-point source pollution load proportions of total pollution load of COD decrease in the normal, rainy and wet period in turn.

  14. Stored Radioactive Material Landfill Site no. 7 (LF-7), Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, MA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-07

    Consultative Letter 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) July 2012 – January 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stored Radioactive Material Landfill Site #7 (LF-7...performed 9-13 Jul 2012 at the stored radioactive material landfill site (LF-7) on Camp Edwards, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, MA...Walkover surveillance and environmental sampling were used to characterize any radioactive material presence at the LF-7 site. No observable or

  15. PAVE PAWS Early Warning Radar Operation Cape Cod Air Force Station, MA. Record of Decision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) C95.1-1999. Accordingly, the highest measurement was obtained directly in front of the feedhorn (i.e...waveform characterization of the Cape Cod AFS Pave PAWS radar. The data acquired during the Phase IV survey indicated that the electric fields produced...level observed among the ambient sites. During this survey, peak/average power density measurements and peak/average electric field measurements

  16. Losing Track of Time: Is Hypoxia In Part To Blame For Baltic Cod Aging Problems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limburg, K. E.; Hussy, K.

    2016-02-01

    Cod, a primary fishery species in the Baltic Sea since prehistoric times, has recently experienced marked declines in size and condition. This is due to a combination of worsening water quality conditions from hypoxia intensification, reduction in prey availability even as cod densities have risen, and increased occurrence of parasites and disease. One of the net results of this has been a decrease in formation of clear annual growth rings in otoliths of Eastern Baltic Cod. Otoliths (ear-stones) are part of the hearing and balance system in fishes, and grow incrementally as a fish grows. In seasonal environments, growth bands are laid down, much like tree rings. But in Eastern Baltic cod it has become increasingly difficult to "read" otoliths and determine ages. This is a serious problem, because age is a key variable used in stock assessment for the management of exploited populations, including quota-setting. In 2014 the situation became so dire that the stock assessment was not approved for this stock. Solutions are clearly needed. We are developing new methods to assist in solving the "aging problem" using a combination of otolith microchemistry, optical imagery and direct increment counts, and dynamic models. Developing novel ratios of trace elements and isotopes that enhance seasonal signatures appears promising. We are also tracking the intensity of hypoxia with a proxy (Mn:Ca ratios) as described in Limburg et al. 2015 (J. Mar. Sys. 141: 167-178). This study explicitly links hypoxia with a metric (otolith Mn:Ca ratios) that also has a physiological basis; preliminary results suggest our approach to deal with aging fishes badly impacted by hypoxia is broadly applicable across marine to freshwater ecosystems.

  17. Preparation of Bamboo Chars and Bamboo Activated Carbons to Remove Color and COD from Ink Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hata, Motohide; Amano, Yoshimasa; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Machida, Motoi

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo chars and bamboo activated carbons prepared by steam activation were applied for ink wastewater treatment. Bamboo char at 800 °C was the best for the removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from ink wastewater compared to bamboo chars at 300 to 700 °C due to higher surface area and mesopore volume. Bamboo activated carbon at 600 °C (S600) was the best compared to bamboo activated carbon at 800 °C (S800), although S800 had larger surface area (1108 m(2)/g) than S600 (734 m(2)/g). S600 had higher mesopore volume (0.20 cm(3)/g) than S800 (0.16 cm(3)/g) and therefore achieved higher color and COD removal. All bamboo activated carbons showed higher color and COD removal efficiency than commercial activated carbon. In addition, S600 had the superior adsorption capacity for methylene blue (0.89 mmol/g). Therefore, bamboo is a suitable material to prepare adsorbents for removal of organic pollutants.

  18. A bio-economic analysis of harvest control rules for the Northeast Arctic cod fishery.

    PubMed

    Eikeset, Anne Maria; Richter, Andries P; Dankel, Dorothy J; Dunlop, Erin S; Heino, Mikko; Dieckmann, Ulf; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2013-05-01

    Harvest control rules (HCRs) have been implemented for many fisheries worldwide. However, in most instances, those HCRs are not based on the explicit feedbacks between stock properties and economic considerations. This paper develops a bio-economic model that evaluates the HCR adopted in 2004 by the Joint Norwegian-Russian Fishery Commission to manage the world's largest cod stock, Northeast Arctic cod (NEA). The model considered here is biologically and economically detailed, and is the first to compare the performance of the stock's current HCR with that of alternative HCRs derived with optimality criteria. In particular, HCRs are optimized for economic objectives including fleet profits, economic welfare, and total yield and the emerging properties are analyzed. The performance of these optimal HCRs was compared with the currently used HCR. This paper show that the current HCR does in fact comes very close to maximizing profits. Furthermore, the results reveal that the HCR that maximizes profits is the most precautionary one among the considered HCRs. Finally, the HCR that maximizes yield leads to un-precautionary low levels of biomass. In these ways, the implementation of the HCR for NEA cod can be viewed as a success story that may provide valuable lessons for other fisheries.

  19. A bio-economic analysis of harvest control rules for the Northeast Arctic cod fishery

    PubMed Central

    Eikeset, Anne Maria; Richter, Andries P.; Dankel, Dorothy J.; Dunlop, Erin S.; Heino, Mikko; Dieckmann, Ulf; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2013-01-01

    Harvest control rules (HCRs) have been implemented for many fisheries worldwide. However, in most instances, those HCRs are not based on the explicit feedbacks between stock properties and economic considerations. This paper develops a bio-economic model that evaluates the HCR adopted in 2004 by the Joint Norwegian–Russian Fishery Commission to manage the world's largest cod stock, Northeast Arctic cod (NEA). The model considered here is biologically and economically detailed, and is the first to compare the performance of the stock's current HCR with that of alternative HCRs derived with optimality criteria. In particular, HCRs are optimized for economic objectives including fleet profits, economic welfare, and total yield and the emerging properties are analyzed. The performance of these optimal HCRs was compared with the currently used HCR. This paper show that the current HCR does in fact comes very close to maximizing profits. Furthermore, the results reveal that the HCR that maximizes profits is the most precautionary one among the considered HCRs. Finally, the HCR that maximizes yield leads to un-precautionary low levels of biomass. In these ways, the implementation of the HCR for NEA cod can be viewed as a success story that may provide valuable lessons for other fisheries. PMID:26525860

  20. Reduction of non-Betalactam Antibiotics COD by Combined Coagulation and Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    PubMed

    Yazdanbakhsh, Ahmad Reza; Mohammadi, Amir Sheikh; Alinejad, Abdol Azim; Hassani, Ghasem; Golmohammadi, Sohrab; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sardar, Mahdieh; Sarsangi, Vali

    2016-11-01

      The present study evaluates the reduction of antibiotic COD from wastewater by combined coagulation and advanced oxidation processes (AOPS). The reduction of Azithromycin COD by combined coagulation and Fenton-like processes reached a maximum 96.9% at a reaction time of 30 min, dosage of ferric chloride 120 mg/L, dosages of Fe0 and H2O2of 0.36mM/L and 0.38 mM/L, respectively. Also, 97.9% of Clarithromycin COD reduction, was achieved at a reaction time of 30 min, dosage of ferric chloride 120 mg/L, dosages of Fe0 and H2O2 of 0.3 mM/L and 0.3mM/L, respectively. The results of kinetic studies were best fitted to the pseudo first order equation. The results showed a higher rate constant value for combined coagulation and Fenton-like processes [(kap = 0.022 min-1 and half-life time of 31.5 min for Azithromycin) and (kap = 0.023 min-1 and half-life time of 30.1 min for Clarithromycin)].

  1. Spawning stock and recruitment in North Sea cod shaped by food and climate

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Esben Moland; Ottersen, Geir; Llope, Marcos; Chan, Kung-Sik; Beaugrand, Grégory; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide better fisheries management and conservation decisions, there is a need to discern the underlying relationship between the spawning stock and recruitment of marine fishes, a relationship which is influenced by the environmental conditions. Here, we demonstrate how the environmental conditions (temperature and the food availability for fish larvae) influence the stock–recruitment relationship and indeed what kind of stock–recruitment relationship we might see under different environmental conditions. Using unique zooplankton data from the Continuous Plankton Recorder, we find that food availability (i.e. zooplankton) in essence determines which model applies for the once large North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) stock. Further, we show that recruitment is strengthened during cold years and weakened during warm years. Our combined model explained 45 per cent of the total variance in cod recruitment, while the traditional Ricker and Beverton–Holt models only explained about 10 per cent. Specifically, our approach predicts that a full recovery of the North Sea cod stock might not be expected until the environment becomes more favourable. PMID:20810442

  2. Optimizing TOC and COD removal for the biodiesel wastewater by electrocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanattı, N. Pınar; Şengil, İ. Ayhan; Özdemir, Abdil

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total organic carbon content (TOC) in biodiesel wastewater iron and aluminum electrodes arranged in a bipolar position. In the EC of the biodiesel wastewater, the effects of the supporting electrolyte, initial pH, electrolysis time and current density were examined. The results showed that the majority of the pollutants in the biodiesel wastewater were effectively removed when the iron or aluminum electrodes were used as a sacrificial anode. The highest COD and TOC removal efficiencies were successfully obtained with the iron electrode. COD removal efficiencies are 91.74 and 90.94% for iron and aluminum electrode, respectively. In the same way, TOC removal efficiencies were obtained as 91.79 and 91.98% for the iron and aluminum electrodes, respectively, at initial pH of 6, the current density of 0.3226 mA/cm2, NaCl concentration 1 g/L and 1 min of operating time.

  3. Integrative Genomic Analysis Identifies Isoleucine and CodY as Regulators of Listeria monocytogenes Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lobel, Lior; Sigal, Nadejda; Borovok, Ilya; Ruppin, Eytan; Herskovits, Anat A.

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens are metabolically adapted to grow within mammalian cells. While these adaptations are fundamental to the ability to cause disease, we know little about the relationship between the pathogen's metabolism and virulence. Here we used an integrative Metabolic Analysis Tool that combines transcriptome data with genome-scale metabolic models to define the metabolic requirements of Listeria monocytogenes during infection. Twelve metabolic pathways were identified as differentially active during L. monocytogenes growth in macrophage cells. Intracellular replication requires de novo synthesis of histidine, arginine, purine, and branch chain amino acids (BCAAs), as well as catabolism of L-rhamnose and glycerol. The importance of each metabolic pathway during infection was confirmed by generation of gene knockout mutants in the respective pathways. Next, we investigated the association of these metabolic requirements in the regulation of L. monocytogenes virulence. Here we show that limiting BCAA concentrations, primarily isoleucine, results in robust induction of the master virulence activator gene, prfA, and the PrfA-regulated genes. This response was specific and required the nutrient responsive regulator CodY, which is known to bind isoleucine. Further analysis demonstrated that CodY is involved in prfA regulation, playing a role in prfA activation under limiting conditions of BCAAs. This study evidences an additional regulatory mechanism underlying L. monocytogenes virulence, placing CodY at the crossroads of metabolism and virulence. PMID:22969433

  4. The relation of ground-water quality to housing density, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persky, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Correlation of median nitrate concentration in groundwater with housing density for 18 sample areas on Cape Cod yields a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.802, which is significant at the 95 % confidence level. In five of nine sample areas where housing density is greater than one unit/acre, nitrate concentrations exceed 5 mg of nitrate/L (the Barnstable County planning goal for nitrate) in 25% of wells. Nitrate concentrations exceed 5 mg of nitrogen/L in 25% of wells in only one of nine sample areas where housing density is less than one unit/acre. Median concentrations of sodium and iron, and median levels of pH and specific conductance, are not significantly correlated with housing density. A computer generated map of nitrate shows a positive relation between nitrate concentration and housing density on Cape Cod. However, the presence of septage- or sewage-disposal sites and fertilizer use are also important factors that affect the nitrate concentration. A map of specific conductance also shows a positive relation to housing density, but little or no relation between housing density and sodium, ammonia, pH, or iron is apparent on the maps. Chemical analyses of samples collected from 3,468 private- and public-supply wells between January 1980 and June 1984 were used to examine the extent to which housing density determines water quality on Cape Cod, an area largely unsewered and underlain by a sole source aquifer. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Geological Interpretation of Bathymetric and Backscatter Imagery of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, Larry J.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Butman, Bradford; Ackerman, Seth D.; Danforth, William W.; Foster, Dave S.; Blackwood, Dann S.

    2006-01-01

    The imagery, interpretive data layers, and data presented herein were derived from multibeam echo-sounder data collected off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and from the stations occupied to verify these acoustic data. The basic data layers show sea-floor topography, sun-illuminated shaded relief, and backscatter intensity; interpretive layers show the distributions of surficial sediment and sedimentary environments. Presented verification data include new and historical sediment grain-size analyses and a gallery of still photographs of the seabed. The multibeam data, which cover a narrow band of the sea floor extending from Provincetown around the northern tip of Cape Cod and south southeastward to off Monomoy Island, were collected during transits between concurrent mapping projects in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (Valentine and others, 2001; Butman and others, 2004; and Valentine, 2005) and Great South Channel (Valentine and others, 2003a, b, c, d). Although originally collected to maximize the use of time aboard ship, these data provide a fundamental framework for research and management activities in this part of the Gulf of Maine (Noji and others, 2004), show the composition and terrain of the seabed, and provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat. These data and interpretations also support ongoing modeling studies of the lower Cape's aquifer system (Masterson, 2004) and of erosional hotspots along the Cape Cod National Seashore (List and others, 2006).

  6. Improving bioelectricity generation and COD removal of sewage sludge in microbial desalination cell.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Atieh; Yousefi Kebria, Daryoush; Darzi, Ghasem Najafpour

    2018-05-01

    Improving wastewater treatment process and water desalination are two important solutions for increasing the available supply of fresh water. Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) with common electrolytes display relatively low organic matter removal and high cost. In this study, sewage sludge was used as the substrate in the Microbial desalination cell (MDC) under three different initial salt concentrations (5, 20 and 35 g.L -1 ) and the maximum salt removal rates of 50.6%, 64% and 69.6% were obtained under batch condition, respectively. The MDC also produced the maximum power density of 47.1 W m -3 and the averaged chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 58.2 ± 0.89% when the initial COD was 6610 ± 83 mg L -1 . Employing treated sludge as catholyte enhanced COD removal and power density to 87.3% and 54.4 W m -3 , respectively, with counterbalancing pH variation in treated effluent. These promising results showed, for the first time, that the excess sewage sludge obtained from biological wastewater treatment plants could be successfully used as anolyte and catholyte in MDC, achieving organic matter biodegradation along with salt removal and energy production. In addition, using treated sludge as catholyte will improve the performance of MDC and introduce a more effective method for both sludge treatment and desalination.

  7. Behavioural responses of krill and cod to artificial light in laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Utne-Palm, A C; Breen, M; Løkkeborg, S; Humborstad, O-B

    2018-01-01

    Most fishes and crustaceans respond to light, and artificial light sources may therefore be an efficient stimulus to manipulate behaviours in aquatic animals. It has been hypothesised that the catch efficiency of pots could be increased if prey, for example krill, can be attracted into the pots providing a visual stimulus and a source of live bait. To find which light characteristics are most attractive to krill, we tested the effects of light intensity and wavelength composition on Northern krill's (Meganyctiphanes norvegica) behavioural response to an artificial light source. The most attractive individual wavelength was 530 nm (green light), while broadband (425-750 nm) white light was an equally attractive light source. The intensity of the emitted light did not appear to have a direct effect on attraction to the light source, however it did significantly increase swimming activity among the observed krill. The most promising light stimuli for krill were tested to determine whether they would have a repulsive or attractive effect on cod (Gadus morhua); These light stimuli appeared to have a slightly repulsive, but non-significant, effect on cod. However, we suggest that a swarm of krill attracted to an artificial light source may produce a more effective visual stimulus to foraging cod.

  8. Behavioural responses of krill and cod to artificial light in laboratory experiments

    PubMed Central

    Løkkeborg, S.; Humborstad, O-B.

    2018-01-01

    Most fishes and crustaceans respond to light, and artificial light sources may therefore be an efficient stimulus to manipulate behaviours in aquatic animals. It has been hypothesised that the catch efficiency of pots could be increased if prey, for example krill, can be attracted into the pots providing a visual stimulus and a source of live bait. To find which light characteristics are most attractive to krill, we tested the effects of light intensity and wavelength composition on Northern krill’s (Meganyctiphanes norvegica) behavioural response to an artificial light source. The most attractive individual wavelength was 530 nm (green light), while broadband (425–750 nm) white light was an equally attractive light source. The intensity of the emitted light did not appear to have a direct effect on attraction to the light source, however it did significantly increase swimming activity among the observed krill. The most promising light stimuli for krill were tested to determine whether they would have a repulsive or attractive effect on cod (Gadus morhua); These light stimuli appeared to have a slightly repulsive, but non-significant, effect on cod. However, we suggest that a swarm of krill attracted to an artificial light source may produce a more effective visual stimulus to foraging cod. PMID:29370231

  9. Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Kumaravel

    2003-08-01

    Rickets, a disease of vitamin D deficiency, is rarely confronted by the practicing pediatrician in the United States today. At the turn of the 20th century, rickets was rampant among the poor children living in the industrialized and polluted northern cities of the United States. With the discovery of vitamin D and the delineation of the anti-rachitic properties of cod-liver oil by the 1930s, it became possible to not only treat but also eradicate rickets in the United States. Rickets was a common disease in 17th century England. Frances Glisson's treatise on rickets published in 1650, a glorious contribution to English medicine, described the clinical and anatomic features of rickets in great detail. The exact etiology of rickets had been elusive until the 1920s. During the Glissonian era, rickets was a mysterious disease. By the late 19th and early 20th century, faulty diet or faulty environment (poor hygiene, lack of fresh air and sunshine) or lack of exercise was implicated in its etiology. Animal experiments, appreciation of folklore advocating the benefits of cod-liver oil, and the geographical association of rickets to lack of sunshine were all relevant factors in the advancement of knowledge in the conquest of this malady. In this article, the history of rickets pertaining to the discovery of vitamin D, cod-liver oil, and sunlight is reviewed.

  10. Crystallography Open Database (COD): an open-access collection of crystal structures and platform for world-wide collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Gražulis, Saulius; Daškevič, Adriana; Merkys, Andrius; Chateigner, Daniel; Lutterotti, Luca; Quirós, Miguel; Serebryanaya, Nadezhda R.; Moeck, Peter; Downs, Robert T.; Le Bail, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Using an open-access distribution model, the Crystallography Open Database (COD, http://www.crystallography.net) collects all known ‘small molecule / small to medium sized unit cell’ crystal structures and makes them available freely on the Internet. As of today, the COD has aggregated ∼150 000 structures, offering basic search capabilities and the possibility to download the whole database, or parts thereof using a variety of standard open communication protocols. A newly developed website provides capabilities for all registered users to deposit published and so far unpublished structures as personal communications or pre-publication depositions. Such a setup enables extension of the COD database by many users simultaneously. This increases the possibilities for growth of the COD database, and is the first step towards establishing a world wide Internet-based collaborative platform dedicated to the collection and curation of structural knowledge. PMID:22070882

  11. 76 FR 74670 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... GOA Pacific cod TACs among gear and operation type, based primarily on historical dependency and catch... 83 sector allocations are based on historical dependency, each sector's retained catch history of the...

  12. 76 FR 13331 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to Pacific Cod Fishing in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) through emergency order under the authority of State regulations at 5 AAC... Pacific cod among ten fishery sectors created in Amendment 67, to better reflect the historical dependency...

  13. Comment Period for Proposed Remedy Selection Plan for Multiple Training Areas located at Joint Base Cape Cod

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is seeking public comment on the EPA’s proposal indicating no further action is needed for multiple Training Areas on the Camp Edwards portion of Joint Base Cape Cod (JBCC).

  14. Determination of COD based on Photoelectrocatalysis of FeTiO3.TiO2/Ti Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, D.; Ruslan; Maulidiyah; Nurdin, M.

    2017-11-01

    Iron infrastructure technology of (Fe)-doped TiO2 nanotubes arrays (NTAs) was prepared for COD photoelectrocatalysis sensor. Fe-TiO2 NTAs was prepared using sol-gel method and coated with TiO2/Ti electrode by immersion technique. The optimization of COD photoelectrocatalytic sensor against Rhodamine B, Methyl Orange, and Methylene Blue organic dyes using photoelectrochemical system in a batch reactor. The high ordered FeTiO3.TiO2/Ti NTAs to determine COD value showed the high photocurrent response linearity and sensitivity to MO organic dye from the concentration of 5 ppm to 75 ppm with an average RSD value of 3.35. The development in this research is to utilize ilmenite mineral as model applied to COD sensor.

  15. 77 FR 55735 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet... Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels less than 60 feet LOA using hook-and-line or pot gear in the BSAI... vessels less than 60 feet LOA using hook-and-line or pot gear in the BSAI under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on...

  16. 76 FR 24404 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet... Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels less than 60 feet LOA using hook-and-line or pot gear in the BSAI... less than 60 feet LOA using hook-and-line or pot gear in the BSAI under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on March...

  17. Anaerobic treatment of antibiotic production wastewater pretreated with enhanced hydrolysis: Simultaneous reduction of COD and ARGs.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qizhen; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Yang, Min

    2017-03-01

    The presence of high concentration antibiotics in wastewater can disturb the stability of biological wastewater treatment systems and promote generation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the treatment. To solve this problem, a pilot system consisting of enhanced hydrolysis pretreatment and an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor in succession was constructed for treating oxytetracycline production wastewater, and the performance was evaluated in a pharmaceutical factory in comparison with a full-scale anaerobic system operated in parallel. After enhanced hydrolysis under conditions of pH 7 and 85 °C for 6 h, oxytetracycline production wastewater with an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 11,086 ± 602 mg L -1 was directly introduced into the pilot UASB reactor. With the effective removal of oxytetracycline and its antibacterial potency (from 874 mg L -1 to less than 0.61 mg L -1 and from 900 mg L -1 to less than 0.84 mg L -1 , respectively) by the enhanced hydrolysis pretreatment, an average COD removal rate of 83.2%, 78.5% and 68.9% was achieved at an organic loading rate of 3.3, 4.8 and 5.9 kg COD m -3  d -1 , respectively. At the same time, the relative abundances of the total tetracycline (tet) genes and a mobile element (Class 1 integron (intI1)) in anaerobic sludge on day 96 were one order of magnitude lower than those in inoculated sludge on day 0 (P < 0.01). The reduction of ARGs was further demonstrated by metagenomic sequencing. By comparison, the full-scale anaerobic system treating oxytetracycline production wastewater with an influent COD of 3720 ± 128 mg L -1 after dilution exhibited a COD removal of 51 ± 4% at an organic loading rate (OLR) 1.2 ± 0.2 kg m -3  d -1 , and a total tet gene abundance in sludge was five times higher than the pilot-scale system (P < 0.01). The above result demonstrated that enhanced hydrolysis as a pretreatment method could enable efficient anaerobic treatment of

  18. The effect of microbubbles on gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient and degradation rate of COD in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kangning; Chi, Yong; Wang, Fei; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used aeration device at present has the disadvantages of low mass transfer rate because the generated bubbles are several millimeters in diameter which are much bigger than microbubbles. Therefore, the effect of a microbubble on gas-liquid mass transfer and wastewater treatment process was investigated. To evaluate the effect of each bubble type, the volumetric mass transfer coefficients for microbubbles and conventional bubbles were determined. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient was 0.02905 s(-1) and 0.02191 s(-1) at a gas flow rate of 0.67 L min(-1) in tap water for microbubbles and conventional bubbles, respectively. The degradation rate of simulated municipal wastewater was also investigated, using aerobic activated sludge and ozone. Compared with the conventional bubble generator, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 2.04, 5.9, 3.26 times higher than those of the conventional bubble contactor at the same initial COD concentration of COD 200 mg L(-1), 400 mg L(-1), and 600 mg L(-1), while aerobic activated sludge was used. For the ozonation process, the rate of COD removal using microbubble generator was 2.38, 2.51, 2.89 times of those of the conventional bubble generator. Based on the results, the effect of initial COD concentration on the specific COD degradation rate were discussed in different systems. Thus, the results revealed that microbubbles could enhance mass transfer in wastewater treatment and be an effective method to improve the degradation of wastewater.

  19. Nitrogen removal from wastewater and bacterial diversity in activated sludge at different COD/N ratios and dissolved oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Magdalena; Bernat, Katarzyna; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Sobolewska, Joanna; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the organic carbon to nitrogen ratio (chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N) in wastewater and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on carbon and nitrogen removal efficiency, and total bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities in activated sludge in constantly aerated sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) was determined. At DO of 0.5 and 1.5 mg O2/L during the aeration phase, the efficiency of ammonia oxidation exceeded 90%, with nitrates as the main product. Nitrification and denitrification achieved under the same operating conditions suggested the simultaneous course of these processes. The most effective nitrogen elimination (above 50%) was obtained at the COD/N ratio of 6.8 and DO of 0.5 mg O2/L. Total bacterial diversity was similar in all experimental series, however, for both COD/N ratios of 6.8 and 0.7, higher values were observed at DO of 0.5 mg O2/L. The diversity and abundance of AOB were higher in the reactors with the COD/N ratio of 0.7 in comparison with the reactors with the COD/N of 6.8. For both COD/N ratios applied, the AOB population was not affected by oxygen concentration. Amplicons with sequences indicating membership of the genus Nitrosospira were the determinants of variable technological conditions.

  20. First study to explore the feasibility of applying microbial fuel cells into constructed wetlands for COD monitoring.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Zhao, Yaqian; Fan, Chuang; Fan, Zhiren; Zhao, Fangchao

    2017-11-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is one of the major targets to remove in constructed wetlands (CWs) system. Traditional method for COD measurement is a complex, time-consuming and highly toxic reagents participated procedure. In this study, microbial fuel cell (MFC) was successfully integrated into CW for indicating COD concentration. Results showed that there are two linear correlations between bioelectrical signals (output voltage from MFC) and COD concentration (acetate), which are COD from 0 to 500mg/L (101.99±7.42 to 631.74±7.41mV, R 2 =0.9710) and then from 500 to 1000mg/L (631.74±7.41 to 668.46±0.01mV, R 2 =0.9245). Furthermore, results also revealed the specificity of the system in terms of different types of carbon source. Overall, this work presented the feasibility of using CW-MFC for in-situ sensing COD during the wastewater treatment process, which will be a promising technique for water quality monitoring within CWs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic and biochemical analysis of the interaction of Bacillus subtilis CodY with branched-chain amino acids.

    PubMed

    Villapakkam, Anuradha C; Handke, Luke D; Belitsky, Boris R; Levdikov, Vladimir M; Wilkinson, Anthony J; Sonenshein, Abraham L

    2009-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis CodY protein is a DNA-binding global transcriptional regulator that responds to branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and valine) and GTP. Crystal structure studies have shown that the N-terminal region of the protein includes a GAF domain that contains a hydrophobic pocket within which isoleucine and valine bind. This region is well conserved in CodY homologs. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to understand the roles of some of the residues in the GAF domain and hydrophobic pocket in interaction with isoleucine and GTP. The F40A, F71E, and F98A forms of CodY were inactive in vivo. They were activatable by GTP but to a much lesser extent by branched-chain amino acids in vitro. The CodY mutant R61A retained partial repression of target promoters in vivo and was able to respond to GTP in vitro but also responded poorly to branched-chain amino acids in vitro unless GTP was simultaneously present. Thus, the GAF domain includes residues essential for full activation of CodY by branched-chain amino acids, but these residues are not critical for activation by GTP. Binding studies with branched-chain amino acids and their analogs revealed that an amino group at position 2 and a methyl group at position 3 of valine are critical components of the recognition of the amino acids by CodY.

  2. The role of Atlantic overturning circulation in the recent decline of Atlantic major hurricane frequency.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Rong; Knutson, Thomas R

    2017-11-22

    Observed Atlantic major hurricane frequency has exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability since the 1940s. However, the cause of this variability is debated. Using observations and a coupled earth system model (GFDL-ESM2G), here we show that the decline of the Atlantic major hurricane frequency during 2005-2015 is associated with a weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) inferred from ocean observations. Directly observed North Atlantic sulfate aerosol optical depth has not increased (but shows a modest decline) over this period, suggesting the decline of the Atlantic major hurricane frequency during 2005-2015 is not likely due to recent changes in anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. Instead, we find coherent multidecadal variations involving the inferred AMOC and Atlantic major hurricane frequency, along with indices of Atlantic Multidecadal Variability and inverted vertical wind shear. Our results provide evidence for an important role of the AMOC in the recent decline of Atlantic major hurricane frequency.

  3. 78 FR 62587 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...: (727) 450-6200 Ext. 104. Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place... Information Officer, South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N...

  4. 76 FR 14378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ...-6660. Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N... Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC 29405; telephone...

  5. 78 FR 65615 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...: (877) 747-7301. Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive... Officer, South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC...

  6. Dust Cloud, Mid Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of a dust cloud from a Sahara Desert, North Africa dust storm was taken over the Mid Atlantic Ocean, some 1700 miles from the African coast (24.5N, 45.0W). Dust, sand and other particulate matter from arid regions is frequently stirred up by fast blowing desert winds and carried aloft to high altitudes where it may be transported great distances, sometimes as much as half way around the world.

  7. Dispersal Routes and Habitat Utilization of Juvenile Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus thynnus, Tracked with Mini PSAT and Archival Tags

    PubMed Central

    Galuardi, Benjamin; Lutcavage, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2009, we deployed 58 miniature pop-up satellite archival tags (PSAT) and 132 implanted archival tags on juvenile Atlantic bluefin tuna (age 2–5) in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data returned from these efforts (n = 26 PSATs, 1 archival tag) revealed their dispersal routes, horizontal and vertical movements and habitat utilization. All of the tagged bluefin tuna remained in the northwest Atlantic for the duration observed, and in summer months exhibited core-use of coastal seas extending from Maryland to Cape Cod, MA, (USA) out to the shelf break. Their winter distributions were more spatially disaggregated, ranging south to the South Atlantic Bight, northern Bahamas and Gulf Stream. Vertical habitat patterns showed that juvenile bluefin tuna mainly occupied shallow depths (mean  = 5–12 m, sd  = 15–23.7 m) and relatively warm water masses in summer (mean  = 17.9–20.9°C, sd  = 4.2–2.6°C) and had deeper and more variable depth patterns in winter (mean  = 41–58 m, sd  = 48.9–62.2 m). Our tagging results reveal annual dispersal patterns, behavior and oceanographic associations of juvenile Atlantic bluefin tuna that were only surmised in earlier studies. Fishery independent profiling from electronic tagging also provide spatially and temporally explicit information for evaluating dispersals rates, population structure and fisheries catch patterns. PMID:22629461

  8. Daily Intake of Protein from Cod Residual Material Lowers Serum Concentrations of Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Overweight Healthy Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Vildmyren, Iselin; Cao, Huy John Vu; Haug, Lina Bowitz; Valand, Ida Ulrikke; Eng, Øyvin; Oterhals, Åge; Austgulen, Maren Hoff; Halstensen, Alfred; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2018-06-05

    Improved process technologies have allowed fishing vessels to utilize residuals from cod fillet production (head, backbone, skin, cuttings, and entrails) and convert this to high-quality protein powders for human consumption. In this double-blind pilot study, 42 healthy overweight or obese adults were randomized to three experimental groups consuming tablets corresponding to 6 g/day of proteins from cod residuals as presscake meal (Cod-PC), presscake and stickwater meal (Cod-PCW), or placebo tablets (control) for eight weeks. The primary outcome of this study was changes in metabolites related to glucose regulation in overweight or obese healthy adults after intake of proteins from cod residuals. Cod-PC supplementation decreased postprandial serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration and increased gene expressions of diglyceride acyltransferase 1 and 2 in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with controls. Fasting insulin increased while fasting NEFA and 120-min postprandial glucose decreased within the Cod-PC group, but these changes did not differ from the other groups. In conclusion, supplementation with Cod-PC beneficially affected postprandial serum NEFA concentration compared with the other groups in overweight or obese adults. Supplementation with Cod-PCW, which contains a higher fraction of water-soluble protein compared to Cod-PC, did not affect serum markers of glucose regulation.

  9. Cape Cod

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... 3000 shipwrecks on the Cape, mainly along the treacherous outer shore between Provincetown located at the "fist" of the Cape and Chatham ... D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA ...

  10. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National... Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Act), NMFS, upon a delegation of authority from the... Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and that the measures New Jersey has failed to implement and...

  11. 77 FR 31546 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    .... 110210132-1275-02] RIN 0648-XC035 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... tuna (BFT) for the remainder of 2012. Fishing for, retaining, possessing, or landing BFT in the... authority of the Atlantic Tunas Convention Act (16 U.S.C. 971 et seq.) and the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery...

  12. 75 FR 57235 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... fish only in state waters, have asked what catch shares would mean for the shark fishery. To be.... 100825390-0431-01] RIN 0648-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures... on potential adjustments to the regulations governing the U.S. Atlantic shark fishery to address...

  13. Dangerous dining: surface foraging of North Atlantic right whales increases risk of vessel collisions.

    PubMed

    Parks, Susan E; Warren, Joseph D; Stamieszkin, Karen; Mayo, Charles A; Wiley, David

    2012-02-23

    North Atlantic right whales are critically endangered and, despite international protection from whaling, significant numbers die from collisions with ships. Large groups of right whales migrate to the coastal waters of New England during the late winter and early spring to feed in an area with large numbers of vessels. North Atlantic right whales have the largest per capita record of vessel strikes of any large whale population in the world. Right whale feeding behaviour in Cape Cod Bay (CCB) probably contributes to risk of collisions with ships. In this study, feeding right whales tagged with archival suction cup tags spent the majority of their time just below the water's surface where they cannot be seen but are shallow enough to be vulnerable to ship strike. Habitat surveys show that large patches of right whale prey are common in the upper 5 m of the water column in CCB during spring. These results indicate that the typical spring-time foraging ecology of right whales may contribute to their high level of mortality from vessel collisions. The results of this study suggest that remote acoustic detection of prey aggregations may be a useful supplement to the management and conservation of right whales.

  14. Parasites as biological tags in marine fisheries research: European Atlantic waters.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, K; Hemmingsen, W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the use of parasites as biological tags for stock identification and to follow migrations of marine fish, mammals and invertebrates in European Atlantic waters are critically reviewed and evaluated. The region covered includes the North, Baltic, Barents and White Seas plus Icelandic waters, but excludes the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Each fish species or ecological group of species is treated separately. More parasite tag studies have been carried out on Atlantic herring Clupea harengus than on any other species, while cod Gadus morhua have also been the subject of many studies. Other species that have been the subjects of more than one study are: blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, whiting Merlangius merlangus, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Norway pout Trisopterus esmarkii, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus and mackerel Scomber scombrus. Other species are dealt with under the general headings redfishes, flatfish, tunas, anadromous fish, elasmobranchs, marine mammals and invertebrates. A final section highlights how parasites can be, and have been, misused as biological tags, and how this can be avoided. It also reviews recent developments in methodology and parasite genetics, considers the potential effects of climate change on the distributions of both hosts and parasites, and suggests host-parasite systems that should reward further research.

  15. North Atlantic summers have warmed more than winters since 1353, and the response of marine zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2010-12-28

    Modeling and measurements show that Atlantic marine temperatures are rising; however, the low temporal resolution of models and restricted spatial resolution of measurements (i) mask regional details critical for determining the rate and extent of climate variability, and (ii) prevent robust determination of climatic impacts on marine ecosystems. To address both issues for the North East Atlantic, a fortnightly resolution marine climate record from 1353-2006 was constructed for shallow inshore waters and compared to changes in marine zooplankton abundance. For the first time summer marine temperatures are shown to have increased nearly twice as much as winter temperatures since 1353. Additional climatic instability began in 1700 characterized by ∼5-65 year climate oscillations that appear to be a recent phenomenon. Enhanced summer-specific warming reduced the abundance of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, a key food item of cod, and led to significantly lower projected abundances by 2040 than at present. The faster increase of summer marine temperatures has implications for climate projections and affects abundance, and thus biomass, near the base of the marine food web with potentially significant feedback effects for marine food security.

  16. Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea: molecular and ecological links.

    PubMed

    Zuo, S; Kania, P W; Mehrdana, F; Marana, M H; Buchmann, K

    2018-01-01

    Populations of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), sprats (Sprattus sprattus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea are relatively stationary. The present work, applying classical and molecular helminthological techniques, documents that seals and cod also share a common parasite, the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum, which uses seals as the final host and fish as transport hosts. Sequencing mitochondrial genes (COX1 and COX2) in adult worms from seals and third-stage larvae from livers of Baltic fish (sprats and cod), showed that all gene variants occur in both seals and fish. Other anisakid nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens and Anisakis simplex are also found in both seals and cod in the Baltic Sea, but at much lower rates. The Baltic grey seal population was left at a critically low level (comprising a few hundred individuals) during the latter part of the 20th century, but since the year 2000 a marked increase in the population has been observed, reaching more than 40,000 individuals at present. Ecological consequences of the increased seal abundance may result from increased predation on fish stocks, but recent evidence also points to the influence of elevated parasitism on fish performance. Contracaecum osculatum larvae preferentially infect the liver of Baltic cod, considered a vital organ of the host. Whereas low prevalences and intensities in cod were reported during the 1980s and 1990s, the present study documents 100% prevalence and a mean intensity of above 80 worms per fish. Recent studies have also indicated the zoonotic potential of C. osculatum larvae in fish, following the consumption of raw or under-cooked fish. Therefore the present work discusses the impact of parasitism on the cod stock and the increasing risk for consumer health, and lists possible solutions for control.

  17. Effect of in vitro and in vivo organotin exposures on the immune functions of murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii).

    PubMed

    Harford, Andrew J; O'Halloran, Kathryn; Wright, Paul E A

    2007-08-01

    Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) is an iconic native Australian freshwater fish and an ideal species for ecotoxicological testing of environmental pollutants. The species is indigenous to the Murray-Darling basin, which is the largest river system in Australia but also the ultimate sink for many environmental pollutants. The organotins tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) are common pollutants of both freshwater and marine environments and are also known for their immunotoxicity in both mammals and aquatic organisms. In this study, TBT and DBT were used as exemplar immunotoxins to assess the efficiency of immune function assays (i.e., mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferation, phagocytosis in head kidney tissue, and serum lysozyme activity) and to compare the sensitivity of Murray cod to other fish species. The organotins were lethal to Murray cod at concentrations previously reported as sublethal in rainbow trout (i.e., intraperitoneal [i.p.] lethal dose to 75% of the Murray cod [LD75] = 2.5 mg/kg DBT and i.p. lethal dose to 100% of the Murray cod [LD100] = 12.5 mg/kg TBT and DBT). In vivo TBT exposure at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg stimulated the phagocytic function of Murray cod (F = 6.89, df = 18, p = 0.004), while the highest concentration of 2.5 mg/kg TBT decreased lymphocyte numbers (F = 7.92, df = 18, p = 0.02) and mitogenesis (F = 3.66, df = 18, p = 0.035). Dibutyltin was the more potent immunosuppressant in Murray cod, causing significant reductions in phagocytic activity (F = 5.34, df = 16, p = 0.013) and lymphocyte numbers (F = 10.63, df = 16, p = 0.001).

  18. Extrusion of Contracaecum osculatum nematode larvae from the liver of cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Zuo, S; Barlaup, L; Mohammadkarami, A; Al-Jubury, A; Chen, D; Kania, P W; Buchmann, K

    2017-10-01

    Baltic cod livers have during recent years been found increasingly and heavily infected with third-stage larvae of Contracaecum osculatum. The infections are associated with an increasing population of grey seals which are final hosts for the parasite. Heavy worm burdens challenge utilization and safety of the fish liver products, and technological solutions for removal of worms are highly needed. We investigated the attachment of the worm larvae in liver tissue by use of histochemical techniques and found that the cod host encapsulates the worm larvae in layers of host cells (macrophages, fibroblasts) supported by enclosures of collagen and calcium. A series of incubation techniques, applying compounds targeting molecules in the capsule, were then tested for their effect to induce worm escape/release reactions. Full digestion solutions comprising pepsin, NaCl, HCl and water induced a fast escape of more than 60% of the worm larvae within 20 min and gave full release within 65 min but the liver tissue became highly dispersed. HCl alone, in concentrations of 48 and 72 mM, triggered a corresponding release of worm larvae with minor effect on liver integrity. A lower HCl concentration of 24 mM resulted in 80% release within 35 min. Water and physiological saline had no effect on worm release, and 1% pepsin in water elicited merely a weak escape reaction. In addition to the direct effect of acid on worm behaviour it is hypothesised that the acid effect on calcium carbonate in the encapsulation, with subsequent release of reaction products, may contribute to activation of C. osculatum larvae and induce escape reactions. Short-term pretreatment of infected cod liver and possibly other infected fish products, using low acid concentrations is suggested as part of a technological solution for worm clearance as low acid concentrations had limited macroscopic effect on liver integrity within 35 min.

  19. Anodic oxidation of coke oven wastewater: Multiparameter optimization for simultaneous removal of cyanide, COD and phenol.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan Pillai, Indu M; Gupta, Ashok K

    2016-07-01

    Anodic oxidation of industrial wastewater from a coke oven plant having cyanide including thiocyanate (280 mg L(-1)), chemical oxygen demand (COD - 1520 mg L(-1)) and phenol (900 mg L(-1)) was carried out using a novel PbO2 anode. From univariate optimization study, low NaCl concentration, acidic pH, high current density and temperature were found beneficial for the oxidation. Multivariate optimization was performed with cyanide including thiocyanate, COD and phenol removal efficiencies as a function of changes in initial pH, NaCl concentration and current density using Box-Behnken experimental design. Optimization was performed for maximizing the removal efficiencies of these three parameters simultaneously. The optimum condition was obtained as initial pH 3.95, NaCl as 1 g L(-1) and current density of 6.7 mA cm(-2), for which the predicted removal efficiencies were 99.6%, 86.7% and 99.7% for cyanide including thiocyanate, COD and phenol respectively. It was in agreement with the values obtained experimentally as 99.1%, 85.2% and 99.7% respectively for these parameters. The optimum conditions with initial pH constrained to a range of 6-8 was initial pH 6, NaCl as 1.31 g L(-1) and current density as 6.7 mA cm(-2). The predicted removal efficiencies were 99%, 86.7% and 99.6% for the three parameters. The efficiencies obtained experimentally were in agreement at 99%, 87.8% and 99.6% respectively. The cost of operation for degradation at optimum conditions was calculated as 21.4 USD m(-3). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrochemical oxidation of COD from real textile wastewaters: Kinetic study and energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jiaxiu; Peng, Xiaolan; Li, Miao; Xiong, Ying; Wang, Bing; Dong, Faqin; Wang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the electrochemical oxidation of real wastewaters discharged by textile industry was carried out using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The effect of operational variables, such as applied current density (20-100 mA·cm -2 ), NaCl concentration added to the real wastewaters (0-3 g·L -1 ), and pH value (2.0-10.0), on the kinetics of COD oxidation and on the energy consumption was carefully investigated. The obtained experimental results could be well matched with a proposed kinetic model, in which the indirect oxidation mediated by electrogenerated strong oxidants would be described through a pseudo-first-order kinetic constant k. Values of k exhibited a linear increase with increasing applied current density and decreasing pH value, and an exponential increase with NaCl concentration. Furthermore, high oxidation kinetics resulted in low specific energy consumption, but this conclusion was not suitable to the results obtained under different applied current density. Under the optimum operational conditions, it only took 3 h to complete remove the COD in the real textile wastewaters and the specific energy consumption could be as low as 11.12 kWh·kg -1  COD. The obtained results, low energy consumption and short electrolysis time, allowed to conclude that the electrochemical oxidation based on BDD anodes would have practical industrial application for the treatment of real textile wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization study for Pb(II) and COD sequestration by consortium of sulphate-reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Anamika; Bishnoi, Narsi R.; Gupta, Asha

    2017-09-01

    In this study, initial minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Pb(II) ions was analysed to check optimum concentration of Pb(II) ions at which the growth of sulphate-reducing consortium (SRC) was found to be maximum. 80 ppm of Pb(II) ions was investigated as minimum inhibitory concentration for SRC. Influence of electron donors such as lactose, sucrose, glucose and sodium lactate was examined to investigate best carbon source for growth and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria. Sodium lactate was found to be the prime carbon source for SRC. Later optimization of various parameters was executed using Box-Behnken design model of response surface methodology to explore the effectiveness of three independent operating variables, namely, pH (5.0-9.0), temperature (32-42 °C) and time (5.0-9.0 days), on dependent variables, i.e. protein content, precipitation of Pb(II) ions, and removal of COD by SRC biomass. Maximum removal of COD and Pb(II) was observed to be 91 and 98 %, respectively, at pH 7.0 and temperature 37 °C and incubation time 7 days. According to response surface analysis and analysis of variance, the experimental data were perfectly fitted to the quadratic model, and the interactive influence of pH, temperature and time on Pb(II) and COD removal was highly significant. A high regression coefficient between the variables and response ( r 2 = 0.9974) corroborate eminent evaluation of experimental data by second-order polynomial regression model. SEM and Fourier transform infrared analysis was performed to investigate morphology of PbS precipitates, sorption mechanism and involved functional groups in metal-free and metal-loaded biomass of SRC for Pb(II) binding.

  2. Fishing cod in the Baltic Sea - Gambling with the ecosystem services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björkman, Sven; Nordlöf, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The population of cod in the Baltic sea has over the last decades decreased due to overfishing. To make the students aware of this problem and also to find a solution they are introduced to a game. The purpose of the game is to let the students know how to use renewable natural resources in these aspects; 1 Fishing cod without using it up 2 That solidarity is needed if you are sharing a resource 3 That cooperation is the key to keeping a natural resource healthy. The students are fishermen in group of four and are equipped with a boat. The playing board is a map over the Baltic sea. The rules of the game include the carrying capacity of the sea, how much fish one fishing boat is allowed to pick up, how much it costs to have a boat, and possibilities to buy a bigger boat. The game has two rounds: In round one the students in the group are competing against each other, they are not allowed to talk to each other and they are supposed to get as much fish as they can. As a consequence after round one the sea will become empty. In round two the groups compete with each other and they are coworking within the group. After this round the result is different from the first round. The catches are bigger than in round one and still there are cod left in the sea, which will generate a good fishing in the future.. The discussions after the game can be about why the two rounds ended so different, general discussion about "tragedy of the commons", sustainable use of ecosystem services and discussions about resources in common.

  3. [Experimental research of turbidity influence on water quality monitoring of COD in UV-visible spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Wei, Biao; Wu, De-Cao; Mi, De-Ling; Zhao, Jing-Xiao; Feng, Peng; Jiang, Shang-Hai; Mao, Ben-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Eliminating turbidity is a direct effect spectroscopy detection of COD key technical problems. This stems from the UV-visible spectroscopy detected key quality parameters depend on an accurate and effective analysis of water quality parameters analytical model, and turbidity is an important parameter that affects the modeling. In this paper, we selected formazine turbidity solution and standard solution of potassium hydrogen phthalate to study the turbidity affect of UV--visible absorption spectroscopy detection of COD, at the characteristics wavelength of 245, 300, 360 and 560 nm wavelength point several characteristics with the turbidity change in absorbance method of least squares curve fitting, thus analyzes the variation of absorbance with turbidity. The results show, In the ultraviolet range of 240 to 380 nm, as the turbidity caused by particle produces compounds to the organics, it is relatively complicated to test the turbidity affections on the water Ultraviolet spectra; in the visible region of 380 to 780 nm, the turbidity of the spectrum weakens with wavelength increases. Based on this, this paper we study the multiplicative scatter correction method affected by the turbidity of the water sample spectra calibration test, this method can correct water samples spectral affected by turbidity. After treatment, by comparing the spectra before, the results showed that the turbidity caused by wavelength baseline shift points have been effectively corrected, and features in the ultraviolet region has not diminished. Then we make multiplicative scatter correction for the three selected UV liquid-visible absorption spectroscopy, experimental results shows that on the premise of saving the characteristic of the Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectrum of water samples, which not only improve the quality of COD spectroscopy detection SNR, but also for providing an efficient data conditioning regimen for establishing an accurate of the chemical measurement methods.

  4. Shelf-life extension of cod fillets with an acetate buffer spray prior to packaging under modified atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Boskou, G; Debevere, J

    2000-01-01

    Fresh cod fillets (Gadus morhua) were sprayed with a 10% acetate buffer (pH 5.6), packed with an industrial gas-flushing packaging machine under modified atmospheres (50% CO2--45% O2--5% N2, 2 cm3/1 g gas/product ratio) and stored at 7 degrees C for 12 days. Control cod fillets were directly packed and stored under the same conditions. A reduction of the aerobic plate counts was observed immediately after the cod fillets had been sprayed. During storage under modified atmospheres, there was complete inhibition of H2S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae in the treated cod fillets. Production of total volatile bases and trimethylamine (TMA) was inhibited in treated fillets for 10 days' storage under modified atmospheres. Inhibition of TMA production can be attributed to growth inhibition of H2S-producing bacteria, inhibition of the trimethylamine oxide (TMAO)-dependent metabolism of TMAO-reducing bacteria and the stable pH during storage. The shelf-life, at 7 degrees C, of treated cod fillets, based on cooked flavour score, was almost 12 days, ca 8 days more than shelf-life of the control fillets.

  5. The impact of CodY on virulence determinant production in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Frances E; Miller, Halie K; Kolar, Stacey L; Stevens, Stanley M; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading human pathogen of both hospital and community-associated diseases worldwide. This organism causes a wealth of infections within the human host as a result of the vast arsenal of toxins encoded within its genome. Previous transcriptomic studies have shown that toxin production in S. aureus can be strongly impacted by the negative regulator CodY. CodY acts by directly, and indirectly (via Agr), repressing toxin production during times of plentiful nutrition. In this study, we use iTRAQ-based proteomics for the first time to study virulence determinant production in S. aureus, so as to correlate transcriptional observations with actual changes in protein synthesis. Using a codY mutant in the epidemic CA-MRSA clone USA300 we demonstrate that deletion of this transcription factor results in a major upregulation of toxin synthesis in both post-exponential and stationary growth. Specifically, we observe hyper-production of secreted proteases, leukocidins and hemolysins in both growth phases in the USA300 codY mutant. Our findings demonstrate the power of mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics for studying toxin production in S. aureus, and the importance of CodY to this central process in disease causation and infection. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effect of sludge retention time on continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules at different COD loading was investigated during the operation of more than 220days. And the results showed that when the system operated at long SRT (30days) and low COD loading (200mg·L(-1)), it could maintain excellent performance. However, long SRT and high COD loading (300mg·L(-1)) deteriorated the settling ability of granules and the performance of system and resulted in the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria. Meanwhile, the transformation of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process was inhibited. Moreover, the results of pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading and long SRT. The PAOs specious of Candidatus_Accumlibater and system performance increased obviously when the SRT was reduced to 20days at high COD loading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation, photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Sajjad; Aminzadeh, Behnoush; Torabian, Ali; Khatibikamal, Vahid; Alizadeh Fard, Mohammad

    2012-06-15

    This work makes a comparison between electrocoagulation (EC), photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes to investigate the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from pharmaceutical wastewater. The effects of operational parameters such as initial pH, current density, applied voltage, amount of hydrogen peroxide and electrolysis time on COD removal efficiency were investigated and the optimum operating range for each of these operating variables was experimentally determined. In electrocoagulation process, the optimum values of pH and voltage were determined to be 7 and 40 V, respectively. Desired pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration in the Fenton-based processes were found to be 3 and 300 mg/L, respectively. The amounts of COD, pH, electrical conductivity, temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS) were on-line monitored. Results indicated that under the optimum operating range for each process, the COD removal efficiency was in order of peroxi-electrocoagulation > peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation > photoelectrocoagulation>electrocoagulation. Finally, a kinetic study was carried out using the linear pseudo-second-order model and results showed that the pseudo-second-order equation provided the best correlation for the COD removal rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecosystem Effects of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multidecadal variability in the Atlantic Ocean and its importance to the Earth’s climate system has been the subject of study in the physical oceanography field for decades. Only recently, however, has the importance of this variability, termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillati...

  9. The Red Atlantic: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Jace

    2011-01-01

    The development of David Armitage's "white Atlantic" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black Atlantic" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads…

  10. Origin of the northern Atlantic`s Heinrich events

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.; Bond, G.; Klas, M.

    1992-01-01

    As first noted by Heinrich, 1988, glacial age sediments in the eastern part of the northern Atlantic contain layers with unusually high ratios of ice-rafted lithic fragments of foraminifera shells. He estimated that these layers are spaced at intervals of roughly 10000 years. In this paper we present detailed information documenting the existence of the upper five of these layers in ODP core 609 from 50{degrees}N and 24{degrees}W. Their ages are respectively 15000 radiocarbon years, 20000 radiocarbon years, 27000 radiocarbon years, about 40000 years, and about 50000 years. We also note that the high lithic fragment to foram ratio ismore » the result of a near absence of shells in these layers. Although we are not of one mind regarding the origin of these layers, we lean toward an explanation that the Heinrich layers are debris released during the melting of massive influxes of icebergs into the northern Atlantic. These sudden inputs may be the result of surges along the eastern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  11. [Assessment of production of eggs of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) on the basis of long-term ichthyoplankton data].

    PubMed

    Karaseva, E M

    2011-01-01

    Proceeding from long-term data on the numbers of eggs of cod in ichthyoplankton, the total annual production of cod eggs at four main spawning grounds of the Baltic Sea was calculated. It was shown that the long-term fluctuations of cod egg production were positively related to the dynamics of the volume of waters coming to the Baltic Sea in years of the North Sea advections. It is suggested that this dependence was determined by a set of adaptations providing the extension of cod reproduction upon the improvement of the environment.

  12. Viscoelastic and Functional Properties of Cod-Bone Gelatin in the Presence of Xylitol and Stevioside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nian, Linyu; Cao, Ailing; Wang, Jing; Tian, Hongyu; Liu, Yongguo; Gong, Lingxiao; Cai, Luyun; Wang, Yuhao

    2018-05-01

    The physical, rheological, structural and functional properties of cod bone gelatin (CBG) with various concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 and 15%) of low-calorie sweeteners (xylitol (X) and stevioside (S)) to form gels were investigated. The gel strength of CBGX increased with increased xylitol due presumably to hydrogen bonds between xylitol and gelatin, but with CBGS the highest gel strength occurred when S concentration was 4%. Viscosity of CBGS samples were higher than CBGX due to S’s high molecular mass. The viscoelasticity (G' and G″), foaming capacity and fat binding capacity of CBGX were higher while foam stability was lower. The emulsion activity and emulsion stability of CBGX were a little lower than CBGS at the same concentration. The structure of X is linear making it easier to form a dense three-dimensional network structure, while the complex cyclic structure of S had more difficulty forming a network structure with cod bone gelatin. Therefore, X may be a better choice for sweetening gelatin gels.

  13. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. PMID:27258290

  14. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    PubMed

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  15. Assessing dry weather flow contribution in TSS and COD storm events loads in combined sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Métadier, M; Bertrand-Krajewski, J L

    2011-01-01

    Continuous high resolution long term turbidity measurements along with continuous discharge measurements are now recognised as an appropriate technique for the estimation of in sewer total suspended solids (TSS) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loads during storm events. In the combined system of the Ecully urban catchment (Lyon, France), this technique is implemented since 2003, with more than 200 storm events monitored. This paper presents a method for the estimation of the dry weather (DW) contribution to measured total TSS and COD event loads with special attention devoted to uncertainties assessment. The method accounts for the dynamics of both discharge and turbidity time series at two minutes time step. The study is based on 180 DW days monitored in 2007-2008. Three distinct classes of DW days were evidenced. Variability analysis and quantification showed that no seasonal effect and no trend over the year were detectable. The law of propagation of uncertainties is applicable for uncertainties estimation. The method has then been applied to all measured storm events. This study confirms the interest of long term continuous discharge and turbidity time series in sewer systems, especially in the perspective of wet weather quality modelling.

  16. Geographical trends of PFAS in cod livers along the Norwegian coast

    PubMed Central

    Valdersnes, Stig; Nilsen, Bente M.; Breivik, Joar F.; Borge, Asbjørn; Maage, Amund

    2017-01-01

    The level of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) was determined in North East Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) liver samples from 15 Norwegian fjords and harbors. Five harbors in the eastern part of Norway, six harbors in the western part and four harbours in the northern part. A total of 200 samples were analyzed for 16 PFAS. Determination of PFAS were carried out by LC-MS/MS following sample clean up by solid phase extraction and ultracentrifugation. The predominating PFAS was PFOS, which was found to be higher than the level of quantification (1.5 μg kg-1 wet weight) in 72% of the samples. The highest level of PFOS found was 21.8 μg kg-1 wet weight in a sample from Kragerø in the eastern part of Norway. A significantly higher level of PFOS was found in the eastern fjords and harbors compared to fjords and harbors in the western and northern part of Norway. Within the northern fjords and harbors elevated PFOS levels were found in Narvik, which may indicate a local source there. Variations in PFOS of the cod livers thus reflect differences in levels of pollution between the areas. PMID:28531177

  17. Geographical trends of PFAS in cod livers along the Norwegian coast.

    PubMed

    Valdersnes, Stig; Nilsen, Bente M; Breivik, Joar F; Borge, Asbjørn; Maage, Amund

    2017-01-01

    The level of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) was determined in North East Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) liver samples from 15 Norwegian fjords and harbors. Five harbors in the eastern part of Norway, six harbors in the western part and four harbours in the northern part. A total of 200 samples were analyzed for 16 PFAS. Determination of PFAS were carried out by LC-MS/MS following sample clean up by solid phase extraction and ultracentrifugation. The predominating PFAS was PFOS, which was found to be higher than the level of quantification (1.5 μg kg-1 wet weight) in 72% of the samples. The highest level of PFOS found was 21.8 μg kg-1 wet weight in a sample from Kragerø in the eastern part of Norway. A significantly higher level of PFOS was found in the eastern fjords and harbors compared to fjords and harbors in the western and northern part of Norway. Within the northern fjords and harbors elevated PFOS levels were found in Narvik, which may indicate a local source there. Variations in PFOS of the cod livers thus reflect differences in levels of pollution between the areas.

  18. Free-living spirochetes from Cape Cod microbial mats detected by electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teal, T. H.; Chapman, M.; Guillemette, T.; Margulis, L.

    1996-01-01

    Spirochetes from microbial mats and anaerobic mud samples collected in salt marshes were studied by light microscopy, whole mount and thin section transmission electron microscopy. Enriched in cellobiose-rifampin medium, selective for Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, seven distinguishable spirochete morphotypes were observed. Their diameters ranged from 0.17 micron to > 0.45 micron. Six of these morphotypes came from southwest Cape Cod, Massachusetts: five from Microcoleus-dominated mat samples collected at Sippewissett salt marsh and one from anoxic mud collected at School Street salt marsh (on the east side of Eel Pond). The seventh morphotype was enriched from anoxic mud sampled from the north central Cape Cod, at the Sandy Neck salt marsh. Five of these morphotypes are similar or identical to previously described spirochetes (Leptospira, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi and Treponema), whereas the other two have unique features that suggest they have not been previously described. One of the morphotypes resembles Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi (the largest free-living spirochete described), in its large variable diameter (0.4-3.0 microns), cytoplasmic granules, and spherical (round) bodies with composite structure. This resemblance permits its tentative identification as a Sippewissett strain of Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi. Microbial mats samples collected in sterile Petri dishes and stored dry for more than four years yielded many organisms upon rewetting, including small unidentified spirochetes in at least 4 out of 100 enrichments.

  19. Textile wastewater treatment: colour and COD removal of reactive black-5 by ozonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryawan, I. W. K.; Helmy, Q.; Notodarmojo, S.

    2018-01-01

    Textile industries produced a large amount of highly coloured wastewater containing variety of dyes in different concentrations. Due to the high concentration of organics in the effluents and the higher stability of modern synthetic dyes, the conventional biological treatment methods are ineffective for the complete colour removal and degradation of organics and dyes. On the other hand, physical-chemical treatment are not destructive, mainly just concentrate and separate the pollutants phases. This research paper investigates the removal of colour and chemical oxygen demand/COD from textile wastewater using ozone treatment. Varied ozone dosages of 1.16; 3.81; 18.79; and 40.88 mg/minute were used in the experiment. Varied wastewater containing Reactive Black 5 (RB-5) concentrations of 40 mg/L, 100 mg/L were also applied. Research result showed the highest colour removal efficiency of 96.9 % was achieved after 5 hours incubation time, while the highest COD removal efficiency of 77.5% was achieved after 2 hours incubation time.

  20. Use of COD, TOC, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy to Estimate BOD in Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Christian, Evelyn; Batista, Jacimaria R; Gerrity, Daniel

    2017-02-01

      Common to all National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits in the United States is a limit on biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and fluorescence spectroscopy are also capable of quantifying organic content, although the mechanisms of quantification and the organic fractions targeted differ for each test. This study explores correlations between BOD5 and these alternate test procedures using facility influent, primary effluent, and facility effluent samples from a full-scale water resource recovery facility. Relative reductions of the water quality parameters proved to be strong indicators of their suitability as surrogates for BOD5. Suitable correlations were generally limited to the combined datasets for the three sampling locations or the facility effluent alone. COD exhibited relatively strong linear correlations with BOD5 when considering the three sample points (r = 0.985) and the facility effluent alone (r = 0.914), while TOC exhibited a suitable linear correlation with BOD5 in the facility effluent (r = 0.902). Exponential regressions proved to be useful for estimating BOD5 based on TOC or fluorescence (r > 0.95).

  1. Changing Regulations of COD Pollution Load of Weihe River Watershed above TongGuan Section, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lei; Liu, WanQing

    2018-02-01

    TongGuan Section of Weihe River Watershed is a provincial section between Shaanxi Province and Henan Province, China. Weihe River Watershed above TongGuan Section is taken as the research objective in this paper and COD is chosen as the water quality parameter. According to the discharge characteristics of point source pollutions and non-point source pollutions, a method—characteristic section load (CSLD) method is suggested and point and non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above TongGuan Section are calculated in the rainy, normal and dry season in 2013. The results show that the monthly point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above TongGuan Section discharge stably and the monthly non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above TongGuan Section change greatly and the non-point source pollution load proportions of total pollution load of COD decrease in the rainy, wet and normal period in turn.

  2. Viscoelastic and Functional Properties of Cod-Bone Gelatin in the Presence of Xylitol and Stevioside.

    PubMed

    Nian, Linyu; Cao, Ailing; Wang, Jing; Tian, Hongyu; Liu, Yongguo; Gong, Lingxiao; Cai, Luyun; Wang, Yuhao

    2018-01-01

    The physical, rheological, structural and functional properties of cod bone gelatin (CBG) with various concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 15%) of low-calorie sweeteners [xylitol (X) and stevioside (S)] to form gels were investigated. The gel strength of CBGX increased with increased xylitol due presumably to hydrogen bonds between xylitol and gelatin, but with CBGS the highest gel strength occurred when S concentration was 4%. Viscosity of CBGS samples were higher than CBGX due to S's high molecular mass. The viscoelasticity (G' and G''), foaming capacity and fat binding capacity of CBGX were higher while foam stability was lower. The emulsion activity and emulsion stability of CBGX were a little lower than CBGS at the same concentration. The structure of X is linear making it easier to form a dense three-dimensional network structure, while the complex cyclic structure of S had more difficulty forming a network structure with cod bone gelatin. Therefore, X may be a better choice for sweetening gelatin gels.

  3. Seasonal acclimatization of the cardiac action potential in the Arctic navaga cod (Eleginus navaga, Gadidae).

    PubMed

    Hassinen, Minna; Abramochkin, Denis V; Vornanen, Matti

    2014-04-01

    Freshwater fishes of north-temperate latitudes adjust electrical excitability of the heart to seasonal temperature changes by changing expression levels of ion channel isoforms. However, little is known about thermal responses of action potential (AP) in the hearts of marine polar fishes. To this end, we examined cardiac AP in the atrial myocardium of the Arctic navaga cod (Eleginus navaga) from the White Sea (Russia) acclimatized to winter (March) and summer (September) seasons. Acute increases in temperature from 4 to 10 °C were associated with increases in heart rate, maximum velocity of AP upstroke and negative resting membrane potential, while duration of AP was shortened in both winter-acclimatized and summer-acclimatized navaga hearts. In winter, there was a compensatory shortening (41.1%) of atrial AP duration and this was associated with a strong increase in transcript expression of Erg K(+) channels, known to produce the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K(+) current, I(Kr). Smaller increases were found in the expression of Kir2.1 channels that produce the inward rectifier K(+) current, I(K1). These findings indicate that the heart of navaga cod has a good acclimatory capacity in electrical excitation of cardiac myocytes, which enables cardiac function in the cold-eurythermal waters of the subarctic White Sea.

  4. Climate change and fishing: a century of shifting distribution in North Sea cod

    PubMed Central

    Engelhard, Georg H; Righton, David A; Pinnegar, John K

    2014-01-01

    Globally, spatial distributions of fish stocks are shifting but although the role of climate change in range shifts is increasingly appreciated, little remains known of the likely additional impact that high levels of fishing pressure might have on distribution. For North Sea cod, we show for the first time and in great spatial detail how the stock has shifted its distribution over the past 100 years. We digitized extensive historical fisheries data from paper charts in UK government archives and combined these with contemporary data to a time-series spanning 1913–2012 (excluding both World Wars). New analysis of old data revealed that the current distribution pattern of cod – mostly in the deeper, northern- and north-easternmost parts of the North Sea – is almost opposite to that during most of the Twentieth Century – mainly concentrated in the west, off England and Scotland. Statistical analysis revealed that the deepening, northward shift is likely attributable to warming; however, the eastward shift is best explained by fishing pressure, suggestive of significant depletion of the stock from its previous stronghold, off the coasts of England and Scotland. These spatial patterns were confirmed for the most recent 3½ decades by data from fisheries-independent surveys, which go back to the 1970s. Our results demonstrate the fundamental importance of both climate change and fishing pressure for our understanding of changing distributions of commercially exploited fish. PMID:24375860

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Juvenile Atlantic Croaker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, Robert J.; Onuf, Christopher P.

    1982-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Atlantic croaker is an important commercial and recreational species. In the 1940's, the foodfish catch of Atlantic croakers was concentrated in Chesapeake Bay; in the 1950's and early 1970's, the catch was concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico; and in the late 1970's, the catch was concentrated in the South Atlantic States (Wilk 1981). Industrial and recreational catches of Atlantic croakers have been concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico, where the Atlantic croaker is the most important species of bottomfish for industrial uses (Knudsen and Herke 1978), and has ranked first, second, or third in number caught by recreational anglers, depending on survey year (Nakamura 1981). Today, Virginia or Delaware is considered to be the northern extent of the species. During climatically warmer periods, such as the 1930's and 1940's, the croaker extended its range north at least to New York, where it was commercially fished. The southern extent of its range is Argentina.

  6. The atlantic salmon: Genetics, conservation and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verspoor, Eric; Stradmeyer, Lee; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Atlantic Salmon is a cultural icon throughout its North Atlantic range; it is the focus of probably the World’s highest profile recreational fishery and is the basis for one of the World’s largest aquaculture industries. Despite this, many wild stocks of salmon are in decline and underpinning this is a dearth of information on the nature and extent of population structuring and adaptive population differentiation, and its implications for species conservation.This important new book will go a long way to rectify this situation by providing a thorough review of the genetics of Atlantic salmon. Sponsored by the European Union and the Atlantic Salmon Trust, this book comprises the work of an international team of scientists, carefully integrated and edited to provide a landmark book of vital interest to all those working with Atlantic salmon.

  7. The Distribution of Dissolved Barium from US GEOTRACES cruises in the North Atlantic and Eastern Tropical South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiller, A. M.; Grissom, K.

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the oceanic geochemistry of barium (Ba) stems from a variety of reasons including its use as a paleo-productivity indicator, its chemical similarity to Ra, and its utility as a water source tracer. To better constrain these uses of Ba, we have obtained trace element clean samples from both the North Atlantic and Eastern Pacific US GEOTRACES cruises. Analytical work on the Pacific samples is proceeding while work on the Atlantic samples is complete. For the Pacific, 36 stations were occupied from Peru to Tahiti. For the Atlantic, dissolved Ba was determined at 32 stations across the North Atlantic during US cruises GT10 and GT11 along the meridional transect from Lisbon to the Cape Verde Islands and the zonal transect from Cape Cod to the Mauritanian coast. In the Atlantic, the general distribution of dissolved Ba exhibits a vertical bifurcation at approximately 500 m into shallow versus deep water. The greatest variation is found on the eastern side of the basin with concentrations ranging from 35 nmol/kg at the near surface (100 m) to over 83 nmol/kg at depth. A reduction of Ba in excess of 20% compared to the average of mesopelagic depths less than 500 m is observed within the Canary Current upwelling zone east of the Cape Verde Islands and accompanied to some extent by a subsequent regeneration at depth. Below 500 m, dissolved Ba correlates well with dissolved Si, whereas the correlation with alkalinity is poor at depth and shows a decoupling above 500 m. There is evidence of hydrothermal Ba input at the TAG vent system of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge along transect GT11 as indicated by the rapid increase in the dissolved Ba below 2500 m in conjunction with increases in Fe and Mn. In addition to the hydrothermal source, a near surface (~40 m) maximum of 51 nmol/kg is found along the continental slope of North America in correspondence with a minimum surface salinity (34.75) and increased dissolved manganese indicating either fluvial or sediment input

  8. Effect of cod liver oil supplementation on the stearoyl-CoA desaturase index in obese children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yukihiko; Okada, Tomoo; Abe, Yuriko; Kazama, Minako; Saito, Emiko; Kuromori, Yuki; Iwata, Fujihiko; Hara, Mitsuhiko; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Yohei; Shimizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity, we treated 10 obese children (mean age: 12.9 years) with cod liver oil once daily for 12 weeks. The effects of cod liver oil supplementation on SCD activity, as estimated by the palmitoleate/palmitate ratio, depended on the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents at baseline. Baseline DHA contents were negatively correlated with baseline SCD activity. After the treatment, baseline DHA contents were found to be significantly associated with the reduction of SCD activity. Cod liver oil supplementation may be a complementary treatment for obese children with low baseline contents of DHA. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ammoniacal nitrogen and COD removal from semi-aerobic landfill leachate using a composite adsorbent: fixed bed column adsorption performance.

    PubMed

    Halim, Azhar Abdul; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Johari, Megat Azmi Megat; Ariffin, Kamar Shah; Adlan, Mohd Nordin

    2010-03-15

    The performance of a carbon-mineral composite adsorbent used in a fixed bed column for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and aggregate organic pollutant (COD), which are commonly found in landfill leachate, was evaluated. The breakthrough capacities for ammoniacal nitrogen and COD adsorption were 4.46 and 3.23 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, the optimum empty bed contact time (EBCT) was 75 min. The column efficiency for ammoniacal nitrogen and COD adsorption using fresh adsorbent was 86.4% and 92.6%, respectively, and these values increased to 90.0% and 93.7%, respectively, after the regeneration process. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Atlantic hurricane response to geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran

    2015-04-01

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.

  11. Influence of COD/sulfate ratios on the integrated reactor system for simultaneous removal of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Chen, Chuan; Zhao, Youkang; Wang, Aijie; Sun, Dezhi; Huang, Cong; Liang, Bin; Tan, Wenbo; Xu, Xijun; Zhou, Xu; Lee, Duu-Jung; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-01-01

    An integrated reactor system was developed for the simultaneous removal of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen from sulfate-laden wastewater and for elemental sulfur (S°) reclamation. The system mainly consisted of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) for sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal (SR-CR), an EGSB for denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR), a biological aerated filter for nitrification and a sedimentation tank for sulfur reclamation. This work investigated the influence of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/sulfate ratios on the performance of the system. Influent sulfate and ammonium were fixed to the level of 600 mg SO(4)(2-) L⁻¹ and 120 mg NH(4)(+) L⁻¹, respectively. Lactate was introduced to generate COD/SO(4)(2-) = 0.5:1, 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, 3:1, 3.5:1 and 4:1. The experimental results indicated that sulfate could be efficiently reduced in the SR-CR unit when the COD/SO(4)(2-) ratio was between 1:1 and 3:1, and sulfate reduction was inhibited by the growth of methanogenic bacteria when the COD/SO(4)(2-) ratio was between 3.5:1 and 4:1. Meanwhile, the Org-C/S²⁻/NO(3)(-) ratios affected the S(0) reclamation efficiency in the DSR unit. When the influent COD/SO(4)(2-) ratio was between 1:1 and 3:1, appropriate Org-C/S²⁻/NO(3)(-) ratios could be achieved to obtain a maximum S° recovery in the DSR unit. For the microbial community of the SR-CR unit at different COD/SO(4)(2-) ratios, 16S rRNA gene-based high throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to analyze the diversity and potential function of the dominant species.

  12. Evaluation of feed COD/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Antonio; Ramírez, Martha; Volke-Sepúlveda, Tania; González-Sánchez, Armando; Revah, Sergio

    2008-03-01

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio. This work relates the feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio with the hydrogen sulfide production and dissolved lead precipitation, using ethanol as carbon and energy source in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. A maximum dissolved sulfide concentration of 470+/-7 mg S/L was obtained at a feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 2.5, with sulfate and ethanol conversions of approximately 94 and 87%, respectively. The lowest dissolved sulfide concentration (145+/-10 mg S/L) was observed with a feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 0.67. Substantial amounts of acetate (510-1730 mg/L) were produced and accumulated in the bioreactor from ethanol oxidation. Although only incomplete oxidation of ethanol to acetate was observed, the consortium was able to remove 99% of the dissolved lead (200 mg/L) with a feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 1.5. It was found that the feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio could be an adequate parameter to control the hydrogen sulfide production and the consequent precipitation of dissolved lead.

  13. Dual Annual Spawning Races in Atlantic Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Balazik, Matthew T.; Musick, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631

  14. Effects of gill-net fishing on marine birds in a biological hotspot in the northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Davoren, Gail K

    2007-08-01

    Marine biological hotspots, or areas where high abundances of species overlap in space and time, are ecologically important areas because energy flow through marine food webs, a key ecosystem process, is maximized in these areas. I investigated whether top predators aggregated at persistent spawning sites of a key forage fish species, capelin (Mallotus villosus), on the NE coast of Newfoundland during July and August 2000-2003. By examining the distributional patterns of top predators through ship-based surveys at multiple spatial and temporal scales, I found that the biomasses of birds-dominated by Common Murres (Uria aalge)-and mammals-dominated by whale species-were concentrated along the coast, with a biological hotspot forming near two persistent spawning sites of capelin in all years. The formation of this hotspot was well defined in space and time from middle of July to middle of August, likely coinciding with the spawning chronology of capelin. Within this hotspot, there was a high spatial and temporal overlap of Common Murres and gill nets set to capture Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). This resulted in breeding murres becoming entangled in gill nets while feeding on spawning capelin. Despite an acknowledged uncertainty of bycatch mortality, estimates for the larger regional-scale area (1936-4973 murres/year; 0.2-0.6% of the breeding population) underestimated mortality relative to estimates within the hotspot (3053-14054 murres/year; 0.4-1.7%). Although fishing effort for Atlantic cod has declined substantially since the groundfish moratorium in 1992, chronic, unnatural, and additive mortality through bycatch continues in coastal Newfoundland. Restricted use of gill nets within this and other biological hotspots during the capelin spawning period appears to be a straightforward application of the "ecological and biologically significant area" management framework in Canada's Oceans Act. This protection would minimize murre bycatch and maintain ecosystem

  15. Predictability of North Atlantic Multidecadal Climate Variability

    PubMed

    Griffies; Bryan

    1997-01-10

    Atmospheric weather systems become unpredictable beyond a few weeks, but climate variations can be predictable over much longer periods because of the coupling of the ocean and atmosphere. With the use of a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model, it is shown that the North Atlantic may have climatic predictability on the order of a decade or longer. These results suggest that variations of the dominant multidecadal sea surface temperature patterns in the North Atlantic, which have been associated with changes in climate over Eurasia, can be predicted if an adequate and sustainable system for monitoring the Atlantic Ocean exists.

  16. Anisotropic tomography of the Atlantic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, G.; Stutzmann, E.

    2003-04-01

    We present a regional tri-dimensional model of the Atlantic Ocean with anisotropy. The model, derived from Rayleigh and Love phase velocity measurements, is defined from the Moho down to 300 km depth with a lateral resolution of about 500 km and is presented in terms of average isotropic S-wave velocity, azimuthal anisotropy and transverse isotropy. The cratons beneath North America, Brazil and Africa are clearly associated with fast S-wave velocity anomalies. The Mid Atlantic Ridge is a shallow structure in the North Atlantic corresponding to a negative velocity anomaly down to about 150 km depth. In contrast, the ridge negative signature is visible in the South Atlantic down to the deepest depth inverted, that is 300~km depth. This difference is probably related to the presence of hot-spots along or close to the ridge axis in the South Atlantic and may indicate a different mechanism for the ridge between the North and South Atlantic. Negative velocity anomalies are clearly associated with hot-spots from the surface down to at least 300km depth, they are much broader that the supposed size of the hot-spots and seem to be connected along a North-South direction. Down to 100 km depth, a fast S-wave velocity anomaly is extenting from Africa into the Atlantic Ocean within the zone defined as the Africa superswell area. This result indicates that the hot material rising from below does not reach the surface in this area but may be pushing the lithosphere upward. In most parts of the Atlantic, the azimuthal anisotropy directions remain stable with increasing depth. Close to the ridge, the fast S-wave velocity direction is roughly parallel to the sea floor spreading direction. The hot-spot anisotropy signature is striking beneath Bermuda, Cape Verde and Fernando Noronha islands where the fast S-wave velocity direction seems to diverge radially from the hot-spots. The Atlantic average radial anisotropy is similar to that of the PREM model, that is positive down to about

  17. Geothermal Potential of Ascension Island, South Atlantic.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-05

    7AD-A141 763 GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL OF ASCENSION ISLAND SOUTH ATLANTIC 1/1. (U) UTAH UNIV RESEARCH IN T SALT LAKE CITY EARTH U LfIS SCIENCE LAB D L...STANDARDS 1%A A ~ 7- ESMC-TR-83-02 Geothermal Potential Of Ascension Island, South Atlantic Dennis L. Nielson Bruce S. Sibbett University Of Utah...Security Classification) Geothermal Potential of Ascension Island, South Atlantic 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dennis L. Neilson and Bruce S. Sibbett IIa TYPE

  18. 77 FR 13510 - Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    .... 101126522-0640-2] RIN 0648-XB062 Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length... (CVs) less than 50 feet (15.2 meters (m)) in length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs less than 50 feet (15.2...

  19. Protists from a sewage‐contaminated aquifer on cape cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novarino, Gianfranco; Warren, Alan; Kinner, Nancy E.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    1994-01-01

    Several species of flagellates (genera Bodo, Cercomonas, Cryptaulax, Cyathomonas, Goniomonas, Spumella) have been identified in cultures from a plume of organic contamination (treated sewage effluent) within an aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Amoebae and numerous unidentifiable 2‐ to 3‐μm flagellates have also been observed. As a rule, flagellates were associated with solid surfaces, or were capable of temporary surface attachment, corroborating earlier observations from in situ and column transport experiments suggesting that protists in the Massachusetts aquifer have a high propensity for association with sediment grain surfaces. Based on the fact that cultures from the uncontaminated part of the aquifer yielded only a few species of protists, it is hypothesized that the greater abundance and variety of food sources in the contaminant plume is capable of supporting a greater number of protistan species.

  20. Catalytic wet-oxidation of a mixed liquid waste: COD and AOX abatement.

    PubMed

    Goi, D; de Leitenburg, C; Trovarelli, A; Dolcetti, G

    2004-12-01

    A series of catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) reactions, at temperatures of 430-500 K and in a batch bench-top pressure vessel were carried out utilizing a strong wastewater composed of landfill leachate and heavily organic halogen polluted industrial wastewater. A CeO2-SiO2 mixed oxide catalyst with large surface area to assure optimal oxidation performance was prepared. The catalytic process was examined during batch reactions controlling Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Adsorbable Organic Halogen (AOX) parameters, resulting AOX abatement to achieve better effect. Color and pH were also controlled during batch tests. A simple first order-two stage reaction behavior was supposed and verified with the considered parameters. Finally an OUR test was carried out to evaluate biodegradability changes of wastewater as a result of the catalytic reaction.

  1. Preventing the collapse of the Baltic cod stock through an ecosystem-based management approach

    PubMed Central

    Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Nielsen, Anders; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide a number of fish stocks have collapsed because of overfishing and climate-induced ecosystem changes. Developing ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) to prevent these catastrophic events in the future requires ecological models incorporating both internal food-web dynamics and external drivers such as fishing and climate. Using a stochastic food-web model for a large marine ecosystem (i.e., the Baltic Sea) hosting a commercially important cod stock, we were able to reconstruct the history of the stock. Moreover we demonstrate that in hindsight the collapse could only have been avoidable by adapting fishing pressure to environmental conditions and food-web interactions. The modeling approach presented here represents a significant advance for EBFM, the application of which is important for sustainable resource management in the future. PMID:19706557

  2. Transcriptomic features associated with energy production in the muscles of Pacific bluefin tuna and Pacific cod.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Mami; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Mori, Kazuki; Muta, Shigeru; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Nakamura, Yoji; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Saitoh, Kenji; Kobayashi, Takanori; Wada, Tokio; Inouye, Kiyoshi; Kuhara, Satoru; Tashiro, Kosuke

    2016-06-01

    Bluefin tuna are high-performance swimmers and top predators in the open ocean. Their swimming is grounded by unique features including an exceptional glycolytic potential in white muscle, which is supported by high enzymatic activities. Here we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) in muscles of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) and conducted a comparative transcriptomic analysis of genes related to energy production. We found that the total expression of glycolytic genes was much higher in the white muscle of tuna than in the other muscles, and that the expression of only six genes for glycolytic enzymes accounted for 83.4% of the total. These expression patterns were in good agreement with the patterns of enzyme activity previously reported. The findings suggest that the mRNA expression of glycolytic genes may contribute directly to the enzymatic activities in the muscles of tuna.

  3. Coastal landforms and processes at the Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts—A primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giese, Graham S.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Adams, Mark

    2015-12-17

    The coast of outer Cape Cod, about 15,000 years old and about 30 miles (mi; 50 kilometers [km]) long, is but a tiny piece of the global Earth system that operates within a much larger realm of space and time. Cape Cod’s coastal landforms are temporary holding patterns within a continual interplay of land, sea, atmosphere, climate, ice, and life, including a variety of human activities that both affect and are affected by these processes. These interactions produce the landforms, and the landforms alter the interactions. The resulting landforms provide habitats for a wide variety of coastal plants and animals. The habitats along with their inhabitants and the interacting environmental factors controlling them constitute the Cape’s complex and varied ecosystems. But for now, we are here to enjoy it. We welcome you to delight and wonder at the perpetually changing handshake between the ocean and shore at New England’s Great Beach.

  4. Adaptive estimation of the log fluctuating conductivity from tracer data at the Cape Cod Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deng, F.W.; Cushman, J.H.; Delleur, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    An adaptive estimation scheme is used to obtain the integral scale and variance of the log-fluctuating conductivity at the Cape Cod site based on the fast Fourier transform/stochastic model of Deng et al. (1993) and a Kalmanlike filter. The filter incorporates prior estimates of the unknown parameters with tracer moment data to adaptively obtain improved estimates as the tracer evolves. The results show that significant improvement in the prior estimates of the conductivity can lead to substantial improvement in the ability to predict plume movement. The structure of the covariance function of the log-fluctuating conductivity can be identified from the robustness of the estimation. Both the longitudinal and transverse spatial moment data are important to the estimation.

  5. Statistical Assessment of Cetacean Stranding Events in Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA) area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellar, R.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Moore, K.; Reeb, D.; Karakoylu, E.; Uritskaya, O.

    2017-12-01

    Cetacean (whales, dolphins and porpoises) mass strandings are a longstanding mystery in the field of marine biology that continue to be recorded in coastal environments around the world. For each of these events, anywhere from a few to several hundred otherwise healthy animals strand in onshore environments, often for no apparent reason. While the causes of these events remain unclear, anthropogenic and naturogenic mechanisms have been suggested. We present results of an inter-disciplinary study that draws expertise from space weather, marine mammal biology and ecology, and marine mammal stranding response. This study assessed 16 years of cetacean stranding events in the Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA) area concurrently with a large dataset of meteorological, geophysical, biological, oceanographic and space weather data to produce inferences about possible causes for these unexplained events.

  6. SDI and the Atlantic Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    Lellouche, P.

    The Atlantic Alliance was disturbed when the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was conceived and presented primarily as an American unilateral initiative, with no political or strategic consultation with the allies. It was also disturbed by the confused and contradictory objectives of SDI; i.e., its rejection of the logic of deterrence as a dangerous and unethical proposition at the same time that it reinforces the logic of mutual assured destruction (MAD). Some of the basic ambiguity is related to the technology, which remains untested. SDI's purpose is not to defend people or missiles, but to destroy weapons. The author argues thatmore » SDI threatens the survival of Europe's high tech industries and could lead to a massive transfer of NATO-related defense expenditures away from European defense and toward a defensive shield of dubious value for Europeans.« less

  7. Real-time ichthyoplankton drift in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian spring-spawning herring.

    PubMed

    Vikebø, Frode B; Ådlandsvik, Bjørn; Albretsen, Jon; Sundby, Svein; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Huse, Geir; Svendsen, Einar; Kristiansen, Trond; Eriksen, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Individual-based biophysical larval models, initialized and parameterized by observations, enable numerical investigations of various factors regulating survival of young fish until they recruit into the adult population. Exponentially decreasing numbers in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring early changes emphasizes the importance of early life history, when ichthyoplankton exhibit pelagic free drift. However, while most studies are concerned with past recruitment variability it is also important to establish real-time predictions of ichthyoplankton distributions due to the increasing human activity in fish habitats and the need for distribution predictions that could potentially improve field coverage of ichthyoplankton. A system has been developed for operational simulation of ichthyoplankton distributions. We have coupled a two-day ocean forecasts from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute with an individual-based ichthyoplankton model for Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring producing daily updated maps of ichthyoplankton distributions. Recent years observed spawning distribution and intensity have been used as input to the model system. The system has been running in an operational mode since 2008. Surveys are expensive and distributions of early stages are therefore only covered once or twice a year. Comparison between model and observations are therefore limited in time. However, the observed and simulated distributions of juvenile fish tend to agree well during early fall. Area-overlap between modeled and observed juveniles September 1(st) range from 61 to 73%, and 61 to 71% when weighted by concentrations. The model system may be used to evaluate the design of ongoing surveys, to quantify the overlap with harmful substances in the ocean after accidental spills, as well as management planning of particular risky operations at sea. The modeled distributions are already utilized during research surveys to

  8. Real-Time Ichthyoplankton Drift in Northeast Arctic Cod and Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring

    PubMed Central

    Vikebø, Frode B.; Ådlandsvik, Bjørn; Albretsen, Jon; Sundby, Svein; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Huse, Geir; Svendsen, Einar; Kristiansen, Trond; Eriksen, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Background Individual-based biophysical larval models, initialized and parameterized by observations, enable numerical investigations of various factors regulating survival of young fish until they recruit into the adult population. Exponentially decreasing numbers in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring early changes emphasizes the importance of early life history, when ichthyoplankton exhibit pelagic free drift. However, while most studies are concerned with past recruitment variability it is also important to establish real-time predictions of ichthyoplankton distributions due to the increasing human activity in fish habitats and the need for distribution predictions that could potentially improve field coverage of ichthyoplankton. Methodology/Principal Findings A system has been developed for operational simulation of ichthyoplankton distributions. We have coupled a two-day ocean forecasts from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute with an individual-based ichthyoplankton model for Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring producing daily updated maps of ichthyoplankton distributions. Recent years observed spawning distribution and intensity have been used as input to the model system. The system has been running in an operational mode since 2008. Surveys are expensive and distributions of early stages are therefore only covered once or twice a year. Comparison between model and observations are therefore limited in time. However, the observed and simulated distributions of juvenile fish tend to agree well during early fall. Area-overlap between modeled and observed juveniles September 1st range from 61 to 73%, and 61 to 71% when weighted by concentrations. Conclusions/Significance The model system may be used to evaluate the design of ongoing surveys, to quantify the overlap with harmful substances in the ocean after accidental spills, as well as management planning of particular risky operations at sea. The modeled

  9. Effect of dairy wastewater on changes in COD fractions in technical-scale SBR type reactors.

    PubMed

    Struk-Sokołowska, Joanna; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Mielcarek, Artur

    2017-04-01

    The annual global production of milk is approximately 630,000 million litres and the volume of generated dairy wastewater accounts for 3.2 m 3 ·m -3 product. Dairy wastewater is characterized by a high load of chemical oxygen demand (COD). In many wastewater plants dairy wastewater and municipal wastewater are co-treated. The effect of dairy wastewater contribution on COD fraction changes in municipal sewage which has been treated with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in three wastewater treatment plants in north-east Poland is presented. In these plants the real contribution of dairy wastewater was 10, 13 and 17%. In raw wastewater, S S fraction (readily biodegradable dissolved organic matter) was dominant and ranged from 38.3 to 62.6%. In the effluent, S S fraction was not noted, which is indicative of consumption by microorganisms. The presence of dairy wastewater in municipal sewage does not cause changes in the content of the X I fraction (insoluble fractions of non-biodegradable organic matter). SBR effluents were dominated by non-biodegradable dissolved organic matter S I , which from 57.7 to 61.7%. In raw wastewater S I ranged from 1.0 to 4.6%. X s fraction (slowly biodegradable non-soluble organic matter) in raw wastewater ranged from 24.6 to 45.5% while in treated wastewater it ranged from 28.6 to 30.8%. In the control object (fourth wastewater plant) which does not process dairy wastewater, the S S , S I , X s and X I fraction in inflow was 28.7, 2.4, 51.7 and 17.2% respectively. In the effluent the S S , S I , X s and X I fraction was below 0.1, 33.6, 50.0 and 16.4% respectively.

  10. Nitrogen and COD Removal from Septic Tank Wastewater in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Plants Effects.

    PubMed

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland treatment performance with respect to organics (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) wastewater as affected by the presence of plants, substrate "rock" cation exchange capacity (CEC), laboratory versus field conditions and use of synthetic as compared to actual domestic wastewater. This article considers the effects of plants on constructed wetland treatment in the field. Each constructed wetland system was comprised of two beds (2.6 m long by 0.28 m wide and deep filled with ~18 mm crushed lava rock) separated by an aeration tank connected in series. The lava rock had a porosity of ~47% and a CEC of 4 meq/100 gm. One pair of constructed wetland systems was planted with cattails in May 2008, while an adjacent pair of systems remained un-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each constructed wetland system and effluent samples were regularly collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species during four time periods spanning November 2008 through June 2009. These effluent concentrations were tested for statistical differences at the 95% level for individual time periods as well as the overall 6-month period. Organics removal from domestic wastewater was 78.8% and 76.1% in the planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 94.5% and 90.2%, respectively. Similarly, organics removal from the synthetic wastewater of equivalent strength was 88.8% and 90.1% for planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 96.9% and 97.3%, respectively.

  11. Hydrostatigraphic characterization of coastal aquifer by geophysical log analysis, Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Roger H.; Urish, Daniel W.

    1995-01-01

    The Cape Cod National Seashore comprises part of Provincetown, Massachusetts, which lies at the northern tip of Cape Cod. The hydrologic regime in this area consists of unconsolidated sand-and-gravel deposits that constitute a highly permeable aquifer within which is a freshwater lens floating on denser sea water. A network of wells was installed into this aquifer to monitor a leachate plume emanating from the Provincetown landfill. Wells were located along orthogonal transects perpendicular to and parallel to the general groundwater flow path from the landfill to the seashore approximately 1,000 m to the southeast. Temperature, epithermal neutron, natural gamma. and electronmagnetic induction logs were obtained in five wells to depths ranging from 23 to 37 m. These logs identify the primary contamination and show that its movement is controlled by and confined within a dominant hydrostratigraphic unit about 2 to 5 m thick that exhibits low porosity, large representative grain size, and high relative permeability. A relation is also found between the temperaturegradient logs and water quality, with the gradient traces serving as effective delineators of the contaminant plume in wells nearest the landfill. Contamination is not detectable in the well nearest the seashore and farthest from the landfill, and the induction log from this well clearly identifies the freshwater/seawater transition zone at a depth of about 18 m. The geophysical logs provide fundamental information concerning the spatial distribution of aquifer properties near the landfill and lend valuable insight into how these properties influence the migration of the leachate plume to the sea.

  12. [Measurement of Water COD Based on UV-Vis Spectroscopy Technology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Hai-liang; Luo, Wei; Liu, Xue-mei

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy technology was used to measure water COD. A total of 135 water samples were collected from Zhejiang province. Raw spectra with 3 different pretreatment methods (Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC), Standard Normal Variate (SNV) and 1st Derivatives were compared to determine the optimal pretreatment method for analysis. Spectral variable selection is an important strategy in spectrum modeling analysis, because it tends to parsimonious data representation and can lead to multivariate models with better performance. In order to simply calibration models, the preprocessed spectra were then used to select sensitive wavelengths by competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), Random frog and Successive Genetic Algorithm (GA) methods. Different numbers of sensitive wavelengths were selected by different variable selection methods with SNV preprocessing method. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to build models with the full spectra, and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) was applied to build models with the selected wavelength variables. The overall results showed that ELM model performed better than PLS model, and the ELM model with the selected wavelengths based on CARS obtained the best results with the determination coefficient (R2), RMSEP and RPD were 0.82, 14.48 and 2.34 for prediction set. The results indicated that it was feasible to use UV/Vis with characteristic wavelengths which were obtained by CARS variable selection method, combined with ELM calibration could apply for the rapid and accurate determination of COD in aquaculture water. Moreover, this study laid the foundation for further implementation of online analysis of aquaculture water and rapid determination of other water quality parameters.

  13. Climate change and fishing: a century of shifting distribution in North Sea cod.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Georg H; Righton, David A; Pinnegar, John K

    2014-08-01

    Globally, spatial distributions of fish stocks are shifting but although the role of climate change in range shifts is increasingly appreciated, little remains known of the likely additional impact that high levels of fishing pressure might have on distribution. For North Sea cod, we show for the first time and in great spatial detail how the stock has shifted its distribution over the past 100 years. We digitized extensive historical fisheries data from paper charts in UK government archives and combined these with contemporary data to a time-series spanning 1913-2012 (excluding both World Wars). New analysis of old data revealed that the current distribution pattern of cod - mostly in the deeper, northern- and north-easternmost parts of the North Sea - is almost opposite to that during most of the Twentieth Century - mainly concentrated in the west, off England and Scotland. Statistical analysis revealed that the deepening, northward shift is likely attributable to warming; however, the eastward shift is best explained by fishing pressure, suggestive of significant depletion of the stock from its previous stronghold, off the coasts of England and Scotland. These spatial patterns were confirmed for the most recent 3 1/2 decades by data from fisheries-independent surveys, which go back to the 1970s. Our results demonstrate the fundamental importance of both climate change and fishing pressure for our understanding of changing distributions of commercially exploited fish. © 2013 Crown copyright. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  14. An experimental model of COD abatement in MBBR based on biofilm growth dynamic and on substrates' removal kinetics.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Alessio; De Rosa, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the performance of a lab-scale Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) under different operating conditions was analysed. Moreover, the dependence of the reaction rates both from the concentration and biodegradability of substrates and from the biofilm surface density, by means of several batch kinetic tests, was investigated. The reactor controls exhibited an increasing COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal, reaching maximum yields (close to 90%) for influent loadings of up to12.5 gCOD/m(2)d. From this value, the pilot plant performance decreased to yields of only about 55% for influent loadings greater than 16 gCOD/m(2)d. In response to the influent loading increase, the biofilm surface density exhibited a logistic growing trend until reaching a maximum amount of total attached solids of about 9.5 g/m(2). The kinetic test results indicated that the COD removal rates for rapidly biodegradable, rapidly hydrolysable and slowly biodegradable substrates were not affected by the organic matter concentrations. Instead, first-order kinetics were detected with respect to biofilm surface density. The experimental results permitted the formulation of a mathematical model to predict the MBBR organic matter removal efficiency. The validity of the model was successfully tested in the lab-scale plant.

  15. Controlling the COD removal of an A-stage pilot study with instrumentation and automatic process control.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark W; Elliott, Matt; DeArmond, Jon; Kinyua, Maureen; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2017-06-01

    The pursuit of fully autotrophic nitrogen removal via the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) pathway has led to an increased interest in carbon removal technologies, particularly the A-stage of the adsorption/bio-oxidation (A/B) process. The high-rate operation of the A-stage and lack of automatic process control often results in wide variations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal that can ultimately impact nitrogen removal in the downstream B-stage process. This study evaluated the use dissolved oxygen (DO) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) based automatic control strategies through the use of in situ on-line sensors in the A-stage of an A/B pilot study. The objective of using these control strategies was to reduce the variability of COD removal by the A-stage and thus the variability of the effluent C/N. The use of cascade DO control in the A-stage did not impact COD removal at the conditions tested in this study, likely because the bulk DO concentration (>0.5 mg/L) was maintained above the half saturation coefficient of heterotrophic organisms for DO. MLSS-based solids retention time (SRT) control, where MLSS was used as a surrogate for SRT, did not significantly reduce the effluent C/N variability but it was able to reduce COD removal variation in the A-stage by 90%.

  16. 75 FR 55690 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    .... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XZ01 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. These actions are necessary to allow the 2010 total...

  17. 78 FR 73454 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... in the Gulf of Alaska exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish.... 120918468-3111-02] RIN 0648-XC976 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska Management Area AGENCY: National Marine...

  18. 78 FR 9327 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    .... 111213751-2102-02] RIN 0648-XC481 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. This action is necessary to allow the A...

  19. 78 FR 73454 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    .... 120918468-3111-02] RIN 0648-XC975 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska Management Area AGENCY: National Marine... the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska management area (GOA). This action is necessary to...

  20. 75 FR 7403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    .... 0810141351-9087-02] RIN 0648-XU36 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National... using hook-and-line gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is...

  1. 78 FR 55228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... in the Gulf of Alaska exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish.... 120918468-3111-02] RIN 0648-XC856 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska Management Area AGENCY: National Marine...

  2. 77 FR 34853 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the.... 111213751-2102-02] RIN 0648-XC064 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for... Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  3. 76 FR 12293 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    .... 101126521-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA260 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. This action is necessary to allow the A...

  4. 78 FR 17885 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 50...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Catcher Vessels Less Than 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Central... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) less than 50 feet (15.2 meters (m)) in length... catch apportioned to CVs less than 50 feet (15.2 m) LOA using hook-and-line gear in the Central...

  5. 75 FR 72735 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 Feet (18.3 m) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line or Pot Gear in the Bering.... SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 m... allocated to catcher vessels less than 60 feet LOA using hook-and-line or pot gear in the BSAI. DATES...

  6. 78 FR 18896 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 feet (18.3 meters) Length Overall Using Jig or Hook-and-Line Gear in the... less than 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA) using jig or hook-and-line gear in the... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the limit of Pacific cod for catcher vessels less than 60 feet...

  7. 75 FR 52478 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... trawl catcher vessels to catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters) length overall (LOA) using hook... cod from the C season trawl catcher vessel apportionment to catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3... vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 m) LOA using hook-and-line or pot gear. Classification This action...

  8. 77 FR 53152 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... gear, catcher vessels greater than 60 feet (18.3 meters) length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line gear, and catcher vessels using trawl gear to catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters) LOA using hook... than 60 feet (18.3 meters(m)) LOA using hook-and- line or pot gear. The 2012 Pacific cod TAC specified...

  9. 76 FR 66655 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... catch of octopus by vessels using pot gear to fish for Pacific cod the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs... and management measures prevent overfishing. The 2011 octopus overfishing level in the BSAI is 528...

  10. An integrated mathematical model for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) including predation and hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Marta; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R

    2016-07-01

    An integrated mathematical model is proposed for modelling a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) under aerobic conditions. The composite model combines the following: (i) a one-dimensional biofilm model, (ii) a bulk liquid model, and (iii) biological processes in the bulk liquid and biofilm considering the interactions among autotrophic, heterotrophic and predator microorganisms. Depending on the values for the soluble biodegradable COD loading rate (SCLR), the model takes into account a) the hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable compounds in the bulk liquid, and b) the growth of predator microorganisms in the bulk liquid and in the biofilm. The integration of the model and the SCLR allows a general description of the behaviour of COD removal by the MBBR under various conditions. The model is applied for two in-series MBBR wastewater plant from an integrated cellulose and viscose production and accurately describes the experimental concentrations of COD, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorous obtained during 14 months working at different SCLRs and nutrient dosages. The representation of the microorganism group distribution in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid allow for verification of the presence of predator microorganisms in the second reactor under some operational conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contrasting calcium localization and speciation in leaves of Medicago trunculata mutant COD5 analyzed via synchrotron X-ray techniques

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxalate-producing plants accumulate calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx(C)) in the range of 3-80%(w/w) of their dry weight, reducing calcium (Ca) bioavailability. The calcium oxalate deficient 5 (cod5) mutant of Medicago truncatula has been previously shown to contain similar Ca, but lower oxalate and Ca...

  12. Identification of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus isolated from Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in Prince William Sound Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, T.R.; Sullivan, J.; Emmenegger, E.; Follett, J.; Short, S.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Ulcerative slun tissues from 2 Pacific cod Gadus rnacrocephalus caught in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, were examined for virus by Fish Pathology staff within the F.R.E.D. Division of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Six days after inoculation of Epitheliorna papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells at 14"C, diffuse rounding and lifting of cells from the monolayers suggestive of cytopathlc effect became visible in the lower sample dilutions. Ultrastructural examinations of affected EPC cells showed rhabdovirus particles within cytoplasmic vacuoles and on the cell surface membranes. Virus isolates from both cod were subsequently confirmed as viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) by serum neutralizabon and immunoblot assay. This is the first VHSV isolated from Pacific cod, which represents a new host species for the virus. Histologically, cod skin ulcers appeared to be caused by a foreign-body-type inflammatory response to foci of protozoa resembling X cells that also had plasmodial stages. Whether the rhabdovirus was incidental to the slun lesion or played a role in its etiology remains to be determined. The possible relationship between thls virus and the recent occurrences of VHSV in anadromous salmoruds from Washington State, USA, is discussed.

  13. Performance of denitrifying microbial fuel cell subjected to variation in pH, COD concentration and external resistance.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Hua, Yu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and external resistance on denitrifying microbial fuel cell were evaluated in terms of electricity generation characteristics and pollutant removal performance. The results showed that anodic influent with weakly alkaline or neutral pH and cathodic influent with weakly acidic pH favored pollutant removal and electricity generation. The suitable influent pH of the anode and cathode were found to be 7.5-8.0 and 6.0-6.5, respectively. In the presence of sufficient nitrate in the cathode, higher influent COD concentration led to more electricity generation and greater pollutant removal rates. With an anodic influent pH of 8.0 and a cathodic influent pH of 6.0, an influent COD concentration of 400 mg/L was deemed to be appropriate. Low external resistance favored nitrate and COD removal. The results suggest that operation of denitrifying microbial fuel cell at a lower external resistance would be desirable for pollutant removal but not electricity generation.

  14. The Role of Music in Environmental Education: Lessons from the Cod Fishery Crisis and the Dust Bowl Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Doug

    2002-01-01

    Uses lyrics and musical styles to illustrate the role of music in educating young people about ecosystem fragility and the cultural importance of rural resources. Describes the east coast fishery prior to and following the announcement of the Northern Cod fishery moratorium in 1992. (Contains 40 references.) (Author/YDS)

  15. Biogas-pH automation control strategy for optimizing organic loading rate of anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating high COD wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dawei; Liu, Jibao; Sui, Qianwen; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-03-01

    Control of organic loading rate (OLR) is essential for anaerobic digestion treating high COD wastewater, which would cause operation failure by overload or less efficiency by underload. A novel biogas-pH automation control strategy using the combined gas-liquor phase monitoring was developed for an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating high COD (27.53 g·L(-1)) starch wastewater. The biogas-pH strategy was proceeded with threshold between biogas production rate >98 Nml·h(-1) preventing overload and pH>7.4 preventing underload, which were determined by methane production kinetics and pH titration of methanogenesis slurry, respectively. The OLR and the effluent COD were doubled as 11.81 kgCOD·kgVSS(-1)·d(-1) and halved as 253.4 mg·L(-1), respectively, comparing with a constant OLR control strategy. Meanwhile COD removal rate, biogas yield and methane concentration were synchronously improved to 99.1%, 312 Nml·gCODin(-1) and 74%, respectively. Using the biogas-pH strategy, AnMBR formed a "pH self-regulation ternary buffer system" which seizes carbon dioxide and hence provides sufficient buffering capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 5144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal To 60 Feet (18.3 Meters) Length Overall Using Pot Gear in the Bering... prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by pot catcher vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet (18.3... allowable catch (TAC) specified for pot catcher vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet (18.3 m) LOA in the...

  17. 78 FR 13812 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catch Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    .... 1801 et seq. Dated: February 26, 2013. Kara Meckley, Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable... hours. This action is necessary to fully use the A season allowance of the 2013 Pacific cod total...: Effective 1200 hours, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), March 1, 2013, through 1200 hours, A.l.t., March 3, 2013...

  18. Treatment of high ethanol concentration wastewater by biological sand filters: enhanced COD removal and bacterial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Ramond, J-B; Welz, P J; Cowan, D A; Odlare, M; Burton, S G

    2012-10-30

    Winery wastewater is characterized by its high chemical oxygen demand (COD), seasonal occurrence and variable composition, including periodic high ethanol concentrations. In addition, winery wastewater may contain insufficient inorganic nutrients for optimal biodegradation of organic constituents. Two pilot-scale biological sand filters (BSFs) were used to treat artificial wastewater: the first was amended with ethanol and the second with ethanol, inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). A number of biochemical parameters involved in the removal of pollutants through BSF systems were monitored, including effluent chemistry and bacterial community structures. The nutrient supplemented BSF showed efficient COD, N and P removal. Comparison of the COD removal efficiencies of the two BSFs showed that N and P addition enhanced COD removal efficiency by up to 16%. Molecular fingerprinting of BSF sediment samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amendment with high concentrations of ethanol destabilized the microbial community structure, but that nutrient supplementation countered this effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of the COD removal, electricity generation, and bacterial communities in microbial fuel cells treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Yeong; Kim, Tae G; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-11-09

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, electricity generation, and microbial communities were compared in 3 types of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) treating molasses wastewater. Single-chamber MFCs without and with a proton exchange membrane (PEM), and double-chamber MFC were constructed. A total of 10,000 mg L(-1) COD of molasses wastewater was continuously fed. The COD removal, electricity generation, and microbial communities in the two types of single-chamber MFCs were similar, indicating that the PEM did not enhance the reactor performance. The COD removal in the single-chamber MFCs (89-90%) was higher than that in the double-chamber MFC (50%). However, electricity generation in the double-chamber MFC was higher than that in the single-chamber MFCs. The current density (80 mA m(-2)) and power density (17 mW m(-2)) in the double-chamber MFC were 1.4- and 2.2-times higher than those in the single-chamber MFCs, respectively. The bacterial community structures in single- and double-chamber MFCs were also distinguishable. The amount of Proteobacteria in the double-chamber MFC was 2-3 times higher than those in the single-chamber MFCs. For the archaeal community, Methanothrix (96.4%) was remarkably dominant in the single-chamber MFCs, but Methanobacterium (35.1%), Methanosarcina (28.3%), and Methanothrix (16.2%) were abundant in the double-chamber MFC.

  20. Influence of ozonation on COD in stabilized landfill leachate: Case study at Alor Pongsu landfill site, Perak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Siti Nor Farhana; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    One of an anaerobic stabilized landfill leachate in Malaysia underwent ozonation process. The sample rich in chemical oxygen demand (COD) was collected from Alor Pongsu Landfill Site, Perak (APLS). This site has been operating since year 2000. The leachate also contains other pollutants that exceeded the standard discharge limit for wastewater effluents. The effectiveness of ozone (O3) dosage, pH variation, and reaction time during ozonation was evaluated to measure the performance of O3 and determine the maximum operational conditions for this treatment. The maximum removal efficiency for COD was 50% at an ozone dosage of 31 g/m3, natural of pH 8.5, and reaction time of 60 min. The biodegradability ratio (BOD5/COD) improved from 0.08 to 0.23 after treatment with O3. The ozonation method has enhanced the biodegradability ratio and resulted high percentage removal of COD. This improvement showed that oxidation has a great potential to remediate recalcitrant pollutant wastes, such as landfill leachate.

  1. 75 FR 31717 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XW75 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  2. 76 FR 66195 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 101126521-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA791 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...

  3. 75 FR 7976 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 0810141351-9087-02] RIN 0648-XU52 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher-Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  4. 76 FR 47083 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 101126521-0640-2] RIN 0648-XA616 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  5. 76 FR 4552 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XA176 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...

  6. 76 FR 22057 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National... catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI). This... Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  7. 77 FR 62464 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in the Central...

  8. 75 FR 8840 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 0810141351-9087-02] RIN 0648-XU65 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine...

  9. 77 FR 3638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 101126521-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA955 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...

  10. 77 FR 10668 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 101126521-0640-02] RIN 0648-XB028 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  11. 75 FR 17315 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XV66 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  12. 77 FR 19144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 111213751-2102-02] RIN 0648-XB138 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  13. 75 FR 59157 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XZ27 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine...

  14. 78 FR 7280 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 111213751-2102-02] RIN 0648-XC465 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...

  15. 76 FR 20891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National... catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI). This... Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  16. 77 FR 23159 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National... using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary... fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. After the effective date of this...

  17. 76 FR 24403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... catch of Pacific cod to be harvested. DATES: Effective April 30, 2011, through 2400 hrs, Alaska local... gear is 207 mt for the period 2400 hrs, A.l.t., January 1, 2011, through 1200 hrs, A.l.t., June 10...

  18. 77 FR 10400 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 Feet (18.3 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line or Pot Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters... catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 m) LOA using hook-and-line or pot gear...

  19. 78 FR 9328 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 Feet (18.3 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line or Pot Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters... catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 m) LOA using hook-and-line or pot gear...

  20. 77 FR 3157 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal To 60 Feet (18.3 Meters) Length Overall Using Pot Gear in the Bering... prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by pot catcher vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet (18.3... allowable catch (TAC) specified for pot catcher vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet (18.3 m) LOA in the...