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Sample records for a-factor regulatory cascade

  1. Effects of Four Different Regulatory Mechanisms on the Dynamics of Gene Regulatory Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Sabine; Krishna, Sandeep; Semsey, Szabolcs; Lo Svenningsen, Sine

    2015-07-01

    Gene regulatory cascades (GRCs) are common motifs in cellular molecular networks. A given logical function in these cascades, such as the repression of the activity of a transcription factor, can be implemented by a number of different regulatory mechanisms. The potential consequences for the dynamic performance of the GRC of choosing one mechanism over another have not been analysed systematically. Here, we report the construction of a synthetic GRC in Escherichia coli, which allows us for the first time to directly compare and contrast the dynamics of four different regulatory mechanisms, affecting the transcription, translation, stability, or activity of a transcriptional repressor. We developed a biologically motivated mathematical model which is sufficient to reproduce the response dynamics determined by experimental measurements. Using the model, we explored the potential response dynamics that the constructed GRC can perform. We conclude that dynamic differences between regulatory mechanisms at an individual step in a GRC are often concealed in the overall performance of the GRC, and suggest that the presence of a given regulatory mechanism in a certain network environment does not necessarily mean that it represents a single optimal evolutionary solution.

  2. Multiple Linear Regression for Reconstruction of Gene Regulatory Networks in Solving Cascade Error Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zainudin, Suhaila; Arif, Shereena M.

    2017-01-01

    Gene regulatory network (GRN) reconstruction is the process of identifying regulatory gene interactions from experimental data through computational analysis. One of the main reasons for the reduced performance of previous GRN methods had been inaccurate prediction of cascade motifs. Cascade error is defined as the wrong prediction of cascade motifs, where an indirect interaction is misinterpreted as a direct interaction. Despite the active research on various GRN prediction methods, the discussion on specific methods to solve problems related to cascade errors is still lacking. In fact, the experiments conducted by the past studies were not specifically geared towards proving the ability of GRN prediction methods in avoiding the occurrences of cascade errors. Hence, this research aims to propose Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) to infer GRN from gene expression data and to avoid wrongly inferring of an indirect interaction (A → B → C) as a direct interaction (A → C). Since the number of observations of the real experiment datasets was far less than the number of predictors, some predictors were eliminated by extracting the random subnetworks from global interaction networks via an established extraction method. In addition, the experiment was extended to assess the effectiveness of MLR in dealing with cascade error by using a novel experimental procedure that had been proposed in this work. The experiment revealed that the number of cascade errors had been very minimal. Apart from that, the Belsley collinearity test proved that multicollinearity did affect the datasets used in this experiment greatly. All the tested subnetworks obtained satisfactory results, with AUROC values above 0.5. PMID:28250767

  3. A meiotic gene regulatory cascade driven by alternative fates for newly synthesized transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Cremona, Nicole; Potter, Kristine; Wise, Jo Ann

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relative importance of transcriptional regulation versus RNA processing and turnover during the transition from proliferation to meiotic differentiation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we analyzed temporal profiles and effects of RNA surveillance factor mutants on expression of 32 meiotic genes. A comparison of nascent transcription with steady-state RNA accumulation reveals that the vast majority of these genes show a lag between maximal RNA synthesis and peak RNA accumulation. During meiosis, total RNA levels parallel 3′ processing, which occurs in multiple, temporally distinct waves that peak from 3 to 6 h after meiotic induction. Most early genes and one middle gene, mei4, share a regulatory mechanism in which a specialized RNA surveillance factor targets newly synthesized transcripts for destruction. Mei4p, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, in turn regulates a host of downstream genes. Remarkably, a spike in transcription is observed for less than one-third of the genes surveyed, and even these show evidence of RNA-level regulation. In aggregate, our findings lead us to propose that a regulatory cascade driven by changes in processing and stability of newly synthesized transcripts operates alongside the well-known transcriptional cascade as fission yeast cells enter meiosis. PMID:21148298

  4. Analysis of a Gene Regulatory Cascade Mediating Circadian Rhythm in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haifang; Du, Jiulin; Yan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the study of circadian rhythms, it has been a puzzle how a limited number of circadian clock genes can control diverse aspects of physiology. Here we investigate circadian gene expression genome-wide using larval zebrafish as a model system. We made use of a spatial gene expression atlas to investigate the expression of circadian genes in various tissues and cell types. Comparison of genome-wide circadian gene expression data between zebrafish and mouse revealed a nearly anti-phase relationship and allowed us to detect novel evolutionarily conserved circadian genes in vertebrates. We identified three groups of zebrafish genes with distinct responses to light entrainment: fast light-induced genes, slow light-induced genes, and dark-induced genes. Our computational analysis of the circadian gene regulatory network revealed several transcription factors (TFs) involved in diverse aspects of circadian physiology through transcriptional cascade. Of these, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor a (mitfa), a dark-induced TF, mediates a circadian rhythm of melanin synthesis, which may be involved in zebrafish's adaptation to daily light cycling. Our study describes a systematic method to discover previously unidentified TFs involved in circadian physiology in complex organisms. PMID:23468616

  5. Regulatory cascade and biological activity of Beauveria bassiana oosporein that limits bacterial growth after host death

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yanhua; Liu, Xi; Keyhani, Nemat O.; Tang, Guirong; Pei, Yan; Zhang, Wenwen; Tong, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The regulatory network and biological functions of the fungal secondary metabolite oosporein have remained obscure. Beauveria bassiana has evolved the ability to parasitize insects and outcompete microbial challengers for assimilation of host nutrients. A novel zinc finger transcription factor, BbSmr1 (B. bassiana secondary metabolite regulator 1), was identified in a screen for oosporein overproduction. Deletion of Bbsmr1 resulted in up-regulation of the oosporein biosynthetic gene cluster (OpS genes) and constitutive oosporein production. Oosporein production was abolished in double mutants of Bbsmr1 and a second transcription factor, OpS3, within the oosporein gene cluster (ΔBbsmr1ΔOpS3), indicating that BbSmr1 acts as a negative regulator of OpS3 expression. Real-time quantitative PCR and a GFP promoter fusion construct of OpS1, the oosporein polyketide synthase, indicated that OpS1 is expressed mainly in insect cadavers at 24–48 h after death. Bacterial colony analysis in B. bassiana-infected insect hosts revealed increasing counts until host death, with a dramatic decrease (∼90%) after death that correlated with oosporein production. In vitro studies verified the inhibitory activity of oosporein against bacteria derived from insect cadavers. These results suggest that oosporein acts as an antimicrobial compound to limit microbial competition on B. bassiana-killed hosts, allowing the fungus to maximally use host nutrients to grow and sporulate on infected cadavers. PMID:28193896

  6. Regulatory cascade and biological activity of Beauveria bassiana oosporein that limits bacterial growth after host death.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanhua; Liu, Xi; Keyhani, Nemat O; Tang, Guirong; Pei, Yan; Zhang, Wenwen; Tong, Sheng

    2017-02-28

    The regulatory network and biological functions of the fungal secondary metabolite oosporein have remained obscure. Beauveria bassiana has evolved the ability to parasitize insects and outcompete microbial challengers for assimilation of host nutrients. A novel zinc finger transcription factor, BbSmr1 ( B. bassiana secondary metabolite regulator 1), was identified in a screen for oosporein overproduction. Deletion of Bbsmr1 resulted in up-regulation of the oosporein biosynthetic gene cluster ( OpS genes) and constitutive oosporein production. Oosporein production was abolished in double mutants of Bbsmr1 and a second transcription factor, OpS3 , within the oosporein gene cluster ( ΔBbsmr1ΔOpS3 ), indicating that BbSmr1 acts as a negative regulator of OpS3 expression. Real-time quantitative PCR and a GFP promoter fusion construct of OpS1 , the oosporein polyketide synthase, indicated that OpS1 is expressed mainly in insect cadavers at 24-48 h after death. Bacterial colony analysis in B. bassiana -infected insect hosts revealed increasing counts until host death, with a dramatic decrease (∼90%) after death that correlated with oosporein production. In vitro studies verified the inhibitory activity of oosporein against bacteria derived from insect cadavers. These results suggest that oosporein acts as an antimicrobial compound to limit microbial competition on B. bassiana -killed hosts, allowing the fungus to maximally use host nutrients to grow and sporulate on infected cadavers.

  7. Integration of a complex regulatory cascade involving the SirA/BarA and Csr global regulatory systems that controls expression of the Salmonella SPI-1 and SPI-2 virulence regulons through HilD.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Luary C; Yakhnin, Helen; Camacho, Martha I; Georgellis, Dimitris; Babitzke, Paul; Puente, José L; Bustamante, Víctor H

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) play key roles in the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica. Previously, we showed that when Salmonella grows in Luria-Bertani medium, HilD, encoded in SPI-1, first induces the expression of hilA, located in SPI-1, and subsequently of the ssrAB operon, located in SPI-2. These genes code for HilA and the SsrA/B two-component system, the positive regulators of the SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulons respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that CsrA, a global regulatory RNA binding protein, post-transcriptionally regulates hilD expression by directly binding near the Shine-Dalgarno and translation initiation codon sequences of the hilD mRNA, preventing its translation and leading to its accelerated turnover. Negative regulation is counteracted by the global SirA/BarA two-component system, which directly activates the expression of CsrB and CsrC, two non-coding regulatory RNAs that sequester CsrA, thereby preventing it from binding to its target mRNAs. Our results illustrate the integration of global and specific regulators into a multifactorial regulatory cascade controlling the expression of virulence genes acquired by horizontal transfer events. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The WRKY45-2 WRKY13 WRKY42 Transcriptional Regulatory Cascade Is Required for Rice Resistance to Fungal Pathogen1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hongtao; Liu, Hongbo; Deng, Yong; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Shiping

    2015-01-01

    Blast caused by fungal Magnaporthe oryzae is a devastating disease of rice (Oryza sativa) worldwide, and this fungus also infects barley (Hordeum vulgare). At least 11 rice WRKY transcription factors have been reported to regulate rice response to M. oryzae either positively or negatively. However, the relationships of these WRKYs in the rice defense signaling pathway against M. oryzae are unknown. Previous studies have revealed that rice WRKY13 (as a transcriptional repressor) and WRKY45-2 enhance resistance to M. oryzae. Here, we show that rice WRKY42, functioning as a transcriptional repressor, suppresses resistance to M. oryzae. WRKY42-RNA interference (RNAi) and WRKY42-overexpressing (oe) plants showed increased resistance and susceptibility to M. oryzae, accompanied by increased or reduced jasmonic acid (JA) content, respectively, compared with wild-type plants. JA pretreatment enhanced the resistance of WRKY42-oe plants to M. oryzae. WRKY13 directly suppressed WRKY42. WRKY45-2, functioning as a transcriptional activator, directly activated WRKY13. In addition, WRKY13 directly suppressed WRKY45-2 by feedback regulation. The WRKY13-RNAi WRKY45-2-oe and WRKY13-oe WRKY42-oe double transgenic lines showed increased susceptibility to M. oryzae compared with WRKY45-2-oe and WRKY13-oe plants, respectively. These results suggest that the three WRKYs form a sequential transcriptional regulatory cascade. WRKY42 may negatively regulate rice response to M. oryzae by suppressing JA signaling-related genes, and WRKY45-2 transcriptionally activates WRKY13, whose encoding protein in turn transcriptionally suppresses WRKY42 to regulate rice resistance to M. oryzae. PMID:25624395

  9. Promoter-level expression clustering identifies time development of transcriptional regulatory cascades initiated by ErbB receptors in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mina, Marco; Magi, Shigeyuki; Jurman, Giuseppe; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R R; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Daub, Carsten O; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Furlanello, Cesare

    2015-07-16

    The analysis of CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) time-course has been proposed by the FANTOM5 Consortium to extend the understanding of the sequence of events facilitating cell state transition at the level of promoter regulation. To identify the most prominent transcriptional regulations induced by growth factors in human breast cancer, we apply here the Complexity Invariant Dynamic Time Warping motif EnRichment (CIDER) analysis approach to the CAGE time-course datasets of MCF-7 cells stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) or heregulin (HRG). We identify a multi-level cascade of regulations rooted by the Serum Response Factor (SRF) transcription factor, connecting the MAPK-mediated transduction of the HRG stimulus to the negative regulation of the MAPK pathway by the members of the DUSP family phosphatases. The finding confirms the known primary role of FOS and FOSL1, members of AP-1 family, in shaping gene expression in response to HRG induction. Moreover, we identify a new potential regulation of DUSP5 and RARA (known to antagonize the transcriptional regulation induced by the estrogen receptors) by the activity of the AP-1 complex, specific to HRG response. The results indicate that a divergence in AP-1 regulation determines cellular changes of breast cancer cells stimulated by ErbB receptors.

  10. The Iron-Responsive Fur/RyhB Regulatory Cascade Modulates the Shigella Outer Membrane Protease IcsP ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Africa, Lia A. A.; Murphy, Erin R.; Egan, Nicholas R.; Wigley, Amanda F.; Wing, Helen J.

    2011-01-01

    Actin-based motility is central to the pathogenicity of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Shigella. Two Shigella outer membrane proteins, IcsA and IcsP, are required for efficient actin-based motility in the host cell cytoplasm, and the genes encoding both proteins are carried on the large virulence plasmid. IcsA triggers actin polymerization on the surface of the bacterium, leading to the formation of an actin tail that allows both intra- and intercellular spread. IcsP, an outer membrane protease, modulates the amount and distribution of the IcsA protein on the bacterial surface through proteolytic cleavage of IcsA. Transcription of icsP is increased in the presence of VirB, a DNA-binding protein that positively regulates many genes carried on the large virulence plasmid. In Shigella dysenteriae, the small regulatory RNA RyhB, which is a member of the iron-responsive Fur regulon, suppresses several virulence-associated phenotypes by downregulating levels of virB in response to iron limitation. Here we show that the Fur/RyhB regulatory pathway downregulates IcsP levels in response to low iron concentrations in Shigella flexneri and that this occurs at the level of transcription through the RyhB-dependent regulation of VirB. These observations demonstrate that in Shigella species the Fur/RyhB regulatory pathway provides a mechanism to finely tune the expression of icsP in response to the low concentrations of free iron predicted to be encountered within colonic epithelial cells. PMID:21859852

  11. Regulatory effect of chrysin on expression of lenticular calcium transporters, calpains, and apoptotic-cascade components in selenite-induced cataract

    PubMed Central

    Sundararajan, Mahalingam; Thomas, Philip A.; Teresa, P. Archana; Anbukkarasi, Muniyandi

    2016-01-01

    selenite-challenged and simultaneously chrysin-treated (Group IIIa) lenses showed no opacification (Grade 0) after 24 h incubation, while the remaining single lens exhibited only a slight degree of opacification (Grade +). In the Group IIIa lenses, the reduced glutathione, protein sulfhydryl, and malondialdehyde concentrations appeared to have been maintained at near-normal levels. The mean lenticular concentration of calcium was significantly lower in the Group IIIa lenses than that in the Group II lenses and approximated the values observed in the normal control (Group I) lenses. The Group IIIa lenses also exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher mean lenticular activity of calpain, significantly higher mean mRNA transcript levels of genes that encode m-calpain and lenticular preferred calpain (Lp82), and significantly higher mean levels of the m-calpain and Lp82 proteins than the corresponding values in the Group II lenses. Casein zymography results suggested that chrysin prevented calpain activation and autolysis. Significantly (p<0.05) lower mean levels of mRNA transcripts of the genes that encode calcium transporter proteins (plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase-1 and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase-2) and lenticular apoptotic-cascade proteins (early growth response protein-1, caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9) and significantly (p<0.05) lower mean concentrations of the proteins themselves were seen in the Group IIIa rat lenses in comparison to the values noted in the Group II rat lenses. Conclusions Chrysin appears to prevent selenite-induced cataractogenesis in vitro by maintaining the redox system components at near-normal levels and by preventing the abnormal expression of several lenticular calcium transporters and apoptotic-cascade proteins, thus preventing accumulation of calcium and subsequent calpain activation and lenticular cell death in cultured Wistar rat lenses. PMID:27168717

  12. Regulatory effect of chrysin on expression of lenticular calcium transporters, calpains, and apoptotic-cascade components in selenite-induced cataract.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Mahalingam; Thomas, Philip A; Teresa, P Archana; Anbukkarasi, Muniyandi; Geraldine, Pitchairaj

    2016-01-01

    simultaneously chrysin-treated (Group IIIa) lenses showed no opacification (Grade 0) after 24 h incubation, while the remaining single lens exhibited only a slight degree of opacification (Grade +). In the Group IIIa lenses, the reduced glutathione, protein sulfhydryl, and malondialdehyde concentrations appeared to have been maintained at near-normal levels. The mean lenticular concentration of calcium was significantly lower in the Group IIIa lenses than that in the Group II lenses and approximated the values observed in the normal control (Group I) lenses. The Group IIIa lenses also exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher mean lenticular activity of calpain, significantly higher mean mRNA transcript levels of genes that encode m-calpain and lenticular preferred calpain (Lp82), and significantly higher mean levels of the m-calpain and Lp82 proteins than the corresponding values in the Group II lenses. Casein zymography results suggested that chrysin prevented calpain activation and autolysis. Significantly (p<0.05) lower mean levels of mRNA transcripts of the genes that encode calcium transporter proteins (plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase-1 and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase-2) and lenticular apoptotic-cascade proteins (early growth response protein-1, caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9) and significantly (p<0.05) lower mean concentrations of the proteins themselves were seen in the Group IIIa rat lenses in comparison to the values noted in the Group II rat lenses. Chrysin appears to prevent selenite-induced cataractogenesis in vitro by maintaining the redox system components at near-normal levels and by preventing the abnormal expression of several lenticular calcium transporters and apoptotic-cascade proteins, thus preventing accumulation of calcium and subsequent calpain activation and lenticular cell death in cultured Wistar rat lenses.

  13. Cascades frog conservation assessment

    Treesearch

    Karen Pope; Catherine Brown; Marc Hayes; Gregory Green; Diane Macfarlane

    2014-01-01

    The Cascades frog (Rana cascadae) is a montane, lentic-breeding amphibian that has become rare in the southern Cascade Range and remains relatively widespread in the Klamath Mountains of northern California. In the southern Cascades, remaining populations occur primarily in meadow habitats where the fungal disease, chytridiomycosis, and habitat...

  14. Southern cascades bioregion

    Treesearch

    Carl N. Skinner; Alan H. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    The Cascade Range extends from British Columbia, Canada, south to northern California where it meets the Sierra Nevada. The Southern Cascades bioregion in California is bounded on the west by the Sacramento Valley and the Klamath Mountains, and on the east by the Modoc Plateau and Great Basin. The bioregion encompasses the Southern Cascades section of Miles and Goudey...

  15. 76 FR 9613 - USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [EA-11-013] USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Order Approving Direct Transfer of Licenses and Conforming Amendment I USEC... Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility (Lead Cascade) and American Centrifuge Plant (ACP), respectively, which...

  16. Cascaded automatic target recognition (Cascaded ATR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Bradley

    2010-04-01

    The global war on terror has plunged US and coalition forces into a battle space requiring the continuous adaptation of tactics and technologies to cope with an elusive enemy. As a result, technologies that enhance the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission making the warfighter more effective are experiencing increased interest. In this paper we show how a new generation of smart cameras built around foveated sensing makes possible a powerful ISR technique termed Cascaded ATR. Foveated sensing is an innovative optical concept in which a single aperture captures two distinct fields of view. In Cascaded ATR, foveated sensing is used to provide a coarse resolution, persistent surveillance, wide field of view (WFOV) detector to accomplish detection level perception. At the same time, within the foveated sensor, these detection locations are passed as a cue to a steerable, high fidelity, narrow field of view (NFOV) detector to perform recognition level perception. Two new ISR mission scenarios, utilizing Cascaded ATR, are proposed.

  17. Learning optimal embedded cascades.

    PubMed

    Saberian, Mohammad Javad; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2012-10-01

    The problem of automatic and optimal design of embedded object detector cascades is considered. Two main challenges are identified: optimization of the cascade configuration and optimization of individual cascade stages, so as to achieve the best tradeoff between classification accuracy and speed, under a detection rate constraint. Two novel boosting algorithms are proposed to address these problems. The first, RCBoost, formulates boosting as a constrained optimization problem which is solved with a barrier penalty method. The constraint is the target detection rate, which is met at all iterations of the boosting process. This enables the design of embedded cascades of known configuration without extensive cross validation or heuristics. The second, ECBoost, searches over cascade configurations to achieve the optimal tradeoff between classification risk and speed. The two algorithms are combined into an overall boosting procedure, RCECBoost, which optimizes both the cascade configuration and its stages under a detection rate constraint, in a fully automated manner. Extensive experiments in face, car, pedestrian, and panda detection show that the resulting detectors achieve an accuracy versus speed tradeoff superior to those of previous methods.

  18. 77 FR 9273 - USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Direct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0355] USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Direct Transfer of Licenses In the Matter of USEC INC. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Order EA-12- [[Page 9274

  19. Howling about Trophic Cascades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalewski, David

    2012-01-01

    Following evolutionary theory and an agriculture model, ecosystem research has stressed bottom-up dynamics, implying that top wild predators are epiphenomenal effects of more basic causes. As such, they are assumed expendable. A more modern co-evolutionary and wilderness approach--trophic cascades--instead suggests that top predators, whose…

  20. Cascaded thermoacoustic devices

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.; Gardner, David L.

    2003-12-09

    A thermoacoustic device is formed with a resonator system defining at least one region of high specific acoustic impedance in an acoustic wave within the resonator system. A plurality of thermoacoustic units are cascaded together within the region of high specific acoustic impedance, where at least one of the thermoacoustic units is a regenerator unit.

  1. Renyi Entropies in Particle Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, A.; Czyz, W.; Ostruszka, A.

    2003-01-01

    Renyi entropies for particle distributions following from the general cascade models are discussed. The p-model and the β distribution introduced in earlier studies of cascades are discussed in some detail. Some phenomenological consequences are pointed out.

  2. Integrated Broadband Quantum Cascade Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Kamjou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A broadband, integrated quantum cascade laser is disclosed, comprising ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers formed by applying standard semiconductor process techniques to a monolithic structure of alternating layers of claddings and active region layers. The resulting ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers may be individually controlled by independent voltage potentials, resulting in control of the overall spectrum of the integrated quantum cascade laser source. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  3. Electromagnetic cascades in pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, J. K.; Harding, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    The development of pair photon cascades initiated by high energy electrons above a pulsar polar cap is simulated numerically. The calculation uses the energy of the primary electron, the magnetic field strength, and the period of rotation as parameters and follows the curvature radiation emitted by the primary, the conversion of this radiation e(+) - e(-) pairs in the intense fields, and the quantized synchrotron radiation by the secondary pairs. A recursive technique allows the tracing of an indefinite number of generations using a Monte Carlo method. Gamma ray and pair spectra are calculated for cascades in different parts of the polar cap and with different acceleration models. It is found that synchrotron radiation from secondary pairs makes an important contribution to the gamma ray spectrum above 25 MeV, and that the final gamma ray and pair spectra are insensitive to the height of the accelerating region, as long as the acceleration of the primary electrons is not limited by radiation reaction.

  4. Information cascade on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisakado, Masato; Mori, Shintaro

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model by considering three different kinds of networks: a random graph, the Barabási-Albert (BA) model, and a fitness model. A voting model represents the way in which public perceptions are conveyed to voters. Our voting model is constructed by using two types of voters-herders and independents-and two candidates. Independents conduct voting based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, herders base their voting on the number of previous votes. Hence, herders vote for the majority candidates and obtain information relating to previous votes from their networks. We discuss the difference between the phases on which the networks depend. Two kinds of phase transitions, an information cascade transition and a super-normal transition, were identified. The first of these is a transition between a state in which most voters make the correct choices and a state in which most of them are wrong. The second is a transition of convergence speed. The information cascade transition prevails when herder effects are stronger than the super-normal transition. In the BA and fitness models, the critical point of the information cascade transition is the same as that of the random network model. However, the critical point of the super-normal transition disappears when these two models are used. In conclusion, the influence of networks is shown to only affect the convergence speed and not the information cascade transition. We are therefore able to conclude that the influence of hubs on voters' perceptions is limited.

  5. Stochastic Flow Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Shlesinger, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and explore a Stochastic Flow Cascade (SFC) model: A general statistical model for the unidirectional flow through a tandem array of heterogeneous filters. Examples include the flow of: (i) liquid through heterogeneous porous layers; (ii) shocks through tandem shot noise systems; (iii) signals through tandem communication filters. The SFC model combines together the Langevin equation, convolution filters and moving averages, and Poissonian randomizations. A comprehensive analysis of the SFC model is carried out, yielding closed-form results. Lévy laws are shown to universally emerge from the SFC model, and characterize both heavy tailed retention times (Noah effect) and long-ranged correlations (Joseph effect).

  6. The Ufm1 Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Jens; Liebau, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (Ufm1) is a posttranslational modifier that belongs to the ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) family. Ufm1 is present in nearly all eukaryotic organisms, with the exception of fungi. It resembles ubiquitin in its ability to be ligated to other proteins, as well as in the mechanism of ligation. While the Ufm1 cascade has been implicated in endoplasmic reticulum functions and cell cycle control, its biological role still remains poorly understood. In this short review, we summarize the current state of Ufm1 research and its potential role in human diseases, like diabetes, ischemic heart disease and cancer. PMID:24921187

  7. COMPACT CASCADE IMPACTS

    DOEpatents

    Lippmann, M.

    1964-04-01

    A cascade particle impactor capable of collecting particles and distributing them according to size is described. In addition the device is capable of collecting on a pair of slides a series of different samples so that less time is required for the changing of slides. Other features of the device are its compactness and its ruggedness making it useful under field conditions. Essentially the unit consists of a main body with a series of transverse jets discharging on a pair of parallel, spaced glass plates. The plates are capable of being moved incremental in steps to obtain the multiple samples. (AEC)

  8. Cascade Mtns. Oregon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-19

    The ground near one of the long-dormant Three Sisters volcanoes in the Cascade Mountains of west-central Oregon has risen approximately 10centimeters in a 10-by-20-km parcel since 1996, meaning that magma or underground lava is slowly flowing into the area, according to a research team from the U.S. Geological Survey. The Three Sisters area -- which contains five volcanoes -- is only about 170 miles from Mount St. Helens, which erupted in 1980. Both are part of the Cascades Range, a line of 27volcanoes stretching from British Columbia in Canada to northern California. This perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER image over digital topography from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset. This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03492

  9. The Cascade Forestry Service Nursery

    Treesearch

    Don Westefer

    2002-01-01

    Cascade Forestry Service, Inc., is a private reforestation nursery and service company that has grown from a shoestring operation into an employee-owned company that both produces reforestation trees and assists landowners with forestry development and management. The Northeastern Forest and Conservation Nursery Association has proven instrumental in Cascade Forestry...

  10. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  11. Inferring network structure from cascades.

    PubMed

    Ghonge, Sushrut; Vural, Dervis Can

    2017-07-01

    Many physical, biological, and social phenomena can be described by cascades taking place on a network. Often, the activity can be empirically observed, but not the underlying network of interactions. In this paper we offer three topological methods to infer the structure of any directed network given a set of cascade arrival times. Our formulas hold for a very general class of models where the activation probability of a node is a generic function of its degree and the number of its active neighbors. We report high success rates for synthetic and real networks, for several different cascade models.

  12. Inferring network structure from cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghonge, Sushrut; Vural, Dervis Can

    2017-07-01

    Many physical, biological, and social phenomena can be described by cascades taking place on a network. Often, the activity can be empirically observed, but not the underlying network of interactions. In this paper we offer three topological methods to infer the structure of any directed network given a set of cascade arrival times. Our formulas hold for a very general class of models where the activation probability of a node is a generic function of its degree and the number of its active neighbors. We report high success rates for synthetic and real networks, for several different cascade models.

  13. Cascading effects following intervention.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Gerald R; Forgatch, Marion S; Degarmo, David S

    2010-11-01

    Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial of a preventive intervention using the Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments.

  14. Cascading Effects Following Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Gerald R.; Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a preventive intervention using Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning (SIL) model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments. PMID:20883592

  15. What is a Trophic Cascade?

    PubMed

    Ripple, William J; Estes, James A; Schmitz, Oswald J; Constant, Vanessa; Kaylor, Matthew J; Lenz, Adam; Motley, Jennifer L; Self, Katharine E; Taylor, David S; Wolf, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Few concepts in ecology have been so influential as that of the trophic cascade. Since the 1980s, the term has been a central or major theme of more than 2000 scientific articles. Despite this importance and widespread usage, basic questions remain about what constitutes a trophic cascade. Inconsistent usage of language impedes scientific progress and the utility of scientific concepts in management and conservation. Herein, we offer a definition of trophic cascade that is designed to be both widely applicable yet explicit enough to exclude extraneous interactions. We discuss our proposed definition and its implications, and define important related terms, thereby providing a common language for scientists, policy makers, conservationists, and other stakeholders with an interest in trophic cascades. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  17. Cascading gravity is ghost free

    SciTech Connect

    Rham, Claudia de; Khoury, Justin; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2010-06-15

    We perform a full perturbative stability analysis of the 6D cascading gravity model in the presence of 3-brane tension. We demonstrate that for sufficiently large tension on the (flat) 3-brane, there are no ghosts at the perturbative level, consistent with results that had previously only been obtained in a specific 5D decoupling limit. These results establish the cascading gravity framework as a consistent infrared modification of gravity.

  18. The cascade high productivity language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, David; Chamberlain, Branford L.; Zima, Hans P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design of Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, which is being developed in the DARPA-funded HPCS project Cascade led by Cray Inc. Chapel pushes the state-of-the-art in languages for HEC system programming by focusing on productivity, in particular by combining the goal of highest possible object code performance with that of programmability offered by a high-level user interface.

  19. Computation of inverse magnetic cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1981-01-01

    Inverse cascades of magnetic quantities for turbulent incompressible magnetohydrodynamics are reviewed, for two and three dimensions. The theory is extended to the Strauss equations, a description intermediate between two and three dimensions appropriate to Tokamak magnetofluids. Consideration of the absolute equilibrium Gibbs ensemble for the system leads to a prediction of an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which may manifest itself as a major disruption. An agenda for computational investigation of this conjecture is proposed.

  20. Interband Cascade Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui Q.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.

    2014-09-24

    In this project, we are performing basic and applied research to systematically investigate our newly proposed interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) cells [1]. These cells follow from the great success of infrared IC lasers [2-3] that pioneered the use of quantum-engineered IC structures. This quantum-engineered approach will enable PV cells to efficiently convert infrared radiation from the sun or other heat source, to electricity. Such cells will have important applications for more efficient use of solar energy, waste-heat recovery, and power beaming in combination with mid-infrared lasers. The objectives of our investigations are to: achieve extensive understanding of the fundamentalmore » aspects of the proposed PV structures, develop the necessary knowledge for making such IC PV cells, and demonstrate prototype working PV cells. This research will focus on IC PV structures and their segments for utilizing infrared radiation with wavelengths from 2 to 5 μm, a range well suited for emission by heat sources (1,000-2,000 K) that are widely available from combustion systems. The long-term goal of this project is to push PV technology to longer wavelengths, allowing for relatively low-temperature thermal sources. Our investigations address material quality, electrical and optical properties, and their interplay for the different regions of an IC PV structure. The tasks involve: design, modeling and optimization of IC PV structures, molecular beam epitaxial growth of PV structures and relevant segments, material characterization, prototype device fabrication and testing. At the end of this program, we expect to generate new cutting-edge knowledge in the design and understanding of quantum-engineered semiconductor structures, and demonstrate the concepts for IC PV devices with high conversion efficiencies.« less

  1. Regulatory cascade of neuronal loss and glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mubashir; Sehgal, Sheikh A; Rashid, Sajid

    2014-01-01

    During recent years, numerous lines of research including proteomics and molecular biology have highlighted multiple targets and signaling pathways involved in metabolic abnormalities and neurodegeneration. However, correlation studies of individual neurodegenerative disorders (ND) including Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in association with Diabetes type 2 Mellitus (D2M) are demanding tasks. Here, we report a comprehensive mechanistic overview of major contributors involved in process-based co-regulation of D2M and NDs. D2M is linked with Alzheimer's disease through deregulation of calcium ions thereby leading to metabolic fluctuations of glucose and insulin. Parkinson-associated proteins disturb insulin level through ATP-sensitive potassium ion channels and extracellular signal-regulated kinases to enhance glucose level. Similarly, proteins which perturb carbohydrate metabolism for disturbing glucose homeostasis link Huntington, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and D2M. Other misleading processes which interconnect D2M and NDs include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and microRNAs (miRNA29a/b and miRNA-9). Overall, the collective listing of pathway-specific targets would help in establishing novel connections between NDs and D2M to explore better therapeutic interventions.

  2. Cascaded-cladding-pumped cascaded Raman fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huawei; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Yan

    2015-06-01

    The conversion efficiency of double-clad Raman fiber laser is limited by the cladding-to-core area ratio. To get high conversion efficiency, the inner-cladding-to-core area ratio has to be less than about 8, which limits the brightness enhancement. To overcome the problem, a cascaded-cladding-pumped cascaded Raman fiber laser with multiple-clad fiber as the Raman gain medium is proposed. A theoretical model of Raman fiber amplifier with multiple-clad fiber is developed, and numerical simulation proves that the proposed scheme can improve the conversion efficiency and brightness enhancement of cladding pumped Raman fiber laser.

  3. High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-03-06

    An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm -1 at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy.

  4. High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-01-01

    An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm−1 at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy. PMID:28262834

  5. Rescuing Ecosystems from Extinction Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahasrabudhe, Sagar; Motter, Adilson

    2010-03-01

    Food web perturbations stemming from climate change, overexploitation, invasive species, and natural disasters often cause an initial loss of species that results in a cascade of secondary extinctions. Using a predictive modeling framework, here we will present a systematic network-based approach to reduce the number of secondary extinctions. We will show that the extinction of one species can often be compensated by the concurrent removal of a second specific species, which is a counter-intuitive effect not previously tested in complex food webs. These compensatory perturbations frequently involve long-range interactions that are not a priori evident from local predator-prey relationships. Strikingly, in numerous cases even the early removal of a species that would eventually be extinct by the cascade is found to significantly reduce the number of cascading extinctions. Other nondestructive interventions based on partial removals and growth suppression and/or mortality increase are shown to sometimes prevent all secondary extinctions.

  6. Infectious Agents Trigger Trophic Cascades.

    PubMed

    Buck, Julia C; Ripple, William J

    2017-09-01

    Most demonstrated trophic cascades originate with predators, but infectious agents can also cause top-down indirect effects in ecosystems. Here we synthesize the literature on trophic cascades initiated by infectious agents including parasitoids, pathogens, parasitic castrators, macroparasites, and trophically transmitted parasites. Like predators, infectious agents can cause density-mediated and trait-mediated indirect effects through their direct consumptive and nonconsumptive effects respectively. Unlike most predators, however, infectious agents are not fully and immediately lethal to their victims, so their consumptive effects can also trigger trait-mediated indirect effects. We find that the frequency of trophic cascades reported for different consumer types scales with consumer lethality. Furthermore, we emphasize the value of uniting predator-prey and parasite-host theory under a general consumer-resource framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extending earthquakes' reach through cascading.

    PubMed

    Marsan, David; Lengliné, Olivier

    2008-02-22

    Earthquakes, whatever their size, can trigger other earthquakes. Mainshocks cause aftershocks to occur, which in turn activate their own local aftershock sequences, resulting in a cascade of triggering that extends the reach of the initial mainshock. A long-lasting difficulty is to determine which earthquakes are connected, either directly or indirectly. Here we show that this causal structure can be found probabilistically, with no a priori model nor parameterization. Large regional earthquakes are found to have a short direct influence in comparison to the overall aftershock sequence duration. Relative to these large mainshocks, small earthquakes collectively have a greater effect on triggering. Hence, cascade triggering is a key component in earthquake interactions.

  8. Design of Choking Cascade Turns.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    L D-R124 792 DESIGN OF CHOK~ING CASCADE TURNSCU) AIR FORCE INST OF v TECH MRIGHT-PAT1TERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING J BAIRD DEC 82 AFIT/GRE/AA...82D- 3 DESIGN OF CHOKING *’ CASCADE TURNS THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Enqineerinq of the Air Force Institute of Technoloqy Air ...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 4* Preface Ramjet engines are being considered by both the Air Force and Navy for tactical air

  9. Fluctuation sensitivity of a transcriptional signaling cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilkiewicz, Kevin R.; Mayo, Michael L.

    2016-09-01

    The internal biochemical state of a cell is regulated by a vast transcriptional network that kinetically correlates the concentrations of numerous proteins. Fluctuations in protein concentration that encode crucial information about this changing state must compete with fluctuations caused by the noisy cellular environment in order to successfully transmit information across the network. Oftentimes, one protein must regulate another through a sequence of intermediaries, and conventional wisdom, derived from the data processing inequality of information theory, leads us to expect that longer sequences should lose more information to noise. Using the metric of mutual information to characterize the fluctuation sensitivity of transcriptional signaling cascades, we find, counter to this expectation, that longer chains of regulatory interactions can instead lead to enhanced informational efficiency. We derive an analytic expression for the mutual information from a generalized chemical kinetics model that we reduce to simple, mass-action kinetics by linearizing for small fluctuations about the basal biological steady state, and we find that at long times this expression depends only on a simple ratio of protein production to destruction rates and the length of the cascade. We place bounds on the values of these parameters by requiring that the mutual information be at least one bit—otherwise, any received signal would be indistinguishable from noise—and we find not only that nature has devised a way to circumvent the data processing inequality, but that it must be circumvented to attain this one-bit threshold. We demonstrate how this result places informational and biochemical efficiency at odds with one another by correlating high transcription factor binding affinities with low informational output, and we conclude with an analysis of the validity of our assumptions and propose how they might be tested experimentally.

  10. Activation Cascading in Sign Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Peressotti, Francesca; Lerose, Luigi; Miozzo, Michele

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how activation unfolds in sign production by examining whether signs that are not produced have their representations activated by semantics (cascading of activation). Deaf signers were tested with a picture-picture interference task. Participants were presented with pairs of overlapping pictures and named the green…

  11. Engineering Light: Quantum Cascade Lasers

    ScienceCinema

    Claire Gmachl

    2017-12-09

    Quantum cascade lasers are ideal for environmental sensing and medical diagnostic applications. Gmachl discusses how these lasers work, and their applications, including their use as chemical trace gas sensors. As examples of these applications, she briefly presents results from her field campaign at the Beijing Olympics, and ongoing campaigns in Texas, Maryland, and Ghana.

  12. ERK5 signaling gets XIAPed: a role for ubiquitin in the disassembly of a MAPK cascade

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Aileen M; Cobb, Melanie H

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are tightly controlled through a series of well-characterized phospho-regulatory events. In this issue, Takeda et al (2014) identify the inhibitor of apoptosis protein, XIAP, as a key regulator of ERK5 activation via uncoupling of upstream kinase activity by non-degradative ubiquitination. PMID:25012518

  13. Integrated patch and slot array antenna for terahertz quantum cascade lasers at 4.7 THz

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, C., E-mail: bonzonc@phys.ethz.ch; Benea Chelmus, I. C.; Ohtani, K.

    2014-04-21

    Our work presents a slot and a patch array antenna at the front facet of a 4.7 THz quantum cascade laser as extractor, decreasing the facet reflectivity down to 2.6%. The resulting output power increases by a factor 2 and the slope efficiency by a factor 4. The simulated and the measured far-fields are in good agreement.

  14. Cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Genty, G; Murdoch, S G

    2013-01-15

    We report on a theoretical and experimental study of cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics. We show that the usual energy-momentum conservation of Bragg scattering can be considerably relaxed via cascade-induced phase-matching. Experimentally we demonstrate frequency translation over six- and 11-fold cascades, in excellent agreement with derived phase-matching conditions.

  15. Cosmic-ray cascades photographed in scintillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowes, S. C.; Huggett, R. W.; Levit, L. B.; Porter, L. G.

    1974-01-01

    Light produced by nuclear-electromagnetic cascades in a plastic scintillator can be photographed, and the resulting images on film used to measure both the energy content of the cascades and also the positions at which the cascades passed through the scintillator. The energy content of a cascade can be measured to 20% and its position determined to plus or minus 0.8 cm in each scintillator. Techniques for photographing the cascades and analyzing the film are described. Sample data are presented and discussed.

  16. Cascade aeroacoustics including steady loading effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Fleeter, Sanford

    A mathematical model is developed to analyze the effects of airfoil and cascade geometry, steady aerodynamic loading, and the characteristics of the unsteady flow field on the discrete frequency noise generation of a blade row in an incompressible flow. The unsteady lift which generates the noise is predicted with a complex first-order cascade convected gust analysis. This model was then applied to the Gostelow airfoil cascade and variations, demonstrating that steady loading, cascade solidity, and the gust direction are significant. Also, even at zero incidence, the classical flat plate cascade predictions are unacceptable.

  17. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Along its Oregon segment, the Cascade Range is almost entirely volcanic in origin. The volcanoes and their eroded remnants are the visible magmatic expression of the Cascadia subduction zone, where the offshore Juan de Fuca tectonic plate is subducted beneath North America. Subduction occurs as two lithospheric plates collide, and an underthrusted oceanic plate is commonly dragged into the mantle by the pull of gravity, carrying ocean-bottom rock and sediment down to where heat and pressure expel water. As this water rises, it lowers the melting temperature in the overlying hot mantle rocks, thereby promoting melting. The molten rock supplies the volcanic arcs with heat and magma. Cascade Range volcanoes are part of the Ring of Fire, a popular term for the numerous volcanic arcs that encircle the Pacific Ocean.

  18. Bankruptcy cascades in interbank markets.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Gabriele; Mazloumian, Amin; Gallegati, Mauro; Helbing, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We study a credit network and, in particular, an interbank system with an agent-based model. To understand the relationship between business cycles and cascades of bankruptcies, we model a three-sector economy with goods, credit and interbank market. In the interbank market, the participating banks share the risk of bad debits, which may potentially spread a bank's liquidity problems through the network of banks. Our agent-based model sheds light on the correlation between bankruptcy cascades and the endogenous economic cycle of booms and recessions. It also demonstrates the serious trade-off between, on the one hand, reducing risks of individual banks by sharing them and, on the other hand, creating systemic risks through credit-related interlinkages of banks. As a result of our study, the dynamics underlying the meltdown of financial markets in 2008 becomes much better understandable.

  19. Bankruptcy Cascades in Interbank Markets

    PubMed Central

    Tedeschi, Gabriele; Mazloumian, Amin; Gallegati, Mauro; Helbing, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We study a credit network and, in particular, an interbank system with an agent-based model. To understand the relationship between business cycles and cascades of bankruptcies, we model a three-sector economy with goods, credit and interbank market. In the interbank market, the participating banks share the risk of bad debits, which may potentially spread a bank’s liquidity problems through the network of banks. Our agent-based model sheds light on the correlation between bankruptcy cascades and the endogenous economic cycle of booms and recessions. It also demonstrates the serious trade-off between, on the one hand, reducing risks of individual banks by sharing them and, on the other hand, creating systemic risks through credit-related interlinkages of banks. As a result of our study, the dynamics underlying the meltdown of financial markets in 2008 becomes much better understandable. PMID:23300760

  20. Interband Cascade Laser Photon Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    undergo radiative or nonradiative interband transitions into the GaInSb QW, tunnel into the adjacent GaSb QW and then enter the next injection region by... interband tunneling . The laser structures were grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy and processed into mesa-stripe lasers with a mesa width of 15 1... INTERBAND CASCADE LASER PHOTON NOISE Patrick A. Folkes Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ABSTRACT We report

  1. Room Temperature Interband Cascade Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    interband cascade laser (ICL) [6]-[8] is particularly convenient, since the semimetallic band alignment between InAs and GaSb allows the electrons that...superlattice claddings and a non-ohmic part that may be associated with various band discontinuities in the structure . While the latter can probably be...made a radiative transition to the valence band to be transferred readily back to the conduction band via elastic or nearly elastic processes. Our

  2. Lens Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor); Hu, Qing (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz quantum cascade (QC) devices are disclosed that can operate, e.g., in a range of about 1 THz to about 10 THz. In some embodiments, QC lasers are disclosed in which an optical element (e.g., a lens) is coupled to an output facet of the laser's active region to enhance coupling of the lasing radiation from the active region to an external environment. In other embodiments, terahertz amplifier and tunable terahertz QC lasers are disclosed.

  3. Can 'Cascades' make guidelines global?

    PubMed

    Fried, Michael; Krabshuis, Justus

    2008-10-01

    Why are guidelines in medicine so important today? What role do they have? Why and how did the World Gastroenterology Organization (WGO) choose a global focus? What does this mean for guidelines? These are the underlying questions addressed by our article. We argue that the addition of 'Cascades' to guidelines will increase their impact in large parts of the world. By so doing, we hope to add a new dimension to the 'knowledge into action' debate. A number of illustrations shows how raised expectations and resource restrictions pose - or should pose - an enormous challenge for guideline makers. Furthermore, the emphasis on evidence also creates problems for guideline making. If resources are limited it is unlikely gold-standard technologies are available. We believe Cascades can help. A Cascade is a selection of two or more hierarchical diagnostic or therapeutic options, based on proven medical procedures, methods, tools or products for the same disease, condition or diagnosis, aiming to achieve the same outcome and ranked by available resources. The construction of such a cascade is a hazardous intellectual journey that goes, to some extent, against established practice. But lives can be saved by matching options for diagnosis and treatment to available resources. While the optimal strategy, defined through an evidence-based approach, should always be the goal, one must be aware of the resource limitations that confront our colleagues in certain parts of the world and we should endeavour to work with them in the guideline development process to develop strategies that are clinically sound yet economically feasible and dacceptable to their populace.

  4. Cascade defense via routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Lan; Du, Wen-Bo; Hong, Chen

    2015-05-01

    As the cascading failures in networked traffic systems are becoming more and more serious, research on cascade defense in complex networks has become a hotspot in recent years. In this paper, we propose a traffic-based cascading failure model, in which each packet in the network has its own source and destination. When cascade is triggered, packets will be redistributed according to a given routing strategy. Here, a global hybrid (GH) routing strategy, which uses the dynamic information of the queue length and the static information of nodes' degree, is proposed to defense the network cascade. Comparing GH strategy with the shortest path (SP) routing, efficient routing (ER) and global dynamic (GD) routing strategies, we found that GH strategy is more effective than other routing strategies in improving the network robustness against cascading failures. Our work provides insight into the robustness of networked traffic systems.

  5. WHISTLER TURBULENCE FORWARD CASCADE VERSUS INVERSE CASCADE: THREE-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE-IN-CELL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ouliang; Gary, S. Peter; Wang, Joseph, E-mail: ouliang@usc.edu, E-mail: pgary@lanl.gov, E-mail: josephjw@usc.edu

    2015-02-20

    We present the results of the first fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying whistler turbulence in a magnetized, homogeneous, collisionless plasma in which both forward cascades to shorter wavelengths, and inverse cascades to longer wavelengths are allowed to proceed. For the electron beta β {sub e} = 0.10 initial value considered here, the early-time rate of inverse cascade is very much smaller than the rate of forward cascade, so that at late times the fluctuation energy in the regime of the inverse cascade is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime. Similarly, the wavevector anisotropy in the inversemore » cascade regime is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime.« less

  6. An interacting boundary layer model for cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. T.; Rothmayer, A. P.

    1983-01-01

    A laminar, incompressible interacting boundary layer model is developed for two-dimensional cascades. In the limit of large cascade spacing these equations reduce to the interacting boundary layer equations for a single body immersed in an infinite stream. A fully implicit numerical method is used to solve the governing equations, and is found to be at least as efficient as the same technique applied to the single body problem. Solutions are then presented for a cascade of finite flat plates and a cascade of finite sine-waves, with cusped leading and trailing edges.

  7. Dynamics of cavitating cascades and inducer pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennen, C. E.; Acosta, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Report chronicles advances in understanding and predicting unsteady dynamic characteristics of cavitating cascades and inducer pumps. It includes bibliography of 19 papers authored between 1972 and 1980.

  8. Energy Cascade in Quantum Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, X. Y.; Ho, Tin-Lun

    Energy cascade is ubiquitous in systems far from equilibrium. Facilitated by particle interactions and external forces, it can lead to highly complex phenomena like fully developed turbulence, characterized by power law velocity correlation functions. Yet despite decades of research, how these power laws emerge from first principle remains unclear. Recently, experiments show that when a Bose condensate is subjected to periodic shaking, its momentum distribution exhibits a power law behavior. The flexibility of cold atom experiments has provided new opportunities to explore the emergence of these power laws, and to disentangle different sources of energy cascade. Here, we point out that recent experiments in cold atoms imply that classical turbulence is part of a larger family of scale invariant phenomena that include ideal gases. Moreover, the property of the entire family is contained in the structure of its Floquet states. For ideal gases, we show analytically that its momentum distribution acquires a 1 /q2 tail in each dimension when it is shaken periodically. We acknowledge NSF Grant DMR1309615, MURI Grant FP054294-D, and NASA Fundamental Physics Grant 1518233.

  9. A cascaded silicon Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Haisheng; Xu, Shengbo; Cohen, Oded; Raday, Omri; Lee, Mindy; Sih, Vanessa; Paniccia, Mario

    2008-03-01

    One of the major advantages of Raman lasers is their ability to generate coherent light in wavelength regions that are not easily accessible with other conventional types of lasers. Recently, efficient Raman lasing in silicon in the near-infrared region has been demonstrated, showing great potential for realizing low-cost, compact, room-temperature lasers in the mid-infrared region. Such lasers are highly desirable for many applications, ranging from trace-gas sensing, environmental monitoring and biomedical analysis, to industrial process control, and free-space communications. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of cascaded Raman lasing in silicon, opening the path to extending the lasing wavelength from the near- to mid-infrared region. Using a 1,550-nm pump source, we achieve stable, continuous-wave, second-order cascaded lasing at 1,848 nm with an output power exceeding 5 mW. The laser operates in single mode, and the laser linewidth is measured to be <2.5 MHz.

  10. Cascading costs: an economic nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Moomaw, William R; Birch, Melissa B L

    2005-09-01

    The chemical nitrogen cycle is becoming better characterized in terms of fluxes and reservoirs on a variety of scales. Galloway has demonstrated that reactive nitrogen can cascade through multiple ecosystems causing environmental damage at each stage before being denitrified to N(2). We propose to construct a parallel economic nitrogen cascade (ENC) in which economic impacts of nitrogen fluxes can be estimated by the costs associated with each stage of the chemical cascade. Using economic data for the benefits of damage avoided and costs of mitigation in the Chesapeake Bay basin, we have constructed an economic nitrogen cascade for the region. Since a single ton of nitrogen can cascade through the system, the costs also cascade. Therefore evaluating the benefits of mitigating a ton of reactive nitrogen released needs to consider the damage avoided in all of the ecosystems through which that ton would cascade. The analysis reveals that it is most cost effective to remove a ton of nitrogen coming from combustion since it has the greatest impact on human health and creates cascading damage through the atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic and coastal ecosystems. We will discuss the implications of this analysis for determining the most cost effective policy option for achieving environmental quality goals.

  11. Cascading costs: an economic nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Moomaw, William R; Birch, Melissa B L

    2005-12-01

    The chemical nitrogen cycle is becoming better characterized in terms of fluxes and reservoirs on a variety of scales. Galloway has demonstrated that reactive nitrogen can cascade through multiple ecosystems causing environmental damage at each stage before being denitrified to N2. We propose to construct a parallel economic nitrogen cascade (ENC) in which economic impacts of nitrogen fluxes can be estimated by the costs associated with each stage of the chemical cascade. Using economic data for the benefits of damage avoided and costs of mitigation in the Chesapeake Bay basin, we have constructed an economic nitrogen cascade for the region. Since a single tonne of nitrogen can cascade through the system, the costs also cascade. Therefore evaluating the benefits of mitigating a tonne of reactive nitrogen released needs to consider the damage avoided in all of the ecosystems through which that tonne would cascade. The analysis reveals that it is most cost effective to remove a tonne of nitrogen coming from combustion since it has the greatest impact on human health and creates cascading damage through the atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic and coastal ecosystems. We will discuss the implications of this analysis for determining the most cost effective policy option for achieving environmental quality goals.

  12. Cascading disaster models in postburn flash flood

    Treesearch

    Fred May

    2007-01-01

    A useful method of modeling threats from hazards and documenting their disaster causation sequences is called “cascading threat modeling.” This type of modeling enables emergency planners to address hazard and risk assessments systematically. This paper describes a cascading threat modeling and analysis process. Wildfire and an associated postburn flash flood disaster...

  13. Aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1990-01-01

    The steady and unsteady aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade are investigated using experimental and computational methods. Experiments are performed to quantify the torsion mode oscillating cascade aerodynamics of the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade for subsonic inlet flowfields using two methods: simultaneous oscillation of all the cascaded airfoils at various values of interblade phase angle, and the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. Analysis of these data and correlation with classical linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis predictions indicate that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the cascade have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the cascade unsteady aerodynamics. An Euler code for oscillating cascade aerodynamics is modified to incorporate improved upstream and downstream boundary conditions and also the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic predictions of the code, and the computational unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is shown to be a viable alternative for calculation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics.

  14. THz quantum cascade lasers with wafer bonded active regions.

    PubMed

    Brandstetter, M; Deutsch, C; Benz, A; Cole, G D; Detz, H; Andrews, A M; Schrenk, W; Strasser, G; Unterrainer, K

    2012-10-08

    We demonstrate terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with a 30 μm thick double-metal waveguide, which are fabricated by stacking two 15 μm thick active regions using a wafer bonding process. By increasing the active region thickness more optical power is generated inside the cavity, the waveguide losses are decreased and the far-field is improved due to a larger facet aperture. In this way the output power is increased by significantly more than a factor of 2 without reducing the maximum operating temperature and without increasing the threshold current.

  15. Dynamically induced cascading failures in power grids.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Witthaut, Dirk; Timme, Marc; Latora, Vito

    2018-05-17

    Reliable functioning of infrastructure networks is essential for our modern society. Cascading failures are the cause of most large-scale network outages. Although cascading failures often exhibit dynamical transients, the modeling of cascades has so far mainly focused on the analysis of sequences of steady states. In this article, we focus on electrical transmission networks and introduce a framework that takes into account both the event-based nature of cascades and the essentials of the network dynamics. We find that transients of the order of seconds in the flows of a power grid play a crucial role in the emergence of collective behaviors. We finally propose a forecasting method to identify critical lines and components in advance or during operation. Overall, our work highlights the relevance of dynamically induced failures on the synchronization dynamics of national power grids of different European countries and provides methods to predict and model cascading failures.

  16. Physics of cosmological cascades and observable properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitoussi, T.; Belmont, R.; Malzac, J.; Marcowith, A.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Jean, P.

    2017-04-01

    TeV photons from extragalactic sources are absorbed in the intergalactic medium and initiate electromagnetic cascades. These cascades offer a unique tool to probe the properties of the universe at cosmological scales. We present a new Monte Carlo code dedicated to the physics of such cascades. This code has been tested against both published results and analytical approximations, and is made publicly available. Using this numerical tool, we investigate the main cascade properties (spectrum, halo extension and time delays), and study in detail their dependence on the physical parameters (extragalactic magnetic field, extragalactic background light, source redshift, source spectrum and beaming emission). The limitations of analytical solutions are emphasized. In particular, analytical approximations account only for the first generation of photons and higher branches of the cascade tree are neglected.

  17. Cascades in interdependent flow networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, Antonio; De Sanctis Lucentini, Pier Giorgio; Caldarelli, Guido; D'Agostino, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    In this manuscript, we investigate the abrupt breakdown behavior of coupled distribution grids under load growth. This scenario mimics the ever-increasing customer demand and the foreseen introduction of energy hubs interconnecting the different energy vectors. We extend an analytical model of cascading behavior due to line overloads to the case of interdependent networks and find evidence of first order transitions due to the long-range nature of the flows. Our results indicate that the foreseen increase in the couplings between the grids has two competing effects: on the one hand, it increases the safety region where grids can operate without withstanding systemic failures; on the other hand, it increases the possibility of a joint systems' failure.

  18. Living With Volcanic Risk in the Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1997-01-01

    The Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest has more than a dozen potentially active volcanoes. Cascade volcanoes tend to erupt explosively, and on average two eruptions occur per century?the most recent were at Mount St. Helens, Washington (1980?86 and 2004?8), and Lassen Peak, California (1914?17). To help protect the Pacific Northwest?s rapidly expanding population, USGS scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington, monitor and assess the hazards posed by the region?s volcanoes.

  19. Gust Response Analysis of a Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorla, R. S. R.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Reddy, D. R.; Kurkov, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    A study was made of the gust response of an annular turbine cascade using a two-dimensional Navier Stokes code. The time-marching CFD code, NPARC, was used to calculate the unsteady forces due to the fluid flow. The computational results were compared with a previously published experimental data for the annular cascade reported in the literature. Reduced frequency, Mach number and angle of incidence were varied independently and the gust velocity was sinusoidal. For the high inlet velocity case, the cascade was nearly choked.

  20. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  1. North Cascades Stehekin Valley Vehicle Decision Document.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-08-31

    This document serves as technical substantiation in support of a procurement for a fleet of vehicles to be used to operate a scheduled shuttle operation with multiple stops at North Cascades National Park Service Complex (NOCA), in the Stehekin Valle...

  2. Output control using feedforward and cascade controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    An open-loop solution to the output control problem in SISO (single-input, single-output) systems by means of feedforward and cascade controllers is investigated. A simple characterization of feedforward controllers, which achieve steady-state disturbance rejection, is given in a transfer-function setting. Cascade controllers which cause steady-state command tracking are characterized. Disturbance decoupling and command matching controllers are identified. Conditions for existence of feedforward and cascade controllers are given. For unstable systems, it is shown that a stabilizing feedback controller can be used without affecting the feedforward and cascade controllers used for output control; hence, the three controllers can be designed independently. Output control by a combination of feedforward and feedback is discussed.

  3. Displacement Cascade Damage Production in Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, Roger E; Malerba, Lorenzo; Nordlund, Kai

    Radiation-induced changes in microstructure and mechanical properties in structural materials are the result of a complex set of physical processes initiated by the collision between an energetic particle (neutron or ion) and an atom in the lattice. This primary damage event is called an atomic displacement cascade. The simplest description of a displacement cascade is to view it as a series of many billiard-ball-like elastic collisions among the atoms in the material. This chapter describes the formation and evolution of this primary radiation damage mechanism to provide an overview of how stable defects are formed by displacement cascades, as wellmore » as the nature and morphology of the defects themselves. The impact of the relevant variables such as cascade energy and irradiation temperature is discussed, and defect formation in different materials is compared.« less

  4. Modeling and analysis of cascade solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, F. D.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review is given of the present status of the development of cascade solar cells. It is known that photovoltaic efficiencies can be improved through this development. The designs and calculations of the multijunction cells, however, are quite complicated. The main goal is to find a method which is a compromise between accuracy and simplicity for modeling a cascade solar cell. Three approaches are presently under way, among them (1) equivalent circuit approach, (2) numerical approach, and (3) analytical approach. Here, the first and the second approaches are discussed. The equivalent circuit approach using SPICE (Simulation Program, Integrated Circuit Emphasis) to the cascade cells and the cascade-cell array is highlighted. The methods of extracting parameters for modeling are discussed.

  5. Mode Locking of Quantum Cascade Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-09

    E. Siegman , Lasers , University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA (1986). [2] A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd edition, John Wiley and Sons, New...REPORT Mode Locking of Quantum Cascade Lasers 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: A theoretical and experimental study of multimode operation...regimes in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is presented. It is shown that the fast gain recovery of QCLs promotes two multimode regimes in QCLs: One is

  6. Innovation cascades: artefacts, organization and attributions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Innovation cascades inextricably link the introduction of new artefacts, transformations in social organization, and the emergence of new functionalities and new needs. This paper describes a positive feedback dynamic, exaptive bootstrapping, through which these cascades proceed, and the characteristics of the relationships in which the new attributions that drive this dynamic are generated. It concludes by arguing that the exaptive bootstrapping dynamic is the principal driver of our current Innovation Society. PMID:26926284

  7. Recent biocatalytic oxidation–reduction cascades

    PubMed Central

    Schrittwieser, Joerg H; Sattler, Johann; Resch, Verena; Mutti, Francesco G; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The combination of an oxidation and a reduction in a cascade allows performing transformations in a very economic and efficient fashion. The challenge is how to combine an oxidation with a reduction in one pot, either by running the two reactions simultaneously or in a stepwise fashion without isolation of intermediates. The broader availability of various redox enzymes nowadays has triggered the recent investigation of various oxidation–reduction cascades. PMID:21130024

  8. Experimental determination of unsteady blade element aerodynamics in cascades. Volume 2: Translation mode cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riffel, R. E.; Rothrock, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    A two dimensional cascade of harmonically oscillating airfoils was designed to model a near tip section from a rotor which was known to have experienced supersonic translational model flutter. This five bladed cascade had a solidity of 1.52 and a setting angle of 0.90 rad. Unique graphite epoxy airfoils were fabricated to achieve the realistic high reduced frequency level of 0.15. The cascade was tested over a range of static pressure ratios approximating the blade element operating conditions of the rotor along a constant speed line which penetrated the flutter boundary. The time steady and time unsteady flow field surrounding the center cascade airfoil were investigated.

  9. Emergence of event cascades in inhomogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaga, Tomokatsu; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    There is a commonality among contagious diseases, tweets, and neuronal firings that past events facilitate the future occurrence of events. The spread of events has been extensively studied such that the systems exhibit catastrophic chain reactions if the interaction represented by the ratio of reproduction exceeds unity; however, their subthreshold states are not fully understood. Here, we report that these systems are possessed by nonstationary cascades of event-occurrences already in the subthreshold regime. Event cascades can be harmful in some contexts, when the peak-demand causes vaccine shortages, heavy traffic on communication lines, but may be beneficial in other contexts, such that spontaneous activity in neural networks may be used to generate motion or store memory. Thus it is important to comprehend the mechanism by which such cascades appear, and consider controlling a system to tame or facilitate fluctuations in the event-occurrences. The critical interaction for the emergence of cascades depends greatly on the network structure in which individuals are connected. We demonstrate that we can predict whether cascades may emerge, given information about the interactions between individuals. Furthermore, we develop a method of reallocating connections among individuals so that event cascades may be either impeded or impelled in a network.

  10. QED cascade saturation in extreme high fields.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen; Liu, Wei-Yuan; Yuan, Tao; Chen, Min; Yu, Ji-Ye; Li, Fei-Yu; Del Sorbo, D; Ridgers, C P; Sheng, Zheng-Ming

    2018-05-30

    Upcoming ultrahigh power lasers at 10 PW level will make it possible to experimentally explore electron-positron (e - e + ) pair cascades and subsequent relativistic e - e + jets formation, which are supposed to occur in extreme astrophysical environments, such as black holes, pulsars, quasars and gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case it is a long-standing question as to how the relativistic jets are formed and what their temperatures and compositions are. Here we report simulation results of pair cascades in two counter-propagating QED-strong laser fields. A scaling of QED cascade growth with laser intensity is found, showing clear cascade saturation above threshold intensity of ~10 24 W/cm 2 . QED cascade saturation leads to pair plasma cooling and longitudinal compression along the laser axis, resulting in the subsequent formation of relativistic dense e - e + jets along transverse directions. Such laser-driven QED cascade saturation may open up the opportunity to study energetic astrophysical phenomena in laboratory.

  11. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  12. Regulatory RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Anderson, Jorge; Contreras, Lydia M

    2013-01-01

    RNAs have many important functional properties, including that they are independently controllable and highly tunable. As a result of these advantageous properties, their use in a myriad of sophisticated devices has been widely explored. Yet, the exploitation of RNAs for synthetic applications is highly dependent on the ability to characterize the many new molecules that continue to be discovered by large-scale sequencing and high-throughput screening techniques. In this review, we present an exhaustive survey of the most recent synthetic bacterial riboswitches and small RNAs while emphasizing their virtues in gene expression management. We also explore the use of these RNA components as building blocks in the RNA synthetic biology toolbox and discuss examples of synthetic RNA components used to rewire bacterial regulatory circuitry. We anticipate that this field will expand its catalog of smart devices by mimicking and manipulating natural RNA mechanisms and functions. PMID:24356572

  13. Harmonic cascade FEL designs for LUX

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, G.; Reinsch, M.; Wurtele, J.

    LUX is a design concept for an ultrafast X-ray science facility, based on an electron beam accelerated to GeV energies in are circulating linac. Included in the design are short duration (200 fs or shorter FWHM) light sources using multiple stages of higher harmonic generation, seeded by a 200-250 nm laser of similar duration. This laser modulates the energy of a group of electrons within the electron bunch; this section of the electron bunch then produces radiation at a higher harmonic after entering a second, differently tuned undulator. Repeated stages in a cascade yield increasing photon energies up to 1more » keV. Most of the undulators in the cascade operate in the low-gain FEL regime. Harmonic cascades have been designed for each pass of the recirculating linac up to a final electron beam energy of 3.1 GeV. For a given cascade, the photon energy can be selected over a wide range by varying the seed laser frequency and the field strength in the undulators. We present simulation results using the codes GENESIS and GINGER, as well as the results of analytical models which predict FEL performance. We discuss lattice considerations pertinent for harmonic cascade FELs, as well as sensitivity studies and requirements on the electron beam.« less

  14. Sample Selection for Training Cascade Detectors.

    PubMed

    Vállez, Noelia; Deniz, Oscar; Bueno, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Automatic detection systems usually require large and representative training datasets in order to obtain good detection and false positive rates. Training datasets are such that the positive set has few samples and/or the negative set should represent anything except the object of interest. In this respect, the negative set typically contains orders of magnitude more images than the positive set. However, imbalanced training databases lead to biased classifiers. In this paper, we focus our attention on a negative sample selection method to properly balance the training data for cascade detectors. The method is based on the selection of the most informative false positive samples generated in one stage to feed the next stage. The results show that the proposed cascade detector with sample selection obtains on average better partial AUC and smaller standard deviation than the other compared cascade detectors.

  15. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with anmore » embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.« less

  16. Sensitivity-enhanced optical temperature sensor with cascaded LPFGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Yuji; Ohashi, Masaharu

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new structure of optical fiber temperature sensor with cascaded long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) and investigate the temperature dependent loss of cascaded LFPGs. Each of the cascaded LPFGs has the same resonance wavelength with the same temperature change, because the cascaded LPFGs are made of a heat-shrinkable tube and a screw. The total resonance loss of proposed cascaded LPFGs shows higher temperature sensitivity than that of a single LPFG. The thermal coefficient of 4-cascaded LPFG also shows more than 4 times larger than that of a single one.

  17. Tampering with the turbulent energy cascade with polymer additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Pedro; da Silva, Carlos; Pinho, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    We show that the strong depletion of the viscous dissipation in homogeneous viscoelastic turbulence reported by previous authors does not necessarily imply a depletion of the turbulent energy cascade. However, for large polymer relaxation times there is an onset of a polymer-induced kinetic energy cascade which competes with the non-linear energy cascade leading to its depletion. Remarkably, the total energy cascade flux from both cascade mechanisms remains approximately the same fraction of the kinetic energy over the turnover time as the non-linear energy cascade flux in Newtonian turbulence. The authors acknowledge the funding from COMPETE, FEDER and FCT (Grant PTDC/EME-MFE/113589/2009).

  18. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, Michael P.; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Ben

    2017-08-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  19. Interferometric modulation of quantum cascade interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusumano, Stefano; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2018-05-01

    We consider many-body quantum systems dissipatively coupled by a cascade network, i.e., a setup in which interactions are mediated by unidirectional environmental modes propagating through a linear optical interferometer. In particular we are interested in the possibility of inducing different effective interactions by properly engineering an external dissipative network of beam splitters and phase shifters. In this work we first derive the general structure of the master equation for a symmetric class of translation-invariant cascade networks. Then we show how, by tuning the parameters of the interferometer, one can exploit interference effects to tailor a large variety of many-body interactions.

  20. Design of supercritical cascades with high solidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The method of complex characteristics of Garabedian and Korn was successfully used to design shockless cascades with solidities of up to one. A code was developed using this method and a new hodograph transformation of the flow onto an ellipse. This code allows the design of cascades with solidities of up to two and larger turning angles. The equations of potential flow are solved in a complex hodograph like domain by setting a characteristic initial value problem and integrating along suitable paths. The topology that the new mapping introduces permits a simpler construction of these paths of integration.

  1. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  2. Quantum Cascade Lasers in Biomedical Infrared Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bird, Benjamin; Baker, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Technological advances, namely the integration of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) within an infrared (IR) microscope, are enabling the development of valuable label-free biomedical-imaging tools capable of targeting and detecting salient chemical species within practical clinical timeframes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy Cascade in Fermi-Pasta Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponno, A.; Bambusi, D.

    We show that, for long-wavelength initial conditions, the FPU dynamics is described, up to a certain time, by two KdV-like equations, which represent the resonant Hamiltonian normal form of the system. The energy cascade taking place in the system is then quantitatively characterized by arguments of dimensional analysis based on such equations.

  4. The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shui-I

    2008-01-01

    An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

  5. A High Frequency Model of Cascade Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1998-01-01

    Closed form asymptotic expressions for computing high frequency noise generated by an annular cascade in an infinite duct containing a uniform flow are presented. There are two new elements in this work. First, the annular duct mode representation does not rely on the often-used Bessel function expansion resulting in simpler expressions for both the radial eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the duct. In particular, the new representation provides an explicit approximate formula for the radial eigenvalues obviating the need for solutions of the transcendental annular duct eigenvalue equation. Also, the radial eigenfunctions are represented in terms of exponentials eliminating the numerical problems associated with generating the Bessel functions on a computer. The second new element is the construction of an unsteady response model for an annular cascade. The new construction satisfies the boundary conditions on both the cascade and duct walls simultaneously adding a new level of realism to the noise calculations. Preliminary results which demonstrate the effectiveness of the new elements are presented. A discussion of the utility of the asymptotic formulas for calculating cascade discrete tone as well as broadband noise is also included.

  6. Electrically Tunable Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Soidel, Alexander; Mansour, Kamjou

    2006-01-01

    Improved quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are being developed as electrically tunable sources of radiation in the far infrared spectral region, especially in the frequency range of 2 to 5 THz. The structures of QCLs and the processes used to fabricate them have much in common with those of multiple- quantum-well infrared photodetectors.

  7. Oregon Cascades Play Fairway Analysis: Maps

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trimble, John

    2015-12-15

    The maps in this submission include: heat flow, alkalinity, Cl, Mg, SiO2, Quaternary volcanic rocks, faults, and land ownership. All of the Oregon Cascade region. The work was done by John Trimble, in 2015, at Oregon State University.

  8. Quantum-engineered interband cascade photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Razeghi, Manijeh; Tournié, Eric; Brown, Gail J.

    2013-12-18

    Quantum-engineered multiple stage photovoltaic (PV) devices are explored based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb interband cascade (IC) structures. These ICPV devices employ multiple discrete absorbers that are connected in series by widebandgap unipolar barriers using type-II heterostructure interfaces for facilitating carrier transport between cascade stages similar to IC lasers. The discrete architecture is beneficial for improving the collection efficiency and for spectral splitting by utilizing absorbers with different bandgaps. As such, the photo-voltages from each individual cascade stage in an ICPV device add together, creating a high overall open-circuit voltage, similar to conventional multi-junction tandem solar cells. Furthermore, photo-generated carriers can be collectedmore » with nearly 100% efficiency in each stage. This is because the carriers travel over only a single cascade stage, designed to be shorter than a typical diffusion length. The approach is of significant importance for operation at high temperatures where the diffusion length is reduced. Here, we will present our recent progress in the study of ICPV devices, which includes the demonstration of ICPV devices at room temperature and above with narrow bandgaps (e.g. 0.23 eV) and high open-circuit voltages. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.« less

  9. HELIUM EFFECTS ON DISPLACEMENT CASCADE IN TUNGSTEN

    SciTech Connect

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Nandipati, Giridhar; Roche, Kenneth J.

    2013-09-30

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate He effects on displacement cascades in W. Helium content, proportion of interstitial and substitutional He and temperature were varied to reveal the various effects. The effect of interstitial He on the number of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) produced during cascade damage appears to be insignificant. However, interstitial He tends to fill a vacancy (V). Nevertheless, this process is less favorable than SIA-V recombination particularly when excess SIAs are present before a cascade. The efficiency of He filling and SIA-V recombination increases as temperature increases due to increased point defect mobility. Likewise, substitutional Hemore » is more susceptible to displacement during a collision cascade than W. This susceptibility increases towards higher temperatures. Consequently, the number of surviving V is governed by the interplay between displaced substitutional He and SIA-V recombination. The temperature dependence of these processes results in a minimum number of V reached at an intermediate temperature.« less

  10. Forecasting Social Unrest Using Activity Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Cadena, Jose; Korkmaz, Gizem; Kuhlman, Chris J.; Marathe, Achla; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Vullikanti, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Social unrest is endemic in many societies, and recent news has drawn attention to happenings in Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Civilian populations mobilize, sometimes spontaneously and sometimes in an organized manner, to raise awareness of key issues or to demand changes in governing or other organizational structures. It is of key interest to social scientists and policy makers to forecast civil unrest using indicators observed on media such as Twitter, news, and blogs. We present an event forecasting model using a notion of activity cascades in Twitter (proposed by Gonzalez-Bailon et al., 2011) to predict the occurrence of protests in three countries of Latin America: Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. The basic assumption is that the emergence of a suitably detected activity cascade is a precursor or a surrogate to a real protest event that will happen “on the ground.” Our model supports the theoretical characterization of large cascades using spectral properties and uses properties of detected cascades to forecast events. Experimental results on many datasets, including the recent June 2013 protests in Brazil, demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26091012

  11. Forecasting Social Unrest Using Activity Cascades.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Jose; Korkmaz, Gizem; Kuhlman, Chris J; Marathe, Achla; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Vullikanti, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Social unrest is endemic in many societies, and recent news has drawn attention to happenings in Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Civilian populations mobilize, sometimes spontaneously and sometimes in an organized manner, to raise awareness of key issues or to demand changes in governing or other organizational structures. It is of key interest to social scientists and policy makers to forecast civil unrest using indicators observed on media such as Twitter, news, and blogs. We present an event forecasting model using a notion of activity cascades in Twitter (proposed by Gonzalez-Bailon et al., 2011) to predict the occurrence of protests in three countries of Latin America: Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. The basic assumption is that the emergence of a suitably detected activity cascade is a precursor or a surrogate to a real protest event that will happen "on the ground." Our model supports the theoretical characterization of large cascades using spectral properties and uses properties of detected cascades to forecast events. Experimental results on many datasets, including the recent June 2013 protests in Brazil, demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  12. Experimental determination of unsteady blade element aerodynamics in cascades. Volume 1: Torsion mode cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riffel, R. E.; Rothrock, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    A two dimensional cascade of harmonically oscillating airfoils was designed to model a near tip section from a rotor which was known to have experienced supersonic torsional flutter. This five bladed cascade had a solidity of 1.17 and a setting angle of 1.07 rad. Graphite epoxy airfoils were fabricated to achieve the realistically high reduced frequency level of 0.44. The cascade was tested over a range of static pressure ratios approximating the blade element operating conditions of the rotor along a constant speed line which penetrated the flutter boundary. The time-steady and time-unsteady flow field surrounding the center cascade airfoil were investigated. The effects of reduced solidity and decreased setting angle on the flow field were also evaluated.

  13. On Cascade Energy Transfer in Convective Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, A. V.; Stepanov, R. A.; Frick, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper is devoted to specificities of the cascade processes in developed turbulence existing on a background of the density (temperature) gradient either parallel (turbulence in a stably stratified (SS) medium) or antiparallel (convective turbulence (CT)) to the gravitational force. Our main attention is paid to the Obukhov-Bolgiano (OB) regime, which presumes a balance between the buoyancy and nonlinear forces in a sufficiently extensive part of the inertial interval. Up to now, there has been no reliable evidence of the existence of the OB regime, although fragments of spectra with slopes close to-11/5 and-7/5 were detected in some works on the numerical simulations of convective turbulence. The paper presents a critical comparison of these data with the results obtained in this work using the cascade model of convective turbulence, which makes it possible to consider a wide range of control parameters. The cascade model is new and was obtained by the generalization of the class of helical cascade models to the case of turbulent convection. It is shown that, in developed turbulence, which is characterized by an interval with a constant spectral flux of kinetic energy, the buoyancy force cannot compete with nonlinear interactions and has no essential effect on the dynamics of the inertial interval. It is the buoyancy force that supplies the cascade process with energy in convective turbulence but only in the maximum scales. Under the SS conditions, the buoyancy forces reduce the energy of turbulent pulsations. In the case of stable stratification, the buoyancy force reduces the turbulence pulsation energy. The OB regime arises in none of these cases, but, in the scales beyond the inertial interval, Kolmogorov's turbulence with the "-5/3" law, in which temperature behaves like a passive admixture, is established. The observed deviations from the "-5/3" spectrum, erroneously interpreted as the OB regime, are manifested in the case of insufficient separation of

  14. Calculation of transonic flow in radial turbine blade cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petr, Straka

    2017-09-01

    Numerical modeling of transonic centripetal turbulent flow in radial blade cascade is described in this paper. Attention is paid to effect of the outlet confusor on flow through the radial blade cascade. Parameters of presented radial blade cascade are compared with its linear representation

  15. Time course of the uridylylation and adenylylation states in the glutamine synthetase bicyclic cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Varón-Castellanos, R; Havsteen, B H; García-Moreno, M; Valero-Ruiz, E; Molina-Alarcón, M; García-Cánovas, F

    1993-01-01

    A kinetic analysis of the glutamine synthetase bicyclic cascade is presented. It includes the dependence on time from the onset of the reaction of both the uridylylation of Shapiro's regulatory protein and the adenylylation of the glutamine synthetase. The transient phase equations obtained allow an estimation of the time elapsed until the states of uridylylation and adenylylation reach their steady-states, and therefore an evaluation of the effective sensitivity of the system. The contribution of the uridylylation cycle to the adenylylation cycle has been studied, and an equation relating the state of adenylylation at any time to the state of uridylylation at the same instant has been derived. PMID:8104399

  16. Quantum Cascade Lasers Modulation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzhansky, Edward

    The mid-wave IR (MWIR) spectral band, extending from 3 to 5 microns, is considered to be a low loss atmospheric window. There are several spectral sub-bands with relatively low atmospheric attenuation in this region making it popular for various commercial and military applications. Relatively low thermal and solar background emissions, effective penetration through the natural and anthropogenic obscurants and eye safety add to the long list of advantages of MWIR wavelengths. Quantum Cascade Lasers are compact semiconductor devices capable of operating in MWIR spectrum. They are based on inter-subband transitions in a multiple-quantum-well (QW) hetero-structure, designed by means of band-structure engineering. The inter-subband nature of the optical transition has several key advantages. First, the emission wavelength is primarily a function of the QW thickness. This characteristic allows choosing well-understood and reliable semiconductors for the generation of light in a wavelength range of interest. Second, a cascade process in which tens of photons are generated per injected electron. This cascading process is behind the intrinsic high-power capabilities of QCLs. This dissertation is focused on modulation properties of Quantum Cascade Lasers. Both amplitude and phase/frequency modulations were studied including modulation bandwidth, modulation efficiency and chirp linearity. Research was consisted of the two major parts. In the first part we describe the theory of frequency modulation (FM) response of Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Lasers (DFB QCL). It includes cascading effect on the QCL's maximum modulation frequency. The "gain levering" effect for the maximum FM response of the two section QCLs was studied as well. In the second part of research we concentrated on the Pulse Position Amplitude Modulation of a single section QCL. The low complexity, low size, weight and power Mid-Wavelength Infra-Red optical communications transceiver concept is

  17. Higher-order Kerr effect and harmonic cascading in gases.

    PubMed

    Bache, Morten; Eilenberger, Falk; Minardi, Stefano

    2012-11-15

    The higher-order Kerr effect (HOKE) has recently been advocated to explain measurements of the saturation of the nonlinear refractive index in gases. Here we show that cascaded third-harmonic generation results in an effective fifth-order nonlinearity that is negative and significant. Higher-order harmonic cascading will also occur from the HOKE, and the cascading contributions may significantly modify the observed nonlinear index change. At lower wavelengths, cascading increases the HOKE saturation intensity, while for longer wavelengths cascading will decrease the HOKE saturation intensity.

  18. Environmental solid particle effects on compressor cascade performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabakoff, W.; Balan, C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of suspended solid particles on the performance of the compressor cascade was investigated experimentally in a specially built cascade tunnel, using quartz sand particles. The cascades were made of NACA 65(10)10 airfoils. Three cascades were tested, one accelerating cascade and two diffusing cascades. The theoretical analysis assumes inviscid and incompressible two dimensional flow. The momentum exchange between the fluid and the particle is accounted for by the interphase force terms in the fluid momentum equation. The modified fluid phase momentum equations and the continuity equation are reduced to the conventional stream function vorticity formulation. The method treats the fluid phase in the Eulerian system and the particle phase in Lagrangian system. The experimental results indicate a small increase in the blade surface static pressures, while the theoretical results indicate a small decrease. The theoretical analysis, also predicts the loss in total pressure associated with the particulate flow through the cascade.

  19. Cascading failure in the wireless sensor scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Ran; Dong, Ming-Ru; Yin, Rong-Rong; Han, Li

    2015-05-01

    In the practical wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the cascading failure caused by a failure node has serious impact on the network performance. In this paper, we deeply research the cascading failure of scale-free topology in WSNs. Firstly, a cascading failure model for scale-free topology in WSNs is studied. Through analyzing the influence of the node load on cascading failure, the critical load triggering large-scale cascading failure is obtained. Then based on the critical load, a control method for cascading failure is presented. In addition, the simulation experiments are performed to validate the effectiveness of the control method. The results show that the control method can effectively prevent cascading failure. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. F2014203239), the Autonomous Research Fund of Young Teacher in Yanshan University (Grant No. 14LGB017) and Yanshan University Doctoral Foundation, China (Grant No. B867).

  20. Single mode terahertz quantum cascade amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Y., E-mail: yr235@cam.ac.uk; Wallis, R.; Shah, Y. D.

    2014-10-06

    A terahertz (THz) optical amplifier based on a 2.9 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) structure has been demonstrated. By depositing an antireflective coating on the QCL facet, the laser mirror losses are enhanced to fully suppress the lasing action, creating a THz quantum cascade (QC) amplifier. Terahertz radiation amplification has been obtained, by coupling a separate multi-mode THz QCL of the same active region design to the QC amplifier. A bare cavity gain is achieved and shows excellent agreement with the lasing spectrum from the original QCL without the antireflective coating. Furthermore, a maximum optical gain of ∼30 dB with single-modemore » radiation output is demonstrated.« less

  1. Cascade-based attacks on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motter, Adilson E.; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2002-12-01

    We live in a modern world supported by large, complex networks. Examples range from financial markets to communication and transportation systems. In many realistic situations the flow of physical quantities in the network, as characterized by the loads on nodes, is important. We show that for such networks where loads can redistribute among the nodes, intentional attacks can lead to a cascade of overload failures, which can in turn cause the entire or a substantial part of the network to collapse. This is relevant for real-world networks that possess a highly heterogeneous distribution of loads, such as the Internet and power grids. We demonstrate that the heterogeneity of these networks makes them particularly vulnerable to attacks in that a large-scale cascade may be triggered by disabling a single key node. This brings obvious concerns on the security of such systems.

  2. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofitmore » package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.« less

  3. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions: 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit packagemore » after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.« less

  4. Gamma ray pulsars. [electron-photon cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegelman, H.; Ayasli, S.; Hacinliyan, A.

    1977-01-01

    Data from the SAS-2 high-energy gamma-ray experiment reveal the existence of four pulsars emitting photons above 35 MeV. An attempt is made to explain the gamma-ray emission from these pulsars in terms of an electron-photon cascade that develops in the magnetosphere of the pulsar. Although there is very little material above the surface of the pulsar, the very intense magnetic fields (10 to the 12th power gauss) correspond to many radiation lengths which cause electrons to emit photons by magnetic bremsstrahlung and which cause these photons to pair-produce. The cascade develops until the mean photon energy drops below the pair-production threshold which is in the gamma-ray range; at this stage, the photons break out from the source.

  5. [Infrared spectroscopy based on quantum cascade lasers].

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhong-Quan; Chen, Gang; Peng, Chen; Yuan, Wei-Qing

    2013-04-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are promising infrared coherent sources. Thanks to the quantum theory and band-gap engineering, QCL can access the wavelength in the range from 3 to 100 microm. Since the fingerprint spectrum of most gases are located in the mid-infrared range, mid-infrared quantum cascade laser based gas sensing technique has become the research focus world wide because of its high power, narrow linewidth and fast scanning. Recent progress in the QCL technology leads to a great improvement in laser output power and efficiency, which stimulates a fast development in the infrared laser spectroscopy. The present paper gives a broad review on the QCL based spectroscopy techniques according to their working principles. A discussion on their applications in gas sensing and explosive detecting is also given at the end of the paper.

  6. Computing Shapes Of Cascade Diffuser Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Ken; Prueger, George H.

    1993-01-01

    Computer program generates sizes and shapes of cascade-type blades for use in axial or radial turbomachine diffusers. Generates shapes of blades rapidly, incorporating extensive cascade data to determine optimum incidence and deviation angle for blade design based on 65-series data base of National Advisory Commission for Aeronautics and Astronautics (NACA). Allows great variability in blade profile through input variables. Also provides for design of three-dimensional blades by allowing variable blade stacking. Enables designer to obtain computed blade-geometry data in various forms: as input for blade-loading analysis; as input for quasi-three-dimensional analysis of flow; or as points for transfer to computer-aided design.

  7. Cascade morphology transition in bcc metals

    SciTech Connect

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Selby, A.; Juslin, Niklas

    2015-06-10

    Energetic atom collisions in solids induce shockwaves with complex morphologies. In this paper, we establish the existence of a morphological transition in such cascades. The order parameter of the morphology is defined as the exponent,more » $b$, in the defect production curve as a function of cascade energy ($$N_F$$$ \\sim$$$E_{MD}^b$$). Response of different bcc metals can be compared in a consistent energy domain when the energy is normalized by the transition energy, $$\\mu$$, between the high- and the low-energy regime. Using Cr, Fe, Mo and W data, an empirical formula of $$\\mu$$ as a function of displacement threshold energy, $$E_d$$, is presented for bcc metals.« less

  8. Cascade morphology transition in bcc metals

    DOE PAGES

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Selby, Aaron P.; Juslin, Niklas; ...

    2015-05-18

    Energetic atom collisions in solids induce shockwaves with complex morphologies. In this paper, we establish the existence of a morphological transition in such cascades. The order parameter of the morphology is defined as the exponent, b, in the defect production curve as a function of cascade energy (N-F similar to E-MD(b)). Response of different bcc metals can be compared in a consistent energy domain when the energy is normalized by the transition energy, mu, between the high-and the low-energy regime. Using Cr, Fe, Mo and W data, an empirical formula of mu as a function of displacement threshold energy, E-d,more » is presented for bcc metals.« less

  9. Minimizing variability of cascade impaction measurements in inhalers and nebulizers.

    PubMed

    Bonam, Matthew; Christopher, David; Cipolla, David; Donovan, Brent; Goodwin, David; Holmes, Susan; Lyapustina, Svetlana; Mitchell, Jolyon; Nichols, Steve; Pettersson, Gunilla; Quale, Chris; Rao, Nagaraja; Singh, Dilraj; Tougas, Terrence; Van Oort, Mike; Walther, Bernd; Wyka, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to catalogue in a systematic way the available information about factors that may influence the outcome and variability of cascade impactor (CI) measurements of pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation, such as those obtained from metered dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) or products for nebulization; and to suggest ways to minimize the influence of such factors. To accomplish this task, the authors constructed a cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagram for a CI measurement and considered the influence of each root cause based on industry experience and thorough literature review. The results illustrate the intricate network of underlying causes of CI variability, with the potential for several multi-way statistical interactions. It was also found that significantly more quantitative information exists about impactor-related causes than about operator-derived influences, the contribution of drug assay methodology and product-related causes, suggesting a need for further research in those areas. The understanding and awareness of all these factors should aid in the development of optimized CI methods and appropriate quality control measures for aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of pharmaceutical aerosols, in line with the current regulatory initiatives involving quality-by-design (QbD).

  10. Modeling techniques for quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Jirauschek, Christian; Kubis, Tillmann

    2014-03-15

    Quantum cascade lasers are unipolar semiconductor lasers covering a wide range of the infrared and terahertz spectrum. Lasing action is achieved by using optical intersubband transitions between quantized states in specifically designed multiple-quantum-well heterostructures. A systematic improvement of quantum cascade lasers with respect to operating temperature, efficiency, and spectral range requires detailed modeling of the underlying physical processes in these structures. Moreover, the quantum cascade laser constitutes a versatile model device for the development and improvement of simulation techniques in nano- and optoelectronics. This review provides a comprehensive survey and discussion of the modeling techniques used for the simulation ofmore » quantum cascade lasers. The main focus is on the modeling of carrier transport in the nanostructured gain medium, while the simulation of the optical cavity is covered at a more basic level. Specifically, the transfer matrix and finite difference methods for solving the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation and Schrödinger-Poisson system are discussed, providing the quantized states in the multiple-quantum-well active region. The modeling of the optical cavity is covered with a focus on basic waveguide resonator structures. Furthermore, various carrier transport simulation methods are discussed, ranging from basic empirical approaches to advanced self-consistent techniques. The methods include empirical rate equation and related Maxwell-Bloch equation approaches, self-consistent rate equation and ensemble Monte Carlo methods, as well as quantum transport approaches, in particular the density matrix and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The derived scattering rates and self-energies are generally valid for n-type devices based on one-dimensional quantum confinement, such as quantum well structures.« less

  11. Modeling techniques for quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirauschek, Christian; Kubis, Tillmann

    2014-03-01

    Quantum cascade lasers are unipolar semiconductor lasers covering a wide range of the infrared and terahertz spectrum. Lasing action is achieved by using optical intersubband transitions between quantized states in specifically designed multiple-quantum-well heterostructures. A systematic improvement of quantum cascade lasers with respect to operating temperature, efficiency, and spectral range requires detailed modeling of the underlying physical processes in these structures. Moreover, the quantum cascade laser constitutes a versatile model device for the development and improvement of simulation techniques in nano- and optoelectronics. This review provides a comprehensive survey and discussion of the modeling techniques used for the simulation of quantum cascade lasers. The main focus is on the modeling of carrier transport in the nanostructured gain medium, while the simulation of the optical cavity is covered at a more basic level. Specifically, the transfer matrix and finite difference methods for solving the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation and Schrödinger-Poisson system are discussed, providing the quantized states in the multiple-quantum-well active region. The modeling of the optical cavity is covered with a focus on basic waveguide resonator structures. Furthermore, various carrier transport simulation methods are discussed, ranging from basic empirical approaches to advanced self-consistent techniques. The methods include empirical rate equation and related Maxwell-Bloch equation approaches, self-consistent rate equation and ensemble Monte Carlo methods, as well as quantum transport approaches, in particular the density matrix and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The derived scattering rates and self-energies are generally valid for n-type devices based on one-dimensional quantum confinement, such as quantum well structures.

  12. Evolution of Vertebrate Phototransduction: Cascade Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Trevor D.; Patel, Hardip; Chuah, Aaron; Natoli, Riccardo C.; Davies, Wayne I. L.; Hart, Nathan S.; Collin, Shaun P.; Hunt, David M.

    2016-01-01

    We applied high-throughput sequencing to eye tissue from several species of basal vertebrates (a hagfish, two species of lamprey, and five species of gnathostome fish), and we analyzed the mRNA sequences for the proteins underlying activation of the phototransduction cascade. The molecular phylogenies that we constructed from these sequences are consistent with the 2R WGD model of two rounds of whole genome duplication. Our analysis suggests that agnathans retain an additional representative (that has been lost in gnathostomes) in each of the gene families we studied; the evidence is strong for the G-protein α subunit (GNAT) and the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6), and indicative for the cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA and CNGB). Two of the species (the hagfish Eptatretus cirrhatus and the lamprey Mordacia mordax) possess only a single class of photoreceptor, simplifying deductions about the composition of cascade protein isoforms utilized in their photoreceptors. For the other lamprey, Geotria australis, analysis of the ratios of transcript levels in downstream and upstream migrant animals permits tentative conclusions to be drawn about the isoforms used in four of the five spectral classes of photoreceptor. Overall, our results suggest that agnathan rod-like photoreceptors utilize the same GNAT1 as gnathostomes, together with a homodimeric PDE6 that may be agnathan-specific, whereas agnathan cone-like photoreceptors utilize a GNAT that may be agnathan-specific, together with the same PDE6C as gnathostomes. These findings help elucidate the evolution of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade from an ancestral chordate phototransduction cascade that existed prior to the vertebrate radiation. PMID:27189541

  13. A cascaded coding scheme for error control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, L.; Kasami, T.

    1985-01-01

    A cascade coding scheme for error control is investigated. The scheme employs a combination of hard and soft decisions in decoding. Error performance is analyzed. If the inner and outer codes are chosen properly, extremely high reliability can be attained even for a high channel bit-error-rate. Some example schemes are evaluated. They seem to be quite suitable for satellite down-link error control.

  14. A cascaded coding scheme for error control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, T.; Lin, S.

    1985-01-01

    A cascaded coding scheme for error control was investigated. The scheme employs a combination of hard and soft decisions in decoding. Error performance is analyzed. If the inner and outer codes are chosen properly, extremely high reliability can be attained even for a high channel bit-error-rate. Some example schemes are studied which seem to be quite suitable for satellite down-link error control.

  15. Evolution of Vertebrate Phototransduction: Cascade Activation.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Trevor D; Patel, Hardip; Chuah, Aaron; Natoli, Riccardo C; Davies, Wayne I L; Hart, Nathan S; Collin, Shaun P; Hunt, David M

    2016-08-01

    We applied high-throughput sequencing to eye tissue from several species of basal vertebrates (a hagfish, two species of lamprey, and five species of gnathostome fish), and we analyzed the mRNA sequences for the proteins underlying activation of the phototransduction cascade. The molecular phylogenies that we constructed from these sequences are consistent with the 2R WGD model of two rounds of whole genome duplication. Our analysis suggests that agnathans retain an additional representative (that has been lost in gnathostomes) in each of the gene families we studied; the evidence is strong for the G-protein α subunit (GNAT) and the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6), and indicative for the cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA and CNGB). Two of the species (the hagfish Eptatretus cirrhatus and the lamprey Mordacia mordax) possess only a single class of photoreceptor, simplifying deductions about the composition of cascade protein isoforms utilized in their photoreceptors. For the other lamprey, Geotria australis, analysis of the ratios of transcript levels in downstream and upstream migrant animals permits tentative conclusions to be drawn about the isoforms used in four of the five spectral classes of photoreceptor. Overall, our results suggest that agnathan rod-like photoreceptors utilize the same GNAT1 as gnathostomes, together with a homodimeric PDE6 that may be agnathan-specific, whereas agnathan cone-like photoreceptors utilize a GNAT that may be agnathan-specific, together with the same PDE6C as gnathostomes. These findings help elucidate the evolution of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade from an ancestral chordate phototransduction cascade that existed prior to the vertebrate radiation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Output Control Using Feedforward And Cascade Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1990-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of open-loop control elements in single-input, single-output linear system. Focus on output-control (servomechanism) problem, in which objective is to find control scheme that causes output to track certain command inputs and to reject certain disturbance inputs in steady state. Report closes with brief discussion of characteristics and relative merits of feedforward, cascade, and feedback controllers and combinations thereof.

  17. Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Borden, Peter G.; Saxena, Ram R.

    1982-10-26

    Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

  18. NETWORK SYNTHESIS OF CASCADED THRESHOLD ELEMENTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A threshold function is a switching function which can be stimulated by a single, simplified, idealized neuron, or threshold element. In this report... threshold functions are examined in the context of abstract set theory and linear algebra for the purpose of obtaining practical synthesis procedures...for networks of threshold elements. A procedure is described by which, for any given switching function, a cascade network of these elements can be

  19. Frequency stability of a dual wavelength quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Sergachev, Ilia; Maulini, Richard; Gresch, Tobias; Blaser, Stéphane; Bismuto, Alfredo; Müller, Antoine; Bidaux, Yves; Südmeyer, Thomas; Schilt, Stéphane

    2017-05-15

    We characterized the dual wavelength operation of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) quantum cascade laser (QCL) operating at 4.5 μm using two independent optical frequency discriminators. The QCL emits up to 150 mW fairly evenly distributed between two adjacent Fabry-Perot modes separated by ≈11.6 GHz. We show a strong correlation between the instantaneous optical frequencies of the two lasing modes, characterized by a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.96. As a result, we stabilized one laser mode of the QCL to a N 2 O transition using a side-of-fringe locking technique, reducing its linewidth by a factor 6.2, from 406 kHz in free-running operation down to 65 kHz (at 1-ms observation time), and observed a simultaneous reduction of the frequency fluctuations of the second mode by a similar amount, resulting in a linewidth narrowing by a factor 5.4, from 380 kHz to 70 kHz. This proof-of-principle demonstration was performed with a standard DBR QCL that was not deliberately designed for dual-mode operation. These promising results open the door to the fabrication of more flexible dual-mode QCLs with the use of specifically designed gratings in the future.

  20. Pulsar Pair Cascades in Magnetic Fields with Offset Polar Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron star magnetic fields may have polar caps (PC) that are offset from the dipole axis, through field-line sweepback near the light cylinder or non-symmetric currents within the star. The effects of such offsets on electron-positron pair cascades are investigated, using simple models of dipole magnetic fields with small distortions that shift the PCs by different amounts or directions. Using a Monte Carlo pair cascade simulation, we explore the changes in the pair spectrum, multiplicity and energy flux across the PC, as well as the trends in pair flux and pair energy flux with spin-down luminosity, L(sub sd). We also give an estimate of the distribution of heating flux from returning positrons on the PC for different offsets. We find that even modest offsets can produce significant increases in pair multiplicity, especially for pulsars that are near or beyond the pair death lines for centered PCs, primarily because of higher accelerating fields. Pair spectra cover several decades in energy, with the spectral range of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) two orders of magnitude higher than for normal pulsars, and PC offsets allow significant extension of all spectra to lower pair energies. We find that the total PC pair luminosity L(sub pair) is proportional to L(sub sd), with L(sub pair) approximates 10(exp -3) L(sub sd) for normal pulsars and L(sub pair) approximates 10(exp -2) L(sub sd) for MSPs. Remarkably, the total PC heating luminosity for even large offsets increases by less than a factor of two, even though the PC area increases by much larger factors, because most of the heating occurs near the magnetic axis.

  1. Modeling Kelvin Wave Cascades in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffetta, G.; Celani, A.; Dezzani, D.; Laurie, J.; Nazarenko, S.

    2009-09-01

    We study two different types of simplified models for Kelvin wave turbulence on quantized vortex lines in superfluids near zero temperature. Our first model is obtained from a truncated expansion of the Local Induction Approximation (Truncated-LIA) and it is shown to possess the same scalings and the essential behaviour as the full Biot-Savart model, being much simpler than the later and, therefore, more amenable to theoretical and numerical investigations. The Truncated-LIA model supports six-wave interactions and dual cascades, which are clearly demonstrated via the direct numerical simulation of this model in the present paper. In particular, our simulations confirm presence of the weak turbulence regime and the theoretically predicted spectra for the direct energy cascade and the inverse wave action cascade. The second type of model we study, the Differential Approximation Model (DAM), takes a further drastic simplification by assuming locality of interactions in k-space via using a differential closure that preserves the main scalings of the Kelvin wave dynamics. DAMs are even more amenable to study and they form a useful tool by providing simple analytical solutions in the cases when extra physical effects are present, e.g. forcing by reconnections, friction dissipation and phonon radiation. We study these models numerically and test their theoretical predictions, in particular the formation of the stationary spectra, and closeness of numerics for the higher-order DAM to the analytical predictions for the lower-order DAM.

  2. Unsteady flows in rotor-stator cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yu-Tai; Bein, Thomas W.; Feng, Jin Z.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-03-01

    A time-accurate potential-flow calculation method has been developed for unsteady incompressible flows through two-dimensional multi-blade-row linear cascades. The method represents the boundary surfaces by distributing piecewise linear-vortex and constant-source singularities on discrete panels. A local coordinate is assigned to each independently moving object. Blade-shed vorticity is traced at each time step. The unsteady Kutta condition applied is nonlinear and requires zero blade trailing-edge loading at each time. Its influence on the solutions depends on the blade trailing-edge shapes. Steady biplane and cascade solutions are presented and compared to exact solutions and experimental data. Unsteady solutions are validated with the Wagner function for an airfoil moving impulsively from rest and the Theodorsen function for an oscillating airfoil. The shed vortex motion and its interaction with blades are calculated and compared to an analytic solution. For multi-blade-row cascade, the potential effect between blade rows is predicted using steady and quasi unsteady calculations. The accuracy of the predictions is demonstrated using experimental results for a one-stage turbine stator-rotor.

  3. Electrical gain in interband cascade infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenxiang; Li, Lu; Lei, Lin; Massengale, Jeremy A.; Yang, Rui Q.; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.

    2018-03-01

    In order to achieve improved understanding and gain insights into the device operation of interband cascade infrared photodetectors (ICIPs) and ultimately to optimize the design, we present a comparative study of five long-wavelength (LW) ICIPs based on a type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice. This study shows how the device responsivity is affected by the individual absorber thicknesses and the number of cascade stages, through the impact of light attenuation. Additionally, this study further validates that the electrical gain universally exists in non-current-matched ICIPs. With multiple cascade stages to suppress noise, these LW ICIPs achieved superior device performance at high temperatures, in terms of Johnson-noise limited detectivities, compared to commercial MCT detectors. Furthermore, a theory is developed to quantitatively describe the electrical gain in ICIPs and our calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results. Based on the theory, the optimal number of stages for maximizing the device detectivity D* is identified with inclusion of the electrical gain. Our calculation shows that this optimal number of stages is relatively large in the presence of the gain and the maximized D* has a relatively weak dependence on the absorber thickness when it is sufficiently thin.

  4. High power, electrically tunable quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2016-02-01

    Mid-infrared laser sources (3-14 μm wavelengths) which have wide spectral coverage and high output power are attractive for many applications. This spectral range contains unique absorption fingerprints of most molecules, including toxins, explosives, and nerve agents. Infrared spectroscopy can also be used to detect important biomarkers, which can be used for medical diagnostics by means of breath analysis. The challenge is to produce a broadband midinfrared source which is small, lightweight, robust, and inexpensive. We are currently investigating monolithic solutions using quantum cascade lasers. A wide gain bandwidth is not sufficient to make an ideal spectroscopy source. Single mode output with rapid tuning is desirable. For dynamic wavelength selection, our group is developing multi-section laser geometries with wide electrical tuning (hundreds of cm-1). These devices are roughly the same size as a traditional quantum cascade lasers, but tuning is accomplished without any external optical components. When combined with suitable amplifiers, these lasers are capable of multi-Watt single mode output powers. This manuscript will describe our current research efforts and the potential for high performance, broadband electrical tuning with the quantum cascade laser.

  5. Cascading failures in ac electricity grids.

    PubMed

    Rohden, Martin; Jung, Daniel; Tamrakar, Samyak; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Sudden failure of a single transmission element in a power grid can induce a domino effect of cascading failures, which can lead to the isolation of a large number of consumers or even to the failure of the entire grid. Here we present results of the simulation of cascading failures in power grids, using an alternating current (AC) model. We first apply this model to a regular square grid topology. For a random placement of consumers and generators on the grid, the probability to find more than a certain number of unsupplied consumers decays as a power law and obeys a scaling law with respect to system size. Varying the transmitted power threshold above which a transmission line fails does not seem to change the power-law exponent q≈1.6. Furthermore, we study the influence of the placement of generators and consumers on the number of affected consumers and demonstrate that large clusters of generators and consumers are especially vulnerable to cascading failures. As a real-world topology, we consider the German high-voltage transmission grid. Applying the dynamic AC model and considering a random placement of consumers, we find that the probability to disconnect more than a certain number of consumers depends strongly on the threshold. For large thresholds the decay is clearly exponential, while for small ones the decay is slow, indicating a power-law decay.

  6. Cascade flutter analysis with transient response aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Stefko, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Two methods for calculating linear frequency domain aerodynamic coefficients from a time marching Full Potential cascade solver are developed and verified. In the first method, the Influence Coefficient, solutions to elemental problems are superposed to obtain the solutions for a cascade in which all blades are vibrating with a constant interblade phase angle. The elemental problem consists of a single blade in the cascade oscillating while the other blades remain stationary. In the second method, the Pulse Response, the response to the transient motion of a blade is used to calculate influence coefficients. This is done by calculating the Fourier Transforms of the blade motion and the response. Both methods are validated by comparison with the Harmonic Oscillation method and give accurate results. The aerodynamic coefficients obtained from these methods are used for frequency domain flutter calculations involving a typical section blade structural model. An eigenvalue problem is solved for each interblade phase angle mode and the eigenvalues are used to determine aeroelastic stability. Flutter calculations are performed for two examples over a range of subsonic Mach numbers.

  7. A cascade feedback control approach for hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Puebla, Hector; Alvarez-Ramírez, José

    2005-10-01

    This article studies the problem of controlling the drug administration during an anesthesia process, where muscle relaxation, analgesia, and hypnosis are regulated by means of monitored administration of specific drugs. On the basis of a seventh-order nonlinear pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic representation of the hypnosis process dynamics, a cascade (master/slave) feedback control structure for controlling the bispectral index (BIS) is proposed. The master controller compares the measured BIS with its reference value to provide the expired isoflurane concentration reference to the slave controller. In turn, the slave controller manipulates the anesthetic isoflurane concentration entering the anesthetic system to achieve the reference from the master controller. The advantage of the proposed cascade control structure with respect to its noncascade counterpart is that the former provides operation protection against BIS measurement failures. In fact, under a BIS measurement fault, the master control feedback is broken and the slave controller operates under a safe reference value. Extensive numerical simulations are used to illustrate the functioning of the proposed cascade control structure.

  8. Cascade laser applications: trends and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Humières, B.; Margoto, Éric; Fazilleau, Yves

    2016-03-01

    When analyses need rapid measurements, cost effective monitoring and miniaturization, tunable semiconductor lasers can be very good sources. Indeed, applications like on-field environmental gas analysis or in-line industrial process control are becoming available thanks to the advantage of tunable semiconductor lasers. Advances in cascade lasers (CL) are revolutionizing Mid-IR spectroscopy with two alternatives: interband cascade lasers (ICL) in the 3-6μm spectrum and quantum cascade lasers (QCL), with more power from 3 to 300μm. The market is getting mature with strong players for driving applications like industry, environment, life science or transports. CL are not the only Mid-IR laser source. In fact, a strong competition is now taking place with other technologies like: OPO, VCSEL, Solid State lasers, Gas, SC Infrared or fiber lasers. In other words, CL have to conquer a share of the Mid-IR application market. Our study is a market analysis of CL technologies and their applications. It shows that improvements of components performance, along with the progress of infrared laser spectroscopy will drive the CL market growth. We compare CL technologies with other Mid-IR sources and estimate their share in each application market.

  9. Trophic cascades: linking ungulates to shrub-dependent birds and butterflies.

    PubMed

    J Teichman, Kristine; Nielsen, Scott E; Roland, Jens

    2013-11-01

    1. Studies demonstrating trophic cascades through the loss of top-down regulatory processes in productive and biologically diverse terrestrial ecosystems are limited. 2. Elk Island National Park, Alberta and surrounding protected areas have a wide range of ungulate density due to the functional loss of top predators, management for high ungulate numbers and variable hunting pressure. This provides an ideal setting for studying the effects of hyper-abundant ungulates on vegetation and shrub-dependent bird and butterfly species. 3. To examine the cascading effects of high ungulate density, we quantified vegetation characteristics and abundances of yellow warbler Dendroica petechia and Canadian tiger swallowtail Papilio canadensis under different ungulate density in and around Elk Island National Park. 4. Using Structural Equation Models we found that ungulate density was inversely related to shrub cover, whereas shrub cover was positively related to yellow warbler abundance. In addition, chokecherry Prunus virginiana abundance was inversely related to browse impact but positively related to P. canadensis abundance. 5. These results demonstrate a cascade resulting from hyper-abundant ungulates on yellow warblers and Canadian tiger swallowtails through reductions in shrub cover and larval host plant density. The combined effect of the functional loss of top predators and management strategies that maintain high ungulate numbers can decouple top-down regulation of productive temperate ecosystems. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  10. Energy flow along the medium-induced parton cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Blaizot, J.-P., E-mail: jean-paul.blaizot@cea.fr; Mehtar-Tani, Y., E-mail: ymehtar@uw.edu

    2016-05-15

    We discuss the dynamics of parton cascades that develop in dense QCD matter, and contrast their properties with those of similar cascades of gluon radiation in vacuum. We argue that such cascades belong to two distinct classes that are characterized respectively by an increasing or a constant (or decreasing) branching rate along the cascade. In the former class, of which the BDMPS, medium-induced, cascade constitutes a typical example, it takes a finite time to transport a finite amount of energy to very soft quanta, while this time is essentially infinite in the latter case, to which the DGLAP cascade belongs.more » The medium induced cascade is accompanied by a constant flow of energy towards arbitrary soft modes, leading eventually to the accumulation of the initial energy of the leading particle at zero energy. It also exhibits scaling properties akin to wave turbulence. These properties do not show up in the cascade that develops in vacuum. There, the energy accumulates in the spectrum at smaller and smaller energy as the cascade develops, but the energy never flows all the way down to zero energy. Our analysis suggests that the way the energy is shared among the offsprings of a splitting gluon has little impact on the qualitative properties of the cascades, provided the kernel that governs the splittings is not too singular.« less

  11. Professional and Regulatory Search

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  12. Quantum-electrodynamic cascades in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narozhny, N. B.; Fedotov, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that in an intense laser field, along with cascades similar to extensive air showers, self-sustaining field-energized cascades can develop. For intensities of 1024~ \\text {W cm}-2 or higher, such cascades can even be initiated by a particle at rest in the focal area of a tightly focused laser pulse. The cascade appearance effect can considerably alter the progression of any process occurring in a high-intensity laser field. At very high intensities, the evolvement of such cascades can lead to the depletion of the laser field. This paper presents a design of an experiment to observe these two cascade types simultaneously already in next-generation laser facilities.

  13. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  14. Quadrotor trajectory tracking using PID cascade control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idres, M.; Mustapha, O.; Okasha, M.

    2017-12-01

    Quadrotors have been applied to collect information for traffic, weather monitoring, surveillance and aerial photography. In order to accomplish their mission, quadrotors have to follow specific trajectories. This paper presents proportional-integral-derivative (PID) cascade control of a quadrotor for path tracking problem when velocity and acceleration are small. It is based on near hover controller for small attitude angles. The integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE) criterion is used to determine the PID gains as a function of quadrotor modeling parameters. The controller is evaluated in three-dimensional environment in Simulink. Overall, the tracking performance is found to be excellent for small velocity condition.

  15. Exploring Broad Area Quantum Cascade Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    Research Laboratory AFRL /RDLTD 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) AFRL -RD-PS-TP-2017-0008 12...LIST DTIC/OCP 8725 John J. Kingman Rd, Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 1 cy Chunte Lu... AFRL -RD-PS- AFRL -RD-PS- TP-2017-0008 TP-2017-0008 EXPLORING BROAD AREA QUANTUM CASCADE LASERS Tim Newell, et. al. 1 October 2017 Technical

  16. Cascaded recompression closed brayton cycle system

    SciTech Connect

    Pasch, James J.

    The present disclosure is directed to a cascaded recompression closed Brayton cycle (CRCBC) system and method of operation thereof, where the CRCBC system includes a compressor for compressing the system fluid, a separator for generating fluid feed streams for each of the system's turbines, and separate segments of a heater that heat the fluid feed streams to different feed temperatures for the system's turbines. Fluid exiting each turbine is used to preheat the fluid to the turbine. In an embodiment, the amount of heat extracted is determined by operational costs.

  17. Performance and Reliability of Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Taubman, Matthew S.

    2013-05-01

    We present the burn-in behavior and power stability of multiple quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) that were measured to investigate their long-term performance. For these experiments, the current to the QCL was cycled every ten minutes, and the output power was monitored over time for durations as long as two months. A small increase in power for a given injection current is observed for almost all of the QCLs tested during the burn-in period. The data from these experiments will be presented along with the effects of packaging the QCLs to determine the impact on performance and reliability.

  18. Atomistic Simulation of Displacement Cascades in Zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Corrales, Louis R.

    2002-05-06

    Low energy displacement cascades in zircon (ZrSiO4) initiated by a Zr primary knock-on atom have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations using a Coulombic model for long-range interactions, Buckingham potential for short-range interactions and Ziegler-Biersack potentials for close pair interactions. Displacements were found to occur mainly in the O sublattice, and O replacements by a ring mechanism were predominant. Clusters containing Si interstitials bridged by O interstitials, vacancy clusters and anti-site defects were found to occur. This Si-O-Si bridging is considerable in quenched liquid ZrSiO4.

  19. Dynamics of cavitating cascades. [transfer functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennen, C. E.; Acosta, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The unsteady dynamics of cavitating cascades and inducer pumps were studied with a view to understanding (and possibly predicting) the dynamic characteristics of these devices. The chronology of the research is summarized as well as the final conculsions for each task. The construction of a dynamic pump test facility and its use in making experimental measurements of the transfer function is described as well as tests conducted using a scale model of the low pressure liquid oxygen turbopump inducer in the shuttle main engine. Auto-oscillation and unsteady inlet flow characteristics are discussed in addition to blade cavity influence and bubbly cavitation.

  20. Cascaded recompression closed Brayton cycle system

    SciTech Connect

    Pasch, James Jay

    The present disclosure is directed to a cascaded recompression closed Brayton cycle (CRCBC) system and method of operation thereof, where the CRCBC system includes a compressor for compressing the system fluid, a separator for generating fluid feed streams for each of the system's turbines, and separate segments of a heater that heat the fluid feed streams to different feed temperatures for the system's turbines. Fluid exiting each turbine is used to preheat the fluid to the turbine. In an embodiment, the amount of heat extracted is determined by operational costs.

  1. Stopping pions in high-energy nuclear cascades.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. V.; Johnson, D. P.; Thompson, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Results of Monte Carlo calculations for the number and energy spectra of charged pions from nuclear-electromagnetic cascades developing in rock are presented for primary hadron energies ranging from 3 to 3000 GeV. These spectra are given as functions of the longitudinal depth in the absorber and the lateral distance from the cascade axis. The number of charged pions which stop in the absorber increases with the primary energy of the hadron initiating the cascade.

  2. The comparison of extraction of energy in two-cascade and one-cascade targets

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgoleva, G. V., E-mail: dolgg@list.ru; Ponomarev, I. V., E-mail: wingof17@mail.ru

    2016-01-15

    The paper is devoted to numerical designing of cylindrical microtargets on the basis of shock-free compression. When designing microtargets for the controlled thermonuclear fusion, the core tasks are to select geometry and make-up of layers, and the law of energy embedding as well, which allow receiving of “burning” of deuterium- tritium mix, that is, the existence of thermonuclear reactions of working area. Yet, the energy yield as a result of thermonuclear reactions has to be more than the embedded energy (the coefficient of amplification is more than a unit). So, an important issue is the value of the embedded energy.more » The purpose of the present paper is to study the extraction of energy by working DT area in one-cascade and two-cascade targets. A bigger extraction of energy will contribute to a better burning of DT mix and a bigger energy yield as a result of thermonuclear reactions. The comparison of analytical results to numerical calculations is carried out. The received results show advantages of a two-cascade target compared to a one-cascade one.« less

  3. Conscious coupling: The challenges and opportunities of cascading enzymatic microreactors.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Pia; Marques, Marco P C; O'Sullivan, Brian; Baganz, Frank; Wohlgemuth, Roland; Szita, Nicolas

    2017-07-01

    The continuous production of high value or difficult to synthesize products is of increasing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Cascading reaction systems have already been employed for chemical synthesis with great success, allowing a quick change in reaction conditions and addition of new reactants as well as removal of side products. A cascading system can remove the need for isolating unstable intermediates, increasing the yield of a synthetic pathway. Based on the success for chemical synthesis, the question arises how cascading systems could be beneficial to chemo-enzymatic or biocatalytic synthesis. Microreactors, with their rapid mass and heat transfer, small reaction volumes and short diffusion pathways, are promising tools for the development of such processes. In this mini-review, the authors provide an overview of recent examples of cascaded microreactors. Special attention will be paid to how microreactors are combined and the challenges as well as opportunities that arise from such combinations. Selected chemical reaction cascades will be used to illustrate this concept, before the discussion is widened to include chemo-enzymatic and multi-enzyme cascades. The authors also present the state of the art of online and at-line monitoring for enzymatic microreactor cascades. Finally, the authors review work-up and purification steps and their integration with microreactor cascades, highlighting the potential and the challenges of integrated cascades. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Neuronal Cell Fate Specification by the Convergence of Different Spatiotemporal Cues on a Common Terminal Selector Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Ferrera, Irene; Millán-Crespo, Irene; Contero-García, Patricia; Bahrampour, Shahrzad

    2016-01-01

    Specification of the myriad of unique neuronal subtypes found in the nervous system depends upon spatiotemporal cues and terminal selector gene cascades, often acting in sequential combinatorial codes to determine final cell fate. However, a specific neuronal cell subtype can often be generated in different parts of the nervous system and at different stages, indicating that different spatiotemporal cues can converge on the same terminal selectors to thereby generate a similar cell fate. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying such convergence are poorly understood. The Nplp1 neuropeptide neurons in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord can be subdivided into the thoracic-ventral Tv1 neurons and the dorsal-medial dAp neurons. The activation of Nplp1 in Tv1 and dAp neurons depends upon the same terminal selector cascade: col>ap/eya>dimm>Nplp1. However, Tv1 and dAp neurons are generated by different neural progenitors (neuroblasts) with different spatiotemporal appearance. Here, we find that the same terminal selector cascade is triggered by Kr/pdm>grn in dAp neurons, but by Antp/hth/exd/lbe/cas in Tv1 neurons. Hence, two different spatiotemporal combinations can funnel into a common downstream terminal selector cascade to determine a highly related cell fate. PMID:27148744

  5. Multistage WDM access architecture employing cascaded AWGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahal, F. I.; Mears, R. J.

    2009-03-01

    Here we propose passive/active arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) with enhanced performance for system applications mainly in novel access architectures employing cascaded AWG technology. Two technologies were considered to achieve space wavelength switching in these networks. Firstly, a passive AWG with semiconductor optical amplifiers array, and secondly, an active AWG. Active AWG is an AWG with an array of phase modulators on its arrayed-waveguides section, where a programmable linear phase-profile or a phase hologram is applied across the arrayed-waveguide section. This results in a wavelength shift at the output section of the AWG. These architectures can address up to 6912 customers employing only 24 wavelengths, coarsely separated by 1.6 nm. Simulation results obtained here demonstrate that cascaded AWGs access architectures have a great potential in future local area networks. Furthermore, they indicate for the first time that active AWGs architectures are more efficient in routing signals to the destination optical network units than passive AWG architectures.

  6. Quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Zhuo, Ning

    2014-04-28

    We demonstrate an InAs quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector operating at room temperature with a peak detection wavelength of 4.3 μm. The detector shows sensitive photoresponse for normal-incidence light, which is attributed to an intraband transition of the quantum dots and the following transfer of excited electrons on a cascade of quantum levels. The InAs quantum dots for the infrared absorption were formed by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski–Krastanov growth mode and two-step strain-compensation design based on InAs/GaAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure, while the following extraction quantum stairs formed by LO-phonon energy are based on a strain-compensated InGaAs/InAlAs chirpedmore » superlattice. Johnson noise limited detectivities of 3.64 × 10{sup 11} and 4.83 × 10{sup 6} Jones at zero bias were obtained at 80 K and room temperature, respectively. Due to the low dark current and distinct photoresponse up to room temperature, this device can form high temperature imaging.« less

  7. Turbulent cascades in foreign exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghashghaie, S.; Breymann, W.; Peinke, J.; Talkner, P.; Dodge, Y.

    1996-06-01

    THE availability of high-frequency data for financial markets has made it possible to study market dynamics on timescales of less than a day1. For foreign exchange (FX) rates Müller et al.2 have shown that there is a net flow of information from long to short timescales: the behaviour of long-term traders (who watch the markets only from time to time) influences the behaviour of short-term traders (who watch the markets continuously). Motivated by this hierarchical feature, we have studied FX market dynamics in more detail, and report here an analogy between these dynamics and hydrodynamic turbulence3-8. Specifically, the relationship between the probability density of FX price changes (δx) and the time delay (δt) (Fig. la) is much the same as the relationship between the probability density of the velocity differences (δv) of two points in a turbulent flow and their spatial separation δr (Fig. 1b). Guided by this similarity we claim that there is an information cascade in FX market dynamics that corresponds to the energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence. On the basis of this analogy we can now rationalize the statistics of FX price differences at different time delays, which is important for, for example, option pricing. The analogy also provides a conceptual framework for understanding the short-term dynamics of speculative markets.

  8. Cascading walks model for human mobility patterns.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Xiang-Wen; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the mechanism behind the scaling laws and series of anomalies in human trajectories is of fundamental significance in understanding many spatio-temporal phenomena. Recently, several models, e.g. the explorations-returns model (Song et al., 2010) and the radiation model for intercity travels (Simini et al., 2012), have been proposed to study the origin of these anomalies and the prediction of human movements. However, an agent-based model that could reproduce most of empirical observations without priori is still lacking. In this paper, considering the empirical findings on the correlations of move-lengths and staying time in human trips, we propose a simple model which is mainly based on the cascading processes to capture the human mobility patterns. In this model, each long-range movement activates series of shorter movements that are organized by the law of localized explorations and preferential returns in prescribed region. Based on the numerical simulations and analytical studies, we show more than five statistical characters that are well consistent with the empirical observations, including several types of scaling anomalies and the ultraslow diffusion properties, implying the cascading processes associated with the localized exploration and preferential returns are indeed a key in the understanding of human mobility activities. Moreover, the model shows both of the diverse individual mobility and aggregated scaling displacements, bridging the micro and macro patterns in human mobility. In summary, our model successfully explains most of empirical findings and provides deeper understandings on the emergence of human mobility patterns.

  9. Regimes of turbulence without an energy cascade

    PubMed Central

    Barenghi, C. F.; Sergeev, Y. A.; Baggaley, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations of turbulent 4He and 3He-B have established that, at hydrodynamic length scales larger than the average distance between quantum vortices, the energy spectrum obeys the same 5/3 Kolmogorov law which is observed in the homogeneous isotropic turbulence of ordinary fluids. The importance of the 5/3 law is that it points to the existence of a Richardson energy cascade from large eddies to small eddies. However, there is also evidence of quantum turbulent regimes without Kolmogorov scaling. This raises the important questions of why, in such regimes, the Kolmogorov spectrum fails to form, what is the physical nature of turbulence without energy cascade, and whether hydrodynamical models can account for the unusual behaviour of turbulent superfluid helium. In this work we describe simple physical mechanisms which prevent the formation of Kolmogorov scaling in the thermal counterflow, and analyze the conditions necessary for emergence of quasiclassical regime in quantum turbulence generated by injection of vortex rings at low temperatures. Our models justify the hydrodynamical description of quantum turbulence and shed light into an unexpected regime of vortex dynamics. PMID:27761005

  10. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  11. Systems theory and cascades in developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Cox, Martha J; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Propper, Cathi; Gariépy, Jean-Louis

    2010-08-01

    In the wake of prominent theoreticians in developmental science, whose contributions we review in this article, many developmental psychologists came to endorse a systems approach to understanding how the individual, as it develops, establishes functional relationships to social ecological contexts that from birth to school entry rapidly increase in complexity. The concept of developmental cascade has been introduced in this context to describe lawful processes by which antecedent conditions may be related with varying probabilities to specified outcomes. These are understood as processes by which function at one level or in one domain of behavior affect the organization of competency in later developing domains of general adaptation. Here we propose a developmental sequence by which the developing child acquires regulative capacities that are key to adjustment to a society that demands considerable control of emotional and cognitive functions early in life. We report empirical evidence showing that the acquisition of regulative capacities may be understood as a cascade of shifts in control parameters induced by the progressive integration of biological, transactional, and socioaffective systems over development. We conclude by suggesting how the developmental process may be accessed for effective intervention in populations deemed "at risk" for later problems of psychosocial adjustment.

  12. Cascaded clocks measurement and simulation findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chislow, Don; Zampetti, George

    1994-01-01

    This paper will examine aspects related to network synchronization distribution and the cascading of timing elements. Methods of timing distribution have become a much debated topic in standards forums and among network service providers (both domestically and internationally). Essentially these concerns focus on the need to migrate their existing network synchronization plans (and capabilities) to those required for the next generation of transport technologies (namely, the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH), Synchronous Optical Networks (SONET), and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). The particular choices for synchronization distribution network architectures are now being evaluated and are demonstrating that they can indeed have a profound effect on the overall service performance levels that will be delivered to the customer. The salient aspects of these concerns reduce to the following: (1) identifying that the devil is in the details of the timing element specifications and the distribution of timing information (i.e., small design choices can have a large performance impact); (2) developing a standardized method of performance verification that will yield unambiguous results; and (3) presentation of those results. Specifically, this will be done for two general cases: an ideal input, and a noisy input to a cascaded chain of slave clocks.

  13. Quaternary Magmatism in the Cascades - Geologic Perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes

    2007-01-01

    Foreward The Cascade magmatic arc is a belt of Quaternary volcanoes that extends 1,250 km from Lassen Peak in northern California to Meager Mountain in Canada, above the subduction zone where the Juan de Fuca Plate plunges beneath the North American Plate. This Professional Paper presents a synthesis of the entire volcanic arc, addressing all 2,300 known Quaternary volcanoes, not just the 30 or so visually prominent peaks that comprise the volcanic skyline. Study of Cascade volcanoes goes back to the geological explorers of the late 19th century and the seminal investigations of Howel Williams in the 1920s and 1930s. However, major progress and application of modern scientific methods and instrumentation began only in the 1970s with the advent of systematic geological, geophysical, and geochemical studies of the entire arc. Initial stimulus from the USGS Geothermal Research Program was enhanced by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Together, these two USGS Programs have provided more than three decades of stable funding, staffing, and analytical support. This Professional Paper summarizes the resultant USGS data sets and integrates them with the parallel contributions of other investigators. The product is based upon an all-encompassing and definitive geological database, including chemical and isotopic analyses to characterize the rocks and geochronology to provide the critical time constraints. Until now, this massive amount of data has not been summarized, and a systematic and uniform interpretation firmly grounded in geological fact has been lacking. Herein lies the primary utility of this Cascade volume. It not only will be the mandatory starting point for new workers, but also will provide essential geological context to broaden the perspectives of current investigators of specific Cascade volcanoes. Wes Hildreth's insightful understanding of volcanic processes and his uncompromising scientific integrity make him

  14. Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis

    PubMed

    Lendl; Frank; Schindler; Muller; Beck; Faist

    2000-04-01

    A Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser (QCL) was used as a powerful light source for mid infrared (MIR) detection in flow injection analysis. The QCL lased at several wavelengths close to each other within a few wavenumbers (990-1010 cm-1), hence fitting well to the broad absorption bands of molecules in liquid phase. As compared with that of a state-of-the-art Fourier transform spectrometer, the signal-to-noise ratio could be improved by a factor of 50. Additionally, by using a QCL as the light source, optical path lengths of more than 100 microns could be used even in aqueous matrixes which reduced the danger of cell clogging. In the example shown here phosphate was determined in Diet Coke samples. The flow injection system used allowed the measurement of the sample at two pH values (5 and 13) at which the analyte was present as H2PO4- and PO4(3-), respectively. As the analytical readout the difference in IR absorption of H2PO4- and PO4(3-) at the laser wavelengths was taken. The FIA-QCL measurements were corroborated by ion chromatography which was used as a reference method.

  15. Phospho-ubiquitin: upending the PINK–Parkin–ubiquitin cascade

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria with decreased membrane potential are characterized by defects in protein import into the matrix and impairments in high-efficiency synthesis of ATP. These low-quality mitochondria are marked with ubiquitin for selective degradation. Key factors in this mechanism are PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1, a mitochondrial kinase) and Parkin (a ubiquitin ligase), disruption of which has been implicated in predisposition to Parkinson’s disease. Previously, the clearance of damaged mitochondria had been thought to be the end result of a simple cascading reaction of PINK1–Parkin–ubiquitin. However, in the past year, several research groups including ours unexpectedly revealed that Parkin regulation is mediated by PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of ubiquitin. These results overturned the simple hierarchy that posited PINK1 and ubiquitin as the upstream and downstream factors of Parkin, respectively. Although ubiquitylation is well-known as a post-translational modification, it has recently become clear that ubiquitin itself can be modified, and that this modification unexpectedly converts ubiquitin to a factor that functions in retrograde signalling. PMID:26839319

  16. Phospho-ubiquitin: upending the PINK-Parkin-ubiquitin cascade.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria with decreased membrane potential are characterized by defects in protein import into the matrix and impairments in high-efficiency synthesis of ATP. These low-quality mitochondria are marked with ubiquitin for selective degradation. Key factors in this mechanism are PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1, a mitochondrial kinase) and Parkin (a ubiquitin ligase), disruption of which has been implicated in predisposition to Parkinson's disease. Previously, the clearance of damaged mitochondria had been thought to be the end result of a simple cascading reaction of PINK1-Parkin-ubiquitin. However, in the past year, several research groups including ours unexpectedly revealed that Parkin regulation is mediated by PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of ubiquitin. These results overturned the simple hierarchy that posited PINK1 and ubiquitin as the upstream and downstream factors of Parkin, respectively. Although ubiquitylation is well-known as a post-translational modification, it has recently become clear that ubiquitin itself can be modified, and that this modification unexpectedly converts ubiquitin to a factor that functions in retrograde signalling. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Spectroscopic Study of Terahertz Generation in Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yifan; Vijayraghavan, Karun; Jung, Seungyong; Jiang, Aiting; Kim, Jae Hyun; Demmerle, Frederic; Boehm, Gerhard; Amann, Markus C; Belkin, Mikhail A

    2016-02-16

    Terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on intra-cavity difference-frequency generation are currently the only room-temperature mass-producible diode-laser-like emitters of coherent 1-6 THz radiation. Device performance has improved dramatically over the past few years to reach milliwatt-level power output and broad tuning from 1.2 to 5.9 THz, all at room-temperature. Terahertz output in these sources originates from intersubband optical nonlinearity in the laser active region. Here we report the first comprehensive spectroscopic study of the optical nonlinearity and investigate its dependence on the mid-infrared pump frequencies. Our work shows that the terahertz generation efficiency can vary by a factor of 2 or greater depending on the spectral position of the mid-infrared pumps for a fixed THz difference-frequency. We have also measured for the first time the linewidth for transitions between the lower quantum cascade laser states, which is critical for determining terahertz nonlinearity and predicting optical loss in quantum cascade laser waveguides.

  18. Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierstein, Judy; Hildreth, Wes; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2011-10-01

    South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20 km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14 ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50 ka to 2 ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~ 50 ka. By ~ 37 ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO 2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO 2) and andesite (59-63% SiO 2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO 2) culminated ~ 30 ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200 m thick. This was followed at ~ 27 ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO 2) and formation of a summit crater ~ 800 m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by > 150 m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO 2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO 2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~ 22 ka. A 20 kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO 2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~ 20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO 2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently

  19. Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50ka to 2ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~50ka. By ~37ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO2) and andesite (59-63% SiO2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO2) culminated ~30ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200m thick. This was followed at ~27ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO2) and formation of a summit crater ~800m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by >150m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~22ka. A 20kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently changing compositional modes of the

  20. Signaling cascades modulate the speed of signal propagation through space.

    PubMed

    Govern, Christopher C; Chakraborty, Arup K

    2009-01-01

    Cells are not mixed bags of signaling molecules. As a consequence, signals must travel from their origin to distal locations. Much is understood about the purely diffusive propagation of signals through space. Many signals, however, propagate via signaling cascades. Here, we show that, depending on their kinetics, cascades speed up or slow down the propagation of signals through space, relative to pure diffusion. We modeled simple cascades operating under different limits of Michaelis-Menten kinetics using deterministic reaction-diffusion equations. Cascades operating far from enzyme saturation speed up signal propagation; the second mobile species moves more quickly than the first through space, on average. The enhanced speed is due to more efficient serial activation of a downstream signaling module (by the signaling molecule immediately upstream in the cascade) at points distal from the signaling origin, compared to locations closer to the source. Conversely, cascades operating under saturated kinetics, which exhibit zero-order ultrasensitivity, can slow down signals, ultimately localizing them to regions around the origin. Signal speed modulation may be a fundamental function of cascades, affecting the ability of signals to penetrate within a cell, to cross-react with other signals, and to activate distant targets. In particular, enhanced speeds provide a way to increase signal penetration into a cell without needing to flood the cell with large numbers of active signaling molecules; conversely, diminished speeds in zero-order ultrasensitive cascades facilitate strong, but localized, signaling.

  1. Climate Change and Baleen Whale Trophic Cascades in Greenland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Climate Change and Baleen Whale Trophic Cascades in Greenland...SUBTITLE Climate Change And Baleen Whale Trophic Cascades In Greenland 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  2. A simple model of global cascades on random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Duncan J.

    2002-04-01

    The origin of large but rare cascades that are triggered by small initial shocks is a phenomenon that manifests itself as diversely as cultural fads, collective action, the diffusion of norms and innovations, and cascading failures in infrastructure and organizational networks. This paper presents a possible explanation of this phenomenon in terms of a sparse, random network of interacting agents whose decisions are determined by the actions of their neighbors according to a simple threshold rule. Two regimes are identified in which the network is susceptible to very large cascadesherein called global cascadesthat occur very rarely. When cascade propagation is limited by the connectivity of the network, a power law distribution of cascade sizes is observed, analogous to the cluster size distribution in standard percolation theory and avalanches in self-organized criticality. But when the network is highly connected, cascade propagation is limited instead by the local stability of the nodes themselves, and the size distribution of cascades is bimodal, implying a more extreme kind of instability that is correspondingly harder to anticipate. In the first regime, where the distribution of network neighbors is highly skewed, it is found that the most connected nodes are far more likely than average nodes to trigger cascades, but not in the second regime. Finally, it is shown that heterogeneity plays an ambiguous role in determining a system's stability: increasingly heterogeneous thresholds make the system more vulnerable to global cascades; but an increasingly heterogeneous degree distribution makes it less vulnerable.

  3. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...

  4. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...

  5. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...

  6. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...

  7. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...

  8. Quantum cascade lasers with an integrated polarization mode converter.

    PubMed

    Dhirhe, D; Slight, T J; Holmes, B M; Hutchings, D C; Ironside, C N

    2012-11-05

    We discuss the design, fabrication and characterization of waveguide polarization mode converters for quantum cascade lasers operating at 4.6 μm. We have fabricated a quantum cascade laser with integrated polarization mode converter that emits light of 69% Transverse Electrical (TE) polarization from one facet and 100% Transverse Magnetic (TM) polarization from the other facet.

  9. Regulatory Information By Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  10. 3 CFR - Regulatory Review

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of regulatory tools such as warnings, disclosure requirements, public education, and economic... review. In this time of fundamental transformation, that process—and the principles governing regulation...

  11. ULTRAFINE AEROSOL INFLUENCE ON THE SAMPLING BY CASCADE IMPACTOR.

    PubMed

    Vasyanovich, M; Mostafa, M Y A; Zhukovsky, M

    2017-11-01

    Cascade impactors based on inertial deposition of aerosols are widely used to determine the size distribution of radioactive aerosols. However, there are situations where radioactive aerosols are represented by particles with a diameter of 1-5 nm. In this case, ultrafine aerosols can be deposited on impactor cascades by diffusion mechanism. The influence of ultrafine aerosols (1-5 nm) on the response of three different types of cascade impactors was studied. It was shown that the diffusion deposition of ultrafine aerosols can distort the response of the cascade impactor. The influence of diffusion deposition of ultrafine aerosols can be considerably removed by the use of mesh screens or diffusion battery installed before cascade impactor during the aerosol sampling. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Geothermal segmentation of the Cascade Range in the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, Marianne; Muffler, L.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, James G.; Blackwell, D.D.; Weaver, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of the crustal thermal regime of the Quaternary Cascades vary systematically along the range. Spatially congruent changes in volcanic vent distribution, volcanic extrusion rate, hydrothermal discharge rate, and regional conductive heat flow define 5 geothermal segments. These segments are, from north to south: (1) the Washington Cascades north of Mount Rainier, (2) the Cascades from Mount Rainier to Mount Hood, (3) the Oregon Cascades from south of Mount Hood to the California border, (4) northernmost California, including Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcano, and (5) the Lassen region of northern California. This segmentation indicates that geothermal resource potential is not uniform in the Cascade Range. Potential varies from high in parts of Oregon to low in Washington north of Mount Rainier.

  13. Small vulnerable sets determine large network cascades in power grids

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yang; Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    The understanding of cascading failures in complex systems has been hindered by the lack of realistic large-scale modeling and analysis that can account for variable system conditions. By using the North American power grid, we identified, quantified, and analyzed the set of network components that are vulnerable to cascading failures under any out of multiple conditions. We show that the vulnerable set consists of a small but topologically central portion of the network and that large cascades are disproportionately more likely to be triggered by initial failures close to this set. These results elucidate aspects of the origins and causesmore » of cascading failures relevant for grid design and operation and demonstrate vulnerability analysis methods that are applicable to a wider class of cascade-prone networks.« less

  14. Small vulnerable sets determine large network cascades in power grids

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Yang; Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2017-11-17

    The understanding of cascading failures in complex systems has been hindered by the lack of realistic large-scale modeling and analysis that can account for variable system conditions. By using the North American power grid, we identified, quantified, and analyzed the set of network components that are vulnerable to cascading failures under any out of multiple conditions. We show that the vulnerable set consists of a small but topologically central portion of the network and that large cascades are disproportionately more likely to be triggered by initial failures close to this set. These results elucidate aspects of the origins and causesmore » of cascading failures relevant for grid design and operation and demonstrate vulnerability analysis methods that are applicable to a wider class of cascade-prone networks.« less

  15. Mechanical gating of a mechanochemical reaction cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junpeng; Kouznetsova, Tatiana B.; Boulatov, Roman; Craig, Stephen L.

    2016-11-01

    Covalent polymer mechanochemistry offers promising opportunities for the control and engineering of reactivity. To date, covalent mechanochemistry has largely been limited to individual reactions, but it also presents potential for intricate reaction systems and feedback loops. Here we report a molecular architecture, in which a cyclobutane mechanophore functions as a gate to regulate the activation of a second mechanophore, dichlorocyclopropane, resulting in a mechanochemical cascade reaction. Single-molecule force spectroscopy, pulsed ultrasonication experiments and DFT-level calculations support gating and indicate that extra force of >0.5 nN needs to be applied to a polymer of gated gDCC than of free gDCC for the mechanochemical isomerization gDCC to proceed at equal rate. The gating concept provides a mechanism by which to regulate stress-responsive behaviours, such as load-strengthening and mechanochromism, in future materials designs.

  16. Seeking heavy Higgs bosons through cascade decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Fuks, Benjamin; Poulose, P.; Sahoo, Shibananda

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the LHC discovery prospects for a heavy Higgs boson decaying into the standard model Higgs boson and additional weak bosons. We consider a generic model-independent new physics configuration where this decay proceeds via a cascade involving other intermediate scalar bosons and focus on an LHC final-state signature comprised either of four b -jets and two charged leptons or of four charged leptons and two b -jets. We design two analyses of the corresponding signals, and demonstrate that a 5 σ discovery at the 14 TeV LHC is possible for various combinations of the parent and daughter Higgs-boson masses. We moreover find that the standard model backgrounds can be sufficiently rejected to guarantee the reconstruction of the parent Higgs boson mass. We apply our analyses to the Type-II two-Higgs-doublet model and identify the regions of the parameter space to which the LHC is sensitive.

  17. Highly temperature insensitive quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Tsao, S.

    2010-12-20

    An InP based quantum cascade laser (QCL) heterostructure emitting around 5 {mu}m is grown with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The QCL core design takes a shallow-well approach to maximize the characteristic temperatures, T{sub 0} and T{sub 1}, for operations above room temperature. A T{sub 0} value of 383 K and a T{sub 1} value of 645 K are obtained within a temperature range of 298-373 K. In room temperature continuous wave operation, this design gives a single facet output power of 3 W and a wall plug efficiency of 16% from a device with a cavity length of 5 mmmore » and a ridge width of 8 {mu}m.« less

  18. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Heydari, D.; Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.

    2015-03-02

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm{sup −2 }sr{sup −1} is obtained, which marks the brightestmore » QCL to date.« less

  19. Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades

    DOEpatents

    Danesi, P.R.

    1983-09-01

    The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solution and the supported liquid membranes are arranged to provide a continuous process.

  20. Cascade generation in Al laser induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagli, Lev; Gaft, Michael; Raichlin, Yosef; Gornushkin, Igor

    2018-05-01

    We found cascade IR generation in Al laser induced plasma. This generation includes doublet transitions 3s 25s 2S1/2 → 3s24p 2P1/2,3/2 → 3s24s 2S1/2; corresponding to strong lines at 2110 and 2117 nm, and much weaker lines at 1312-1315 nm. The 3s25s2S 1/2 starting IR generation level is directly pumped from the 3s23p 2P3/2 ground level. The starting level for UV generation at 396.2 nm (transitions 3s24s 2S1/2 → 4p 2P3/2) is populated due to the fast collisional processes in the plasma plume. These differences led to different time and special dependences on the lasing in the IR and UV spectral range within the aluminum laser induced plasma.

  1. Cascaded face alignment via intimacy definition feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailiang; Lam, Kin-Man; Chiu, Man-Yau; Wu, Kangheng; Lei, Zhibin

    2017-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emerging popularity of regression-based face aligners, which directly learn mappings between facial appearance and shape-increment manifolds. We propose a random-forest based, cascaded regression model for face alignment by using a locally lightweight feature, namely intimacy definition feature. This feature is more discriminative than the pose-indexed feature, more efficient than the histogram of oriented gradients feature and the scale-invariant feature transform feature, and more compact than the local binary feature (LBF). Experimental validation of our algorithm shows that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance when testing on some challenging datasets. Compared with the LBF-based algorithm, our method achieves about twice the speed, 20% improvement in terms of alignment accuracy and saves an order of magnitude on memory requirement.

  2. Estimation of Renyi exponents in random cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, Brent M.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    1999-01-01

    We consider statistical estimation of the Re??nyi exponent ??(h), which characterizes the scaling behaviour of a singular measure ?? defined on a subset of Rd. The Re??nyi exponent is defined to be lim?????0 [{log M??(h)}/(-log ??)], assuming that this limit exists, where M??(h) = ??i??h(??i) and, for ??>0, {??i} are the cubes of a ??-coordinate mesh that intersect the support of ??. In particular, we demonstrate asymptotic normality of the least-squares estimator of ??(h) when the measure ?? is generated by a particular class of multiplicative random cascades, a result which allows construction of interval estimates and application of hypothesis tests for this scaling exponent. Simulation results illustrating this asymptotic normality are presented. ?? 1999 ISI/BS.

  3. Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    None

    BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant withmore » a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.« less

  4. Cascade DNA nanomachine and exponential amplification biosensing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianguo; Wu, Zai-Sheng; Shen, Weiyu; Xu, Huo; Li, Hongling; Jia, Lee

    2015-11-15

    DNA is a versatile scaffold for the assembly of multifunctional nanostructures, and potential applications of various DNA nanodevices have been recently demonstrated for disease diagnosis and treatment. In the current study, a powerful cascade DNA nanomachine was developed that can execute the exponential amplification of p53 tumor suppressor gene. During the operation of the newly-proposed DNA nanomachine, dual-cyclical nucleic acid strand-displacement polymerization (dual-CNDP) was ingeniously introduced, where the target trigger is repeatedly used as the fuel molecule and the nicked fragments are dramatically accumulated. Moreover, each displaced nicked fragment is able to activate the another type of cyclical strand-displacement amplification, increasing exponentially the value of fluorescence intensity. Essentially, one target binding event can induce considerable number of subsequent reactions, and the nanodevice was called cascade DNA nanomachine. It can implement several functions, including recognition element, signaling probe, polymerization primer and template. Using the developed autonomous operation of DNA nanomachine, the p53 gene can be quantified in the wide concentration range from 0.05 to 150 nM with the detection limit of 50 pM. If taking into account the final volume of mixture, the detection limit is calculated as lower as 6.2 pM, achieving an desirable assay ability. More strikingly, the mutant gene can be easily distinguished from the wild-type one. The proof-of-concept demonstrations reported herein is expected to promote the development and application of DNA nanomachine, showing great potential value in basic biology and medical diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cascading Walks Model for Human Mobility Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Xiang-Wen; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Uncovering the mechanism behind the scaling laws and series of anomalies in human trajectories is of fundamental significance in understanding many spatio-temporal phenomena. Recently, several models, e.g. the explorations-returns model (Song et al., 2010) and the radiation model for intercity travels (Simini et al., 2012), have been proposed to study the origin of these anomalies and the prediction of human movements. However, an agent-based model that could reproduce most of empirical observations without priori is still lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, considering the empirical findings on the correlations of move-lengths and staying time in human trips, we propose a simple model which is mainly based on the cascading processes to capture the human mobility patterns. In this model, each long-range movement activates series of shorter movements that are organized by the law of localized explorations and preferential returns in prescribed region. Conclusions/Significance Based on the numerical simulations and analytical studies, we show more than five statistical characters that are well consistent with the empirical observations, including several types of scaling anomalies and the ultraslow diffusion properties, implying the cascading processes associated with the localized exploration and preferential returns are indeed a key in the understanding of human mobility activities. Moreover, the model shows both of the diverse individual mobility and aggregated scaling displacements, bridging the micro and macro patterns in human mobility. In summary, our model successfully explains most of empirical findings and provides deeper understandings on the emergence of human mobility patterns. PMID:25860140

  6. 3 CFR - Regulatory Compliance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulatory Compliance Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 18, 2011 Regulatory Compliance Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies My Administration is committed to enhancing effectiveness and efficiency in Government. Pursuant to the...

  7. Factors Associated with PMTCT Cascade Completion in Four African Countries.

    PubMed

    Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Welty, Thomas K; Westfall, Andrew O; Chi, Benjamin H; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Kasaro, Margaret; Tih, Pius M; Tita, Alan T N

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many countries are working to reduce or eliminate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Prevention efforts have been conceptualized as steps in a cascade but cascade completion rates during and after pregnancy are low. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was performed across 26 communities in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Women who reported a pregnancy within two years were enrolled. Participant responses were used to construct the PMTCT cascade with all of the following steps required for completion: at least one antenatal visit, HIV testing performed, HIV testing result received, initiation of maternal prophylaxis, and initiation of infant prophylaxis. Factors associated with cascade completion were identified using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Results. Of 976 HIV-infected women, only 355 (36.4%) completed the PMTCT cascade. Although most women (69.2%) did not know their partner's HIV status; awareness of partner HIV status was associated with cascade completion (aOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.01-2.0). Completion was also associated with receiving an HIV diagnosis prior to pregnancy compared with HIV diagnosis during or after pregnancy (aOR 14.1, 95% CI 5.2-38.6). Conclusions. Pregnant women with HIV infection in Africa who were aware of their partner's HIV status and who were diagnosed with HIV before pregnancy were more likely to complete the PMTCT cascade.

  8. Factors Associated with PMTCT Cascade Completion in Four African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Thomas K.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Tih, Pius M.; Tita, Alan T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many countries are working to reduce or eliminate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Prevention efforts have been conceptualized as steps in a cascade but cascade completion rates during and after pregnancy are low. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was performed across 26 communities in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Women who reported a pregnancy within two years were enrolled. Participant responses were used to construct the PMTCT cascade with all of the following steps required for completion: at least one antenatal visit, HIV testing performed, HIV testing result received, initiation of maternal prophylaxis, and initiation of infant prophylaxis. Factors associated with cascade completion were identified using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Results. Of 976 HIV-infected women, only 355 (36.4%) completed the PMTCT cascade. Although most women (69.2%) did not know their partner's HIV status; awareness of partner HIV status was associated with cascade completion (aOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.01–2.0). Completion was also associated with receiving an HIV diagnosis prior to pregnancy compared with HIV diagnosis during or after pregnancy (aOR 14.1, 95% CI 5.2–38.6). Conclusions. Pregnant women with HIV infection in Africa who were aware of their partner's HIV status and who were diagnosed with HIV before pregnancy were more likely to complete the PMTCT cascade. PMID:27872760

  9. Cascading Failures as Continuous Phase-Space Transitions

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Yang; Motter, Adilson E.

    2017-12-14

    In network systems, a local perturbation can amplify as it propagates, potentially leading to a large-scale cascading failure. We derive a continuous model to advance our understanding of cascading failures in power-grid networks. The model accounts for both the failure of transmission lines and the desynchronization of power generators and incorporates the transient dynamics between successive steps of the cascade. In this framework, we show that a cascade event is a phase-space transition from an equilibrium state with high energy to an equilibrium state with lower energy, which can be suitably described in a closed form using a global Hamiltonian-likemore » function. From this function, we show that a perturbed system cannot always reach the equilibrium state predicted by quasi-steady-state cascade models, which would correspond to a reduced number of failures, and may instead undergo a larger cascade. We also show that, in the presence of two or more perturbations, the outcome depends strongly on the order and timing of the individual perturbations. These results offer new insights into the current understanding of cascading dynamics, with potential implications for control interventions.« less

  10. Cascading Failures as Continuous Phase-Space Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yang; Motter, Adilson E.

    In network systems, a local perturbation can amplify as it propagates, potentially leading to a large-scale cascading failure. We derive a continuous model to advance our understanding of cascading failures in power-grid networks. The model accounts for both the failure of transmission lines and the desynchronization of power generators and incorporates the transient dynamics between successive steps of the cascade. In this framework, we show that a cascade event is a phase-space transition from an equilibrium state with high energy to an equilibrium state with lower energy, which can be suitably described in a closed form using a global Hamiltonian-likemore » function. From this function, we show that a perturbed system cannot always reach the equilibrium state predicted by quasi-steady-state cascade models, which would correspond to a reduced number of failures, and may instead undergo a larger cascade. We also show that, in the presence of two or more perturbations, the outcome depends strongly on the order and timing of the individual perturbations. These results offer new insights into the current understanding of cascading dynamics, with potential implications for control interventions.« less

  11. Self-organization, the cascade model, and natural hazards

    PubMed Central

    Turcotte, Donald L.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Guzzetti, Fausto; Reichenbach, Paola

    2002-01-01

    We consider the frequency-size statistics of two natural hazards, forest fires and landslides. Both appear to satisfy power-law (fractal) distributions to a good approximation under a wide variety of conditions. Two simple cellular-automata models have been proposed as analogs for this observed behavior, the forest fire model for forest fires and the sand pile model for landslides. The behavior of these models can be understood in terms of a self-similar inverse cascade. For the forest fire model the cascade consists of the coalescence of clusters of trees; for the sand pile model the cascade consists of the coalescence of metastable regions. PMID:11875206

  12. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cascade Annulation of Indole with Propargyl Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Julia; Jäckel, Elisabeth; Haak, Edgar

    2018-05-14

    Cascade transformations forming multiple bonds and one-pot procedures provide rapid access to natural-product-like scaffolds from simple precursors. These atom-economic processes are valuable tools in organic synthesis and drug discovery. Herein, we report on ruthenium-catalyzed cascade annulations of indole with readily available propargyl alcohols. These provide rapid access to diverse carbazoles, cyclohepta[b]indoles, and further fused polycycles with high selectivity. A bifunctional ruthenium complex featuring a redox-coupled cyclopentadienone ligand acts as a common catalyst for the different cascade processes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Search for acoustic signals from high energy cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R.; Bowen, T.

    1985-01-01

    High energy cosmic ray secondaries can be detected by means of the cascades they produce when they pass through matter. When the charged particles of these cascades ionize the matter they are traveling through, the heat produced and resulting thermal expansion causes a thermoacoustic wave. These sound waves travel at about one hundred-thousandth the speed of light, and should allow an array of acoustic transducers to resolve structure in the cascade to about 1 cm without high speed electronics or segmentation of the detector.

  14. Self-organization, the cascade model, and natural hazards.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Donald L; Malamud, Bruce D; Guzzetti, Fausto; Reichenbach, Paola

    2002-02-19

    We consider the frequency-size statistics of two natural hazards, forest fires and landslides. Both appear to satisfy power-law (fractal) distributions to a good approximation under a wide variety of conditions. Two simple cellular-automata models have been proposed as analogs for this observed behavior, the forest fire model for forest fires and the sand pile model for landslides. The behavior of these models can be understood in terms of a self-similar inverse cascade. For the forest fire model the cascade consists of the coalescence of clusters of trees; for the sand pile model the cascade consists of the coalescence of metastable regions.

  15. Cascade generalized predictive control strategy for boiler drum level.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Shaoyuan; Cai, Wenjian

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a cascade model predictive control scheme for boiler drum level control. By employing generalized predictive control structures for both inner and outer loops, measured and unmeasured disturbances can be effectively rejected, and drum level at constant load is maintained. In addition, nonminimum phase characteristic and system constraints in both loops can be handled effectively by generalized predictive control algorithms. Simulation results are provided to show that cascade generalized predictive control results in better performance than that of well tuned cascade proportional integral differential controllers. The algorithm has also been implemented to control a 75-MW boiler plant, and the results show an improvement over conventional control schemes.

  16. Comprehensive Experiments on Subcritical Assemblies of Cascade Reactor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalov, N. V.; Il'kaev, R. I.; Kolesov, V. F.; Ivanin, I. A.; Zhitnik, A. K.; Kuvshinov, M. I.; Nefedov, Yu. Ya.; Punin, V. T.; Tel'nov, A. V.; Khoruzhi, V. Kh.

    2017-12-01

    Cascade reactors attract particular attention because of their capability of improving the parameters of pulsed reactors and achieving the feasibility of electronuclear facilities. The paper presents the results of three series of experiments on uranium-neptunium cascade assemblies at the Institute of Nuclear and Radiation Physics of the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics conducted in 2003-2004. The experiments confirmed theoretical conclusions on positive properties of cascade blankets and effectiveness of using neptunium-237 as a means of creating a one-sided connection between the sections.

  17. Cascades on a class of clustered random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, Adam; Melnik, Sergey; Gleeson, James P.

    2011-05-01

    We present an analytical approach to determining the expected cascade size in a broad range of dynamical models on the class of random networks with arbitrary degree distribution and nonzero clustering introduced previously in [M. E. J. Newman, Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.058701103, 058701 (2009)]. A condition for the existence of global cascades is derived as well as a general criterion that determines whether increasing the level of clustering will increase, or decrease, the expected cascade size. Applications, examples of which are provided, include site percolation, bond percolation, and Watts’ threshold model; in all cases analytical results give excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  18. Revised tephra volumes for Cascade Range volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathenson, Manuel

    2017-07-01

    Isopach maps from tephra eruptions from Mount St. Helens were reported in Carey et al. (1995) and for tephra eruptions from Glacier Peak in Gardner et al. (1998). For exponential thinning, the isopach data only define a single slope on a log thickness versus square root of area plot. Carey et al. (1995) proposed a model that was used to estimate a second slope, and volumes were presented in both studies using this model. A study by Sulpizio (2005) for estimating the second slope and square root of area where the lines intersect involves a systematic analysis of many eruptions to provide correlation equations. The purpose of this paper is to recalculate the volumes of Cascades eruptions and compare results from the two methods. In order to gain some perspective on the methods for estimating the second slope, we use data for thickness versus distance beyond the last isopach that are available for some of the larger eruptions in the Cascades. The thickness versus square root of area method is extended to thickness versus distance by developing an approximate relation between the two assuming elliptical isopachs with the source at one of the foci. Based on the comparisons made between the Carey et al. (1995) and Sulpizio (2005) methods, it is felt that the later method provides a better estimate of the second slope. For Mount St. Helens, the estimates of total volume using the Sulpizio (2005) method are generally smaller than those using the Carey et al. (1995) method. For the volume estimates of Carey et al. (1995), the volume of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens is smaller than six of the eight previous eruptions. With the new volumes using the Sulpizio (2005) method, the 1980 eruption is smaller in volume than the upper end of the range for only three of the layers (Wn, Ye, and Yn) and is the same size as layer We. Thus the 1980 eruption becomes representative of the mid-range of volumes rather than being in the lower range.

  19. Seismicity of Cascade Volcanoes: Characterization and Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, W. A.

    2016-12-01

    Here we summarize and compare the seismicity around each of the Very High Threat Volcanoes of the Cascade Range of Washington, Oregon and California as defined by the National Volcanic Early Warning System (NVEWS) threat assessment (Ewert et al., 2005). Understanding the background seismic activity and processes controlling it is critical for assessing changes in seismicity and their implications for volcanic hazards. Comparing seismicity at different volcanic centers can help determine what critical factors or processes affect the observed seismic behavior. Of the ten Very High Threat Volcanoes in the Cascade Range, five volcanoes are consistently seismogenic when considering earthquakes within 10 km of the volcanic center or caldera edge (Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, Mount Hood, Newberry Caldera, Lassen Volcanic Center). Other Very High Threat volcanoes (South Sister, Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Crater Lake and Mount Shasta) have comparatively low rates of seismicity and not enough recorded earthquakes to calculate catalog statistics. Using a swarm definition of 3 or more earthquakes occurring in a day with magnitudes above the largest of the network's magnitude of completenesses (M 0.9), we find that Lassen Volcanic Center is the "swarmiest" in terms of percent of seismicity occurring in swarms, followed by Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens and Rainier. The predominance of swarms at Mount Hood may be overstated, as much of the seismicity is occurring on surrounding crustal faults (Jones and Malone, 2005). Newberry Caldera has a relatively short record of seismicity since the permanent network was installed in 2011, however there have been no swarms detected as defined here. Future work will include developing discriminates for volcanic versus tectonic seismicity to better filter the seismic catalog and more precise binning of depths at some volcanoes so that we may better consider different processes. Ewert J. W., Guffanti, M. and Murray, T. L. (2005). An

  20. Revised tephra volumes for Cascade Range volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Isopach maps from tephra eruptions from Mount St. Helens were reported in Carey et al. (1995) and for tephra eruptions from Glacier Peak in Gardner et al. (1998). For exponential thinning, the isopach data only define a single slope on a log thickness versus square root of area plot. Carey et al. (1995) proposed a model that was used to estimate a second slope, and volumes were presented in both studies using this model. A study by Sulpizio (2005) for estimating the second slope and square root of area where the lines intersect involves a systematic analysis of many eruptions to provide correlation equations. The purpose of this paper is to recalculate the volumes of Cascades eruptions and compare results from the two methods. In order to gain some perspective on the methods for estimating the second slope, we use data for thickness versus distance beyond the last isopach that are available for some of the larger eruptions in the Cascades. The thickness versus square root of area method is extended to thickness versus distance by developing an approximate relation between the two assuming elliptical isopachs with the source at one of the foci. Based on the comparisons made between the Carey et al. (1995) and Sulpizio (2005) methods, it is felt that the later method provides a better estimate of the second slope. For Mount St. Helens, the estimates of total volume using the Sulpizio (2005) method are generally smaller than those using the Carey et al. (1995) method. For the volume estimates of Carey et al. (1995), the volume of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens is smaller than six of the eight previous eruptions. With the new volumes using the Sulpizio (2005) method, the 1980 eruption is smaller in volume than the upper end of the range for only three of the layers (Wn, Ye, and Yn) and is the same size as layer We. Thus the 1980 eruption becomes representative of the mid-range of volumes rather than being in the lower range.

  1. Biophysically Inspired Rational Design of Structured Chimeric Substrates for DNAzyme Cascade Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lakin, Matthew R.; Brown, Carl W.; Horwitz, Eli K.; Fanning, M. Leigh; West, Hannah E.; Stefanovic, Darko; Graves, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    The development of large-scale molecular computational networks is a promising approach to implementing logical decision making at the nanoscale, analogous to cellular signaling and regulatory cascades. DNA strands with catalytic activity (DNAzymes) are one means of systematically constructing molecular computation networks with inherent signal amplification. Linking multiple DNAzymes into a computational circuit requires the design of substrate molecules that allow a signal to be passed from one DNAzyme to another through programmed biochemical interactions. In this paper, we chronicle an iterative design process guided by biophysical and kinetic constraints on the desired reaction pathways and use the resulting substrate design to implement heterogeneous DNAzyme signaling cascades. A key aspect of our design process is the use of secondary structure in the substrate molecule to sequester a downstream effector sequence prior to cleavage by an upstream DNAzyme. Our goal was to develop a concrete substrate molecule design to achieve efficient signal propagation with maximal activation and minimal leakage. We have previously employed the resulting design to develop high-performance DNAzyme-based signaling systems with applications in pathogen detection and autonomous theranostics. PMID:25347066

  2. Calculation of shear viscosity using Green-Kubo relations within a parton cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesp, C.; El, A.; Reining, F.; Xu, Z.; Bouras, I.; Greiner, C.

    2011-11-01

    The shear viscosity of a gluon gas is calculated using the Green-Kubo relation. Time correlations of the energy-momentum tensor in thermal equilibrium are extracted from microscopic simulations using a parton cascade solving various Boltzmann collision processes. We find that the perturbation-QCD- (pQCD-) based gluon bremsstrahlung described by Gunion-Bertsch processes significantly lowers the shear viscosity by a factor of 3 to 8 compared to elastic scatterings. The shear viscosity scales with the coupling as η˜1/[αs2log(1/αs)]. For constant αs the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s has no dependence on temperature. Replacing the pQCD-based collision angle distribution of binary scatterings by an isotropic form decreases the shear viscosity by a factor of 3.

  3. Regulatory sequence analysis tools.

    PubMed

    van Helden, Jacques

    2003-07-01

    The web resource Regulatory Sequence Analysis Tools (RSAT) (http://rsat.ulb.ac.be/rsat) offers a collection of software tools dedicated to the prediction of regulatory sites in non-coding DNA sequences. These tools include sequence retrieval, pattern discovery, pattern matching, genome-scale pattern matching, feature-map drawing, random sequence generation and other utilities. Alternative formats are supported for the representation of regulatory motifs (strings or position-specific scoring matrices) and several algorithms are proposed for pattern discovery. RSAT currently holds >100 fully sequenced genomes and these data are regularly updated from GenBank.

  4. Steady rotation of the Cascade arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray E.; McCaffrey, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Displacement of the Miocene Cascade volcanic arc (northwestern North America) from the active arc is in the same sense and at nearly the same rate as the present clockwise block motions calculated from GPS velocities in a North American reference frame. Migration of the ancestral arc over the past 16 m.y. can be explained by clockwise rotation of upper-plate blocks at 1.0°/m.y. over a linear melting source moving westward 1–4.5 km/m.y. due to slab rollback. Block motion and slab rollback are in opposite directions in the northern arc, but both are westerly in the southern extensional arc, where rollback may be enhanced by proximity to the edge of the Juan de Fuca slab. Similarities between post–16 Ma arc migration, paleomagnetic rotation, and modern GPS block motions indicate that the secular block motions from decadal GPS can be used to calculate long-term strain rates and earthquake hazards. Northwest-directed Basin and Range extension of 140 km is predicted behind the southern arc since 16 Ma, and 70 km of shortening is predicted in the northern arc. The GPS rotation poles overlie a high-velocity slab of the Siletzia terrane dangling into the mantle beneath Idaho (United States), which may provide an anchor for the rotations.

  5. Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that social networks influence the evolution of cooperation, but to date there have been few experimental studies. Observational data suggest that a wide variety of behaviors may spread in human social networks, but subjects in such studies can choose to befriend people with similar behaviors, posing difficulty for causal inference. Here, we exploit a seminal set of laboratory experiments that originally showed that voluntary costly punishment can help sustain cooperation. In these experiments, subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of different groups to play a series of single-shot public goods games with strangers; this feature allowed us to draw networks of interactions to explore how cooperative and uncooperative behaviors spread from person to person to person. We show that, in both an ordinary public goods game and in a public goods game with punishment, focal individuals are influenced by fellow group members’ contribution behavior in future interactions with other individuals who were not a party to the initial interaction. Furthermore, this influence persists for multiple periods and spreads up to three degrees of separation (from person to person to person to person). The results suggest that each additional contribution a subject makes to the public good in the first period is tripled over the course of the experiment by other subjects who are directly or indirectly influenced to contribute more as a consequence. These results show experimentally that cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks. PMID:20212120

  6. Cascading reminiscence bumps in popular music.

    PubMed

    Krumhansl, Carol Lynne; Zupnick, Justin Adam

    2013-10-01

    Autobiographical memories are disproportionately recalled for events in late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon called the reminiscence bump. Previous studies on music have found autobiographical memories and life-long preferences for music from this period. In the present study, we probed young adults' personal memories associated with top hits over 5-and-a-half decades, as well as the context of their memories and their recognition of, preference for, quality judgments of, and emotional reactions to that music. All these measures showed the typical increase for music released during the two decades of their lives. Unexpectedly, we found that the same measures peaked for the music of participants' parents' generation. This finding points to the impact of music in childhood and suggests that these results reflect the prevalence of music in the home environment. An earlier peak occurred for 1960s music, which may be explained by its quality or by its transmission through two generations. We refer to this pattern of musical cultural transmission over generations as cascading reminiscence bumps.

  7. Quantum cascade lasers grown on silicon.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Van, Hoang; Baranov, Alexei N; Loghmari, Zeineb; Cerutti, Laurent; Rodriguez, Jean-Baptiste; Tournet, Julie; Narcy, Gregoire; Boissier, Guilhem; Patriarche, Gilles; Bahriz, Michael; Tournié, Eric; Teissier, Roland

    2018-05-08

    Technological platforms offering efficient integration of III-V semiconductor lasers with silicon electronics are eagerly awaited by industry. The availability of optoelectronic circuits combining III-V light sources with Si-based photonic and electronic components in a single chip will enable, in particular, the development of ultra-compact spectroscopic systems for mass scale applications. The first circuits of such type were fabricated using heterogeneous integration of semiconductor lasers by bonding the III-V chips onto silicon substrates. Direct epitaxial growth of interband III-V laser diodes on silicon substrates has also been reported, whereas intersubband emitters grown on Si have not yet been demonstrated. We report the first quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) directly grown on a silicon substrate. These InAs/AlSb QCLs grown on Si exhibit high performances, comparable with those of the devices fabricated on their native InAs substrate. The lasers emit near 11 µm, the longest emission wavelength of any laser integrated on Si. Given the wavelength range reachable with InAs/AlSb QCLs, these results open the way to the development of a wide variety of integrated sensors.

  8. MCDF calculations of Auger cascade processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerwerth, Randolf; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    We model the multiple ionization of near-neutral core-excited atoms where a cascade of Auger processes leads to the emission of several electrons. We utilize the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method to generate approximate wave functions for all fine-structure levels and to account for all decays between them. This approach allows to compute electron spectra, the population of final-states and ion yields, that are accessible in many experiments. Furthermore, our approach is based on the configuration interaction method. A careful treatment of correlation between electronic configurations enables one to model three-electron processes such as an Auger decay that is accompanied by an additional shake-up transition. Here, this model is applied to the triple ionization of atomic cadmium, where we show that the decay of inner-shell 4p holes to triply-charged final states is purely due to the shake-up transition of valence 5s electrons. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  9. Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks.

    PubMed

    Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2010-03-23

    Theoretical models suggest that social networks influence the evolution of cooperation, but to date there have been few experimental studies. Observational data suggest that a wide variety of behaviors may spread in human social networks, but subjects in such studies can choose to befriend people with similar behaviors, posing difficulty for causal inference. Here, we exploit a seminal set of laboratory experiments that originally showed that voluntary costly punishment can help sustain cooperation. In these experiments, subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of different groups to play a series of single-shot public goods games with strangers; this feature allowed us to draw networks of interactions to explore how cooperative and uncooperative behaviors spread from person to person to person. We show that, in both an ordinary public goods game and in a public goods game with punishment, focal individuals are influenced by fellow group members' contribution behavior in future interactions with other individuals who were not a party to the initial interaction. Furthermore, this influence persists for multiple periods and spreads up to three degrees of separation (from person to person to person to person). The results suggest that each additional contribution a subject makes to the public good in the first period is tripled over the course of the experiment by other subjects who are directly or indirectly influenced to contribute more as a consequence. These results show experimentally that cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks.

  10. Pressure wave propagation studies for oscillating cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    1992-01-01

    The unsteady flow field around an oscillating cascade of flat plates is studied using a time marching Euler code. Exact solutions based on linear theory serve as model problems to study pressure wave propagation in the numerical solution. The importance of using proper unsteady boundary conditions, grid resolution, and time step is demonstrated. Results show that an approximate non-reflecting boundary condition based on linear theory does a good job of minimizing reflections from the inflow and outflow boundaries and allows the placement of the boundaries to be closer than cases using reflective boundary conditions. Stretching the boundary to dampen the unsteady waves is another way to minimize reflections. Grid clustering near the plates does a better job of capturing the unsteady flow field than cases using uniform grids as long as the CFL number is less than one for a sufficient portion of the grid. Results for various stagger angles and oscillation frequencies show good agreement with linear theory as long as the grid is properly resolved.

  11. Multiheterodyne spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterczewski, Lukasz A.; Westberg, Jonas; Patrick, Charles Link; Kim, Chul Soo; Kim, Mijin; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Bewley, William W.; Merritt, Charles D.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Meyer, Jerry R.; Wysocki, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    While midinfrared radiation can be used to identify and quantify numerous chemical species, contemporary broadband midinfrared spectroscopic systems are often hindered by large footprints, moving parts, and high power consumption. In this work, we demonstrate multiheterodyne spectroscopy (MHS) using interband cascade lasers, which combines broadband spectral coverage with high spectral resolution and energy-efficient operation. The lasers generate up to 30 mW of continuous-wave optical power while consuming <0.5 W of electrical power. A computational phase and timing correction algorithm is used to obtain kHz linewidths of the multiheterodyne beat notes and up to 30 dB improvement in signal-to-noise ratio. The versatility of the multiheterodyne technique is demonstrated by performing both rapidly swept absorption and dispersion spectroscopic assessments of low-pressure ethylene (C2H4) acquired by extracting a single beat note from the multiheterodyne signal, as well as broadband MHS of methane (CH4) acquired with all available beat notes with microsecond temporal resolution and an instantaneous optical bandwidth of ˜240 GHz. The technology shows excellent potential for portable and high-resolution solid-state spectroscopic chemical sensors operating in the midinfrared.

  12. Quantum cascade lasers: from tool to product.

    PubMed

    Razeghi, M; Lu, Q Y; Bandyopadhyay, N; Zhou, W; Heydari, D; Bai, Y; Slivken, S

    2015-04-06

    The quantum cascade laser (QCL) is an important laser source in the mid-infrared and terahertz frequency range. The past twenty years have witnessed its tremendous development in power, wall plug efficiency, frequency coverage and tunability, beam quality, as well as various applications based on QCL technology. Nowadays, QCLs can deliver high continuous wave power output up to 5.1 W at room temperature, and cover a wide frequency range from 3 to 300 μm by simply varying the material components. Broadband heterogeneous QCLs with a broad spectral range from 3 to 12 μm, wavelength agile QCLs based on monolithic sampled grating design, and on-chip beam QCL combiner are being developed for the next generation tunable mid-infrared source for spectroscopy and sensing. Terahertz sources based on nonlinear generation in QCLs further extend the accessible wavelength into the terahertz range. Room temperature continuous wave operation, high terahertz power up to 1.9 mW, and wide frequency tunability form 1 to 5 THz makes this type of device suitable for many applications in terahertz spectroscopy, imaging, and communication.

  13. Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in biomedical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schwaighofer, Andreas; Brandstetter, Markus; Lendl, Bernhard

    2017-10-02

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) are the first room temperature semiconductor laser source for the mid-IR spectral region, triggering substantial development for the advancement of mid-IR spectroscopy. Mid-IR spectroscopy in general provides rapid, label-free and objective analysis, particularly important in the field of biomedical analysis. Due to their unique properties, QCLs offer new possibilities for development of analytical methods to enable quantification of clinically relevant concentration levels and to support medical diagnostics. Compared to FTIR spectroscopy, novel and elaborated measurement techniques can be implemented that allow miniaturized and portable instrumentation. This review illustrates the characteristics of QCLs with a particular focus on their benefits for biomedical analysis. Recent applications of QCL-based spectroscopy for analysis of a variety of clinically relevant samples including breath, urine, blood, interstitial fluid, and biopsy samples are summarized. Further potential for technical advancements is discussed in combination with future prospects for employment of QCL-based devices in routine and point-of-care diagnostics.

  14. Mode structure of a quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, A. A.; Suris, R. A.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the mode structure of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) cavity considering the surface plasmon-polariton modes and familiar modes of hollow resonator jointly, within a single model. We present a comprehensive mode structure analysis of the laser cavity, varying its geometric parameters and free electron concentration inside cavity layers within a wide range. Our analysis covers, in particular, the cases of metal-insulator-metal and insulator-metal-insulator waveguides. We discuss the phenomenon of negative dispersion for eigenmodes in detail and explain the nature of this phenomenon. We specify a waveguide parameters domain in which negative dispersion exists. The mode structure of QCL cavity is considered in the case of the anisotropic electrical properties of the waveguide materials. We show that anisotropy of the waveguide core results in propagation of Langmuir modes that are degenerated in the case of the isotropic core. Comparative analysis of optical losses due to free carrier absorption is presented for different modes within the frequency range from terahertz to ultraviolet frequencies.

  15. Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades

    DOEpatents

    Danesi, Pier R.

    1986-01-01

    The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid membranes. The membranes contain alternatively a liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solutions and the supported liquid membranes are arranged in such a way to provide a continuous process which leads to the continuous enrichment of the species which show the highest permeability coefficients. By virtue of the very high number of stages which can be arranged, even chemical species having very similar chemical behavior (and consequently very similar permeability coefficients) can be completely separated. The invention also provide a way to concentrate the separated species.

  16. Trophic redundancy reduces vulnerability to extinction cascades

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Dirk; Thébault, Elisa; Kehoe, Rachel; Frank van Veen, F. J.

    2018-01-01

    Current species extinction rates are at unprecedentedly high levels. While human activities can be the direct cause of some extinctions, it is becoming increasingly clear that species extinctions themselves can be the cause of further extinctions, since species affect each other through the network of ecological interactions among them. There is concern that the simplification of ecosystems, due to the loss of species and ecological interactions, increases their vulnerability to such secondary extinctions. It is predicted that more complex food webs will be less vulnerable to secondary extinctions due to greater trophic redundancy that can buffer against the effects of species loss. Here, we demonstrate in a field experiment with replicated plant-insect communities, that the probability of secondary extinctions is indeed smaller in food webs that include trophic redundancy. Harvesting one species of parasitoid wasp led to secondary extinctions of other, indirectly linked, species at the same trophic level. This effect was markedly stronger in simple communities than for the same species within a more complex food web. We show that this is due to functional redundancy in the more complex food webs and confirm this mechanism with a food web simulation model by highlighting the importance of the presence and strength of trophic links providing redundancy to those links that were lost. Our results demonstrate that biodiversity loss, leading to a reduction in redundant interactions, can increase the vulnerability of ecosystems to secondary extinctions, which, when they occur, can then lead to further simplification and run-away extinction cascades. PMID:29467292

  17. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    PubMed Central

    McWalter, Richard; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches. PMID:28955191

  18. Feeding supermassive black holes by collisional cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Christian; Dehnen, Walter

    2018-05-01

    The processes driving gas accretion on to supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are still poorly understood. Angular momentum conservation prevents gas within ˜10 pc of the black hole from reaching radii ˜10-3 pc where viscous accretion becomes efficient. Here we present simulations of the collapse of a clumpy shell of swept-up isothermal gas, which is assumed to have formed as a result of feedback from a previous episode of AGN activity. The gas falls towards the SMBH forming clumps and streams, which intersect, collide, and often form a disc. These collisions promote partial cancellations of angular momenta, resulting in further infall and more collisions. This continued collisional cascade generates a tail of gas with sufficiently small angular momenta and provides a viable route for gas inflow to sub-parsec scales. The efficiency of this process hardly depends on details, such as gas temperature, initial virial ratio and power spectrum of the gas distribution, as long as it is not strongly rotating. Adding star formation to this picture might explain the near-simultaneous formation of the S-stars (from tidally disrupted binaries formed in plunging gas streams) and the sub-parsec young stellar disc around Sgr A⋆.

  19. Quantum cascade lasers for defense and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Timothy; Pushkarsky, Michael; Caffey, Dave; Cecchetti, Kristen; Arp, Ron; Whitmore, Alex; Henson, Michael; Takeuchi, Eric B.

    2013-10-01

    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) systems are mature and at the vanguard of a new generation of products that support military applications such as Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) and targeting. The demanding product requirements for aircraft platforms that include reduced size, weight, power consumption and cost (SWaP-C) extends to portable, battery powered handheld products. QCL technology operates throughout the mid-wave (MWIR) and long-wave (LWIR) infrared to provide new capabilities that leverage existing thermal imaging cameras. In addition to their suitability for aircraft platforms, QCL products are a natural fit to meet operator demands for small, lightweight pointer and beacon capabilities. Field-testing of high power, lightweight, battery operated devices has demonstrated their utility across a range of air and ground applications. This talk will present an overview of QCL technology and the Defense and Security products and capabilities that are enabled by it. This talk will also provide an overview of the extensive environmental and performance testing associated with products based on QCL technology.

  20. Dispersion dynamics of quantum cascade lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Burghoff, David; Yang, Yang; Reno, John L.; ...

    2016-12-20

    A key parameter underlying the efficacy of any nonlinear optical process is group velocity dispersion. In quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), there have been several recent demonstrations of devices exploiting nonlinearities in both the mid-infrared and the terahertz. Though the gain of QCLs has been well studied, the dispersion has been much less investigated, and several questions remain about its dynamics and precise origin. In this work, we use time-domain spectroscopy to investigate the dispersion of broadband terahertz QCLs, and demonstrate that contributions from both the material and the intersubband transitions are relevant. We show that in contrast to the lasermore » gain—which is clamped to a fixed value above lasing threshold—the dispersion changes with bias even above threshold, which is a consequence of shifting intersubband populations. In conclusion, we also examine the role of higher-order dispersion in QCLs and discuss the ramifications of our result for devices utilizing nonlinear effects, such as frequency combs.« less

  1. Feeding supermassive black holes by collisional cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Christian; Dehnen, Walter

    2018-07-01

    The processes driving gas accretion on to supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are still poorly understood. Angular momentum conservation prevents gas within ˜10 pc of the black hole from reaching radii ˜10-3pc where viscous accretion becomes efficient. Here we present simulations of the collapse of a clumpy shell of swept-up isothermal gas, which is assumed to have formed as a result of feedback from a previous episode of AGN activity. The gas falls towards the SMBH forming clumps and streams, which intersect, collide and often form a disc. These collisions promote partial cancellations of angular momenta, resulting in further infall and more collisions. This continued collisional cascade generates a tail of gas with sufficiently small angular momenta and provides a viable route for gas inflow to sub-parsec scales. The efficiency of this process hardly depends on details, such as gas temperature, initial virial ratio and power spectrum of the gas distribution, as long as it is not strongly rotating. Adding star formation to this picture might explain the near-simultaneous formation of the S-stars (from tidally disrupted binaries formed in plunging gas streams) and the sub-parsec young stellar disc around Sgr A⋆.

  2. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception.

    PubMed

    McWalter, Richard; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as "beating" in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures-stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  3. Oscillating cascade aerodynamics at large mean incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; King, Aaron J.; El-Aini, Yehia M.; Capece, Vincent R.

    1996-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a cascade of airfoils oscillating in torsion about the midchord is investigated experimentally at a large mean incidence angle and, for reference, at a low mean incidence angle. The airfoil section is representative of a modern, low aspect ratio, fan blade tip section. Time-dependent airfoil surface pressure measurements were made for reduced frequencies of up to 1.2 for out-of-phase oscillations at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 deg and 10 deg; the Reynolds number was 0.9 x l0(exp 6). For the 10 deg chordal incidence angle, a separation bubble formed at the leading edge of the suction surface. The separated flow field was found to have a dramatic effect on the chordwise distribution of the unsteady pressure. In this region, substantial deviations from the attached flow data were found with the deviations becoming less apparent in the aft region of the airfoil for all reduced frequencies. In particular, near the leading edge the separated flow had a strong destabilizing influence while the attached flow had a strong stabilizing influence.

  4. Regulatory Focus Affects Physician Risk Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Veazie, Peter J.; McIntosh, Scott; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Dolan, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Risk tolerance is a source of variation in physician decision-making. This variation, if independent of clinical concerns, can result in mistaken utilization of health services. To address such problems, it will be helpful to identify nonclinical factors of risk tolerance, particularly those amendable to intervention – regulatory focus theory suggests such a factor. This study tested whether regulatory focus affects risk tolerance among primary care physicians. Twenty-seven primary care physicians were assigned to promotion-focused or prevention-focused manipulations and compared on the Risk Taking Attitudes in Medical Decision Making scale using a randomization test. Results provide evidence that physicians assigned to the promotion-focus manipulation adopted an attitude of greater risk tolerance than the physicians assigned to the prevention-focused manipulation (P=0.01). The Cohen’s d statistic was conventionally large at 0.92. Results imply that situational regulatory focus in primary care physicians affects risk tolerance and may thereby be a nonclinical source of practice variation. Results also provide marginal evidence that chronic regulatory focus is associated with risk tolerance (P=0.05), but the mechanism remains unclear. Research and intervention targeting physician risk tolerance may benefit by considering situational regulatory focus as an explanatory factor. PMID:25431799

  5. Lateral distortions of electromagnetic cascades in emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, L. G.; Levit, L. B.; Jones, W. V.; Huggett, R. W.; Barrowes, S. C.

    1975-01-01

    Electromagnetic cascades in a lead-emulsion chamber have been studied to determine the effect of air gaps on the upstream sides of the emulsions. Such air gaps cause a change in the form of the radial distribution of electron tracks, making cascades appear older and giving incorrect energy estimates. The number of tracks remaining within a radius r was found to vary as exp(-g/G), where g is the gap thickness. The characteristic gap thickness in mm is G = 3.04 + 1.30 ln (Err per GeV per sq mm) where E is the energy of the initiating gamma ray. Use of this relation provides a significant correction to cascade-energy estimates and allows one to calculate the effect of different gap thicknesses on the energy threshold for visual detection of cascades.

  6. Cascaded spintronic logic with low-dimensional carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Joseph S.; Girdhar, Anuj; Gelfand, Ryan M.; Memik, Gokhan; Mohseni, Hooman; Taflove, Allen; Wessels, Bruce W.; Leburton, Jean-Pierre; Sahakian, Alan V.

    2017-06-01

    Remarkable breakthroughs have established the functionality of graphene and carbon nanotube transistors as replacements to silicon in conventional computing structures, and numerous spintronic logic gates have been presented. However, an efficient cascaded logic structure that exploits electron spin has not yet been demonstrated. In this work, we introduce and analyse a cascaded spintronic computing system composed solely of low-dimensional carbon materials. We propose a spintronic switch based on the recent discovery of negative magnetoresistance in graphene nanoribbons, and demonstrate its feasibility through tight-binding calculations of the band structure. Covalently connected carbon nanotubes create magnetic fields through graphene nanoribbons, cascading logic gates through incoherent spintronic switching. The exceptional material properties of carbon materials permit Terahertz operation and two orders of magnitude decrease in power-delay product compared to cutting-edge microprocessors. We hope to inspire the fabrication of these cascaded logic circuits to stimulate a transformative generation of energy-efficient computing.

  7. A cascading failure model for analyzing railway accident causation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Tao; Li, Ke-Ping

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new cascading failure model is proposed for quantitatively analyzing the railway accident causation. In the model, the loads of nodes are redistributed according to the strength of the causal relationships between the nodes. By analyzing the actual situation of the existing prevention measures, a critical threshold of the load parameter in the model is obtained. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed cascading model, simulation experiments of a train collision accident are performed. The results show that the cascading failure model can describe the cascading process of the railway accident more accurately than the previous models, and can quantitatively analyze the sensitivities and the influence of the causes. In conclusion, this model can assist us to reveal the latent rules of accident causation to reduce the occurrence of railway accidents.

  8. Vulnerability and cosusceptibility determine the size of network cascades

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Yang; Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2017-01-27

    In a network, a local disturbance can propagate and eventually cause a substantial part of the system to fail in cascade events that are easy to conceptualize but extraordinarily difficult to predict. Furthermore, we develop a statistical framework that can predict cascade size distributions by incorporating two ingredients only: the vulnerability of individual components and the cosusceptibility of groups of components (i.e., their tendency to fail together). Using cascades in power grids as a representative example, we show that correlations between component failures define structured and often surprisingly large groups of cosusceptible components. Aside from their implications for blackout studies,more » these results provide insights and a new modeling framework for understanding cascades in financial systems, food webs, and complex networks in general.« less

  9. Variable two-crystal cascade for conical refraction.

    PubMed

    Peet, V

    2015-05-15

    The cascade conical refraction occurs when a collimated light beam is passed consequently along the optic axes of several biaxial crystals arranged in a series. For commonly used optical arrangements, the general structure of light emerging from such a cascade is rigorously determined by the used crystals, leaving few possibilities for the variations of the established light pattern. A simple modification of a two-crystal arrangement where one of the two crystals is placed beyond the imaging lens is reported. This modification adds an extreme versatility to the effect and allows one to tune continuously the actual cascade parameters. As a result, practically any pattern of two-crystal cascade conical refraction can be obtained for any pair of biaxial crystals.

  10. Oregon Cascades Play Fairway Analysis: Faults and Heat Flow maps

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This submission includes a fault map of the Oregon Cascades and backarc, a probability map of heat flow, and a fault density probability layer. More extensive metadata can be found within each zip file.

  11. The execution of systematic measurements on plane cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, N.

    1978-01-01

    The present state of development of the experimental technique regarding the flow through cascades and several points to be specially observed in the design of cascade wind tunnels were discussed. The equations required for the evaluation of the momentum measurements in two dimensional flow through cascades were developed. Regarding the effect of the jet contraction due to the boundary layer along the side walls a simple method for correction was also given in order to obtain two dimensional flow characteristics. Also given were the equations for the evaluation of the pressure distribution measurements. Another contribution was made regarding the presentation of the test results in the form of nondimensional quantities. The results of systematic measurements of cascades with symmetrical aerofoil were reported, and the above suggested method was applied for the evaluation of the measurements.

  12. Wind tunnel wall effects in a linear oscillating cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1991-01-01

    Experiments in a linear oscillating cascade reveal that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the airfoils have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the oscillating cascade aerodynamics. In a subsonic flow field, biconvex airfoils are driven simultaneously in harmonic, torsion-mode oscillations for a range of interblade phase angle values. It is found that the cascade dynamic periodicity - the airfoil to airfoil variation in unsteady surface pressure - is good for some values of interblade phase angle but poor for others. Correlation of the unsteady pressure data with oscillating flat plate cascade predictions is generally good for conditions where the periodicity is good and poor where the periodicity is poor. Calculations based upon linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory indicate that pressure waves reflected from the wind tunnel walls are responsible for the cases where there is poor periodicity and poor correlation with the predictions.

  13. OBJECT KINETIC MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS OF CASCADE ANNEALING IN TUNGSTEN

    SciTech Connect

    Nandipati, Giridhar; Setyawan, Wahyu; Heinisch, Howard L.

    2014-03-31

    The objective of this work is to study the annealing of primary cascade damage created by primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) of various energies, at various temperatures in bulk tungsten using the object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) method.

  14. Sign epistasis caused by hierarchy within signalling cascades.

    PubMed

    Nghe, Philippe; Kogenaru, Manjunatha; Tans, Sander J

    2018-04-13

    Sign epistasis is a central evolutionary constraint, but its causal factors remain difficult to predict. Here we use the notion of parameterised optima to explain epistasis within a signalling cascade, and test these predictions in Escherichia coli. We show that sign epistasis arises from the benefit of tuning phenotypic parameters of cascade genes with respect to each other, rather than from their complex and incompletely known genetic bases. Specifically, sign epistasis requires only that the optimal phenotypic parameters of one gene depend on the phenotypic parameters of another, independent of other details, such as activating or repressing nature, position within the cascade, intra-genic pleiotropy or genotype. Mutational effects change sign more readily in downstream genes, indicating that optimising downstream genes is more constrained. The findings show that sign epistasis results from the inherent upstream-downstream hierarchy between signalling cascade genes, and can be addressed without exhaustive genotypic mapping.

  15. Spatial organization of multi-enzyme biocatalytic cascades.

    PubMed

    Quin, M B; Wallin, K K; Zhang, G; Schmidt-Dannert, C

    2017-05-23

    Industrial biocatalysis is an economically attractive option for the production of valuable chemicals. Our repertoire of cheap building blocks and commodity target molecules is vastly enhanced by multi-enzyme biocatalytic cascades. In order to achieve suitable titers in complex novel biocatalytic schemes, spatial organization may become necessary to overcome barriers caused by slow or inhibited enzymes as well as instability of biocatalysts. A number of spatial organization strategies are currently available, which could be integrated in the design of complex cascades. These include fusion proteins, immobilization on solid supports, multi-dimensional scaffolding, and encapsulation within vessels. This review article highlights recent advances in cascade biocatalysis, discusses the role of spatial organization in reaction kinetics, and presents some of the currently employed strategies for spatial organization of multi-enzyme cascades.

  16. Tunable signal processing in synthetic MAP kinase cascades.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Ellen C; Palani, Santhosh; Collins, James J; Sarkar, Casim A

    2011-01-07

    The flexibility of MAPK cascade responses enables regulation of a vast array of cell fate decisions, but elucidating the mechanisms underlying this plasticity is difficult in endogenous signaling networks. We constructed insulated mammalian MAPK cascades in yeast to explore how intrinsic and extrinsic perturbations affect the flexibility of these synthetic signaling modules. Contrary to biphasic dependence on scaffold concentration, we observe monotonic decreases in signal strength as scaffold concentration increases. We find that augmenting the concentration of sequential kinases can enhance ultrasensitivity and lower the activation threshold. Further, integrating negative regulation and concentration variation can decouple ultrasensitivity and threshold from the strength of the response. Computational analyses show that cascading can generate ultrasensitivity and that natural cascades with different kinase concentrations are innately biased toward their distinct activation profiles. This work demonstrates that tunable signal processing is inherent to minimal MAPK modules and elucidates principles for rational design of synthetic signaling systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SUMCOR: Cascade summing correction for volumetric sources applying MCNP6.

    PubMed

    Dias, M S; Semmler, R; Moreira, D S; de Menezes, M O; Barros, L F; Ribeiro, R V; Koskinas, M F

    2018-04-01

    The main features of code SUMCOR developed for cascade summing correction for volumetric sources are described. MCNP6 is used to track histories starting from individual points inside the volumetric source, for each set of cascade transitions from the radionuclide. Total and FEP efficiencies are calculated for all gamma-rays and X-rays involved in the cascade. Cascade summing correction is based on the matrix formalism developed by Semkow et al. (1990). Results are presented applying the experimental data sent to the participants of two intercomparisons organized by the ICRM-GSWG and coordinated by Dr. Marie-Cristine Lépy from the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), CEA, in 2008 and 2010, respectively and compared to the other participants in the intercomparisons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Geologic Map of the North Cascade Range, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugerud, Ralph A.; Tabor, Rowland W.

    2009-01-01

    The North Cascade Range, commonly referred to as the North Cascades, is the northern part of the Cascade Range that stretches from northern California into British Columbia, where it merges with the Coast Mountains of British Columbia at the Fraser River. The North Cascades are generally characterized by exposure of plutonic and metamorphic rocks in contrast to the volcanic terrain to the south. The rocks of the North Cascades are more resistant to erosion, display greater relief, and show evidence of more pronounced uplift and recent glaciation. Although the total length of the North Cascade Range, extending north from Snoqualmie Pass in Washington, is about 200 mi (320 km), this compilation map at 1:200,000 scale covers only that part (~150 mi) in the United States. The compilation map is derived mostly from eight 1:100,000-scale quadrangle maps that include all of the North Cascade Range in Washington and a bit of the mostly volcanic part of the Cascade Range to the south (fig. 1, sheet 2). Overall, the area represented by this compilation is about 12,740 mi2 (33,000 km2). The superb alpine scenery of the North Cascade Range and its proximity to major population centers has led to designation of much of the area for recreational use or wilderness preservation. A major part of the map area is in North Cascade National Park. Other restricted use areas are the Alpine Lakes, Boulder River, Clearwater, Glacier Peak, Henry M. Jackson, Lake Chelan-Sawtooth, Mount Baker, Noisy-Diobsud, Norse Peak, and Pasayten Wildernesses and the Mount Baker, Lake Chelan, and Ross Lake National Recreation Areas. The valleys traversed by Washington State Highway 20 east of Ross Lake are preserved as North Cascades Scenic Highway. The map area is traversed by three major highways: U.S. Interstate 90, crossing Snoqualmie Pass; Washington State Highway 2, crossing Stevens Pass; and Washington State Highway 20, crossing Washington Pass. Major secondary roads, as well as a network of U

  19. Select Biosolids Regulatory Processes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Historical Regulatory Development and activities EPA has undertaken to respond to statutory obligations, respond to the National Academy of Sciences, understand pollutants that may occur in sewage sludge, and address dioxins in sewage sludge.

  20. Cascaded chirped photon acceleration for efficient frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Matthew R.; Qu, Kenan; Jia, Qing; Mikhailova, Julia M.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2018-05-01

    A cascaded sequence of photon acceleration stages using the instantaneous creation of a plasma density gradient by flash ionization allows the generation of coherent and chirped ultraviolet and x-ray pulses with independently tunable frequency and bandwidth. The efficiency of the cascaded process scales with 1/ω in energy, and multiple stages produce significant frequency up-conversion with gas-density plasmas. Chirping permits subsequent pulse compression to few-cycle durations, and output frequencies are not limited to integer harmonics.

  1. Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Barkan, A; Tittel, F K; Mittleman, D M; Dengler, R; Siegel, P H; Scalari, G; Ajili, L; Faist, J; Beere, H E; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Ritchie, D A

    2004-03-15

    We have measured the spectral linewidths of three continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers operating at terahertz frequencies by heterodyning the free-running quantum cascade laser with two far-infrared gas lasers. Beat notes are detected with a GaAs diode mixer and a microwave spectrum analyzer, permitting very precise frequency measurements and giving instantaneous linewidths of less than -30 kHz. Characteristics are also reported for frequency tuning as the injection current is varied.

  2. Electrically driven nanopillars for THz quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Amanti, M I; Bismuto, A; Beck, M; Isa, L; Kumar, K; Reimhult, E; Faist, J

    2013-05-06

    In this work we present a rapid and parallel process for the fabrication of large scale arrays of electrically driven nanopillars for THz quantum cascade active media. We demonstrate electrical injection of pillars of 200 nm diameter and 2 µm height, over a surface of 1 mm(2). THz electroluminescence from the nanopillars is reported. This result is a promising step toward the realization of zero-dimensional structure for terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

  3. Gain competition in dual wavelength quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Markus; Pflügl, Christian; Belyanin, Alexey; Wang, Qi Jie; Yu, Nanfang; Edamura, Tadanaka; Yamanishi, Masamichi; Kan, Hirofumi; Fischer, Milan; Wittmann, Andreas; Faist, Jérôme; Capasso, Federico

    2010-05-10

    We investigated dual wavelength mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers based on heterogeneous cascades. We found that due to gain competition laser action tends to start in higher order lateral modes. The mid-infrared mode with the lower threshold current reduces population inversion for the second laser with the higher threshold current due to stimulated emission. We developed a rate equation model to quantitatively describe mode interactions due to mutual gain depletion. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  4. Turbulent cascade in a two-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Xin; Faculty of Information Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000; Liu, San-Qiu, E-mail: sqlgroup@ncu.edu.cn

    2014-11-15

    It is shown that small but finite-amplitude drift wave turbulence in a two-ion-species plasma can be modeled by a Hasegawa-Mima equation. The mode cascade process and resulting turbulent spectrum are investigated. The spectrum is found to be similar to that of a two-component plasma, but the space and time scales of the turbulent cascade process can be quite different since they are rescaled by the presence of the second ion species.

  5. Terahertz Sideband-tuned Quantum Cascade Laser Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-31

    resolution of 2 MHz in CW regime was observed. ©2008 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (140.5965) Semiconductor lasers , quantum cascade...diode,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1632 (2004). 6. A. Baryshev, et.al., “ Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser ,” Appl... optically pumped gas laser . With further improvements in power and spatial mode quality, it should be possible to lock a TQCL to the harmonic of an ultra

  6. Spatial distribution of Cherenkov light from cascade showers in water

    SciTech Connect

    Khomyakov, V. A., E-mail: VAKhomyakov@mephi.ru; Bogdanov, A. G.; Kindin, V. V.

    2016-12-15

    The spatial distribution of the Cherenkov light generated by cascade showers is analyzed using the NEVOD Cherenkov water detector. The dependence of the Cherenkov light intensity on the depth of shower development at various distances from the shower axis is investigated for the first time. The experimental data are compared with the Cherenkov light distributions predicted by various models for the scattering of cascade particles.

  7. Cascades of energy and helicity in axisymmetric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Bo; Naso, Aurore; Bos, Wouter J. T.

    2018-01-01

    A spectral analysis of strictly axisymmetric turbulence is performed. Both freely decaying and statistically steady flows are considered. In helical flows we identify a dual cascade, where energy is transferred towards the large scales and helicity to the smallest ones. It is shown that even in the absence of net helicity, a dual cascade persists, transferring energy backward and positively and negatively polarized helicity fluctuations forward.

  8. Integration of Quantum Cascade Lasers and Passive Waveguides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Optics, 2005. (CLEO). Conference on , Vol. 2 (2005) pp. 863–865. 2J. Montoya , A. Sanchez-Rubio, R. Hatch, and H . Payson, Appl. Opt. 53, 7551 (2014...Integration of Quantum Cascade Lasers and Passive Waveguidesa) Juan Montoya ,1, b) Christine Wang,1 Anish Goyal,1 Kevin Creedon,1 Michael Connors,1...active sec- tion quantum cascade laser material is biased to achieve gain. Proton ( H +) implantation reduces the free-carrier con- centration and

  9. Signal transduction in a covalent post-assembly modification cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilgrim, Ben S.; Roberts, Derrick A.; Lohr, Thorsten G.; Ronson, Tanya K.; Nitschke, Jonathan R.

    2017-12-01

    Natural reaction cascades control the movement of biomolecules between cellular compartments. Inspired by these systems, we report a synthetic reaction cascade employing post-assembly modification reactions to direct the partitioning of supramolecular complexes between phases. The system is composed of a self-assembled tetrazine-edged FeII8L12 cube and a maleimide-functionalized FeII4L6 tetrahedron. Norbornadiene (NBD) functions as the stimulus that triggers the cascade, beginning with the inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction of NBD with the tetrazine moieties of the cube. This reaction generates cyclopentadiene as a transient by-product, acting as a relay signal that subsequently undergoes a Diels-Alder reaction with the maleimide-functionalized tetrahedron. Cyclooctyne can selectively inhibit the cascade by outcompeting NBD as the initial trigger. Initiating the cascade with 2-octadecyl NBD leads to selective alkylation of the tetrahedron upon cascade completion. The increased lipophilicity of the C18-tagged tetrahedron drives this complex into a non-polar phase, allowing its isolation from the initially inseparable mixture of complexes.

  10. Threshold cascades with response heterogeneity in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyu-Min; Brummitt, Charles D.; Goh, K.-I.

    2014-12-01

    Threshold cascade models have been used to describe the spread of behavior in social networks and cascades of default in financial networks. In some cases, these networks may have multiple kinds of interactions, such as distinct types of social ties or distinct types of financial liabilities; furthermore, nodes may respond in different ways to influence from their neighbors of multiple types. To start to capture such settings in a stylized way, we generalize a threshold cascade model to a multiplex network in which nodes follow one of two response rules: some nodes activate when, in at least one layer, a large enough fraction of neighbors is active, while the other nodes activate when, in all layers, a large enough fraction of neighbors is active. Varying the fractions of nodes following either rule facilitates or inhibits cascades. Near the inhibition regime, global cascades appear discontinuously as the network density increases; however, the cascade grows more slowly over time. This behavior suggests a way in which various collective phenomena in the real world could appear abruptly yet slowly.

  11. Mode stabilization in quantum cascade lasers via an intra-cavity cascaded nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    St-Jean, M Renaudat; Amanti, M I; Bismuto, A; Beck, M; Faist, J; Sirtori, C

    2017-02-06

    We present self-stabilization of the inter-mode separation of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 9 μm via cascaded second order nonlinearity. This effect has been observed in lasers that have the optical cavity embedded into a microwave strip-line. The intermodal beat note spectra narrow with increasing laser output power, up to less than 100 kHz. A flat frequency response to direct modulation up to 14 GHz is reported for these microstrip QCLs. The laser inter-mode spacing can be locked to an external RF signal and tuned by more than 1 MHz from the free-running spacing. A parallel study on the same laser material in a non-microstrip line waveguide shows superior performances of the microstrip QCL in terms of the intermodal spectral locking and stability. Finally by analyzing our results with the theory of the injection locking of coupled oscillators, we deduce that the microwave power injected in the microstrip QCL is 2 orders of magnitude higher than in the reference laser.

  12. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S P; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  13. Longitudinal gradients along a reservoir cascade

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Habrat, M.D.; Miyazono, S.

    2008-01-01

    Reservoirs have traditionally been regarded as spatially independent entities rather than as longitudinal segments of a river system that are connected upstream and downstream to the river and other reservoirs. This view has frustrated advancement in reservoir science by impeding adequate organization of available information and by hindering interchanges with allied disciplines that often consider impounded rivers at the basin scale. We analyzed reservoir morphology, water quality, and fish assemblage data collected in 24 reservoirs of the Tennessee River; we wanted to describe longitudinal changes occurring at the scale of the entire reservoir series (i.e., cascade) and to test the hypothesis that fish communities and environmental factors display predictable gradients like those recognized for unimpounded rivers. We used a data set collected over a 7-year period; over 3 million fish representing 94 species were included in the data set. Characteristics such as reservoir mean depth, relative size of the limnetic zone, water retention time, oxygen stratification, thermal stratification, substrate size, and water level fluctuations increased in upstream reservoirs. Conversely, reservoir area, extent of riverine and littoral zones, access to floodplains and associated wetlands, habitat diversity, and nutrient and sediment inputs increased in downstream reservoirs. Upstream reservoirs included few, largely lacustrine, ubiquitous fish taxa that were characteristic of the lentic upper reaches of the basin. Fish species richness increased in a downstream direction from 12 to 67 species/ reservoir as riverine species became more common. Considering impoundments at a basin scale by viewing them as sections in a river or links in a chain may generate insight that is not always available when the impoundments are viewed as isolated entities. Basin-scale variables are rarely controllable but constrain the expression of processes at smaller scales and can facilitate the

  14. Fast lossless compression via cascading Bloom filters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Data from large Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) experiments present challenges both in terms of costs associated with storage and in time required for file transfer. It is sometimes possible to store only a summary relevant to particular applications, but generally it is desirable to keep all information needed to revisit experimental results in the future. Thus, the need for efficient lossless compression methods for NGS reads arises. It has been shown that NGS-specific compression schemes can improve results over generic compression methods, such as the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Burrows-Wheeler transform, or Arithmetic Coding. When a reference genome is available, effective compression can be achieved by first aligning the reads to the reference genome, and then encoding each read using the alignment position combined with the differences in the read relative to the reference. These reference-based methods have been shown to compress better than reference-free schemes, but the alignment step they require demands several hours of CPU time on a typical dataset, whereas reference-free methods can usually compress in minutes. Results We present a new approach that achieves highly efficient compression by using a reference genome, but completely circumvents the need for alignment, affording a great reduction in the time needed to compress. In contrast to reference-based methods that first align reads to the genome, we hash all reads into Bloom filters to encode, and decode by querying the same Bloom filters using read-length subsequences of the reference genome. Further compression is achieved by using a cascade of such filters. Conclusions Our method, called BARCODE, runs an order of magnitude faster than reference-based methods, while compressing an order of magnitude better than reference-free methods, over a broad range of sequencing coverage. In high coverage (50-100 fold), compared to the best tested compressors, BARCODE saves 80-90% of the running time

  15. Large beam deflection using cascaded prism array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Tsui, Chi-Leung

    2012-04-01

    Endoscopes have been utilize in the medical field to observe the internals of the human body to assist the diagnosis of diseases, such as breathing disorders, internal bleeding, stomach ulcers, and urinary tract infections. Endoscopy is also utilized in the procedure of biopsy for the diagnosis of cancer. Conventional endoscopes suffer from the compromise between overall size and image quality due to the required size of the sensor for acceptable image quality. To overcome the size constraint while maintaining the capture image quality, we propose an electro-optic beam steering device based on thermal-plastic polymer, which has a small foot-print (~5mmx5mm), and can be easily fabricated using conventional hot-embossing and micro-fabrication techniques. The proposed device can be implemented as an imaging device inside endoscopes to allow reduction in the overall system size. In our previous work, a single prism design has been used to amplify the deflection generated by the index change of the thermal-plastic polymer when a voltage is applied; it yields a result of 5.6° deflection. To further amplify the deflection, a new design utilizing a cascading three-prism array has been implemented and a deflection angle to 29.2° is observed. The new design amplifies the beam deflection, while keeping the advantage of simple fabrication made possible by thermal-plastic polymer. Also, a photo-resist based collimator lens array has been added to reduce and provide collimation of the beam for high quality imaging purposes. The collimator is able to collimate the exiting beam at 4 μm diameter for up to 25mm, which potentially allows high resolution image capturing.

  16. Cascaded processing in written compound word production

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Raymond; Tønnessen, Finn Egil; Strömqvist, Sven; Hyönä, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun) Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production. PMID:25954182

  17. Cascaded processing in written compound word production.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Raymond; Tønnessen, Finn Egil; Strömqvist, Sven; Hyönä, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun) Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  18. Human Initiated Cascading Failures in Societal Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S. P.; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  19. Fast lossless compression via cascading Bloom filters.

    PubMed

    Rozov, Roye; Shamir, Ron; Halperin, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Data from large Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) experiments present challenges both in terms of costs associated with storage and in time required for file transfer. It is sometimes possible to store only a summary relevant to particular applications, but generally it is desirable to keep all information needed to revisit experimental results in the future. Thus, the need for efficient lossless compression methods for NGS reads arises. It has been shown that NGS-specific compression schemes can improve results over generic compression methods, such as the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Burrows-Wheeler transform, or Arithmetic Coding. When a reference genome is available, effective compression can be achieved by first aligning the reads to the reference genome, and then encoding each read using the alignment position combined with the differences in the read relative to the reference. These reference-based methods have been shown to compress better than reference-free schemes, but the alignment step they require demands several hours of CPU time on a typical dataset, whereas reference-free methods can usually compress in minutes. We present a new approach that achieves highly efficient compression by using a reference genome, but completely circumvents the need for alignment, affording a great reduction in the time needed to compress. In contrast to reference-based methods that first align reads to the genome, we hash all reads into Bloom filters to encode, and decode by querying the same Bloom filters using read-length subsequences of the reference genome. Further compression is achieved by using a cascade of such filters. Our method, called BARCODE, runs an order of magnitude faster than reference-based methods, while compressing an order of magnitude better than reference-free methods, over a broad range of sequencing coverage. In high coverage (50-100 fold), compared to the best tested compressors, BARCODE saves 80-90% of the running time while only increasing space

  20. [Regulatory T cells].

    PubMed

    Marinić, Igor; Gagro, Alenka; Rabatić, Sabina

    2006-12-01

    Regulatory T-cells are a subset of T cells that have beene extensively studied in modern immunology. They are important for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, and have an important role in various clinical conditions such as allergy, autoimmune disorders, tumors, infections, and in transplant medicine. Basically, this population has a suppressive effect on the neighboring immune cells, thus contributing to the local modulation and control of immune response. There are two main populations of regulatory T cells - natural regulatory T cells, which form a distinct cellular lineage, develop in thymus and perform their modulatory action through direct intercellular contact, along with the secreted cytokines; and inducible regulatory T cells, which develop in the periphery after contact with the antigen that is presented on the antigen presenting cell, and their primary mode of action is through the interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-alpha) cytokines. Natural regulatory T cells are activated through T cell receptor after contact with specific antigen and inhibit proliferation of other T cells in an antigen independent manner. One of the major difficulties in the research of regulatory T cells is the lack of specific molecular markers that would identify these cells. Natural regulatory T cells constitutively express surface molecule CD25, but many other surface and intracellular molecules (HLA-DR, CD122, CD45RO, CD62, CTLA-4, GITR, PD-1, Notch, FOXP3, etc.) are being investigated for further phenotypic characterization of these cells. Because regulatory T cells have an important role in establishing peripheral tolerance, their importance is manifested in a number of clinical conditions. In the IPEX syndrome (immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy and enteropathy, X-linked), which is caused by mutation in Foxp3 gene that influences the development and function of regulatory T cells, patients develop severe autoimmune reactions that

  1. Deep-cascade: Cascading 3D Deep Neural Networks for Fast Anomaly Detection and Localization in Crowded Scenes.

    PubMed

    Sabokrou, Mohammad; Fayyaz, Mohsen; Fathy, Mahmood; Klette, Reinhard

    2017-02-17

    This paper proposes a fast and reliable method for anomaly detection and localization in video data showing crowded scenes. Time-efficient anomaly localization is an ongoing challenge and subject of this paper. We propose a cubicpatch- based method, characterised by a cascade of classifiers, which makes use of an advanced feature-learning approach. Our cascade of classifiers has two main stages. First, a light but deep 3D auto-encoder is used for early identification of "many" normal cubic patches. This deep network operates on small cubic patches as being the first stage, before carefully resizing remaining candidates of interest, and evaluating those at the second stage using a more complex and deeper 3D convolutional neural network (CNN). We divide the deep autoencoder and the CNN into multiple sub-stages which operate as cascaded classifiers. Shallow layers of the cascaded deep networks (designed as Gaussian classifiers, acting as weak single-class classifiers) detect "simple" normal patches such as background patches, and more complex normal patches are detected at deeper layers. It is shown that the proposed novel technique (a cascade of two cascaded classifiers) performs comparable to current top-performing detection and localization methods on standard benchmarks, but outperforms those in general with respect to required computation time.

  2. Model approach for stress induced steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases.

    PubMed

    Volko, Claus D; Regidor, Pedro A; Rohr, Uwe D

    2016-03-01

    Stress was described by Cushing and Selye as an adaptation to a foreign stressor by the anterior pituitary increasing ACTH, which stimulates the release of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones. The question is raised whether stress can induce additional steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases (SMD), since stress is the common denominator. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed, where the steroidal hormone cascade of patients with SMD was compared to the impact of increasing stress on the steroidal hormone cascade (a) in healthy amateur marathon runners with no overtraining; (b) in healthy well-trained elite soldiers of a ranger training unit in North Norway, who were under extreme physical and mental stress, sleep deprivation, and insufficient calories for 1 week; and, (c) in soldiers suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia (SI), and bipolar disorders (BD). (a) When physical stress is exposed moderately to healthy men and women for 3-5 days, as in the case of amateur marathon runners, only few steroidal hormones are altered. A mild reduction in testosterone, cholesterol and triglycerides is detected in blood and in saliva, but there was no decrease in estradiol. Conversely, there is an increase of the glucocorticoids, aldosterone and cortisol. Cellular immunity, but not specific immunity, is reduced for a short time in these subjects. (b) These changes are also seen in healthy elite soldiers exposed to extreme physical and mental stress but to a somewhat greater extent. For instance, the aldosterone is increased by a factor of three. (c) In SMD, an irreversible effect on the entire steroidal hormone cascade is detected. Hormones at the top of the cascade, such as cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), aldosterone and other glucocorticoids, are increased. However, testosterone and estradiol and their metabolites, and other hormones at the lower end of the cascade, seem to be reduced. 1

  3. Protein phosphatase 2ACα gene knock-out results in cortical atrophy through activating hippo cascade in neuronal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Sun, Li-Hua; Huang, Yan-Fei; Guo, Li-Jun; Luo, Li-Shu

    2018-02-01

    Protein phosphatase 2ACα (PP2ACα), a vital member of the protein phosphatase family, has been studied primarily as a regulator for the development, growth and protein synthesis of a lot of cell types. Dysfunction of PP2ACα protein results in neurodegenerative disease; however, this finding has not been directly confirmed in the mouse model with PP2ACα gene knock-out. Therefore, in this study presented here, we generated the PP2ACα gene knock-out mouse model by the Cre-loxP targeting gene system, with the purpose to directly observe the regulatory role of PP2ACα gene in the development of mouse's cerebral cortex. We observe that knocking-out PP2ACα gene in the central nervous system (CNS) results in cortical neuronal shrinkage, synaptic plasticity impairments, and learning/memory deficits. Further study reveals that PP2ACα gene knock-out initiates Hippo cascade in cortical neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs), which blocks YAP translocation into the nuclei of NPCs. Notably, p73, directly targeted by Hippo cascade, can bind to the promoter of glutaminase2 (GLS2) that plays a dominant role in the enzymatic regulation of glutamate/glutamine cycle. Finally, we find that PP2ACα gene knock-out inhibits the glutamine synthesis through up-regulating the activity of phosphorylated-p73 in cortical NPCs. Taken together, it concludes that PP2ACα critically supports cortical neuronal growth and cognitive function via regulating the signaling transduction of Hippo-p73 cascade. And PP2ACα indirectly modulates the glutamine synthesis of cortical NPCs through targeting p73 that plays a direct transcriptional regulatory role in the gene expression of GLS2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The HIV care cascade: Japanese perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Rikizo; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Koibuchi, Tomohiko; Rahman, Mahbubur; Izumi, Yoko; Tadokoro, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Japan has been known as a low HIV-prevalence country with a concentrated epidemic among high-risk groups. However, it has not been determined whether Japan meets the 90-90-90 goals set by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)/World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, to date, the HIV care cascade has not been examined. We estimated the total number of diagnosed people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (n = 22,840) based on legal reports to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare by subtracting the number of foreigners who left Japan (n = 2,273) and deaths (n = 2,321) from the cumulative diagnosis report (n = 27,434). The number of total undiagnosed PLWHA was estimated by age and sex specific HIV-positive rates observed among first-time blood donors between 2011–2015 in Japan. Our estimates show that 14.4% (n = 3,830) of all PLWHA (n = 26,670) were undiagnosed in Japan at the end of 2015. The number of patients retained in care (n = 20,615: 77.3% of PLWHA), the percentage of those on antiretroviral therapy (n = 18,921: 70.9% of PLWHA) and those with suppressed viral loads (<200 copies/mL; n = 18,756: 70.3% of PLWHA) were obtained through a questionnaire survey conducted in the AIDS Core Hospitals throughout the country. According to these estimates, Japan failed to achieve the first two of the three UNAIDS/WHO targets (22,840/26,670 = 85.6% of HIV-positive cases were diagnosed; 18,921/22,840 = 82.8% of those diagnosed were treated; 18,756/18,921 = 99.1% of those treated experienced viral suppression). Although the antiretroviral treatment uptake and success after retention in medical care appears to be excellent in Japan, there are unmet needs, mainly at the surveillance level before patients are retained in care. The promotion of HIV testing and treatment programs among the key affected populations (especially men who have sex with men) may contribute to further decreasing the HIV epidemic and achieving the UNAIDS/WHO targets in Japan. PMID

  5. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W.; Taguchi, K.; Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f50 (spatial-frequency at

  6. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Zbijewski, W; Gang, G; Stayman, J W; Taguchi, K; Lundqvist, M; Fredenberg, E; Carrino, J A; Siewerdsen, J H

    2014-10-01

    Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1-7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f50 (spatial-frequency at which the MTF falls to a value of

  7. Determining causal miRNAs and their signaling cascade in diseases using an influence diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Nalluri, Joseph J; Rana, Pratip; Barh, Debmalya; Azevedo, Vasco; Dinh, Thang N; Vladimirov, Vladimir; Ghosh, Preetam

    2017-08-15

    In recent studies, miRNAs have been found to be extremely influential in many of the essential biological processes. They exhibit a self-regulatory mechanism through which they act as positive/negative regulators of expression of genes and other miRNAs. This has direct implications in the regulation of various pathophysiological conditions, signaling pathways and different types of cancers. Studying miRNA-disease associations has been an extensive area of research; however deciphering miRNA-miRNA network regulatory patterns in several diseases remains a challenge. In this study, we use information diffusion theory to quantify the influence diffusion in a miRNA-miRNA regulation network across multiple disease categories. Our proposed methodology determines the critical disease specific miRNAs which play a causal role in their signaling cascade and hence may regulate disease progression. We extensively validate our framework using existing computational tools from the literature. Furthermore, we implement our framework on a comprehensive miRNA expression data set for alcohol dependence and identify the causal miRNAs for alcohol-dependency in patients which were validated by the phase-shift in their expression scores towards the early stages of the disease. Finally, our computational framework for identifying causal miRNAs implicated in diseases is available as a free online tool for the greater scientific community.

  8. Displacement cascades in a borosilicate glass: Influence of the level of polymerization on the cascade morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaye, J. M.; Ghaleb, D.

    1998-02-01

    We have performed some molecular dynamics calculations of displacement cascades in a simplified nuclear glass (SiO 2 + B 2O 3 + Na 2O + Al 2O 3 + ZrO 2). We have observed that the damaged volume at the end of the collision sequence can be divided into a so called highly damaged volume and lightly damaged volume. The aim of this paper is to propose an explanation of this phenomenon by considering that some regions are easy to cross by the projectile and others are difficult to cross by the projectile. Regions which are easy to cross correspond to those containing Na atoms with a low level of polymerisation, and regions which are difficult to cross are areas no containing Na atoms with a high level of polymerisation.

  9. Hydrogeology of the Cascade Springs area near Tullahoma, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    The ground-water-flow system contributing to Cascade Springs near Tullahoma, Tennessee, was investigated from September 1991 to May 1992. Cascade Springs, consisting of Left Cascade and Right Cascade Springs, are located on the escarpment of the Highland Rim and discharge immediately above the Chattanooga Shale from the cherty Fort Payne Formation. Left Cascade Spring is the sole source of water for the Town of Wartrace and for a local whiskey distillery. Two major aquifers, the Manchester and the Fort Payne aquifers, contribute ground-water flow to Cascade Springs. The Manchester aquifer is composed of unconsolidated chert gravel with minimal clay content and the upper, well- fractured interval of the Fort Payne Formation. The Fort Payne aquifer consists of dense, bedded, cherty limestone with few fractures. Where present, the fractures of the Fort Payne aquifer are concentrated immediately above the Chattanooga Shale along horizontal bedding planes. The Manchester and the Fort Payne aquifers are hydraulically connected. However, the dense cherty limestone of the Fort Payne Formation, where unfractured, can impede the downward flow of ground water from the Manchester aquifer. Near the Highland Rime escarpment, as a result of this local confinement, the potentiometric head of wells completed in the Manchester aquifer is 36- to 80-feet higher than the head of wells completed in the Fort Payne aquifer. The primary recharge area for Cascade Springs is located southeast of the springs. The estimated recharge area for the Manchester aquifer encompaasses approximately 1 square mile. The lateral extent of the recharge area for the Fort Payne aquifer cannot be delineated because few wells completed in the Fort Payne aquifer are located southeast of Cascade Springs. The water quality of Left Cascade Spring is dominated by calcium and bicarbonate ions with low concentrations of inorganic constituents and dissolved solids. Two volatile organic compounds (1.3 micrograms per

  10. Rationales for regulatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Perhac, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  11. Critical assessment and ramifications of a purported marine trophic cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubbs, R. Dean; Carlson, John K.; Romine, Jason G.; Curtis, Tobey H.; McElroy, W. David; McCandless, Camilla T.; Cotton, Charles F.; Musick, John A.

    2016-02-01

    When identifying potential trophic cascades, it is important to clearly establish the trophic linkages between predators and prey with respect to temporal abundance, demographics, distribution, and diet. In the northwest Atlantic Ocean, the depletion of large coastal sharks was thought to trigger a trophic cascade whereby predation release resulted in increased cownose ray abundance, which then caused increased predation on and subsequent collapse of commercial bivalve stocks. These claims were used to justify the development of a predator-control fishery for cownose rays, the “Save the Bay, Eat a Ray” fishery, to reduce predation on commercial bivalves. A reexamination of data suggests declines in large coastal sharks did not coincide with purported rapid increases in cownose ray abundance. Likewise, the increase in cownose ray abundance did not coincide with declines in commercial bivalves. The lack of temporal correlations coupled with published diet data suggest the purported trophic cascade is lacking the empirical linkages required of a trophic cascade. Furthermore, the life history parameters of cownose rays suggest they have low reproductive potential and their populations are incapable of rapid increases. Hypothesized trophic cascades should be closely scrutinized as spurious conclusions may negatively influence conservation and management decisions.

  12. A period-doubling cascade precedes chaos for planar maps.

    PubMed

    Sander, Evelyn; Yorke, James A

    2013-09-01

    A period-doubling cascade is often seen in numerical studies of those smooth (one-parameter families of) maps for which as the parameter is varied, the map transitions from one without chaos to one with chaos. Our emphasis in this paper is on establishing the existence of such a cascade for many maps with phase space dimension 2. We use continuation methods to show the following: under certain general assumptions, if at one parameter there are only finitely many periodic orbits, and at another parameter value there is chaos, then between those two parameter values there must be a cascade. We investigate only families that are generic in the sense that all periodic orbit bifurcations are generic. Our method of proof in showing there is one cascade is to show there must be infinitely many cascades. We discuss in detail two-dimensional families like those which arise as a time-2π maps for the Duffing equation and the forced damped pendulum equation.

  13. Gradients in Catostomid assemblages along a reservoir cascade

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Keretz, Kevin R.; Gilliland, Chelsea R.

    2017-01-01

    Serial impoundment of major rivers leads to alterations of natural flow dynamics and disrupts longitudinal connectivity. Catostomid fishes (suckers, family Catostomidae) are typically found in riverine or backwater habitats yet are able to persist in impounded river systems. To the detriment of conservation, there is limited information about distribution of catostomid fishes in impounded rivers. We examined the longitudinal distribution of catostomid fishes over 23 reservoirs of the Tennessee River reservoir cascade, encompassing approximately 1600 km. Our goal was to develop a basin-scale perspective to guide conservation efforts. Catostomid species composition and assemblage structure changed longitudinally along the reservoir cascade. Catostomid species biodiversity was greatest in reservoirs lower in the cascade. Assemblage composition shifted from dominance by spotted sucker Minytrema melanops and buffalos Ictiobus spp. in the lower reservoirs to carpsuckers Carpiodes spp. midway through the cascade and redhorses Moxostoma spp. in the upper reservoirs. Most species did not extend the length of the cascade, and some species were rare, found in low numbers and in few reservoirs. The observed gradients in catostomid assemblages suggest the need for basin-scale conservation measures focusing on three broad areas: (1) conservation and management of the up-lake riverine reaches of the lower reservoirs, (2) maintenance of the access to quality habitat in tributaries to the upper reservoirs and (3) reintroductions into currently unoccupied habitat within species' historic distributions

  14. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence.

    PubMed

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G; Tivnan, Brian F; Bagrow, James P; Hines, Paul D H

    2017-03-20

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a "smart" power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained.

  15. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    PubMed Central

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Bagrow, James P.; Hines, Paul D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a “smart” power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained. PMID:28317835

  16. Coagulation cascade and complement system in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Xie, Shang-Bo; Wu, Chang-Hao; Hu, Yuan; Zhang, Qin; Li, Si; Fan, Yin-Guang; Leng, Rui-Xue; Pan, Hai-Feng; Xiong, Hua-Bao; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to (1) characterize coagulation cascade and complement system in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); (2) evaluate the associations between coagulation cascade, complement system, inflammatory response and SLE disease severity; (3) test the diagnostic value of a combination of D-dimer and C4 for lupus activity. Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics were performed in 24 SLE patients and 24 healthy controls. The levels of ten coagulations, seven complements and three cytokines were measured in 112 SLE patients. Clinical data were collected from 2025 SLE patients. The analysis of multi-omics data revealed the common links for the components of coagulation cascade and complement system. The results of ELISA showed coagulation cascade and complement system had an interaction effect on SLE disease severity, this effect was pronounced among patients with excess inflammation. The analysis of clinical data revealed a combination of D-dimer and C4 provided good diagnostic performance for lupus activity. This study suggested that coagulation cascade and complement system become ‘partners in crime’, contributing to SLE disease severity and identified the diagnostic value of D-dimer combined with C4for lupus activity. PMID:29599912

  17. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Bagrow, James P.; Hines, Paul D. H.

    2017-03-01

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a “smart” power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained.

  18. Critical assessment and ramifications of a purported marine trophic cascade

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubbs, R. Dean; Carlson, John K; Romine, Jason G.; Curtis, Tobey H; McElroy, W. David; McCandless, Camilla T; Cotton, Charles F; Musick, John A.

    2016-01-01

    When identifying potential trophic cascades, it is important to clearly establish the trophic linkages between predators and prey with respect to temporal abundance, demographics, distribution, and diet. In the northwest Atlantic Ocean, the depletion of large coastal sharks was thought to trigger a trophic cascade whereby predation release resulted in increased cownose ray abundance, which then caused increased predation on and subsequent collapse of commercial bivalve stocks. These claims were used to justify the development of a predator-control fishery for cownose rays, the “Save the Bay, Eat a Ray” fishery, to reduce predation on commercial bivalves. A reexamination of data suggests declines in large coastal sharks did not coincide with purported rapid increases in cownose ray abundance. Likewise, the increase in cownose ray abundance did not coincide with declines in commercial bivalves. The lack of temporal correlations coupled with published diet data suggest the purported trophic cascade is lacking the empirical linkages required of a trophic cascade. Furthermore, the life history parameters of cownose rays suggest they have low reproductive potential and their populations are incapable of rapid increases. Hypothesized trophic cascades should be closely scrutinized as spurious conclusions may negatively influence conservation and management decisions.

  19. Cascading failures in complex networks with community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoqiang; di, Zengru; Fan, Ying

    2014-12-01

    Much empirical evidence shows that when attacked with cascading failures, scale-free or even random networks tend to collapse more extensively when the initially deleted node has higher betweenness. Meanwhile, in networks with strong community structure, high-betweenness nodes tend to be bridge nodes that link different communities, and the removal of such nodes will reduce only the connections among communities, leaving the networks fairly stable. Understanding what will affect cascading failures and how to protect or attack networks with strong community structure is therefore of interest. In this paper, we have constructed scale-free Community Networks (SFCN) and Random Community Networks (RCN). We applied these networks, along with the Lancichinett-Fortunato-Radicchi (LFR) benchmark, to the cascading-failure scenario to explore their vulnerability to attack and the relationship between cascading failures and the degree distribution and community structure of a network. The numerical results show that when the networks are of a power-law distribution, a stronger community structure will result in the failure of fewer nodes. In addition, the initial removal of the node with the highest betweenness will not lead to the worst cascading, i.e. the largest avalanche size. The Betweenness Overflow (BOF), an index that we developed, is an effective indicator of this tendency. The RCN, however, display a different result. In addition, the avalanche size of each node can be adopted as an index to evaluate the importance of the node.

  20. Framework for cascade size calculations on random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Schweitzer, Frank

    2018-04-01

    We present a framework to calculate the cascade size evolution for a large class of cascade models on random network ensembles in the limit of infinite network size. Our method is exact and applies to network ensembles with almost arbitrary degree distribution, degree-degree correlations, and, in case of threshold models, for arbitrary threshold distribution. With our approach, we shift the perspective from the known branching process approximations to the iterative update of suitable probability distributions. Such distributions are key to capture cascade dynamics that involve possibly continuous quantities and that depend on the cascade history, e.g., if load is accumulated over time. As a proof of concept, we provide two examples: (a) Constant load models that cover many of the analytically tractable casacade models, and, as a highlight, (b) a fiber bundle model that was not tractable by branching process approximations before. Our derivations cover the whole cascade dynamics, not only their steady state. This allows us to include interventions in time or further model complexity in the analysis.

  1. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumel, Stéphanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean

    2004-07-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricité de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  2. Cascades and Dissipative Anomalies in Compressible Fluid Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyink, Gregory L.; Drivas, Theodore D.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate dissipative anomalies in a turbulent fluid governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equation. We follow an exact approach pioneered by Onsager, which we explain as a nonperturbative application of the principle of renormalization-group invariance. In the limit of high Reynolds and Péclet numbers, the flow realizations are found to be described as distributional or "coarse-grained" solutions of the compressible Euler equations, with standard conservation laws broken by turbulent anomalies. The anomalous dissipation of kinetic energy is shown to be due not only to local cascade but also to a distinct mechanism called pressure-work defect. Irreversible heating in stationary, planar shocks with an ideal-gas equation of state exemplifies the second mechanism. Entropy conservation anomalies are also found to occur via two mechanisms: an anomalous input of negative entropy (negentropy) by pressure work and a cascade of negentropy to small scales. We derive "4 /5 th-law"-type expressions for the anomalies, which allow us to characterize the singularities (structure-function scaling exponents) required to sustain the cascades. We compare our approach with alternative theories and empirical evidence. It is argued that the "Big Power Law in the Sky" observed in electron density scintillations in the interstellar medium is a manifestation of a forward negentropy cascade or an inverse cascade of usual thermodynamic entropy.

  3. Critical assessment and ramifications of a purported marine trophic cascade

    PubMed Central

    Grubbs, R. Dean; Carlson, John K.; Romine, Jason G.; Curtis, Tobey H.; McElroy, W. David; McCandless, Camilla T.; Cotton, Charles F.; Musick, John A.

    2016-01-01

    When identifying potential trophic cascades, it is important to clearly establish the trophic linkages between predators and prey with respect to temporal abundance, demographics, distribution, and diet. In the northwest Atlantic Ocean, the depletion of large coastal sharks was thought to trigger a trophic cascade whereby predation release resulted in increased cownose ray abundance, which then caused increased predation on and subsequent collapse of commercial bivalve stocks. These claims were used to justify the development of a predator-control fishery for cownose rays, the “Save the Bay, Eat a Ray” fishery, to reduce predation on commercial bivalves. A reexamination of data suggests declines in large coastal sharks did not coincide with purported rapid increases in cownose ray abundance. Likewise, the increase in cownose ray abundance did not coincide with declines in commercial bivalves. The lack of temporal correlations coupled with published diet data suggest the purported trophic cascade is lacking the empirical linkages required of a trophic cascade. Furthermore, the life history parameters of cownose rays suggest they have low reproductive potential and their populations are incapable of rapid increases. Hypothesized trophic cascades should be closely scrutinized as spurious conclusions may negatively influence conservation and management decisions. PMID:26876514

  4. OsCERK1-Mediated Chitin Perception and Immune Signaling Requires Receptor-like Cytoplasmic Kinase 185 to Activate an MAPK Cascade in Rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Chi; Zhu, Pinkuan; Dai, Huiling; Yu, Nan; He, Zuhua; Xu, Ling; Wang, Ertao

    2017-04-03

    Conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as chitin, are perceived by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) located at the host cell surface and trigger rapid activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, which are required for plant resistance to pathogens. However, the direct links from PAMP perception to MAPK activation in plants remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that the PRR-associated receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase Oryza sativa RLCK185 transmits immune signaling from the PAMP receptor OsCERK1 to an MAPK signaling cascade through interaction with an MAPK kinase kinase, OsMAPKKKε, which is the initial kinase of the MAPK cascade. OsRLCK185 interacts with and phosphorylates the C-terminal regulatory domain of OsMAPKKKε. Coexpression of phosphomimetic OsRLCK185 and OsMAPKKKε activates MAPK3/6 phosphorylation in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Moreover, OsMAPKKKε interacts with and phosphorylates OsMKK4, a key MAPK kinase that transduces the chitin signal. Overexpression of OsMAPKKKε increases chitin-induced MAPK3/6 activation, whereas OsMAPKKKε knockdown compromises chitin-induced MAPK3/6 activation and resistance to rice blast fungus. Taken together, our results suggest the existence of a phospho-signaling pathway from cell surface chitin perception to intracellular activation of an MAPK cascade in rice. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of Gust Response on a Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, A. P.; Lucci, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents benchmark experimental data on a gust response of an annular turbine cascade. The experiment was particularly designed to provide data for comparison with the results of a typical linearized gust-response analysis. Reduced frequency, Mach number, and incidence were varied independently. Except for the lowest reduced frequency, the gust velocity distribution was nearly sinusoidal. For the high inlet-velocity series of tests, the cascade was near choking. The mean flow was documented by measuring blade surface pressures and the cascade exit flow. High-response pressure transducers were used to measure the unsteady pressure distribution. Inlet-velocity components and turbulence parameters were measured using hot wire. In addition to the synchronous time-average pressure spectra, typical power spectra are included for several representative conditions.

  6. Substrate-driven chemotactic assembly in an enzyme cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xi; Palacci, Henri; Yadav, Vinita; Spiering, Michelle M.; Gilson, Michael K.; Butler, Peter J.; Hess, Henry; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Sen, Ayusman

    2018-03-01

    Enzymatic catalysis is essential to cell survival. In many instances, enzymes that participate in reaction cascades have been shown to assemble into metabolons in response to the presence of the substrate for the first enzyme. However, what triggers metabolon formation has remained an open question. Through a combination of theory and experiments, we show that enzymes in a cascade can assemble via chemotaxis. We apply microfluidic and fluorescent spectroscopy techniques to study the coordinated movement of the first four enzymes of the glycolysis cascade: hexokinase, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase and aldolase. We show that each enzyme independently follows its own specific substrate gradient, which in turn is produced by the preceding enzymatic reaction. Furthermore, we find that the chemotactic assembly of enzymes occurs even under cytosolic crowding conditions.

  7. Enstrophy Cascade in Decaying Two-Dimensional Quantum Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Matthew T.; Billam, Thomas P.; Yu, Xiaoquan; Bradley, Ashton S.

    2017-11-01

    We report evidence for an enstrophy cascade in large-scale point-vortex simulations of decaying two-dimensional quantum turbulence. Devising a method to generate quantum vortex configurations with kinetic energy narrowly localized near a single length scale, the dynamics are found to be well characterized by a superfluid Reynolds number Res that depends only on the number of vortices and the initial kinetic energy scale. Under free evolution the vortices exhibit features of a classical enstrophy cascade, including a k-3 power-law kinetic energy spectrum, and constant enstrophy flux associated with inertial transport to small scales. Clear signatures of the cascade emerge for N ≳500 vortices. Simulating up to very large Reynolds numbers (N =32 768 vortices), additional features of the classical theory are observed: the Kraichnan-Batchelor constant is found to converge to C'≈1.6 , and the width of the k-3 range scales as Res1 /2 .

  8. Cascading events in linked ecological and socioeconomic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Debra P.C.; Sala, O.E.; Allen, Craig D.; Covich, A.; Brunson, M.

    2007-01-01

    Cascading events that start at small spatial scales and propagate non-linearly through time to influence larger areas often have major impacts on ecosystem goods and services. Events such as wildfires and hurricanes are increasing in frequency and magnitude as systems become more connected through globalization processes. We need to improve our understanding of these events in order to predict their occurrence, minimize potential impacts, and allow for strategic recovery. Here, we synthesize information about cascading events in systems located throughout the Americas. We discuss a variety of examples of cascading events that share a common feature: they are often driven by linked ecological and human processes across scales. In this era of globalization, we recommend studies that explicitly examine connections across scales and examine the role of connectivity among non-contiguous as well as contiguous areas.

  9. Substrate-driven chemotactic assembly in an enzyme cascade.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Palacci, Henri; Yadav, Vinita; Spiering, Michelle M; Gilson, Michael K; Butler, Peter J; Hess, Henry; Benkovic, Stephen J; Sen, Ayusman

    2018-03-01

    Enzymatic catalysis is essential to cell survival. In many instances, enzymes that participate in reaction cascades have been shown to assemble into metabolons in response to the presence of the substrate for the first enzyme. However, what triggers metabolon formation has remained an open question. Through a combination of theory and experiments, we show that enzymes in a cascade can assemble via chemotaxis. We apply microfluidic and fluorescent spectroscopy techniques to study the coordinated movement of the first four enzymes of the glycolysis cascade: hexokinase, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase and aldolase. We show that each enzyme independently follows its own specific substrate gradient, which in turn is produced by the preceding enzymatic reaction. Furthermore, we find that the chemotactic assembly of enzymes occurs even under cytosolic crowding conditions.

  10. Cascaded VLSI Chips Help Neural Network To Learn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, Anilkumar P.

    1993-01-01

    Cascading provides 12-bit resolution needed for learning. Using conventional silicon chip fabrication technology of VLSI, fully connected architecture consisting of 32 wide-range, variable gain, sigmoidal neurons along one diagonal and 7-bit resolution, electrically programmable, synaptic 32 x 31 weight matrix implemented on neuron-synapse chip. To increase weight nominally from 7 to 13 bits, synapses on chip individually cascaded with respective synapses on another 32 x 32 matrix chip with 7-bit resolution synapses only (without neurons). Cascade correlation algorithm varies number of layers effectively connected into network; adds hidden layers one at a time during learning process in such way as to optimize overall number of neurons and complexity and configuration of network.

  11. Correlation Scales of the Turbulent Cascade at 1 au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Coburn, Jesse T.; Forman, Miriam A.; Stawarz, Julia E.

    2018-05-01

    We examine correlation functions of the mixed, third-order expressions that, when ensemble-averaged, describe the cascade of energy in the inertial range of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Unlike the correlation function of primitive variables such as the magnetic field, solar wind velocity, temperature, and density, the third-order expressions decorrelate at a scale that is approximately 20% of the lag. This suggests the nonlinear dynamics decorrelate in less than one wavelength. Therefore, each scale can behave differently from one wavelength to the next. In the same manner, different scales within the inertial range can behave independently at any given time or location. With such a cascade that can be strongly patchy and highly variable, it is often possible to obtain negative cascade rates for short periods of time, as reported earlier for individual samples of data.

  12. Cascaded bidirectional recurrent neural networks for protein secondary structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinmiao; Chaudhari, Narendra

    2007-01-01

    Protein secondary structure (PSS) prediction is an important topic in bioinformatics. Our study on a large set of non-homologous proteins shows that long-range interactions commonly exist and negatively affect PSS prediction. Besides, we also reveal strong correlations between secondary structure (SS) elements. In order to take into account the long-range interactions and SS-SS correlations, we propose a novel prediction system based on cascaded bidirectional recurrent neural network (BRNN). We compare the cascaded BRNN against another two BRNN architectures, namely the original BRNN architecture used for speech recognition as well as Pollastri's BRNN that was proposed for PSS prediction. Our cascaded BRNN achieves an overall three state accuracy Q3 of 74.38\\%, and reaches a high Segment OVerlap (SOV) of 66.0455. It outperforms the original BRNN and Pollastri's BRNN in both Q3 and SOV. Specifically, it improves the SOV score by 4-6%.

  13. Cascade flow analysis by Navier-Stokes equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Osamu

    1987-06-01

    As the performance of the large electronic computer has improved, numerical simulation of the flow around the blade of the aircraft, for instance, is being actively conducted. In the compressor and turbine cascades of aircraft engine, multiple blades are put side by side closely, and the pressure gradient in the flow direction is large. Thus they have more complicated properties than the independent blade. At present, therefore, it is the mainstream to use potential, Euler's equation, etc., as the basic equation but, for knowing the phenomenon caused by the viscosity like the interference of shock waves and boundary layers, it is necessary to solve the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equation. A two-dimensional cascade analysis program was developed by the N-S equation by expanding the two-dimensional high Reynolds number transonic profile analysis code NSFOIL and the lattice formation program AFMESH for the independent blade, which were already developed so as to fit the cascade flow.

  14. The Alzheimer's Disease Mitochondrial Cascade Hypothesis: Progress and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, Russell H.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Khan, Shaharyar M.

    2013-01-01

    Ten years ago we first proposed the Alzheimer's disease (AD) mitochondrial cascade hypothesis. This hypothesis maintains gene inheritance defines an individual's baseline mitochondrial function; inherited and environmental factors determine rates at which mitochondrial function changes over time; and baseline mitochondrial function and mitochondrial change rates influence AD chronology. Our hypothesis unequivocally states in sporadic, late-onset AD, mitochondrial function affects amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression, APP processing, or beta amyloid (Aβ) accumulation and argues if an amyloid cascade truly exists, mitochondrial function triggers it. We now review the state of the mitochondrial cascade hypothesis, and discuss it in the context of recent AD biomarker studies, diagnostic criteria, and clinical trials. Our hypothesis predicts biomarker changes reflect brain aging, new AD definitions clinically stage brain aging, and removing brain Aβ at any point will marginally impact cognitive trajectories. Our hypothesis, therefore, offers unique perspective into what sporadic, late-onset AD is and how to best treat it. PMID:24071439

  15. Cascading failure in scale-free networks with tunable clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue-Jun; Gu, Bo; Guan, Xiang-Min; Zhu, Yan-Bo; Lv, Ren-Li

    2016-02-01

    Cascading failure is ubiquitous in many networked infrastructure systems, such as power grids, Internet and air transportation systems. In this paper, we extend the cascading failure model to a scale-free network with tunable clustering and focus on the effect of clustering coefficient on system robustness. It is found that the network robustness undergoes a nonmonotonic transition with the increment of clustering coefficient: both highly and lowly clustered networks are fragile under the intentional attack, and the network with moderate clustering coefficient can better resist the spread of cascading. We then provide an extensive explanation for this constructive phenomenon via the microscopic point of view and quantitative analysis. Our work can be useful to the design and optimization of infrastructure systems.

  16. Crossover from localized to cascade relaxations in metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Yue; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-07-21

    Thermally activated deformation is investigated in two metallic glass systems with different cooling histories. By probing the atomic displacements and stress changes on the potential energy landscape, two deformation modes, a localized process and cascade process, have observed. The localized deformation involves fewer than 30 atoms and appears in both systems, and its size is invariant with cooling history. However, the cascade deformation is more frequently observed in the fast quenched system than in the slowly quenched system. As a result, the origin of the cascade process in the fast quenched system is attributed to the higher density of localmore » minima on the underlying potential energy landscape.« less

  17. Cascaded Photoenhancement: Implications for Photonic Chemical and Biological Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Kirk A.; Smith, David D.

    2006-01-01

    Our analysis shows that coupling of gold nanoparticles to microspheres will evoke a cascading effect from the respective photoenhancement mechanisms. We refer to this amplification process as cascaded photoenhancement, and the resulting cavity amplification of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence as CASERS and CAF, respectively. Calculations, based on modal analysis of scattering and absorption by compound spheres, presented herein indicate that the absorption cross sections of metal nanoparticles immobilized onto dielectric microspheres can be greatly enhanced by cavity resonances in the microspheres without significant degradation of the resonators. Gain factors associated with CSP of 10(exp 3) - 10(exp 4) are predicted for realistic experimental conditions using homogenous microspheres. Cascaded surface photoenhancement thus has the potential of dramatically increasing the sensitivities of fluorescence and vibrational spectroscopies.

  18. Compressor cascade performance deterioration caused by sand ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabakoff, W.; Balan, C.

    1982-01-01

    Airfoil cascade erosion and performance deterioration was investigated in a gas particle cascade tunnel. The cascade blades were made of 2024 aluminum alloy and the solid particles used were quartz sand. The results of the experimental measurements are presented to show the change in the blade surface erosion, pressure distribution and the total loss coefficient with erosion. The surface quality of the blades exposed to particulate flows are changing the material surfaces. With time, the surface roughness increases and leads to a decrease in engine performance. It was found that the surface roughness values increase asymptotically to a maximum value with increased erosion. The experimental results indicate that the roughness parameters correlate well against the mass of particles impacting unit area of the surface. Such a correlation is useful in aerodynamics and performance computations in turbomachinery.

  19. Spectrally high performing quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toor, Fatima

    Quantum cascade (QC) lasers are versatile semiconductor light sources that can be engineered to emit light of almost any wavelength in the mid- to far-infrared (IR) and terahertz region from 3 to 300 mum [1-5]. Furthermore QC laser technology in the mid-IR range has great potential for applications in environmental, medical and industrial trace gas sensing [6-10] since several chemical vapors have strong rovibrational frequencies in this range and are uniquely identifiable by their absorption spectra through optical probing of absorption and transmission. Therefore, having a wide range of mid-IR wavelengths in a single QC laser source would greatly increase the specificity of QC laser-based spectroscopic systems, and also make them more compact and field deployable. This thesis presents work on several different approaches to multi-wavelength QC laser sources that take advantage of band-structure engineering and the uni-polar nature of QC lasers. Also, since for chemical sensing, lasers with narrow linewidth are needed, work is presented on a single mode distributed feedback (DFB) QC laser. First, a compact four-wavelength QC laser source, which is based on a 2-by-2 module design, with two waveguides having QC laser stacks for two different emission wavelengths each, one with 7.0 mum/11.2 mum, and the other with 8.7 mum/12.0 mum is presented. This is the first design of a four-wavelength QC laser source with widely different emission wavelengths that uses minimal optics and electronics. Second, since there are still several unknown factors that affect QC laser performance, results on a first ever study conducted to determine the effects of waveguide side-wall roughness on QC laser performance using the two-wavelength waveguides is presented. The results are consistent with Rayleigh scattering effects in the waveguides, with roughness effecting shorter wavelengths more than longer wavelengths. Third, a versatile time-multiplexed multi-wavelength QC laser system that

  20. OAR Regulatory Reform

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Office of Air and Radiation is hosting a public teleconference to solicit input on specific air and radiation actions that should be considered for “repeal, replacement, or modification” to reduce regulatory burden consistent with EO 13777.

  1. The regulatory horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, ED

    1987-01-01

    The author briefly discusses the FAA's position as it relates to cockpit resource management. For example, if Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is a positive concept, why isn't everyone required to implement it? The regulatory practice of the FAA is discussed and questions and answers are presented.

  2. REFINE WETLAND REGULATORY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tribes will work toward refining a regulatory program by taking a draft wetland conservation code with permitting incorporated to TEB for review. Progress will then proceed in developing a permit tracking system that will track both Tribal and fee land sites within reservati...

  3. Tropospheric energy cascades in a global circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Sebastian; Becker, Erich

    2010-05-01

    The global horizontal kinetic energy (KE) spectrum and its budget are analyzed using results from a mechanistic GCM. The model has a standard spectral dynamical core with very high vertikal resolution up to the middle stratosphere (T330/L100). As a turbulence model we combine the Smagorinsky scheme with an energy conserving hyperdiffusion that is applied for the very smallest resolved scales. The simulation confirms a slope of the KE spectrum close to -3 in the synoptic regime where the KE is dominated by vortical modes. Towards the mesoscales the spectrum flattens and assumes a slope close to -5/3. Here divergent modes become increasingly important and even dominate the KE. Our complete analysis of the sinks and sources in the spectral KE budget reveals the overall energy fluxes through the spectrum. For the upper troposphere, the change of KE due to horizontal advection is negative for large synoptic scales. It is positive for the planetary scale, as expected, and for the mesoscales as well. This implies that the mesoscales, which include the dynamical sources of tropospheric gravity waves, are in fact sustained by the energy injection at the baroclinic scale (forward energy cascade). We find an enstrophy cascade in accordance with 2D turbulence, but zero downscaling of energy due to the vortical modes alone. In other words, the forward energy cascade in the synoptic and mesoscale regime is solely due to the divergent modes and their nonlinear interaction with the vortical modes. This picture, derived form a mechanistic model, not only lends further evidence for a generally forward energy cascade in the upper tropospheric away from the baroclinic scale. It also extends the picture proposed earlier by Tung and Orlando: The transition from a -3 to a -5/3 slope in the tropospheric macroturbulence spectrum reflects the fact, that the energy cascade due to the horizontally divergent (3D) modes is hidden behind the (2D) enstrophy cascade in the synoptic regime but

  4. Applications of absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhu; Tian, Guang; Li, Jingsong; Yu, Benli

    2014-01-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is a promising modern technique for sensing trace gases with high sensitivity, selectivity, and high time resolution. Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers, operating in a pulsed or continuous wave mode, have potential as spectroscopic sources because of their narrow linewidths, single mode operation, tunability, high output power, reliability, low power consumption, and compactness. This paper reviews some important developments in modern laser absorption spectroscopy based on the use of quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources. Among the various laser spectroscopic methods, this review is focused on selected absorption spectroscopy applications of QCLs, with particular emphasis on molecular spectroscopy, industrial process control, combustion diagnostics, and medical breath analysis.

  5. Tri-channel single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2014-12-01

    We report on a compact THz quantum cascade laser source emitting at, individually controllable, three different wavelengths (92.6, 93.9, and 95.1 μm). This multiwavelength laser array can be used as a prototype of the emission source of THz wavelength division multiplex (WDM) wireless communication system. The source consists of three tapered single-mode distributed feedback (DFB) terahertz quantum cascade lasers fabricated monolithically on a single chip. All array elements feature longitudinal as well as lateral single-mode in the entire injection range. The peak output powers of individual lasers are 42, 73, and 37 mW at 10 K, respectively.

  6. Identification of cascade water tanks using a PWARX model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Per; Zachariah, Dave; Stoica, Petre

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we consider the identification of a discrete-time nonlinear dynamical model for a cascade water tank process. The proposed method starts with a nominal linear dynamical model of the system, and proceeds to model its prediction errors using a model that is piecewise affine in the data. As data is observed, the nominal model is refined into a piecewise ARX model which can capture a wide range of nonlinearities, such as the saturation in the cascade tanks. The proposed method uses a likelihood-based methodology which adaptively penalizes model complexity and directly leads to a computationally efficient implementation.

  7. Common and uncommon pathogenic cascades in lysosomal storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Vitner, Einat B; Platt, Frances M; Futerman, Anthony H

    2010-07-02

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), of which about 50 are known, are caused by the defective activity of lysosomal proteins, resulting in accumulation of unmetabolized substrates. As a result, a variety of pathogenic cascades are activated such as altered calcium homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, altered lipid trafficking, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and autoimmune responses. Some of these pathways are common to many LSDs, whereas others are only altered in a subset of LSDs. We now review how these cascades impact upon LSD pathology and suggest how intervention in the pathways may lead to novel therapeutic approaches.

  8. Pair cascades in the magnetospheres of strongly magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medin, Zach; Lai, Dong

    2010-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of electron-positron pair cascades in the magnetospheres of magnetic neutron stars for a wide range of surface fields (Bp = 1012-1015 G), rotation periods (0.1-10 s) and field geometries. This has been motivated by the discovery in recent years of a number of radio pulsars with inferred magnetic fields comparable to those of magnetars. Evolving the cascade generated by a primary electron or positron after it has been accelerated in the inner gap of the magnetosphere, we follow the spatial development of the cascade until the secondary photons and electron-positron pairs leave the magnetosphere, and we obtain the pair multiplicity and the energy spectra of the cascade pairs and photons under various conditions. Going beyond previous works, which were restricted to weaker fields (B <~ afew × 1012 G), we have incorporated in our simulations detailed treatments of physical processes that are potentially important (especially in the high-field regime) but were either neglected or crudely treated before, including photon splitting with the correct selection rules for photon polarization modes, one-photon pair production into low Landau levels for the e+/-, and resonant inverse Compton scattering from polar cap hotspots. We find that even for B >> BQ = 4 × 1013 G, photon splitting has a small effect on the multiplicity of the cascade since a majority of the photons in the cascade cannot split. One-photon decay into e+ e- pairs at low Landau levels, however, becomes the dominant pair production channel when B >~ 3 × 1012 G; this tends to suppress synchrotron radiation so that the cascade can develop only at a larger distance from the stellar surface. Nevertheless, we find that the total number of pairs and their energy spectrum produced in the cascade depend mainly on the polar cap voltage BpP-2, and are weakly dependent on Bp (and P) alone. We discuss the implications of our results for the radio pulsar death line and for the hard X

  9. Special Issue ;Sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morche, David; Krautblatter, Michael; Beylich, Achim A.

    2017-06-01

    This Editorial introduces the Special Issue on sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems that evolved from the eighth I.A.G./A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments; http://www.geomorph.org/sedibud-working-group/) workshop. The workshop was held from 1st to 4th September 2014 at the Environmental Research Station ;Schneefernerhaus; (http://www.schneefernerhaus.de/en/home.html) located at Mt. Zugspitze, the highest peak of Germany, (2962 m asl). Paper and poster presentations focused on observations, measurements and modeling of geomorphological processes in sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems. This resulting Special Issue brings together ten selected contributions from arctic and alpine environments.

  10. Cyclization Cascades Initiated by 1,6-Conjugate Addition

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Joshua L.; Frontier, Alison J.

    2012-01-01

    Dienyl diketones containing tethered acetates selectively undergo two different 1,6-conjugate addition-initiated cyclization cascades. One is a 1,6-conjugate addition/cyclization sequence with incorporation of the nucleophile, and the other is catalyzed by DABCO and is thought to proceed via a cyclic acetoxonium intermediate. The reaction behavior of substrates lacking the tethered acetate was also studied. The scope of both types of cyclization cascades, the role of the amine additive, and the factors controlling reactivity and selectivity in the two different reaction pathways is discussed. PMID:23004564

  11. Cascading Failures in Networks: Inference, Intervention and Robustness to WMDs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    model  is  posited,  and  different  cascade  eventualities  are   investigated),  this  proposal  aimed  to  focus  on  the   inverse  problem  and...theory  and  algorithms  for  an  “ inverse  problem”  or  “data-­ driven”  study  of  cascades  –  specifically,  learning  about  how  they  start

  12. Fast perceptual image hash based on cascade algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchay, Alexey; Kober, Vitaly; Yavtushenko, Evgeniya

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a perceptual image hash algorithm based on cascade algorithm, which can be applied in image authentication, retrieval, and indexing. Image perceptual hash uses for image retrieval in sense of human perception against distortions caused by compression, noise, common signal processing and geometrical modifications. The main disadvantage of perceptual hash is high time expenses. In the proposed cascade algorithm of image retrieval initializes with short hashes, and then a full hash is applied to the processed results. Computer simulation results show that the proposed hash algorithm yields a good performance in terms of robustness, discriminability, and time expenses.

  13. Spectrally resolved modal characteristics of leaky-wave-coupled quantum cascade phase-locked laser arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigler, Chris; Gibson, Ricky; Boyle, Colin; Kirch, Jeremy D.; Lindberg, Donald; Earles, Thomas; Botez, Dan; Mawst, Luke J.; Bedford, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The modal characteristics of nonresonant five-element phase-locked arrays of 4.7-μm emitting quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have been studied using spectrally resolved near- and far-field measurements and correlated with results of device simulation. Devices are fabricated by a two-step metal-organic chemical vapor deposition process and operate predominantly in an in-phase array mode near threshold, although become multimode at higher drive levels. The wide spectral bandwidth of the QCL's core region is found to be a factor in promoting multispatial-mode operation at high drive levels above threshold. An optimized resonant-array design is identified to allow sole in-phase array-mode operation to high drive levels above threshold, and indicates that for phase-locked laser arrays full spatial coherence to high output powers does not require full temporal coherence.

  14. Active linewidth-narrowing of a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser without optical reference.

    PubMed

    Tombez, L; Schilt, S; Hofstetter, D; Südmeyer, T

    2013-12-01

    We report on a technique for frequency noise reduction and linewidth-narrowing of a distributed-feedback mid-IR quantum cascade laser (QCL) that does not involve any optical frequency reference. The voltage fluctuations across the QCL are sensed, amplified and fed back to the temperature of the QCL at a fast rate using a near-IR laser illuminating the top of the QCL chip. A locking bandwidth of 300 kHz and a reduction of the frequency noise power spectral density by a factor of 10 with respect to the free-running laser are achieved. From 2 MHz for the free-running QCL, the linewidth is narrowed below 700 kHz (10 ms observation time).

  15. 186 K Operation of Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers Based on a Diagonal Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sushil; Hu, Qing; Reno, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Resonant-phonon terahertz quantum-cascade lasers operating up to a heat-sink temperature of 186 K are demonstrated. This record temperature performance is achieved based on a diagonal design, with the objective to increase the upper-state lifetime and therefore the gain at elevated temperatures. The increased diagonality also lowers the operating current densities by limiting the flow of parasitic leakage current. Quantitatively, the diagonality is characterized by a radiative oscillator strength that is smaller by a factor of two from the least of any previously published designs. At the lasing frequency of 3.9 THz, 63 mW of peak optical power was measured at 5 K, and approximately 5 mW could still be detected at 180 K.

  16. Surface-plasmon distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers operating pulsed, room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousseksou, A.; Chassagneux, Y.; Coudevylle, J. R.; Colombelli, R.; Sirtori, C.; Patriarche, G.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.

    2009-08-01

    We report distributed-feedback surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers operating at λ ≈7.6μm. The distributed feedback is obtained by the sole patterning of the top metal contact on a surface plasmon waveguide. Single mode operation with more than 30dB side mode suppression ratio is obtained in pulsed mode and at room temperature. A careful experimental study confirms that by varying the grating duty cycle, one can reduce the waveguide losses with respect to standard, unpatterned surface-plasmon devices. This allows one to reduce the laser threshold current of more than a factor of 2 in the 200-300K temperature range. This approach may lead to a fabrication technology for midinfrared distributed-feedback lasers based on a very simple processing.

  17. Frequency and Phase-lock Control of a 3 THz Quantum Cascade Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.; Williams, B. S.; Kumar, S.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    We have locked the frequency of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) to that of a far-infrared gas laser with a tunable microwave offset frequency. The locked QCL line shape is essentially Gaussian, with linewidths of 65 and 141 kHz at the -3 and -10 dB levels, respectively. The lock condition can be maintained indefinitely, without requiring temperature or bias current regulation of the QCL other than that provided by the lock error signal. The result demonstrates that a terahertz QCL can be frequency controlled with l-part-in-lO(exp 8) accuracy, which is a factor of 100 better than that needed for a local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver for atmospheric and astronomic spectroscopy.

  18. Displacement cascades and defect annealing in tungsten, Part II: Object kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Tungsten Cascade Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Nandipati, Giridhar; Setyawan, Wahyu; Heinisch, Howard L.

    2015-07-01

    The results of object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations of the annealing of primary cascade damage in bulk tungsten using a comprehensive database of cascades obtained from molecular dynamics (Setyawan et al.) are described as a function of primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy at temperatures of 300, 1025 and 2050 K. An increase in SIA clustering coupled with a decrease in vacancy clustering with increasing temperature, in addition to the disparate mobilities of SIAs versus vacancies, causes an interesting effect of temperature on cascade annealing. The annealing efficiency (the ratio of the number of defects after and before annealing) exhibitsmore » an inverse U-shape curve as a function of temperature. The capabilities of the newly developed OKMC code KSOME (kinetic simulations of microstructure evolution) used to carry out these simulations are described.« less

  19. 77 FR 7972 - Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Prison Rape (Reg Plan Seq No. 85). References in boldface appear in The Regulatory Plan in part II of... 396. National Standards to Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape Regulatory Plan: This entry is...

  20. Toxicogenomics and the Regulatory Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomics presents regulatory agencies with the opportunity to revolutionize their analyses by enabling the collection of information on a broader range of responses than currently considered in traditional regulatory decision making. Analyses of genomic responses are expec...

  1. 76 FR 3825 - Regulatory Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Compliance Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies My Administration is committed to... regulatory compliance and enforcement activities, such as information with respect to administrative... compliance information fosters fair and consistent enforcement of important regulatory obligations. Such...

  2. Interrelation of structure and operational states in cascading failure of overloading lines in power grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Fei; Bompard, Ettore; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Lin; Lu, Shaofeng; Zhu, Huaiying

    2017-09-01

    As the modern power system is expected to develop to a more intelligent and efficient version, i.e. the smart grid, or to be the central backbone of energy internet for free energy interactions, security concerns related to cascading failures have been raised with consideration of catastrophic results. The researches of topological analysis based on complex networks have made great contributions in revealing structural vulnerabilities of power grids including cascading failure analysis. However, existing literature with inappropriate assumptions in modeling still cannot distinguish the effects between the structure and operational state to give meaningful guidance for system operation. This paper is to reveal the interrelation between network structure and operational states in cascading failure and give quantitative evaluation by integrating both perspectives. For structure analysis, cascading paths will be identified by extended betweenness and quantitatively described by cascading drop and cascading gradient. Furthermore, the operational state for cascading paths will be described by loading level. Then, the risk of cascading failure along a specific cascading path can be quantitatively evaluated considering these two factors. The maximum cascading gradient of all possible cascading paths can be used as an overall metric to evaluate the entire power grid for its features related to cascading failure. The proposed method is tested and verified on IEEE30-bus system and IEEE118-bus system, simulation evidences presented in this paper suggests that the proposed model can identify the structural causes for cascading failure and is promising to give meaningful guidance for the protection of system operation in the future.

  3. A Regulatory Framework for Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    informed by a map of the regulatory landscape of nanotechnology and a review of the regulatory frameworks for the aviation and biotechnology industries...aviation and biotechnology and maps the regulatory landscape in the United States by examining stakeholders, regulatory entities, and applicable legislation...state of nanotechnology if the limitations of technical expertise are addressed. This expertise can be provided by advisory committees of technical

  4. Regulatory Proteolysis in Arabidopsis-Pathogen Interactions.

    PubMed

    Pogány, Miklós; Dankó, Tamás; Kámán-Tóth, Evelin; Schwarczinger, Ildikó; Bozsó, Zoltán

    2015-09-24

    Approximately two and a half percent of protein coding genes in Arabidopsis encode enzymes with known or putative proteolytic activity. Proteases possess not only common housekeeping functions by recycling nonfunctional proteins. By irreversibly cleaving other proteins, they regulate crucial developmental processes and control responses to environmental changes. Regulatory proteolysis is also indispensable in interactions between plants and their microbial pathogens. Proteolytic cleavage is simultaneously used both by plant cells, to recognize and inactivate invading pathogens, and by microbes, to overcome the immune system of the plant and successfully colonize host cells. In this review, we present available results on the group of proteases in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana whose functions in microbial pathogenesis were confirmed. Pathogen-derived proteolytic factors are also discussed when they are involved in the cleavage of host metabolites. Considering the wealth of review papers available in the field of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system results on the ubiquitin cascade are not presented. Arabidopsis and its pathogens are conferred with abundant sets of proteases. This review compiles a list of those that are apparently involved in an interaction between the plant and its pathogens, also presenting their molecular partners when available.

  5. Analysis of the Exhumation Pathways Experienced in the Cascades Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, S. M.; Pesek, M.; Perez, N. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Cascades volcanic arc is the result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath North America. The Cascades trend north to south and create a modern orographic precipitation gradient that focuses precipitation along the western flank of the range. However, the deformation style changes from shortening in the north to extension in the south. This experimental design is an ideal location to test how surface and tectonic processes contribute to rock uplift in orogens. In the Oregon Cascades, zircon U-Pb geochronology, and multiple thermochronologic techniques (apatite U-Pb, zircon U-Th/He) will be applied to an intrusive rock exposed along a west-flowing river to investigate the exhumation pathway. These intrusive rocks are capped by late Miocene basalt flows, constraining the timing of surface exposure. The results of this study will define a time-temperature pathway and be compared with existing exhumation constraints from the Washington Cascades to determine whether the exhumation pathways may correspond to the changing structural regimes or consistent climate patterns along strike.

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  7. The land-cover cascade: relationships coupling land and water

    Treesearch

    C.L. Burcher; H.M. Valett; E.F. Benfield

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the land-cover cascade (LCC) as a conceptual framework to quantify the transfer of land-cover-disturbance effects to stream biota. We hypothesize that disturbance is propagated through multivariate systems through key variables that transform a disturbance and pass a reorganized disturbance effect to the next hierarchical level where the process repeats...

  8. Statistical analysis of cascading failures in power grids

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Pfitzner, Rene; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2010-12-01

    We introduce a new microscopic model of cascading failures in transmission power grids. This model accounts for automatic response of the grid to load fluctuations that take place on the scale of minutes, when optimum power flow adjustments and load shedding controls are unavailable. We describe extreme events, caused by load fluctuations, which cause cascading failures of loads, generators and lines. Our model is quasi-static in the causal, discrete time and sequential resolution of individual failures. The model, in its simplest realization based on the Directed Current description of the power flow problem, is tested on three standard IEEE systemsmore » consisting of 30, 39 and 118 buses. Our statistical analysis suggests a straightforward classification of cascading and islanding phases in terms of the ratios between average number of removed loads, generators and links. The analysis also demonstrates sensitivity to variations in line capacities. Future research challenges in modeling and control of cascading outages over real-world power networks are discussed.« less

  9. Optimization of cascading failure on complex network based on NNIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qian; Zhu, Zhiliang; Qi, Yi; Yu, Hai; Xu, Yanjie

    2018-07-01

    Recently, the robustness of networks under cascading failure has attracted extensive attention. Different from previous studies, we concentrate on how to improve the robustness of the networks from the perspective of intelligent optimization. We establish two multi-objective optimization models that comprehensively consider the operational cost of the edges in the networks and the robustness of the networks. The NNIA (Non-dominated Neighbor Immune Algorithm) is applied to solve the optimization models. We finished simulations of the Barabási-Albert (BA) network and Erdös-Rényi (ER) network. In the solutions, we find the edges that can facilitate the propagation of cascading failure and the edges that can suppress the propagation of cascading failure. From the conclusions, we take optimal protection measures to weaken the damage caused by cascading failures. We also consider actual situations of operational cost feasibility of the edges. People can make a more practical choice based on the operational cost. Our work will be helpful in the design of highly robust networks or improvement of the robustness of networks in the future.

  10. Solution of plane cascade flow using improved surface singularity methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    A solution method has been developed for calculating compressible inviscid flow through a linear cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. The method uses advanced surface singularity formulations which were adapted from those found in current external flow analyses. The resulting solution technique provides a fast flexible calculation for flows through turbomachinery blade rows. The solution method and some examples of the method's capabilities are presented.

  11. Reliable Broadcast under Cascading Failures in Interdependent Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Sisi; Lee, Sangkeun; Chinthavali, Supriya

    Reliable broadcast is an essential tool to disseminate information among a set of nodes in the presence of failures. We present a novel study of reliable broadcast in interdependent networks, in which the failures in one network may cascade to another network. In particular, we focus on the interdependency between the communication network and power grid network, where the power grid depends on the signals from the communication network for control and the communication network depends on the grid for power. In this paper, we build a resilient solution to handle crash failures in the communication network that may causemore » cascading failures and may even partition the network. In order to guarantee that all the correct nodes deliver the messages, we use soft links, which are inactive backup links to non-neighboring nodes that are only active when failures occur. At the core of our work is a fully distributed algorithm for the nodes to predict and collect the information of cascading failures so that soft links can be maintained to correct nodes prior to the failures. In the presence of failures, soft links are activated to guarantee message delivery and new soft links are built accordingly for long term robustness. Our evaluation results show that the algorithm achieves low packet drop rate and handles cascading failures with little overhead.« less

  12. A novel information cascade model in online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Chao; He, Wenbo; Niu, Jianwei; Xie, Zhongyu

    2016-02-01

    The spread and diffusion of information has become one of the hot issues in today's social network analysis. To analyze the spread of online social network information and the attribute of cascade, in this paper, we discuss the spread of two kinds of users' decisions for city-wide activities, namely the "want to take part in the activity" and "be interested in the activity", based on the users' attention in "DouBan" and the data of the city-wide activities. We analyze the characteristics of the activity-decision's spread in these aspects: the scale and scope of the cascade subgraph, the structure characteristic of the cascade subgraph, the topological attribute of spread tree, and the occurrence frequency of cascade subgraph. On this basis, we propose a new information spread model. Based on the classical independent diffusion model, we introduce three mechanisms, equal probability, similarity of nodes, and popularity of nodes, which can generate and affect the spread of information. Besides, by conducting the experiments in six different kinds of network data set, we compare the effects of three mechanisms above mentioned, totally six specific factors, on the spread of information, and put forward that the node's popularity plays an important role in the information spread.

  13. Gamma irradiation of Fabry–Perot interband cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Brauer, Carolyn S.

    Two Fabry-Perot interband cascade lasers (ICLs) were exposed to Cobalt-60 gamma rays for a dosage of 500 krad(Si) each, which is higher than is typically encountered in space applications. The ICLs do not show any significant changes in threshold current or slope efficiency, suggesting the suitability of ICLs for use in radiation environments.

  14. Energy Cascade Analysis: from Subscale Eddies to Mean Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheikh, Mohamad Ibrahim; Wonnell, Louis; Chen, James

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the energy transfer between eddies and mean flow can provide insights into the energy cascade process. Much work has been done to investigate the energy cascade at the level of the smallest eddies using different numerical techniques derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. These methodologies, however, prove to be computationally inefficient when producing energy spectra for a wide range of length scales. In this regard, Morphing Continuum Theory (MCT) resolves the length-scales issues by assuming the fluid continuum to be composed of inner structures that play the role of subscale eddies. The current study show- cases the capabilities of MCT in capturing the dynamics of energy cascade at the level of subscale eddies, through a supersonic turbulent flow of Mach 2.93 over an 8× compression ramp. Analysis of the results using statistical averaging procedure shows the existence of a statistical coupling of the internal and translational kinetic energy fluctuations with the corresponding rotational kinetic energy of the subscale eddies, indicating a multiscale transfer of energy. The results show that MCT gives a new characterization of the energy cascade within compressible turbulence without the use of excessive computational resources. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-17-1-0154.

  15. Checklist of vertebrate animals of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest.

    Treesearch

    Chris Maser; Jerry F. Franklin

    1974-01-01

    Three months, April and August 1971 and August 1972, were spent studying the vertebrate fauna of Cascade Head Experimental Forest. The resulting annotated checklist includes 9 amphibians, 2 reptiles, 35 birds, and 40 mammals. A standardized animal habitat classification is presented in an effort to correlate the vertebrates in some meaningful way to their environment...

  16. Newborn Screening and Cascade Testing for FMR1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Page L.; Gane, Louise W.; Yarborough, Mark; Hagerman, Randi; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    We describe an ongoing pilot project in which newborn screening (NBS) for FMR1 mutations and subsequent cascade testing are performed by the MIND Institute at the University of California, Davis Medical Center (UCDMC). To date, out of 3042 newborns initially screened, 44 extended family members have been screened by cascade testing of extended family members once a newborn is identified. 14 newborns (7 males and 7 females) and 27 extended family members (5 males and 22 females) have been identified with FMR1 mutations. Three family histories are discussed in detail, each demonstrating some benefits and risks of NBS and cascade testing for FMR1 mutations in extended family members. While we acknowledge inherent risks, we propose that with genetic counseling, clinical follow-up of identified individuals and cascade testing, newborn screening (NBS) has significant benefits. Treatment for individuals in the extended family who would otherwise not have received treatment can be beneficial. In addition, knowledge of carrier status can lead to lifestyle changes and prophylactic interventions that are likely to reduce the risk of late onset neurological or psychiatric problems in carriers. Also with identification of carrier family members through NBS, reproductive choices become available to those who would not have known that they were at risk to have offspring with fragile X syndrome. PMID:23239591

  17. Cascade rainfall disaggregation application in U.S. Central Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hourly rainfall are increasingly used in complex, process-based simulations of the environment. Long records of daily rainfall are common, but long continuous records of hourly rainfall are rare and must be developed. A Multiplicative Random Cascade (MRC) model is proposed to disaggregate observed d...

  18. A coarse wood dynamics model for the Western Cascades.

    Treesearch

    K. Mellen; A. Ager

    2002-01-01

    The Coarse Wood Dynamics Model (CWDM) analyzes the dynamics (fall, fragmentation, and decomposition) of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) snags and down logs in forested ecosystems of the western Cascades of Oregon and Washington. The model predicts snag fall, height loss and decay,...

  19. Exciton management in organic photovoltaic multidonor energy cascades.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Olga L; Forrest, Stephen R

    2014-05-14

    Multilayer donor regions in organic photovoltaics show improved power conversion efficiency when arranged in decreasing exciton energy order from the anode to the acceptor interface. These so-called "energy cascades" drive exciton transfer from the anode to the dissociating interface while reducing exciton quenching and allowing improved overlap with the solar spectrum. Here we investigate the relative importance of exciton transfer and blocking in a donor cascade employing diphenyltetracene (D1), rubrene (D2), and tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (D3) whose optical gaps monotonically decrease from D1 to D3. In this structure, D1 blocks excitons from quenching at the anode, D2 accepts transfer of excitons from D1 and blocks excitons at the interface between D2 and D3, and D3 contributes the most to the photocurrent due to its strong absorption at visible wavelengths, while also determining the open circuit voltage. We observe singlet exciton Förster transfer from D1 to D2 to D3 consistent with cascade operation. The power conversion efficiency of the optimized cascade OPV with a C60 acceptor layer is 7.1 ± 0.4%, which is significantly higher than bilayer devices made with only the individual donors. We develop a quantitative model to identify the dominant exciton processes that govern the photocurrent generation in multilayer organic structures.

  20. Density correlators in a self-similar cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, A.; Czyz˙; Ewski, J.

    1999-09-01

    Multivariate density moments (correlators) of arbitrary order are obtained for the multiplicative self-similar cascade. This result is based on the calculation by Greiner, Eggers and Lipa where the correlators of the logarithms of the particle densities have been obtained. The density correlators, more suitable for comparison with multiparticle data, appear to have a simple factorizable form.

  1. Cascades/Aleutian Play Fairway Analysis: Data and Map Files

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lisa Shevenell

    2015-11-15

    Contains Excel data files used to quantifiably rank the geothermal potential of each of the young volcanic centers of the Cascade and Aleutian Arcs using world power production volcanic centers as benchmarks. Also contains shapefiles used in play fairway analysis with power plant, volcano, geochemistry and structural data.

  2. Oregon Cascades Play Fairway Analysis: Raster Datasets and Models

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This submission includes maps of the spatial distribution of basaltic, and felsic rocks in the Oregon Cascades. It also includes a final Play Fairway Analysis (PFA) model, with the heat and permeability composite risk segments (CRS) supplied separately. Metadata for each raster dataset can be found within the zip files, in the TIF images

  3. Cascades on a stochastic pulse-coupled network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, C. M.; Bishop, S. R.

    2014-09-01

    While much recent research has focused on understanding isolated cascades of networks, less attention has been given to dynamical processes on networks exhibiting repeated cascades of opposing influence. An example of this is the dynamic behaviour of financial markets where cascades of buying and selling can occur, even over short timescales. To model these phenomena, a stochastic pulse-coupled oscillator network with upper and lower thresholds is described and analysed. Numerical confirmation of asynchronous and synchronous regimes of the system is presented, along with analytical identification of the fixed point state vector of the asynchronous mean field system. A lower bound for the finite system mean field critical value of network coupling probability is found that separates the asynchronous and synchronous regimes. For the low-dimensional mean field system, a closed-form equation is found for cascade size, in terms of the network coupling probability. Finally, a description of how this model can be applied to interacting agents in a financial market is provided.

  4. Cascading pressure reactor and method for solar-thermochemical reactions

    DOEpatents

    Ermanoski, Ivan

    2017-11-14

    Reactors and methods for solar thermochemical reactions are disclosed. The reactors and methods include a cascade of reduction chambers at successively lower pressures that leads to over an order of magnitude pressure decrease compared to a single-chambered design. The resulting efficiency gains are substantial, and represent an important step toward practical and efficient solar fuel production on a large scale.

  5. Emergence of a turbulent cascade in a quantum gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, Nir; Gaunt, Alexander L.; Smith, Robert P.; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2016-11-01

    A central concept in the modern understanding of turbulence is the existence of cascades of excitations from large to small length scales, or vice versa. This concept was introduced in 1941 by Kolmogorov and Obukhov, and such cascades have since been observed in various systems, including interplanetary plasmas, supernovae, ocean waves and financial markets. Despite much progress, a quantitative understanding of turbulence remains a challenge, owing to the interplay between many length scales that makes theoretical simulations of realistic experimental conditions difficult. Here we observe the emergence of a turbulent cascade in a weakly interacting homogeneous Bose gas—a quantum fluid that can be theoretically described on all relevant length scales. We prepare a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical box, drive it out of equilibrium with an oscillating force that pumps energy into the system at the largest length scale, study its nonlinear response to the periodic drive, and observe a gradual development of a cascade characterized by an isotropic power-law distribution in momentum space. We numerically model our experiments using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and find excellent agreement with the measurements. Our experiments establish the uniform Bose gas as a promising new medium for investigating many aspects of turbulence, including the interplay between vortex and wave turbulence, and the relative importance of quantum and classical effects.

  6. Fire history and pattern in a Cascade Range landscape.

    Treesearch

    Peter H. Morrison; Frederick J. Swanson

    1990-01-01

    Fire history from years 1150 to 1985 was reconstructed by analyzing forest stands in two 1940-hectare areas in the central-western Cascade Range of Oregon. Serving as records for major fire episodes, these stands revealed a highly variable fire regime. The steeper, more dissected, lower elevation Cook-Quentin study area experienced more frequent fires (natural fire...

  7. Systems and Cascades in Cognitive Development and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    A large-scale ("N" = 552) controlled multivariate prospective 14-year longitudinal study of a developmental cascade embedded in a developmental system showed that information-processing efficiency in infancy (4 months), general mental development in toddlerhood (18 months), behavior difficulties in early childhood (36 months),…

  8. Cascades on a stochastic pulse-coupled network

    PubMed Central

    Wray, C. M.; Bishop, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    While much recent research has focused on understanding isolated cascades of networks, less attention has been given to dynamical processes on networks exhibiting repeated cascades of opposing influence. An example of this is the dynamic behaviour of financial markets where cascades of buying and selling can occur, even over short timescales. To model these phenomena, a stochastic pulse-coupled oscillator network with upper and lower thresholds is described and analysed. Numerical confirmation of asynchronous and synchronous regimes of the system is presented, along with analytical identification of the fixed point state vector of the asynchronous mean field system. A lower bound for the finite system mean field critical value of network coupling probability is found that separates the asynchronous and synchronous regimes. For the low-dimensional mean field system, a closed-form equation is found for cascade size, in terms of the network coupling probability. Finally, a description of how this model can be applied to interacting agents in a financial market is provided. PMID:25213626

  9. DISPLACEMENT CASCADE SIMULATION IN TUNGSTEN AT 1025 K

    SciTech Connect

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Nandipati, Giridhar; Roche, Kenneth J.

    2013-09-30

    Molecular dynamics simulation was employed to investigate the irradiation damage properties of bulk tungsten at 1025 K (0.25 melting temperature). A comprehensive data set of primary cascade damage was generated up to primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies 100 keV. The dependence of the number of surviving Frenkel pairs (NFP) on the PKA energy (E) exhibits three different characteristic domains presumably related to the different cascade morphologies that form. The low-energy regime < 0.2 keV is characterized by a hit-or-miss type of Frenkel pair (FP) production near the displacement threshold energy of 128 eV. The middle regime 0.3 – 30 keVmore » exhibits a sublinear dependence of log(NFP) vs log(E) associated with compact cascade morphology with a slope of 0.73. Above 30 keV, the cascade morphology consists of complex branches or interconnected damage regions. In this extended morphology, large interstitial clusters form from superposition of interstitials from nearby damage regions. Strong clustering above 30 keV results in a superlinear dependence of log(NFP) vs log(E) with a slope of 1.365. At 100 keV, an interstitial cluster of size 92 and a vacancy cluster of size 114 were observed.« less

  10. Efficient cascade multiple heterojunction organic solar cells with inverted structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tingting; Li, Mingtao; Qiao, Zhenfang; Yu, Leiming; Zhao, Jianhong; Feng, Nianjun; Shi, Peiguang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Pu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Hai

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an efficient cascade multiple heterojunction organic solar cell with inverted structure. By using two donor materials, poly(3-hexylthiosphene) (P3HT) and titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as well as two acceptor materials, [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and C60, the cascade multiple heterojunctions of P3HT:PCBM/TiOPc:C60/C60 have been constructed. Applying the optimized inverted configuration of FTO/Zinc Tin Oxide (ZTO)/C60 (30 nm)/TiOPc:C60 (1:1.5, 25 nm)/P3HT:PCBM (1:0.8, 100 nm)/MoO3 (4 nm)/Ag, the considerably enhanced open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current (JSC) can be harvested together, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is three times higher than that of the control cell with conventional structure. The significant improvements of the inverted cell are mostly due to the broadened spectral absorption and high efficient multi-interface exciton dissociation in the cascade multiple heterojunctions, indicating that the optimized cascade heterojunctions match the inverted structure well.

  11. Interaction of upstream flow distortions with high Mach number cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    Features of the interaction of flow distortions, such as gusts and wakes with blade rows of advance type fans and compressors having high tip Mach numbers are modeled. A typical disturbance was assumed to have harmonic time dependence and was described, at a far upstream location, in three orthogonal spatial coordinates by a double Fourier series. It was convected at supersonic relative to a linear cascade described as an unrolled annulus. Conditions were selected so that the component of this velocity parallel to the axis of the turbomachine was subsonic, permitting interaction between blades through the upstream as well as downstream flow media. A strong, nearly normal shock was considered in the blade passages which was allowed curvature and displacement. The flows before and after the shock were linearized relative to uniform mean velocities in their respective regions. Solution of the descriptive equations was by adaption of the Wiener-Hopf technique, enabling a determination of distortion patterns through and downstream of the cascade as well as pressure distributions on the blade and surfaces. Details of interaction of the disturbance with the in-passage shock were discussed. Infuences of amplitude, wave length, and phase of the disturbance on lifts and moments of cascade configurations are presented. Numerical results are clarified by reference to an especially orderly pattern of upstream vertical motion in relation to the cascade parameters.

  12. INERTIAL CASCADE IMPACTOR SUBSTRATE MEDIA FOR FLUE GAS SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes Southern Research Institute's experience with greases and glass fiber filter material used as collection substrates in inertial cascade impactors. Available greases and glass fiber filter media have been tested to determine which are most suitable for flue g...

  13. Search for Magnetically Broadened Cascade Emission from Blazars with VERITAS

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, S.; Griffin, S.; Archer, A.

    2017-02-01

    We present a search for magnetically broadened gamma-ray emission around active galactic nuclei (AGNs), using VERITAS observations of seven hard-spectrum blazars. A cascade process occurs when multi-TeV gamma-rays from an AGN interact with extragalactic background light (EBL) photons to produce electron–positron pairs, which then interact with cosmic microwave background photons via inverse-Compton scattering to produce gamma-rays. Due to the deflection of the electron–positron pairs, a non-zero intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) would potentially produce detectable effects on the angular distribution of the cascade emission. In particular, an angular broadening compared to the unscattered emission could occur. Through non-detection of angularly broadenedmore » emission from 1ES 1218+304, the source with the largest predicted cascade fraction, we exclude a range of IGMF strengths around 10{sup −14} G at the 95% confidence level. The extent of the exclusion range varies with the assumptions made about the intrinsic spectrum of 1ES 1218+304 and the EBL model used in the simulation of the cascade process. All of the sources are used to set limits on the flux due to extended emission.« less

  14. Fire severity in intermittent stream drainages, Western Cascade Range, Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Jennifer E. Tollefson; Frederick J. Swanson; John H. Cissel

    2004-01-01

    We quantified fire severity patterns within intermittent stream drainages in a recently burned area of the central western Cascades, Oregon. Aerial photographs were used to estimate post fire live canopy cover within streamside and upland zones on the southeast and southwest-facing slopes of 33 watersheds. Live canopy cover did not differ significantly between...

  15. Fragmentation of displacement cascades into subcascades: A molecular dynamics study

    DOE PAGES

    Antoshchenkova, E.; Luneville, L.; Simeone, D.; ...

    2014-12-12

    The fragmentation of displacement cascades into subcascades in copper and iron has been investigated through the molecular dynamics technique. A two-point density correlation function has been used to analyze the cascades as a function of the primary knock-on (PKA) energy. This approach is used as a tool for detecting subcascade formation. The fragmentation can already be identified at the end of the ballistic phase. Its resulting evolution in the peak damage state discriminates between unconnected and connected subcascades. The damage zone at the end of the ballistic phase is the precursor of the extended regions that contain the surviving defects.more » A fractal analysis of the cascade exhibits a dependence on both the stage of the cascade development and the PKA energy. This type of analysis enables the minimum and maximum displacement spike energies together with the subcascade formation threshold energy to be determined. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.« less

  16. Fragmentation of displacement cascades into subcascades: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Antoshchenkova, E.; Luneville, L.; Simeone, D.

    The fragmentation of displacement cascades into subcascades in copper and iron has been investigated through the molecular dynamics technique. A two-point density correlation function has been used to analyze the cascades as a function of the primary knock-on (PKA) energy. This approach is used as a tool for detecting subcascade formation. The fragmentation can already be identified at the end of the ballistic phase. Its resulting evolution in the peak damage state discriminates between unconnected and connected subcascades. The damage zone at the end of the ballistic phase is the precursor of the extended regions that contain the surviving defects.more » A fractal analysis of the cascade exhibits a dependence on both the stage of the cascade development and the PKA energy. This type of analysis enables the minimum and maximum displacement spike energies together with the subcascade formation threshold energy to be determined. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.« less

  17. Evolution of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade activation steps.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Trevor D; Hunt, David M

    2017-11-01

    We examine the molecular phylogeny of the proteins underlying the activation steps of vertebrate phototransduction, for both agnathan and jawed vertebrate taxa. We expand the number of taxa analysed and we update the alignment and tree building methodology from a previous analysis. For each of the four primary components (the G-protein transducin alpha subunit, Gα T , the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, PDE6, and the alpha and beta subunits of the cGMP-gated ion channel, CNGC), the phylogenies appear consistent with expansion from an ancestral proto-vertebrate cascade during two rounds of whole-genome duplication followed by divergence of the agnathan and jawed vertebrate lineages. In each case, we consider possible scenarios for the underlying gene duplications and losses, and we apply relevant constraints to the tree construction. From tests of the topology of the resulting trees, we obtain a scenario for the expansion of each component during 2R that accurately fits the observations. Similar analysis of the visual opsins indicates that the only expansion to have occurred during 2R was the formation of Rh1 and Rh2. Finally, we propose a hypothetical scenario for the conversion of an ancestral chordate cascade into the proto-vertebrate phototransduction cascade, prior to whole-genome duplication. Together, our models provide a plausible account for the origin and expansion of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Successful treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia using cascade filtration plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    Kardaş, Fatih; Cetin, Aysun; Solmaz, Musa; Büyükoğlan, Rüksan; Kaynar, Leylagül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Eser, Bülent; Unal, Ali

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to report the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) apheresisusing a cascade filtration system in pediatric patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), and toclarify the associated adverse effects and difficulties. LDL-C apheresis using a cascade filtration system was performed in 3 pediatric patientswith homozygous FH; in total, 120 apheresis sessions were performed. Cascade filtration therapy significantly reduced the mean LDL-C values from 418 ± 62 mg/dL to 145 ± 43 mg/dL (p= 0.011). We observed an acute mean reduction in the plasma level of total cholesterol (57.9%), LDL-C (70.8%),and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (40.7%). Treatments were well tolerated. The most frequent clinicaladverse effects were hypotension in 3 sessions (2.5%), chills (1.7%) in 2 sessions, and nausea/vomiting in 3 sessions(2.5%). Our experience using the cascade filtration system with 3 patients included good clinical outcomes andlaboratory findings, safe usage, and minor adverse effects and technical problems. None declared.

  19. Low threshold interband cascade lasers operating above room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. J.; Yang, B.; Yang, R. Q.

    2003-01-01

    Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers were demonstrated in pulsed mode at temperatures up to 325 K and in continuous mode up to 200 K. At 80 K, the threshold current density was 8.9 A/cm2 and a cw outpout power of 140 mW/facet was obtained.

  20. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    SciTech Connect

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.

    Increased coupling between critical infrastructure networks, such as power and communication systems, has important implications for the reliability and security of these systems. To understand the effects of power-communication coupling, several researchers have studied models of interdependent networks and reported that increased coupling can increase vulnerability. However, these conclusions come largely from models that have substantially different mechanisms of cascading failure, relative to those found in actual power and communication networks, and that do not capture the benefits of connecting systems with complementary capabilities. In order to understand the importance of these details, this paper compares network vulnerability in simplemore » topological models and in models that more accurately capture the dynamics of cascading in power systems. First, we compare a simple model of topological contagion to a model of cascading in power systems and find that the power grid model shows a higher level of vulnerability, relative to the contagion model. Second, we compare a percolation model of topological cascading in coupled networks to three different models of power networks coupled to communication systems. Again, the more accurate models suggest very different conclusions than the percolation model. In all but the most extreme case, the physics-based power grid models indicate that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability. This is opposite from what one would conclude from the percolation model, in which zero coupling is optimal. Only in an extreme case, in which communication failures immediately cause grid failures, did we find that increased coupling can be harmful. Together, these results suggest design strategies for reducing the risk of cascades in interdependent infrastructure systems.« less

  1. Assessment of Critical Events Corridors through Multivariate Cascading Outages Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng

    2011-10-17

    Massive blackouts of electrical power systems in North America over the past decade has focused increasing attention upon ways to identify and simulate network events that may potentially lead to widespread network collapse. This paper summarizes a method to simulate power-system vulnerability to cascading failures to a supplied set of initiating events synonymously termed as Extreme Events. The implemented simulation method is currently confined to simulating steady state power-system response to a set of extreme events. The outlined method of simulation is meant to augment and provide a new insight into bulk power transmission network planning that at present remainsmore » mainly confined to maintaining power system security for single and double component outages under a number of projected future network operating conditions. Although one of the aims of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of simulating network vulnerability to cascading outages, a more important goal has been to determine vulnerable parts of the network that may potentially be strengthened in practice so as to mitigate system susceptibility to cascading failures. This paper proposes to demonstrate a systematic approach to analyze extreme events and identify vulnerable system elements that may be contributing to cascading outages. The hypothesis of critical events corridors is proposed to represent repeating sequential outages that can occur in the system for multiple initiating events. The new concept helps to identify system reinforcements that planners could engineer in order to 'break' the critical events sequences and therefore lessen the likelihood of cascading outages. This hypothesis has been successfully validated with a California power system model.« less

  2. Cascading off the West Greenland Shelf: A numerical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marson, Juliana M.; Myers, Paul G.; Hu, Xianmin; Petrie, Brian; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Lee, Craig M.

    2017-07-01

    Cascading of dense water from the shelf to deeper layers of the adjacent ocean basin has been observed in several locations around the world. The West Greenland Shelf (WGS), however, is a region where this process has never been documented. In this study, we use a numerical model with a 1/4° resolution to determine (i) if cascading could happen from the WGS; (ii) where and when it could take place; (iii) the forcings that induce or halt this process; and (iv) the path of the dense plume. Results show cascading happening off the WGS at Davis Strait. Dense waters form there due to brine rejection and slide down the slope during spring. Once the dense plume leaves the shelf, it gradually mixes with waters of similar density and moves northward into Baffin Bay. Our simulation showed events happening between 2003-2006 and during 2014; but no plume was observed in the simulation between 2007 and 2013. We suggest that the reason why cascading was halted in this period is related to: the increased freshwater transport from the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait; the additional sea ice melting in the region; and the reduced presence of Irminger Water at Davis Strait during fall/early winter. Although observations at Davis Strait show that our simulation usually overestimates the seasonal range of temperature and salinity, they agree with the overall variability captured by the model. This suggests that cascades have the potential to develop on the WGS, albeit less dense than the ones estimated by the simulation.

  3. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    DOE PAGES

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; ...

    2017-03-20

    Increased coupling between critical infrastructure networks, such as power and communication systems, has important implications for the reliability and security of these systems. To understand the effects of power-communication coupling, several researchers have studied models of interdependent networks and reported that increased coupling can increase vulnerability. However, these conclusions come largely from models that have substantially different mechanisms of cascading failure, relative to those found in actual power and communication networks, and that do not capture the benefits of connecting systems with complementary capabilities. In order to understand the importance of these details, this paper compares network vulnerability in simplemore » topological models and in models that more accurately capture the dynamics of cascading in power systems. First, we compare a simple model of topological contagion to a model of cascading in power systems and find that the power grid model shows a higher level of vulnerability, relative to the contagion model. Second, we compare a percolation model of topological cascading in coupled networks to three different models of power networks coupled to communication systems. Again, the more accurate models suggest very different conclusions than the percolation model. In all but the most extreme case, the physics-based power grid models indicate that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability. This is opposite from what one would conclude from the percolation model, in which zero coupling is optimal. Only in an extreme case, in which communication failures immediately cause grid failures, did we find that increased coupling can be harmful. Together, these results suggest design strategies for reducing the risk of cascades in interdependent infrastructure systems.« less

  4. Cascading failures in interdependent systems under a flow redistribution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingrui; Arenas, Alex; Yaǧan, Osman

    2018-02-01

    Robustness and cascading failures in interdependent systems has been an active research field in the past decade. However, most existing works use percolation-based models where only the largest component of each network remains functional throughout the cascade. Although suitable for communication networks, this assumption fails to capture the dependencies in systems carrying a flow (e.g., power systems, road transportation networks), where cascading failures are often triggered by redistribution of flows leading to overloading of lines. Here, we consider a model consisting of systems A and B with initial line loads and capacities given by {LA,i,CA ,i} i =1 n and {LB,i,CB ,i} i =1 n, respectively. When a line fails in system A , a fraction of its load is redistributed to alive lines in B , while remaining (1 -a ) fraction is redistributed equally among all functional lines in A ; a line failure in B is treated similarly with b giving the fraction to be redistributed to A . We give a thorough analysis of cascading failures of this model initiated by a random attack targeting p1 fraction of lines in A and p2 fraction in B . We show that (i) the model captures the real-world phenomenon of unexpected large scale cascades and exhibits interesting transition behavior: the final collapse is always first order, but it can be preceded by a sequence of first- and second-order transitions; (ii) network robustness tightly depends on the coupling coefficients a and b , and robustness is maximized at non-trivial a ,b values in general; (iii) unlike most existing models, interdependence has a multifaceted impact on system robustness in that interdependency can lead to an improved robustness for each individual network.

  5. Cascading failures in interdependent systems under a flow redistribution model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingrui; Arenas, Alex; Yağan, Osman

    2018-02-01

    Robustness and cascading failures in interdependent systems has been an active research field in the past decade. However, most existing works use percolation-based models where only the largest component of each network remains functional throughout the cascade. Although suitable for communication networks, this assumption fails to capture the dependencies in systems carrying a flow (e.g., power systems, road transportation networks), where cascading failures are often triggered by redistribution of flows leading to overloading of lines. Here, we consider a model consisting of systems A and B with initial line loads and capacities given by {L_{A,i},C_{A,i}}_{i=1}^{n} and {L_{B,i},C_{B,i}}_{i=1}^{n}, respectively. When a line fails in system A, a fraction of its load is redistributed to alive lines in B, while remaining (1-a) fraction is redistributed equally among all functional lines in A; a line failure in B is treated similarly with b giving the fraction to be redistributed to A. We give a thorough analysis of cascading failures of this model initiated by a random attack targeting p_{1} fraction of lines in A and p_{2} fraction in B. We show that (i) the model captures the real-world phenomenon of unexpected large scale cascades and exhibits interesting transition behavior: the final collapse is always first order, but it can be preceded by a sequence of first- and second-order transitions; (ii) network robustness tightly depends on the coupling coefficients a and b, and robustness is maximized at non-trivial a,b values in general; (iii) unlike most existing models, interdependence has a multifaceted impact on system robustness in that interdependency can lead to an improved robustness for each individual network.

  6. Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range, northwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Mariner, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range includes the heat discharged by thermal springs, by "slightly thermal" springs that are only a few degrees warmer than ambient temperature, and by fumaroles. Thermal-spring heat discharge is calculated on the basis of chloride-flux measurements and geothermometer temperatures and totals ~ 240 MW in the U.S. part of the Cascade Range, excluding the transient post-1980 discharge at Mount St. Helens (~80 MW as of 2004-5). Heat discharge from "slightly thermal" springs is based on the degree of geothermal warming (after correction for gravitational potential energy effects) and totals ~. 660. MW. Fumarolic heat discharge is calculated by a variety of indirect and direct methods and totals ~160 MW, excluding the transient mid-1970s discharge at Mount Baker (~80 MW) and transient post-1980 discharge at Mount St. Helens (>. 230. MW as of 2005). Other than the pronounced transients at Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker, hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range appears to be fairly steady over a ~25-year period of measurement. Of the total of ~. 1050. MW of "steady" hydrothermal heat discharge identified in the U.S. part of the Cascade Range, less than 50. MW occurs north of latitude 45??15' N (~0.1 MW per km arc length from 45??15' to 49??N). Much greater rates of hydrothermal heat discharge south of 45??15'N (~1.7 MW per km arc length from 40?? to 45??15'N) may reflect the influence of Basin and Range-style extensional tectonics (faulting) that impinges on the Cascades as far north as Mount Jefferson but is not evident farther north. ?? 2010.

  7. Department of the Interior Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] [Department of the Interior Semiannual Regulatory Agenda] Part X Department of the Interior Semiannual Regulatory Agenda [[Page 79796

  8. Department of Transportation Agency Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] [Department of Transportation Agency Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] Part XIII Department of Transportation Semiannual Regulatory Agenda [[Page 79812

  9. Nuclear Receptor SHP Activates miR-206 Expression via a Cascade Dual Inhibitory Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guisheng; Wang, Li

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs play a critical role in many essential cellular functions in the mammalian species. However, limited information is available regarding the regulation of miRNAs gene transcription. Microarray profiling and real-time PCR analysis revealed a marked down-regulation of miR-206 in nuclear receptor SHP−/− mice. To understand the regulatory function of SHP with regard to miR-206 gene expression, we determined the putative transcriptional initiation site of miR-206 and also its full length primary transcript using a database mining approach and RACE. We identified the transcription factor AP1 binding sites on the miR-206 promoter and further showed that AP1 (c-Jun and c-Fos) induced miR-206 promoter transactivity and expression which was repressed by YY1. ChIP analysis confirmed the physical association of AP1 (c-Jun) and YY1 with the endogenous miR-206 promoter. In addition, we also identified nuclear receptor ERRγ (NR3B3) binding site on the YY1 promoter and showed that YY1 promoter was transactivated by ERRγ, which was inhibited by SHP (NROB2). ChIP analysis confirmed the ERRγ binding to the YY1 promoter. Forced expression of SHP and AP1 induced miR-206 expression while overexpression of ERRγ and YY1 reduced its expression. The effects of AP1, ERRγ, and YY1 on miR-206 expression were reversed by siRNA knockdown of each gene, respectively. Thus, we propose a novel cascade “dual inhibitory” mechanism governing miR-206 gene transcription by SHP: SHP inhibition of ERRγ led to decreased YY1 expression and the de-repression of YY1 on AP1 activity, ultimately leading to the activation of miR-206. This is the first report to elucidate a cascade regulatory mechanism governing miRNAs gene transcription. PMID:19721712

  10. Prediction and Control of Network Cascade: Example of Power Grid or Networking Adaptability from WMD Disruption and Cascading Failures

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael

    2012-07-24

    The goal of the DTRA project is to develop a mathematical framework that will provide the fundamental understanding of network survivability, algorithms for detecting/inferring pre-cursors of abnormal network behaviors, and methods for network adaptability and self-healing from cascading failures.

  11. Scale-invariant cascades in turbulence and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttenberg, Nicholas Ryan

    In this dissertation, I present work addressing three systems which are traditionally considered to be unrelated: turbulence, evolution, and social organization. The commonality between these systems is that in each case, microscopic interaction rules give rise to an emergent behavior that in some way makes contact with the macroscopic scale of the problem. The open-ended evolution of complexity in evolving systems is analogous to the scale-free structure established in turbulent flows through local transportation of energy. In both cases, an invariance is required for the cascading behavior to occur, and in both cases the scale-free structure is built up from some initial scale from which the behavior is fed. In turbulence, I examine the case of two-dimensional turbulence in order to support the hypothesis that the friction factor and velocity profile of turbulent pipe flows depend on the turbulent energy spectrum in a way unpredicted by the classic Prandtl theory. By simulating two-dimensional flows in controlled geometries, either an inverse energy cascade or forward enstrophy cascade can be produced. The friction factor scaling of the flow changes depending on which cascade is present, in a way consistent with momentum transfer theory and roughness-induced criticality. In the problem of evolution, I show that open-ended growth of complexity can be obtained by ensuring that the evolutionary dynamics are invariant with respect to changes in complexity. Finite system size, finite point mutation rate, and fixed points in the fitness landscape can all interrupt this cascade behavior, producing an analogue to the integral scale of turbulence. This complexity cascade can exist both for competing and for symbiotic sets of organisms. Extending this picture to the qualitatively-different levels of organization of real lifeforms (viruses, unicellular, biofilms, multicellular) requires an understanding of how the processes of evolution themselves evolve. I show that a

  12. Episodic sediment-discharge events in Cascade Springs, southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Timothy Scott

    1999-01-01

    upper Minnelusa Formation, which is caused by upward leakage of relatively fresh water from the Madison aquifer. The anhydrite dissolution and dedolomitization account for the net removal of minerals that would lead to breccia pipe formation by gravitational collapse. Breccia pipes in the lower Minnelusa Formation are uncommon; however, networks of interconnected breccia layers and breccia dikes are common. These networks, along with vertical fractures and faults, are likely pathways for transmitting upward leakage from the Madison aquifer. It is concluded that suspended sediment discharged at Cascade Springs probably results from episodic collapse brecciation that is caused by subsurface dissolution of anhydrite beds and cements of the upper Minnelusa Formation, accompanied by replacement of dolomite by calcite. It is further concluded that many breccia pipes probably are the throats of artesian springs that have been abandoned and exposed by erosion. The locations of artesian spring-discharge points probably have been shifting outwards from the center of the Black Hills uplift, essentially keeping pace with regional erosion over geologic time. Thus, artesian springflow probably is a factor in controlling water levels in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, with hydraulic head declining over geologic time, in response to development of new discharge points. Development of breccia pipes as throats of artesian springs would greatly enhance vertical hydraulic conductivity in the immediate vicinity of spring-discharge points. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the Minnelusa Formation also may be enhanced by dissolution processes related to upward leakage from the Madison aquifer. Potential processes could include dissolution resulting from leakage in the vicinity of breccia pipes that are abandoned spring throats, active spring discharge, development of subsurface breccias with no visible surface expression or spring discharge, as well as general areal leakage

  13. Meeting Regulatory Needs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael Fred

    2017-02-01

    The world is experiencing change at an unprecedented pace, as reflected in social, cultural, economic, political, and technological advances around the globe. Regulatory agencies, like the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), must also transform in response to and in preparation for these changes. In 2014, the NRC staff commenced Project Aim 2020 to transform the agency by enhancing efficiency, agility, and responsiveness, while accomplishing NRC's safety and security mission. Following Commission review and approval in 2015, the NRC began implementing the approved strategies, including strategic workforce planning to provide confidence that NRC will have employees with the right skills and talents at the right time to accomplish the agency's mission. Based on the work conducted so far, ensuring an adequate pipeline of radiation protection professionals is a significant need that NRC shares with states and other government agencies, private industry, academia, as well as international counterparts. NRC is working to ensure that sufficient radiation protection professionals will be available to fulfill its safety and security mission and leverage the work of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, the Health Physics Society, the Organization of Agreement States, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Nuclear Energy Agency, and others.

  14. Regulatory Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsuaki; Uto, Tomofumi; Fukaya, Tomohiro; Takagi, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise heterogeneous subsets, functionally classified into conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). DCs are considered to be essential antigen (Ag)-presenting cells (APCs) that play crucial roles in activation and fine-tuning of innate and adaptive immunity under inflammatory conditions, as well as induction of immune tolerance to maintain immune homeostasis under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, DC functions can be modified and influenced by stimulation with various extrinsic factors, such as ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and cytokines. On the other hand, treatment of DCs with certain immunosuppressive drugs and molecules leads to the generation of tolerogenic DCs that show downregulation of both the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and costimulatory molecules, and not only show defective T-cell activation, but also possess tolerogenic properties including the induction of anergic T-cells and regulatory T (T reg ) cells. To develop an effective strategy for Ag-specific intervention of T-cell-mediated immune disorders, we have previously established the modified DCs with moderately high levels of MHC molecules that are defective in the expression of costimulatory molecules that had a greater immunoregulatory property than classical tolerogenic DCs, which we therefore designated as regulatory DCs (DC reg ). Herein, we integrate the current understanding of the role of DCs in the control of immune responses, and further provide new information of the characteristics of tolerogenic DCs and DC reg , as well as their regulation of immune responses and disorders.

  15. Use Deflected Trailing Edge to Improve the Aerodynamic Performance and Develop Low Solidity LPT Cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Li; Peigang, Yan; Xiangfeng, Wang; Wanjin, Han; Qingchao, Wang

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of improving the aerodynamic performance of low pressure turbine (LPT) blade cascades and developing low solidity LPT blade cascades through deflected trailing edge. A deflected trailing edge improved aerodynamic performance of both LPT blade cascades and low solidity LPT blade cascades. For standard solidity LPT cascades, deflecting the trailing edge can decrease the energy loss coefficient by 20.61 % for a Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000 and freestream turbulence intensities (FSTI) of 1 %. For a low solidity LPT cascade, aerodynamic performance was also improved by deflecting the trailing edge. Solidity of the LPT cascade can be reduced by 12.5 % for blades with a deflected trailing edge without a drop in efficiency. Here, the flow control mechanism surrounding a deflected trailing edge was also revealed.

  16. The effects of self-interstitial clusters on cascade defect evolution beyond the primary damage state

    SciTech Connect

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1997-04-01

    The intracascade evolution of the defect distributions of cascades in copper is investigated using stochastic annealing simulations applied to cascades generated with molecular dynamics (MD). The temperature and energy dependencies of annihilation, clustering and free defect production are determined for individual cascades. The annealing simulation results illustrate the strong influence on intracascade evolution of the defect configuration existing in the primary damage state. Another factor significantly affecting the evolution of the defect distribution is the rapid one-dimensional diffusion of small, glissile interstitial loops produced directly in cascades. This phenomenon introduces a cascade energy dependence of defect evolution that is apparentmore » only beyond the primary damage state, amplifying the need for further study of the annealing phase of cascade evolution and for performing many more MD cascade simulations at higher energies.« less

  17. Development of the cascade inertial-confinement-fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.

    Cascade, originally conceived as a football-shaped, steel-walled reactor containing a Li/sub 2/O granule blanket, is now envisaged as a double-cone-shaped reactor containing a two-layered (three-zone) flowing blanket of BeO and LiAlO/sub 2/ granules. Average blanket exit temperature is 1670/sup 0/K and gross plant efficiency (net thermal conversion efficiency) using a Brayton cycle is 55%. The reactor has a low-activation SiC-tiled wall. It rotates at 50 rpm, and the granules are transported to the top of the heat exchanger using their peripheral speed; no conveyors or lifts are required. The granules return to the reactor by gravity. After considerable analysis andmore » experimentation, we continue to regard Cascade as a promising reactor concept with the advantages of safety, efficiency, and low activation.« less

  18. Direct Self-Sustained Fragmentation Cascade of Reactive Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Chihiro; Izato, Yu-ichiro; Miyake, Atsumi; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    A traditional hand-held firework generates light streaks similar to branched pine needles, with ever smaller ramifications. These streaks are the trajectories of incandescent reactive liquid droplets bursting from a melted powder. We have uncovered the detailed sequence of events, which involve a chemical reaction with the oxygen of air, thermal decomposition of metastable compounds in the melt, gas bubble nucleation and bursting, liquid ligaments and droplets formation, all occurring in a sequential fashion. We have also evidenced a rare instance in nature of a spontaneous fragmentation process involving a direct cascade from big to smaller droplets. Here, the self-sustained direct cascade is shown to proceed over up to eight generations, with well-defined time and length scales, thus answering a century old question, and enriching, with a new example, the phenomenology of comminution.

  19. Quantum cascade laser combs: effects of modulation and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Villares, Gustavo; Faist, Jérôme

    2015-01-26

    Frequency comb formation in quantum cascade lasers is studied theoretically using a Maxwell-Bloch formalism based on a modal decomposition, where dispersion is considered. In the mid-infrared, comb formation persists in the presence of weak cavity dispersion (500 fs2 mm-1) but disappears when much larger values are used (30'000 fs2 mm-1). Active modulation at the round-trip frequency is found to induce mode-locking in THz devices, where the upper state lifetime is in the tens of picoseconds. Our results show that mode-locking based on four-wave mixing in broadband gain, low dispersion cavities is the most promising way of achieving broadband quantum cascade laser frequency combs.

  20. Probing scattering mechanisms with symmetric quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Christoph; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron M; Klang, Pavel; Kubis, Tillmann; Klimeck, Gerhard; Schuster, Manfred E; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl

    2013-03-25

    A characteristic feature of quantum cascade lasers is their unipolar carrier transport. We exploit this feature and realize nominally symmetric active regions for terahertz quantum cascade lasers, which should yield equal performance with either bias polarity. However, symmetric devices exhibit a strongly bias polarity dependent performance due to growth direction asymmetries, making them an ideal tool to study the related scattering mechanisms. In the case of an InGaAs/GaAsSb heterostructure, the pronounced interface asymmetry leads to a significantly better performance with negative bias polarity and can even lead to unidirectionally working devices, although the nominal band structure is symmetric. The results are a direct experimental proof that interface roughness scattering has a major impact on transport/lasing performance.

  1. Period adding cascades: experiment and modeling in air bubbling.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe Augusto Cardoso; Colli, Eduardo; Sartorelli, José Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Period adding cascades have been observed experimentally/numerically in the dynamics of neurons and pancreatic cells, lasers, electric circuits, chemical reactions, oceanic internal waves, and also in air bubbling. We show that the period adding cascades appearing in bubbling from a nozzle submerged in a viscous liquid can be reproduced by a simple model, based on some hydrodynamical principles, dealing with the time evolution of two variables, bubble position and pressure of the air chamber, through a system of differential equations with a rule of detachment based on force balance. The model further reduces to an iterating one-dimensional map giving the pressures at the detachments, where time between bubbles come out as an observable of the dynamics. The model has not only good agreement with experimental data, but is also able to predict the influence of the main parameters involved, like the length of the hose connecting the air supplier with the needle, the needle radius and the needle length.

  2. Predator personality structures prey communities and trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Start, Denon; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    Intraspecific variation is central to our understanding of evolution and population ecology, yet its consequences for community ecology are poorly understood. Animal personality - consistent individual differences in suites of behaviours - may be particularly important for trophic dynamics, where predator personality can determine activity rates and patterns of attack. We used mesocosms with aquatic food webs in which the top predator (dragonfly nymphs) varied in activity and subsequent attack rates on zooplankton, and tested the effects of predator personality. We found support for four hypotheses: (1) active predators disproportionately reduce the abundance of prey, (2) active predators select for predator-resistant prey species, (3) active predators strengthen trophic cascades (increase phytoplankton abundance) and (4) active predators are more likely to cannibalise one another, weakening all other trends when at high densities. These results suggest that intraspecific variation in predator personality is an important determinant of prey abundance, community composition and trophic cascades. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Forward design of a complex enzyme cascade reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hold, Christoph; Billerbeck, Sonja; Panke, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic reaction networks are unique in that one can operate a large number of reactions under the same set of conditions concomitantly in one pot, but the nonlinear kinetics of the enzymes and the resulting system complexity have so far defeated rational design processes for the construction of such complex cascade reactions. Here we demonstrate the forward design of an in vitro 10-membered system using enzymes from highly regulated biological processes such as glycolysis. For this, we adapt the characterization of the biochemical system to the needs of classical engineering systems theory: we combine online mass spectrometry and continuous system operation to apply standard system theory input functions and to use the detailed dynamic system responses to parameterize a model of sufficient quality for forward design. This allows the facile optimization of a 10-enzyme cascade reaction for fine chemical production purposes. PMID:27677244

  4. Single-photon frequency conversion via cascaded quadratic nonlinear processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Tong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Yuanhua; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng

    2018-06-01

    Frequency conversion of single photons is an important technology for quantum interface and quantum communication networks. Here, single-photon frequency conversion in the telecommunication band is experimentally demonstrated via cascaded quadratic nonlinear processes. Using cascaded quasi-phase-matched sum and difference frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide, the signal photon of a photon pair from spontaneous down-conversion is precisely shifted to identically match its counterpart, i.e., the idler photon, in frequency to manifest a clear nonclassical dip in the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. Moreover, quantum entanglement between the photon pair is maintained after the frequency conversion, as is proved in time-energy entanglement measurement. The scheme is used to switch single photons between dense wavelength-division multiplexing channels, which holds great promise in applications in realistic quantum networks.

  5. A cascading failure analysis tool for post processing TRANSCARE simulations

    SciTech Connect

    This is a MATLAB-based tool to post process simulation results in the EPRI software TRANSCARE, for massive cascading failure analysis following severe disturbances. There are a few key modules available in this tool, including: 1. automatically creating a contingency list to run TRANSCARE simulations, including substation outages above a certain kV threshold, N-k (1, 2 or 3) generator outages and branche outages; 2. read in and analyze a CKO file of PCG definition, an initiating event list, and a CDN file; 3. post process all the simulation results saved in a CDN file and perform critical event corridor analysis; 4.more » provide a summary of TRANSCARE simulations; 5. Identify the most frequently occurring event corridors in the system; and 6. Rank the contingencies using a user defined security index to quantify consequences in terms of total load loss, total number of cascades, etc.« less

  6. Infinitely divisible cascades to model the statistics of natural images.

    PubMed

    Chainais, Pierre

    2007-12-01

    We propose to model the statistics of natural images thanks to the large class of stochastic processes called Infinitely Divisible Cascades (IDC). IDC were first introduced in one dimension to provide multifractal time series to model the so-called intermittency phenomenon in hydrodynamical turbulence. We have extended the definition of scalar infinitely divisible cascades from 1 to N dimensions and commented on the relevance of such a model in fully developed turbulence in [1]. In this article, we focus on the particular 2 dimensional case. IDC appear as good candidates to model the statistics of natural images. They share most of their usual properties and appear to be consistent with several independent theoretical and experimental approaches of the literature. We point out the interest of IDC for applications to procedural texture synthesis.

  7. Medium-Induced QCD Cascade: Democratic Branching and Wave Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, J.-P.; Iancu, E.; Mehtar-Tani, Y.

    2013-08-01

    We study the average properties of the gluon cascade generated by an energetic parton propagating through a quark-gluon plasma. We focus on the soft, medium-induced emissions which control the energy transport at large angles with respect to the leading parton. We show that the effect of multiple branchings is important. In contrast with what happens in a usual QCD cascade in vacuum, medium-induced branchings are quasidemocratic, with offspring gluons carrying sizable fractions of the energy of their parent gluon. This results in an efficient mechanism for the transport of energy toward the medium, which is akin to wave turbulence with a scaling spectrum ˜1/ω. We argue that the turbulent flow may be responsible for the excess energy carried by very soft quanta, as revealed by the analysis of the dijet asymmetry observed in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC.

  8. Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit , Kent, Washington (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofitmore » package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.« less

  9. Geology of Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California Cascade Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie

    1990-01-01

    Medicine Lake volcano (MLV) is located in an E-W extensional environment on the Modoc Plateau just east of the main arc of the Cascades. It consists mainly of mafic lavas, although drillhole data indicate that a larger volume of rhyolite is present than is indicated by surface mapping. The most recent eruption was rhyolitic and occurred about 900 years ago. At least seventeen eruptions have occurred since 12,000 years ago, or between 1 and 2 eruptions per century on average, although activity appears to be strongly episodic. The calculated eruptive rate is about 0.6 km3 per thousand years during the entire history of the volcano. Drillhole data indicate that the plateau surface underlying the volcano has been downwarped by 0.5 km under the center of MLV. The volcano may be even larger than the estimated 600 km3, already the largest volcano by volume in the Cascades.

  10. Unsteady Cascade Aerodynamic Response Using a Multiphysics Simulation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Spyropoulos, E.

    2000-01-01

    The multiphysics code Spectrum(TM) is applied to calculate the unsteady aerodynamic pressures of oscillating cascade of airfoils representing a blade row of a turbomachinery component. Multiphysics simulation is based on a single computational framework for the modeling of multiple interacting physical phenomena, in the present case being between fluids and structures. Interaction constraints are enforced in a fully coupled manner using the augmented-Lagrangian method. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method is utilized to account for deformable fluid domains resulting from blade motions. Unsteady pressures are calculated for a cascade designated as the tenth standard, and undergoing plunging and pitching oscillations. The predicted unsteady pressures are compared with those obtained from an unsteady Euler co-de refer-red in the literature. The Spectrum(TM) code predictions showed good correlation for the cases considered.

  11. Enantioselective cyclizations and cyclization cascades of samarium ketyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Nicolas; Plesniak, Mateusz P.; McDouall, Joseph J. W.; Procter, David J.

    2017-12-01

    The rapid generation of molecular complexity from simple starting materials is a key challenge in synthesis. Enantioselective radical cyclization cascades have the potential to deliver complex, densely packed, polycyclic architectures, with control of three-dimensional shape, in one step. Unfortunately, carrying out reactions with radicals in an enantiocontrolled fashion remains challenging due to their high reactivity. This is particularly the case for reactions of radicals generated using the classical reagent, SmI2. Here, we demonstrate that enantioselective SmI2-mediated radical cyclizations and cascades that exploit a simple, recyclable chiral ligand can convert symmetrical ketoesters to complex carbocyclic products bearing multiple stereocentres with high enantio- and diastereocontrol. A computational study has been used to probe the origin of the enantioselectivity. Our studies suggest that many processes that rely on SmI2 can be rendered enantioselective by the design of suitable ligands.

  12. Fear of large carnivores causes a trophic cascade

    PubMed Central

    Suraci, Justin P.; Clinchy, Michael; Dill, Lawrence M.; Roberts, Devin; Zanette, Liana Y.

    2016-01-01

    The fear large carnivores inspire, independent of their direct killing of prey, may itself cause cascading effects down food webs potentially critical for conserving ecosystem function, particularly by affecting large herbivores and mesocarnivores. However, the evidence of this has been repeatedly challenged because it remains experimentally untested. Here we show that experimentally manipulating fear itself in free-living mesocarnivore (raccoon) populations using month-long playbacks of large carnivore vocalizations caused just such cascading effects, reducing mesocarnivore foraging to the benefit of the mesocarnivore's prey, which in turn affected a competitor and prey of the mesocarnivore's prey. We further report that by experimentally restoring the fear of large carnivores in our study system, where most large carnivores have been extirpated, we succeeded in reversing this mesocarnivore's impacts. We suggest that our results reinforce the need to conserve large carnivores given the significant “ecosystem service” the fear of them provides. PMID:26906881

  13. Multigrid calculation of three-dimensional viscous cascade flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnone, A.; Liou, M.-S.; Povinelli, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    A 3-D code for viscous cascade flow prediction was developed. The space discretization uses a cell-centered scheme with eigenvalue scaling to weigh the artificial dissipation terms. Computational efficiency of a four stage Runge-Kutta scheme is enhanced by using variable coefficients, implicit residual smoothing, and a full multigrid method. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model is used for turbulence closure. A zonal, nonperiodic grid is used to minimize mesh distortion in and downstream of the throat region. Applications are presented for an annular vane with and without end wall contouring, and for a large scale linear cascade. The calculation is validated by comparing with experiments and by studying grid dependency.

  14. Forest-rainfall cascades buffer against drought across the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staal, Arie; Tuinenburg, Obbe A.; Bosmans, Joyce H. C.; Holmgren, Milena; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten; Zemp, Delphine Clara; Dekker, Stefan C.

    2018-06-01

    Tree transpiration in the Amazon may enhance rainfall for downwind forests. Until now it has been unclear how this cascading effect plays out across the basin. Here, we calculate local forest transpiration and the subsequent trajectories of transpired water through the atmosphere in high spatial and temporal detail. We estimate that one-third of Amazon rainfall originates within its own basin, of which two-thirds has been transpired. Forests in the southern half of the basin contribute most to the stability of other forests in this way, whereas forests in the south-western Amazon are particularly dependent on transpired-water subsidies. These forest-rainfall cascades buffer the effects of drought and reveal a mechanism by which deforestation can compromise the resilience of the Amazon forest system in the face of future climatic extremes.

  15. High-power lightweight external-cavity quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Timothy; Takeuchi, Eric B.; Weida, Miles; Arnone, David; Pushkarsky, Michael; Boyden, David; Caffey, David

    2009-05-01

    Commercially available quantum cascade gain media has been integrated with advanced coating and die attach technologies, mid-IR micro-optics and telecom-style assembly and packaging to yield cutting edge performance. When combined into Daylight's external-cavity quantum cascade laser (ECqcL) platform, multi-Watt output power has been obtained. Daylight will describe their most recent results obtained from this platform, including high cw power from compact hermetically sealed packages and narrow spectral linewidth devices. Fiber-coupling and direct amplitude modulation from such multi-Watt lasers will also be described. In addition, Daylight will present the most recent results from their compact, portable, battery-operated "thermal laser pointers" that are being used for illumination and aiming applications. When combined with thermal imaging technology, such devices provide significant benefits in contrast and identification.

  16. Energy Transfer and Dual Cascade in Kinetic Magnetized Plasma Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plunk, G. G.; Tatsuno, T.

    2011-04-01

    The question of how nonlinear interactions redistribute the energy of fluctuations across available degrees of freedom is of fundamental importance in the study of turbulence and transport in magnetized weakly collisional plasmas, ranging from space settings to fusion devices. In this Letter, we present a theory for the dual cascade found in such plasmas, which predicts a range of new behavior that distinguishes this cascade from that of neutral fluid turbulence. These phenomena are explained in terms of the constrained nature of spectral transfer in nonlinear gyrokinetics. Accompanying this theory are the first observations of these phenomena, obtained via direct numerical simulations using the gyrokinetic code AstroGK. The basic mechanisms that are found provide a framework for understanding the turbulent energy transfer that couples scales both locally and nonlocally.

  17. Cascade process modeling with mechanism-based hierarchical neural networks.

    PubMed

    Cong, Qiumei; Yu, Wen; Chai, Tianyou

    2010-02-01

    Cascade process, such as wastewater treatment plant, includes many nonlinear sub-systems and many variables. When the number of sub-systems is big, the input-output relation in the first block and the last block cannot represent the whole process. In this paper we use two techniques to overcome the above problem. Firstly we propose a new neural model: hierarchical neural networks to identify the cascade process; then we use serial structural mechanism model based on the physical equations to connect with neural model. A stable learning algorithm and theoretical analysis are given. Finally, this method is used to model a wastewater treatment plant. Real operational data of wastewater treatment plant is applied to illustrate the modeling approach.

  18. Cascading trait-mediated interactions induced by ant pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Hsun-Yi; Liere, Heidi; Soto, Estelí J; Perfecto, Ivette

    2012-01-01

    Trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMII) can be as important as density-mediated indirect interactions. Here, we provide evidence for a novel trait-mediated cascade (where one TMII affects another TMII) and demonstrate that the mechanism consists of a predator eavesdropping on chemical signaling. Ants protect scale insects from predation by adult coccinellid beetles – the first TMII. However, parasitic phorid flies reduce ant foraging activity by 50% – the second TMII, providing a window of opportunity for female beetles to oviposit in high-quality microsites. Beetle larvae are protected from ant predation and benefit from living in patches with high scale densities. We demonstrate that female beetles can detect pheromones released by the ant when attacked by phorids, and that only females, and especially gravid females, are attracted to the ant pheromone. As ants reduce their movement when under attack by phorids, we conclude that phorids facilitate beetle oviposition, thus producing the TMII cascade. PMID:23139877

  19. Multigrid calculation of three-dimensional viscous cascade flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnone, A.; Liou, M.-S.; Povinelli, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    A three-dimensional code for viscous cascade flow prediction has been developed. The space discretization uses a cell-centered scheme with eigenvalue scaling to weigh the artificial dissipation terms. Computational efficiency of a four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme is enhanced by using variable coefficients, implicit residual smoothing, and a full-multigrid method. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy-viscosity model is used for turbulence closure. A zonal, nonperiodic grid is used to minimize mesh distortion in and downstream of the throat region. Applications are presented for an annular vane with and without end wall contouring, and for a large-scale linear cascade. The calculation is validated by comparing with experiments and by studying grid dependency.

  20. Spatial correlation analysis of cascading failures: Congestions and Blackouts

    PubMed Central

    Daqing, Li; Yinan, Jiang; Rui, Kang; Havlin, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    Cascading failures have become major threats to network robustness due to their potential catastrophic consequences, where local perturbations can induce global propagation of failures. Unlike failures spreading via direct contacts due to structural interdependencies, overload failures usually propagate through collective interactions among system components. Despite the critical need in developing protection or mitigation strategies in networks such as power grids and transportation, the propagation behavior of cascading failures is essentially unknown. Here we find by analyzing our collected data that jams in city traffic and faults in power grid are spatially long-range correlated with correlations decaying slowly with distance. Moreover, we find in the daily traffic, that the correlation length increases dramatically and reaches maximum, when morning or evening rush hour is approaching. Our study can impact all efforts towards improving actively system resilience ranging from evaluation of design schemes, development of protection strategies to implementation of mitigation programs. PMID:24946927

  1. Ultralow-threshold cascaded Brillouin microlaser for tunable microwave generation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changlei; Che, Kaijun; Cai, Zhiping; Liu, Shuai; Gu, Guoqiang; Chu, Chengxu; Zhang, Pan; Fu, Hongyan; Luo, Zhengqian; Xu, Huiying

    2015-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an ultralow-threshold cascaded Brillouin microlaser for tunable microwave generation in a high-Q silica microsphere resonator. The threshold of the Brillouin microlaser is as low as 8 μW, which is close to the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the fifth-order Stokes line with a frequency shift up to 55 GHz is achieved with a coupled pump power of less than 0.6 mW. Benefiting from resonant wavelength shifts driven by thermal dynamics in the microsphere, we further realized tunable microwave signals with tuning ranges of 40 MHz at an 11 GHz band and 20 MHz at a 22 GHz band. To the best of our knowledge, it was the first attempt for tunable microwave source based on the whispering-gallery-mode Brillouin microlaser. Such a tunable microwave source from a cascaded Brillouin microlaser could find significant applications in aerospace, communication engineering, and metrology.

  2. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cascade C—H Functionalization of Phenylacetophenones**

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Vaibhav P; García-López, José-Antonio; Greaney, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Three orthogonal cascade C—H functionalization processes are described, based on ruthenium-catalyzed C—H alkenylation. 1-Indanones, indeno indenes, and indeno furanones were accessed through cascade pathways by using arylacetophenones as substrates under conditions of catalytic [{Ru(p-cymene)Cl2}2] and stoichiometric Cu(OAc)2. Each transformation uses C—H functionalization methods to form C—C bonds sequentially, with the indeno furanone synthesis featuring a C—O bond formation as the terminating step. This work demonstrates the power of ruthenium-catalyzed alkenylation as a platform reaction to develop more complex transformations, with multiple C—H functionalization steps taking place in a single operation to access novel carbocyclic structures. PMID:24453063

  3. Biomolecular dynamics studied with IR-spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers combined with nanosecond perturbation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Alexander; Scheerer, David; Heck, Benjamin; Hauser, Karin

    2017-06-01

    Early events of protein folding can be studied with fast perturbation techniques triggering non-equilibrium relaxation dynamics. A nanosecond laser-excited pH-jump or temperature-jump (T-jump) was applied to initiate helix folding or unfolding of poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA). PGA is a homopolypeptide with titratable carboxyl side-chains whose protonation degree determines the PGA conformation. A pH-jump was realized by the photochemical release of protons and induces PGA folding due to protonation of the side-chains. Otherwise, the helical conformation can be unfolded by a T-jump. We operated under conditions where PGA does not aggregate and temperature and pH are the regulatory properties of its conformation. The experiments were performed in such a manner that the folding/unfolding jump proceeded to the same PGA conformation. We quantified the increase/decrease in helicity induced by the pH-/T-jump and demonstrated that the T-jump results in a relatively small change in helical content in contrast to the pH-jump. This is caused by the strong pH-dependence of the PGA conformation. The conformational changes were detected by time-resolved single wavelength IR-spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers (QCL). We could independently observe the kinetics for α-helix folding and unfolding in PGA by using different perturbation techniques and demonstrate the high sensitivity of time-resolved IR-spectroscopy to study protein folding mechanisms.

  4. Two distinct redox cascades cooperatively regulate chloroplast functions and sustain plant viability.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hisabori, Toru

    2016-07-05

    The thiol-based redox regulation system is believed to adjust chloroplast functions in response to changes in light environments. A redox cascade via the ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)/thioredoxin (Trx) pathway has been traditionally considered to serve as a transmitter of light signals to target enzymes. However, emerging data indicate that chloroplasts have a complex redox network composed of diverse redox-mediator proteins and target enzymes. Despite extensive research addressing this system, two fundamental questions are still unresolved: How are redox pathways orchestrated within chloroplasts, and why are chloroplasts endowed with a complicated redox network? In this report, we show that NADPH-Trx reductase C (NTRC) is a key redox-mediator protein responsible for regulatory functions distinct from those of the classically known FTR/Trx system. Target screening and subsequent biochemical assays indicated that NTRC and the Trx family differentially recognize their target proteins. In addition, we found that NTRC is an electron donor to Trx-z, which is a key regulator of gene expression in chloroplasts. We further demonstrate that cooperative control of chloroplast functions via the FTR/Trx and NTRC pathways is essential for plant viability. Arabidopsis double mutants impaired in FTR and NTRC expression displayed lethal phenotypes under autotrophic growth conditions. This severe growth phenotype was related to a drastic loss of photosynthetic performance. These combined results provide an expanded map of the chloroplast redox network and its biological functions.

  5. Seed Embryo Development Is Regulated via an AN3-MINI3 Gene Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lai-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Bo; Loake, Gary J.; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In agriculture, seed mass is one of the most important components related to seed yield. MINISEED3 (MINI3) which encodes the transcriptional activator WRKY10, is thought to be a pivotal regulator of seed mass. In Arabidopsis SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 (SHB1) associates with the promoter of MINI3, regulating embryo cell proliferation (both cell division and elongation), which, in turn, modulates seed mass. Furthermore, the recruitment of SHB1 via MINI3 to both its cognate promoter and that of IKU2 implies a two-step amplification for countering the low expression level of IKU2, which is thought to function as a molecular switch for seed cavity enlargement. However, it is largely unknown how embryo cell proliferation, which encompasses both cell division and elongation, is regulated by SHB1 and MINI3 function. Here, we show that a loss of function mutation within the transcriptional coactivator ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3), increases seed mass. Further, AN3 associates with the MINI3 promoter in vivo. Genetic evidence indicates that the absence of MINI3 function suppresses the decrease of cell number observed in an3-4 mutants by regulating cell division and in turn inhibits increased cell size of the an3-4 line by controlling cell elongation. Thus, seed embryo development is modulated via an AN3-MINI3 gene cascade. This regulatory model provides a deeper understanding of seed mass regulation, which may in turn lead to increased crop yields. PMID:27857719

  6. Two distinct redox cascades cooperatively regulate chloroplast functions and sustain plant viability

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hisabori, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The thiol-based redox regulation system is believed to adjust chloroplast functions in response to changes in light environments. A redox cascade via the ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)/thioredoxin (Trx) pathway has been traditionally considered to serve as a transmitter of light signals to target enzymes. However, emerging data indicate that chloroplasts have a complex redox network composed of diverse redox-mediator proteins and target enzymes. Despite extensive research addressing this system, two fundamental questions are still unresolved: How are redox pathways orchestrated within chloroplasts, and why are chloroplasts endowed with a complicated redox network? In this report, we show that NADPH-Trx reductase C (NTRC) is a key redox-mediator protein responsible for regulatory functions distinct from those of the classically known FTR/Trx system. Target screening and subsequent biochemical assays indicated that NTRC and the Trx family differentially recognize their target proteins. In addition, we found that NTRC is an electron donor to Trx-z, which is a key regulator of gene expression in chloroplasts. We further demonstrate that cooperative control of chloroplast functions via the FTR/Trx and NTRC pathways is essential for plant viability. Arabidopsis double mutants impaired in FTR and NTRC expression displayed lethal phenotypes under autotrophic growth conditions. This severe growth phenotype was related to a drastic loss of photosynthetic performance. These combined results provide an expanded map of the chloroplast redox network and its biological functions. PMID:27335455

  7. Noncoding Genomics in Gastric Cancer and the Gastric Precancerous Cascade: Pathogenesis and Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Bloj, Benjamin; Fry, Jacqueline; Wichmann, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death, whose patterns vary among geographical regions and ethnicities. It is a multifactorial disease, and its development depends on infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), host genetic factors, and environmental factors. The heterogeneity of the disease has begun to be unraveled by a comprehensive mutational evaluation of primary tumors. The low-abundance of mutations suggests that other mechanisms participate in the evolution of the disease, such as those found through analyses of noncoding genomics. Noncoding genomics includes single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation of promoter sites, miRNAs, other noncoding RNAs in regulatory regions, and other topics. These processes and molecules ultimately control gene expression. Potential biomarkers are appearing from analyses of noncoding genomics. This review focuses on noncoding genomics and potential biomarkers in the context of gastric cancer and the gastric precancerous cascade. PMID:26379360

  8. The Southern Washington Cascades magmatic system imaged with magnetotellurics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles-martinez, E.; Bedrosian, P.; Schultz, A.; Hill, G. J.; Peacock, J.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the interdisciplinary iMUSH project (Imaging Magma Under Saint Helens) is to image the magmatic system of Mount Saint Helens (MSH), and to determine the relationship of this system to the greater Cascades volcanic arc. We are especially interested in an anomalously conductive crustal zone between MSH and Mount Adams known as the Southern Washington Cascades Conductor (SWCC), which early studies interpreted as accreted sediments, but more recently has been interpreted as a broad region of partial melt. MSH is located 50 km west of the main arc and is the most active of the Cascade volcanoes. Its 1980 eruption highlighted the need to understand this potentially hazardous volcanic system. We use wideband magnetotelluric (MT) data collected in 2014-2015 along with data from earlier studies to create a 3D model of the electrical resistivity throughout the region, covering MSH as well as Mount Adams and Mount Rainier along the main volcanic arc. We look at not only the volcanoes themselves, but also their relationship to one another and to regional geologic structures. Preliminary modeling identifies several conductive features, including a mid-crustal conductive region between MSH and Mount Adams that passes below Indian Heaven Volcanic Field and coincides with a region with a high Vp/Vs ratio identified in the seismic component of iMUSH. This suggests that it could be magmatic, but does not preclude the possibility of conductive sediments. Synthesis of seismic and MT data to address this question is ongoing. We also note a conductive zone running north-south just west of MSH that is likely associated with fluids within faults of the Saint Helens Seismic Zone. We finally note that curvature of the conductive lineament that defines the main Cascade arc suggests that the boundary of magmatism is influenced by compression within the Yakima Fold and Thrust Belt, east and southeast of Mount Adams.

  9. Tripartite correlations over two octaves from cascaded harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, M. K.

    2018-03-01

    We analyse the output quantum tripartite correlations from an intracavity nonlinear optical system which uses cascaded nonlinearities to produce both second and fourth harmonic outputs from an input field at the fundamental frequency. Using fully quantum equations of motion, we investigate two parameter regimes and show that the system produces tripartite inseparability, entanglement and EPR steering, with the detection of these depending on the correlations being considered.

  10. Resonance Effects in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Capece, V. R.; Ford, C. T.

    2003-01-01

    Investigations of unsteady pressure loadings on the blades of fans operating near the stall flutter boundary are carried out under simulated conditions in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade facility (TFC). It has been observed that for inlet Mach numbers of about 0.8, the cascade flowfield exhibits intense low-frequency pressure oscillations. The origins of these oscillations were not clear. It was speculated that this behavior was either caused by instabilities in the blade separated flow zone or that it was a tunnel resonance phenomenon. It has now been determined that the strong low-frequency oscillations, observed in the TFC facility, are not a cascade phenomenon contributing to blade flutter, but that they are solely caused by the tunnel resonance characteristics. Most likely, the self-induced oscillations originate in the system of exit duct resonators. For sure, the self-induced oscillations can be significantly suppressed for a narrow range of inlet Mach numbers by tuning one of the resonators. A considerable amount of flutter simulation data has been acquired in this facility to date, and therefore it is of interest to know how much this tunnel self-induced flow oscillation influences the experimental data at high subsonic Mach numbers since this facility is being used to simulate flutter in transonic fans. In short, can this body of experimental data still be used reliably to verify computer codes for blade flutter and blade life predictions? To answer this question a study on resonance effects in the NASA TFC facility was carried out. The results, based on spectral and ensemble averaging analysis of the cascade data, showed that the interaction between self-induced oscillations and forced blade motion oscillations is very weak and can generally be neglected. The forced motion data acquired with the mistuned tunnel, when strong self-induced oscillations were present, can be used as reliable forced pressure fluctuations provided that they are extracted

  11. Cascade upgrading of γ-valerolactone to biofuels.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kai; Lafleur, Todd; Wu, Xu; Chai, Jiajue; Wu, Guosheng; Xie, Xianmei

    2015-04-25

    Cascade upgrading of γ-valerolactone (GVL), produced from renewable cellulosic biomass, with selective conversion to biofuels pentyl valerate (PV) and pentane in one pot using a bifunctional Pd/HY catalyst is described. Excellent catalytic performance (over 99% conversion of GVL, 60.6% yield of PV and 22.9% yield of pentane) was achieved in one step. These biofuels can be targeted for gasoline and jet fuel applications.

  12. Cascaded Optimization for a Persistent Data Ferrying Unmanned Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carfang, Anthony

    This dissertation develops and assesses a cascaded method for designing optimal periodic trajectories and link schedules for an unmanned aircraft to ferry data between stationary ground nodes. This results in a fast solution method without the need to artificially constrain system dynamics. Focusing on a fundamental ferrying problem that involves one source and one destination, but includes complex vehicle and Radio-Frequency (RF) dynamics, a cascaded structure to the system dynamics is uncovered. This structure is exploited by reformulating the nonlinear optimization problem into one that reduces the independent control to the vehicle's motion, while the link scheduling control is folded into the objective function and implemented as an optimal policy that depends on candidate motion control. This formulation is proven to maintain optimality while reducing computation time in comparison to traditional ferry optimization methods. The discrete link scheduling problem takes the form of a combinatorial optimization problem that is known to be NP-Hard. A derived necessary condition for optimality guides the development of several heuristic algorithms, specifically the Most-Data-First Algorithm and the Knapsack Adaptation. These heuristics are extended to larger ferrying scenarios, and assessed analytically and through Monte Carlo simulation, showing better throughput performance in the same order of magnitude of computation time in comparison to other common link scheduling policies. The cascaded optimization method is implemented with a novel embedded software system on a small, unmanned aircraft to validate the simulation results with field experiments. To address the sensitivity of results on trajectory tracking performance, a system that combines motion and link control with waypoint-based navigation is developed and assessed through field experiments. The data ferrying algorithms are further extended by incorporating a Gaussian process to opportunistically learn

  13. AlGaAs-GaAs cascade solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamorte, M. F.; Abbott, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Computer modeling studies are reported for a monolithic, two junction, cascade solar cell using the AlGaAs GaAs materials combination. An optimum design was obtained through a serial optimization procedure by which conversion efficiency is maximized for operation at 300 K, AM 0, and unity solar concentration. Under these conditions the upper limit on efficiency was shown to be in excess of 29 percent, provided surface recombination velocity did not exceed 10,000 cm/sec.

  14. Consumer-mediated recycling and cascading trophic interactions.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Shawn J; Loreau, Michel

    2010-07-01

    Cascading trophic interactions mediated by consumers are complex phenomena, which encompass many direct and indirect effects. Nonetheless, most experiments and theory on the topic focus uniquely on the indirect, positive effects of predators on producers via regulation of herbivores. Empirical research in aquatic ecosystems, however, demonstrate that the indirect, positive effects of consumer-mediated recycling on primary producer stocks may be larger than the effects of herbivore regulation, particularly when predators have access to alternative prey. We derive an ecosystem model with both recipient- and donor-controlled trophic relationships to test the conditions of four hypotheses generated from recent empirical work on the role of consumer-mediated recycling in cascading trophic interactions. Our model predicts that predator regulation of herbivores will have larger, positive effects on producers than consumer-mediated recycling in most cases but that consumer-mediated recycling does generally have a positive effect on producer stocks. We demonstrate that herbivore recycling will have larger effects on producer biomass than predator recycling when turnover rates and recycling efficiencies are high and predators prefer local prey. In addition, predictions suggest that consumer-mediated recycling has the largest effects on primary producers when predators prefer allochthonous prey and predator attack rates are high. Finally, our model predicts that consumer-mediated recycling effects may not be largest when external nutrient loading is low. Our model predictions highlight predator and prey feeding relationships, turnover rates, and external nutrient loading rates as key determinants of the strength of cascading trophic interactions. We show that existing hypotheses from specific empirical systems do not occur under all conditions, which further exacerbates the need to consider a broad suite of mechanisms when investigating trophic cascades.

  15. Cascaded VLSI neural network architecture for on-line learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    High-speed, analog, fully-parallel and asynchronous building blocks are cascaded for larger sizes and enhanced resolution. A hardware-compatible algorithm permits hardware-in-the-loop learning despite limited weight resolution. A comparison-intensive feature classification application has been demonstrated with this flexible hardware and new algorithm at high speed. This result indicates that these building block chips can be embedded as application-specific-coprocessors for solving real-world problems at extremely high data rates.

  16. Cascaded VLSI neural network architecture for on-line learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor); Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    High-speed, analog, fully-parallel, and asynchronous building blocks are cascaded for larger sizes and enhanced resolution. A hardware compatible algorithm permits hardware-in-the-loop learning despite limited weight resolution. A computation intensive feature classification application was demonstrated with this flexible hardware and new algorithm at high speed. This result indicates that these building block chips can be embedded as an application specific coprocessor for solving real world problems at extremely high data rates.

  17. A Terahertz VRT spectrometer employing quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, William T. S.; Hlavacek, Nik C.; Lee, Alan W. M.; Kao, Tsung-Yu; Hu, Qing; Reno, John L.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2015-10-01

    The first application of a commercial Terahertz quantum cascade laser (QCL) system for high resolution spectroscopy of supersonic beams is presented. The QCLs exhibited continuous linear voltage tuning over a 2 GHz range about a center frequency of 3.762 THz with ∼1 ppm resolution. A sensitivity of ∼1 ppm fractional absorption was measured with a single pass optical system. Multipass operation at the quantum noise limit of the stressed photoconductor detector would produce a 100-fold improvement.

  18. Perchlorate Regulatory Determination Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheets have been developed for the perchlorate regulatory determination corresponding to the following stages published in the Federal Register: Final, Supplemental request for comments, and Preliminary.

  19. Inverse cascades and resonant triads in rotating and stratified turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oks, D.; Mininni, P. D.; Marino, R.; Pouquet, A.

    2017-11-01

    Kraichnan's seminal ideas on inverse cascades yielded new tools to study common phenomena in geophysical turbulent flows. In the atmosphere and the oceans, rotation and stratification result in a flow that can be approximated as two-dimensional at very large scales but which requires considering three-dimensional effects to fully describe turbulent transport processes and non-linear phenomena. Motions can thus be classified into two classes: fast modes consisting of inertia-gravity waves and slow quasi-geostrophic modes for which the Coriolis force and horizontal pressure gradients are close to balance. In this paper, we review previous results on the strength of the inverse cascade in rotating and stratified flows and then present new results on the effect of varying the strength of rotation and stratification (measured by the inverse Prandtl ratio N/f, of the Coriolis frequency to the Brunt-Väisäla frequency) on the amplitude of the waves and on the flow quasi-geostrophic behavior. We show that the inverse cascade is more efficient in the range of N/f for which resonant triads do not exist, 1 /2 ≤N /f ≤2 . We then use the spatio-temporal spectrum to show that in this range slow modes dominate the dynamics, while the strength of the waves (and their relevance in the flow dynamics) is weaker.

  20. Cascade phenomenon against subsequent failures in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Quan; He, Xuan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Cascade phenomenon may lead to catastrophic disasters which extremely imperil the network safety or security in various complex systems such as communication networks, power grids, social networks and so on. In some flow-based networks, the load of failed nodes can be redistributed locally to their neighboring nodes to maximally preserve the traffic oscillations or large-scale cascading failures. However, in such local flow redistribution model, a small set of key nodes attacked subsequently can result in network collapse. Then it is a critical problem to effectively find the set of key nodes in the network. To our best knowledge, this work is the first to study this problem comprehensively. We first introduce the extra capacity for every node to put up with flow fluctuations from neighbors, and two extra capacity distributions including degree based distribution and average distribution are employed. Four heuristic key nodes discovering methods including High-Degree-First (HDF), Low-Degree-First (LDF), Random and Greedy Algorithms (GA) are presented. Extensive simulations are realized in both scale-free networks and random networks. The results show that the greedy algorithm can efficiently find the set of key nodes in both scale-free and random networks. Our work studies network robustness against cascading failures from a very novel perspective, and methods and results are very useful for network robustness evaluations and protections.

  1. Characterisation of turbulence downstream of a linear compressor cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Mare, Luca; Jelly, Thomas; Day, Ivor

    2014-11-01

    Characterisation of turbulence in turbomachinery remains one of the most complex tasks in fluid mechanics. In addition, current closure models required for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations do not accurately represent the action of turbulent forces against the mean flow. Therefore, the statistical properties of turbulence in turbomachinery are of significant interest. In the current work, single- and two-point hot-wire measurements have been acquired downstream of a linear compressor cascade in order to examine the properties of large-scale turbulent structures and to assess how they affect turbulent momentum and energy transfer in compressor passages. The cascade has seven controlled diffusion which are representative of high-pressure stator blades found in turbofan engines. Blade chord, thickness and camber are 0.1515 m, 9.3% and 42 degrees, respectively. Measurements were acquired at a chord Reynolds number of 6 . 92 ×105 . Single-point statistics highlight differences in turbulence structure when comparing mid-span and end-wall regions. Evaluation of two-point correlations and their corresponding spectra reveal the length-scales of the energy-bearing eddies in the cascade. Ultimately, these measurements can be used to calibrate future computational models. The authors gratefully acknowledge Rolls-Royce plc for funding this work and granting permission for its publication.

  2. Photoexcitation cascade and quantum-relativistic jet formation in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, Cyprian; Levitov, Leonid

    Interactions between ultra-relativistic particles can lead to striking behavior in which a high-energy particle creates showers of softer particles characterized by a collimated angular distribution aligned with the particle velocity. These showers, known as jets, are a generic phenomenon relevant for all quantum cascades of linearly dispersing particles. This talk will discuss jets formed upon photoexcitation in graphene, which due to its linear dispersion provides an appealing medium for exploring quantum-relativistic phenomena. We will study the cascade generated by carrier-carrier collisions in photon absorption, wherein a single photon creates an electron-hole (e-h) excitation that decays producing multiple near-collinear secondary e-h excitations. We will argue that the cascade can occur through an off-shell mechanism such that all the particles and holes involved reside outside the energy-momentum dispersion manifold, relieving the bottleneck arising in the on-shell process due to energy and momentum conservation. The characteristics of the jets such as the angular and energy distribution of the particles will be discussed. Photogenerated jets provide an interesting setting to investigate the carrier-carrier collision processes in graphene and other Dirac materials. We acknowledge support of the Center for Integrated Quantum Materials (CIQM) under NSF award DMR-1231319.

  3. Multiple roles of the coagulation protease cascade during virus infection.

    PubMed

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2014-04-24

    The coagulation cascade is activated during viral infections. This response may be part of the host defense system to limit spread of the pathogen. However, excessive activation of the coagulation cascade can be deleterious. In fact, inhibition of the tissue factor/factor VIIa complex reduced mortality in a monkey model of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Other studies showed that incorporation of tissue factor into the envelope of herpes simplex virus increases infection of endothelial cells and mice. Furthermore, binding of factor X to adenovirus serotype 5 enhances infection of hepatocytes but also increases the activation of the innate immune response to the virus. Coagulation proteases activate protease-activated receptors (PARs). Interestingly, we and others found that PAR1 and PAR2 modulate the immune response to viral infection. For instance, PAR1 positively regulates TLR3-dependent expression of the antiviral protein interferon β, whereas PAR2 negatively regulates expression during coxsackievirus group B infection. These studies indicate that the coagulation cascade plays multiple roles during viral infections.

  4. Overload cascading failure on complex networks with heterogeneous load redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yueyi; Xing, Xiaoyun; Li, Menghui; Zeng, An; Wang, Yougui

    2017-09-01

    Many real systems including the Internet, power-grid and financial networks experience rare but large overload cascading failures triggered by small initial shocks. Many models on complex networks have been developed to investigate this phenomenon. Most of these models are based on the load redistribution process and assume that the load on a failed node shifts to nearby nodes in the networks either evenly or according to the load distribution rule before the cascade. Inspired by the fact that real power-grid tends to place the excess load on the nodes with high remaining capacities, we study a heterogeneous load redistribution mechanism in a simplified sandpile model in this paper. We find that weak heterogeneity in load redistribution can effectively mitigate the cascade while strong heterogeneity in load redistribution may even enlarge the size of the final failure. With a parameter θ to control the degree of the redistribution heterogeneity, we identify a rather robust optimal θ∗ = 1. Finally, we find that θ∗ tends to shift to a larger value if the initial sand distribution is homogeneous.

  5. A bacterial genetic selection system for ubiquitylation cascade discovery.

    PubMed

    Levin-Kravets, Olga; Tanner, Neta; Shohat, Noa; Attali, Ilan; Keren-Kaplan, Tal; Shusterman, Anna; Artzi, Shay; Varvak, Alexander; Reshef, Yael; Shi, Xiaojing; Zucker, Ori; Baram, Tamir; Katina, Corine; Pilzer, Inbar; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Prag, Gali

    2016-11-01

    About one-third of the eukaryotic proteome undergoes ubiquitylation, but the enzymatic cascades leading to substrate modification are largely unknown. We present a genetic selection tool that utilizes Escherichia coli, which lack deubiquitylases, to identify interactions along ubiquitylation cascades. Coexpression of split antibiotic resistance protein tethered to ubiquitin and ubiquitylation target together with a functional ubiquitylation apparatus results in a covalent assembly of the resistance protein, giving rise to bacterial growth on selective media. We applied the selection system to uncover an E3 ligase from the pathogenic bacteria EHEC and to identify the epsin ENTH domain as an ultraweak ubiquitin-binding domain. The latter was complemented with a structure-function analysis of the ENTH-ubiquitin interface. We also constructed and screened a yeast fusion library, discovering Sem1 as a novel ubiquitylation substrate of Rsp5 E3 ligase. Collectively, our selection system provides a robust high-throughput approach for genetic studies of ubiquitylation cascades and for small-molecule modulator screening.

  6. Midwavelength interband cascade infrared photodetectors with superlattice absorbers and gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Lin; Li, Lu; Lotfi, Hossein; Ye, Hao; Yang, Rui Q.; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.

    2018-01-01

    We report on a comparison study of the electrical and optical properties of a set of device structures with different numbers of cascade stages, type-II superlattice (T2SL) absorber thickness, and doping variations, as well as a noncurrent-matched interband cascade infrared photodetectors (ICIP) structure with equal absorbers. Multistage ICIPs were demonstrated to be capable of operating at high temperatures at zero-bias with superior carrier transport over comparable conventional one-stage detectors. Based on the temperature dependence and bias sensitivity of their responsivities with various absorber thicknesses, the diffusion length is estimated to be between 0.6 and 1.0 μm for T2SL materials at high temperatures (>250 K). A comparison of responsivities between current matched ICIPs with varied absorber thicknesses and noncurrent-matched ICIPs with equal absorbers shows that the current-matching among cascade stages is necessary to maximize responsivity. Additionally, electrical gain exceeding unity is demonstrated in these detectors in the reverse-illumination configuration.

  7. Willow on Yellowstone's northern range: evidence for a trophic cascade?

    PubMed

    Beyer, Hawthorne L; Merrill, Evelyn H; Varley, Nathan; Boyce, Mark S

    2007-09-01

    Reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park in 1995-1996 has been argued to promote a trophic cascade by altering elk (Cervus elaphus) density, habitat-selection patterns, and behavior that, in turn, could lead to changes within the plant communities used by elk. We sampled two species of willow (Salix boothii and S. geyeriana) on the northern winter range to determine whether (1) there was quantitative evidence of increased willow growth following wolf reintroduction, (2) browsing by elk affected willow growth, and (3) any increase in growth observed was greater than that expected by climatic and hydrological factors alone, thereby indicating a trophic cascade caused by wolves. Using stem sectioning techniques to quantify historical growth patterns we found an approximately twofold increase in stem growth-ring area following wolf reintroduction for both species of willow. This increase could not be explained by climate and hydrological factors alone; the presence of wolves on the landscape was a significant predictor of stem growth above and beyond these abiotic factors. Growth-ring area was positively correlated with the previous year's ring area and negatively correlated with the percentage of twigs browsed from the stem during the winter preceding growth, indicating that elk browse impeded stem growth. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade on Yellowstone's northern winter range following wolf reintroduction. We suggest that the community-altering effects of wolf restoration are an endorsement of ecological-process management in Yellowstone National Park.

  8. Understanding Compound, Interconnected, Interacting, and Cascading Risks: A Holistic Framework.

    PubMed

    Pescaroli, Gianluca; Alexander, David

    2018-06-15

    In recent years, there has been a gradual increase in research literature on the challenges of interconnected, compound, interacting, and cascading risks. These concepts are becoming ever more central to the resilience debate. They aggregate elements of climate change adaptation, critical infrastructure protection, and societal resilience in the face of complex, high-impact events. However, despite the potential of these concepts to link together diverse disciplines, scholars and practitioners need to avoid treating them in a superficial or ambiguous manner. Overlapping uses and definitions could generate confusion and lead to the duplication of research effort. This article gives an overview of the state of the art regarding compound, interconnected, interacting, and cascading risks. It is intended to help build a coherent basis for the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR). The main objective is to propose a holistic framework that highlights the complementarities of the four kinds of complex risk in a manner that is designed to support the work of researchers and policymakers. This article suggests how compound, interconnected, interacting, and cascading risks could be used, with little or no redundancy, as inputs to new analyses and decisional tools designed to support the implementation of the SFDRR. The findings can be used to improve policy recommendations and support tools for emergency and crisis management, such as scenario building and impact trees, thus contributing to the achievement of a system-wide approach to resilience. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. A Visualization Study of Secondary Flows in Cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzig, Howard Z; Hansen, Arthur G; Costello, George R

    1954-01-01

    Flow-visualization techniques are employed to ascertain the streamline patterns of the nonpotential secondary flows in the boundary layers of cascades, and thereby to provide a basis for more extended analyses in turbomachines. The three-dimensional deflection of the end-wall boundary layer results in the formation of a vortex within each cascade passage. The size and tightness of the vortex generated depend upon the main-flow turning in the cascade passage. Once formed, a vortex resists turning in subsequent blade rows, with consequent unfavorable angles of attack and possible flow disturbances on the pressure surfaces of subsequent blade rows when the vortices impinge on these surfaces. Two major tip-clearance effects are observed, the formation of a tip-clearance vortex and the scraping effect of a blade with relative motion past the wall boundary layer. The flow patterns indicate methods for improving the blade tip-loading characteristics of compressors and of low- and high-speed turbulence.

  10. Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser and Detector

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Benedikt; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the monolithic integration of a mid-infrared laser and detector utilizing a bi-functional quantum cascade active region. When biased, this active region provides optical gain, while it can be used as a detector at zero bias. With our novel approach we can measure the light intensity of the laser on the same chip without the need of external lenses or detectors. Based on a bound-to-continuum design, the bi-functional active region has an inherent broad electro-luminescence spectrum of 200 cm−1, which indicate sits use for single mode laser arrays. We have measured a peak signal of 191.5 mV at theon-chip detector, without any amplification. The room-temperature pulsed emission with an averaged power consumption of 4 mW and the high-speed detection makes these devices ideal for low-power sensors. The combination of the on-chip detection functionality, the broad emission spectrum and the low average power consumption indicates the potential of our bi-functional quantum cascade structures to build a mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip based on quantum cascade laser technology. PMID:23389348

  11. Cascades in the Threshold Model for varying system sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis; Sreenivasan, Sameet; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Korniss, Gyorgy

    2015-03-01

    A classical model in opinion dynamics is the Threshold Model (TM) aiming to model the spread of a new opinion based on the social drive of peer pressure. Under the TM a node adopts a new opinion only when the fraction of its first neighbors possessing that opinion exceeds a pre-assigned threshold. Cascades in the TM depend on multiple parameters, such as the number and selection strategy of the initially active nodes (initiators), and the threshold distribution of the nodes. For a uniform threshold in the network there is a critical fraction of initiators for which a transition from small to large cascades occurs, which for ER graphs is largerly independent of the system size. Here, we study the spread contribution of each newly assigned initiator under the TM for different initiator selection strategies for synthetic graphs of various sizes. We observe that for ER graphs when large cascades occur, the spread contribution of the added initiator on the transition point is independent of the system size, while the contribution of the rest of the initiators converges to zero at infinite system size. This property is used for the identification of large transitions for various threshold distributions. Supported in part by ARL NS-CTA, ARO, ONR, and DARPA.

  12. The importance of sensory integration processes for action cascading

    PubMed Central

    Gohil, Krutika; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Dual tasking or action cascading is essential in everyday life and often investigated using tasks presenting stimuli in different sensory modalities. Findings obtained with multimodal tasks are often broadly generalized, but until today, it has remained unclear whether multimodal integration affects performance in action cascading or the underlying neurophysiology. To bridge this gap, we asked healthy young adults to complete a stop-change paradigm which presented different stimuli in either one or two modalities while recording behavioral and neurophysiological data. Bimodal stimulus presentation prolonged response times and affected bottom-up and top-down guided attentional processes as reflected by the P1 and N1, respectively. However, the most important effect was the modulation of response selection processes reflected by the P3 suggesting that a potentially different way of forming task goals operates during action cascading in bimodal vs. unimodal tasks. When two modalities are involved, separate task goals need to be formed while a conjoint task goal may be generated when all stimuli are presented in the same modality. On a systems level, these processes seem to be related to the modulation of activity in fronto-polar regions (BA10) as well as Broca's area (BA44). PMID:25820681

  13. Mitochondria and Mitochondrial Cascades in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2017-01-01

    Decades of research indicate mitochondria from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients differ from those of non-AD individuals. Initial studies revealed structural differences, and subsequent studies showed functional deficits. Observations of structure and function changes prompted investigators to consider the consequences, significance, and causes of AD-related mitochondrial dysfunction. Currently, extensive research argues mitochondria may mediate, drive, or contribute to a variety of AD pathologies. The perceived significance of these mitochondrial changes continues to grow, and many currently believe AD mitochondrial dysfunction represents a reasonable therapeutic target. Debate continues over the origin of AD mitochondrial changes. Some argue amyloid-β (Aβ) induces AD mitochondrial dysfunction, a view that does not challenge the amyloid cascade hypothesis and that may in fact help explain that hypothesis. Alternatively, data indicate mitochondrial dysfunction exists independent of Aβ, potentially lies upstream of Aβ deposition, and suggest a primary mitochondrial cascade hypothesis that assumes mitochondrial pathology hierarchically supersedes Aβ pathology. Mitochondria, therefore, appear at least to mediate or possibly even initiate pathologic molecular cascades in AD. This review considers studies and data that inform this area of AD research. PMID:29036828

  14. Photoproduction of the Cascade Baryons at GlueX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Ashley; GlueX Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Multi-strange baryons play an important role in understanding the strong interaction and despite their importance, little is known about such hyperons. Almost all knowledge of the Cascades today stems from Kaon-nucleon interactions in bubble chamber experiments performed in the 1960s and 1970s, of which only the octet and decuplet ground states, Ξ (1320) and Ξ (1530) respectively, are well established. This research uses the GlueX experiment at Jefferson Laboratory to map out the spectrum of doubly-strange Cascade resonances, as well as to measure the spin-parity for each of the detected resonances. The first physics run for GlueX has recently been completed and a clear signature of the Ξ (1320) is observed. The systematics of the Cascade spectrum will be presented motivated by prior discoveries in the N* program. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-92ER40735 and National Science Foundation Grant 1449440.

  15. On the investigation of cascade and turbomachinery rotor wake characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, R.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the investigation reported in this thesis is to study the characteristics of a turbomachinery rotor wake, both analytically and experimentally. The constitutive equations for the rotor wake are developed using generalized tensors and a non-inertial frame of reference. Analytical and experimental investigation is carried out in two phases; the first phase involved the study of a cascade wake in the absence of rotation and three dimensionality. In the second phase the wake of a rotor is studied. Simplified two- and three-dimensional models are developed for the prediction of the mean velocity profile of the cascade and the rotor wake, respectively, using the principle of self-similarity. The effect of various major parameters of the rotor and the flow geometry is studied on the development of a rotor wake. Laws governing the decay of the wake velocity defect in a cascade and rotor wake as a function of downstream distance from the trailing edge, pressure gradient and other parameters are derived.

  16. Synthetic cascades are enabled by combining biocatalysts with artificial metalloenzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, V.; Wilson, Y. M.; Dürrenberger, M.; Ghislieri, D.; Churakova, E.; Quinto, T.; Knörr, L.; Häussinger, D.; Hollmann, F.; Turner, N. J.; Ward, T. R.

    2013-02-01

    Enzymatic catalysis and homogeneous catalysis offer complementary means to address synthetic challenges, both in chemistry and in biology. Despite its attractiveness, the implementation of concurrent cascade reactions that combine an organometallic catalyst with an enzyme has proven challenging because of the mutual inactivation of both catalysts. To address this, we show that incorporation of a d6-piano stool complex within a host protein affords an artificial transfer hydrogenase (ATHase) that is fully compatible with and complementary to natural enzymes, thus enabling efficient concurrent tandem catalysis. To illustrate the generality of the approach, the ATHase was combined with various NADH-, FAD- and haem-dependent enzymes, resulting in orthogonal redox cascades. Up to three enzymes were integrated in the cascade and combined with the ATHase with a view to achieving (i) a double stereoselective amine deracemization, (ii) a horseradish peroxidase-coupled readout of the transfer hydrogenase activity towards its genetic optimization, (iii) the formation of L-pipecolic acid from L-lysine and (iv) regeneration of NADH to promote a monooxygenase-catalysed oxyfunctionalization reaction.

  17. Endwall Heat Transfer Measurements in a Transonic Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giel, P. W.; Thurman, D. R.; VanFossen, G. J.; Hippensteele, S. A.; Boyle, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Turbine blade endwall heat transfer measurements are given for a range of Reynolds and Mach numbers. Data were obtained for Reynolds numbers based on inlet conditions of 0.5 and 1.0 x 106, for isentropic exit Mach numbers of 1.0 and 1.3, and for freestream turbulence intensities of 0.25% and 7.0%. Tests were conducted in a linear cascade at the NASA Lewis Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The test article was a turbine rotor with 136' of turning and an axial chord of 12.7 cm. The large scale allowed for very detailed measurements of both flow field and surface phenomena. The intent of the work is to provide benchmark quality data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and model verification. The flow field in the cascade is highly three-dimensional as a result of thick boundary layers at the test section inlet. Endwall heat transfer data were obtained using a steady-state liquid crystal technique.

  18. Computation of flow in radial- and mixed-flow cascades by an inviscid-viscous interaction method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serovy, G. K.; Hansen, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    The use of inviscid-viscous interaction methods for the case of radial or mixed-flow cascade diffusers is discussed. A literature review of investigations considering cascade flow-field prediction by inviscid-viscous iterative computation is given. Cascade aerodynamics in the third blade row of a multiple-row radial cascade diffuser are specifically investigated.

  19. Toxicogenomics in regulatory ecotoxicology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Daston, George P.; Degitz, Sigmund J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Hoke, Robert A.; Kennedy, Sean W.; Miracle, Ann L.; Perkins, Edward J.; Snape, Jason; Tillitt, Donald E.; Tyler, Charles R.; Versteeg, Donald

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have witnessed an explosion of different genomic approaches that, through a combination of advanced biological, instrumental, and bioinformatic techniques, can yield a previously unparalleled amount of data concerning the molecular and biochemical status of organisms. Fueled partially by large, well-publicized efforts such as the Human Genome Project, genomic research has become a rapidly growing topical area in multiple biological disciplines. Since 1999, when the term “toxicogenomics” was coined to describe the application of genomics to toxicology (1), a rapid increase in publications on the topic has occurred (Figure 1). The potential utility of toxicogenomics in toxicological research and regulatory activities has been the subject of scientific discussions and, as with any new technology, has evoked a wide range of opinion (2–6).

  20. Genome-wide inference of regulatory networks in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Castro-Melchor, Marlene; Charaniya, Salim; Karypis, George; Takano, Eriko; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2010-10-18

    The onset of antibiotics production in Streptomyces species is co-ordinated with differentiation events. An understanding of the genetic circuits that regulate these coupled biological phenomena is essential to discover and engineer the pharmacologically important natural products made by these species. The availability of genomic tools and access to a large warehouse of transcriptome data for the model organism, Streptomyces coelicolor, provides incentive to decipher the intricacies of the regulatory cascades and develop biologically meaningful hypotheses. In this study, more than 500 samples of genome-wide temporal transcriptome data, comprising wild-type and more than 25 regulatory gene mutants of Streptomyces coelicolor probed across multiple stress and medium conditions, were investigated. Information based on transcript and functional similarity was used to update a previously-predicted whole-genome operon map and further applied to predict transcriptional networks constituting modules enriched in diverse functions such as secondary metabolism, and sigma factor. The predicted network displays a scale-free architecture with a small-world property observed in many biological networks. The networks were further investigated to identify functionally-relevant modules that exhibit functional coherence and a consensus motif in the promoter elements indicative of DNA-binding elements. Despite the enormous experimental as well as computational challenges, a systems approach for integrating diverse genome-scale datasets to elucidate complex regulatory networks is beginning to emerge. We present an integrated analysis of transcriptome data and genomic features to refine a whole-genome operon map and to construct regulatory networks at the cistron level in Streptomyces coelicolor. The functionally-relevant modules identified in this study pose as potential targets for further studies and verification.

  1. 12 CFR 562.2 - Regulatory reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 562.2 Regulatory reports. (a) Definition and scope. This section applies to all regulatory reports, as... (TFR) are examples of regulatory reports. Regulatory reports are regulatory documents, not accounting... limited to, the accounting instructions provided in the TFR, guidance contained in OTS regulations...

  2. Understanding genetic regulatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Stuart

    2003-04-01

    Random Boolean networks (RBM) were introduced about 35 years ago as first crude models of genetic regulatory networks. RBNs are comprised of N on-off genes, connected by a randomly assigned regulatory wiring diagram where each gene has K inputs, and each gene is controlled by a randomly assigned Boolean function. This procedure samples at random from the ensemble of all possible NK Boolean networks. The central ideas are to study the typical, or generic properties of this ensemble, and see 1) whether characteristic differences appear as K and biases in Boolean functions are introducted, and 2) whether a subclass of this ensemble has properties matching real cells. Such networks behave in an ordered or a chaotic regime, with a phase transition, "the edge of chaos" between the two regimes. Networks with continuous variables exhibit the same two regimes. Substantial evidence suggests that real cells are in the ordered regime. A key concept is that of an attractor. This is a reentrant trajectory of states of the network, called a state cycle. The central biological interpretation is that cell types are attractors. A number of properties differentiate the ordered and chaotic regimes. These include the size and number of attractors, the existence in the ordered regime of a percolating "sea" of genes frozen in the on or off state, with a remainder of isolated twinkling islands of genes, a power law distribution of avalanches of gene activity changes following perturbation to a single gene in the ordered regime versus a similar power law distribution plus a spike of enormous avalanches of gene changes in the chaotic regime, and the existence of branching pathway of "differentiation" between attractors induced by perturbations in the ordered regime. Noise is serious issue, since noise disrupts attractors. But numerical evidence suggests that attractors can be made very stable to noise, and meanwhile, metaplasias may be a biological manifestation of noise. As we learn more

  3. Sexy splicing: regulatory interplays governing sex determination from Drosophila to mammals.

    PubMed

    Lalli, Enzo; Ohe, Kenji; Latorre, Elisa; Bianchi, Marco E; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2003-02-01

    A remarkable array of strategies is used to produce sexual differentiation in different species. Complex gene hierarchies govern sex determination pathways, as exemplified by the classic D. melanogaster paradigm, where an interplay of transcriptional, splicing and translational mechanisms operate. Molecular studies support the hypothesis that genetic sex determination pathways evolved in reverse order, from downstream to upstream genes, in the cascade. The recent identification of a role for the key regulatory factors SRY and WT1(+KTS) in pre-mRNA splicing indicates that important steps in the mammalian sex determination process are likely to operate at the post-transcriptional level.

  4. 75 FR 11166 - Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD06-6-000] Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission March 2, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)...

  5. Fine Time Course Expression Analysis Identifies Cascades of Activation and Repression and Maps a Putative Regulator of Mammalian Sex Determination

    PubMed Central

    Looger, Loren L.; Ohler, Uwe; Capel, Blanche

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates, primary sex determination refers to the decision within a bipotential organ precursor to differentiate as a testis or ovary. Bifurcation of organ fate begins between embryonic day (E) 11.0–E12.0 in mice and likely involves a dynamic transcription network that is poorly understood. To elucidate the first steps of sexual fate specification, we profiled the XX and XY gonad transcriptomes at fine granularity during this period and resolved cascades of gene activation and repression. C57BL/6J (B6) XY gonads showed a consistent ∼5-hour delay in the activation of most male pathway genes and repression of female pathway genes relative to 129S1/SvImJ, which likely explains the sensitivity of the B6 strain to male-to-female sex reversal. Using this fine time course data, we predicted novel regulatory genes underlying expression QTLs (eQTLs) mapped in a previous study. To test predictions, we developed an in vitro gonad primary cell assay and optimized a lentivirus-based shRNA delivery method to silence candidate genes and quantify effects on putative targets. We provide strong evidence that Lmo4 (Lim-domain only 4) is a novel regulator of sex determination upstream of SF1 (Nr5a1), Sox9, Fgf9, and Col9a3. This approach can be readily applied to identify regulatory interactions in other systems. PMID:23874228

  6. Cascade Error Projection: A Learning Algorithm for Hardware Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Daud, Taher

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we workout a detailed mathematical analysis for a new learning algorithm termed Cascade Error Projection (CEP) and a general learning frame work. This frame work can be used to obtain the cascade correlation learning algorithm by choosing a particular set of parameters. Furthermore, CEP learning algorithm is operated only on one layer, whereas the other set of weights can be calculated deterministically. In association with the dynamical stepsize change concept to convert the weight update from infinite space into a finite space, the relation between the current stepsize and the previous energy level is also given and the estimation procedure for optimal stepsize is used for validation of our proposed technique. The weight values of zero are used for starting the learning for every layer, and a single hidden unit is applied instead of using a pool of candidate hidden units similar to cascade correlation scheme. Therefore, simplicity in hardware implementation is also obtained. Furthermore, this analysis allows us to select from other methods (such as the conjugate gradient descent or the Newton's second order) one of which will be a good candidate for the learning technique. The choice of learning technique depends on the constraints of the problem (e.g., speed, performance, and hardware implementation); one technique may be more suitable than others. Moreover, for a discrete weight space, the theoretical analysis presents the capability of learning with limited weight quantization. Finally, 5- to 8-bit parity and chaotic time series prediction problems are investigated; the simulation results demonstrate that 4-bit or more weight quantization is sufficient for learning neural network using CEP. In addition, it is demonstrated that this technique is able to compensate for less bit weight resolution by incorporating additional hidden units. However, generation result may suffer somewhat with lower bit weight quantization.

  7. Cascade Analysis of a Floating Wind Turbine Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliassen, Lene; Jakobsen, Jasna B.; Knauer, Andreas; Nielsen, Finn Gunnar

    2014-12-01

    Mounting a wind turbine on a floating foundation introduces more complexity to the aerodynamic loading. The floater motion contains a wide range of frequencies. To study some of the basic dynamic load effect on the blades due to these motions, a two-dimensional cascade approach, combined with a potential vortex method, is used. This is an alternative method to study the aeroelastic behavior of wind turbines that is different from the traditional blade element momentum method. The analysis tool demands little computational power relative to a full three dimensional vortex method, and can handle unsteady flows. When using the cascade plane, a "cut" is made at a section of the wind turbine blade. The flow is viewed parallel to the blade axis at this cut. The cascade model is commonly used for analysis of turbo machineries. Due to the simplicity of the code it requires little computational resources, however it has limitations in its validity. It can only handle two-dimensional potential flow, i.e. including neither three-dimensional effects, such as the tip loss effect, nor boundary layers and stall effects are modeled. The computational tool can however be valuable in the overall analysis of floating wind turbines, and evaluation of the rotor control system. A check of the validity of the vortex panel code using an airfoil profile is performed, comparing the variation of the lift force, to the theoretically derived Wagner function. To analyse the floating wind turbine, a floating structure with hub height 90 m is chosen. An axial motion of the rotor is considered.

  8. Potential trophic cascades triggered by the barred owl range expansion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holm, Samantha R.; Noon, Barry R.; Wiens, David; Ripple, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the barred owl (Strix varia) has expanded its range into the Pacific Northwest of the United States resulting in pronounced effects on the demography and behavior of the northern spotted owl (S. occidentalis caurina). The range expansion has brought together historically allopatric species, creating the potential for significant changes in the avian predator community with possible cascading effects on food-web dynamics. The adverse effects of the barred owl on the behavior and demography of the northern spotted owl are well-documented, but little is known about the immediate and long-term effects changes in the predator community may have on native species composition and ecosystem processes. Based on northern spotted owl and barred owl selection for diet and habitat resources, there is a potential for trophic cascades within the region's predator and prey communities, differing responses by their shared and unique prey species, and possible direct and indirect effects on ecosystem processes. We explored the possible ecological consequences of the barred owl range expansion to wildlife communities of the Pacific Northwest based on the theoretical underpinnings of predator–prey relationships, interspecific competition, intraguild predation, and potential cascading trophic interactions. Negative effects on fitness of northern spotted owls because of interspecific competition with barred owls are strong selection forces that may contribute to the regional extinction of the northern spotted owl. In addition, we posit that shared prey species and those uniquely consumed by barred owls, along with other competing native predators, may experience changes in behavior, abundance, and distribution as a result of increased rates of predation by rapidly expanding populations of barred owls.

  9. Coarse-grained incompressible magnetohydrodynamics: Analyzing the turbulent cascades

    DOE PAGES

    Aluie, Hussein

    2017-02-21

    Here, we formulate a coarse-graining approach to the dynamics of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluids at a continuum of length-scales. In this methodology, effective equations are derived for the observable velocity and magnetic fields spatially-averaged at an arbitrary scale of resolution. The microscopic equations for the bare velocity and magnetic fields are renormalized by coarse-graining to yield macroscopic effective equations that contain both a subscale stress and a subscale electromotive force (EMF) generated by nonlinear interaction of eliminated fields and plasma motions. At large coarse-graining length-scales, the direct dissipation of invariants by microscopic mechanisms (such as molecular viscosity and Spitzer resistivity) ismore » shown to be negligible. The balance at large scales is dominated instead by the subscale nonlinear terms, which can transfer invariants across scales, and are interpreted in terms of work concepts for energy and in terms of topological flux-linkage for the two helicities. An important application of this approach is to MHD turbulence, where the coarse-graining length ℓ lies in the inertial cascade range. We show that in the case of sufficiently rough velocity and/or magnetic fields, the nonlinear inter-scale transfer need not vanish and can persist to arbitrarily small scales. Although closed expressions are not available for subscale stress and subscale EMF, we derive rigorous upper bounds on the effective dissipation they produce in terms of scaling exponents of the velocity and magnetic fields. These bounds provide exact constraints on phenomenological theories of MHD turbulence in order to allow the nonlinear cascade of energy and cross-helicity. On the other hand, we show that the forward cascade of magnetic helicity to asymptotically small scales is impossible unless 3rd-order moments of either velocity or magnetic field become infinite.« less

  10. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  11. Internationalization of regulatory requirements.

    PubMed

    Juillet, Y

    2003-02-01

    The aim of harmonisation of medicines regulatory requirements is to allow the patient quicker access to new drugs and to avoid animal and human duplications. Harmonisation in the European Union (EU) is now completed, and has led to the submission of one dossier in one language study leading to European marketing authorizations, thanks in particular to efficacy guidelines published at the European level. With the benefit of the European experience since 1989, more than 40 guidelines have been harmonised amongst the EU, Japan and the USA through the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). ICH is a unique process gathering regulators and industry experts from the three regions. Its activity is built on expertise and trust. The Common Technical Document (CTD), an agreed common format for application in the three regions, is a logical follow-up to the ICH first phase harmonising the content of the dossier. The CTD final implementation in July 2003 will have considerable influence on the review process and on the exchange of information in the three regions.

  12. Numerical analysis of electromagnetic cascades in emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plyasheshnikov, A. V.; Vorobyev, K. V.

    1985-01-01

    A new calculational scheme of the Monte Carlo method assigned for the investigation of the development of high and extremely high energy electromagnetic cascades (EMC) in the matter was elaborated. The scheme was applied to the analysis of angular and radial distributions of EMC electrons in the atmosphere. By means of this scheme the EMC development in dense medium is investigated and some preliminary data are presented on the behavior of EMC in emulsion chambers. The results of more detailed theoretical analysis of the EMC development in emulsion chambers are discussed.

  13. Widely tunable quantum cascade laser-based terahertz source.

    PubMed

    Danylov, Andriy A; Light, Alexander R; Waldman, Jerry; Erickson, Neal; Qian, Xifeng

    2014-07-10

    A compact, tunable, ultranarrowband terahertz source, Δν∼1  MHz, is demonstrated by upconversion of a 2.324 THz, free-running quantum cascade laser with a THz Schottky-diode-balanced mixer using a swept, synthesized microwave source to drive the nonlinearity. Continuously tunable radiation of 1 μW power is demonstrated in two frequency regions: ν(Laser) ± 0 to 50 GHz and ν(Laser) ± 70 to 115 GHz. The sideband spectra were characterized with a Fourier-transform spectrometer, and the radiation was tuned through CO, HDO, and D2O rotational transitions.

  14. A Time Domain Analysis of Gust-Cascade Interaction Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Hixon, R.; Sawyer, S. D.; Dyson, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    The gust response of a 2 D cascade is studied by solving the full nonlinear Euler equations employing higher order accurate spatial differencing and time stepping techniques. The solutions exhibit the exponential decay of the two circumferential mode orders of the cutoff blade passing frequency (BPF) tone and propagation of one circumferential mode order at 2BPF, as would be expected for the flow configuration considered. Two frequency excitations indicate that the interaction between the frequencies and the self interaction contribute to the amplitude of the propagating mode.

  15. Resonant metamaterial detectors based on THz quantum-cascade structures

    PubMed Central

    Benz, A.; Krall, M.; Schwarz, S.; Dietze, D.; Detz, H.; Andrews, A. M.; Schrenk, W.; Strasser, G.; Unterrainer, K.

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterisation of an intersubband detector employing a resonant metamaterial coupling structure. The semiconductor heterostructure relies on a conventional THz quantum-cascade laser design and is operated at zero bias for the detector operation. The same active region can be used to generate or detect light depending on the bias conditions and the vertical confinement. The metamaterial is processed directly into the top metal contact and is used to couple normal incidence radiation resonantly to the intersubband transitions. The device is capable of detecting light below and above the reststrahlenband of gallium-arsenide corresponding to the mid-infrared and THz spectral region. PMID:24608677

  16. Modulation properties of optically injection-locked quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Grillot, Fédéric; Kovanis, Vassilios I; Bodyfelt, Joshua D; Even, Jacky

    2013-06-01

    A rate equation analysis on the modulation response of an optical injection-locked quantum cascade laser is outlined. It is found that the bifurcation diagram exhibits both bistable and unstable locked regions. In addition, the stable locked regime widens as the linewidth enhancement factor increases. It is also shown that both positive and negative optical detunings as well as strong injection strength enhance the 3 dB modulation bandwidth by as much as 30 GHz. Finally, the peak in the modulation response is significantly influenced by the optical frequency detuning.

  17. Dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser for trace gas spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jágerská, J.; Tuzson, B.; Mangold, M.

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a sequentially operating dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser with electrically separated laser sections, emitting single-mode at 5.25 and 6.25 μm. Based on a single waveguide ridge, this laser represents a considerable asset to optical sensing and trace gas spectroscopy, as it allows probing multiple gas species with spectrally distant absorption features using conventional optical setups without any beam combining optics. The laser capability was demonstrated in simultaneous NO and NO{sub 2} detection, reaching sub-ppb detection limits and selectivity comparable to conventional high-end spectroscopic systems.

  18. Plenty of Deep Long-Period Earthquakes Beneath Cascade Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, M. L.; Malone, S. D.; Moran, S. C.; Thelen, W. A.; Vidale, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) records and locates earthquakes within Washington and Oregon, including those occurring at 10 Cascade volcanic centers. In an earlier study (Malone and Moran, EOS 1997), a total of 11 deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes were reported beneath 3 Washington volcanoes. They are characterized by emergent P- and S- arrivals, long and ringing codas, and contain most of their energy below 5 Hz. DLP earthquakes are significant because they have been observed to occur prior to or in association with eruptions at several volcanoes, and as a result are inferred to represent movement of deep-seated magma and associated fluids in the mid-to-lower crust. To more thoroughly characterize DLP occurrence in Washington and Oregon, we employed a two-step algorithm to systematically search the PNSN’s earthquake catalogue for DLP events occurring between 1980 and 2008. In the first step we applied a spectral ratio test to the demeaned and tapered triggered event waveforms to distinguish long-period events from the more common higher frequency volcano-tectonic and regional tectonic earthquakes. In the second step we visually analyzed waveforms of the flagged long-period events to distinguish DLP earthquakes from long-period rockfalls, explosions, shallow low-frequency events, and glacier quakes. We identified 56 DLP earthquakes beneath 7 Cascade volcanic centers. Of these, 31 occurred at Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greater than at the other volcanoes in our study. The other 6 volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Glacier Peak (5), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Mount Hood (1), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLP events were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano. The events are 10-40 km deep and have an average magnitude of around 1.5 (Mc), with both the largest and deepest DLPs occurring beneath Mount Baker. Cascade DLP earthquakes occur mostly as

  19. A cascaded Schwarz converter for high frequency power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Biswajit; Stuart, Thomas A.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that two Schwarz converters in cascade provide a very reliable 20-kHz source that features zero current commutation, constant frequency, and fault-tolerant operation, meeting requirements for spacecraft applications. A steady-state analysis of the converter is presented, and equations for the steady-state performance are derived. Fault-current limiting is discussed. Experimental results are presented for a 900-W version, which has been successfully tested under no-load, full-load, and short-circut conditions.

  20. Gold(I)-Catalyzed Cascade Cyclization of Allenyl Epoxides

    PubMed Central

    Tarselli, Michael A.; Lucas Zuccarello, J

    2009-01-01

    Cationic gold(I) phosphite catalysts activate allenes for epoxide cascade reactions. The system is tolerant of numerous functional groups (sulfones, esters, ethers, sulfonamides) and proceeds at room temperature in dichloromethane. The cyclization pathway is sensitive to the substitution pattern of the epoxide, and the backbone structure of the A-ring. It is capable of producing medium-ring ethers, fused 6-5 bicyclic, and linked pyran-furan structures. The resulting cycloisomers are reminiscent of structures found in numerous polyether natural products. PMID:19588972

  1. Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seongsin M.; Hatami, Fariba; Harris, James S.; Kurian, Allison W.; Ford, James; King, Douglas; Scalari, Giacomo; Giovannini, Marcella; Hoyler, Nicolas; Faist, Jerome; Harris, Geoff

    2006-04-01

    We present biomedical imaging using a single frequency terahertz imaging system based on a low threshold quantum cascade laser emitting at 3.7THz (λ=81μm). With a peak output power of 4mW, coherent terahertz radiation and detection provide a relatively large dynamic range and high spatial resolution. We study image contrast based on water/fat content ratios in different tissues. Terahertz transmission imaging demonstrates a distinct anatomy in a rat brain slice. We also demonstrate malignant tissue contrast in an image of a mouse liver with developed tumors, indicating potential use of terahertz imaging for probing cancerous tissues.

  2. Tectonics and seismicity of the southern Washington Cascade range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, W.D.; Johnson, S.Y.; Qamar, A.I.; Weaver, C.S.; Williams, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Geophysical, geological, and seismicity data are combined to develop a transpressional strain model for the southern Washington Cascades region. We use this model to explain oblique fold and fault systems, transverse faults, and a linear seismic zone just west of Mt. Rainier known as the western Rainier zone. We also attempt to explain a concentration of earthquakes that connects the northwest-trending Mount St. Helens seismic zone to the north-trending western Rainier zone. Our tectonic model illustrates the pervasive effects of accretionary processes, combined with subsequent transpressive forces generated by oblique subduction, on Eocene to present crustal processes, such as seismicity and volcanism.

  3. Irradiation creep due to SIPA under cascade damage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, C.H.; Garner, F.A.; Holt, R.A.

    1992-12-31

    This paper derives the relationships between void swelling and irradiation creep due to Stress-Induced Preferred Absorption (SIPA) and SIPA-Induced Growth (SIG) under cascade damage conditions in an irradiated pressurized tube. It is found that at low swelling rates irradiation creep is a major contribution to the total diametral strain rate of the tube, whereas at high swelling rates the creep becomes a minor contribution. The anisotropy of the corresponding dislocation structure is also predicted to decline as the swelling rate increases. The theoretical predictions are found to agree very well with experimental results.

  4. Preparation of optically active bicyclodihydrosiloles by a radical cascade reaction

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Koichiro; Yamane, Yu; Yo, Ryuichiro; Uno, Hidemitsu

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bicyclodihydrosiloles were readily prepared from optically active enyne compounds by a radical cascade reaction triggered by tris(trimethylsilyl)silane ((Me3Si)3SiH). The reaction was initiated by the addition of a silyl radical to an α,β-unsaturated ester, forming an α-carbonyl radical that underwent radical cyclization to a terminal alkyne unit. The resulting vinyl radical attacked the silicon atom in an SHi manner to give dihydrosilole. The reaction preferentially formed trans isomers of bicyclosiloles with an approximately 7:3 to 9:1 selectivity. PMID:23946827

  5. Density matrix Monte Carlo modeling of quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirauschek, Christian

    2017-10-01

    By including elements of the density matrix formalism, the semiclassical ensemble Monte Carlo method for carrier transport is extended to incorporate incoherent tunneling, known to play an important role in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). In particular, this effect dominates electron transport across thick injection barriers, which are frequently used in terahertz QCL designs. A self-consistent model for quantum mechanical dephasing is implemented, eliminating the need for empirical simulation parameters. Our modeling approach is validated against available experimental data for different types of terahertz QCL designs.

  6. Complex delay dynamics of high power quantum cascade oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillot, F.; Newell, T. C.; Gavrielides, A.; Carras, M.

    2017-08-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) have become the most suitable laser sources from the mid-infrared to the THz range. This work examines the effects of external feedback in different high power mid infrared QCL structures and shows that different conditions of the feedback wave can produce complex dynamics hence stabilization, destabilization into strong mode-competition or undamping nonlinear oscillations. As a dynamical system, reinjection of light back into the cavity also can also provoke apparition of chaotic oscillations, which must be avoided for a stable operation both at mid-infrared and THz wavelengths.

  7. Orientifolds and duality cascades: confinement before the wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argurio, Riccardo; Bertolini, Matteo

    2018-02-01

    We consider D-branes at orientifold singularities and discuss two properties of the corresponding low energy four-dimensional effective theories which are not shared, generically, by other Calabi-Yau singularities. The first property is that duality cascades are finite and, unlike ordinary ones, do not require an infinite number of degrees of freedom to be UV-completed. The second is that orientifolds tend to stabilize runaway directions. These two properties can have interesting implications and widen in an intriguing way the variety of gauge theories one can describe using D-branes.

  8. New quantum cascade laser sources for sensing applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troccoli, Mariano

    2017-05-01

    In this presentation we will review our most recent results on development of Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) for analytical and industrial applications. QCLs have demonstrated the capability to cover the entire range of Mid-IR, Far-IR, and THz wavelengths by skillful tuning of the material design and composition and by use of intrinsic material properties via a set of techniques collectively called "bandgap engineering". The use of MOCVD, pioneered on industrial scale by AdTech Optics, has enabled the deployment of QCL devices into a diverse range of environments and applications. QCLs can be tailored to the specific application requirements due to their unprecedented flexibility in design and thanks to the leveraging of well-known III-V fabrication technologies inherited from the NIR domain. Nevertheless, several applications and new frontiers in R and D need the constant support of new developments in device features, capabilities, and performances. We have developed a wide range of devices, from high power, high efficiency multi-mode sources, to narrow-band, single mode devices with low-power consumption, and from non-linear, multi-wavelength generating devices to broadband sources and multi-emitter arrays. All our devices are grown and processed using MOCVD technology and allow us to attain competitive performances across the whole mid-IR spectral range. This talk will present an overview of our current achievements. References 1. M. Troccoli, "High power emission and single mode operation of quantum cascade lasers for industrial applications", J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron., 21 (6), 1-7 (2015). Invited Review. 2. Seungyong Jung, Aiting Jiang, Yifan Jiang, Karun Vijayraghavan, Xiaojun Wang, Mariano Troccoli, and Mikhail A. Belkin, "Broadly Tunable Monolithic Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources", Nature Comm. 5, 4267 (2014).. 3. Mariano Troccoli, Arkadiy Lyakh, Jenyu Fan, Xiaojun Wang, Richard Maulini, Alexei G Tsekoun, Rowel Go, C Kumar N Patel, "Long

  9. Modeling of an argon cascaded arc plasma by ANSYS FLUENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guodong; Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei

    2014-04-01

    In this work, an argon cascaded arc plasma is simulated by the business software ANSYS FLUENT. In fact, thus plasma is a high temperature arc (plasma window) with an average temperature of 12000 °C, which can be used as a medium between high pressure and vacuum mainly due to its characteristics of high temperature. According to the simulating results, the temperature can reach as high as 11500 °C which is in great agreement with that of other reports about plasma window.

  10. Hot-phonon generation in THz quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, V.; Vitiello, M. S.; Scamarcio, G.; Williams, B. S.; Kumar, S.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Observation of non-equilibrium optical phonons population associated with electron transport in THz quantum cascade lasers is reported. The phonon occupation number was measured by using a combination of micro-probe photoluminescence and Stokes/Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. Energy balance analysis allows us to estimate the phonon relaxation rate, that superlinearly increases with the electrical power in the range 1.5 W - 1.95 W, above laser threshold. This observation suggests the occurrence of stimulated emission of optical phonons.

  11. Connected word recognition using a cascaded neuro-computational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoya, Tetsuya; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2016-10-01

    We propose a novel framework for processing a continuous speech stream that contains a varying number of words, as well as non-speech periods. Speech samples are segmented into word-tokens and non-speech periods. An augmented version of an earlier-proposed, cascaded neuro-computational model is used for recognising individual words within the stream. Simulation studies using both a multi-speaker-dependent and speaker-independent digit string database show that the proposed method yields a recognition performance comparable to that obtained by a benchmark approach using hidden Markov models with embedded training.

  12. Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szedlak, Rolf; Hayden, Jakob; Martín-Mateos, Pedro; Holzbauer, Martin; Harrer, Andreas; Schwarz, Benedikt; Hinkov, Borislav; MacFarland, Donald; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Acedo, Pablo; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried

    2018-01-01

    We review recent advances in chemical sensing applications based on surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). Such lasers can be implemented in monolithically integrated on-chip laser/detector devices forming compact gas sensors, which are based on direct absorption spectroscopy according to the Beer-Lambert law. Furthermore, we present experimental results on radio frequency modulation up to 150 MHz of surface emitting ring QCLs. This technique provides detailed insight into the modulation characteristics of such lasers. The gained knowledge facilitates the utilization of ring QCLs in combination with spectroscopic techniques, such as heterodyne phase-sensitive dispersion spectroscopy for gas detection and analysis.

  13. KEWPIE: A dynamical cascade code for decaying exited compound nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouriquet, Bertrand; Abe, Yasuhisa; Boilley, David

    2004-05-01

    A new dynamical cascade code for decaying hot nuclei is proposed and specially adapted to the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei. For such a case, the interesting channel is of the tiny fraction that will decay through particles emission, thus the code avoids classical Monte-Carlo methods and proposes a new numerical scheme. The time dependence is explicitely taken into account in order to cope with the fact that fission decay rate might not be constant. The code allows to evaluate both statistical and dynamical observables. Results are successfully compared to experimental data.

  14. Inverse energy cascades in three-dimensional turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, Murshed

    1991-01-01

    Fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence at large kinetic and low magnetic Reynolds numbers is considered in the presence of a strong uniform magnetic field. It is shown by numerical simulation of a model of MHD that the energy inverse cascades to longer length scales when the interaction parameter is large. While the steady-state dynamics of the driven problem is three-dimensional in character, the behavior has resemblance to two-dimensional hydrodynamics. These results have implications in turbulence theory, MHD power generator, planetary dynamos, and fusion reactor blanket design.

  15. Cascade Classification with Adaptive Feature Extraction for Arrhythmia Detection.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; Kang, Mingon; Gao, Jean; Kim, Younghoon; Kang, Kyungtae

    2017-01-01

    Detecting arrhythmia from ECG data is now feasible on mobile devices, but in this environment it is necessary to trade computational efficiency against accuracy. We propose an adaptive strategy for feature extraction that only considers normalized beat morphology features when running in a resource-constrained environment; but in a high-performance environment it takes account of a wider range of ECG features. This process is augmented by a cascaded random forest classifier. Experiments on data from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database showed classification accuracies from 96.59% to 98.51%, which are comparable to state-of-the art methods.

  16. Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, T.; Braun, M.; Lambrecht, A.

    2003-03-01

    Laser spectroscopy has found many industrial applications, e.g., control of automotive exhaust and process monitoring. The midinfrared region is of special interest because it has stronger absorption lines compared to the near infrared (NIR). However, in the NIR high quality reliable laser sources, detectors, and passive optical components are available. A quantum cascade laser could change this situation if fundamental advantages can be exploited with compact and reliable systems. It will be shown that, using pulsed lasers and available fast detectors, lower residual sensitivity levels than in corresponding NIR systems can be achieved. The stability is sufficient for industrial applications.

  17. Passive Turbulence Generating Grid Arrangements in a Turbine Cascade Wind Tunnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    mean square of free stream velocity μ = flow viscosity I. Introduction and Background Turbine Cascade Wind Tunnels ( CWT ) are...closed-loop CWT . Turbine cascade facilities are used to simulate turbine operating conditions for the study of flow phenomena such as 2 boundary layer...A CWT test section inlet must have uniform flowfield properties. The inlet conditions of interest upstream of the cascade include velocity and

  18. Genomic analysis of regulatory network dynamics reveals large topological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Madan Babu, M.; Yu, Haiyuan; Snyder, Michael; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Gerstein, Mark

    2004-09-01

    Network analysis has been applied widely, providing a unifying language to describe disparate systems ranging from social interactions to power grids. It has recently been used in molecular biology, but so far the resulting networks have only been analysed statically. Here we present the dynamics of a biological network on a genomic scale, by integrating transcriptional regulatory information and gene-expression data for multiple conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We develop an approach for the statistical analysis of network dynamics, called SANDY, combining well-known global topological measures, local motifs and newly derived statistics. We uncover large changes in underlying network architecture that are unexpected given current viewpoints and random simulations. In response to diverse stimuli, transcription factors alter their interactions to varying degrees, thereby rewiring the network. A few transcription factors serve as permanent hubs, but most act transiently only during certain conditions. By studying sub-network structures, we show that environmental responses facilitate fast signal propagation (for example, with short regulatory cascades), whereas the cell cycle and sporulation direct temporal progression through multiple stages (for example, with highly inter-connected transcription factors). Indeed, to drive the latter processes forward, phase-specific transcription factors inter-regulate serially, and ubiquitously active transcription factors layer above them in a two-tiered hierarchy. We anticipate that many of the concepts presented here-particularly the large-scale topological changes and hub transience-will apply to other biological networks, including complex sub-systems in higher eukaryotes.

  19. Active polarisation control of a quantum cascade laser using tuneable birefringence in waveguides.

    PubMed

    Dhirhe, D; Slight, T J; Holmes, B M; Ironside, C N

    2013-10-07

    We discuss the design, modelling, fabrication and characterisation of an integrated tuneable birefringent waveguide for quantum cascade lasers. We have fabricated quantum cascade lasers operating at wavelengths around 4450 nm that include polarisation mode converters and a differential phase shift section. We employed below laser threshold electroluminescence to investigate the single pass operation of the integrated device. We use a theory based on the electro-optic properties of birefringence in quantum cascade laser waveguides combined with a Jones matrix based description to gain an understanding of the electroluminescence results. With the quantum cascade lasers operating above threshold we demonstrated polarisation control of the output.

  20. Linear models of activation cascades: analytical solutions and coarse-graining of delayed signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Desikan, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Cellular signal transduction usually involves activation cascades, the sequential activation of a series of proteins following the reception of an input signal. Here, we study the classic model of weakly activated cascades and obtain analytical solutions for a variety of inputs. We show that in the special but important case of optimal gain cascades (i.e. when the deactivation rates are identical) the downstream output of the cascade can be represented exactly as a lumped nonlinear module containing an incomplete gamma function with real parameters that depend on the rates and length of the cascade, as well as parameters of the input signal. The expressions obtained can be applied to the non-identical case when the deactivation rates are random to capture the variability in the cascade outputs. We also show that cascades can be rearranged so that blocks with similar rates can be lumped and represented through our nonlinear modules. Our results can be used both to represent cascades in computational models of differential equations and to fit data efficiently, by reducing the number of equations and parameters involved. In particular, the length of the cascade appears as a real-valued parameter and can thus be fitted in the same manner as Hill coefficients. Finally, we show how the obtained nonlinear modules can be used instead of delay differential equations to model delays in signal transduction. PMID:27581482