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Sample records for a-fluorinated ethers thioethers

  1. The Tribological Behavior of Polyphenyl Ether and Polyphenyl Thioether Aromatic Lubricants. Ph.D. Thesis - Kyushu Univ., Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The tribological behavior of several polyphenyl ethers and polyphenyl thioethers is reported. Tribological areas covered include: surface tension and wettability measurements, boundary lubrication, ferrography, thermal and oxidative stability and chemiluminescence.

  2. A Fluorinated Ether Electrolyte Enabled High Performance Prelithiated Graphite/Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shuru; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail L.

    Lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries have attracted great attention as a promising energy storage technology, but so far their practical applications are greatly hindered by issues of polysulfide shuttling and unstable lithium/electrolyte interface. To address these issues, a feasible strategy is to construct a rechargeable prelithiated graphite/sulfur batteries. In this study, a fluorinated ether of bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) ether (BTFE) was reported to blend with 1,3-dioxolane (DOL) for making a multifunctional electrolyte of 1.0 M LiTFSI DOL/BTFE (1:1, v/v) to enable high performance prelithiated graphite/S batteries. First, the electrolyte significantly reduces polysulfide solubility to suppress the deleterious polysulfide shuttling and thus improves capacity retentionmore » of sulfur cathodes. Second, thanks to the low viscosity and good wettability, the fluorinated electrolyte dramatically enhances the reaction kinetics and sulfur utilization of high-areal-loading sulfur cathodes. More importantly, this electrolyte forms a stable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on graphite surface and thus enables remarkable cyclability of graphite anodes. Lastly, by coupling prelithiated graphite anodes with sulfur cathodes with high areal capacity of ~3 mAh cm -2, we demonstrate prelithiated graphite/sulfur batteries that show high sulfur-specific capacity of ~1000 mAh g -1 and an excellent capacity retention of >65% after 450 cycles at C/10.« less

  3. A Fluorinated Ether Electrolyte Enabled High Performance Prelithiated Graphite/Sulfur Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Shuru; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail L.; ...

    2017-02-03

    Lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries have attracted great attention as a promising energy storage technology, but so far their practical applications are greatly hindered by issues of polysulfide shuttling and unstable lithium/electrolyte interface. To address these issues, a feasible strategy is to construct a rechargeable prelithiated graphite/sulfur batteries. In this study, a fluorinated ether of bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) ether (BTFE) was reported to blend with 1,3-dioxolane (DOL) for making a multifunctional electrolyte of 1.0 M LiTFSI DOL/BTFE (1:1, v/v) to enable high performance prelithiated graphite/S batteries. First, the electrolyte significantly reduces polysulfide solubility to suppress the deleterious polysulfide shuttling and thus improves capacity retentionmore » of sulfur cathodes. Second, thanks to the low viscosity and good wettability, the fluorinated electrolyte dramatically enhances the reaction kinetics and sulfur utilization of high-areal-loading sulfur cathodes. More importantly, this electrolyte forms a stable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on graphite surface and thus enables remarkable cyclability of graphite anodes. Lastly, by coupling prelithiated graphite anodes with sulfur cathodes with high areal capacity of ~3 mAh cm -2, we demonstrate prelithiated graphite/sulfur batteries that show high sulfur-specific capacity of ~1000 mAh g -1 and an excellent capacity retention of >65% after 450 cycles at C/10.« less

  4. High-pressure liquid chromatography: A brief introduction and its application in analyzing the degradation of a C-ether (Thio-ether) liquid lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The general principles of classical liquid chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) are reviewed, and their advantages and disadvantages are compared. Several chromatographic techniques are reviewed, and the analytical separation of a C-ether liquid lubricant by each technique is illustrated. A practical application of HPLC is then demonstrated by analyzing a degraded C-ether liquid lubricant from full scale, high temperature bearing tests.

  5. Syntheses, Structures, and Binding Constants of Cyclic Ether and Thioether Adducts of Soluble Cadmium(II) Carboxylates. Intermediates in the Homopolymerization of Oxiranes and Thiiranes and in Carbon Dioxide Coupling Processes.

    PubMed

    Darensbourg, Donald J.; Niezgoda, Sharon A.; Holtcamp, Matthew W.; Draper, Jennifer D.; Reibenspies, Joseph H.

    1997-05-21

    A synthetic methodology for the preparation of a large variety of eta(3)-HB(3-Phpz)(3)Cd(acetate) adducts is presented which involves replacement of toluene in the eta(3)-HB(3-Phpz)(3)Cd(acetate) solvate complex by the appropriate cyclic ether or cyclic thioether. In this manner, adducts of THF, dioxane, propylene oxide, cyclohexene oxide, and propylene sulfide were isolated. The solid-state structures of several of these complexes were determined by X-ray crystallography, revealing a six-coordinate complex where the acetate ligand is shown to be fairly symmetrically bonded to the cadmium center. In methylene chloride solution, the cyclic ether or thioether readily dissociates to afford the five-coordinate complex, as demonstrated by (113)Cd NMR. A quantitative assessment of the binding of these base adducts of eta(3)-HB(3-Phpz)(3)Cd(acetate) was determined by measuring the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constants for the five- and six-coordinate derivatives. The presence of one sharp (113)Cd resonance in this equilibrium mixture is indicative of rapid intermolecular exchange between the five- and six-coordinate complexes when compared to the chemical shift differences in these two species ( approximately 6600 Hz at 89 MHz). The order established for ether binding is THF > dioxane > propylene sulfide > cyclohexene oxide >/= propylene oxide, with DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees spanning the ranges -27.7 to 24.3 kJ/mol and -89.7 to -94.1 J/(mol K). The epoxide and thioepoxide adducts were shown to serve as models for the initiation step in the copolymerization of epoxides with carbon dioxide catalyzed by metal carboxylates. That is, the carboxylate ligand was shown to ring-open the epoxide or thioepoxide, subsequently affording polyethers or polythioethers with ester end groups. By way of contrast, in the presence of CO(2) and epoxides, this system led to cyclic carbonate production.

  6. Synthesis of uniform cyclodextrin thioethers to transport hydrophobic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Lisa F; Schwarz, Dennis H

    2014-01-01

    Summary Methyl and ethyl thioether groups were introduced at all primary positions of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrin by nucleophilic displacement reactions starting from the corresponding per-(6-deoxy-6-bromo)cyclodextrins. Further modification of all 2-OH positions by etherification with iodo terminated triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (and tetraethylene glycol monomethyl ether, respectively) furnished water-soluble hosts. Especially the β-cyclodextrin derivatives exhibit very high binding potentials towards the anaesthetic drugs sevoflurane and halothane. Since the resulting inclusion compounds are highly soluble in water at temperatures ≤37 °C they are good candidates for new aqueous dosage forms which would avoid inhalation anaesthesia. PMID:25550759

  7. Urinary thioether of employees of a chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Vainio, H; Savolainen, H; Kilpikari, I

    1978-08-01

    The thiols in the morning urine of 224 employees of a chemical plant were determined after alkaline hydrolysis of all urinary thioethers. The highest thioether excretion was found in rubber workers and radial tyre builders in comparison with clerks, plastic monomer mixers and footwear preparers. Smoking and medication tended to increase thioether excretion. Urinary thioether determination may prove to be a valuable tool in assessing exposure to mixtures of chemicals regardless of the route of absorption.

  8. Urinary thioether of employees of a chemical plant.

    PubMed Central

    Vainio, H; Savolainen, H; Kilpikari, I

    1978-01-01

    The thiols in the morning urine of 224 employees of a chemical plant were determined after alkaline hydrolysis of all urinary thioethers. The highest thioether excretion was found in rubber workers and radial tyre builders in comparison with clerks, plastic monomer mixers and footwear preparers. Smoking and medication tended to increase thioether excretion. Urinary thioether determination may prove to be a valuable tool in assessing exposure to mixtures of chemicals regardless of the route of absorption. PMID:698138

  9. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject to...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject to...

  14. Thioether-Bearing Hyperbranched Polyether Polyols with Methionine-Like Side-Chains: A Versatile Platform for Orthogonal Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Seiwert, Jan; Herzberger, Jana; Leibig, Daniel; Frey, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of thioether-bearing hyperbranched polyether polyols based on an AB/AB 2 type copolymerization (cyclic latent monomers) is introduced. The polymers are prepared by anionic ring-opening multibranching copolymerization of glycidol and 2-(methylthio)ethyl glycidyl ether (MTEGE), which is conveniently accessible in a single etherification step. Slow monomer addition provides control over molecular weights. Moderate dispersities (Đ = 1.48-1.85) are obtained, given the hyperbranched structure. In situ 1 H NMR copolymerization kinetics reveal reactivity ratios of r G = 3.7 and r MTEGE = 0.27. Using slow monomer addition, copolymer composition can be systematically varied, allowing for the adjustment of the hydroxyl/thioether ratio, the degree of branching (DB = 0.36-0.48), thermal properties, and cloud point temperatures in aqueous solution in the range of 29-75 °C. Thioether oxidation to sulfoxides enables to tailor the copolymers' solubility profile. Use of these copolymers as a versatile, multifunctional platform for orthogonal modification is highlighted. The methyl sulfide groups can be selectively alkoxylated, using propylene oxide, allyl glycidyl ether, or furfuryl glycidyl ether, resulting in functional hyperbranched polyelectrolytes. Reaction of the alcohol groups with benzyl isocyanate demonstrates successful orthogonal functionalization. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Application of Thioether for Vapor Phase Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, E. Earl

    1997-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to identify the optimal conditions for vapor phase lubrication using Thioether for both sliding and rolling wear. The important variable include; (1) The component materials including M50 steel, monel and silicon nitride. (2) The vapor concentration and flow rate. (3) The temperature in the range of 600 F to 1500 F. (4) The loads and rolling and/or sliding speeds.

  16. Boundary lubrication, thermal and oxidative stability of a fluorinated polyether and a perfluoropolyether triazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Snyder, C. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Boundary lubricating characteristics, thermal stability, and oxidation-corrosion stability were determined for a fluorinated polyether and a perfluoropolyether triazine. A ball-on-disk apparatus, a tensimeter, and oxidation-corrosion apparatus were used. Results were compared to data for a polyphenyl ether and a C-ether. The polyether and triazine yielded better boundary lubricating characteristics than either the polyphenyl ether or C-ether. The polyphenyl ether had the greatest thermal stability (443 C) while the other fluids had stabilities in the range 389 to 397 C. Oxidation-corrosion results indicated the following order of stabilities: perfluoropolyether trizine greater than polyphenyl ether greater than C-ether greater than fluorinated polyether.

  17. Boundary lubrication, thermal and oxidative stability of a fluorinated polyether and a perfluoropolyether triazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Snyder, C. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Boundary lubricating characteristics, thermal stability and oxidation-corrosion stability were determined for a fluorinated polyether and a perfluoropolyether triazine. A ball-on-disk apparatus, a tensimeter and oxidation-corrosion apparatus were used. Results were compared to data for a polyphenyl ether and a C-ether. The polyether and triazine yielded better boundary lubricating characteristics than either the polyphenyl ether or C-ether. The polyphenyl ether had the greatest thermal stability (443 C) while the other fluids had stabilities in the range 389 to 397 C. Oxidation-corrosion results indicated the following order of stabilities: perfluoropolyether triazine greater than polyphenylether greater than C-ether greater than fluorinated polyether.

  18. Structural characterization of thioether-bridged bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Lohans, Christopher T; Vederas, John C

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocins are a group of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, some of which are extensively post-translationally modified. Some bacteriocins, namely the lantibiotics and sactibiotics, contain one or more thioether bridges. However, these modifications complicate the structural elucidation of these bacteriocins using conventional techniques. This review will discuss the techniques and strategies that have been applied to determine the primary structures of lantibiotics and sactibiotics. A major challenge is to identify the topology of thioether bridges in these peptides (i.e., which amino-acid residues are involved in which bridges). Edman degradation, NMR spectroscopy and tandem MS have all been commonly applied to characterize these bacteriocins, but can be incompatible with the post-translational modifications present. Chemical modifications to the modified residues, such as desulfurization and reduction, make the treated bacteriocins more compatible to analysis by these standard peptide analytical techniques. Despite their differences in structure, similar strategies have proved useful to study the structures of both lantibiotics and sactibiotics.

  19. Functional Modification of Thioether Groups in Peptides, Polypeptides, and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Deming, Timothy J

    2017-03-15

    Recent developments in the modification of methionine and other thioether-containing residues in peptides, polypeptides, and proteins are reviewed. Properties and potential applications of the resulting functionalized products are also discussed. While much of this work is focused on natural Met residues, modifications at other side-chain residues have also emerged as new thioether-containing amino acids have been incorporated into peptidic materials. Functional modification of thioether-containing amino acids has many advantages and is a complementary methodology to the widely utilized methods for modification at cysteine residues.

  20. Increased urinary excretion of thioether in new rubber workers

    PubMed Central

    Kilpikari, I; Savolainen, H

    1982-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary excretion of thioether before starting work and in the early work period in a rubber factory was measured in urine samples collected after one, two to four, and five or more months of starting work. The study population consisted of 84 new workers. The urinary excretion of thioether decreased after one month's exposure and increased thereafter up to five months. Measurement of urinary thioethers in groups of new workers is therefore informative of exposure to alkylating agents only after several months from starting work. This effect may be mediated by the induction of the pertinent metabolic pathway. PMID:7138800

  1. Simulation of lubricating behavior of a thioether liquid lubricant by an electrochemical method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, W.

    1984-01-01

    An electrochemical cell was constructed to explore the possible radical anion forming behavior of a thioether liquid lubricant. The electrochemical behavior of the thioether was compared with the electrochemical behavior of biphenyl, which is known to form radical anions. Under controlled conditions biphenyl undergoes a reversible reaction to a radical anion, whereas the thioether undergoes an irreversible reduction yielding several products. These results are discussed in relation to boundary lubrication.

  2. Analysis of a thioether lubricant by infrared Fourier microemission spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Morales, W.; Lauer, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    An infrared Fourier microemission spectrophotometer is used to obtain spectra (wavenumber range, 630 to 1230 0.1 cm) from microgram quantities of thioether lubricant samples deposited on aluminum foil. Infrared bands in the spectra are reproducible and could be identified as originating from aromatic species (1,3-disubstituted benzenes). Spectra from all samples (neat and formulated, used and unused) are very similar. Additives (an acid and a phosphinate) present in low concentration (0.10 percent) in the formulated fluid are not detected. This instrument appears to be a viable tool in helping to identify lubricant components separated by liquid chromatography.

  3. Chemisorbed monolayers of corannulene penta-thioethers on gold.

    PubMed

    Angelova, Polina; Solel, Ephrath; Parvari, Galit; Turchanin, Andrey; Botoshansky, Mark; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Keinan, Ehud

    2013-02-19

    Penta(tert-butylthio)corannulene and penta(4-dimethylaminophenylthio)corannulene form highly stable monolayers on gold surfaces, as indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Formation of these homogeneous monolayers involves multivalent coordination of the five sulfur atoms to gold with the peripheral alkyl or aryl substituents pointing away from the surface. No dissociation of C-S bonds upon binding could be observed at room temperature. Yet, the XPS experiments reveal strong chemical bonding between the thioether groups and gold. Temperature-dependent XPS study shows that the thermal stability of the monolayers is higher than the typical stability of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolates on gold.

  4. Preliminary results of the comparison of the electrochemical behavior of a thioether and biphenyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, W.; Jones, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    An electrochemical cell was constructed to explore the feasibility of using electrochemical techniques to simulate the tribochemistry of various substances. The electrochemical cell was used to study and compare the behavior of a thioether 1,3-bis(phenylthio) benzene and biphenyl. It is found that under controlled conditions biphenyl undergoes a reversible reduction to a radical anion whereas the thioether undergoes an irreversible reduction yielding several products. The results are discussed in relationship to boundary lubrication.

  5. Tribromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tribromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 49690 - 94 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  6. Ethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl ether ; CASRN 60 - 29 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  7. Octabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 32536 - 52 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  8. Nonabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nonabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 63936 - 56 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  9. Hexabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 36483 - 60 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  10. Pentabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Pentabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 32534 - 81 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  11. Tetrabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetrabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 40088 - 47 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  12. Synthesis of 2-aryl and 3-aryl benzo[b]furan thioethers using aryl sulfonyl hydrazides as sulfenylation reagents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Lipeng; Lu, Xiaoyu; Li, Tianjiao; Lu, Kui

    2015-03-06

    An efficient, metal-free protocol used to synthesize aryl benzo[b]furan thioethers based on the I2-catalyzed cross-coupling of benzo[b]furans as well as the electrophilic cyclization of 2-alkynylphenol derivatives with aryl sulfonyl hydrazides was developed. Various 2-aryl and 3-aryl benzo[b]furan thioethers were obtained in moderate to good yields.

  13. Homoallylglycine residues are superior precursors to orthogonally modified thioether containing polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Perlin, Pesach; Gharakhanian, Eric G; Deming, Timothy J

    2018-06-12

    Homoallylglycine N-carboxyanhydride, Hag NCA, monomers were synthesized and used to prepare polypeptides containing Hag segments with controllable lengths of up to 245 repeats. Poly(l-homoallylglycine), GHA, was found to adopt an α-helical conformation, which provided good solubility in organic solvents and allowed high yield functionalization of its alkene side-chains via radical promoted addition of thiols. The conformations of these derivatives were shown to be switchable between α-helical and disordered states in aqueous media using thioether alkylation or oxidation reactions. Incorporation of GHA segments into block copolymers with poly(l-methionine), M, segments provided a means to orthogonally modify thioether side-chains different ways in separate copolypeptide domains. This approach allows preparation of functional polypeptides containing discrete domains of oxidized and alkylated thioether containing residues, where chain conformation and functionality of each domain can be independently modified.

  14. Depletion of mitochondrial coenzyme A and glutathione by 4-dimethylaminophenol and formation of mixed thioethers.

    PubMed

    Eckert, K G; Elbers, F R; Eyer, P

    1989-10-01

    4-Dimethylaminophenol (DMAP), an antidote in cyanide poisoning, has been shown to produce kidney lesions in rats, to damage isolated rat kidney tubules and to impair mitochondrial functions as already described for 4-aminophenol. Since DMAP upon oxidation forms bis- and tris-substituted thioethers with GSH, it was anticipated that mitochondrial toxicity of DMAP might result from CoA depletion. In a model reaction DMAP was oxidized by oxyhemoglobin in the presence of CoA and GSH resulting in formation of tris-(CoA-S-yl)-DMAP, tris-(GSH-S-yl)-DMAP and two mixed thioethers, namely, (CoA-S-yl)-bis-(GSH-S-yl)-DMAP and (GSH-S-yl)-bis-(CoA-S-yl)-DMAP. The compounds were isolated by HPLC and identified spectroscopically, by amino acid analysis and Raney-Nickel desulfuration. Rat liver mitochondria (5 mg protein/ml) incubated under state IV conditions with 20 and 50 microM DMAP were depleted of GSH and total coenzyme A with formation of GSSG and the above-mentioned thioethers which were quantified by isotope dilution techniques using [14C]-labelled DMAP and the isolated, inactive thioethers. The results confirm earlier suggestions that part of the cytotoxicity of DMAP may result from depletion of vital mitochondrial thiols, particularly CoA. Since 4-aminophenol reacts analogously, similar cytotoxic effects can be expected from compounds which on (aut)oxidation form quinoid systems capable of 1.4-addition reactions with nucleophilic thiols.

  15. Synthesis and Base Hydrolysis of a Cobalt(III) Complex Coordinated by a Thioether Ligand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roecker, Lee

    2008-01-01

    A two-week laboratory experiment for students in advanced inorganic chemistry is described. Students prepare and characterize a cobalt(III) complex coordinated by a thioether ligand during the first week of the experiment and then study the kinetics of Co-S bond cleavage in basic solution during the second week. The synthetic portion of the…

  16. One-pot synthesis of keto thioethers by palladium/gold-catalyzed click and pinacol reactions.

    PubMed

    Cadu, Alban; Watile, Rahul A; Biswas, Srijit; Orthaber, Andreas; Sjöberg, Per J R; Samec, Joseph S M

    2014-11-07

    An atom-efficient synthesis of keto thioethers was devised via tandem gold/palladium catalysis. The reaction proceeds through a regioselective thiol attack at the β-position of the alcohol, followed by an alkyl, aryl, or benzyl 1,2-shift. Both acyclic and cyclic systems were studied, in the latter case leading to the ring expansion of cyclic substrates.

  17. Heavy metal absorbing Thioether-functionalized ligands derived from vegetable oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sulfur-functionalized vegetable oils containing thioether groups have been shown to effectively remove Ag+ from aqueous solution. Interestingly, the absorption capacity differs depending upon the choice of which vegetable oil precursor is functionalized. In this study, we will provide data for oils ...

  18. Novel imino thioether complexes of platinum(II): synthesis, structural investigation, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Sgarbossa, Paolo; Sbovata, Silvia Mazzega; Bertani, Roberta; Mozzon, Mirto; Benetollo, Franco; Marzano, Cristina; Gandin, Valentina; Michelin, Rino A

    2013-05-20

    The reactions of the nitrile complexes cis- and trans-[PtCl2(NCR)2] (R = Me, Et, CH2Ph, Ph) with an excess of ethanethiol, EtSH, in the presence of a catalytic amount of n-BuLi in tetrahydrofuran (THF), afforded in good yield the bis-imino thioether derivatives cis-[PtCl2{E-N(H)═C(SEt)R}2] (R = Me (1), Et (2), CH2Ph (3), Ph (4)) and trans-[PtCl2{E-N(H)═C(SEt)R}2] (R = Me (5), Et (6), CH2Ph (7), Ph (8)). The imino thioether ligands assumed the E configuration corresponding to a cis addition of the thiol to the nitrile triple bond. The spectroscopic properties of these complexes have been reported along with the molecular structures of 1, 2, and 7 as established by X-ray crystallography which indicated that these compounds exhibit square-planar coordination geometry around the platinum center. Four N-H···Cl intermolecular contacts (N-H···Cl ca. 2.5-2.7 Å) between each chlorine atom and the N-H proton of the imino thioether ligand gave rise to "dimers" Pt2Cl4L4 (L = imino thioether) formed by two PtCl2L2 units. The cytotoxic properties of these new platinum(II) complexes were evaluated against various human cancer cell lines. Among all derivatives, trans-[PtCl2{E-N(H)═C(SEt)CH2Ph}2] showed the greatest in vitro cytotoxic activity being able to decrease cancer cell viability roughly 3-fold more effectively than cisplatin.

  19. Effect of lattice-gas atoms on the adsorption behaviour of thioether molecules.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Yang, Bing; Hulot, Catherine; Blechert, Siegfried; Nilius, Niklas; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2012-08-21

    Using STM topographic imaging and spectroscopy, we have investigated the adsorption of two thioether molecules, 1,2-bis(phenylthio)benzene and (bis(3-phenylthio)-phenyl)sulfane, on noble and transition metal surfaces. The two substrates show nearly antipodal behaviour. Whereas complexes with one or two protruding centres are observed on Au(111), only flat and uniform ad-structures are found on NiAl(110). The difference is ascribed to the possibility of the thioethers to form metal-organic complexes by coordinating lattice-gas atoms on the Au(111), while only the pristine molecules adsorb on the alloy surface. The metal coordination in the first case is driven by the formation of strong Au-S bonds and enables the formation of characteristic monomer, dimer and chain-like structures of the thioethers, using the Au atoms as linkers. A similar mechanism is not available on the NiAl, because no lattice gas develops at this surface at room temperature. Our work demonstrates how surface properties, i.e. the availability of mobile ad-species, determine the interaction of organic molecules with metallic substrates.

  20. Heme-Coordinating Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase. Iron-Thioether Coordination is Stabilized by Hydrophobic Contacts Without Increased Inhibitor Potency

    PubMed Central

    Martell, Jeffrey D.; Li, Huiying; Doukov, Tzanko; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Soltis, Michael; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The heme-thioether ligand interaction often occurs between heme iron and native methionine ligands, but thioether-based heme-coordinating (type II) inhibitors are uncommon due to the difficulty in stabilizing the Fe-S bond. Here, a thioether-based inhibitor (3) of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was designed, and its binding was characterized by spectrophotometry and crystallography. A crystal structure of inhibitor 3 coordinated to heme iron was obtained, representing, to our knowledge, the first crystal structure of a thioether inhibitor complexed to any heme enzyme. A series of related potential inhibitors (4-8) also were evaluated. Compounds 4-8 were all found to be type I (non-heme-coordinating) inhibitors of ferric nNOS, but 4 and 6-8 were found to switch to type II upon heme reduction to the ferrous state, reflecting the higher affinity of thioethers for ferrous heme than for ferric heme. Contrary to what has been widely thought, thioether-heme ligation was found not to increase inhibitor potency, illustrating the intrinsic weakness of the thioether-ferric heme linkage. Subtle changes in the alkyl groups attached to the thioether sulfur caused drastic changes in binding conformation, indicating that hydrophobic contacts play a crucial role in stabilizing the thioether-heme coordination. PMID:20014790

  1. Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups and poly(arylene ether) copolymers containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups are readily prepared from bisphenols containing ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups. The resulting polymers are cured up to 350.degree. C. to provide crosslinked poly(arylene ether)s with good solvent resistance, high strength and modulus.

  2. Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups and poly(arylene ether) copolymers containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups are readily prepared from bisphenols containing ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups. The resulting polymers are cured up to 350 C to provide crosslinked poly(arylene ether)s with good solvent resistance, high strength and modulus.

  3. A Facile and Efficient Synthesis of Diaryl Amines or Ethers under Microwave Irradiation at Presence of KF/Al2O3 without Solvent and Their Anti-Fungal Biological Activities against Six Phytopathogens

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liang-Zhu; Han, Pan; Li, You-Qiang; Xu, Ying-Meng; Zhang, Tao; Du, Zhen-Ting

    2013-01-01

    A series of diaryl amines, ethers and thioethers were synthesized under microwave irradiation efficiently at presence of KF/Al2O3 in 83%–96% yields without any solvent. The salient characters of this method lie in short reaction time, high yields, general applicability to substrates and simple workup procedure. At the same time, their antifungal biological activities against six phytopathogen were evaluated. Most of the compounds (3b, 3c, 3g–o) are more potent than thiophannate-methyl against to Magnaporthe oryzae. This implies that diaryl amine or ether moiety may be helpful in finding a fungicide against Magnaporthe oryzae. PMID:24036444

  4. Crown ethers in graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; ...

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basicmore » structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.« less

  5. Bioorthogonal Metabolic DNA Labelling using Vinyl Thioether-Modified Thymidine and o-Quinolinone Quinone Methide.

    PubMed

    Gubu, Amu; Li, Long; Ning, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Lee, Seonghyun; Feng, Mengke; Li, Qiang; Lei, Xiaoguang; Jo, Kyubong; Tang, Xinjing

    2018-04-17

    Bioorthogonal metabolic DNA labeling with fluorochromes is a powerful strategy to visualize DNA molecules and their functions. Here, we report the development of a new DNA metabolic labeling strategy enabled by the catalyst-free bioorthogonal ligation using vinyl thioether modified thymidine and o-quinolinone quinone methide. With the newly designed vinyl thioether-modified thymidine (VTdT), we added labeling tags on cellular DNA, which could further be linked to fluorochromes in cells. Therefore, we successfully visualized the DNA localization within cells as well as single DNA molecules without other staining reagents. In addition, we further characterized this bioorthogonal DNA metabolic labeling using DNase I digestion, MS characterization of VTdT as well as VTdT-oQQF conjugate in cell nuclei or mitochondria. This technique provides a powerful strategy to study DNA in cells, which paves the way to achieve future spatiotemporal deciphering of DNA synthesis and functions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Thioether coordination to divalent selenium halide acceptors--synthesis, properties and structures.

    PubMed

    Jolleys, Andrew; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian

    2013-02-28

    The tetravalent SeCl(4) and SeBr(4) are reduced in the presence of thioether ligands L (SMe(2), tht) or L-L (MeS(CH(2))(n)SMe (n = 2 or 3), o-C(6)H(4)(SMe)(2)) in MeCN solution at 0 °C, forming Se(II) thioether complexes, including the crystallographically characterised halo-bridged chain polymers [SeX(2)(SMe(2))] (X = Cl or Br), molecular trans-[SeX(2)(tht)(2)], cis-[SeBr(2){MeS(CH(2))(2)SMe}] and the thioether-bridged polymer [SeBr(2){MeS(CH(2))(3)SMe}], as the main products, together with halogenated ligand. The [SeX(2)(L)(2)] and [SeX(2)(L-L)] complexes are all based upon distorted square planar coordination, with two Se-based lone pairs assumed to occupy the (vacant) axial sites, and Se-S bond distances of ca. 2.4-2.6 Å. The 1:1 species [SeX(2)(SMe(2))] are T-shaped with trans X groups and weak intermolecular SeX contacts. The SeCl(2)-thioether complexes are less stable than the bromides, both in solution in CH(2)Cl(2) and as solids at ambient temperature. Reaction of SeBr(4) with o-C(6)H(4)(SMe(2))(2) leads to the red complex cis-[SeBr(2){κ(1)-o-C(6)H(4)(SMe)(2)}(2)] as the major product; together with a minor (yellow) product formed via bromination of the aromatic ring, [SeBr(2){4-Br-1,2-(SMe)(2)-C(6)H(3)}(2)]. The crystal structure confirms a V-shaped SeBr(2) unit with long (weak) κ(1)-interactions to one S donor (meta to the Br) from two brominated ligands--an extremely rare coordination mode for an o-phenylene dithioether. Similar reaction of o-C(6)H(4)(SMe(2))(2) with SeCl(4) leads to several species, including monosulfonium cation, [1](+) formed by coupling of one thioether group to the C4-position of the phenylene backbone in an adjacent molecule, confirmed crystallographically. Carbon-sulfur coupling is also evident in the reaction of SeX(4) with o-C(6)H(4)(CH(2)SMe)(2), leading to two related cyclic sulfonium species, [2](+) and [3](+), which were structurally characterised as [SeBr(4)](2-) and [Se(2)Cl(6)](2-) salts respectively. Reaction of Se

  7. New polyarylene ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Havens, S. J.; Jensen, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    A series of new polyarylene ethers (PAEs) were prepared from the reaction of activated dihalo compounds with various bisphenols. Measured number average molecular weights for the PAEs ranged from 13,500 to 39,400 g/mole, and glass transition temperatures varied from 152 to 280 C. Ethynyl-terminated polyarylene ethers (ETPAEs) were also prepared by endcapping hydroxy-terminated polyarylene ethers with 4-ethynylbenzoyl chloride. Structure/property relationships for the PAEs, and the advantages offered by the ETPAEs, are discussed.

  8. Catalytic oxidation of dimethyl ether

    DOEpatents

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang; Johnston, Christina M.; Li, Qing

    2016-05-10

    A composition for oxidizing dimethyl ether includes an alloy supported on carbon, the alloy being of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium. A process for oxidizing dimethyl ether involves exposing dimethyl ether to a carbon-supported alloy of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium under conditions sufficient to electrochemically oxidize the dimethyl ether.

  9. Serotonergic Neurotoxic Thioether Metabolites of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”): Synthesis, Isolation and Characterization of Diastereoisomers

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Nieves; de la Torre, Rafael; Joglar, Jesús; Okumura, Noriko; Perfetti, Ximena; Lau, Serrine S.; Monks, Terrence J.

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a synthetic recreational drug of abuse that produces long-term toxicity associated with the degeneration of serotonergic nerve terminals. In various animal models direct administration of MDMA into the brain fails to reproduce the serotonergic neurotoxicity, implying a requirement for the systemic metabolism and bioactivation of MDMA. Catechol-thioether metabolites of MDMA, formed via oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxymetamphetamine and 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (HHMA and HHA) and subsequent conjugation with glutathione (GSH), are selective serotonergic neurotoxicants when administered directly into brain. Moreover, following systemic administration of MDMA, the thioether adducts are present in rat brain dialysate. MDMA contains a stereogenic center, and is consumed as a racemate. Interestingly, different pharmacological properties have been attributed to the two enantiomers, (S)-MDMA being the most active in the central nervous system and responsible for the entactogenic effects, and most likely also for the neurodegeneration. The present study focused on the synthesis and stereochemical analysis of the neurotoxic MDMA thioether metabolites, 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-HHMA, 5-(N-acetylcysteine-S-yl)-HHMA, 2,5-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)-HHMA and 2,5-bis-(N-acetylcysteine-S-yl)-HHMA. Both enzymatic and electrochemical syntheses were explored, and methodologies for analytical and semi-preparative diastereoisomeric separation of MDMA thioether conjugates by HPLC-CEAS and HPLC-UV respectively were developed. Synthesis, diastereoisomeric separation, and unequivocal identification of the thioether conjugates of MDMA provide the chemical tools necessary for appropriate toxicological and metabolic studies on MDMA metabolites contributing to its neurotoxicity. PMID:19548351

  10. Novosphingobium aromaticivorans uses a Nu-class glutathione S-transferase as a glutathione lyase in breaking the β-aryl ether bond of lignin

    PubMed Central

    Kontur, Wayne S.; Bingman, Craig A.; Olmsted, Charles N.; Wassarman, Douglas R.; Ulbrich, Arne; Gall, Daniel L.; Smith, Robert W.; Yusko, Larissa M.; Fox, Brian G.; Noguera, Daniel R.; Coon, Joshua J.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2018-01-01

    As a major component of plant cell walls, lignin is a potential renewable source of valuable chemicals. Several sphingomonad bacteria have been identified that can break the β-aryl ether bond connecting most phenylpropanoid units of the lignin heteropolymer. Here, we tested three sphingomonads predicted to be capable of breaking the β-aryl ether bond of the dimeric aromatic compound guaiacylglycerol-β-guaiacyl ether (GGE) and found that Novosphingobium aromaticivorans metabolizes GGE at one of the fastest rates thus far reported. After the ether bond of racemic GGE is broken by replacement with a thioether bond involving glutathione, the glutathione moiety must be removed from the resulting two stereoisomers of the phenylpropanoid conjugate β-glutathionyl-γ-hydroxypropiovanillone (GS-HPV). We found that the Nu-class glutathione S-transferase NaGSTNu is the only enzyme needed to remove glutathione from both (R)- and (S)-GS-HPV in N. aromaticivorans. We solved the crystal structure of NaGSTNu and used molecular modeling to propose a mechanism for the glutathione lyase (deglutathionylation) reaction in which an enzyme-stabilized glutathione thiolate attacks the thioether bond of GS-HPV, and the reaction proceeds through an enzyme-stabilized enolate intermediate. Three residues implicated in the proposed mechanism (Thr51, Tyr166, and Tyr224) were found to be critical for the lyase reaction. We also found that Nu-class GSTs from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6 (which can also break the β-aryl ether bond) and Escherichia coli (which cannot break the β-aryl ether bond) can also cleave (R)- and (S)-GS-HPV, suggesting that glutathione lyase activity may be common throughout this widespread but largely uncharacterized class of glutathione S-transferases. PMID:29449375

  11. Interaction of d(10) metal ions with thioether ligands: a thermodynamic and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Andrea; Peralta, Elena; Valiente, Manuel; Tavagnacco, Claudio; Endrizzi, Francesco; Tolazzi, Marilena

    2013-05-07

    Thermodynamic parameters of complex formation between d(10) metal ions, such as Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Ag(+), and the macrocyclic thioether 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane ([9]AneS3) or the monodentate diethylsulfide (Et(2)S), in acetonitrile (AN) at 298.15 K, were studied by a systematic methodology including potentiometry, calorimetry and polarography. [9]AneS3 is able to form complexes with all the target cations, Et(2)S only reacts with Hg(2+) and Ag(+). Mononuclear ML(j) (j = 1, 2) complexes are formed with all the metal ions investigated, where the affinity order is Hg(2+) > Ag(+) > Cd(2+) ≈ Zn(2+) when L = [9]AneS3 and Hg(2+) > Ag(+) when L = Et(2)S. Enthalpy and entropy values are generally negative, as a consequence of both metal ion interactions with neutral ligands, the reagents' loss of degrees of freedom and the release of solvating molecules. DFT calculations on the complexes formed with [9]AneS3 in vacuum and in AN are also carried out, to correlate experimental and theoretical thermodynamic values and to highlight the interplay between the direct metal-thioether interaction and the solvation effects. Trends obtained for the stability constants and enthalpies of the 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes in solvent well reproduce the experimental ones for all the divalent metal ion complexes with [9]AneS3 and indicate the release of 3 AN molecules in the formation of each consecutive octahedral complex. In addition, calculated and experimental values for Ag(+) complex formation in solution suggest that in AgL(2) species [9]AneS3 ligands are not both tridentate.

  12. Efficient synthesis of a fluorine-18 labeled biotin derivative.

    PubMed

    Claesener, Michael; Breyholz, Hans-Jörg; Hermann, Sven; Faust, Andreas; Wagner, Stefan; Schober, Otmar; Schäfers, Michael; Kopka, Klaus

    2012-11-01

    The natural occurring vitamin biotin, also known as vitamin H or vitamin B(7), plays a major role in various metabolic reactions. Caused by its high binding affinity to the protein avidin with a dissociation constant of about 10(-15)M the biotin-avidin system was extensively examined for multiple applications. We have synthesized a fluorine-18 labeled biotin derivative [(18)F]4 for a potential application in positron emission tomography (PET). Mesylate precursor 3 was obtained by an efficient two-step reaction via a copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) from easily accessible starting materials. [(18)F]4 was successfully synthesized by a nucleophilic radiofluorination of precursor 3. A biodistribution study by means of small-animal PET imaging in wt-mice was performed and serum stability was examined. Compound [(18)F]4 was obtained from precursor compound 3 with an average specific activity of 16GBq/μmol within 45min and a radiochemical yield of 45±5% (decay corrected). [(18)F]4 demonstrated only negligible decomposition in human serum. A qualitative binding study revealed the high affinity of the synthesized biotin derivative to avidin. Blocking experiments with native biotin showed that binding was site-specific. Biodistribution studies showed that [(18)F]4 was cleared quickly and efficiently from the body by hepatobiliary and renal elimination. An efficient synthesis for [(18)F]4 was established. In vivo characteristics were determined and demonstrated the pharmacokinetic behaviour of [(18)F]4. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antinociceptive effects of HUF-101, a fluorinated cannabidiol derivative.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nicole R; Gomes, Felipe V; Fonseca, Miriam D; Mechoulam, Raphael; Breuer, Aviva; Cunha, Thiago M; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2017-10-03

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid with multiple pharmacological effects and several potential therapeutic properties. Its low oral bioavailability, however, can limit its clinical use. Preliminary results indicate that fluorination of the CBD molecule increases its pharmacological potency. Here, we investigated whether HUF-101 (3, 10, and 30mg/kg), a fluorinated CBD analogue, would induce antinociceptive effects. HUF-101 effects were compared to those induced by CBD (10, 30, and 90mg/kg) and the cannabinoid CB 1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (1, 3, and 5mg/kg). These drugs were tested in male Swiss mice submitted to the following models predictive to antinociceptive drugs: hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia. To evaluate the involvement of CB 1 and CB 2 receptors in HUF-101 and CBD effects, mice received the CB 1 receptor antagonist AM251 (1 or 3mg/kg) or the CB 2 receptor antagonist AM630 (1 or 3mg/kg) 30min before HUF-101, CBD, or WIN55,212-2. In the hot plate test, HUF-101 (30mg/kg) and WIN55,212-2 (5mg/kg) induced antinociceptive effects, which were attenuated by the pretreatment with AM251 and AM630. In the abdominal writhing test, CBD (30 and 90mg/kg), HUF-101 (30mg/kg), and WIN55,212-2 (3 and 5mg/kg) induced antinociceptive effects indicated by a reduction in the number of writhing. Whereas the pretreatment with AM630 did not mitigate the effects induced by any drug in this test, the pretreatment with AM251 attenuated the effect caused by WIN55,212-2. In the carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia test, CBD (30 and 90mg/kg), HUF-101 (3, 10 and 30mg/kg) and WIN55,212-2 (1mg/kg) decreased the intensity of mechanical hyperalgesia measured by the electronic von Frey method. The effects of all compounds were attenuated by the pretreatment with AM251 and AM630. Additionally, we evaluated whether HUF-101 would induce the classic cannabinoid CB 1 receptor-mediated tetrad (hypolocomotion, catalepsy, hypothermia

  14. p-Bromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p - Bromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 101 - 55 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  15. Chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chloromethyl methyl ether ( CMME ) ; CASRN 107 - 30 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  16. Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether ; CASRN 143 - 22 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  17. Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether ; CASRN 112 - 50 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  18. Propylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene glycol monoethyl ether ; CASRN 52125 - 53 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  19. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, J.V.

    1996-10-22

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of the above formula together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  20. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, James V.

    1996-01-01

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula V A(OCH.dbd.CHCH.sub.3).sub.n wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  1. Low dielectric fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketone) film and coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, Patrick E. (Inventor); Tullos, Gordon L. (Inventor); St.clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention relates to film and coating materials prepared from novel fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketones). A fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketone) is prepared by reacting a bisphenol with 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2,2-bis 4-(4-halobenzoyl) phenyl propane (wherein halo is fluoro or chloro), which is a novel monomer formed as the reaction product of halobenzene (wherein halo is fluoro or chloro) and 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2,2-bis (p-chloro formyl phenyl) propane. Especially beneficial results of this invention are that films and coating materials prepared from the novel fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketone) are essentially optically transparent/colorless and have a lower dielectric constant than otherwise comparable, commercially available poly(phenylene ether ketones). Moreover, unlike the otherwise comparable commercially available materials, the novel fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketones) of the present invention can be solution cast or sprayed to produce the films and coatings. Furthermore, the long term thermal stability of the polymers of the present invention is superior to that of the commercially available materials.

  2. Redox non-innocence of thioether crowns: spectroelectrochemistry and electronic structure of formal nickel(III) complexes of aza-thioether macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Emma; Huang, Deguang; Shaw, Jennifer L; Blake, Alexander J; Collison, David; Davies, E Stephen; Edge, Ruth; Howard, Judith A K; McInnes, Eric J L; Wilson, Claire; Wolowska, Joanna; McMaster, Jonathan; Schröder, Martin

    2011-09-05

    The Ni(II) complexes [Ni([9]aneNS(2)-CH(3))(2)](2+) ([9]aneNS(2)-CH(3)=N-methyl-1-aza-4,7-dithiacyclononane), [Ni(bis[9]aneNS(2)-C(2)H(4))](2+) (bis[9]aneNS(2)-C(2)H(4)=1,2-bis-(1-aza-4,7-dithiacyclononylethane) and [Ni([9]aneS(3))(2)](2+) ([9]aneS(3)=1,4,7-trithiacyclononane) have been prepared and can be electrochemically and chemically oxidized to give the formal Ni(III) products, which have been characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV/Vis and multi-frequency EPR spectroscopy. The single-crystal X-ray structure of [Ni(III)([9]aneNS(2)-CH(3))(2)](ClO(4))(6)·(H(5)O(2))(3) reveals an octahedral co-ordination at the Ni centre, while the crystal structure of [Ni(III)(bis[9]aneNS(2)-C(2)H(4))](ClO(4))(6)·(H(3)O)(3)·3H(2)O exhibits a more distorted co-ordination. In the homoleptic analogue, [Ni(III)([9]aneS(3))(2)](ClO(4))(3), structurally characterized at 30 K, the Ni-S distances [2.249(6), 2.251(5) and 2.437(2) Å] are consistent with a Jahn-Teller distorted octahedral stereochemistry. [Ni([9]aneNS(2)-CH(3))(2)](PF(6))(2) shows a one-electron oxidation process in MeCN (0.2 M NBu(4)PF(6), 293 K) at E(½)=+1.10 V versus Fc(+)/Fc assigned to a formal Ni(III)/Ni(II) couple. [Ni(bis[9]aneNS(2)-C(2)H(4))](PF(6))(2) exhibits a one-electron oxidation process at E(½)=+0.98 V and a reduction process at E(½)=-1.25 V assigned to Ni(II)/Ni(III) and Ni(II)/Ni(I) couples, respectively. The multi-frequency X-, L-, S-, K-band EPR spectra of the 3+ cations and their 86.2% (61)Ni-enriched analogues were simulated. Treatment of the spin Hamiltonian parameters by perturbation theory reveals that the SOMO has 50.6%, 42.8% and 37.2% Ni character in [Ni([9]aneNS(2)-CH(3))(2)](3+), [Ni(bis[9]aneNS(2)-C(2)H(4))](3+) and [Ni([9]aneS(3))(2)](3+), respectively, consistent with DFT calculations, and reflecting delocalisation of charge onto the S-thioether centres. EPR spectra for [(61)Ni([9]aneS(3))(2)](3+) are consistent with a dynamic Jahn-Teller distortion in this compound. Copyright

  3. A High-Performance Recycling Solution for Polystyrene Achieved by the Synthesis of Renewable Poly(thioether) Networks Derived from d-Limonene

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Landon D.; Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Lonnecker, Alexander T.; Raymond, Jeffery E.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Wooley, Karen L.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite polymers have been prepared using a new sustainable materials synthesis process in which d-Limonene functions simultaneously both as a solvent for recycling polystyrene (PS) waste and as a monomer that undergoes UV-catalyzed thiol-ene polymerization reactions with polythiol co-monomers to afford polymeric products comprised of precipitated PS phases dispersed throughout elastomeric poly(thioether) networks. These blended networks exhibit mechanical properties that greatly exceed those of either polystyrene or the poly(thioether) network homopolymers alone. PMID:24249666

  4. Poly(arylene ether)s That Resist Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Novel poly(arylene ether)s containing phosphine oxide (PAEPO's) made via aromatic nucleophilic displacement reactions of activated aromatic dihalides (or, in some cases, activated aromatic dinitro compounds) with new bisphenol monomers containing phosphine oxide. Exhibited favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties and resistance to monatomic oxygen in oxygen plasma environment. Useful as adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, moldings, and composite matrices.

  5. Thioether-functionalized mesoporous fiber membranes: sol-gel combined electrospun fabrication and their applications for Hg2+ removal.

    PubMed

    Teng, Minmin; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting; Zhang, Bingru

    2011-03-01

    Mesoporous polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/SiO(2) composite nanofiber membranes functionalized with thioether groups have been fabricated by a combination method of sol-gel process and electrospinning. The precursor sol was synthesized by one-step co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)propane tetrasulfide (BTESPTS, (CH(3)CH(2)O)(3)Si(CH(2))(3)S-S-S-S(CH(2))(3)Si-(OCH(2)CH(3))(3)), with the triblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (P123, EO(20)PO(70)EO(20)) as template. After the addition of PVP, nanofiber membranes were prepared by electrospinning. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms, and an Elementar Vario EL analyzer. The composites were used as highly selective adsorbents for Hg(2+) due to the modification with thioether groups (-S-), and were conveniently separated from the waste water. The composite could be regenerated through acidification. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemoselective Deprotection of Triethylsilyl Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Tilak; Broderick, William E.; Broderick, Joan B.

    2009-01-01

    An efficient and selective method was developed for the deprotection of triethylsilyl (TES) ethers using formic acid in methanol (5–10%) or in methylene chloride 2–5%) with excellent yields. TES ethers are selectively deprotected to the corresponding alcohols in high yields using formic acid in methanol under mild reaction conditions. Other hydroxyl protecting groups like t-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) remain unaffected. PMID:20183570

  7. Imide/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bass, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Imide/arylene ether block copolymers are prepared by reacting anhydride terminated poly(amic acids) with amine terminated poly(arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents and by chemically or thermally cyclodehydrating the resulting intermediate poly(amic acids). The resulting block copolymers have one glass transition temperature or two, depending upon the particular structure and/or the compatibility of the block units. Most of these block copolymers form tough, solvent resistant films with high tensile properties.

  8. Photo-cross-linked poly(thioether-co-carbonate) networks derived from the natural product quinic acid.

    PubMed

    Link, Lauren A; Lonnecker, Alexander T; Hearon, Keith; Maher, Cameron A; Raymond, Jeffery E; Wooley, Karen L

    2014-10-22

    Polycarbonate networks derived from the natural product quinic acid that can potentially return to their natural building blocks upon hydrolytic degradation are described herein. Solvent-free thiol-ene chemistry was utilized in the copolymerization of tris(alloc)quinic acid and a variety of multifunctional thiol monomers to obtain poly(thioether-co-carbonate) networks with a wide range of achievable thermomechanical properties including glass transition temperatures from -18 to +65 °C and rubbery moduli from 3.8 to 20 MPa. The network containing 1,2-ethanedithiol expressed an average toughness at 25 and 63 °C of 1.08 and 2.35 MJ/m(3), respectively, and an order-of-magnitude increase in the average toughness at 37 °C of 15.56 MJ/m(3).

  9. Space, Time, Ether, and Kant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wing-Chun Godwin

    This dissertation focused on Kant's conception of physical matter in the Opus postumum. In this work, Kant postulates the existence of an ether which fills the whole of space and time with its moving forces. Kant's arguments for the existence of an ether in the so-called Ubergang have been acutely criticized by commentators. Guyer, for instance, thinks that Kant pushes the technique of transcendental deduction too far in trying to deduce the empirical ether. In defense of Kant, I held that it is not the actual existence of the empirical ether, but the concept of the ether as a space-time filler that is subject to a transcendental deduction. I suggested that Kant is doing three things in the Ubergang: First, he deduces the pure concept of a space-time filler as a conceptual hybrid of the transcendental object and permanent substance to replace the category of substance in the Critique. Then he tries to prove the existence of such a space-time filler as a reworking of the First Analogy. Finally, he takes into consideration the empirical determinations of the ether by adding the concept of moving forces to the space -time filler. In reconstructing Kant's proofs, I pointed out that Kant is absolutely committed to the impossibility of action-at-a-distance. If we add this new principle of no-action-at-a-distance to the Third Analogy, the existence of a space-time filler follows. I argued with textual evidence that Kant's conception of ether satisfies the basic structure of a field: (1) the ether is a material continuum; (2) a physical quantity is definable on each point in the continuum; and (3) the ether provides a medium to support the continuous transmission of action. The thrust of Kant's conception of ether is to provide a holistic ontology for the transition to physics, which can best be understood from a field-theoretical point of view. This is the main thesis I attempted to establish in this dissertation.

  10. Sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, methods for producing the same, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hofmann, Michael A.

    2006-11-14

    The present invention is directed to sulfonimide-containing polymers, specifically sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, and processes for making the sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, for use conductive membranes and fuel cells.

  11. A thin film degradation study of a fluorinated polyether liquid lubricant using an HPLC method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, W.

    1986-01-01

    A High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) separation method was developed to study and analyze a fluorinated polyether fluid which is promising liquid lubricant for future applications. This HPLC separation method was used in a preliminary study investigating the catalytic effect of various metal, metal alloy, and ceramic engineering materials on the degradation of this fluid in a dry air atmosphere at 345 C. Using a 440 C stainless steel as a reference catalytic material it was found that a titanium alloy and a chromium plated material degraded the fluorinated polyether fluid substantially more than the reference material.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dimethyl Ether

    Science.gov Websites

    Hydrocarbon Biofuels Dimethyl Ether Dimethyl ether (DME) is a synthetically produced alternative to diesel for use in specially designed compression ignition diesel engines. Under normal atmospheric conditions ether has several fuel properties that make it attractive for use in diesel engines. It has a very high

  13. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a device...

  14. Bis(chloroethyl)ether (BCEE)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( chloroethyl ) ether ( BCEE ) ; CASRN 111 - 44 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  15. Propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene glycol monomethyl ether ( PGME ) ; CASRN 107 - 98 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assess

  16. Bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( chloromethyl ) ether ( BCME ) ; CASRN 542 - 88 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  17. p,p\\'-Dibromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p , p ' - Dibromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 2050 - 47 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  18. The Discovery of Crown Ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Charles J.

    1988-07-01

    The discovery of the crown ethers stemmed from efforts to control the catalytic activity of vanadium and copper by complexation with multidentate ligands. The first crown ether, 2,3,11,12-dibenzo-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclo-octadeca-2,11-diene, was obtained in 0.4% yield during an attempt to prepare a phenolic ligand from catechol and bis(2-chloroethyl)ether. This compound, which complexed with the sodium cation, was the first compound known to display such activity and became known as dibenzo-18-crown-6, an 18-atom heterocycle containing 6 oxygen atoms. Some 60 related compounds were made involving heterocyclic rings containing 12 to 60 atoms including 4 and 10 oxygen atoms. There are optimum polyether ring sizes for the different alkali metal cations: 15 to 18 for sodium, 18 for potassium, and 18 to 21 for cesium. Complexes having polyether to cation ratios of 1:1, 3:2, and 2:1 were prepared. Solubilization of inorganic salts in aprotic solvents, especially by saturated crown ethers, was demonstrated.

  19. One-Bead-Two-Compound Thioether Bridged Macrocyclic γ-AApeptide Screening Library against EphA2.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Challa, Sridevi; Sang, Peng; She, Fengyu; Li, Chunpu; Gray, Geoffrey M; Nimmagadda, Alekhya; Teng, Peng; Odom, Timothy; Wang, Yan; van der Vaart, Arjan; Li, Qi; Cai, Jianfeng

    2017-11-22

    Identification of molecular ligands that recognize peptides or proteins is significant but poses a fundamental challenge in chemical biology and biomedical sciences. Development of cyclic peptidomimetic library is scarce, and thus discovery of cyclic peptidomimetic ligands for protein targets is rare. Herein we report the unprecedented one-bead-two-compound (OBTC) combinatorial library based on a novel class of the macrocyclic peptidomimetics γ-AApeptides. In the library, we utilized the coding peptide tags synthesized with Dde-protected α-amino acids, which were orthogonal to solid phase synthesis of γ-AApeptides. Employing the thioether linkage, the desired macrocyclic γ-AApeptides were found to be effective for ligand identification. Screening the library against the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 led to the discovery of one lead compound that tightly bound to EphA2 (K d = 81 nM) and potently antagonized EphA2-mediated signaling. This new approach of macrocyclic peptidomimetic library may lead to a novel platform for biomacromolecular surface recognition and function modulation.

  20. A Novel Action of the Proton Pump Inhibitor Rabeprazole and Its Thioether Derivative against the Motility of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Nanako; Taneike, Ikue; Ohara, Tatsuki; Goshi, Satoshi; Kojio, Seiichi; Iwakura, Nobuhiro; Matsumaru, Hiroyuki; Wakisaka-Saito, Noriko; Zhang, Hui-Min; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2000-01-01

    The motility of Helicobacter pylori was maximum at 37°C and at pH 6. A newly developed proton pump inhibitor, rabeprazole (RPZ), and its thioether derivative (RPZ-TH) markedly inhibited the motility of H. pylori. The concentrations of the drug necessary to inhibit 50% of the motility were 0.25, 16, 16, and >64 μg/ml for RPZ-TH, RPZ, lansoprazole, and omeprazole, respectively. No such inhibitory effects were observed with H2 blockers or anti-H. pylori agents. The motilities of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli—but not those of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Proteus mirabilis—were also inhibited. Prolonged incubation with RPZ or RPZ-TH inhibited bacterial growth of only H. pylori, except for a turbid colony mutant. The results indicate that RPZ and RPZ-TH have a characteristic inhibitory effect against the motility of H. pylori (spiral-shaped bacteria), which is distinguished from that against bacterial growth. PMID:11036024

  1. Recombination of ions of a dense ion plasma in a fluorine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankin, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    A new effect leading to the slowing of recombination in a weakly nonideal ion plasma is considered. The solvation of ions is included in the explanation of the results from studying a gas discharge afterglow in a fluorine atmosphere. It is shown that recombination in such a system is slowed in comparison to the standard relationships for ideal plasma. The formation and composition of cluster ions in such a medium are considered. The relationship between the variation in the kinetics of recombination and the course of the process according to a complicated mechanism with the intermediate formation of metastable cluster pairs is established. A quantitative model is built and a formula allowing us to describe the recombination rate over a wide range of parameters of the medium is obtained. It is shown that the proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Vehicle-scale investigation of a fluorine jet-pump liquid hydrogen tank pressurization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.; Kendle, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical and experimental program was performed to evaluate the performance of a fluorine-hydrogen jet-pump injector for main tank injection (MTI) pressurization of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank. The injector performance during pressurization and LH2 expulsion was determined by a series of seven tests of a full-scale injector and MTI pressure control system in a 28.3 cu m (1000 cu ft) flight-weight LH2 tank. Although the injector did not effectively jet-pump LH2 continuously, it showed improved pressurization performance compared to straight-pipe injectors tested under the same conditions in a previous program. The MTI computer code was modified to allow performance prediction for the jet-pump injector.

  3. Biaxial deformation behaviour of poly-ether-ether-ketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Josh; Menary, Gary; Martin, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The biaxial tensile properties of thin poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) films are presented. Investigation into the biaxial mechanical behaviour of PEEK films will provide a preliminary insight into the anticipated stress/strain response, and potential suitability, to the possible fabrication of thin walled parts through stretch blow moulding and thermoforming processes - with the multi-axial state of strain imposed onto the heated thermoplastic sheet representative of the expected strain history experienced during these material forming processes. Following identification of the prospective forming temperature window, the biaxial mechanical behaviour of the material is characterized under differing modes of deformation, at a nominal strain rate of 1 s-1. The temperature dependence is outlined within - with an appreciable increase in flow behaviour correlated with specimen temperature exceeding its glass transition temperature (Tg).

  4. Synthesis of geminal difluorides by oxidative desulfurization-difluorination of alkyl aryl thioethers with halonium electrophiles in the presence of fluorinating reagents and its application for 18F-radiolabeling.

    PubMed

    Hugenberg, Verena; Wagner, Stefan; Kopka, Klaus; Schober, Otmar; Schäfers, Michael; Haufe, Günter

    2010-09-17

    Various ω-substituted 1,1-difluoroalkanes are synthesized in good yields from alkyl aryl thioethers by a new oxidative desulfurization-difluorination protocol with the reagents combination of 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH) as an oxidizer and pyridine·9HF (Py·9HF) as a fluoride source. The reaction proceeds via a fluoro-Pummerer-type rearrangement followed by an oxidative desulfurization-fluorination step. Starting from α-fluorinated thioethers, this reaction is promising for (18)F-labeling (τ(1/2) = 110 min) of ligands applicable for positron emission tomography (PET). Using the combination of DBH and carrier-added Py·9H[(18)F]F, an (18)F-labeled difluoride was synthesized from the corresponding α-fluoro thioether with a radiochemical yield of 9%.

  5. Copper Capture in a Thioether-Functionalized Porous Polymer Applied to the Detection of Wilson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential nutrient for life, but at the same time, hyperaccumulation of this redox-active metal in biological fluids and tissues is a hallmark of pathologies such as Wilson’s and Menkes diseases, various neurodegenerative diseases, and toxic environmental exposure. Diseases characterized by copper hyperaccumulation are currently challenging to identify due to costly diagnostic tools that involve extensive technical workup. Motivated to create simple yet highly selective and sensitive diagnostic tools, we have initiated a program to develop new materials that can enable monitoring of copper levels in biological fluid samples without complex and expensive instrumentation. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and properties of PAF-1-SMe, a robust three-dimensional porous aromatic framework (PAF) densely functionalized with thioether groups for selective capture and concentration of copper from biofluids as well as aqueous samples. PAF-1-SMe exhibits a high selectivity for copper over other biologically relevant metals, with a saturation capacity reaching over 600 mg/g. Moreover, the combination of PAF-1-SMe as a material for capture and concentration of copper from biological samples with 8-hydroxyquinoline as a colorimetric indicator affords a method for identifying aberrant elevations of copper in urine samples from mice with Wilson’s disease and also tracing exogenously added copper in serum. This divide-and-conquer sensing strategy, where functional and robust porous materials serve as molecular recognition elements that can be used to capture and concentrate analytes in conjunction with molecular indicators for signal readouts, establishes a valuable starting point for the use of porous polymeric materials in noninvasive diagnostic applications. PMID:27285482

  6. Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative N-S bond functionalization for C-S bond formation: regio- and stereoselective synthesis of sulfones and thioethers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianwei; Xu, Yanli; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Chang; Qi, Chaorong; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2014-06-23

    A regio- and stereoselective synthesis of sulfones and thioethers by means of Cu(I)-catalyzed aerobic oxidative N-S bond cleavage of sulfonyl hydrazides, followed by cross-coupling reactions with alkenes and aromatic compounds to form the C sp 2-S bond, is described herein. N2 and H2O are the byproducts of this transformation, thus offering an environmentally benign process with a wide range of potential applications in organic synthesis and medicinal chemistry. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Oing; McBreen, James

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  8. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  9. CEC with new monolithic stationary phase based on a fluorinated monomer, trifluoroethyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Arda; Saraçoğlu, Berna; Tuncel, Ali

    2009-02-01

    A new, fluorinated monolithic stationary phase for CEC was first synthesized by a single-stage, thermally initiated copolymerization of a fluorinated monomer, 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFEM) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of a porogen mixture. In this preparation, 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid was used as the charge-bearing monomer. The porogen mixture was prepared by mixing isoamylalcohol and 1,4-butanediol. A clear increase in the electroosmotic mobility was observed with increasing pH. The electroosmotic mobility decreased with increasing ACN concentration. Poly(TFEM-co-EDMA) monolith prepared under optimized polymerization conditions was successfully used in the separation of alkylbenzenes and phenols by CEC. The best chromatographic separation for alkylbenzenes was performed with lower ACN concentrations (i.e. 60% v/v) with respect to the common acrylic-based CEC monoliths. The theoretical plate numbers up to 220 000 plates/m were achieved in the reversed phase separation of phenols. Poly(TFEM-co-EDMA) monolith also allowed the simultaneous separation of aniline and benzoic acid derivatives by a single run and by using a lower ACN concentration in the mobile phase with respect to the similar electrochromatographic separations. A stable retention behaviour in reversed phase separation of alkylbenzenes was obtained with the poly(TFEM-co-EDMA) monolith.

  10. Solution structure of a small protein containing a fluorinated side chain in the core

    PubMed Central

    Cornilescu, Gabriel; Hadley, Erik B.; Woll, Matthew G.; Markley, John L.; Gellman, Samuel H.; Cornilescu, Claudia C.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first high-resolution structure for a protein containing a fluorinated side chain. Recently we carried out a systematic evaluation of phenylalanine to pentafluorophenylalanine (Phe → F5-Phe) mutants for the 35-residue chicken villin headpiece subdomain (c-VHP), the hydrophobic core of which features a cluster of three Phe side chains (residues 6, 10, and 17). Phe → F5-Phe mutations are interesting because aryl–perfluoroaryl interactions of optimal geometry are intrinsically more favorable than either aryl–aryl or perfluoroaryl–perfluoroaryl interactions, and because perfluoroaryl units are more hydrophobic than are analogous aryl units. Only one mutation, Phe10 → F5-Phe, was found to provide enhanced tertiary structural stability relative to the native core (by ∼1 kcal/mol, according to guanidinium chloride denaturation studies). The NMR structure of this mutant, described here, reveals very little variation in backbone conformation or side chain packing relative to the wild type. Thus, although Phe → F5-Phe mutations offer the possibility of greater tertiary structural stability from side chain–side chain attraction and/or side chain desolvation, the constraints associated with the native c-VHP fold apparently prevent the modified polypeptide from taking advantage of this possibility. Our findings are important because they complement several studies that have shown that fluorination of saturated side chain carbon atoms can provide enhanced conformational stability. PMID:17123960

  11. Dynamic Mechanism of a Fluorinated Oxime Reactivator Unbinding from AChE Gorge in Polarizable Water.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Arup K; Bandyopadhyay, Tusar

    2018-04-12

    A well-tempered metadynamics simulation is performed to study the unbinding process of a fluorinated oxime (FHI-6) drug from the active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in a polarizable water medium. Cation-π interactions and water bridge and hydrogen bridge formations between the protein and the drug molecule are found to strongly influence the unbinding process, forming basins and barriers along the gorge pathway. Distinct unbinding pathways are found when FHI-6 was compared with its recently reported nonfluorinated analogue, HI-6. For example, because of permanent positive charges on both the pyridinium rings of HI-6, it exhibits the minimum in the potential of mean force of the unbinding process in the gorge mouth (where the peripheral anion site, PAS, of the enzyme is located), which is largely caused by cation-π interactions. However, the same interaction, both in the catalytic active-site (CAS) and PAS regions, is found to be greatly enhanced in its lipophilic fluorinated analogue, FHI-6, causing a deep potential energy minimum in the bound state. This may render FHI-6 to be held more firmly in the CAS region of the gorge, as is also evidenced from the microkinetics of unbinding transitions, measured through a combination of metadynamics and hyperdynamics simulations.

  12. Rate and Selectivity Control in Thioether and Alkene Oxidation with H 2 O 2 over Phosphonate-Modified Niobium(V)-Silica Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Thornburg, Nicholas E.; Notestein, Justin M.

    Supported metal oxide catalysts are versatile materials for liquid-phase oxidations, including alkene epoxidation and thioether sulfoxidation with H2O2. Periodic trends in H2O2 activation was recently demonstrated for alkene epoxidation, highlighting Nb-SiO2 as a more active and selective catalyst than Ti-SiO2. Three representative catalysts are studied consisting of NbV, TiIV, and ZrIV on silica, each made through a molecular precursor approach that yields highly dispersed oxide sites, for thioanisole oxidation by H2O2. Initial rates trend Nb>Ti>>Zr, as for epoxidation, and Nb outperforms Ti for a number of other thioethers. In contrast, selectivity to sulfoxide vs. sulfone trends Ti>Nb>>Zr at all conversions.more » Modifying the Nb-SiO2 catalyst with phenylphosphonic acid does not completely remove sulfoxidation reactivity, as it did for photooxidation and epoxidation, and results in an unusual material active for sulfoxidation but neither epoxidation nor overoxidation to the sulfone.« less

  13. Bacterial Utilization of Ether Glycols

    PubMed Central

    Fincher, Edward L.; Payne, W. J.

    1962-01-01

    A soil bacterium capable of using oligo- and polyethylene glycols and ether alcohols as sole sources of carbon for aerobic growth was isolated. The effects of substituent groups added to the ether bonds on the acceptability of the compounds as substrates were studied. Mechanisms for the incorporation of two-carbon compounds were demonstrated by the observation that acetate, glyoxylate, ethylene glycol, and a number of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates served as growth substrates in minimal media. The rate of oxidation of the short-chained ethylene glycols by adapted resting cells varied directly with increasing numbers of two-carbon units in the chains from one to four. The amount of oxygen consumed per carbon atom of oligo- and polyethylene glycols was 100% of theoretical, but only 67% of theoretical for ethylene glycol. Resting cells oxidized oligo- and polyethylene glycols with 2 to 600 two-carbon units in the chains. Longer chained polyethylene glycols (up to 6,000) were oxidized at a very slow rate by these cells. Dehydrogenation of triethylene glycol by adapted cells was observed, coupling the reaction with methylene blue reduction. PMID:13945208

  14. Conformational Study of Dibenzyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Castillo, Alicia O.; Abeysekera, Chamara; Hewett, Daniel M.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the initial stages of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) aggregation, the onset of soot formation, is an important goal on the pathway to cleaner combustion processes. PAHs with short alkyl chains, present in fuel-rich combustion environments, can undergo reactions that will chemically link aromatic rings together. One such example of a linked diaryl compound is dibenzyl ether, C_{6}H_{5}-CH_{2}-O-CH_{2}-C_{6}H_{5}. The -CH_{2}-O-CH_{2}- linkage has a length and flexibility well-suited to forming a π-stacked conformation between the two phenyl rings. In this talk, we will explore the single-conformation spectroscopy of dibenzyl ether under jet-cooled conditions in the gas phase. Laser-induced fluorescence, chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave (8-18 GHz region), and single-conformation infrared spectroscopy in the alkyl CH stretch region were all carried out on the molecule, thereby interrogating its full array of electronic, vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. This work is the first step in a broader study to determine the extent of π-stacking in linked aryl compounds as a function of linkage and PAH size.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of a fluorinated resin monomer with low water sorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue; Wang, Zengyao; Zhao, Chengji; Bu, Wenhuan; Zhang, Yurong; Na, Hui

    2018-01-01

    A fluorinated acrylate monomer (4-TF-PQEA) without BPA (bisphenol-A) structure was synthesized and mixed with triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) to used as dental resin system in order to achieve lower water sorption and reduce human exposure to BPA derivatives. Double bond conversion (DC) was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Water sorption (WS), water solution (WL) and depth of cure (DOC) were evaluated according to ISO 4049:2009. Water contact angle (CA) was measured using contact angle analyzer. Polymerization shrinkage (PS) was evaluated according to the Archimedes' principle and ISO 17304:2013. Flexural strength (FS) and flexural modulus (FM) were measured by three-point bending test with a universal testing machine according to ISO 4049:2009. Comprehensive strength (CS) and vickers microhardness (VM) were also investigated. Thermal stability test was measure by Thermogravimetric analyzer. Cytotoxicity of three resin systems was tested through MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid) cytotoxicity method according to the ISO 10993-5:2009. Bisphenol-A glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA)/ TEGDMA resin system was used as a control. The results show that 4-TF-PQEA/TEGDMA resin system had lower PS, lower WS and higher DC values than those of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin system except some mechanical properties, such as FS, FM and CS. Moreover, properties of other 4-TF-PQEA-containing resin systems were also comparable with those of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin system. In particular, the overall performance of resin system consisted of 4-TF-PQEA/Bis-GMA/TEGDMA is optimized when the mixture ratio is 30/40/30(wt/wt/wt). Therefore, the 4-TF-PQEA has potential to be used as resin monomer for dental resin composites to achieve lower water sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevention by thioethers of the hepatotoxicity and covalent binding to macromolecules of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and its sulfate ester in rat liver in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    van den Goorbergh, J A; de Wit, H; Tijdens, R B; Mulder, G J; Meerman, J H

    1987-02-01

    In order to find potentially effective compounds that could prevent the covalent binding of the carcinogen N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-AAF) to rat liver macromolecules in vivo, the prevention of the covalent binding to RNA of the sulfate ester of the carcinogen N-OH-AAF by a series of thioethers was investigated in vitro. The most effective thioethers, which inhibited the covalent binding by 70% or more, were studied for their protection against acute hepatotoxicity of N-OH-AAF in the rat in vivo. Three of these thioethers, thiazolidine, methyl 4-(methylthio)benzoate, and 2-(methylthio)benzimidazole significantly decreased the hepatoxicity of N-OH-AAF, by 45, 71 and 83%, respectively. The effects of these thioethers on the covalent binding of N-OH-AAF to cellular macromolecules in vivo were also studied. Methyl 4-(methylthio)benzoate and 2-(methylthio)benzimidazole decreased the adduct formation of N-OH-AAF to DNA by 54 and 44%, respectively, but had no effect on protein adduct formation. Only 2-(methylthio)benzimidazole caused a slight decrease (23%) in the AAF-- protein adduct formation. 2-Acetylaminofluorene (AAF) and methyl 4-(methyl-sulfinyl)benzoate were the main products in the incubation of methyl 4-(methylthio)benzoate with AAF-N-sulfate in vitro. This suggests that the thioether attacks the nitrenium ion which is formed by spontaneous breakdown of AAF-N-sulfate; the formation of a sulfonium--AAF conjugate is postulated which decomposes into AAF and a sulfinyl compound.

  17. Structure, Bonding, and Stability of Mercury Complexes with Thiolate and Thioether Ligands from High-Resolution XANES Spectroscopy and First-Principles Calculations.

    PubMed

    Manceau, Alain; Lemouchi, Cyprien; Rovezzi, Mauro; Lanson, Martine; Glatzel, Pieter; Nagy, Kathryn L; Gautier-Luneau, Isabelle; Joly, Yves; Enescu, Mironel

    2015-12-21

    We present results obtained from high energy-resolution L3-edge XANES spectroscopy and first-principles calculations for the structure, bonding, and stability of mercury(II) complexes with thiolate and thioether ligands in crystalline compounds, aqueous solution, and macromolecular natural organic matter (NOM). Core-to-valence XANES features that vary in intensity differentiate with unprecedented sensitivity the number and identity of Hg ligands and the geometry of the ligand environment. Post-Hartree-Fock XANES calculations, coupled with natural population analysis, performed on MP2-optimized Hg[(SR)2···(RSR)n] complexes show that the shape, position, and number of electronic transitions observed at high energy-resolution are directly correlated to the Hg and S (l,m)-projected empty densities of states and occupations of the hybridized Hg 6s and 5d valence orbitals. Linear two-coordination, the most common coordination geometry in mercury chemistry, yields a sharp 2p to 6s + 5d electronic transition. This transition varies in intensity for Hg bonded to thiol groups in macromolecular NOM. The intensity variation is explained by contributions from next-nearest, low-charge, thioether-type RSR ligands at 3.0-3.3 Å from Hg. Thus, Hg in NOM has two strong bonds to thiol S and k additional weak Hg···S contacts, or 2 + k coordination. The calculated stabilization energy is -5 kcal/mol per RSR ligand. Detection of distant ligands beyond the first coordination shell requires precise measurement of, and comparison to, spectra of reference compounds as well as accurate calculation of spectra for representative molecular models. The combined experimental and theoretical approaches described here for Hg can be applied to other closed-shell atoms, such as Ag(I) and Au(I). To facilitate further calculation of XANES spectra, experimental data, a new crystallographic structure of a key mercury thioether complex, Cartesian coordinates of the computed models, and examples of

  18. Some actions of substituted choline phenyl ethers, particularly of choline 2:6-xylyl ether

    PubMed Central

    Edge, N. D.; Mason, D. F. J.; Wyllie, J. H.

    1957-01-01

    Marked nicotine-like stimulant properties are possessed by choline phenyl ether and choline o-tolyl ether, and to a decreasing extent by choline 2:6-xylyl ether and choline 2:4:6-mesityl ether. The compounds all show neuromuscular blocking properties, which are of short duration and pass from mainly decamethonium-like to mainly curare-like as more methyl groups are added to the phenyl nucleus. This series of compounds also possesses muscarinic, weak anti-adrenaline and vasodilator properties, as well as long-lasting local anaesthetic effects in the two compounds tested by intradermal injection. PMID:13460236

  19. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants in a number of applications. EPA is concerned that some of the component congeners are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic.

  20. Triethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether; Final Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final test rule under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requiring manufacturers and processors of triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TGME, CAS No. 112-35-6) to perform developmental neurotoxicity tasting.

  1. Synthesis of a zinc(II) complex with hexadentate N4S2 donor thioether ligand: X-ray structure, DNA binding study and DFT computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Apurba Sau; Jana, Mahendra Sekhar; Manna, Chandan Kumar; Naskar, Rahul; Mondal, Tapan Kumar

    2018-07-01

    A new zinc(II) complex, [Zn(L)](ClO4) with hexadentate N4S2 donor azo-thioether ligand (HL) was synthesized and characterized by several spectroscopic techniques. The structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis. The interaction of the complex with CT DNA was investigated by UV-vis method and binding constant is found to be 6.6 × 104 M-1. Competitive binding titration with ethidium bromide (EB) by fluorescence titration method reveals that the complex efficiently displaces EB from EB-DNA system and the Stern-Volmer dynamic quenching constant, Ksv is found to be 2.6 × 104 M-1. DFT and TDDFT calculations were carried out to interpret the electronic structure and electronic spectra of the complex.

  2. Phenylethynl-terminated poly(arylene ethers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Phenylethynyl-terminated poly(arylene ethers) are prepared in a wide range of molecular weights by adjusting monomer ratio and adding an appropriate amount of 4-fluoro- 4'-phenylethynyl benzophenone during polymer synthesis. The resulting phenylethynyl-terminated poly(arylene ethers) react and crosslink upon curing for one hour at 350 C to provide materials with improved solvent resistance, higher modulus, and better high temperature properties than the linear, uncrosslinked polymers.

  3. Novel crosslinked membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuanqin; Zieren, Shelley; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2011-07-14

    Novel covalently crosslinked membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and carboxylated polysulfone exhibit much lower methanol crossover and better performance in direct methanol fuel cells at 65 °C in 1 and 2 M methanol solutions compared to Nafion 115 membranes.

  4. Conformations and Barriers to Methyl Group Internal Rotation in Two Asymmetric Ethers: Propyl Methyl Ether and Butyl Methyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, B. E.; Dechirico, F.; Cooke, S. A.

    2012-06-01

    The conformational preferences of the O-C-C-C unit are important in many biological systems with the unit generally preferring a gauche configuration compared to an anti configuration. Butyl methyl ether and propyl methyl ether provide very simple systems for this phenomenom to manifest. Pure rotational spectra of the title molecules have been recorded using chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW). In the case of butyl methyl ether, only one conformer has been observed. This conformer has torsional angles of COCC = 180°, OCCC = 62° and CCCC = 180° (anti-gauche-anti) and rotational constants of A = 10259.4591(33) MHz, B = 1445.6470(13) MHz, and C = 1356.2944(14) MHz. The rotational spectrum was doubled and has been analyzed to produce an effective barrier to methyl group internal rotation of 780(35) cm-1. A prior rotational spectroscopic study on propyl methyl ether had focused only on the high energy anti-anti conformer. We have analyzed spectra from the lowest energy anti-gauche conformer and the spectroscopic constants will be presented. A summary of the differences in conformational energies and methyl group internal rotation barriers for the class of aliphatic asymmetric ethers will be presented. K. N. Houk, J. E. Eksterowicz, Y.-D. Wu, C. D. Fuglesang, D. B. Mitchell. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115 (4170), 1993. Hiroshi Kato, Jun Nakagawa, Michiro Hayashi. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 80 (272), 1980.

  5. Stereocontrolled Cyanohydrin Ether Synthesis through Chiral Brønsted Acid-Mediated Vinyl Ether Hydrocyanation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chunliang; Su, Xiaoge; Floreancig, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Vinyl ethers can be protonated to generate oxocarbenium ions that react with Me3SiCN to form cyanohydrin alkyl ethers. Reactions that form racemic products proceed efficiently upon converting the vinyl ether to an α-chloro ether prior to cyanide addition in a pathway that proceeds through Brønsted acid-mediated chloride ionization. Enantiomerically enriched products can be accessed by directly protonating the vinyl ether with a chiral Brønsted acid to form a chiral ion pair. Me3SiCN acts as the nucleophile and PhOH serves as a stoichiometric proton source in a rare example of an asymmetric bimolecular nucleophilic addition reaction into an oxocarbenium ion. Computational studies provide a model for the interaction between the catalyst and the oxocarbenium ion. PMID:23968162

  6. Dissociative Photoionization of Diethyl Ether.

    PubMed

    Voronova, Krisztina; Mozaffari Easter, Chrissa M; Covert, Kyle J; Bodi, Andras; Hemberger, Patrick; Sztáray, Bálint

    2015-10-29

    The dissociative photoionization of internal energy selected diethyl ether ions was investigated by imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy. In a large, 5 eV energy range Et2O(+) cations decay by two parallel and three sequential dissociative photoionization channels, which can be modeled well using statistical theory. The 0 K appearance energies of the CH3CHOCH2CH3(+) (H-loss, m/z = 73) and CH3CH2O═CH2(+) (methyl-loss, m/z = 59) fragment ions were determined to be 10.419 ± 0.015 and 10.484 ± 0.008 eV, respectively. The reemergence of the hydrogen-loss ion above 11 eV is attributed to transition-state (TS) switching, in which the second, outer TS is rate-determining at high internal energies. At 11.81 ± 0.05 eV, a secondary fragment of the CH3CHOCH2CH3(+) (m/z = 73) ion, protonated acetaldehyde, CH3CH═OH(+) (m/z = 45) appears. On the basis of the known thermochemical onset of this fragment, a reverse barrier of 325 meV was found. Two more sequential dissociation reactions were examined, namely, ethylene and formaldehyde losses from the methyl-loss daughter ion. The 0 K appearance energies of 11.85 ± 0.07 and 12.20 ± 0.08 eV, respectively, indicate no reverse barrier in these processes. The statistical model of the dissociative photoionization can also be used to predict the fractional ion abundances in threshold photoionization at large temperatures, which could be of use in, for example, combustion diagnostics.

  7. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of dimethyl ether steam reforming and dimethyl ether hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.

    The production of a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed by dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming was investigated using calculations of thermodynamic equilibrium as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0.00-4.00), temperature (100-600 °C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species. Species considered were acetone, acetylene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, dimethyl ether, ethane, ethanol, ethylene, formaldehyde, formic acid, hydrogen, isopropanol, methane, methanol, methyl-ethyl ether, n-propanol and water. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of DME steam reforming indicate complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at temperatures greater than 200 °C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure ( P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure shifts the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 to 5 atm decreases the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5 to 76.2%. The trend of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction is methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol-formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. Based on the equilibrium calculations, the optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occur at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.50, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 °C. These thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show dimethyl ether processed with steam will produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds—with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. The conversion of dimethyl ether via hydrolysis (considering methanol as the only product) is limited by thermodynamic equilibrium. Equilibrium conversion increases with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio. A maximum dimethyl ether conversion of 62% is achieved at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 5.00 and a processing temperature of 600 °C.

  8. Toxicokinetics of ethers used as fuel oxygenates.

    PubMed

    Dekant, W; Bernauer, U; Rosner, E; Amberg, A

    2001-10-15

    The toxicokinetics and biotransformation of methyl-tert.butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl-tert.butyl ether (ETBE) and tert.amyl-methyl ether (TAME) in rats and humans are summarized. These ethers are used as gasoline additives in large amounts, and thus, a considerable potential for human exposure exists. After inhalation exposure MTBE, ETBE and TAME are rapidly taken up by both rats and humans; after termination of exposure, clearance by exhalation and biotransformation to urinary metabolites is rapid in rats. In humans, clearance by exhalation is slower in comparison to rats. Biotransformation of MTBE and ETBE is both qualitatively and quantitatively similar in humans and rats after inhalation exposure under identical conditions. The extent of biotransformation of TAME is also quantitatively similar in rats and humans; the metabolic pathways, however, are different. The results suggest that reactive and potentially toxic metabolites are not formed during biotransformation of these ethers and that toxic effects of these compounds initiated by covalent binding to cellular macromolecules are unlikely.

  9. Atmospheric degradation of 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether, allyl ether and allyl ethyl ether: Kinetics with OH radicals and UV photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Antiñolo, M; Ocaña, A J; Aranguren, J P; Lane, S I; Albaladejo, J; Jiménez, E

    2017-08-01

    Unsaturated ethers are oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) emitted by anthropogenic sources. Potential removal processes in the troposphere are initiated by hydroxyl (OH) radicals and photochemistry. In this work, we report for the first time the rate coefficients of the gas-phase reaction with OH radicals (k OH ) of 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether (2ClEVE), allyl ether (AE), and allyl ethyl ether (AEE) as a function of temperature in the 263-358 K range, measured by the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. No pressure dependence of k OH was observed in the 50-500 Torr range in He as bath gas, while a slightly negative T-dependence was observed. The temperature dependent expressions for the rate coefficients determined in this work are: The estimated atmospheric lifetimes (τ OH ) assuming k OH at 288 K were 3, 2, and 4 h for 2ClEVE, AE and AEE, respectively. The kinetic results are discussed in terms of the chemical structure of the unsaturated ethers by comparison with similar compounds. We also report ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) absorption cross sections (σ λ and σ(ν˜), respectively). We estimate the photolysis rate coefficients in the solar UV actinic region to be less than 10 -7 s -1 , implying that these compounds are not removed from the atmosphere by this process. In addition, from σ(ν˜) and τ OH , the global warming potential of each unsaturated ether was calculated to be almost zero. A discussion on the atmospheric implications of the titled compounds is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation and structures of sulfonium salts derived from thioethers: [{o-C(6)H(4)(CH(2)SMe)(2)}H][NbF(6)] and [{[9]aneS(3)}H][NbF(6)].

    PubMed

    Jura, Marek; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; Webster, Michael

    2009-10-07

    Two very unusual sulfonium salts, [{o-C(6)H(4)(CH(2)SMe)(2)}H][NbF(6)] and [{[9]aneS(3)}H][NbF(6)], obtained from reaction of the thioethers with NbF(5) in CH(2)Cl(2) solution, are reported and their structures described; the eight-coordinate tetrafluoro Nb(v) cation of the dithioether is obtained from the same reaction.

  11. Crystalline imide/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bass, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Crystalline imide/arylene ether block copolymers are prepared by reacting anhydride terminated poly(amic acids) with amine terminated poly)arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents and chemically or thermally cyclodehydrating the resulting intermediate poly(amic acids). The block copolymers of the invention have one glass transition temperature or two, depending on the particular structure and/or the compatibility of the block units. Most of these crystalline block copolymers for tough, solvent resistant films with high tensile properties. While all of the copolymers produced by the present invention are crystalline, testing reveals that copolymers with longer imide blocks or higher imide content have increased crystallinity.

  12. Synthesis, metabolism and systemic transport of a fluorinated mimic of the endogenous jasmonate precursor OPC-8:0.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Scholz, Sandra S; Heyer, Monika; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-12-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are fatty acid derivatives that mediate many developmental processes and stress responses in plants. Synthetic jasmonate derivatives (commonly isotopically labeled), which mimic the action of the endogenous compounds are often employed as internal standards or probes to study metabolic processes. However, stable-isotope labeling of jasmonates does not allow the study of spatial and temporal distribution of these compounds in real time by positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, we explore whether a fluorinated jasmonate could mimic the action of the endogenous compound and therefore, be later employed as a tracer to study metabolic processes by PET. We describe the synthesis and the metabolism of (Z)-7-fluoro-8-(3-oxo-2-(pent-2-en-1-yl)cyclopentyl)octanoic acid (7F-OPC-8:0), a fluorinated analog of the JA precursor OPC-8:0. Like endogenous jasmonates, 7F-OPC-8:0 induces the transcription of marker jasmonate responsive genes (JRG) and the accumulation of jasmonates after its application to Arabidopsis thaliana plants. By using UHPLC-MS/MS, we could show that 7F-OPC-8:0 is metabolized in vivo similarly to the endogenous OPC-8:0. Furthermore, the fluorinated analog was successfully employed as a probe to show its translocation to undamaged systemic leaves when it was applied to wounded leaves. This result suggests that OPC-8:0 - and maybe other oxylipins - may contribute to the mobile signal which triggers systemic defense responses in plants. We highlight the potential of fluorinated oxylipins to study the mode of action of lipid-derived molecules in planta, either by conventional analytical methods or fluorine-based detection techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Alkyl Aryl Ether Bond Formation with PhenoFluor**

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao; Neumann, Constanze N.; Kleinlein, Claudia; Claudia, Nathaniel W.; Ritter, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    An alkyl aryl ether bond formation reaction between phenols and primary and secondary alcohols with PhenoFluor has been developed. The reaction features a broad substrate scope and tolerates many functional groups, and substrates that are challenging for more conventional ether bond forming processes may be coupled. A preliminary mechanistic study indicates reactivity distinct from conventional ether bond formation. PMID:25800679

  14. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance... chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance... chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use...

  16. "Crown Ether" Synthesis: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kurt W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This experiment is designed to acquaint the student with a macromolecular synthesis of a crown ether type compound. The starting materials are readily available and the product, a cyclic polyether, belongs to a class of compounds that has aroused the interest of chemist and biologist alike. (Author/BB)

  17. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN US SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical analysis of thirty-three soil samples from 15 US states reveals Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs), in every sample.PBDE concentrations rangefrom 0.09 to 1200 parts per billion by mass. These data are the first analysis of soil concentrations of PBDEs in soils from a...

  18. Imide/arylene ether block copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Bass, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Two series of imide/arylene either block copolymers were prepared using an arylene ether block and either an amorphous or semi-crystalline imide block. The resulting copolymers were characterized and selected physical and mechanical properties were determined. These results, as well as comparisons to the homopolymer properties, are discussed.

  19. Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( 2 - chloro - 1 - methylethyl ) ether ; CASRN 108 - 60 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assess

  20. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) (2-Butoxyethanol)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether ( EGBE ) ( 2 - Butoxyethanol ) ; CASRN 111 - 76 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I (

  1. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl tert - butyl ether ( MTBE ) ; CASRN 1634 - 04 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  2. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI CATFISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

  3. Elastic electron scattering by ethyl vinyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Khakoo, M. A.; Hong, L.; Kim, B.

    2010-02-15

    We report measured and calculated results for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by ethyl vinyl ether (ethoxyethene), a prototype system for studying indirect dissociative attachment processes that may play a role in DNA damage. The integral cross section displays the expected {pi}{sup *} shape resonance. The agreement between the calculated and measured cross sections is generally good.

  4. Dimensionally Stable Ether-Containing Polyimide Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, Catharine C. (Inventor); St.Clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Novel polyimide copolymers containing ether linkages were prepared by the reaction of an equimolar amount of dianhydride and a combination of diamines. The polyimide copolymers described herein possess the unique features of low moisture uptake, dimensional stability, good mechanical properties, and moderate glass transition temperatures. These materials have potential application as encapsulants and interlayer dielectrics.

  5. [Visualisation methods for etheric formative forces].

    PubMed

    Burkhard, B; Kittel, R

    2009-09-01

    Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy, suggested the development of visualisation methods for "etheric formative forces". The essential methods, their "spiritual scientific" basis and indications are described and their claims critically tested. The methods are not validated, the key criteria for diagnostic tests (reproducibility, sensitivity, specifity) are not given.

  6. How Stress Treatments Influence the Performance of Biodegradable Poly(Butylene Succinate)-Based Copolymers with Thioether Linkages for Food Packaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Siracusa, Valentina; Genovese, Laura; Munari, Andrea; Lotti, Nadia

    2017-08-30

    Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)-based random copolymers containing thioether linkages (P(BSxTDGSy)) of various compositions have been investigated and characterized from the gas barrier, thermal, and mechanical point of view, after food contact simulants or thermal and photoaging processes. Each stress treatment was performed on thin films and the results obtained have been compared to the same untreated film, used as a standard. Barrier properties with different gases (O₂ and CO₂) were evaluated, showing that the polymer chemical composition strongly influenced the permeability behavior. The relationships between the diffusion coefficients ( D ) and solubility ( S ) with polymer composition were also investigated. The results highlighted a correlation between polymer chemical structure and treatment. Gas transmission rate ( GTR ) mainly depending on the performed treatment, as GTR increased with the increase of TDGS co-unit amount. Thermal and mechanical tests allowed for the recording of variations in the degree of crystallinity and in the tensile properties. An increase in the crystallinity degree was recorded after contact with simulant liquids and aging treatments, together with a molecular weight decrease, a slight enhancement of the elastic modulus and a decrement of the elongation at break, proportional to the TDGS co-unit content.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a new zinc(II) complex with tetradentate azo-thioether ligand: X-ray structure, DNA binding study and DFT calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Apurba Sau; Pramanik, Ajoy Kumar; Patra, Lakshman; Manna, Chandan Kumar; Mondal, Tapan Kumar

    2017-10-01

    A new zinc(II) complex, [Zn(L)(H2O)](ClO4) (1) with azo-thioether containing NSNO donor ligand, 3-(2-(2-((pyridin-2-ylmethyl)thio)phenyl)hydrazono)pentane-2,4-dione (HL) is synthesized and characterized by several spectroscopic techniques. The distorted square based pyramidal (DSBP) geometry is confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure. The ability of the complex to bind with CT DNA is investigated by UV-vis method and the binding constant is found to be 4.16 × 104 M-1. Competitive binding study with ethidium bromide (EB) by fluorescence method suggests that the zinc(II) complex efficiently displaces EB from EB-DNA. The Stern-Volmer dynamic quenching constant, Ksv is found to be 1.2 × 104 M-1. Theoretical calculations by DFT and TDDFT/CPCM methods are used to interpret the electronic structure and UV-vis spectrum of the complex.

  8. How Stress Treatments Influence the Performance of Biodegradable Poly(Butylene Succinate)-Based Copolymers with Thioether Linkages for Food Packaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Genovese, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)-based random copolymers containing thioether linkages (P(BSxTDGSy)) of various compositions have been investigated and characterized from the gas barrier, thermal, and mechanical point of view, after food contact simulants or thermal and photoaging processes. Each stress treatment was performed on thin films and the results obtained have been compared to the same untreated film, used as a standard. Barrier properties with different gases (O2 and CO2) were evaluated, showing that the polymer chemical composition strongly influenced the permeability behavior. The relationships between the diffusion coefficients (D) and solubility (S) with polymer composition were also investigated. The results highlighted a correlation between polymer chemical structure and treatment. Gas transmission rate (GTR) mainly depending on the performed treatment, as GTR increased with the increase of TDGS co-unit amount. Thermal and mechanical tests allowed for the recording of variations in the degree of crystallinity and in the tensile properties. An increase in the crystallinity degree was recorded after contact with simulant liquids and aging treatments, together with a molecular weight decrease, a slight enhancement of the elastic modulus and a decrement of the elongation at break, proportional to the TDGS co-unit content. PMID:28867806

  9. Process for making propenyl ethers and photopolymerizable compositions containing them

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, J.V.

    1996-01-23

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} (V) wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether, and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  10. Process for making propenyl ethers and photopolymerizable compositions containing them

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, James V.

    1996-01-01

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula V A(OCH.dbd.CHCH.sub.3).sub.n wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  11. Degradable Networks Containing Silyl Ether Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassampour, Zahra S.

    Degradable networks possess applications in many fields such as medical implants, electrical devices, industrial coatings, adhesives, and aerospace. Silyl ether bonds are reactive functionalities capable of degrading under physiological condition without significantly affecting the pH of the surrounding environment. This dissertation focuses on preparative methods of degradable networks utilizing silyl ether functionalities. Epoxy polymers are broadly utilized in many different applications. Despite the broad utilization of epoxy polymer thermosets in long-term applications, these thermosets are not very popular candidates in short-term applications. This unpopularity is mostly due to the fact that epoxy networks are non-degradable systems, which results in their recycling being very costly and environmentally unfriendly. In the first and second part of this dissertation, the synthesis of various amine and thiol curing agents containing hydrolyzable silyl ether bonds is described. Using these curing agents, thermosetting epoxy polymers with degradable properties were prepared. The degradation behavior and thermal properties of the cured networks were studied. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss in the industrialized world. The high prevalence of AMD and the complications and shortcomings of available treatment options give rise to a great need for the development of novel types of biodegradable implants to provide sustainable drug release. The third part of this dissertation describes the utilization of hydrolyzable silyl ether bonds in the synthesis of novel implants capable of reserving and releasing a drug in a controlled manner in order to treat AMD. Base- catalyzed thiol-Michael reactions were exploited to prepare a series of biodegradable cross- linked networks. The networks were characterized by FTIR, TGA, and DMA. The effect of monomer structure on degradation, release behavior, and thermal properties was investigated.

  12. Nikola Tesla, the Ether and his Telautomaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milar, Kendall

    2014-03-01

    In the nineteenth century physicists' understanding of the ether changed dramatically. New developments in thermodynamics, energy physics, and electricity and magnetism dictated new properties of the ether. These have traditionally been examined from the perspective of the scientists re-conceptualizing the ether. However Nikola Tesla, a prolific inventor and writer, presents a different picture of nineteenth century physics. Alongside the displays that showcased his inventions he presented alternative interpretations of physical, physiological and even psychical research. This is particularly evident in his telautomaton, a radio remote controlled boat. This invention and Tesla's descriptions of it showcase some of his novel interpretations of physical theories. He offered a perspective on nineteenth century physics that focused on practical application instead of experiment. Sometimes the understanding of physical theories that Tesla reached was counterproductive to his own inventive work; other times he offered new insights. Tesla's utilitarian interpretation of physical theories suggests a more scientifically curious and invested inventor than previously described and a connection between the scientific and inventive communities.

  13. Human-urine diabetes assay and in vivo rat bladder assay using a fluorine-doped carbon nanotube catheter sensor.

    PubMed

    Ly, Suw Young; Lee, Jin Hui

    2009-10-01

    The creation of a novel biosensor consisting of a fluorine-doped carbon nanotube (FCN) was explored for use in cyclic voltammetric (CV) and square-wave stripping voltammetric (SW) glucose assay. In the experiment that was carried out in this study, analytical optimum conditions were attained at the low detection limit (S/N3) of 0.6 microg/L (3.3 x 10(-9) M). In the 0.1 mg/L spike, the relative standard deviation of 0.607 (n = 15) was obtained. This was used for the diagnosis of the urine of patients with diabetes. Moreover, the catheter-type electrode (CE) can be inserted into a rat bladder through the rat's organs. Thus, it can be connected with an electrochemical analyzer that can be fitted with an interface for the real-time in vivo analysis of metabolic glucose. The developed system can be used for organ treatment, biological analysis, and in vivo control.

  14. Structure of bovine cytochrome c oxidase crystallized at a neutral pH using a fluorinated detergent.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fangjia; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Hagimoto, Kaede; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Shimada, Satoru; Yamashita, Eiki; Yoshikawa, Shinya; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2017-07-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) couples proton pumping to O 2 reduction. Its enzymatic activity depends sensitively on pH over a wide range. However, owing to difficulty in crystallizing this protein, X-ray structure analyses of bovine CcO aimed at understanding its reaction mechanism have been conducted using crystals prepared at pH 5.7, which is significantly lower than that in the cell. Here, oxidized CcO at pH 7.3 was crystallized using a fluorinated octyl-maltoside derivative, and the structure was determined at 1.77 Å resolution. No structural differences between crystals obtained at the neutral pH and the acidic pH were detected within the molecules. On the other hand, some differences in intermolecular interactions were detected between the two types of crystal. The influence of pH on the molecular surface is likely to contribute to the pH dependency of the aerobic oxidation of ferrocytochrome c.

  15. In vivo evaluation of a fluorine-acryl-stylene-urethane-silicone antithrombogenic coating material copolymer for intravascular stents.

    PubMed

    Matsuhashi, T; Miyachi, H; Ishibashi, T; Sakamoto, K; Yamadera, A

    1996-07-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a fluorine-acryl-styrene-urethane-silicone (FASUS) copolymer as an antithrombogenic coating material for intravascular stents in dogs. FASUS copolymer-coated stents were placed in the right iliac veins, and uncoated 304 stainless steel stents were placed in the left iliac veins. We examined platelet deposition, microthrombus formation, and neointimal hyperplasia 4 weeks after stent placement by measuring the activity of 111In-labeled platelets, by using scanning electron microscopy, and by measuring neointimal thickness. Platelet deposition was significantly decreased on coated than on uncoated stents (p < .05). A less pronounced increase in red blood cell deposition was observed at the sites of the coated than uncoated stents (p < .05). Neointimal thickness 4 weeks after stent placement also was significantly less at the sites of the coated stents (0.27 +/- 0.08 mm versus 0.48 +/- 0.23 mm, p < .05). FASUS copolymer coating over the vascular stent is effective for preventing thrombus formation and neointimal hyperplasia.

  16. Hydrophobic Coatings on Cotton Obtained by in Situ Plasma Polymerization of a Fluorinated Monomer in Ethanol Solutions.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ricardo; Teixidó, Josep Maria; Kan, Chi-Wai; Jovančić, Petar

    2017-02-15

    Plasma polymerization using hydrophobic monomers in the gas phase is a well-known technology to generate hydrophobic coatings. However, synthesis of functional hydrophobic coatings using plasma technology in liquids has not yet been accomplished. This work is consequently focused on polymerization of a liquid fluorinated monomer on cotton fabric initiated by atmospheric plasma in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. Functional hydrophobic coatings on cotton were successfully achieved using in situ atmospheric plasma-initiated polymerization of fluorinated monomer dissolved in ethanol. Gravimetric measurements reveal that the amount of polymer deposited on cotton substrates can be modulated with the concentration of monomer in ethanol solution, and cross-linking reactions occur during plasma polymerization of a fluorinated monomer even without the presence of a cross-linking agent. FTIR and XPS analysis were used to study the chemical composition of hydrophobic coatings and to get insights into the physicochemical processes involved in plasma treatment. SEM analysis reveals that at high monomer concentration, coatings possess a three-dimensional pattern with a characteristic interconnected porous network structure. EDX analysis reveals that plasma polymerization of fluorinated monomers takes place preferentially at the surface of cotton fabric and negligible polymerization takes place inside the cotton fabric. Wetting time measurements confirm the hydrophobicity of cotton coatings obtained although equilibrium moisture content was slightly decreased. Additionally, the abrasion behavior and resistance to washing of plasma-coated cotton has been evaluated.

  17. From ether theory to ether theology: Oliver Lodge and the physics of immortality.

    PubMed

    Raia, Courtenay Grean

    2007-01-01

    This article follows the development of physicist Oliver Lodge's religio-scientific worldview, beginning with his reticent attraction to metaphysics in the early 1880s to the full formulation of his "ether theology" in the late 1890s. Lodge undertook the study of psychical phenomena such as telepathy, telekinesis, and "ectoplasm" to further his scientific investigations of the ether, speculating that electrical and psychical manifestations were linked phenomena that described the deeper underlying structures of the universe, beneath and beyond matter. For Lodge, to fully understand the ether was to force from the universe an ultimate Revelation, and psychical research, as the most modern and probatory science, was poised to replace religion as the means of that disclosure. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Chemistry and adhesive properties of poly(arylene ether)s containing heterocyclic units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Novel poly(arylene ether)s containing heterocyclic units were prepared, characterized, and evaluated as adhesives and composite matrices. The polymers were prepared by reacting a heterocyclic bisphenol with an activated aromatic dihalide in a polar aprotic solvent, using potassium carbonate. The polymerizations were generally carried out in N,N-dimethylacetamide at 155 C. In some cases, where the polymers were semicrystalline, higher temperatures and thus higher boiling solvents were necessary to keep the polymers in solution. Heterocyclic rings incorporated into the poly(arylene ether) backbone include phenylquinoxaline, phenylimidazole, benzimidazole, benzoxazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, and 1,2,4-triazole. The polymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, solution viscosity, X-ray diffraction, thin film, and adhesive and (in some cases) composite properties. The glass transition temperatures, crystalline melt temperature, solubility, and mechanical properties varied depending upon the heterocyclic ring. The chemistry and properties of these materials are discussed.

  19. Azidated Ether-Butadiene-Ether Block Copolymers as Binders for Solid Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappello, Miriam; Lamia, Pietro; Mura, Claudio; Polacco, Giovanni; Filippi, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Polymeric binders for solid propellants are usually based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), which does not contribute to the overall energy output. Azidic polyethers represent an interesting alternative but may have poorer mechanical properties. Polybutadiene-polyether copolymers may combine the advantages of both. Four different ether-butadiene-ether triblock copolymers were prepared and azidated starting from halogenated and/or tosylated monomers using HTPB as initiator. The presence of the butadiene block complicates the azidation step and reduces the storage stability of the azidic polymer. Nevertheless, the procedure allows modifying the binder properties by varying the type and lengths of the energetic blocks.

  20. Divinyl ether synthase gene and protein, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Gregg A [East Lansing, MI; Itoh, Aya [Tsuruoka, JP

    2011-09-13

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  1. Divinyl ether synthase gene, and protein and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Gregg A.; Itoh, Aya

    2006-12-26

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  2. Functionalized poly(arylene ethers) as toughness modifiers for bismaleimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzenberger, H. D.; Roemer, W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B.; Breitigam, W.

    1990-01-01

    A family of novel, low molecular weight functionalized poly(arylene ether) resins has been investigated to ascertain its members' toughness-imparting contribution to neat bismaleimide (BMI) resin and BMI-matrix laminate composite properties. Attention is given to the contribution of the reactive poly(arylene ether)'s backbone chemistry to fracture toughness, as well as to the comparative influence of high and low molecular weight reactive poly(arylene ether) types on the modified BMI resin systems. The modified BMIs possess a polyphase morphology, with good adhesion between the thermoplastic nodules and the host thermoset systems.

  3. The failure of poly (ether ether ketone) in high speed contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, B. J.; Stuart, B. H.; Sebastian, S.; Tweedale, P. J.

    1993-04-01

    The paper describes an experimental study, with an associated analysis incorporating supplementary data, of the anti-boundary lubricating action of an alkane-aliphatic carboxylic acid lubricant system in a poly (ether ether ketone)-mild steel contact. The experiments involve progressively increasing the load in a contact formed between a polymer plate and a rotating steel shaft and estimating the frictional work dissipated. Scuffing is identified when a rapid increase in frictional work is noted at a characteristic normal load. It is shown that the additive induces premature scuffing. Subsidiary data is provided using Raman spectroscopy and hardness probes, and confirms that certain additives such as decanoic acid and dodecylamine will induce surface plasticization in poly (ether ether ketone). The trends in the frictional data have been interpreted using the adhesive model of friction in conjunction with temperature-dependent interfacial theology and bulk mechanical property data. It is proposed that the scuffing process is induced prematurely as a consequence of excessive additive-induced subsurface plasticization. Restricted surface plasticization in this system provides an enhanced self-lubricating capacity.

  4. Polyamideimides containing carbonyl and ether connecting groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, S. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    Polyamidenimides were prepared from the reaction of trimellitic anhydride chloride with seven diamines containing carbonyl and ether groups between the aromatic rings. Several of these polyamideimides were semicrystalline as evidenced by wide-angle X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Glass transition temperatures ranged between 187 and 245 C, and crystalline transition temperatures ranged between 317 and 416 C. A series of copolyamideimides from a mixture of 1,3-bis(4-aminophenoxy 4-prime-benzoyl) benzene and 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy 4-prime-benzoyl)benzene were similarly prepared. These copolyamideimides were semicrystalline and formed tough, solvent resistant films with good tensile properties.

  5. Temperature-Dependent Rate Constants and Substituent Effects for the Reactions of Hydroxyl Radicals With Three Partially Fluorinated Ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, K.-J.; DeMore, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    Rate constants and temperature dependencies for the reactions of OH with CF3OCH3 (HFOC-143a), CF2HOCF2H (HFOC-134), and CF3OCF2H (HFOC-125) were studied using a relative rate technique in the temperature range 298-393 K. The following absolute rate constants were derived: HFOC-143a, 1.9E-12 exp(-1555/T); HFOC-134, 1.9E-12 exp(-2006/T); HFOC-125, 4.7E-13 exp(-2095/T). Units are cm(exp 3)molecule(exp -1) s(exp -1). Substituent effects on OH abstraction rate constants are discussed, and it is shown that the CF3O group has an effect on the OH rate constants similar to that of a fluorine atom. The effects are related to changes in the C-H bond energies of the reactants (and thereby the activation energies) rather than changes in the preexponential factors. On the basis of a correlation of rate constants with bond energies, the respective D(C-H) bond strengths in the three ethers are found to be 102, 104, and 106 kcal/mol, with an uncertainty of about 1 kcal/mol.

  6. Preparation of highly fluorinated diols containing ether linkages.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochow, S. E.; Stump, E. C., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Hydroxy-terminated perfluoroethers and polyurethane resins derived from ethers have outstanding chemical resistance and good thermal properties. They can be used as potting compounds, coatings, and seals. The hydroxy-terminated ethers serve as intermediates in the synthesis of highly fluorinated elastomers and adhesives.

  7. The Ether Wind and the Global Positioning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    Explains how students can perform a refutation of the ether theory using information from the Global Positioning System (GPS). Discusses the functioning of the GPS, qualitatively describes how position determination would be affected by an ether wind, and illustrates the pertinent ideas with a simple quantitative model. (WRM)

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Decabromodiphenyl Ether (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Decabromodiphenyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Decabromodiphenyl Ether and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Da...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. 520.1846... Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. (a) Specifications. Each molasses-based block contains 2.2 percent... (1 pound of block per 500 kilogram (1,100 pound) animal per day). (2) Indications for use. For...

  10. Imide/arylene ether copolymers with pendent trifluoromethyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Havens, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    A series of imide/arylene ether block copolymers were prepared using an arylene ether block containing a hexafluoroisopropylidene group and an imide block containing a hexafluoroisopropylidene and a trifluoromethyl group in the polymer backbone. The copolymers were characterized and mechanical properties were determined and compared to the homopolymers.

  11. Process for producing dimethyl ether from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Pierantozzi, R.

    1985-06-04

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  12. 46. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, CONTROL PANEL LEVEL (2ND DECK) OF ETHER AND ALCOHOL STILL BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING TWO ALCOHOL DISTILLATION TOWERS BEHIND 'MIXED SOLVENT UNIT' CONTROL PANEL. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  13. 47. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, 4TH LEVEL, LOOKING NORTH AT TOPS OF ALCOHOL AND ETHER DISTILLATION TOWERS. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  14. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF DECABROMODIPHENYL ETHER (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessments of congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PDBEs), this review is about Decabromodiphenyl Ether, or commonly referred to as decaBDE (BDE-209). ...

  15. Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  16. Preparation and tribological behaviors of poly (ether ether ketone) nanocomposite films containing graphene oxide nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hao-Jie; Li, Na; Yang, Jin; Min, Chun-Ying; Zhang, Zhao-zhu

    2013-02-01

    The composite films of poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) filled with different proportions of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by the cast method. The tribological behaviors of the composite films under boundary lubrication (water and liquid paraffin oil lubrication) were investigated and compared with that under dry sliding on an UMT-2 friction and wear machine, by running a steel sphere against the composite films. The results were as follows: GO nanosheets as the filler greatly improve the wear resistance of PEEK under boundary lubrication, though the composites show a different dependence of wear resistance on the filler content. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy performed to analyze the wear scar surfaces after friction confirmed that the outstanding lubrication performance of GO could be attributed to their small size and extremely thin laminated structure, which allow the GO to easily enter the contact area, thereby preventing the rough surfaces from coming into direct contact.

  17. Thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether: A model of ether linkages in low rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Malcolm, E.A.

    Currently, an area of interest and frustration for coal chemists has been the direct liquefaction of low rank coal. Although low rank coals are more reactive than bituminous coals, they are more difficult to liquefy and offer lower liquefaction yields under conditions optimized for bituminous coals. Solomon, Serio, and co-workers have shown that: in the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low rank coals, a low temperature cross-linking reaction associated with oxygen functional groups occurs before tar evolution. A variety of pretreatments (demineralization, alkylation, and ion-exchange) have been shown to reduce these retrogressive reactions and increase tar yields, but the actual chemicalmore » reactions responsible for these processes have not been defined. In order to gain insight into the thermochemical reactions leading to cross-linking in low rank coal, we have undertaken a study of the pyrolysis of oxygen containing coal model compounds. Solid state NMR studies suggest that the alkyl aryl ether linkage may be present in modest amounts in low rank coal. Therefore, in this paper, we will investigate the thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) as a model of 0-aryl ether linkages found in low rank coal, lignites, and lignin, an evolutionary precursor of coal. Our results have uncovered a new reaction channel that can account for 25% of the products formed. The impact of reaction conditions, including restricted mass transport, on this new reaction pathway and the role of oxygen functional groups in cross-linking reactions will be investigated.« less

  18. Vapor intrusion risk of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): A modeling study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Xiong, Desen; Li, Haiyan; Ding, Yi; Xia, Xiangcheng; Yang, Yongqi

    2017-06-15

    Vapor intrusion of synthetic fuel additives represents a critical yet still neglected problem at sites contaminated by petroleum fuel releases. This study used an advanced numerical model to investigate the vapor intrusion potential of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Simulated indoor air concentration of these compounds can exceed USEPA indoor air screening level for MTBE (110μg/m 3 ). Our results also reveal that MTBE has much higher chance to cause vapor intrusion problems than TAME and ETBE. This study supports the statements made by USEPA in the Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) Guidance that the vertical screening criteria for petroleum hydrocarbons may not provide sufficient protectiveness for fuel additives, and ether oxygenates in particular. In addition to adverse impacts on human health, ether oxygenate vapor intrusion may also cause aesthetic problems (i.e., odour and flavour). Overall, this study points out that ether oxygenates can cause vapor intrusion problems. We recommend that USEPA consider including the field measurement data of synthetic fuel additives in the existing PVI database and possibly revising the PVI Guidance as necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu

    2010-02-04

    The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacitymore » of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes’ contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.« less

  20. Biodegradation of bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) ether via initial ether scission and subsequent dehalogenation by Rhodococcus sp. strain DTB.

    PubMed

    Moreno Horn, Marcus; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Tressl, Roland; Adrian, Lorenz; Görisch, Helmut

    2003-04-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain DTB (DSM 44534) grows on bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) ether (DDE) as sole source of carbon and energy. The non-chlorinated diisopropyl ether and bis(1-hydroxy-2-propyl) ether, however, did not serve as substrates. In ether degradation experiments with dense cell suspensions, 1-chloro-2-propanol and chloroacetone were formed, which indicated that scission of the ether bond is the first step while dehalogenation of the chlorinated C(3)-compounds occurs at a later stage of the degradation pathway. Inhibition of ether scission by methimazole suggested that the first step in degradation is catalyzed by a flavin-dependent enzyme activity. The non-chlorinated compounds 1,2-propanediol, hydroxyacetone, lactate, pyruvate, 1-propanol, propanal, and propionate also supported growth, which suggested that the intermediates 1,2-propanediol and hydroxyacetone are converted to pyruvate or to propionate, which can be channeled into the citric acid cycle by a number of routes. Total release of chloride and growth-yield experiments with DDE and non-chlorinated C(3)-compounds suggested complete biodegradation of the chlorinated ether.

  1. Aquatic Life Criteria - Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information pertaining to the 1999 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) for freshwater and salt water. Information includes the safe levels of MTBE that should protect the majority of species.

  2. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HOUSE DUST AND CLOTHES DRYER LINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are now considered ubiquitous and persistent pollutants. Few studies have examined the concentrations of these chemicals in the home and here we report measurements of PBDEs in house dust samples collected from the Washington...

  3. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) CONTAMINATION OF UNITED STATES FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a type of brominated flame retardant, were recently detected in United States (U.S.) nursing mothers' milk. These halogenated compounds chemically and toxicologically resemble others such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PC...

  4. ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL REDUCTIVE DEBROMINATION OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been detected in sediments, sewage sludge, fish, mammals (including humans), and air throughout the northern hemisphere. While concentrations of PCBs, DDT, and PCDDs in biota are generally decreasing, PBDE concentratio...

  5. 44. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, LOOKING UP DISTILLATION TOWER FROM 2ND LEVEL. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  6. 36. BUILDINGS NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. BUILDINGS NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, AND NO. 523, REFRIGERATION PLANT BUILDING, LOOKING EAST. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  7. Fluorinated Alkyl Ether Epoxy Resin Compositions and Applications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Wohl, Christopher J. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Gardner, John M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Palmieri, Frank M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Epoxy resin compositions prepared using amino terminated fluoro alkyl ethers. The epoxy resin compositions exhibit low surface adhesion properties making them useful as coatings, paints, moldings, adhesives, and fiber reinforced composites.

  8. Tough poly(arylene ether) thermoplastics as modifiers for bismaleimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzenberger, H. D.; Roemer, W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.

    1989-01-01

    Several aspects of research on thermoplastics as toughness modifiers are discussed, including the contribution of the backbone chemistry and the concentration of the poly(arylene ether) thermoplastic to fracture toughness, influence of the molecular weight of the poly(arylene ether) thermoplastic on neat resin fracture toughness, and the morphology of the thermoplastic modified networks. The results show that fracture toughness of brittle bismaleimide resins can be improved significantly with poly(arylene ether) thermoplastic levels of 20 percent by weight, and that high molecular weight poly(arylene ether) based on bisphenol A provides the highest degree of toughening. Preliminary composite evaluation shows that improvements in neat resin toughness translate into carbon fabric composite.

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Reductive Insertion of Alcohols into Aryl Ether Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Meng; Gutiérrez, Oliver Y.; Camaioni, Donald M.

    Pd/C catalyzes C-O bond cleavage of aryl ethers (diphenyl ether and cyclohexyl phenyl ether) by methanol in H2. The aromatic C-O bond is cleaved by reductive methanolysis, which is initiated by Pd-catalyzed partial hydrogenation of one phenyl ring to form an enol ether. The enol ether reacts rapidly with methanol to form a ketal, which generates methoxycyclohexene by eliminating phenol or an alkanol. Subsequent hydrogenation leads to methoxycyclohexane.

  10. Keeping ether "en-vogue": the role of Nathan Cooley Keep in the history of ether anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Guralnick, Walter C; Kaban, Leonard B

    2011-07-01

    In this report, we explore the little known role of Dr Nathan Cooley Keep in the dissemination of ether anesthesia in Boston. Keep was a prominent Boston dentist who, for a short time, taught and employed both William Morton and Horace Wells. He used ether anesthesia for a variety of dental and other surgical procedures requiring pain control. Keep administered ether to anesthetize Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's wife during the delivery of their daughter. This was the first use of ether for obstetric anesthesia. Dr Keep was also the first Dean of the Harvard Dental School and convinced the Massachusetts General Hospital to appoint a dentist to the staff of the hospital for the first time. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Various Poly(ether ether ketone) Containing Imidazolium Moiety for Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeol-Nim; Son, Tae Yang; Park, Chi Hoon; Kim, Tae Hyun; Nam, Sang Yong

    2018-09-01

    In this study, various poly(ether ether ketone) were synthesized using three different monomers and the imidazolium group was introduced into synthesized poly(ether ether ketone)s by using substitution reaction. Synthesized polymers were used to prepare anion exchange membranes and to evaluate its properties. Thermal, chemical and structural properties were carried out using thermogravimetric analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance. The anion exchange membranes with different imidazolium moieties were characterized by several different analytical techniques such as water up take, ion exchange capacity, hydroxide conductivity for checking the possibility to apply the anion exchange membrane fuel cell. Consequently, results of characterization were studied to understand the correlation between stabilities of the membrane and functional group and polymer backbone structures. And we confirm membrane performance was improved by increasing imidazolium cation groups.

  12. Nonlinear dielectric effect in supercritical diethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Drozd-Rzoska, Aleksandra; Rzoska, Sylwester J; Martinez-Garcia, Julio Cesar

    2014-09-07

    Nonlinear dielectric effect (NDE) describes changes of dielectric permittivity induced by a strong electric field in a liquid dielectric. The most classical finding related to this magnitude is the negative sign of NDE in liquid diethyl ether (DEE), recalled by Peter Debye in his Nobel Prize lecture. This article shows that the positive sign of NDE in DEE is also possible, in the supercritical domain. Moreover, NDE on approaching the gas-liquid critical point exhibits a unique critical effect described by the critical exponent ψ ≈ 0.4 close to critical temperature (T(C)) and ψ ≈ 0.6 remote from T(C). This can be linked to the emergence of the mean-field behavior in the immediate vicinity of T(C), contrary to the typical pattern observed for critical phenomena. The multi-frequency mode of NDE measurements made it possible to estimate the evolution of lifetime of critical fluctuations. The new way of data analysis made it possible to describe the critical effect without a knowledge of the non-critical background contribution in prior.

  13. Nonlinear dielectric effect in supercritical diethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd-Rzoska, Aleksandra; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Martinez-Garcia, Julio Cesar

    2014-09-01

    Nonlinear dielectric effect (NDE) describes changes of dielectric permittivity induced by a strong electric field in a liquid dielectric. The most classical finding related to this magnitude is the negative sign of NDE in liquid diethyl ether (DEE), recalled by Peter Debye in his Nobel Prize lecture. This article shows that the positive sign of NDE in DEE is also possible, in the supercritical domain. Moreover, NDE on approaching the gas-liquid critical point exhibits a unique critical effect described by the critical exponent ψ ≈ 0.4 close to critical temperature (TC) and ψ ≈ 0.6 remote from TC. This can be linked to the emergence of the mean-field behavior in the immediate vicinity of TC, contrary to the typical pattern observed for critical phenomena. The multi-frequency mode of NDE measurements made it possible to estimate the evolution of lifetime of critical fluctuations. The new way of data analysis made it possible to describe the critical effect without a knowledge of the non-critical background contribution in prior.

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in California wastestreams.

    PubMed

    Petreas, Myrto; Oros, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used in consumer products, including electronics, fabrics, and polyurethane foam. Exposures may occur during the products' useful lifetime and also after the products' disposal. A survey of California wastestreams (e-wastes, autoshredder waste and wastewater sewage sludge) attempted to assess the relative importance of these wastestreams as repositories of PBDEs. Based on measurements of PBDEs in samples of such wastestreams and on assumptions regarding use patterns, e-wastes appeared to be by far the predominant wastestream with 1200 metric tons (MT) of PBDEs year(-1), followed by autoshredder waste (31 MT of PBDEs year(-1)) and sewage sludge (2.3 MT of PBDEs year(-1)). When these estimates were compared with the reported use of PBDEs in California, about half of the PBDEs could not be accounted for in the wastestreams examined. This suggests that additional wastestreams, such as household wastes should be evaluated for their PBDE content. Information on the presence and fate of PBDEs in all wastestreams needs to be included in decision making practices for waste management to avoid public health and ecologic catastrophes.

  15. Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.; Greene, Howard L.

    With ever growing concerns on environmental pollution, energy security, and future oil supplies, the global community is seeking non-petroleum based alternative fuels, along with more advanced energy technologies (e.g., fuel cells) to increase the efficiency of energy use. The most promising alternative fuel will be the fuel that has the greatest impact on society. The major impact areas include well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions, non-petroleum feed stocks, well-to-wheel efficiencies, fuel versatility, infrastructure, availability, economics, and safety. Compared to some of the other leading alternative fuel candidates (i.e., methane, methanol, ethanol, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels), dimethyl ether appears to have the largest potential impact on society, and should be considered as the fuel of choice for eliminating the dependency on petroleum. DME can be used as a clean high-efficiency compression ignition fuel with reduced NO x, SO x, and particulate matter, it can be efficiently reformed to hydrogen at low temperatures, and does not have large issues with toxicity, production, infrastructure, and transportation as do various other fuels. The literature relevant to DME use is reviewed and summarized to demonstrate the viability of DME as an alternative fuel.

  16. Interface and properties of inorganic fullerene tungsten sulphide nanoparticle reinforced poly (ether ether ketone) nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nannan; Yang, Zhuxian; Wang, Yuan; Thummavichai, Kunyapat; Xia, Yongde; Ghita, Oana; Zhu, Yanqiu

    We report a simple and effective method to fabricate PEEK (poly ether ether ketone)/IF-WS2 (Inorganic Fullerene Tungsten Sulphide) nanocomposites with IF-WS2 content up to 8 wt%. We have used electron microscopies to characterise the morphology and structural features of the nancomposites, and FTIR and XPS to show that some chemical interface bondings were formed between the PEEK and IF-WS2. We demonstrate that the resulting PEEK/IF-WS2 nanocomposites showed an extraordinary 190% increase in thermal conductivity, 50 °C higher in degradation temperature, and mild improvements in strength and hardness. The increased degradation activation energy from 64 to 76 kJ/mol for neat PEEK and PEEK/IF-WS2 nanocomposites, respectively, is attributed to the synergistic interface between the PEEK matrix and IF-WS2 nanoparticles. The enhancements in both the mechanical and thermal properties will significantly expand the capacities of PEEK-based nanocomposites towards applications where thermal conductivity and stability are important.

  17. Investigation of crystalline morphology in poly (ether ether ketone) using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalika, D.S.; Krishnaswamy, R.K.

    1993-12-31

    The relaxation behavior of poly (ether ether ketone) [PEEK] has been investigated using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy; the glass-rubber ({alpha}) relaxation and a sub-glass ({beta}) relaxation were examined for the amorphous material and both cold-crystallized and melt-crystallized specimens. Analysis of the data using the Cole-Cole modification of the Debye equation allowed determination of the dielectric relaxation strength and relaxation broadening parameter for both transitions as a function of material crystallization history. The crystallized specimens displayed a positive offset in isochronal loss temperature for both the {alpha} and {beta} relaxations, with the {alpha} relaxation broadened significantly. The measured dipolar response was interpretedmore » using a three-phase morphological model encompassing a crystalline phase, a mobile amorphous phase, and a rigid amorphous phase. Determination of phase fractions based on dipolar mobilization across the glass-rubber relaxation revealed a finite rigid amorphous phase fraction for both the cold-crystallized specimens which was relatively insensitive to thermal history and degree of crystallinity (W{sub RAP}40.20).« less

  18. A new route to synthesize aryl acetates from carbonylation of aryl methyl ethers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Youdi; Li, Shaopeng; Han, Buxing

    2018-01-01

    Ether bond activation is very interesting because the synthesis of many valuable compounds involves conversion of ethers. Moreover, C–O bond cleavage is also very important for the transformation of biomass, especially lignin, which abundantly contains ether bonds. Developing efficient methods to activate aromatic ether bonds has attracted much attention. However, this is a challenge because of the inertness of aryl ether bonds. We proposed a new route to activate aryl methyl ether bonds and synthesize aryl acetates by carbonylation of aryl methyl ethers. The reaction could proceed over RhCl3 in the presence of LiI and LiBF4, and moderate to high yields of aryl acetates could be obtained from transformation of various aryl methyl ethers with different substituents. It was found that LiBF4 could assist LiI to cleave aryl methyl ether bonds effectively. The reaction mechanism was proposed by a combination of experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:29795781

  19. α-Diazo oxime ethers for N-heterocycle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Subin; Ha, Sujin; Park, Cheol-Min

    2017-06-01

    This Feature Article introduces the preparation and synthetic utility of α-diazo oxime ethers. α-Oximino carbenes are useful synthons for N-heterocycles, and can be easily prepared from α-diazo oxime ethers as precursors. We begin with the preparation of α-diazo oxime ethers and their application in [3+2] cycloaddition. It turns out that the nature of metals bound to carbenes plays a crucial role in modulating the reactivity of α-oximino carbenes, in which copper carbenes smoothly react with enamines, whereas the less reactive enol ethers and nitriles require gold carbenes. In Section 3.2, a discussion on N-O and C-H bond activation is presented. Carbenes derived from diazo oxime ethers show unique reactivity towards N-O and C-H bond activation, in which the proximity of the two functionalities, carbene and oxime ether, dictates the preferred reaction pathways toward pyridines, pyrroles, and 2H-azirines. In Section 3.3, the development of tandem reactions based on α-diazo oxime ethers is discussed. The nature of carbenes in which whether free carbenes or metal complexes are involved dissects the pathway and forms different types of 2H-azirines. The 2H-azirine formation turned out to be an excellent platform for the tandem synthesis of N-heterocycles including pyrroles and pyridines. In the last section, we describe the electrophilic activation of 2H-azirines with vinyl carbenes and oximino carbenes. The resulting azirinium species undergo rapid ring expansion rearrangements to form pyridines and pyrazines.

  20. Radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers: A need to analyze for biological stability before use.

    PubMed

    Manual Kollareth, Denny Joseph; Chang, Chuchun L; Hansen, Inge H; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2018-03-01

    Radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers are widely used as non-metabolizable tracers for lipoproteins and lipid emulsions in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Since cholesteryl ethers do not leave cells after uptake and are not hydrolyzed by mammalian cellular enzymes, these compounds can act as markers for cumulative cell uptakes of labeled particles. We have employed [ 3 H]cholesteryl oleoyl ether to study the uptake and distribution of triglyceride-rich emulsion particles on animal models. However, questionable unexpected results compelled us to analyze the stability of these ethers. We tested the stability of two commercially available radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers - [ 3 H]cholesteryl oleoyl ether and [ 3 H]cholesteryl hexadecyl ether from different suppliers, employing in vitro , in vivo and chemical model systems. Our results show that, among the two cholesteryl ethers tested, one ether was hydrolyzed to free cholesterol in vitro , in vivo and chemically under alkaline hydrolyzing agent. Free cholesterol, unlike cholesteryl ether, can then re-enter the circulation leading to confounding results. The other ether was not hydrolyzed to free cholesterol and remained as a stable ether. Hence, radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers should be analyzed for biological stability before utilizing them for in vitro or in vivo experiments.

  1. Mechanical Properties Optimization of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone via Fused Deposition Modeling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaohu; Zeng, Zhi; Peng, Bei; Yan, Shuo; Ke, Wenchao

    2018-01-30

    Compared to the common selective laser sintering (SLS) manufacturing method, fused deposition modeling (FDM) seems to be an economical and efficient three-dimensional (3D) printing method for high temperature polymer materials in medical applications. In this work, a customized FDM system was developed for polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) materials printing. The effects of printing speed, layer thickness, printing temperature and filling ratio on tensile properties were analyzed by the orthogonal test of four factors and three levels. Optimal tensile properties of the PEEK specimens were observed at a printing speed of 60 mm/s, layer thickness of 0.2 mm, temperature of 370 °C and filling ratio of 40%. Furthermore, the impact and bending tests were conducted under optimized conditions and the results demonstrated that the printed PEEK specimens have appropriate mechanical properties.

  2. Stress shielding and fatigue limits of poly-ether-ether-ketone dental implants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Taek; Koak, Jai-Young; Lim, Young-Jun; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Kwon, Ho-Beom; Kim, Myung-Joo

    2012-05-01

    The poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) polymer is of great interest as an alternative to titanium in orthopedics because of its biocompatibility and low elastic modulus. This study evaluated the fatigue limits of PEEK and the effects of the low elastic modulus PEEK in relation to existing dental implants. Compressive loading tests were performed with glass fiber-reinforced PEEK (GFR-PEEK), carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK (CFR-PEEK), and titanium rods. Among these tests, GFR-PEEK fatigue tests were performed according to ISO 14801. For the finite element analysis, three-dimensional models of dental implants and bone were constructed. The implants in the test groups were coated with a 0.5-mm thick and 5-mm long PEEK layer on the upper intrabony area. The strain energy densities (SED) were calculated, and the bone resorption was predicted. The fatigue limits of GFR-PEEK were 310 N and were higher than the static compressive strength of GFR-PEEK. The bone around PEEK-coated implants showed higher levels of SED than the bone in direct contact with the implants, and the wider diameter and stiffer implants showed lower levels of SED. The compressive strength of the GFR-PEEK and CFR-PEEK implants ranged within the bite force of the anterior and posterior dentitions, respectively, and the PEEK implants showed adequate fatigue limits for replacing the anterior teeth. Dental implants with PEEK coatings and PEEK implants may reduce stress shielding effects. Dental implant application of PEEK polymer-fatigue limit and stress shielding. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Fuel cell performance of pendent methylphenyl sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanyu; Stanis, Ronald J.; Song, Yang; Hu, Wei; Cornelius, Chris J.; Shi, Qiang; Liu, Baijun; Guiver, Michael D.

    2017-11-01

    Meta- and para-linked homopolymers bearing 3-methylphenyl (Me) pendent groups were postsulfonated to create sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) (SPEEKK) backbone isomers, which are referred to as Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK. Their thermal and oxidative stability, mechanical properties, dimensional stability, methanol permeability, and proton conductivity are characterized. Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK proton conductivities at 100 °C are 116 and 173 mS cm-1, respectively. Their methanol permeabilities are 3.3-3.9 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, and dimensional swelling at 100 °C is 16.4-17.5%. Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK were fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), and electrochemical properties were evaluated within a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). When O2 is used as the oxidant at 80 °C and 100% RH, the maximum power density of Me-m-SPEEKK reaches 657 mW cm-2, which is higher than those of Nafion 115 (552 mW cm-2). DMFC performance is 85 mW cm-2 at 80 °C with 2.0 M methanol using Me-p-SPEEKK due to its low MeOH crossover. In general, these electrochemical results are comparable to Nafion. These ionomer properties, combined with a potentially less expensive and scalable polymer manufacturing process, may broaden their potential for many practical applications.

  4. Photodissociation of Non-Covalent Peptide-Crown Ether Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jeffrey J.; Kirkovits, Gregory J.; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    Highly chromogenic 18-crown-6-dipyrrolylquinoxaline coordinates primary amines of peptides, forming non-covalent complexes that can be transferred to the gas phase by electrospray ionization. The appended chromogenic crown ether facilitates efficient energy transfer to the peptide upon ultraviolet irradiation in the gas phase, resulting in diagnostic peptide fragmentation. Collisional activated dissociation (CAD) and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) of these non-covalent complexes results only in their disassembly with the charge retained on either the peptide or crown ether, yielding no sequence ions. Upon UV photon absorption the intermolecular energy transfer is facilitated by the fast activation time scale of UVPD (< 10 ns) and by the collectively strong hydrogen bonding between the crown ether and peptide, thus allowing effective transfer of energy to the peptide moiety prior to disruption of the intermolecular hydrogen bonds. PMID:18077179

  5. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Cyntia M; Crismaru, Ciprian G; Bartsch, Sebastian; Navickas, Vaidotas; Ditrich, Klaus; Breuer, Michael; Abu, Rohana; Woodley, John M; Baldenius, Kai; Wu, Bian; Janssen, Dick B

    2016-09-01

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production of the desired ether amines from the corresponding ether alcohols with inorganic ammonium as the only additional substrate. To examine conversion, individual and overall reaction equilibria were established. Using these data, it was found that the experimentally observed conversions of up to 60% observed for reactions containing 10 mM alcohol and up to 280 mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1853-1861. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Occupational exposure to glycol ethers: implications for occupational health nurses.

    PubMed

    Snow, J E

    1994-09-01

    1. Evaluation of workplace exposure to reproductive hazards is difficult and is often confounded by occupational exposure to multiple agents and exposure to non-occupational factors. 2. A growing body of evidence from animal and human study data supports a causal association between occupational exposure to certain glycol ethers and adverse reproductive outcomes. 3. Occupational health nurses providing services to employees exposed to glycol ethers should remain knowledgeable about the results of epidemiologic studies and current trends in the regulation of glycol ethers in industry. 4. Occupational health nurses are in a key position to reduce exposure to reproductive hazards by monitoring trends in group data and by implementing training and education programs to employees exposed to reproductive hazards.

  7. Spontaneous Generation of Chirality in Simple Diaryl Ethers.

    PubMed

    Lennartson, Anders; Hedström, Anna; Håkansson, Mikael

    2015-07-01

    We studied the spontaneous formation of chiral crystals of four diaryl ethers, 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde, 1; 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenoxybenzene, 2; di(4-aminophenyl) ether, 3; and di(p-tolyl) ether, 4. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 form conformationally chiral molecules in the solid state, while the chirality of 2 arises from the formation of supramolecular helices. Compound 1 is a liquid at ambient temperature, but 2-4 are crystalline, and solid-state CD-spectroscopy showed that they could be obtained as optically active bulk samples. It should be noted that the optical activity arise upon crystallization, and no optically active precursors were used. Indeed, even commercial samples of 3 and 4 were found to be optically active, giving evidence for the ease at which total spontaneous resolution may occur in certain systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Thermal oxidative degradation reactions of linear perfluoroalkyl ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Paclorek, K. J. L.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal and thermal oxidative stability studies were performed on linear perfluoroalkyl ether fluids. The effect on degradation by metal catalysts and degradation inhibitors is reported. The linear perfluoroalkyl ethers are inherently unstable at 316 C in an oxidizing atmosphere. The metal catalysts greatly increased the rate of degradation in oxidizing atmospheres. In the presence of these metals in an oxidizing atmosphere, the degradation inhibitors were highly effective in arresting degradation at 288 C. However, the inhibitors had only limited effectiveness at 316 C. The metals promote degradation by chain scission. Based on elemental analysis and oxygen consumption data, the linear perfluoroalkyl ether fluids have a structural arrangement based on difluoroformyl and tetrafluoroethylene oxide units, with the former predominating. Previously announced in STAR as N82-26468

  9. Environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Sellström, Ulla; McLachlan, Michael S

    2009-01-16

    Methods for environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209), and the recently discovered environmental contaminant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) are reviewed. The extensive literature on analysis of BDE209 has identified several critical issues, including contamination of the sample, degradation of the analyte during sample preparation and GC analysis, and the selection of appropriate detection methods and surrogate standards. The limited experience with the analysis of deBDethane suggests that there are many commonalities with BDE209. The experience garnered from the analysis of BDE209 over the last 15 years will greatly facilitate progress in the analysis of deBDethane.

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Etbe) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) was released for external peer review in June 2017. EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the ETBE assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is conducting an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE). The outcome of this project is a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for ETBE that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  11. A crown ether appended super gelator with multiple stimulus responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shengyi; Zheng, Bo; Xu, Donghua; Yan, Xuzhou; Zhang, Mingming; Huang, Feihe

    2012-06-26

    A crown ether appended super gelator is designed and synthesized. It can gel a variety of organic solvents and shows excellent gelation properties with both low critical gelation concentration and short gelation time. Due to the introduction of the crown ether moiety and a secondary ammonium unit, the supramolecular gels show reversible gel-sol transitions. The supramolecular gels can also be molded into shape-persistent and free-standing objects. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Inert Reassessment Document for Dimethyl Ether - CAS No. 115-10-6

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The existing dimethyl ether exemption from the requirement of a tolerance under 40 CFR 180.930 is for use on animals only. Dimethyl ether is used as an inert ingredient in a variety of livestock insect sprays and foggers.

  13. Molecular structure impacts on secondary organic aerosol formation from glycol ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lijie; Cocker, David R.

    2018-05-01

    Glycol ethers, a class of widely used solvents in consumer products, are often considered exempt as volatile organic compounds based on their vapor pressure or boiling points by regulatory agencies. However, recent studies found that glycol ethers volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents indicating the potential of glycol ethers to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). This is the first work on SOA formation from glycol ethers. The impact of molecular structure, specifically -OH, on SOA formation from glycol ethers and related ethers are investigated in the work. Ethers with and without -OH, with methyl group hindrance on -OH and with -OH at different location are studied in the presence of NOX and under "NOX free" conditions. Photooxidation experiments under different oxidation conditions confirm that the processing of ethers is a combination of carbonyl formation, cyclization and fragmentation. Bulk SOA chemical composition analysis and oxidation products identified in both gas and particle phase suggests that the presence and location of -OH in the carbon bond of ethers determine the occurrence of cyclization mechanism during ether oxidation. The cyclization is proposed as a critical SOA formation mechanism to prevent the formation of volatile compounds from fragmentation during the oxidation of ethers. Glycol ethers with -CH2-O-CH2CH2OH structure is found to readily form cyclization products, especially with the presence of NOx, which is more relevant to urban atmospheric conditions than without NOx. Glycol ethers are evaluated as dominating SOA precursors among all ethers studied. It is estimated that the contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources. The contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources and will play a more important role in future anthropogenic SOA

  14. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs P...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs P...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol...

  1. 76 FR 38026 - Diethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... chemicals. Immunotoxicity studies were available for ethylene glycol mono butyl ether, also a glycol ether... the glycol ether class of chemicals which include structurally similar chemicals ethylene glycol and... potential to cause cancer. Based on the lack of evidence of carcinogenicity potential for ethylene glycol...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs P...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs P...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs P...

  5. 40 CFR 721.825 - Certain aromatic ether diamines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.825 Certain aromatic ether diamines. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... for the significant new uses described in paragraphs (a)(2), (a)(3), and (a)(4) of this section...

  6. Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

  7. Antiknock evaluation of hydrocarbons and ethers as aviation fuel components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C

    1950-01-01

    The results of a NACA investigation conducted over a period of several years to evaluate the anti-knock characteristics of organic compounds are summarized. Included are data for 18 branched paraffins and olefins, 27 aromatics, and 22 ethers. The factors of performance investigated were blending characteristics, temperature sensitivity, lead response, and relation between molecular structure and antiknock ratings. Four engines were used.

  8. Methyl substituted polyimides containing carbonyl and ether connecting groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Polyimides were prepared from the reaction of aromatic dianhydrides with novel aromatic diamines having carbonyl and ether groups connecting aromatic rings containing pendant methyl groups. The methyl substituent polyimides exhibit good solubility and form tough, strong films. Upon exposure to ultraviolet irradiation and/or heat, the methyl substituted polyimides crosslink to become insoluble.

  9. Time Trends of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Antarctic Biota

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are “emerged” contaminants that were produced and used as flame retardants in numerous consumer and industrial applications for decades until banned. They remain ubiquitously present in the environment today. Here, a unique set of >200 bioti...

  10. 2,2\\',4,4\\'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 005F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2 ' , 4,4 ' - TETRABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 47 ) ( CAS No . 5436 - 43 - 1 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Was

  11. 2,2\\',4,4\\',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 006F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2 ' , 4,4 ' , 5 - PENTABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 99 ) ( CAS No . 60348 - 60 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington ,

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Pentabromodiphenyl Ether (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical...

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review and Summary Documents for Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced the release of four completed toxicologal reviews and summary documents following an independent peer review on the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessments of four congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers: tetraBDE (B...

  14. Mode of Action Studies on Nitrodiphenyl Ether Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Bowyer, John R.; Smith, Beverly J.; Camilleri, Patrick; Lee, Susan A.

    1987-01-01

    5-[2-Chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitroacetophenone oxime-o-(acetic acid, methyl ester) (DPEI), is a potent nitrodiphenyl ether herbicide which causes rapid leaf wilting, membrane lipid peroxidation, and chlorophyll destruction in a process which is both light- and O2-dependent. These effects resemble those of other nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides. Unlike paraquat, the herbicidal effects of DPEI are only slightly reduced by pretreatment with the photosynthetic electron transport inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. DPEI is a weak inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport (I50 15 micromolar for water to paraquat) in vitro, with at least one site of action at the cytochrome b6f complex. Ultrastructural studies and measurements of ethane formation resulting from lipid peroxidation indicate that mutants of barley lacking photosystem I (PSI) (viridis-zb63) or photosystem II (viridis-zd69) are resistant to paraquat but susceptible to DPEI. The results indicate that electron transfer through both photosystems is not essential for the toxic effects of nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides. Furthermore, the results show that neither cyclic electron transport around PSI, nor the diversion of electrons from PSI to O2 when NADPH consumption is blocked are essential for the phytotoxicity of nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16665297

  15. Direct transformation of silyl enol ethers into functionalized allenes.

    PubMed

    Langer, P; Döring, M; Seyferth, D; Görls, H

    2001-02-02

    The first elimination reactions of silyl enol ethers to lithiated allenes are reported. These reactions allow a direct transformation of readily available silyl enol ethers into functionalized allenes. The action of three to four equivalents of lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) on silyl enol ethers results in the formation of lithiated allenes by initial allylic lithiation, subsequent elimination of a lithium silanolate, and finally, lithiation of the allene thus formed. Starting with amide-derived silyl imino ethers, lithiated ketenimines are obtained. A variety of reactions of the lithiated allenes with electrophiles (chlorosilanes, trimethylchlorostannane, dimethyl sulfate and ethanol) were carried out. Elimination of silanolate is observed only for substrates that contain the hindered SiMe2tBu or Si(iPr)3 moiety, but not for the SiMe3 group. The reaction of 1,1-dilithio-3,3-diphenylallene with ketones provides a convenient access to novel 1,1-di(hydroxymethyl)allenes which undergo a domino Nazarov-Friedel-Crafts reaction upon treatment with p-toluenesulfonic acid.

  16. AVOIDING HYDROLYSIS OF FUEL ETHER OXYGENATES DURING STATIC HEADSPACE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A headspace autosampler, gas chromatograph and ion trap mass spectrometer (headspace GC/MS) were used for trace analysis of fuel oxygenates and related compounds and aromatics in water. A method has been developed for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-b...

  17. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-42 Ethyl ether. (a)(1) Gravity tanks... openings shall be in the top of the tank. (2) Pressure vessel type tanks shall be designed for the maximum pressure to which they may be subjected when pressure is used to discharge the cargo, but in no case shall...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.1006 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1910.1006 Section 1910.1006 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1006...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.1008 - bis-Chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1910.1008 Section 1910.1008 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1008...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.1006 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1910.1006 Section 1910.1006 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.1008 - bis-Chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1910.1008 Section 1910.1008 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1008...

  2. Lithium air batteries having ether-based electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A.; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2016-10-25

    A lithium-air battery includes a cathode including a porous active carbon material, a separator, an anode including lithium, and an electrolyte including a lithium salt and polyalkylene glycol ether, where the porous active carbon material is free of a metal-based catalyst.

  3. Li-air batteries having ether-based electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-03-03

    A lithium-air battery includes a cathode including a porous active carbon material, a separator, an anode including lithium, and an electrolyte including a lithium salt and polyalkylene glycol ether, where the porous active carbon material is free of a metal-based catalyst.

  4. An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (Pbde) (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers. This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the exposure of Americans to this class of persistent organic pollutants. Individual chapters in this document ...

  5. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) IN AMERICAN MOTHERS' MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    No previous reports exist on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in individual American mothers' milk. This report on PBDEs is an extension of our previous studies on concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBs, and other chlorinated organics in human milk in a num...

  6. Structure-property study of keto-ether polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezern, James F.; Croall, Catharine I.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an on-going effort to develop an understanding of how changes in the chemical structure affect polymer properties, an empirical study was performed on polyimides containing only ether and/or carbonyl connecting groups in the polymer backbone. During the past two decades the structure-property relationships in linear aromatic polyimides have been extensively investigated. More recently, work has been performed to study the effect of isomeric attachment of keto-ether polyimides on properties such as glass transition temperature and solubility. However, little work has been reported on the relation of polyimide structure to mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of structural changes in the backbone of keto-ether polyimides on their mechanical properties, specifically, unoriented thin film tensile properties. This study was conducted in two stages. The purpose of the initial stage was to examine the physical and mechanical properties of a representative group (four) of polyimide systems to determine the optimum solvent and cure cycle requirements. These optimum conditions were then utilized in the second stage to prepare films of keto-ether polyimides which were evaluated for mechanical and physical properties. All of the polyimides were prepared using isomers of oxydianiline (ODA) and diaminobenzophenone (DABP) in combination with 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA).

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1108 - bis-Chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1108 bis-Chloromethyl ether. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1106 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1106 Methyl chloromethyl ether. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this...

  9. Expandable Polyaryl-Ether-Ether-Ketone Spacers for Interbody Distraction in the Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Alimi, Marjan; Shin, Benjamin; Macielak, Michael; Hofstetter, Christoph P.; Njoku, Innocent; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Elowitz, Eric; Härtl, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Objective StaXx XD (Spine Wave, Inc., Shelton, CT, United States) is an expandable polyaryl-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) wafer implant utilized in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. PEEK implants have been successfully used as interbody devices. Few studies have focused on expandable PEEK devices. The aim of the current study is to determine the radiographic and clinical outcome of expandable PEEK cages utilized for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in patients with lumbar degenerative diseases. Methods Forty-nine patients who underwent lumbar interbody fusion with implantation of expandable PEEK cages and posterior instrumentation were included. The clinical outcome was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Radiographic parameters including disk height, foraminal height, listhesis, local disk angle of the index level/levels, regional lumbar lordosis, and graft subsidence were measured preoperatively, postoperatively, and at latest follow-up. Results At an average follow-up of 19.3 months, the minimum clinically important difference for the ODI and VAS back, buttock, and leg were achieved in 64, 52, 58, and 52% of the patients, respectively. There was statistically significant improvement in VAS back (6.42 versus 3.11, p < 0.001), VAS buttock (4.66 versus 1.97, p = 0.002), VAS leg (4.55 versus 1.96, p < 0.001), and ODI (21.7 versus 12.1, p < 0.001) scores. There was a significant increase in the average disk height (6.49 versus 8.18 mm, p = 0.037) and foraminal height (15.6 versus 18.53 mm, p = 0.0001), and a significant reduction in the listhesis (5.13 versus 3.15 mm, p = 0.005). The subsidence of 0.66 mm (7.4%) observed at the latest follow-up was not significant (p = 0.35). Conclusions Midterm results indicate that expandable PEEK spacers can effectively and durably restore disk and foraminal height and improve

  10. Use of fluorinated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and simplified cleanup for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in house dust

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, cost-effective method is described for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust using pressurized fluid extraction, cleanup with modified silica solid phase extraction tubes, and fluorinated internal standards. There are 14 PBDE congeners inc...

  11. Comparison of clinical results for the use of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether in the formalin-ether sedimentation technique performed on polyvinyl alcohol-preserved specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, L S; Shimizu, R

    1981-01-01

    One hundred fecal specimens preserved in polyvinyl alcohol fixative were examined by the Formalin-ether sedimentation technique with ethyl acetate substituted for diethyl ether. Technical performance of the procedures, appearance and amount of sediment obtained, and organism morphology were comparable. Also, ethyl acetate is less flammable and, therefore, less dangerous to use than diethyl ether. Results of parasite recovery when diethyl ether or ethyl acetate was used revealed few clinical relevant differences, most of which could also have been attributed to other variables inherent in this type of diagnostic testing. PMID:7229014

  12. From ‘petal effect’ to ‘lotus effect’ on the highly flexible Silastic S elastomer microstructured using a fluorine based reactive ion etching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankiewicz, Christophe; Zoueshtiagh, Farzam; Talbi, Abdelkrim; Streque, Jérémy; Pernod, Philippe; Merlen, Alain

    2014-11-01

    A fluorine-based reactive ion etching (RIE) process has been applied on a new family of silicone elastomers named ‘Silastic S’ for the first time. Excellent mechanical properties are the principal advantage of this elastomer. The main objective of this study was (i) to develop a new process with an electrodeposited thin Nickel (Ni) layer as a mask to obtain a more precise pattern transfer for deep etching (ii) to investigate the etch rates and the etch profiles obtained under various plasma conditions (gas mixture ratios and pressure). The resulting process exhibits etch rates that range from 20 µm h-1 to 40 µm h-1. The process was optimized to obtain anisotropic profiles of the edges. Finally, it is shown that (iii) the wetting contact angle could be easily modified with this process from 103° to 162°, with a hysteresis that ranges from 2° to 140°. The process is, at present, the only reported solution to reproduce the ‘petal effect’ (high contact angle hysteresis value) on a highly flexible substrate. A possibility to control the contact angle hysteresis from the ‘petal effect’ to the ‘lotus effect’ (low contact angle hysteresis value) has been investigated to allow a precise control on the required energy to pin or unpin the contact line of water droplets. This opens multiple possibilities to exploit this elastomer in many microfluidics applications.

  13. Proton Conduction in Tröger's Base Linked Poly(crown ether)s.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hasmukh A; Selberg, John; Salah, Dhafer; Chen, Haoyuan; Liao, Yijun; Nalluri, Siva Krishna Mohan; Farha, Omar K; Snurr, Randall Q; Rolandi, Marco; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2018-06-05

    Exactly 50 years ago, the ground-breaking discovery of dibenzo[18]crown-6 (DB18C6) by Charles Pedersen, led to the use of DB18C6 as a receptor in supramolecular chemistry and a host in host‒guest chemistry. We have demonstrated proton conductivity in Tröger's base-linked polymers through hydrogen-bonded networks formed from adsorbed water molecules on the oxygen atoms of DB18C6 under humid conditions. Tröger's base-linked polymers - poly(TBL‒DB18C6)-t and poly(TBL‒DB18C6)-c - synthesized by the in situ alkylation and cyclization of either trans- or cis-di(aminobenzo) [18]crown-6 at room temperature have been isolated as high molecular weight polymers. The macromolecular structures of the isomeric poly(TBL‒DB18C6)s have been established by spectroscopic techniques and size-exclusion chromatography. The excellent solubility of these polymers in chloroform allows the formation of free-standing membranes which are thermally stable and also show stability under aqueous conditions. The hydrophilic nature of the DB18C6 building blocks in the polymer facilitates retention of the water as confirmed by water-vapor adsorption isotherms which show a 23 wt% water uptake. The adsorbed water is retained even after reducing the relative humidity to 25 %. The proton conductivity of poly(TBL‒DB18C6)-t which is found to be 1.4 x 10‒4 mS cm‒1 in a humid environment, arises from the hydrogen bonding and the associated proton hopping mechanism, as supported by a modeling study. In addition to proton conductivity, the Tröger's base-linked polymers reported here promise a wide range of applications where the sub-nanometer-sized cavities of the crown ethers and the robust film-forming ability are the governing factors in dictating their properties.

  14. Jet-cooled electronic and vibrational spectroscopy of crown ethers: benzo-15-crown-5 ether and 4'-amino-benzo-15-crown-5 ether.

    PubMed

    Shubert, V Alvin; James, William H; Zwier, Timothy S

    2009-07-16

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), ultraviolet hole-burning (UVHB), and resonant ion-dip infrared (RIDIR) spectroscopies were carried out on isolated benzo-15-crown-5 ether (B15C) and 4'-amino-benzo-15-crown-5 ether (ABC) cooled in a supersonic expansion. Three conformational isomers of B15C and four of ABC were observed and spectroscopically characterized. Full optimizations and harmonic frequency calculations were undertaken for the full set of almost 1700 conformational minima identified in a molecular mechanics force field search. When compared with TDDFT predictions, the S(0)-S(1) origin positions serve as a useful diagnostic of the conformation of the crown ether near the phenyl ring responsible for the UV absorption and to the position of the NH(2) substituent. In-plane orientations for the beta carbons produce red-shifted S(0)-S(1) origins, while out-of-plane "buckling" produces substantial blue shifts of 600 cm(-1) or more. Comparison between the alkyl CH stretch spectra of B15C and ABC divide the spectra into common subgroups shared by the two molecules. The high-frequency CH stretch transitions (above 2930 cm(-1)) reflect the number of CH...O interactions, which in turn track in a general way the degree of buckling of the crown. On this basis, assignments of each of the observed conformational isomers to a class of structure can be made. All the observed structures have some degree of buckling to them, indicating that in the absence of a strong-binding partner, the crown folds in on itself to gain additional stabilization from weak dispersive and CH...O interactions.

  15. [Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers - Reproductive and developmental toxicity].

    PubMed

    Starek-Świechowicz, Beata; Starek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Both ethylene and propylene glycol alkyl ethers (EGAEs and PGAEs, respectively) are widely used, mainly as solvents, in industrial and household products. Some EGAEs demonstrate gonadotoxic, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects in both humans and experimental animals. Due to the noxious impact of these ethers on reproduction and development of organisms EGAEs are replaced for considerably less toxic PGAEs. The data on the mechanisms of testicular, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects of EGAEs are presented in this paper. Our particular attention was focused on the metabolism of some EGAEs and their organ-specific toxicities, apoptosis of spermatocytes associated with changes in the expression of various genes that code for oxidative stress factors, protein kinases and nuclear hormone receptors. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Catalytic and electrocatalytic hydrogenolysis of brominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Pascale M L; Edwards, Patrick; Bejan, Dorin; Lo, Chun Chi; Bunce, Nigel J; Konstantinov, Alexandre D

    2005-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants due to their use as additive flame-retardants. Conventional catalytic hydrogenolysis in methanol solution and electrocatalytic hydrogenolysis in aqueous methanol were examined as methods for debrominating mono- and di-bromodiphenyl ethers, as well as a commercial penta-PBDE mixture, in each case using palladium on alumina as the catalyst. Electrocatalytic hydrogenolysis employed a divided flow-through batch cell, with reticulated vitreous carbon cathodes and IrO2/Ti dimensionally stable anodes. Both methods gave efficient sequential debromination, with essentially complete removal of bromine from the PBDEs, but the electrocatalytic method was limited by the poor solubility of PBDEs in aqueous methanol.

  17. Proton-Ionizable Crown Ethers. A Short Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-30

    acid methyl ester using sodium hydride as the base in tetrahydrofuran. The m3thyl ester group was hydrolyzed to the carboxylic acid as shown in Procedure...prepared via the appropriate hydroxydibenzo-crown ether and allyl bromide RýIý R2 or ethyl acrylate as shown in Procedure N. 5 2 . 5 6 Disulfonic acid ...similar to Procedure p. 7 4 Once the precursor binrephtho-crown was obtained, it was coupled with bromoacetic acid methyl ester and R, , - R

  18. Increasing the thermopower of crown-ether-bridged anthraquinones.

    PubMed

    Ismael, Ali K; Grace, Iain; Lambert, Colin J

    2015-11-07

    We investigate strategies for increasing the thermopower of crown-ether-bridged anthraquinones. The novel design feature of these molecules is the presence of either () crown-ether or () diaza-crown-ether bridges attached to the side of the current-carrying anthraquinone wire. The crown-ether side groups selectively bind alkali-metal cations and when combined with TCNE or TTF dopants, provide a large phase-space for optimising thermoelectric properties. We find that the optimum combination of cations and dopants depends on the temperature range of interest. The thermopowers of both and are negative and at room temperature are optimised by binding with TTF alone, achieving thermpowers of -600 μV K(-1) and -285 μV K(-1) respectively. At much lower temperatures, which are relevant to cascade coolers, we find that for , a combination of TTF and Na(+) yields a maximum thermopower of -710 μV K(-1) at 70 K, whereas a combination of TTF and Li(+) yields a maximum thermopower of -600 μV K(-1) at 90 K. For , we find that TTF doping yields a maximum thermopower of -800 μV K(-1) at 90 K, whereas at 50 K, the largest thermopower (of -600 μV K(-1)) is obtain by a combination TTF and K(+) doping. At room temperature, we obtain power factors of 73 μW m(-1) K(-2) for (in combination with TTF and Na(+)) and 90 μW m(-1) K(-2) for (with TTF). These are higher or comparable with reported power factors of other organic materials.

  19. 2' and 3' Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts

    DOEpatents

    Soloway, Albert H.; Barth, Rolf F.; Anisuzzaman, Abul K.; Alam, Fazlul; Tjarks, Werner

    1992-01-01

    There is disclosed a process for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. Said carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of said compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells.

  20. Secondary Li battery incorporating 12-Crown-4 ether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A rechargeable lithium battery which utilizes a polyethylene oxide (PEO) solid polymeric electrolyte complexed with a lithium salt is disclosed. The conductivity is increased an order of magnitude and interfacial charge transfer resistance is substantially decreased by incorporating a minor amount of 12-Crown-4 ether in the PEO-lithium salt solid electrolyte film. Batteries containing the improved electrolyte permit operation at a lower temperature with improved efficiency.

  1. Thiophenyl ether disiloxanes and trisiloxanes useful as lubricant fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Akawie, R. I. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of organosilicon compounds for lubrication under extreme conditions are discussed. The substances considered are thiophenyl ether disiloxanes and trisiloxanes. These substances have low pour points and a high degree of radiation resistance. Substitution of sulfur for the phenoxy group oxygen of either siloxane compounds has been found to result in a marked improvement in lubricity. The chemical formulas of the organic compounds are presented.

  2. Influence of mixed thiolate/thioether versus dithiolate coordination on the accessibility of the uncommon +I and +III oxidation states for the nickel ion: an experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Marcello; Orio, Maylis; Pécaut, Jacques; Bothe, Eberhard; Neese, Frank; Collomb, Marie-Noëlle; Duboc, Carole

    2011-04-18

    Sulfur-rich nickel metalloenzymes are capable of stabilizing Ni(I) and Ni(III) oxidation states in catalytically relevant species. In an effort to better understand the structural and electronic features that allow the stabilization of such species, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of two mononuclear N(2)S(2) Ni(II) complexes that differ in their sulfur environment. Complex 1 features aliphatic dithiolate coordination ([NiL], 1), and complex 2I is characterized by mixed thiolate/thioether coordination ([NiL(Me)]I, 2I). The latter results from the methylation of a single sulfur of 1. The X-ray structure of 2I reveals a distorted square planar geometry around the Ni(II) ion, similar to what was previously reported by us for 1. The electrochemical investigation of 1 and 2(+) shows that the addition of a methyl group shifts the potentials of both redox Ni(II)/Ni(I) and Ni(III)/Ni(II) redox couples by about 0.7 and 0.6 V to more positive values. Through bulk electrolyses, only the mononuclear dithiolate [Ni(I)L](-) (1(-)) and the mixed thiolate/thioether [Ni(III)L(Me)](2+) (2(2+)) complexes were generated, and their electronic properties were investigated by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy. For 1(-) (Ni(I), d(9) configuration) the EPR data are consistent with a d(x(2))(-)(y(2)) based singly occupied molecular orbitals (SOMOs). However, DFT calculations suggest that there is also pronounced radical character. This is consistent with the small g-anisotropy observed in the EPR experiments. The spin population (Mulliken analysis) analysis of 1(-) reveals that the main contribution to the SOMO (64%) is due to the bipyridine unit. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations attribute the most prominent features observed in the electronic absorption spectrum of 1(-) to metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions. Concerning 2(2+), the EPR spectrum displays a rhombic signal with g(x) = 2.236, g(y) = 2.180, and g(z) = 2.039 in CH(3)CN

  3. Developmental toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Diphenyl ether herblcldes, includlng nitrofen, have been identified as mammalian teratogens and cause perinatal mortality. American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed for 10 days w1th 5 ul/g of corn oil (controls) or one of the diphenyl ether herbicides (nitrofen, bifenox, or oxyfluorofen). At 500 mg/kg, nitrofen resulted in complete mortality, bifenox in high (66%) mortality, and oxyfluorofen in no mortality. Nitrofen, at 250 mg/kg, reduced nestling growth, as reflected by decreased body weight and bone length. Bifenox at 250 mg/kg had less effect on growth than nitrofen but crown rump, humerus, radiusulna and femur lengths were significantly less than controls. Liver welght (percent of body welght) increased with 50 mg/kg nitrofen. Other manifestations of hepatotoxicity following nitrofen ingestion included increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity with 0 mg/kg nitrofen, and increased plasma enzyme activities for ALT, AST. and LDHL with 250 mg/kg. Blfenox lngestion (50 mg/kg) resulted in increased hepatlc GSH peroxidase activity. Nitrofen exposure increased total plasma thyroxlne (T4) concentratlon. These findings suggest that altricial nestllng kestrels are more sensitive to diphenyl ether herbicides than precocial young or adult birds.

  4. Mode of Action Studies on Nitrodiphenyl Ether Herbicides 1

    PubMed Central

    Bowyer, John R.; Hallahan, Beverly J.; Camilleri, Patrick; Howard, Joy

    1989-01-01

    The nitrodiphenyl ether herbicide 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitroacetophenone oxime-o-(acetic acid, methyl ester) (DPEI) induces light- and O2-dependent lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll (Chl) bleaching in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Under conditions of O2-limitation, these effects are diminished by prometyne and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), both inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport. Mutants in which photosynthetic electron transport is blocked are also resistant to DPEI under conditions of O2-limitation. Light- and O2-dependent lipid peroxidation and Chl bleaching are also induced by 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-3-methoxyphthalide (DPEII), a diphenyl ether whose redox properties preclude reduction by photosystem I. However, these effects of DPEII are also inhibited by DCMU. Under conditions of high aeration, DCMU does not protect Scenedesmus cells from Chl bleaching induced by DPEI, but does protect against paraquat. DPEI, but not paraquat, induces tetrapyrrole formation in treated cells in the dark. This is also observed in a mutant lacking photosystem I but is suppressed under conditions likely to lead to O2 limitation. Our results indicate that, in contrast to paraquat, the role of photosynthetic electron transport in diphenyl ether toxicity in Scenedesmus is not to reduce the herbicide to a radical species which initiates lipid peroxidation. Its role is probably to maintain a sufficiently high O2 concentration, through water-splitting, in the algal suspension. PMID:16666600

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Etbe) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In September 2016, EPA released the draft IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) for public comment and discussion. The draft assessment was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science consultation materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether are posted on this site. EPA is undertaking an new health assessment for ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) for the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The outcome of this project will be a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary of ETBE that will be entered on the IRIS database. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information in support of two steps of the risk assessment process, i.e., hazard identification and dose-response evaluation. IRIS assessments are used nationally and internationally in combination with specific situational exposure assessment infor

  6. Microbial degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) in soil slurry microcosms.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsi-Ling; Hwa, Mei-Yin; Lee, Yao-Chuan; Chang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Yi-Tang

    2016-03-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE), which has been identified as an endocrine disrupting compound, is used as brominated flame retardant, and this can result in serious bioaccumulation within ecological systems. The objective of this study was to explore DBDE bioremediation (25 mg/kg) using laboratory scale soil slurry microcosms. It was found that effective biodegradation of DBDE occurred in all microcosms. Various biometabolites were identified, namely polybrominated diphenyl ethers congeners and hydroxylated brominated diphenyl ether. Reductive debrominated products such as tri-BDE to hepta-BDE congeners were also detected, and their total concentrations ranged from 77.83 to 91.07 ng/g. The mechanism of DBDE biodegradation in soil slurry microcosms is proposed to consist of a series of biological reactions involving hydroxylation and debromination. Catechol 2,3-oxygenase genes, which are able to bring about meta-cleavage at specific unbrominated locations in carbon backbones, were identified as present during the DBDE biodegradation. No obvious effect on the ecological functional potential based on community-level physiological profiling was observed during DBDE biodegradation, and one major facultative Pseudomonas sp. (99 % similarity) was identified in the various soil slurry microcosms. These findings provide an important basis that should help environmental engineers to design future DBDE bioremediation systems that use a practical microcosm system. A bacterial-mixed culture can be selected as part of the bioaugmentation process for in situ DBDE bioremediation. A soil/water microcosm system can be successfully applied to carry out ex situ DBDE bioremediation.

  7. Biomedical potentials of crown ethers: prospective antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Kralj, Marijeta; Tusek-Bozić, Ljerka; Frkanec, Leo

    2008-10-01

    Crown ethers are of enormous interest and importance in chemistry, biochemistry, materials science, catalysis, separation, transport and encapsulated processes, as well as in the design and synthesis of various synthetic systems with specific properties, diverse capabilities, and programmable functions. Classical crown ethers are macrocyclic polyethers that contain 3-20 oxygen atoms separated from each other by two or more carbon atoms. They are exceptionally versatile in selectively binding a range of metal ions and a variety of organic neutral and ionic species. Crown ethers are currently being studied and used in a variety of applications beyond their traditional place in chemistry. This review presents additional applications and the ever-increasing biomedical potentials of these intriguing compounds, with particular emphasis on the prospects of their relevance as anticancer agents. We believe that further research in this direction should be encouraged, as crown compounds could either induce toxicities that are different from those of conventional antitumor drugs, or complement drugs in current use, thereby providing a valuable adjunct to therapy.

  8. Spiroborate Ester-Mediated Asymmetric Synthesis of β-Hydroxy Ethers and its Conversion to Highly Enantiopure β-Amino Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kun; Ortiz-Marciales, Margarita; Correa, Wildeliz; Pomales, Edgardo; López, Xaira Y.

    2009-01-01

    Borane-mediated reduction of aryl and alkyl ketones with α-aryl- and α-pyridyloxy groups affords β-hydroxy ethers in high enantiomeric purity (up to 99% ee) and in good yield, using as catalyst 10 mol % of spiroborate ester 1 derived from (S)-diphenylprolinol. Representative β-hydroxy ethers are successfully converted to β-amino ethers, with minor epimerization, by phthalimide substitution under Mitsunobu’s conditions followed by hydrazinolysis, to obtain primary amino ethers or by imide reduction with borane to afford β-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol ethers. Non-racemic Mexiletine and nAChR analogues with potential biological activity are also synthesized in excellent yield by mesylation of key β-hydroxy pyridylethers and substitution with 5, 6 and 7 member ring heterocyclic amines. PMID:19413288

  9. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (sPEEK) membranes for low temperature fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mawlood Maajal; Rizvi, S. J. A.; Azam, Ameer

    2018-05-01

    Poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) was sulfonated with 1.0 M sulphuric acid for varying durations to have various degrees of sulfonation (DS) from 43 to 55%. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the successful sulfonation of PEEK. The sulfonated PEEK (sPEEK) membranes were prepared by a solvent casting method using dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as solvent and upon drying the membranes were characterized. The DS% and ion exchange capacity (IEC) were determined by a back titration method. The IEC and DS of sPEEK was found to increase with the increment of sulfonation reaction time. Water uptake also increased with increase in the DS. The Thermogravimetric (TGA) curves revealed poor thermal stability of sPEEK. The proton conductivity of sPEEK membrane was found to considerably better with degree of sulfonation for fuel cell application.

  10. Intermolecular ionic cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes containing diazafluorene for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu; Gong, Chenliang; Qi, Zhigang; Li, Hui; Wu, Zhongying; Zhang, Yakui; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Yanfeng

    2015-06-01

    A series of novel ionic cross-linking sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes containing the diazafluorene functional group are synthesized to reduce the swelling ratio and methanol permeability for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. The ionic cross-linking is realized by the interaction between sulfonic acid groups and pyridyl in diazafluorene. The prepared membranes exhibit good mechanical properties, adequate thermal stability, good oxidative stability, appropriate water uptake and low swelling ratio. Moreover, the ionic cross-linked membranes exhibit lower methanol permeability in the range between 0.56 × 10-7 cm2 s-1 and 1.8 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, which is lower than Nafion 117, and they exhibit higher selectivity than Nafion 117 at 30 °C on the basis of applicable proton conductivity.

  11. Cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) by using diamino-organosilicon for proton exchange fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Marie J; Reinholdt, Marc X; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2011-03-31

    Fuel cells are at the battlefront to find alternate sources of energy to the highly polluting, economically and environmentally constraining fossil fuels. This work uses an organosilicon molecule presenting two amine functions, bis(3-aminopropyl)-tetramethyldisiloxane (APTMDS) with the aim of preparing cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) based membranes. The hybrid membranes obtained at varying APTMDS loadings are characterized for their acid, proton conductivity, water uptake, and swelling properties. APTMDS may be considered as an extreme case of silica nanoparticle and is therefore most advantageously distributed within the polymeric matrix. The two amine groups can interact, via electrostatic interactions, with the sulfonic acid groups of SPEEK, resulting in a double anchoring of the molecule. The addition of a small amount of APTMDS is enhancing the mechanical and hydrolytic properties of the membranes and allows some unfolding of the polymer chains, rendering some acid sites accessible to water molecules and thus available for proton transport.

  12. Interfacial Properties of Thin Films of Poly(vinyl ether)s with Architectural Design in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Yukari; Itagaki, Nozomi; Sugimoto, Sin; Kawaguchi, Daisuke; Matsuno, Hisao; Tanaka, Keiji

    Precise design of primary structure and architecture of polymers leads to the well-defined structure, unique physical properties, and excellent functions not only in the bulk but also at the interfaces. We here constructed functional polymer interfaces in water based on the architectural design of poly(vinyl ether)s with oxyethylene side-chains (POEVE). A branched polymer with POEVE parts was preferentially segregated at the air interface in the matrix of poly(methyl methacrylate). As an alternative way to prepare the POEVE surface, the cross-linked hydrogel thin films were prepared. The moduli of the hydrogel films near the water interfaces, which were examined by force-distance curve measurements using atomic force microscopy, were greatly sensitive to the cross-linking density of the polymers. Diffuse interfaces of POEVE chains at the water interface make it possible to prevent the platelet adhesion on the films.

  13. {sup 18}F-desmethoxyfallypride: A fluorine-18 labeled radiotracer with properties similar to carbon-11 raclopride for PET imaging studies of dopamine D{sub 2} receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, J.; Yang, Z.Y.; Brown, T.

    1996-07-19

    We have developed (S)-N-[(1-allyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-{sup 18}F-fluoropropyl)-2-methoxybenzamide ({sup 18}F-desmethoxyfallypride) as a fluorine-18 radiotracer with properties analogous to that of {sup 11}C-raclopride. In vitro experiments in rat brain homogenates showed an association rate constant of 2.1X10{sup 8} M{sup -1} min{sup -1} and a dissociation rate constant of 0.073 min{sup -1}. High striatal uptake (up to 0.08% injected dose/cc) of {sup 18}F-desmethoxyfallypride in rhesus monkeys was observed in PET experiments. The radiotracer cleared from the striata with a dissociation rate of 1.80X10{sup -2} min{sup -1}. Striatum to cerebellum ratios peaked at 3.0 in 30 min after which they decreased steadily. Intravenously administered haloperidol displacedmore » specifically bound {sup 18}F-desmethoxyfallypride with a k{sub off} of 0.058 min{sup -1}. Synaptic dopamine released by the treatment of the monkeys with a d-amphetamine increased the dissociation rate of {sup 18}F-desmethoxyfallypride to 0.83 min{sup -1} thus reducing specifically bound {sup 18}F-desmethoxyfallypride by 56% over a period of 42 mins compared to a reduction of only 20% in controls during this time period. The sensitivity of {sup 18}F-desmethoxyfallypride towards competition with dopamine should make this radiotracer useful in PET studies to evaluate in vivo pharmacological effects of various agents that alter levels of endogenous dopamine. 27 refs., 8 figs.« less

  14. Densely quaternized poly(arylene ether)s with distinct phase separation for highly anion-conductive membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuanfang; Wang, Bingxi; Li, Xiao; Chen, Dongyang; Zhang, Weiying

    2018-05-01

    To develop high performance anion exchange membranes (AEMs), a novel bisphenol monomer bearing eight benzylmethyl groups at the outer edge of the molecule was synthesized, which after condensation polymerization with various amounts of 4,4‧-dihydroxydiphenylsulfone and 4,4‧-difluorobenzophenone yielded novel poly(arylene ether)s with densely located benzylmethyl groups. These benzylmethyl groups were then converted to quaternary ammonium groups by radical-initiated bromination and quaternization in tandem, leading to the emergence of densely quaternized poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (QA-PAEs) with controlled ion exchange capacities (IECs) ranging from 1.61 to 2.32 mmol g-1. Both small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed distinct phase separation in the QA-PAEs. The QA-PAE-40 with an IEC of 2.32 mmol g-1 exhibited a Br- conductivity of 9.2 mS cm-1 and a SO42- conductivity of 14.0 mS cm-1 at room temperature, much higher than those of a control membrane with a similar IEC but without obvious phase separation. Therefore, phase separation of AEMs was validated to be advantageous for the efficient conducting of anions. The experimental results also showed that the QA-PAEs were promising AEM materials, especially for non-alkaline applications.

  15. A facile synthesis of highly stable multiblock poly(arylene ether)s based alkaline membranes for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasti, Amaranadh; Shahi, Vinod K.

    2014-12-01

    Herein, we are disclosing simple route for the preparation of alkaline membranes (AMs) based on aminated multiblock poly(arylene ether)s (AMPEs) synthesized by nucleophilic substitution-poly condensation followed by quaternization and alkalization reactions. In this procedure, four quaternary ammonium groups are successfully introduced without use of carcinogenic reagents such as chloromethylmethyl ether (CMME). Hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase separation is responsible for their high hydroxide conductivity (∼150 mS cm-1 at 80 °C) due to development of interconnected ion transport pathway. AMs are exhibiting good alkaline stability due to the presence of two vicinal quaternary ammonium groups and avoid degradation such as Sommelet-Hauser rearrangement and Hofmann elimination. Vicinal quaternary ammonium groups also resist nucleophilic (OH-) attack and suppress the Stevens rearrangement as well as SN2 substitution reaction due to stearic hindrance. Optimized AM (AMPE-M20N15 (55% DCM)) exhibits about 0.95 V open circuit voltage (OCV) and 48.8 mW cm-2 power density at 65 °C in alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC) operation. These results suggest promising begin for the preparation of stable and conductive AMs for ADMFC applications and useful for developing hydroxide conductive materials.

  16. Material with high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and good mechanical and thermal properties produced using multi-wall carbon nanotubes wrapped with poly(ether sulphone) in a poly(ether ether ketone) matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuling; Wang, Hongsong; Wang, Guibin; Jiang, Zhenhua

    2012-07-01

    A material with high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and good mechanical and thermal properties was produced using multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) wrapped with poly(ether sulphone) (PES) dispersed in a poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) matrix. The material was fabricated using melt-blending, and MWCNT/PEEK composites show different degrees of improvement in the measured dielectric, mechanical, and thermal properties as compared to pure PEEK. This is attributed to the high conductivity of MWCNTs, the effect of wrapping MWCNTs with PES, the good dispersion of the wrapped MWCNTs in PEEK, and the strong interfacial adhesion between the wrapped MWCNTs and the PEEK.

  17. Obligate methylotrophy: evaluation of dimethyl ether as a C1 compound.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, A J

    1982-01-01

    The suitability of dimethyl ether as a C1 compound was examined with the obligate methylobacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Texas). The ether did not support growth and was not formed during growth on methane; it was an inhibitor of growth and oxidation of methane and a poor oxidation substrate for cell suspensions. NADH stimulation of methane, but not dimethyl ether, oxidation occurred in cell extracts. PMID:6802804

  18. [Early contributions from Erlangen to the theory and practice of ether and chloroform anesthesia. 1. Heyfelder's clinical trial with ether and chloroform].

    PubMed

    Hintzenstern, U v; Schwarz, W

    1996-02-01

    The era of modern anaesthesia in Germany began on January 24th, 1847. This day, professor in ordinary Johann Ferdinand Heyfelder anaesthetized a patient with sulphuric ether in the clinic of surgery and ophthalmology of the University of Erlangen. By March 17th, 1847, Heyfelder had performed 121 surgical procedures under ether. The operations in majority were teeth-extractions, and a few more complex operations such as the treatment of a harelip or of lip cancer or the resection of the shoulder joint. Heyfelder described in detail 108 of these inhalations in a little book entitled The experiments with sulphuric ether. This monograph published in March, 1847, represents one of the first complete dissertations on sulphuric ether in the German literature. In a special chapter he analyzed the development of various physiological and psychological parameters during etherization. Heyfelder also examined blood and urine of some etherized patients and reported that he did not find any important or specific alterations. In 1847, Heyfelder was probably the first to apply salt-ether in man. After 4 administrations he concluded that salt ether acted more quickly but shorter than sulphuric ether. Advantageous were its application without problems and ease of induction. Disadvantageous were its high volatility, its price and the difficulty of getting it in a pure form. From December, 1847, on Heyfelder started to use chloroform. He was now able to perform more major operations, for example, the total resection of the hip-joint. In his book The experiments with sulphuric ether, salt ether, and chloroform he describes a great number of anaesthetic administrations using these 3 agents. In his summary Heyfelder concluded, that chloroform was undoubtly superior to sulphuric ether mainly because it was a quicker acting and longer lasting agent and leads to deeper narcosis. Moreover its application was much easier for it needed no special apparatus. However, because of its great

  19. Synthesis and antiviral activity of certain second generation methylenecyclopropane nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John D.; Khan, Atiyya R.; Harden, Emma A.; Hartline, Caroll B.; Jefferson, Geraldine M.; Keith, Kathy A.; Prichard, Mark N.; Zemlicka, Jiri; Peet, Norton P.; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    A second-generation series of substituted methylenecyclopropane nucleosides (MCPNs) has been synthesized and evaluated for antiviral activity against a panel of human herpesviruses, and for cytotoxicity. Although alkylated 2,6-diaminopurine analogs showed little antiviral activity, the compounds containing ether and thioether substituents at the 6-position of the purine did demonstrate potent and selective antiviral activity against several different human herpesviruses. In the 6-alkoxy series, antiviral activity depended on the length of the ether carbon chain, with the optimum chain length being about four carbon units long. For the corresponding thioethers, compounds containing secondary thioethers were more potent than those with primary thioethers. PMID:22607883

  20. On the radiation stability of crown ethers in ionic liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Shkrob, I.; Marin, T.; Dietz, M.

    2011-04-14

    Crown ethers (CEs) are macrocyclic ionophores used for the separation of strontium-90 from acidic nuclear waste streams. Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are presently being considered as replacements for traditional molecular solvents employed in such separations. It is desirable that the extraction efficacy obtained with such solvents should not deteriorate in the strong radiation fields generated by decaying radionuclides. This deterioration will depend on the extent of radiation damage to both the IL solvent and the CE solute. While radiation damage to ILs has been extensively studied, the issue of the radiation stability of crown ethers, particularly in an ILmore » matrix, has not been adequately addressed. With this in mind, we have employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to study the formation of CE-related radicals in the radiolysis of selected CEs in ILs incorporating aromatic (imidazolium and pyridinium) cations. The crown ethers have been found to yield primarily hydrogen loss radicals, H atoms, and the formyl radical. In the low-dose regime, the relative yield of these radicals increases linearly with the mole fraction of the solute, suggesting negligible transfer of the excitation energy from the solvent to the solute; that is, the solvent has a 'radioprotective' effect. The damage to the CE in the loading region of practical interest is relatively low. Under such conditions, the main chemical pathway leading to decreased extraction performance is protonation of the macrocycle. At high radiation doses, sufficient to increase the acidity of the IL solvent significantly, such proton complexes compete with the solvent cations as electron traps. In this regime, the CEs will rapidly degrade as the result of H abstraction from the CE ring by the released H atoms. Thus, the radiation dose to which a CE/IL system is exposed must be maintained at a level sufficiently low to avoid this regime.« less

  1. The Microwave Spectrum of Partially Deuterated Species of Dimethyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvergnat, D.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Coudert, L. H.

    2011-06-01

    Dimethyl ether is a molecule of astrophysical interest spectroscopically well characterized. It is one of the simplest molecules with two methyl groups undergoing large amplitude internal rotations. Due to deuterium enrichment in the interstellar medium, one can reasonably expect that partially deuterated species of dimethyl ether might be detected. However, there are no spectroscopic results about the microwave spectrum of such species. A theoretical calculation of the rotation-torsion energy levels of the partially deuterated species of dimethyl ether has been undertaken aided by ab initio calculations. The approach accounts for the complicated torsion-rotation interactions displayed by this molecule and for the fact that deuteration leads to changes of the bidimensional internal rotation effective potential energy surface. Due to zero-point energy contributions from the 19 small amplitude vibrational modes, this surface no longer displays G36 symmetry. Rotation-torsion energy levels are computed treating the two angles of internal rotation as active coordinates and evaluating Hamiltonian matrix elements with the help of Gaussian quadrature. It is hoped that the present results will allow us to understand the microwave spectrum of the mono deuterated species CH_2DOCH_3 which has been recorded in Lille with the new sub millimeter wave spectrometer (150--950 GHz) based on harmonic generation of solid-state sources. [2] Snyder, Buhl, and Schwartz, Astrophys. J. Letters 191 (1974) L79. [3] Endres, Drouin, Pearson, Müller, Lewen, Schlemmer, and Giesen, A&A 504 (2009) 635. [4] Solomon and Woolf, Astrophys. J. Letters 180 (1973) L89. [5] Lauvergnat and Nauts, J. Chem. Phys. 116 (2002) 8560; and Light and Bačić, J. Chem. Phys. 87 (1987) 4008.

  2. Dimethyl ether production from methanol and/or syngas

    DOEpatents

    Dagle, Robert A; Wang, Yong; Baker, Eddie G; Hu, Jianli

    2015-02-17

    Disclosed are methods for producing dimethyl ether (DME) from methanol and for producing DME directly from syngas, such as syngas from biomass. Also disclosed are apparatus for DME production. The disclosed processes generally function at higher temperatures with lower contact times and at lower pressures than conventional processes so as to produce higher DME yields than do conventional processes. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in reactors providing greater surface to volume ratios than the presently used DME reactors. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in systems comprising multiple microchannel reactors.

  3. Polyimides containing carbonyl and ether connecting groups - II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Havens, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of polyimides containing carbonyl and ether connecting groups between aromatic rings, several new polyimides were prepared and characterized. A few of these polymers were semicrystalline. Glass transition temperatures ranged from 164 to 258 C, and crystalline melt temperatures were observed between 350 and 424 C. The semicrystalline polyimide from the reaction of 3.3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride and 1,3-bis(4-aminophenoxy-4'-benzoyl)benzene provided transparent orange films with excellent tensile properties, exceptional resistance to solvents and strong base, and high thermooxidative stability. In addition, this polyimide provided excellent adhesive strength for joining titanium (6Al-4V) to titanium.

  4. Chemistry and properties of new poly(arylene ether imidazoles)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to develop high-temperature high-performance structural resins for aerospace applications, the chemistry and properties of new poly(arylene ether imidazoles) were investigated. The polymers were prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of aromatic bis(imidazolephenols) with activated aromatic difluoro compounds. The amorphous thermoplastic polymers exhibited glass transition temperatures from 230 to 301 C, inherent viscosities from 0.46 to 1.46 dL/g, and number-average molecular weights as high as 59,300 g/mole. The polymers exhibit good toughness, adhesive, composite, and film properties. The chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of these materials are discussed.

  5. Ether Lipids of Planktonic Archaea in the Marine Water Column

    PubMed Central

    Hoefs, M.; Schouten, S.; De Leeuw, J. W.; King, L. L.; Wakeham, S. G.; Damste, J.

    1997-01-01

    Acyclic and cyclic biphytanes derived from the membrane ether lipids of archaea were found in water column particulate and sedimentary organic matter from several oxic and anoxic marine environments. Compound-specific isotope analyses of the carbon skeletons suggest that planktonic archaea utilize an isotopically heavy carbon source such as algal carbohydrates and proteins or dissolved bicarbonate. Due to their high preservation potential, these lipids provide a fossil record of planktonic archaea and suggest that they have thrived in marine environments for more than 50 million years. PMID:16535669

  6. Ether-based nonflammable electrolyte for room temperature sodium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jinkui; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Lifei; Yang, Jian; Xiong, Shenglin; Qian, Yitai

    2015-06-01

    Safety problem is one of the key points that hinder the development of room temperature sodium batteries. In this paper, four well-known nonflammable organic compounds, Trimethyl Phosphate (TMP), Tri(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TFEP), Dimethyl Methylphosphonate (DMMP), Methyl nonafluorobuyl Ether (MFE), are investigated as nonflammable solvents in sodium batteries for the first time. Among them, MFE is stable towards sodium metal at room temperature. The electrochemical properties and electrode compatibility of MFE based electrolyte are investigated. Both Prussian blue cathode and carbon nanotube anode show good electrochemical performance retention in this electrolyte. The results suggest that MFE is a promising option as nonflammable electrolyte additive for sodium batteries.

  7. A first-in-man PET study of [18F]PSS232, a fluorinated ABP688 derivative for imaging metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Geoffrey; Sommerauer, Michael; Mu, Linjing; Pla Gonzalez, Gloria; Geistlich, Susanne; Treyer, Valerie; Schibli, Roger; Buck, Alfred; Krämer, Stefanie D; Ametamey, Simon M

    2018-06-01

    Non-invasive imaging of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu 5 ) in the brain using PET is of interest in e.g., anxiety, depression, and Parkinson's disease. Widespread application of the most widely used mGlu 5 tracer, [ 11 C]ABP688, is limited by the short physical half-life of carbon-11. [ 18 F]PSS232 is a fluorinated analog with promising preclinical properties and high selectivity and specificity for mGlu 5 . In this first-in-man study, we evaluated the brain uptake pattern and kinetics of [ 18 F]PSS232 in healthy volunteers. [ 18 F]PSS232 PET was performed with ten healthy male volunteers aged 20-40 years. Seven of the subjects received a bolus injection and the remainder a bolus/infusion protocol. Cerebral blood flow was determined in seven subjects using [ 15 O]water PET. Arterial blood activity was measured using an online blood counter. Tracer kinetics were evaluated by compartment modeling and parametric maps were generated for both tracers. At 90 min post-injection, 59.2 ± 11.1% of total radioactivity in plasma corresponded to intact tracer. The regional first pass extraction fraction of [ 18 F]PSS232 ranged from 0.41 ± 0.06 to 0.55 ± 0.03 and brain distribution pattern matched that of [ 11 C]ABP688. Uptake kinetics followed a simple two-tissue compartment model. The volume of distribution of total tracer (V T , ml/cm 3 ) ranged from 1.18 ± 0.20 for white matter to 2.91 ± 0.51 for putamen. The respective mean distribution volume ratios (DVR) with cerebellum as the reference tissue were 0.88 ± 0.06 and 2.12 ± 0.10, respectively. The tissue/cerebellum ratios of a bolus/infusion protocol (30/70 dose ratio) were close to the DVR values. Brain uptake of [ 18 F]PSS232 matched the distribution of mGlu 5 and followed a two-tissue compartment model. The well-defined kinetics and the possibility to use reference tissue models, obviating the need for arterial blood sampling, make [ 18 F]PSS232 a promising fluorine-18 labeled

  8. Structure and Reactivity of Alkyl Ethers Adsorbed on CeO2(111) Model Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    F Calaza; T Chen; D Mullins

    2011-12-31

    The effect of surface hydroxyls on the adsorption of ether on ceria was explored. Adsorption of dimethyl ether (DME) and diethyl ether (DEE) on oxidized and reduced CeO{sub 2}(111) films was studied and compared with Ru(0001) using RAIRS and sXPS within a UHV environment. On Ru(0001) the ethers adsorb weakly with the molecular plane close to parallel to the surface plane. On the ceria films, the adsorption of the ethers was stronger than on the metal surface, presumably due to stronger interaction of the ether oxygen lone pair electrons with a cerium cation. This interaction causes the ethers to tiltmore » away from the surface plane compared to the Ru(0001) surface. No pronounced differences were found between oxidized (CeO{sub 2}) and reduced (CeOx) films. The adsorption of the ethers was found to be perturbed by the presence of OH groups on hydroxylated CeOx. In the case of DEE, the geometry of adsorption resembles that found on Ru, and in the case of dimethyl ether DME is in between that one found on clean CeOx and the metal surface. Decomposition of the DEE was observed on the OH/CeOx surface following high DEE exposure at 300 K and higher temperatures. Ethoxides and acetates were identified as adsorbed species on the surface by means of RAIRS and ethoxides and formates by s-XPS. No decomposition of dimethyl ether was observed on the OH/CeOx at these higher temperatures, implying that the dissociation of the C-O bond from ethers requires the presence of {beta}-hydrogen.« less

  9. Structure and Reactivity of Alkyl Ethers Adsorbed on CeO(2)(111) Model Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Calaza, Florencia C; Chen, Tsung-Liang; Mullins, David R

    2011-01-01

    The effect of surface hydroxyls on the adsorption of ether on ceria was explored. Adsorption of dimethyl ether (DME) and diethyl ether (DEE) on oxidized and reduced CeO{sub 2}(111) films was studied and compared with Ru(0001) using RAIRS and sXPS within a UHV environment. On Ru(0001) the ethers adsorb weakly with the molecular plane close to parallel to the surface plane. On the ceria films, the adsorption of the ethers was stronger than on the metal surface, presumably due to stronger interaction of the ether oxygen lone pair electrons with a cerium cation. This interaction causes the ethers to tiltmore » away from the surface plane compared to the Ru(0001) surface. No pronounced differences were found between oxidized (CeO{sub 2}) and reduced (CeOx) films. The adsorption of the ethers was found to be perturbed by the presence of OH groups on hydroxylated CeOx. In the case of DEE, the geometry of adsorption resembles that found on Ru, and in the case of dimethyl ether DME is in between that one found on clean CeOx and the metal surface. Decomposition of the DEE was observed on the OH/CeOx surface following high DEE exposure at 300 K and higher temperatures. Ethoxides and acetates were identified as adsorbed species on the surface by means of RAIRS and ethoxides and formates by s-XPS. No decomposition of dimethyl ether was observed on the OH/CeOx at these higher temperatures, implying that the dissociation of the C-O bond from ethers requires the presence of {beta}-hydrogen.« less

  10. Effect of p-amino-diphenyl ethers on hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huidi; Xuan, Guida

    2003-09-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether p-amino-2',4'-dichlorodiphenyl ether and p-amino-4'-methyldiphenyl ether are inhibitors as well as inducers of P450. Mice were given daily intraperitoneal (ip) injections of p-amino-2',4'-dichlorodiphenyl ether (0.25 mmol/kg) or p-amino-4'-methyldiphenyl ether (0.25 mmol/kg) for 4 days and tested at 24 h and 48 h after the last dose injection. The results showed the mice pentobarbital sleeping time was shorter and the P450 content of hepatic microsome increased significantly in the group pretreated with p-amino-4'-methyldiphenyl ether when compared with the control group, while in mice pretreated with p-amino-2',4'-dichlorodiphenyl ether the hepatic microsome P450 content increased but the pentobarbital sleeping time was extended in clear contrast to the control group. The sleeping time of the phenobarbital group (80 mg/kg daily ip injection for 4 days) was shortened at 24 h after the last injection with increased P450 content of hepatic microsome, but it showed no difference at 48 h. The zoxazolamine-paralysis times of mice treated with p-amino-2',4'-dichlorodiphenyl ether were longer than those of the control mice, while the same dose of zoxazolamine did not lead to paralysis in mice pretreated with BNF. p-Amino-2',4'-dichlorodiphenyl ether and p-amino-4'-methyldiphenyl ether inhibited the activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase from rat hepatic microsome induced by BNF in vitro by 70.0% and 50.1% respectively. These results suggest that p-amino-2',4'-dichlorodiphenyl ether and p-amino-4'-methyldiphenyl ether are inhibitors as well as inducers of P450.

  11. Rapid detection and identification of N-acetyl-L-cysteine thioethers using constant neutral loss and theoretical multiple reaction monitoring combined with enhanced product-ion scans on a linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Karoline; Dekant, Wolfgang; Völkel, Wolfgang; Pähler, Axel

    2005-12-01

    A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method based on the combination of constant neutral loss scans (CNL) with product ion scans was developed on a linear ion trap. The method is applicable for the detection and identification of analytes with identical chemical substructures (such as conjugates of xenobiotics formed in biological systems) which give common CNLs. A specific CNL was observed for thioethers of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (mercapturic acids, MA) by LC-MS/MS. MS and HPLC parameters were optimized with 16 MAs available as reference compounds. All of these provided a CNL of 129 Da in the negative-ion mode. To assess sensitivity, a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with 251 theoretical transitions using the CNL of 129 Da combined with a product ion scan (IDA thMRM) was compared with CNL combined with a product ion scan (IDA CNL). An information-dependent acquisition (IDA) uses a survey scan such as MRM (multiple reaction monitoring) to generate "informations" and starting a second acquisition experiment such as a product ion scan using these "informations." Th-MRM means calculated transitions and not transitions generated from an available standard in the tuning mode. The product ion spectra provide additional information on the chemical structure of the unknown analytes. All MA standards were spiked in low concentrations to rat urines and were detected with both methods with LODs ranging from 60 pmol/mL to 1.63 nmol/mL with IDA thMRM. The expected product ion spectra were observed in urine. Application of this screening method to biological samples indicated the presence of a number of MAs in urine of unexposed rats, and resulted in the identification of 1,4-dihydroxynonene mercapturic acid as one of these MAs by negative and positive product ion spectra. These results show that the developed methods have a high potential to serve as both a prescreen to detect unknown MAs and to identify these analytes in complex matrix.

  12. RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE REACTIONS OF OH RADICALS AND CL ATOMS WITH DI-N-PROPYL ETHER AND DI-N-BUTYL ETHER AND THEIR DEUTERATED ANALOGS. (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using relative rate methods, rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with di-n-propyl ether, di-n-propyl ether-d14, di-n-butyl ether and di-n-butyl ether-d18 have been measured at 296 ? 2 K and atmos...

  13. Novel Ordered Crown Ether-Containing Polyimides for Ion Conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvin, Jennifer A.; Stasko, Daniel; Fallis, Stephen; Guenthner, Andrew J.; Webber, Cynthia; Blackwell, John; Chvalun, Sergei N.

    2003-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of thermally-stable polyimides for use as battery and fuel cell electrolyte membranes. Dianhydrides used were 1,4,5,8- naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride and/or 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride. Diamines used were anti-4,4-diaminodibenzo-l8-crown-6, 4,4'- diaminodibenzo-24-crown-8, 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane, and/or 2,5- diaminobenzenesulfonic acid. The polymers were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. Polymers containing the hexafluoroisopropylidene (HFIP) group were soluble in common organic solvents, while polymers without the HFIP group were very poorly soluble. Sulfonation yields polymers that are sparingly soluble in aqueous base and/or methanol. Degree of sulfonation, determined by titration, was between one and three sulfonate groups per repeat unit. Proton conductivity was determined as a function of water content, with a maximum conductivity of l x 10(exp -2) per centimeter when fully hydrated. Crown ether-containing polymers exhibit a high degree of order that may be indicative of crown ether channel formation, which may facilitate Li(+) transport for use in battery membranes.

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Etbe) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In August 2013, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for ETBE to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in comments on the following: Draft literature search strategies The approach for identifying studies The screening process for selecting pertinent studies The resulting list of pertinent studies Preliminary evidence tables The process for selecting studies to include in evidence tables The quality of the studies in the evidence tables The literature search strategy, which describes the processes for identifying scientific literature, contains the studies that EPA considered and selected to include in the evidence tables. The preliminary evidence tables and exposure-response arrays present the key study data in a standardized format. The evidence tables summarize the available critical scientific literature. The exposure-response figures provide a graphical representation of the responses at different levels of exposure for each study in the evidence table. The draft Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether.

  15. Diphytanyl glycerol ether distributions in sediments of the Orca Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, T.K.; VanVleet, E.S.; Barre, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    Archaebacterially produced diphytanyl glycerol ether (DPGE) was examined in core sediments from the Orca Basin, an anoxic hypersaline basin in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, to observe its spatial variability and potential origin. A differential extraction protocol was employed to quantify the isopranyl glycerol ethers associated with unbound, intermediate-bound, and kerogen-bound lipid fractions. Archaebacterial lipids were evident at all depths for the unbound and intermediate-bound fractions. Concentrations of DPGE ranged from 0.51 to 2.91 [mu]g/g dry sediment at the surface and showed secondary maxima deeper in basin sediments. Intermediate-bound DPGE concentrations exhibited an inverse relationship to unbound DPGE concentrations. Kerogen-boundmore » DPGE concentrations were normally below detection limits. Earlier studies describing the general homogeneity of lipid components within the overlying brine and at the brine/seawater interface suggest that the large-scale sedimentary DPGE variations observed in this study result from spatial and temporal variations in in-situ production by methanogenic or extremely halophilic archaebacteria.« less

  16. Entropy Generation Minimization in Dimethyl Ether Synthesis: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingston, Diego; Razzitte, Adrián César

    2018-04-01

    Entropy generation minimization is a method that helps improve the efficiency of real processes and devices. In this article, we study the entropy production (due to chemical reactions, heat exchange and friction) in a conventional reactor that synthesizes dimethyl ether and minimize it by modifying different operating variables of the reactor, such as composition, temperature and pressure, while aiming at a fixed production of dimethyl ether. Our results indicate that it is possible to reduce the entropy production rate by nearly 70 % and that, by changing only the inlet composition, it is possible to cut it by nearly 40 %, though this comes at the expense of greater dissipation due to heat transfer. We also study the alternative of coupling the reactor with another, where dehydrogenation of methylcyclohexane takes place. In that case, entropy generation can be reduced by 54 %, when pressure, temperature and inlet molar flows are varied. These examples show that entropy generation analysis can be a valuable tool in engineering design and applications aiming at process intensification and efficient operation of plant equipment.

  17. Developmental toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides in nestling American kestrels.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, D J; Spann, J W; LeCaptain, L J; Bunck, C M; Rattner, B A

    1991-11-01

    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed for 10 consecutive days with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls) or one of the diphenyl ether herbicides (nitrofen, bifenox, or oxyfluorfen) at concentrations of 10, 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg in corn oil. At 500 mg/kg, nitrofen resulted in complete nestling mortality, bifenox in high (66%) mortality, and oxyfluorfen in no mortality. Nitrofen at 250 mg/kg reduced nestling growth as reflected by decreased body weight, crown-rump length, and bone lengths including humerus, radius-ulna, femur, and tibiotarsus. Bifenox at 250 mg/kg had less effect on growth than nitrofen, but crown-rump, humerus, radius-ulna, and femur were significantly shorter than controls. Liver weight as a percent of body weight increased with 50 and 250 mg/kg nitrofen. Other manifestations of impending hepatotoxicity following nitrofen ingestion included increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in all nitrofen-treated groups, and increased plasma enzyme activities for ALT, AST, and LDH-L in the 250-mg/kg group. Bifenox ingestion resulted in increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in the 50- and 250-mg/kg groups. Nitrofen exposure also resulted in an increase in total plasma thyroxine (T4) concentration. These findings suggest that altricial nestlings are more sensitive to diphenyl ether herbicides than young or adult birds of precocial species.

  18. Developmental toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides in nestling American kestrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Spann, J.W.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Bunck, C.M.; Rattner, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed for 10 consecutive days with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls) or one of the diphenyl ether herbicides (nitrofen, bifenox, or oxyfluorfen) at concentrations of 10, 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg in corn oil. At 500 mg/kg, nitrofen resulted in complete nestling mortality, bifenox in high (66%) mortality, and oxyfluorfen in no mortality. Nitrofen at 250 mg/kg reduced nestling growth as reflected by decreased body weight, crownrump length, and bone lengths including humerus, radiusulna, femur, and tibiotarsus. Bifenox at 250 mg/kg had less effect on growth than nitrofen, but crownrump, humerus, radiusulna, and femur were significantly shorter than controls. Liver weight as a percent of body weight increased with 50 and 250 mg/kg nitrofen. Other manifestations of impending hepatotoxicity following nitrofen ingestion included increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in all nitrofentreated groups, and increased plasma enzyme activities for ALT, AST, and LDHL in the 250mg/kg group. Bifenox ingestion resulted in increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in the 50and 250mg/kg groups. Nitrofen exposure also resulted in an increase in total plasma thyroxine (T4) concentration. These findings suggest that altricial nestlings are more sensitive to diphenyl ether herbicides than young or adult birds of precocial species.

  19. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10416 - Brominated polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) (P-11-264). 721.10416 Section 721.10416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10416 Brominated polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264). (a) Chemical... as brominated polyphenyl ether (PMN P-11-264) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10416 - Brominated polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) (P-11-264). 721.10416 Section 721.10416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10416 Brominated polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264). (a) Chemical... as brominated polyphenyl ether (PMN P-11-264) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10416 - Brominated polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) (P-11-264). 721.10416 Section 721.10416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10416 Brominated polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264). (a) Chemical... as brominated polyphenyl ether (PMN P-11-264) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  4. IRON(III) NITRATE-CATALYZED FACILE SYNTHESIS OF DIPHENYLMETHYL (DPM) ETHERS FROM ALCOHOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diphenyl methyl (DPM) ethers constitute important structural portion of some pharmaceutical entities and also as protective group for hydroxyl groups in synthetic chemistry. DPM ethers are normally prepared using concentrated acids or base as catalysts, which may result in the fo...

  5. PROGRAM TO DETERMINE PERFORMANCE OF FLUORINATED ETHERS AND FLUORINATED PROPANES IN A COMPRESSOR CALORIMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a program to determine the performance of fluorinated ethers and fluorinated propanes in a compressor calorimeter. These chlorine free ethers and propanes are being considered as potential long-term replacements for CFC-11, -12, -114, and -115. A standard comp...

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review of 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl Ether (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessments of congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PDBEs), this review is about 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl Ether, or commonly referred to as tetraBDE ...

  7. 75 FR 28804 - An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... exposure of Americans to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants. It... polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants. The use of PBDEs as flame retardants in products associated with the indoor environment has led to exposures primarily associated with...

  8. An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether (An Interim Position Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the merit of a petition to remove ethylene glycol ether (EGBE) from the Agency's Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) list, EPA has developed an interim final position paper, called An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, tha...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with..., polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (PMN P-11-485) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with..., polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (PMN P-11-485) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl...

  16. Interactions between Ether Phospholipids and Cholesterol as Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jianjun; Cheng, Xiaolin; Heberle, Frederick A.; Mostofian, Barmak; Kučerka, Norbert; Drazba, Paul; Katsaras, John

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol and ether lipids are ubiquitous in mammalian cell membranes, and their interactions are crucial in ether lipid mediated cholesterol trafficking. We report on cholesterol’s molecular interactions with ether lipids as determined using a combination of small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering, and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A scattering density profile model for an ether lipid bilayer was developed using MD simulations, which was then used to simultaneously fit the different experimental scattering data. From the analysis of the data the various bilayer structural parameters were obtained. Surface area constrained MD simulations were also performed to reproduce the experimental data. This iterative analysis approach resulted in good agreement between the experimental and simulated form factors. The molecular interactions taking place between cholesterol and ether lipids were then determined from the validated MD simulations. We found that in ether membranes, cholesterol primarily hydrogen bonds with the lipid headgroup phosphate oxygen, while in their ester membrane counterparts, cholesterol hydrogen bonds with the backbone ester carbonyls. This different mode of interaction between ether lipids and cholesterol induces cholesterol to reside closer to the bilayer surface, dehydrating the headgroup’s phosphate moiety. Moreover, the three-dimensional lipid chain spatial density distribution around cholesterol indicates anisotropic chain packing, causing cholesterol to tilt. These insights lend a better understanding of ether lipid mediated cholesterol trafficking and the roles that the different lipid species have in determining the structural and dynamical properties of membrane associated biomolecules. PMID:23199292

  17. Degradation of Perfluorinated Ether Lubricants on Pure Aluminum Surfaces: Semiempirical Quantum Chemical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaby, Scott M.; Ewing, David W.; Zehe, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    The AM1 semiempirical quantum chemical method was used to model the interaction of perfluoroethers with aluminum surfaces. Perfluorodimethoxymethane and perfluorodimethyl ether were studied interacting with aluminum surfaces, which were modeled by a five-atom cluster and a nine-atom cluster. Interactions were studied for edge (high index) sites and top (low index) sites of the clusters. Both dissociative binding and nondissociative binding were found, with dissociative binding being stronger. The two different ethers bound and dissociated on the clusters in different ways: perfluorodimethoxymethane through its oxygen atoms, but perfluorodimethyl ether through its fluorine atoms. The acetal linkage of perfluorodimeth-oxymethane was the key structural feature of this molecule in its binding and dissociation on the aluminum surface models. The high-index sites of the clusters caused the dissociation of both ethers. These results are consistent with the experimental observation that perfluorinated ethers decompose in contact with sputtered aluminum surfaces.

  18. Phytochemical comparison between Pet ether and ethanolic extracts of Bacopa monnieri, Evolvulus alsinoides and Tinospora cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Avneet; Raj, Hem; Sharma, Bhartendu; Upmanyu, Neeraj

    2014-04-01

    Bacopa monnieri, Evolvulus alsinoides and Tinospora cordifolia are established ayurvedic herbs having neuropharmacological effect. In present study is aimed to Phytochemical Comparison between Pet ether and Ethanolic extracts of Bacopa monnieri (BME), Evolvulus alsinoides (EAE) and Tinospora cordifolia (TCE). To identify the presence (+) or absence (-) of different phytoconstituents in Pet ether and Ethanolic extracts of BME, EAE and TCE by using various phytochemical testing methods. Phytochemical investigation showed the presence of various phytochemical constituents in Pet ether and Ethanolic extracts of BME, EAE and TCE. When comparison between Pet ether and Ethanolic extracts of BME, EAE and TCE; Ethanolic extracts of these plants showed more phytoconstituents as compared to Pet ether extracts of these plants. From present investigation, it can be concluded that phytochemical comparison is subsequently momentous and useful in finding chemical constituents in the plant substances that may lead to their quantitative evaluation and also pharmacologically active chemical compounds.

  19. Boundary lubrication of formulated C-ethers in air to 300 C. 2: Organic acid additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Friction and wear measurements were made on CVM M-50 steel lubricated with three C-ether (modified polyphenyl ether) formulations in dry and moist air. Results were compared to those obtained with a formulated Type 2 ester and the C-ether base fluid. A ball-on-disk sliding friction apparatus was used. Experimental conditions were a 1-kilogram load, a 17-meter/minute surface speed, and a 25 to 300 C (77 to 572 F) disk temperature range. The three C-ether formulations yielded better boundary lubricating characteristics than the Type 2 ester under most test conditions. All C-ether formulations exhibited higher friction coefficients than the ester from 150 to 300 C (302 to 572 F) and similar or lower values from 25 to 150 C (77 to 302 F).

  20. The Effect of Lengthening Cation Ether Tails on Ionic Liquid Properties

    DOE PAGES

    Lall-Ramnarine, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Fernandez, R.; ...

    2016-08-30

    In order to explore the effect of multiple ether functionalities on ionic liquid properties, a series of ten pyrrolidinium ionic liquids and ten imidazolium ionic liquids bearing ether and alkyl side chains of varying lengths (4 to 10 atoms in length) were prepared for this study. Their physical properties, such as viscosity, conductivity and thermal profile were measured and compared. Consistent with earlier literature, a single ether substituent substantially decreases the viscosity of pyrrolidinium and imidazolium ILs compared to their alkyl congeners. Remarkably, as the number of ether units in the pyrrolidinium ILs increases there is hardly any increase inmore » the viscosity, in contrast to alkylpyrrolidinium ILs where the viscosity increases steadily with chain length. Viscosities of imidazolium ether ILs increase with chain length but always remain well below their alkyl congeners. These results provide significant insight on the choice of starting materials for researchers designing ILs for specific applications.« less

  1. European-scale modeling of concentrations and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the pentabromodiphenyl ether product.

    PubMed

    Prevedouros, K; Jones, K C; Sweetman, A J

    2004-11-15

    The results from a modeling exercise utilizing the European variant (EVn) BETR multimedia environmental fate model are presented for selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) of the technical penta- (Pe-) bromodiphenyl ether (BDE) product. The objectives of this study were to test PeBDE emission estimates from the literature for Europe by investigating the consistency between model predictions and ambient measurements to address the ability of the model to predict spatial variability and differences between congeners. Concurrently sampled and analyzed passive sampling air data, together with soil and grass data, were used as key model validation tools. The model steady-state simulations gave generally good agreement with measured data for BDE-47 and -99 with greater discrepancies for heavier congeners (e.g., BDE-153). To predict future atmospheric concentration trends, the model was used in its fully dynamic mode over the period 1970--2010. It was predicted that atmospheric concentrations peaked around 1997, declining with an overall "disappearance" half-life of 4.8 years. Soil and grass levels were underestimated by the model; possible reasons for differences with measurement data are further explored. Finally, the importance of temporally and spatially resolved environmental data sets is highlighted, while improved quantification of degradation half-lives is essential to better understand and predict the behavior of BDE congeners in PeBDE.

  2. Improvement of electrochemical performances of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) via incorporation of sulfonated poly(arylene ether benzimidazole)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Young Taik; Lee, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyung Su; Min, Kyung A.; Kim, Hyung Joong; Nam, Sang Yong; Lee, Young Moo

    In the present study, modified acid-base blend membranes were fabricated via incorporation of sulfonated poly(arylene ether benzimidazole) (SPAEBI) into sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES). These membranes had excellent methanol-barrier properties in addition to an ability to compensate for the loss of proton conductivity that typically occurs in general acid-base blend system. To fabricate the membranes, SPAEBIs, which served as amphiphilic polymers with different degrees of sulfonation (0-50 mol%), were synthesized by polycondensation and added to SPAES. It resulted in the formation of acid-amphiphilic complexes such as [PAES-SO 3] - +[H-SPAEBI] through the ionic crosslinking, which prevented SO 3H groups in the complex from transporting free protons in an aqueous medium, contributing to a reduction of ion exchange capacity values and water uptake in the blend membranes, and leading to lower methanol permeability in a water-methanol mixture. Unfortunately, the ionic bonding formation was accompanied by a decrease of bound water content and proton conductivity, although the latter problem was solved to some extent by the incorporation of additional SO 3H groups in SPAEBI. In the SPAES-SPAEBI blend membranes, enhancement of proton conductivity and methanol-barrier property was prominent at temperatures over 90 °C. The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance, which was based on SPAES-SPAEBI-50-5, was 1.2 times higher than that of Nafion ® 117 under the same operating condition.

  3. Highly stable ionic-covalent cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Linfeng; Zhu, Xingye; Xu, Jianfeng; Qian, Huidong; Zou, Zhiqing; Yang, Hui

    2017-05-01

    A novel ionic cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) containing equal content of sulfonic acid and pendant tertiary amine groups (TA-SPEEK) has been initially synthesized for the application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). By adjusting the ratio of p-xylene dibromide to tertiary amine groups of TA-SPEEK, a series of ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes (C-SPEEK-x) with tunable degree of cross-linking are prepared. Compared with the pristine membrane, the ionic and ionic-covalent cross-linked proton exchange membranes (PEMs) exhibit reduced methanol permeability and improved mechanical properties, dimensional and oxidative stability. The proton conductivity and methanol selectivity of protonated TA-SPEEK and C-SPEEK-x at 25 °C is up to 0.109 S cm-1 and 3.88 × 105 S s cm-3, respectively, which are higher than that of Nafion 115. The DMFC incorporating C-SPEEK-25 exhibits a maximum power density as high as 35.3 mW cm-2 with 4 M MeOH at 25 °C (31.8 mW cm-2 for Nafion 115). Due to the highly oxidative stability of the membrane, no obvious performance degradation of the DMFC is observed after more than 400 h operation, indicating such cost-effective ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes have substantial potential as alternative PEMs for DMFC applications.

  4. Novel proton exchange membranes based on structure-optimized poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s and nanocrystalline cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Chuangjiang; Wei, Yingcong; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Baijun; Sun, Zhaoyan; Gu, Yan; Zhang, Mingyao; Hu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Two sulfonated fluorenyl-containing poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s (SFPEEKKs) were synthesized as the matrix of composite proton exchange membranes by directly sulfonating copolymer precursors comprising non-sulfonatable fluorinated segments and sulfonatable fluorenyl-containing segments. Surface-modified nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was produced as the "performance-enhancing" filler by treating the microcrystalline cellulose with acid. Two families of SFPEEKK/NCC nanocomposite membranes with various NCC contents were prepared via a solution-casting procedure. Results revealed that the insertion of NCC at a suitable ratio could greatly enhance the proton conductivity of the pristine membranes. For example, the proton conductivity of SFPEEKK-60/NCC-4 (SFPEEKK with 60% fluorenyl segments in the repeating unit, and inserted with 4% NCC) composite membrane was as high as 0.245 S cm-1 at 90 °C, which was 61.2% higher than that of the corresponding pure SFPEEKK-60 membrane. This effect could be attributed to the formation of hydrogen bond networks and proton conduction paths through the interaction between -SO3H/-OH groups on the surface of NCC particles and -SO3H groups on the SFPEEKK backbones. Furthermore, the chemically modified NCC filler and the optimized chemical structure of the SFPEEKK matrix also provided good dimensional stability and mechanical properties of the obtained nanocomposites. In conclusion, these novel nanocomposites can be promising proton exchange membranes for fuel cells at moderate temperatures.

  5. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Alter Hepatic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Enzyme Kinetics in Male Wistar Rats: Implications for Lipid and Glucose Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a family of lipophilic brominated flame-retardants consisting of 209 possible congeners. Three PBDE commercially-produced mixtures are decabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. deca-BDE or DE-83R); octabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. octa-BDE o...

  6. Optimised mounting conditions for poly (ether sulfone) in radiation detection.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Nobuhiro; Yamada, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Hisashi; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2014-09-01

    Poly (ether sulfone) (PES) is a candidate for use as a scintillation material in radiation detection. Its characteristics, such as its emission spectrum and its effective refractive index (based on the emission spectrum), directly affect the propagation of light generated to external photodetectors. It is also important to examine the presence of background radiation sources in manufactured PES. Here, we optimise the optical coupling and surface treatment of the PES, and characterise its background. Optical grease was used to enhance the optical coupling between the PES and the photodetector; absorption by the grease of short-wavelength light emitted from PES was negligible. Diffuse reflection induced by surface roughening increased the light yield for PES, despite the high effective refractive index. Background radiation derived from the PES sample and its impurities was negligible above the ambient, natural level. Overall, these results serve to optimise the mounting conditions for PES in radiation detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Etbe) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In September 2016, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) released the draft Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE). Consistent with the 2013 IRIS Enhancements, draft IRIS assessments are released prior to external peer review for a 60-day public comment period and discussed at an upcoming public science meeting. Accordingly, the toxicological review, supplementary information, and other materials pertaining to this draft assessment are posted on this site. This material is being released for public viewing and comment prior to a public meeting, providing an opportunity for the IRIS Program to engage in early discussions with stakeholders and the public on data that may be used to identify adverse health effects and characterize exposure-response relationships.

  8. Sensitivity of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus to ether.

    PubMed

    Crandell, R A; Melloh, A J; Sorlie, P

    1975-12-01

    The sensitivity of 12 field isolates of infectious boviine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus and four commercial modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus vaccine strains was determined after exposure to 20% ethyl ether (anesthetic) for 16 h at 4 c. The infectivity of five field strains was reduced by varying degrees, whereas seven were found to be resistant. Three vaccine strains were moderately sensitive, and one strain was resistant. Four of the sensitive field strains were isolated from the conjunctiva and the other was isolated from the surface of the epiglottis of natural infective cattle. Strains of virus isolated from fetal tissue and nasal cavity were resistant. All viruses were readily inactivated by chloroform treatment.

  9. Energy Storage of Polyarylene Ether Nitriles at High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaohe; You, Yong; Mao, Hua; Li, Kui; Wei, Renbo; Liu, Xiaobo

    2018-03-01

    Polyarylene ether nitrile (PEN) was synthesized and used as film capacitors for energy storage at high temperature. Scanning electron microscopy observation indicated that the films of PEN have pinholes at nanoscales which restricted the energy storage properties of the material. The pinhole shadowing effect through which the energy storage properties of PEN were effectively improved to be 2.3 J/cm3 was observed by using the overlapped film of PEN. The high glass transition temperature (T g) of PEN was as high as 216 °C and PEN film showed stable dielectric constant, breakdown strength and energy storage density before the T g. The PEN films will be a potential candidate as high performance electronic storage materials used at high temperature.

  10. Low-temperature radiation copolymerization of tetrafluoroethylene with perfluorovinyl ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.P.; Pirozhnaya, L.N.; Loginova, N.N.

    1986-12-01

    The copolymerization of perfluorovinyl ethers with tetrafluoroethylene at low temperature was studied and compared with the process conducted with chemical initiation in bulk or aqueous medium. A calorimetric method was used for studying the kinetics of copolymerization, the phase state of the system, and the phase transition dynamics. Ampules containing the samples of monomers and mixtures were irradiated at 77/sup 0/K with /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays with a dose rate of 25 kGy/h. Radiolysis in the solid phase at 77/sup 0/K with a 130 kGy dose resulted in the formation of 0.5-1.0 wt.% of a polymer, and this polymer wasmore » soluble in the monomer.« less

  11. Determination of the thermal stability of perfluoropolyalkyl ethers by tensimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmick, Larry A.; Jones, William R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The thermal decomposition temperatures of several perfluoropolyalkyl ether fluids were determined with a computerized tensimeter. In general, the decomposition temperatures of the commercial fluids were all similar and significantly higher than those for noncommercial fluids. Correlation of the decomposition temperatures with the molecular structures of the primary components of the commercial fluids revealed that the stability of the fluids was not affected by carbon chain length, branching, or adjacent difluoroformal groups. Instead, stability was limited by the presence of small quantities of thermally unstable material and/or chlorine-containing material arising from the use of chlorine containing solvents during synthesis. Finally, correlation of decomposition temperatures with molecular weights for two fluids supports a chain cleavage reaction mechanism for one and an unzipping reaction mechanism for the other.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: occurrence, dietary exposure, and toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Darnerud, P O; Eriksen, G S; Jóhannesson, T; Larsen, P B; Viluksela, M

    2001-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in plastics (concentration, 5--30%) and in textile coatings. Commercial products consist predominantly of penta-, octa-, and decabromodiphenyl ether mixtures, and global PBDE production is about 40,000 tons per year. PBDEs are bioaccumulated and biomagnified in the environment, and comparatively high levels are often found in aquatic biotopes from different parts of the world. During the mid-1970--1980s there was a substantial increase in the PBDE levels with time in both sediments and aquatic biota, whereas the latest Swedish data (pike and guillemot egg) may indicate that levels are at steady state or are decreasing. However, exponentially increasing PBDE levels have been observed in mother's milk during 1972--1997. Based on levels in food from 1999, the dietary intake of PBDE in Sweden has been estimated to be 0.05 microg per day. Characteristic end points of animal toxicity are hepatotoxicity, embryotoxicity, and thyroid effects as well as maternal toxicity during gestation. Recently, behavioral effects have been observed in mice on administration of PBDEs during a critical period after birth. Based on the critical effects reported in available studies, we consider the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) value of the PBDE group to be 1 mg/kg/day (primarily based on effects of pentaBDEs). In conclusion, with the scientific knowledge of today and based on Nordic intake data, the possible consumer health risk from PBDEs appears limited, as a factor of over 10(6) separates the estimated present mean dietary intake from the suggested LOAEL value. However, the presence of many and important data gaps, including those in carcinogenicity, reproduction, and developmental toxicity, as well as additional routes of exposure, make this conclusion only preliminary. Moreover, the time trend of PBDEs in human breast milk is alarming for the future. PMID:11250805

  13. Ether oxygenate additives in gasoline reduce toxicity of exhausts.

    PubMed

    Westphal, G A; Krahl, J; Brüning, T; Hallier, E; Bünger, J

    2010-02-09

    Fuel additives can improve combustion and knock resistance of gasoline engines. Common additives in commercial fuels are "short-chain, oxygen containing hydrocarbons" such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Since these additives change the combustion characteristics, this may as well influence toxic effects of the resulting emissions. Therefore we compared toxicity and BTEX emissions of gasoline engine exhaust regarding addition of MTBE or ETBE. Non-reformulated gasoline served as basic fuel. This fuel was supplemented with 10%, 20%, 25% and 30% ETBE or 15% MTBE. The fuels were combusted in a gasoline engine at idling, part load and rated power. Condensates and particulate matter (PM) were collected and PM samples extracted with dichloromethane. Cytotoxic effects were investigated in murine fibroblasts (L929) using the neutral red uptake assay and mutagenicity using the bacterial reverse mutation assay. BTEX emissions were analyzed by gas chromatography. PM-extracts showed mutagenicity with and without metabolic activation. Mutagenicity was reduced by the addition of MTBE and ETBE, 10% ETBE being most effective. The condensates produced no significant mutagenic response. The cytotoxicity of the condensates from ETBE- and MTBE-reformulated fuels was reduced as well. The BTEX content in the exhaust was lowered by the addition of MTBE and ETBE. This effect was significantly related to the ETBE content at rated power and part load. Addition of MTBE and ETBE to fuels can improve combustion and leads to decreased toxicity and BTEX content of the exhaust. Reduction of mutagenicity in the PM-extracts is most probably caused by a lower content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dimethyl ether electro-oxidation on platinum surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Roling, Luke T.; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Budiman, Winny; ...

    2016-02-27

    A first-principles density functional theory study was performed in this paper to elucidate the mechanism of dimethyl ether electro-oxidation on three low-index platinum surfaces (Pt(111), Pt(100), and Pt(211)). The goal of this study is to provide a fundamental explanation for the high activity observed experimentally on Pt(100) compared to Pt(111) and stepped surfaces. We determine that the enhanced activity of Pt(100) stems from more facile C–O bond breaking kinetics, as well as from easier removal of CO as a surface poison through activation of water. In general, the C–O bond (in CH xOCH y) becomes easier to break as dimethylmore » ether is dehydrogenated to a greater extent. In contrast, dehydrogenation becomes more difficult as more hydrogen atoms are removed. We perform two analyses of probable reaction pathways, which both identify CHOC and CO as the key reaction intermediates on these Pt surfaces. We show that the reaction mechanism on each surface is dependent on the cell operating potential, as increasing the potential facilitates C–H bond scission, in turn promoting the formation of intermediates for which C–O scission is more facile. We additionally demonstrate that CO oxidation determines the high overpotential required for electro-oxidation on Pt surfaces. Finally, at practical operating potentials (~0.60 V RHE), we determine that C–O bond breaking is most likely the most difficult step on all three Pt surfaces studied.« less

  15. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL.

    PubMed

    Tercero, B; Cernicharo, J; López, A; Brouillet, N; Kolesniková, L; Motiyenko, R A; Margulès, L; Alonso, J L; Guillemin, J-C

    2015-10-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH 3 CH 2 OCH 3 , through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 10 15 cm -2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2)× 10 15 cm -2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH 3 OCOH, CH 3 CH 2 OCOH, CH 3 OCH 3 , CH 3 OH, and CH 3 CH 2 OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N (CH 3 OCH 3 )/ N (tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion.

  16. Furfuryl ethyl ether: important aging flavor and a new marker for the storage conditions of beer.

    PubMed

    Vanderhaegen, Bart; Neven, Hedwig; Daenen, Luk; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2004-03-24

    Recently, it was reported that furfuryl ethyl ether is an important flavor compound indicative of beer storage and aging conditions. A study of the reaction mechanism indicates that furfuryl ethyl ether is most likely formed by protonation of furfuryl alcohol or furfuryl acetate followed by S(N)2-substitution of the leaving group by the nucleophilic ethanol. For the reaction in beer, a pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics was derived. A close correlation was found between the values predicted by the kinetic model and the actual furfuryl ethyl ether concentration evolution during storage of beer. Furthermore, 10 commercial beers of different types, aged during 4 years in natural conditions, were analyzed, and it was found that the furfuryl ethyl ether flavor threshold was largely exceeded in each type of beer. In these natural aging conditions, lower pH, darker color, and higher alcohol content were factors that enhanced furfuryl ethyl ether formation. On the other hand, sulfite clearly reduced furfuryl ethyl ether formation. All results show that the furfuryl ethyl ether concentration is an excellent time-temperature integrator for beer storage.

  17. Phenyl ethers from cultured lichen mycobionts of Graphis scripta var. serpentina and G. rikuzensis.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Nagakura, Naotaka; Hamada, Nobuo

    2003-07-01

    Spore-derived mycobionts of the lichen Graphis scripta var. serpentina and G. rikuzensis were cultivated on a malt-yeast extract medium supplemented with 10% sucrose and their metabolites were investigated. 3,3'-Dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethyldiphenyl ether was isolated from the cultures of the mycobionts of G. scripta var. serpentina, while a new phenyl ether, rikuzenol, along with two known diphenyl ethers, violaceol-I and violaceol-II, were isolated from those of G. rikuzensis. The structure of the new compound was determined by spectroscopic methods. Violaceol-I was chemically synthesized and interconversion between violaceol-I and violaceol-II was proven.

  18. Reproductive Effects of Two Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers on the Rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, You; Zhou, Bin; Sun, Kai-Ming; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-08-01

    The effects of two polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on the reproduction of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were investigated. Results showed that sexual maturation was promoted by tetra-brominated diphenyl ether-47 (BDE-47) and deca-brominated diphenyl ether-209 (BDE-209), whereas fecundity was inhibited by BDE-47, but promoted by BDE-209. Additionally, both PBDEs affected the expression of two genes, vasa and nanos mRNA, related to rotifer reproduction. This suggests a possible regulatory molecular mechanism at the transcriptional level. Our research extends the current knowledge of the ecotoxicological mechanism induced by PBDEs and provides further essential information for assessing the risks of PBDE contamination in marine ecosystems.

  19. Removing peroxide impurities from ether improves the quality of globin chains for biosynthetic studies.

    PubMed

    Mirzazadeh, Roghieh; Khatami, Shohreh; Bayat, Parastoo; Zamani, Zahra; Sadeghi, Sedigheh; Roohi, Soghra; Saidi, Parinaz

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of the different forms of thalassemia is one of the important applications of analysis of globin chains. These analyses are done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a MONO-S cation exchange column and ether is used for washing the globin powder in the final step. The presence of peroxide impurities in ether could change the structure of the globin chains. In the chromatograms, these modified globins appear as separated peaks next to the unmodified globin peaks. In these cases, the alpha/beta ratio exceed by artifact the correct value. Our study demonstrates that diagnostic centers should ensure that the ether they use is pure.

  20. Evaluation of thermal gelation behavior of different cellulose ether polymers by rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaghi, S.; Edelby, Y.; Senge, B.

    2014-05-01

    Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and Methylcellulose (MC) are cellulose ethers which can be dispersed in water and used as thickeners, emulsifiers, binders, film formers, and water-retention agents due to their hydrophilic and hydrophobic characteristics. In this study, various types of HPMCs, in comparison with two types of MCs were examined. The formed gels of the different cellulose ethers showed specific and various structural formation and network properties. The degree of methylation (Meth.) and hydroxypropylation (HyPr.) affected drastically the heat-induced gelation of the examined cellulose ethers.

  1. CONVERSION OF DIMETHYL ETHER-BORON TRIFLUORIDE COMPLEX TO POTASSIUM FLUOBORATE

    DOEpatents

    Eberle, A.R.

    1957-06-18

    A method of preparing KBF/sub 4/ from the dimethyl ether complex of BF/sub 3/ is given. This may be accomplished by introducing the dimethyl ether complex of BF/sub 3/ into an aqueous solution of KF and alcohol, expelling the ether liberated from the complex by heating or stirring and recovering the KBF/sub 4/ so formed. The KBF/sub 4/ is then filtered from the alcohol-water solution, which may be recycled, to reduce the loss of KBF/sub 4/ which is not recovered by filtration.

  2. Conversion of dimethyl ether--boron trifluoride complex to potassium fluoborate

    DOEpatents

    Eberle, A.R.

    1957-06-18

    A method of preparing KBF/sub 4/ from the dimethyl ether complex of BF/sub 3/ is given. This may be accomplished by introducing the dimethyl ether complex of BF/sub 3/ into an aqueous solution of KF and alcohol, expelling the ether liberated from the complex by heating or stirring and recovering the KBF/sub 4/ so formed. The KBF/sub 4/ is then filtered from the alcohol-water solution, which may be recycled, to reduce the loss of KBF/sub 4/ which is not recovered by filtration.

  3. New aromatic activated dihalides and bisphenol monomers for the preparation of novel poly(arylene ethers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, James F.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research program was to synthesize a series of unique monomers of type I to be utilized at NASA-Langley in the preparation of new poly(arylene ether ketones), poly(arylene ether ketosulfones), and poly(arylene ether ketophosphine oxides). These A-A and A-B monomer systems, which possess activated aryl halide and/or phenolic end groups, are accessible via condensation reactions of appropriately substituted aryl acetonitrile carbanions with activated aryl dihalides followed by oxidative decyanation.

  4. Etched poly(ether ether ketone) jacket stir bar with detachable dumbbell-shaped structure for stir bar sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Chenlu; Wang, Xuemei; Chen, Zilin

    2018-06-08

    Development of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) device with high stability and extraction efficiency is critical and challenging by date. In this work, etched poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) tube with high mechanical strength and large specific surface area was used as jacket for SBSE device. By etching with concentrated sulfuric acid, the smooth outer surface of PEEK become porous with plenty of micro holes, which was beneficial for coating of sorbents and significantly improved the extraction performance. After functionalized by bio-polydopamine method, strong hydrophobic p-naphtholbenzein molecular was immobilized onto the chemical resistant PEEK surface (PNB@E-PEEK) as stationary phase. We also firstly developed a simple detachable dumbbell-shaped structure for improving the workability of PEEK jacket stir bar. The dumbbell-shaped construction can eliminate the friction between stir bar and container, and the design of detachable structure make elution can be accomplished easier with small amount of organic solvent. It was interesting that the developed detachable dumbbell-shaped PNB@E-PEEK stir bar showed exceptional stability and extraction efficiency for SBSE enrichment of multiple analytes including several Sudan dyes, triazines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkaloids and flavonoid. By coupling with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV), PNB@E-PEEK stir bar based SBSE-HPLC-UV method was applied for the analysis of common Sudan dye pollutants. The method showed low limits of detection (0.02-0.03 ng/mL), good linearity (R 2  ≥ 0.9979) and good reproducibility (relative standard deviation ≤ 7.96%). It has been successfully applied to determine three dye pollutants in tap and lake water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Covalent immobilization of metal organic frameworks onto chemical resistant poly(ether ether ketone) jacket for stir bar extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenlu; Zhou, Wei; Liao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xuemei; Chen, Zilin

    2018-09-26

    Preparation of stir bar extraction (SBSE) device with high physical and chemical stability is important and challenging by date. A novel poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) tube with excellent mechanical property and chemical stability was firstly used as jacket of metal bar for preparation of stir bar. By employing covalent modification method, the inherent chemical resistant problem of PEEK which restricts the modification of sorbents was well solved. After functionalization, plenty of benzoic acid groups were formed onto the PEEK jacket. Metal organic frameworks of aluminium-based Materials of Institute Lavoisier-68 (MIL-68) was in situ immobilized onto the PEEK surface (MIL-68@PEEK) by the bonding with benzoic acid groups. Afterwards, a facile dumbbell-shaped structure was designed for reducing the friction between sorbents and bottom of container. Due to superior property of the PEEK jacket and the covalent modification method, the MIL-68 modified PEEK jacket SBSE device showed good robustness. After coupling with HPLC-MS/MS, the MIL-68@PEEK-based SBSE device was used to analyse of three parabens including methyl paraben, ethyl paraben and propyl paraben. The method had low limit detection up to 1 pg mL -1 with good linearity (R 2  ≥ 0.9978) and good reproducibility (relative standard deviation ≤ 9.74%). The method has been applied to the detection of parabens in cosmetics and rabbit plasma after painted with cosmetics with recoveries between 73.25% and 104.23%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. HPLC-Based Mass Spectrometry Characterizes the Phospholipid Alterations in Ether-Linked Lipid Deficiency Models Following Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Drechsler, Robin; Chen, Shaw-Wen; Dancy, Blair C. R.; Mehrabkhani, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that the discovery of ether-linked phospholipids occurred nearly a century ago, many unanswered questions remain concerning these unique lipids. Here, we characterize the ether-linked lipids of the nematode with HPLC-MS/MS and find that more than half of the phosphoethanolamine-containing lipids are ether-linked, a distribution similar to that found in mammalian membranes. To explore the biological role of ether lipids in vivo, we target fatty acyl-CoA reductase (fard-1), an essential enzyme in ether lipid synthesis, with two distinct RNAi strategies. First, when fard-1 RNAi is initiated at the start of development, the treated animals have severely reduced ether lipid abundance, resulting in a shift in the phosphatidylethanolamine lipid population to include more saturated fatty acid chains. Thus, the absence of ether lipids during development drives a significant remodeling of the membrane landscape. A later initiation of fard-1 RNAi in adulthood results in a dramatic reduction of new ether lipid synthesis as quantified with 15N-tracers; however, there is only a slight decrease in total ether lipid abundance with this adult-only fard-1 RNAi. The two RNAi strategies permit the examination of synthesis and ether lipid abundance to reveal a relationship between the amount of ether lipids and stress survival. We tested whether these species function as sacrificial antioxidants by directly examining the phospholipid population with HPLC-MS/MS after oxidative stress treatment. While there are significant changes in other phospholipids, including polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing species, we did not find any change in ether-linked lipids, suggesting that the role of ether lipids in stress resistance is not through their general consumption as free radical sinks. Our work shows that the nematode will be a useful model for future interrogation of ether lipid biosynthesis and the characterization of phospholipid changes in various stress conditions

  7. Chemistry and properties of poly(arylene ether 1,3,4-oxadiazole)s and poly(arylene ether 1,2,4-triazole)s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Wolf, P.

    1992-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether)s containing l,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,2,4-triazole units were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of bisphenol oxadiazole and bisphenol triazole compounds with activated aromatic dihalides. The polymers exhibited glass transition temperatures (Tg) ranging from 182 to 242 C, and several polymers exhibited melting transitions (Tm) ranging from 265 to 390 C. Inherent viscosities ranged from 1.02 to 3.40 dl/g, indicating relatively high molecular weights. Thin films exhibited tensile strengths, moduli, and elongations at 23 C of 90-110 MPa, 2.7-3.6 GPa, and 4-7 percent, respectively. Titanium-to-titanium tensile shear specimens of a poly(arylene ether 1,3,4-oxadiazole) exhibited tensile shear strengths at 23 and 150 C of 22.1 and 17.9 MPa, respectively.

  8. 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether, an endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hanuš, Lumír; Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Fride, Ester; Breuer, Aviva; Vogel, Zvi; Shalev, Deborah E.; Kustanovich, Irina; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2001-01-01

    Two types of endogenous cannabinoid-receptor agonists have been identified thus far. They are the ethanolamides of polyunsaturated fatty acids—arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide) is the best known compound in the amide series—and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, the only known endocannabinoid in the ester series. We report now an example of a third, ether-type endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonyl glyceryl ether (noladin ether), isolated from porcine brain. The structure of noladin ether was determined by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic sample. It binds to the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (Ki = 21.2 ± 0.5 nM) and causes sedation, hypothermia, intestinal immobility, and mild antinociception in mice. It binds weakly to the CB2 receptor (Ki > 3 μM). PMID:11259648

  9. Thermal and oxidative degradation studies of formulated C-ethers by gel-permeation chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Morales, W.

    1982-01-01

    Gel-permeation chromatography was used to analyze C-ether lubricant formulations from high-temperature bearing tests and from micro-oxidation tests. Three mu-styragel columns (one 500 and two 100 A) and a tetrahydrofuran mobile phase were found to adequately separate the C-ether degradation products. The micro-oxidation tests yielded degradation results qualitatively similar to those observed from the bearing tests. Micro-oxidation tests conducted in air yielded more degradation than did tests in nitrogen. No great differences were observed between the thermal-oxidative stabilities of the two C-ether formulations or between the catalytic degradation activities of silver and M-50 steel. C-ether formulation I did yield more degradation than did formulation II in 111- and 25-hour bearing tests, respectively.

  10. Acidolysis small molecular phenolic ether used as accelerator in photosensitive diazonaphthaquinone systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haihua; Zou, Yingquan

    2006-03-01

    The photosensitive compounds in the photosensitive coatings of positive PS plates are the diazonaphthaquinone derivatives. Some acidolysis small molecular phenolic ethers, which were synthesized by some special polyhydroxyl phenols with vinyl ethyl ether, are added in the positive diazonaphthaquinone photosensitive composition to improve its sensitivity, composed with photo-acid-generators. The effects to the photosensitivity, anti-alkali property, anti-isopropyl alcohol property, dot resolution and line resolution of the coatings are studied with different additive percent of the special phenolic ethers. In the conventional photosensitive diazonaphthaquinone systems for positive PS plates, the photosensitivity is improved without negative effects to resolution, anti-alkali and anti-isopropyl alcohol properties when added about 5% of the special acidolysis phenolic ethers, EAAE or DPHE, composed with photo-acid-generators.

  11. POLIBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS: A CASE STUDY FOR APPLICATION OF BIOMONITORING DATA TO CHARACTERIZE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence and steady increase in environmental and human concentrations of PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) has heightened interest in the potential toxicological consequences of these chemicals. Currently available data on exposure, pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and biom...

  12. Evaluation of Efficient and Practical Methods for the Preparation of Functionalized Aliphatic Trifluoromethyl Ethers.

    PubMed

    Sokolenko, Taras M; Dronkina, Maya I; Magnier, Emmanuel; Yagupolskii, Lev M; Yagupolskii, Yurii L

    2017-05-14

    The "chlorination/fluorination" technique for aliphatic trifluoromethyl ether synthesis was investigated and a range of products with various functional groups was prepared. The results were compared with oxidative desulfurization-fluorination of xanthates with the same structure.

  13. Investigation of Reagent Gases for the Positive Chemical Ionization of Select Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) fall into the class of compounds known as brominated flame retardants and their incorporation in a multitude of products is responsible for saving numerous lives. However, toxicology studies have alerted researchers to the potential adverse...

  14. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS DOES NOT ALTER SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LTP IN HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PDE) flame retardants bioaccumulate in the environment, in wildlife, and in humans. Concern has been raised over potential thyrotoxic effects of this class of xenobiotics. Severe hypothyroidism during critical periods of brain development leads to...

  15. Modeling of a Reaction-Distillation-Recycle System to Produce Dimethyl Ether through Methanol Dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muharam, Y.; Zulkarnain, L. M.; Wirya, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The increase in the dimethyl ether yield through methanol dehydration due to a recycle integration to a reaction-distillation system was studied in this research. A one-dimensional phenomenological model of a methanol dehydration reactor and a shortcut model of distillation columns were used to achieve the aim. Simulation results show that 10.7 moles/s of dimethyl ether is produced in a reaction-distillation system with the reactor length being 4 m, the reactor inlet pressure being 18 atm, the reactor inlet temperature being 533 K, the reactor inlet velocity being 0.408 m/s, and the distillation pressure being 8 atm. The methanol conversion is 90% and the dimethyl ether yield is 48%. The integration of the recycle stream to the system increases the dimethyl ether yield by 8%.

  16. Ultraviolet-induced surface grafting of octafluoropentyl methacrylate on polyether ether ketone for inducing antibiofilm properties.

    PubMed

    Amdjadi, Parisa; Nojehdehian, Hanieh; Najafi, Farhood; Ghasemi, Amir; Seifi, Massoud; Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Fahimipour, Farahnaz; Tayebi, Lobat

    2017-07-01

    Since octafluoropentyl methacrylate is an antifouling polymer, surface modification of polyether ether ketone with octafluoropentyl methacrylate is a practical approach to obtaining anti-biofilm biocompatible devices. In the current study, the surface treatment of polyether ether ketone by the use of ultraviolet irradiation, so as to graft (octafluoropentyl methacrylate) polymer chains, was initially implemented and then investigated. The Fourier-transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra corroborated the appearance of new signals associated with the fluoroacrylate group. Thermogravimetric curves indicated enhanced asymmetry in the polymer structure due to the introduction of the said new groups. Measuring the peak area in differential scanning calorimetry experiments also showed additional bond formation. Static water contact angle measurements indicated a change in wettability to the more hydrophobic surface. The polyether ether ketone-octafluoropentyl methacrylate surface greatly reduced the protein adsorption. This efficient method can modulate and tune the surface properties of polyether ether ketone according to specific applications.

  17. Rate Constants for the Reactions of Hydroxyl Radical with Several Alkanes, Cycloalkanes, and Dimethyl Ether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMore, W.; Bayes, K.

    1998-01-01

    Relative rate experiements were used to measure rate constants and temperature denpendencies of the reactions of OH with propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, and dimethyl ether.

  18. THERMODYNAMIC EVALUATION OF FLUORINATED ETHERS, ETHANES, AND PROPANES AS ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The visuals, part of a thermodynamic evaluation of fluorinated ethers, ethanes, and propanes as alternative refrigerants, are a useful tool in comparing new chemicals to existing refrigerants in vapor compression cycles. hey present the required suction superheat and the performa...

  19. Glycerol etherification with TBA: high yield to poly-ethers using a membrane assisted batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Cannilla, Catia; Bonura, Giuseppe; Frusteri, Leone; Frusteri, Francesco

    2014-05-20

    In this work, a novel approach to obtain high yield to poly-tert-butylglycerolethers by glycerol etherification reaction with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) is proposed. The limit of this reaction is the production of poly-ethers, which inhibits the formation of poly-ethers potentially usable in the blend with conventional diesel for transportation. The results herein reported demonstrate that the use of a water permselective membrane offers the possibility to shift the equilibrium toward the formation of poly-ethers since the water formed during reaction is continuously and selectively removed from the reaction medium by the recirculation of the gas phase. Using a proper catalyst and optimizing the reaction conditions, in a single experiment, a total glycerol conversion can be reached with a yield to poly-ethers close to 70%, which represents data never before reached using TBA as reactant. The approach here proposed could open up new opportunities for all catalytic reactions affected by water formation.

  20. Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-08

    The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products.

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of arctigenin ester and ether derivatives as activators of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sida; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Yijia; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    A series of new arctigenin and 9-deoxy-arctigenin derivatives bearing different ester and ether side chains at the phenolic hydroxyl positions are designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activating AMPK potency in L6 myoblasts. Initial biological evaluation indicates that some alkyl ester and phenethyl ether arctigenin derivatives display potential activities in AMPK phosphorylation improvement. Further structure-activity relationship analysis shows that arctigenin ester derivatives 3a, 3h and 9-deoxy-arctigenin phenethyl ether derivatives 6a, 6c, 6d activate AMPK more potently than arctigenin. Moreover, the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl ether moiety of 6c has been demonstrated as a potential functional group to improve the effect of AMPK phosphorylation. The structural optimization of arctigenin leads to the identification of 6c as a promising lead compound that exhibits excellent activity in AMPK activation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; López, A.; Brouillet, N.; Kolesniková, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH3CH2OCH3, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH3CH2CH2OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 1015 cm-2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2) × 1015 cm-2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH3OCOH, CH3CH2OCOH, CH3OCH3, CH3OH, and CH3CH2OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N(CH3OCH3)/N(tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. This work was also based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Biotic and abiotic transformations of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Axel; Oehm, Claudia; Selle, Michael; Werner, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a fuel additive which is used all over the world. In recent years it has often been found in groundwater, mainly in the USA, but also in Europe. Although MTBE seems to be a minor toxic, it affects the taste and odour of water at concentrations of < 30 microg/L. Although MTBE is often a recalcitrant compound, it is known that many ethers can be degraded by abiotic means. The aim of this study was to examine biotic and abiotic transformations of MTBE with respect to the particular conditions of a contaminated site (former refinery) in Leuna, Germany. Groundwater samples from wells of a contaminated site were used for aerobic and anaerobic degradation experiments. The abiotic degradation experiment (hydrolysis) was conducted employing an ion-exchange resin and MTBE solutions in distilled water. MTBE, tertiary butyl formate (TBF) and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) were measured by a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (FID). Aldehydes and organic acids were respectively analysed by a gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (ECD) and high-performance ion chromatography (HPIC). Under aerobic conditions, MTBE was degraded in laboratory experiments. Only 4 of a total of 30 anaerobic experiments exhibited degradation, and the process was very slow. In no cases were metabolites detected, but a few degradation products (TBF, TBA and formic acid) were found on the site, possibly due to the lower temperatures in groundwater. The abiotic degradation of MTBE with an ion-exchange resin as a catalyst at pH 3.5 was much faster than hydrolysis in diluted hydrochloric acid (pH 1.0). Although the aerobic degradation of MTBE in the environment seems to be possible, the specific conditions responsible are widely unknown. Successful aerobic degradation only seems to take place if there is a lack of other utilisable compounds. However, MTBE is often accompanied by other fuel compounds on contaminated sites and anaerobic conditions

  5. Wholly Aromatic Ether-Imides as n-Type Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik; St. Clair, Terry L.; Dingemans, Theo J.; Samulski, Edward T.; Irene, Gene

    2006-01-01

    Some wholly aromatic ether-imides consisting of rod-shaped, relatively-low-mass molecules that can form liquid crystals have been investigated for potential utility as electron-donor-type (ntype) organic semiconductors. It is envisioned that after further research to improve understanding of their physical and chemical properties, compounds of this type would be used to make thin film semiconductor devices (e.g., photovoltaic cells and field-effect transistors) on flexible electronic-circuit substrates. This investigation was inspired by several prior developments: Poly(ether-imides) [PEIs] are a class of engineering plastics that have been used extensively in the form of films in a variety of electronic applications, including insulating layers, circuit boards, and low-permittivity coatings. Wholly aromatic PEIs containing naphthalene and perylene moieties have been shown to be useful as electrochromic polymers. More recently, low-molecular-weight imides comprising naphthalene-based molecules with terminal fluorinated tails were shown to be useful as n-type organic semiconductors in such devices as field-effect transistors and Schottky diodes. Poly(etherimide)s as structural resins have been extensively investigated at NASA Langley Research Center for over 30 years. More recently, the need for multi-functional materials has become increasingly important. This n-type semiconductor illustrates the scope of current work towards new families of PEIs that not only can be used as structural resins for carbon-fiber reinforced composites, but also can function as sensors. Such a multi-functional material would permit so-called in-situ health monitoring of composite structures during service. The work presented here demonstrates that parts of the PEI backbone can be used as an n-type semiconductor with such materials being sensitive to damage, temperature, stress, and pressure. In the near future, multi-functional or "smart" composite structures are envisioned to be able

  6. Exposure of German residents to ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in general and after cleaning scenarios.

    PubMed

    Fromme, H; Nitschke, L; Boehmer, S; Kiranoglu, M; Göen, T

    2013-03-01

    Glycol ethers are a class of semi-volatile substances used as solvents in a variety of consumer products like cleaning agents, paints, cosmetics as well as chemical intermediates. We determined 11 metabolites of ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in 44 urine samples of German residents (background level study) and in urine samples of individuals after exposure to glycol ethers during cleaning activities (exposure study). In the study on the background exposure, methoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA) could be detected in each urine sample with median (95th percentile) values of 0.11 mgL(-1) (0.30 mgL(-1)) and 0.80 mgL(-1) (23.6 mgL(-1)), respectively. The other metabolites were found in a limited number of samples or in none. In the exposure study, 5-8 rooms were cleaned with a cleaner containing ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), propylene glycol monobutyl ether (PGBE), or ethylene glycol monopropyl ether (EGPE). During cleaning the mean levels in the indoor air were 7.5 mgm(-3) (EGBE), 3.0 mgm(-3) (PGBE), and 3.3 mgm(-3) (EGPE), respectively. The related metabolite levels analysed in the urine of the residents of the rooms at the day of cleaning were 2.4 mgL(-1) for butoxyacetic acid, 0.06 mgL(-1) for 2-butoxypropionic acid, and 2.3 mgL(-1) for n-propoxyacetic acid. Overall, our study indicates that the exposure of the population to glycol ethers is generally low, with the exception of PhAA. Moreover, the results of the cleaning scenarios demonstrate that the use of indoor cleaning agents containing glycol ethers can lead to a detectable internal exposure of residents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A new cytotoxic sterol methoxymethyl ether from a deep water marine sponge Scleritoderma sp. cf. paccardi.

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, S P; Kelly-Borges, M; Longley, R E

    1996-02-01

    24(R)-Methyl-5 alpha-cholest-7-enyl 3 beta-methoxymethyl ether (1), a new sterol ether, has been isolated from a deep-water marine sponge Scleritoderma sp. cf. paccardi. Compound 1 exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against the cultured murine P-388 tumor cell line with an IC50 of 2.3 micrograms/mL. The isolation and structure elucidation of 1 by NMR spectroscopy is described.

  8. Alkyl substituted cyclic ethers in 2,300 M yr old Transvaal algal stromatolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumberge, J. E.; Nagy, B.

    1975-01-01

    Two cyclic ethers have been identified for the first time from insoluble polymer-like kerogen in a Precambrian rock by ozonolysis, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The ethers are 2-n-propyl-3-methyltetrahydrofuran and 2-n-propyltetrahydropyran. These compounds could prove to be the oldest indigenous biochemical fossils. The sample was obtained 750 m stratigraphically above the base of the Transvaal Sequence from an outcrop approximately 315 km north-east of Johannesburg, South Africa.

  9. Intramolecular allyl transfer reaction from allyl ether to aldehyde groups: experimental and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Franco, Delphine; Wenger, Karine; Antonczak, Serge; Cabrol-Bass, Daniel; Duñach, Elisabet; Rocamora, Mercè; Gomez, Montserrat; Muller, Guillermo

    2002-02-02

    The intramolecular transfer of the allyl group of functionalized allyl aryl ethers to an aldehyde group in the presence of Ni0 complexes was studied from chemical, electrochemical and theoretical points of view. The chemical reaction involves the addition of Ni0 to the allyl ether followed by stoichiometric allylation. The electrochemical process is catalytic in nickel and involves the reduction of intermediate eta3-allylnickel(II) complexes.

  10. Complexation of molecular clips containing fragments of diphenylglycoluril and benzocrown ethers with paraquat and its derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Kikot', Leonid S; Kulygina, Catherine Yu; Lyapunov, Alexander Yu; Shishkina, Svetlana V; Zubatyuk, Roman I; Bogaschenko, Tatiana Yu

    2017-01-01

    The complexation of molecular clips containing fragments of diphenylglycoluril and benzocrown ethers with paraquat and its derivatives has been studied both in solution and in the solid state. In this paper we studied the influence of the crown ether ring size and the nature of the substituents at the nitrogen atoms of the paraquat derivatives on the composition and stability of these complexes. PMID:29062427

  11. Design and synthesis of aryl ether and sulfone hydroxamic acids as potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pabba, Chittari; Gregg, Brian T; Kitchen, Douglas B; Chen, Zhen Jia; Judkins, Angela

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel hydroxamic acid based histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors with aryl ether and aryl sulfone residues at the terminus of a substituted, unsaturated 5-carbon spacer moiety have been synthesized for the first time and evaluated. Compounds with meta- and para-substitution on the aryl ring of ether hydroxamic acids 19c, 20c, 19e, 19f and 19g are potent HDAC inhibitors with activities at low nanomolar levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of 1,3-Dinitrohexahydropyrimidine via Ring Contraction of Ether-Linked Nitramines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    ARL-TR-7706 ● JULY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Synthesis of 1,3-Dinitrohexahydropyrimidine via Ring Contraction of Ether...JULY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Synthesis of 1,3-Dinitrohexahydropyrimidine via Ring Contraction of Ether-Linked Nitramines by...YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) July 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Fiscal Year 2013 4. TITLE

  13. Soda-amine pulping : reaction of amines with free phenolic [beta]-[omicron]-4 ethers

    Treesearch

    John R. Obst

    1981-01-01

    The quinone methide from guaiacylglycol-ß-guaiacyl ether underwent nucleophilic addition to the a-carbon with primary and secondary amines at 40°C. At pulping temperature, 170°C, only the primary amine adduct was detected. The quinone methide from guaiacylglycerol-ß-guaiacyl ether gave analogous adducts at 40°C, but no quinone methide-amine adducts were detected at 170...

  14. Contact angle measurements of a polyphenyl ether to 190 C on M-50 steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Contact angle measurements were performed for a polyphenyl ether on steel in nitrogen. A tilting plate and a sessile drop apparatus were used. Surface tension was measured with a maximum bubble pressure apparatus. Critical surface energies of spreading were found to be 30.1 and 31.3 dynes/cm. It was concluded that the polyphenyl ether is inherently autophobic and will not spread on its own surface film.

  15. N-Triflylthiophosphoramide Catalyzed Enantioselective Mukaiyama Aldol Reaction of Aldehydes with Silyl Enol Ethers of Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Cheol Hong; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    The first Brønsted acid catalyzed asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reaction of aldehydes using silyl enol ethers of ketones as nucleophiles has been reported. A variety of aldehydes and silyl enol ethers of ketones afforded the aldol products in excellent yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities. Mechanistic studies revealed that the actual catalyst may be changed from the silylated Brønsted acid to Brønsted acid itself depending on the reaction temperature. PMID:20465277

  16. N-triflylthiophosphoramide catalyzed enantioselective Mukaiyama aldol reaction of aldehydes with silyl enol ethers of ketones.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Cheol Hong; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-06-04

    The first Brønsted acid catalyzed asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reaction of aldehydes using silyl enol ethers of ketones as nucleophiles has been reported. A variety of aldehydes and silyl enol ethers of ketones afforded the aldol products in excellent yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities. Mechanistic studies revealed that the actual catalyst may be changed from the silylated Brønsted acid to the Brønsted acid itself depending on the reaction temperature.

  17. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, Robert H.; Brown, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  18. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1988-02-16

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  19. The Knock-Limited Performance of Fuel Blends Containing Spiropentane, Methylenecyclobutane, Di-Tert-Butyl Ether, Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether, and Triptane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Carl L.

    1946-01-01

    Tests show that at inlet-air temperatures of 250 deg F and 100 deg F the knock-limited performance of the base fuel of blends, leaded with 4 ml TEL per gallon and containing 20 percent spiropentane, was reduced at fuel/air ratios below 0.085. The 20 percent methylenecyclobutane reduced the knock-limited power of the base fuel at fuel/air ratios below 0.112. Di-tert-butyl ether, methyl-tert-butyl ether, and triptane increased the knock-limited power of the base fuel at all fuel/air ratios and at both temperatures.

  20. Anti-knock quality of sugar derived levulinic esters and cyclic ethers

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Miao; McCormick, Robert L.; Luecke, Jon; ...

    2017-04-22

    Here, the objective of this paper is to investigate the anti-knock quality of sugar-derived levulinic esters (methyl levulinate (ML) and ethyl levulinate (EL)) and cyclic ethers (furfuryl ethyl ether (FEE) and ethyl tetrahydrofurfuryl ether (ETE)). To this end, combustion experiments were carried out in both an engine and a constant volume autoignition device. The results from both apparati demonstrate that ML, EL and FEE have superior anti-knock quality than the reference Euro95 gasoline. ETE, conversely, performed markedly worse than the reference fuel on both setups and might therefore be a more appropriate fuel for compression ignition engines. The main reasonmore » of the distinctions in anti-knock quality can be found in the molecular structure of the neat biofuels. ML and EL are levulinic esters, with a ketone (C=O) functionality and an ester (C(=O)-O) group on the carbon chain. They can readily produce stable intermediates during the auto-ignition process, thereby slowing down the overall reaction rate. The unsaturated cyclic ether (FEE) has very strong ring C-H bonds. However, the saturated cyclic ether (ETE) has weak ring C-H bonds, which facilitate more readily ring opening reactions. Long side chains on the cyclic ethers further accelerate the reaction rate. Importantly for future research, our results suggest that IQT and engine experiments are interchangeable setups with respect to qualitative anti-knock quality evaluation of novel compounds.« less

  1. Anti-knock quality of sugar derived levulinic esters and cyclic ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Miao; McCormick, Robert L.; Luecke, Jon

    Here, the objective of this paper is to investigate the anti-knock quality of sugar-derived levulinic esters (methyl levulinate (ML) and ethyl levulinate (EL)) and cyclic ethers (furfuryl ethyl ether (FEE) and ethyl tetrahydrofurfuryl ether (ETE)). To this end, combustion experiments were carried out in both an engine and a constant volume autoignition device. The results from both apparati demonstrate that ML, EL and FEE have superior anti-knock quality than the reference Euro95 gasoline. ETE, conversely, performed markedly worse than the reference fuel on both setups and might therefore be a more appropriate fuel for compression ignition engines. The main reasonmore » of the distinctions in anti-knock quality can be found in the molecular structure of the neat biofuels. ML and EL are levulinic esters, with a ketone (C=O) functionality and an ester (C(=O)-O) group on the carbon chain. They can readily produce stable intermediates during the auto-ignition process, thereby slowing down the overall reaction rate. The unsaturated cyclic ether (FEE) has very strong ring C-H bonds. However, the saturated cyclic ether (ETE) has weak ring C-H bonds, which facilitate more readily ring opening reactions. Long side chains on the cyclic ethers further accelerate the reaction rate. Importantly for future research, our results suggest that IQT and engine experiments are interchangeable setups with respect to qualitative anti-knock quality evaluation of novel compounds.« less

  2. Safety Assessment of Alkyl PEG/PPG Ethers as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of 131 alkyl polyethylene glycol (PEG)/polypropylene glycol ethers as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment when formulated to be nonirritating. Most of the alkyl PEG/PPG ethers included in this review are reported to function in cosmetics as surfactants, skin-conditioning agents, and/or emulsifying agents. The alkyl PEG/PPG ethers share very similar physiochemical properties as the alkyl PEG ethers, which were reviewed previously by the CIR Expert Panel and found safe when formulated to be nonirritating. The alkyl PEG ethers differ by the inclusion of PPG repeat units, which are used to fine-tune the surfactant properties of this group. The Panel relied heavily on data on analogous ingredients, extracted from the alkyl PEG ethers and PPG reports, when making its determination of safety. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Jones, E.M. Jr.; Hearn, D.

    1984-05-08

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150 to 250 F at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C[sub 3] to C[sub 6] and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom. 2 figs.

  4. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Jones, Jr., Edward M.; Hearn, Dennis

    1984-01-01

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150.degree. to 250.degree. F. at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C.sub.3 to C.sub.6 and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom.

  5. The effect of ether anesthesia on fin-clipping rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1953-01-01

    As part of an experimental program to learn the effects of stocking lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior, 141, 392 fingerlings were marked at the Charlevoix (Michigan) Station of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in October 1952. The adipose fin was removed from all fish, the right pelvic from the remainder. A random sample of 2, 417 of the fish showed an average total length of 4.0 inches (range, 2.7 to 5.4). The mean weight of all fish marked was slightly less than one-third ounce (49 fish per pound). The local women, none of whom had previous experience in the work, were employed to mark the fish. Bone-cutting forceps were used for excision of the fins, and each worker wore a bobbinet glove to facilitate handling of the fish. On alternate days the fish were anesthetized with ether before marking, to determine the effect of its use on the fin-clipping rate.

  6. Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through mouthing toys.

    PubMed

    Ionas, Alin C; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Gómez, Ana Ballesteros; Brandsma, Sicco H; Leonards, Pim E G; van de Bor, Margot; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have previously been detected in children toys, yet the risk of child exposure to these chemicals through the mouthing of toys or other items is still unknown. We aimed to expand on the current knowledge by investigating the impact of infants' mouthing activities on exposure to PBDEs present in toys. This was established by a leaching model for determining the amount PBDEs that can leach from toys into saliva in simulated conditions. The PBDE migration rate was at its highest for the 15 min low-exposure scenario incubations (198 pg/cm(2) × min) with the ERM EC-591 certified reference material (CRM) (0.17% w/w PBDEs). The leaching process was congener-dependent, since the percentage of lower brominated PBDE congeners that leached out was up to 4.5 times higher than for the heavier PBDEs. To study the scenario in which a child would mouth on a toy flame retarded with BDE 209 alone, a plastic item containing 7% BDE 209 (w/w) was also tested. The BDE 209 amounts leached out in only 15 min were higher than the amounts leached from the CRM after the 16 h incubation. For the Belgian population, the exposure scenario from mouthing on toys containing PBDEs in amounts similar to the REACH threshold was found to be lower than the exposure from mother's milk, but higher than the exposure through diet or even dust. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Local deformation behavior of surface porous polyether-ether-ketone.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nathan T; Torstrick, F Brennan; Safranski, David L; Guldberg, Robert E; Gall, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Surface porous polyether-ether-ketone has the ability to maintain the tensile monotonic and cyclic strength necessary for many load bearing orthopedic applications while providing a surface that facilitates bone ingrowth; however, the relevant deformation behavior of the pore architecture in response to various loading conditions is not yet fully characterized or understood. The focus of this study was to examine the compressive and wear behavior of the surface porous architecture using micro Computed Tomography (micro CT). Pore architectures of various depths (~0.5-2.5mm) and pore sizes (212-508µm) were manufactured using a melt extrusion and porogen leaching process. Compression testing revealed that the pore architecture deforms in the typical three staged linear elastic, plastic, and densification stages characteristic of porous materials. The experimental moduli and yield strengths decreased as the porosity increased but there was no difference in properties between pore sizes. The porous architecture maintained a high degree of porosity available for bone-ingrowth at all strains. Surface porous samples showed no increase in wear rate compared to injection molded samples, with slight pore densification accompanying wear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in Virginia freshwater fishes (USA).

    PubMed

    Hale, R C; La Guardia, M J; Harvey, E P; Mainor, T M; Duff, W H; Gaylor, M O

    2001-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were examined in fish fillets collected from two large Virginia watersheds. Emphasis was on the tetra- to hexabrominated congeners since these exhibit the greatest bioaccumulation and toxicological potentials. These congeners are dominant constituents of Penta-, a commercial PBDE product used to flame retard polyurethane foam. In 1999, North America accounted for98% of global Penta-demand. Concentrations of total tetra- to hexabrominated congeners in fillets ranged from <5 to 47,900 microg/kg (lipid basis). BDE-47, one of the two major constituents of Penta-, was detected in 89% of samples and contributed 40-70% of the total PBDEs observed. Concentrations of BDE-99, the second major constituent of the Penta- commercial mixture, were much lower in fish. While some differences in PBDE profiles between fish species were apparent, dominant congeners were consistent with those in surficial sediments from the Virginia sites and recently published data for U.S. air samples. PCB and PBDE concentrations in fish were generally associated. These factors point to exposure from nonpoint sources. Exceptions existed, likely due to inputs from local sources. The Virginia study area has historically served as a center for furniture and textile manufacturing, although polyurethane foam production here has been limited.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (Arylene Ether Benzimidazole) Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Several poly(arylene ether benzimidazole) oligomers were prepared by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction of a bisphenol benzimidazole and various alkyl-substituted aromatic bisphenols with an activated aromatic dihalide in N, N-dimethylacetarnide. Moderate to high molecular weight terpolymers were obtained in all cases, as shown by their inherent viscosities, which ranged from 0.50 to 0.87 dL g(sup -1). Glass transition temperatures (T(sub g)s) of polymer powders ranged from 267-280 C. Air-dried unoriented thin film T(sub g)s were markedly lower than those of the powders, whereas T(sub g)s of films dried in a nitrogen atmosphere were identical to those of the corresponding powders. In addition, air-dried films were dark amber and brittle, whereas nitrogen-dried films were yellow and creasable. Nitrogen-dried films showed slightly higher thin-film tensile properties than the air-dried films, as well.

  10. Sex difference in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations of walleyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Trombka, Autumn W.; Rediske, Richard R.; Jude, David J.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations were determined for mature male and mature female walleyes (Sander vitreus) sampled from the Saginaw Bay population during 2007. PBDE concentrations in prey fish caught in the Saginaw River, the primary tributary to Saginaw Bay, and in Saginaw Bay during 2005 and 2007 also were determined. Mature male and mature female walleyes averaged 70.3 ng/g and 24.8 ng/g, respectively, in ΣPBDE, which was equal to the sum of concentrations of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154). This sex difference was likely due to males spending more time in the Saginaw River system than females. Prey fish captured in the Saginaw River were roughly ten times higher in ΣPBDE than those caught in Saginaw Bay. BDE-47 was the predominant congener in both walleyes and prey fish, and this congener contributed about 50%, on average, to ΣPBDE. Congener profiles differed significantly between the two sexes of walleyes. In contrast, congener profiles of the prey fish did not differ significantly between the river-caught fish and the bay-caught fish. One plausible explanation for these congener profile results was that net trophic transfer efficiencies of PBDEs to walleyes from their prey were similar for all congeners except BDE-28, and that diet composition differed between the two sexes of walleyes.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of pyropheophorbide-a-hexyl ether in the dog.

    PubMed

    Payne, J T; McCaw, D L; Casteel, S W; Frazier, D; Rogers, K; Tompson, R V

    1996-01-01

    Pyropheophorbide-a-hexyl ether (HPPH) is a new compound being investigated for use as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy; however, the pharmacokinetics are not known for any of the target species likely to be treated with this drug. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of this drug prior to institution of a clinical trial in canine patients with various cancers. HPPH (0.3mg/kg i.v.) was administered to 12 dogs and blood samples were drawn at intervals for 24 hours and plasma HPPH concentrations were determined. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated for each dog. No evidence of toxicity was noted in any dog. The mean half-life was calculated to be 26.98 +/- 2.35 hrs. The mean clearance was 5.061 +/- 0.214 ml/hr/kg. The mean volume of distribution of the central compartment was 0.069 +/- 0.003 L/kg, and the mean steady state volume of distribution was 4.47 +/- 0.25 L/kg. The conclusion is that 0.3 mg/kg HPPH injected intravenously resulted in measurable plasma levels for 24 hrs, and resulted in no detectable adverse reactions.

  12. A Pulsed Plasma Thruster Using Dimethyl Ether as Propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Souichi; Okada, Terumasa; Kitatomi, Makoto; Kakami, Akira; Tachibana, Takeshi

    The pulsed plasma thruster (PPT), has attracted attention again as a micro-thruster because of its compactness, light weight, and comparatively low power consumption. On the other hand, the propellant utilization efficiency of a conventinal Teflon PPT is relatively low among electric propulsion devices because a propellant that originates from late-time ablation produces negligible thrust. The liquid propellant PPT (LP-PPT), in which water or ethanol is fed with an injector, was proposed to overcome these difficulties. Thrust measurements show that a LP-PPT provides higher specific impulses than a conventional PPT. However, water requires temperature management for propellant storage due to its relatively high freezing point. Moreover, even if ethanol, which has a sufficiently low freezing point, is used as propellant, a pressurant is necessary, as well as water, because the vapor pressures are insufficient for self-pressurization. In this study, we propose to use dimethyl ether (DME) as the propellant. DME, which has a freezing point of 131 K at 1 atm and a vapor pressure of 6 atm at 298 K, can be stored in tanks as a liquid, and requires no feeding pressurant. We designed a DME pulsed plasma thruster to evaluate performance. Thrust measurement yielded a specific impulse of 430 s for a coaxial type at a capacitor-stored energy of 13 J.

  13. Chemistry and phytotoxicity of thaxtomin A alkyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Krasnoff, Stuart B; Lobkovsky, Emil B; Wach, Michael J; Loria, Rosemary; Gibson, Donna M

    2005-11-30

    The thaxtomin phytotoxins (1 and 2) from scab-producing Streptomyces pathogens of the potato are 2,5-dioxopiperazines consisting of modified l-tryptophanyl and l-phenylalanyl units. Thaxtomin A (1) is hydroxylated at C-14, the alpha carbon of the modified l-phenylalanyl moiety. Refluxing thaxtomin A in acidified MeOH, EtOH, and i-PrOH afforded C-14 thaxtomin A methyl- (3a and 3b), ethyl- (4a and 4b), and isopropyl- (5a and 5b) ethers, respectively, in both the 11S,14R (3a, 4a, and 5a) and 11S,14S (3b, 4b, and 5b) configurations. Crystal structures were determined for 3a and 4a. Extensive NMR as well as other spectroscopic data supported structural assignments for all of the derivatives. The 11S,14R-configured derivatives were slightly less potent than the natural products (1 and 2) as inhibitors of lettuce seedling root growth, whereas the activity of the 11S,14S epimers was much reduced, indicating that the configuration at C-14 found in the naturally occurring thaxtomins is essential for biological activity. Among the 11S,14R-configured compounds, potency decreased with an increasing size of the substituted alkoxy group.

  14. Beyond Ether and Chloroform-A Major Breakthrough With Halothane.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lisa; Sang, Christine N; Desai, Manisha S

    2017-07-01

    The use of equipment powered by electricity in the operating room increased the risk of fires in the presence of flammable agents such as ether and cyclopropane. Chloroform was associated with cardiac arrhythmias and liver damage. The introduction of halothane in the late 1950s was heralded as a solution to many problems facing the specialty of anesthesia. We explore whether the manufacturer promptly reported halothane's adverse effects to regulatory agencies and practitioners. We consulted documents submitted by Ayerst Laboratories to federal authorities through the Freedom of Information Act, promotional advertisements, package inserts, published articles, and textbooks. Two major complications associated with the use of halothane, cardiac arrhythmias and the risk of hepatotoxicity, were disclosed by the manufacturer when the drug was first introduced to the US market. Reports appeared timely and complete; there was no apparent attempt to conceal or otherwise downplay these risks. The process of drug discovery and approval for clinical use has always been a lengthy, complex, and extremely expensive undertaking, with only a small minority of compounds receiving approval. The risk of adverse effects or drug interaction directly impacts commercial viability. In the case of halothane, the manufacturer disclosed major adverse effects, and the drug enjoyed decades of popularity until it was replaced by agents with a better drug profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sesquiterpene amino ether and cytotoxic phenols from Dendrobium wardianum Warner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Liu, Shou-Jin; Yang, Liu; Yuan, Ming-Yan; Li, Jin-Yu; Hou, Bo; Li, Hong-Mei; Yang, Xing-Zhi; Ding, Chang-Chun; Hu, Jiang-Miao

    2017-10-01

    A new bibenzyl derivative, dendrocandin V (1) and a new sesquiterpene amino ether, wardianumine A (2), together with eleven known compounds, including phenanthrenes (denbinobin (3), 9,10-dihydro-denbinobin (4), mostatin (5), loddigesiinols A (6)), bibenzyls (moscatilin (7), 5-hydroxy-3,4'-dimethoxybibenzyl (8), 3,4-dihydroxy-5,4'-dimethoxy bibenzyl (9), dendrocandin A (10), gigantol (11), dendrocandin U (12)) and an alkaloids (dihydroshihunine, 13) were isolated from the EtOH extraction of stems of Dendrobium wardianum Warner. Isolation of the new compound 2 indicated that N,N-dimethylethanolamine as the key adduction in the synthesis of dendroxine and its analogs in Dendrobium species. The hypothetical biosynthetic pathway of 2 was then postulated. Inspired by literature and traditional usage of the herbal medicine, some compounds were sent for cytotoxic activity and the results indicated that compounds 1, 3, 4, 5 showed cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW-480) with IC50 from 2.33-38.48μM. Among those compounds, 3 and 4 showed cell line selectivity with strong activity comparable to DDP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. [Research progress of health effect of polybrominated diphenyl ethers].

    PubMed

    Zhai, J X; Tong, S L

    2016-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was one of the most common brominated flame retardants, it has been widely used in products such as furnitures, polymer and plastical material, textiles, electronic products and building materials. PBDEs have potential effect such as neurodevelopmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, thyroid toxicity, immunological toxicity, embryo toxicity, liver toxicity, teratogenicity and potential carcinogenicity. This paper was aimed to review the environmental exposure way, current level, neurotoxicity, neurodevelopmental toxicity and reproductive toxicity of PBDEs. In recent years, PBDEs has been detected in environment, wildlife animal and human body around the world, there were the significant differences of exposure levels of PBDEs. The most abundant congener were tetra-BDE or BDE-47, hexa-BDE or BDE-153, and deca-BDE or BDE-209. Prenatal exposure to PBDEs has great impact on the infants' neurodevelopmental function, induces changes in neuropsychological developmental behavior, decreases of congnition, motivation and attention. High levels of PBDEs have positive relationship with Luteinizing hormone levels, testis disfunction and children's cryptorchidism, and have negative relationship with sperm number and testis size.

  17. A mechanistic view of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) developmental neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lucio G.; de Laat, Rian; Tagliaferri, Sara; Pellacani, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), extensively used in the past few decades as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products, have become world-wide persistent environmental pollutants. Levels in North America are usually higher than those in Europe and Asia, and body burden is 3 to 9-fold higher in infants and toddlers than in adults. The latter has raised concern for potential developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of PBDEs. Experimental studies in animals and epidemiological observations in humans suggest that PBDEs may be developmental neurotoxicants. Pre- and/or post-natal exposure to PBDEs may cause long-lasting behavioral abnormalities, particularly in the domains of motor activity and cognition. The mechanisms underlying the developmental neurotoxic effects of PBDEs are not known, though several hypotheses have been put forward. One general mode of action relates to the ability of PBDEs to impair thyroid hormone homeostasis, thus indirectly affecting the developing brain. An alternative or additional mode of action involves a direct effect of PBDEs on nervous system cells; PBDEs can cause oxidative stress-related damage (DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis), and interfere with signal transduction (particularly calcium signaling), and with neurotransmitter systems. Important issues such as bioavailability and metabolism of PBDEs, extrapolation of results to low level of exposures, and the potential effects of interactions among PBDE congeners and between PBDEs and other contaminants also need to be taken into account. PMID:24270005

  18. Rotational Spectra of Halogenated Ethers Used as Volatile Anaesthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Toribio, Alicia; Lesarri, Alberto; Suenram, Richard D.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2009-06-01

    Following previous microwave investigations by Suenram et al., we will report on the rotational spectrum of several halogenated ethers used as volatile anaesthetics, including sevoflurane ((CF_3)_2CH-O-CH_2F), isoflurane (CF_3CHCl-O-CHF_2), enflurane (CHFClCF_2-O-CHF_2) and methoxyflurane (CHCl_2CF_2-O-CH_3). This study has been conducted in the 6-18 GHz centimetre-wave region using Balle-Flygare-type FT-microwave spectroscopy. The results will include the analysis of the rotational spectra of minor species in natural abundance (^{13}C and ^{18}O in some cases), structural calculations and auxiliary ab initio modelling. The conformational and structural conclusions will be compared with previous gas-phase electron diffraction and solid-state X-ray diffraction analysis. R. D. Suenram, D. J. Brugh, F. J. Lovas and C. Chu, 51st OSU Int. Symp. On Mol. Spectrosc., Columbus, OH, 1999, RB07

  19. Amended final report on the safety assessment of PPG-40 butyl ether with an addendum to include PPG-2, -4, -5, -9, -12, -14, -15, -16, -17, -18, -20, -22, -24, -26, -30, -33, -52, and -53 butyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, R S

    2001-01-01

    The Polypropylene Glycol (PPG) Butyl Ethers function as skinand hair-conditioning agents in cosmetics. Intestinal absorption of the PPG Butyl Ethers was inversely proportional to the molecular weight. In general, the toxicity of the PPG Butyl Ethers decreased as the molecular weight increased. In acute studies, moderate intraperitoneal (IP) doses of various PPG Butyl Ethers caused convulsive seizures in mice and anesthetized dogs, and large oral doses caused decreased activity, anuria, renal tubular swelling and necrosis, and hepatic swelling and necrosis. PPG-2 Butyl Ether vapors were nontoxic by the inhalation route. PPG-2 Butyl Ether was nontoxic in short-term feeding and dermal exposure studies in rats. In animal irritation studies, PPG-2 Butyl Ether caused minor, transient erythema and desquamation; in addition, erythema, edema, ecchymosis, necrosis, and other changes were observed during an acute percutaneous study. PPG-2 Butyl Ether also caused minor to moderate conjunctival irritation and minor corneal injury. PPG-2 Butyl Ether when dermally applied was nontoxic to pregnant rats and was nonteratogenic at doses up to 1.0 ml/kg/day. PPG BE800 at concentrations of 0.001% to 0.26% in feed was noncarcinogenic to rats after 2 years of treatment. In clinical studies, PPG BE800 was nonirritating and nonsensitizing to the skin when tested using 200 subjects. PPG-40 Butyl Ether was neither an irritant nor a sensitizer in a repeat-insult patch test using 112 subjects. Although clinical testing did not indicate significant skin irritation is produced by these ingredients, the animal test data did indicate the potential that these ingredients can be irritating. Therefore, it was concluded that the PPG Butyl Ethers can be used safely in cosmetic products if they are formulated to avoid irritation. Data on the component ingredients, Propylene Glycol, PPG, and n-Butyl Alcohol, from previous cosmetic ingredient safety assessments were also considered and found to support

  20. The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, Matthew J.; Wilkinson, Simon C.; Williams, Faith M.

    2007-01-15

    Glycol ethers are solvents widely used alone and as mixtures in industrial and household products. Some glycol ethers have been shown to have a range of toxic effects in humans following absorption and metabolism to their aldehyde and acid metabolites. This study assessed the influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of butoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol in vitro through human skin. Butoxyethanol penetrated human skin up to sixfold more rapidly from aqueous solution (50%, 450 mg/ml) than from the neat solvent. Similarly penetration of ethoxyethanol was increased threefold in the presence of water (50%, 697 mg/ml). There was a correspondingmore » increase in apparent permeability coefficient as the glycol ether concentration in water decreased. The maximum penetration rate of water also increased in the presence of both glycol ethers. Absorption through a synthetic membrane obeyed Fick's Law and absorption through rat skin showed a similar profile to human skin but with a lesser effect. The mechanisms for this phenomenon involves disruption of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer by desiccation by neat glycol ether micelles, hydration with water mixtures and the physicochemical properties of the glycol ether-water mixtures. Full elucidation of the profile of absorption of glycol ethers from mixtures is required for risk assessment of dermal exposure. This work supports the view that risk assessments for dermal contact scenarios should ideally be based on absorption data obtained for the relevant formulation or mixture and exposure scenario and that absorption derived from permeability coefficients may be inappropriate for water-miscible solvents.« less

  1. Evaluation of hepatic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Krieger, Lisa K; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2016-03-01

    Polar bears are at the top of the Arctic marine food chain and are subject to exposure and bioaccumulation of environmental chemicals of concern such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were widely used as flame retardants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro oxidative metabolism of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-99) by polar bear liver microsomes. The identification and quantification of the hydroxy-brominated diphenyl ethers formed were assessed using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method. Incubation of BDE-47 with archived individual liver microsomes, prepared from fifteen polar bears from northern Canada, produced a total of eleven hydroxylated metabolites, eight of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites were 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether and 5'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether. Incubation of BDE-99 with polar bear liver microsomes produced a total of eleven hydroxylated metabolites, seven of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites were 2,4,5-tribromophenol and 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether. Among the CYP specific antibodies tested, anti-rat CYP2B was found to be the most active in inhibiting the formation of hydroxylated metabolites of both BDE-47 and BDE-99, indicating that CYP2B was the major CYP enzyme involved in the oxidative biotransformation of these two congeners. Our study shows that polar bears are capable of forming multiple hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in vitro and demonstrates the role of CYP2B in the biotransformation and possibly in the toxicity of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in polar bears. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wholly Aromatic Ether-imides. Potential Materials for n-Type Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingemans, Theo J.; St.Clair, Terry L.; Samulski, Edward T.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and characterization of a novel series low-molar-mass ether-imide rod-shaped model compounds. All ether-imides were obtained by terminating the appropriate rigid core dianhydride, i.e. pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA), 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NDA), 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and 3,3,4,4'-oxydiphthalic dianhydride (ODPA) with three flexible aryl-ether tails of different chain length. The mono-functional aryl-ether amines, i.e. 4-(3-phenoxy-phenoxy)-phenylamine (2) and 4-(3-phenoxy-3-phenoxy-phenoxy)-phenylamine (4), were synthesized using standard fluoro-displacement and Ullmann condensation techniques. The corresponding ether-imide model compounds were obtained in high yields using a one-step solution imidization procedure. Increasing the number of meta-substituted aryl-ether units reduces the melt transition temperatures and at the same time it increases the solubility of the model compounds. Most model compounds are crystalline solids and form isotropic melts upon heating. 2,7-Bis-(-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-benzo[Imn][3,8]phenanthroline1,3,6,8-tetraone (NDA-n0), however, displays a smectic A (SA) when cooled from the isotropic phase, followed by what appears to be either a highly ordered smectic phase or a, columnar phase. This is the first example, known to date, in which a mesophase is detected in a wholly aromatic ether-imide compound. For all compounds we present spectroscopic data and X-ray diffraction data. Cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the redox behavior and pertinent energy levels of the model compounds.

  3. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Residential Dust: Sources of Variability

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Brown, F. Reber; Metayer, Catherine; Park, June-Soo; Does, Monique; Petreas, Myrto X.; Buffler, Patricia A.; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    We characterized the sources of variability for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in residential dust and provided guidance for investigators who plan to use residential dust to assess exposure to PBDEs. We collected repeat dust samples from 292 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds (from 2001–2007 and during 2010) using household vacuum cleaners and measured 22 PBDEs using high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Median concentrations for individual PBDEs ranged from <0.1–2,500 ng per g of dust. For each of eight representative PBDEs, we used a random-effects model to apportion total variance into regional variability (0–11%), intra-regional between-household variability (17–50%), within-household variability over time (38–74%), and within-sample variability (0–23%) and we used a mixed-effects model to identify determinants of PBDE levels. Regional differences in PBDE dust levels were associated with residential characteristics that differed by region, including the presence of furniture with exposed or crumbling foam and the recent installation of carpets in the residence. Intra-regional differences between households were associated with neighborhood urban density, racial and ethnic characteristics, and to a lesser extent, income. For some PBDEs, a decreasing time trend explained a modest fraction of the within-household variability; however, most of the within-household variability was unaccounted for by our mixed-effects models. Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PBDE exposures in studies of children’s health (e.g., the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study). PMID:23628589

  4. Carcinogenicity of methyl-tertiary butyl ether in gasoline.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Myron A

    2002-12-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was added to gasoline on a nationwide scale in 1992 without prior testing of adverse, toxic, or carcinogenic effects. Since that time, numerous reports have appeared describing adverse health effects of individuals exposed to MTBE, both from inhalation of fumes in the workplace and while pumping gasoline. Leakage of MTBE, a highly water-soluble compound, from underground storage tanks has led to contamination of the water supply in many areas of the United States. Legislation has been passed by many states to prohibit the addition of MTBE to gasoline. The addition of MTBE to gasoline has not accomplished its stated goal of decreasing air pollution, and it has posed serious health risks to a large portion of the population, particularly the elderly and those with respiratory problems, asthma, and skin sensitivity. Reports of animal studies of carcinogenicity of MTBE began to appear in the 1990s, prior to the widespread introduction of MTBE into gasoline. These reports were largely ignored. In ensuing years, further studies have shown that MTBE causes various types of malignant tumors in mice and rats. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors' Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee met in December 1998 to consider listing MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." In spite of recommendations from Dr. Bailer, the primary reviewer, and other scientists on the committee, the motion to list MTBE in the report was defeated by a six to five vote, with one abstention. On the basis of animal studies, it is widely accepted that if a chemical is carcinogenic in appropriate laboratory animal test systems, it must be treated as though it were carcinogenic in humans. In the face of compelling evidence, NTP Committee members who voted not to list MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" did a disservice to the general public; this action may cause needless exposure of many to health risks

  5. Phospholipid ether analogs for the detection of colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Deming, Dustin A; Maher, Molly E; Leystra, Alyssa A; Grudzinski, Joseph P; Clipson, Linda; Albrecht, Dawn M; Washington, Mary Kay; Matkowskyj, Kristina A; Hall, Lance T; Lubner, Sam J; Weichert, Jamey P; Halberg, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of localized colorectal cancer (CRC) depends on resection of the primary tumor with adequate margins and sufficient lymph node sampling. A novel imaging agent that accumulates in CRCs and the associated lymph nodes is needed. Cellectar Biosciences has developed a phospholipid ether analog platform that is both diagnostic and therapeutic. CLR1502 is a near-infrared fluorescent molecule, whereas 124/131I-CLR1404 is under clinical investigation as a PET tracer/therapeutic agent imaged by SPECT. We investigated the use of CLR1502 for the detection of intestinal cancers in a murine model and 131I-CLR1404 in a patient with metastatic CRC. Mice that develop multiple intestinal tumors ranging from adenomas to locally advanced adenocarcinomas were utilized. After 96 hours post CLR1502 injection, the intestinal tumors were analyzed using a Spectrum IVIS (Perkin Elmer) and a Fluobeam (Fluoptics). The intensity of the fluorescent signal was correlated with the histological characteristics for each tumor. Colon adenocarcinomas demonstrated increased accumulation of CLR1502 compared to non-invasive lesions (total radiant efficiency: 1.76×10(10) vs 3.27×10(9) respectively, p = 0.006). Metastatic mesenteric tumors and uninvolved lymph nodes were detected with CLR1502. In addition, SPECT imaging with 131I-CLR1404 was performed as part of a clinical trial in patients with advanced solid tumors. 131I-CLR1404 was shown to accumulate in metastatic tumors in a patient with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Together, these compounds might enhance our ability to properly resect CRCs through better localization of the primary tumor and improved lymph node identification as well as detect distant disease.

  6. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) FLAME RETARDANTS

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lucio G.; Giordano, Gennaro

    2007-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardants used in a variety of consumer products. In the past 25 years, PBDEs have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been detected in soil, air, sediments, birds, marine species, fish, house dust, and human tissues, blood and breast milk. Diet and house dust appear to be the major sources of PBDE exposure in the general population, though occupational exposure can also occur. Levels of PBDEs in human tissues are particularly high in North America, compared to Asian and European countries, and have been increasing in the past 30 years. Concentrations of PBDEs are particularly high in breast milk, resulting in high exposure of infants. In addition, for toddlers, dust has been estimated to account for a large percentage of exposure. PBDEs can also cross the placenta, as they have been detected in fetal blood and liver. Tetra-, penta- and hexa BDEs are most commonly present in human tissues. The current greatest concern for potential adverse effects of PBDEs relates to their developmental neurotoxicity. Pre- or postnatal exposure of mice or rats to various PBDEs has been shown to cause long-lasting changes in spontaneous motor activity, mostly characterized as hyperactivity or decreased habituation, and to disrupt performance in learning and memory tests. While a reduction in circulating thyroid hormone (T4) may contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of PBDEs, direct effects on the developing brain have also been reported. Among these, PBDEs have been shown to affect signal transduction pathways and to cause oxidative stress. Levels of PBDEs causing developmental neurotoxicity in animals are not much dissimilar from levels found in highly exposed infants and toddlers. PMID:17904639

  7. Is decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) a developmental neurotoxicant?

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lucio G.; Giordano, Gennaro

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have become ubiquitous environmental pollutants. The relatively higher body burden in toddlers and children has reaised concern for their potential developmental neurotoxicity, which has been suggested by animal studies, in vitro experiments, and recent human epidemiological evidence. While lower brominated PBDEs have been banned in several countries, the fully brominated decaBDE (BDE-209) is still utilized, though manufacturers will discontinue production in the U.S.A. in 2013. The recent decision by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to base the Reference Dose (RfD) for BDE-209 on a developmental neurotoxicity study has generated some controversy. Because of its bulky configuration, BDE-209 is poorly absorbed and does not easily penetrate the cell wall. Its acute and chronic toxicities are relatively low, with the liver and the thyroid as the primary targets, though there is some evidence of carcinogenicity. A few animal studies have indicated that BDE-209 may cause developmental neurotoxicity, affecting motor and cognitive domains, as seen for other PBDEs. Limited in vivo and in vitro studies have also evidenced effects of BDE-209 on thyroid hormone homeostasis and direct effects on nervous cells, again similar to what found with other lower brominated PBDEs. In contrast, a recent developmental neurotoxicity study, carried out according to international guidelines, has provided no evidence of adverse effects on neurodevelopment, and this should be considered in a future re-evaluation of BDE-209. While estimated exposure to BDE-209 in children is believed to be several orders of magnitude below the most conservative RfD proposed by the USEPA, questions remain on the extent and relevance of BDE-209 metabolism to lower brominated PBDEs in the environment and in humans. PMID:21182867

  8. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Man Young

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Pine (Pinus densiflora), Platanus (Platanus), and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides). These were used as passive air sampler (PAS) of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methods Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Results Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry), whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry), Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry), and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry) had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry), followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry), Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry), and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry). There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R2=0.1011, p =0.682). Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6%) of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Conclusions Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data. PMID:25116365

  9. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks.

    PubMed

    Chun, Man Young

    2014-07-17

    This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Pine (Pinus densiflora), Platanus (Platanus), and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides). These were used as passive air sampler (PAS) of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry), whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry), Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry), and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry) had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry), followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry), Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry), and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry). There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R(2)=0.1011, p =0.682). Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6%) of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data.

  10. Phospholipid Ether Analogs for the Detection of Colorectal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Dustin A.; Maher, Molly E.; Leystra, Alyssa A.; Grudzinski, Joseph P.; Clipson, Linda; Albrecht, Dawn M.; Washington, Mary Kay; Matkowskyj, Kristina A.; Hall, Lance T.; Lubner, Sam J.; Weichert, Jamey P.; Halberg, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of localized colorectal cancer (CRC) depends on resection of the primary tumor with adequate margins and sufficient lymph node sampling. A novel imaging agent that accumulates in CRCs and the associated lymph nodes is needed. Cellectar Biosciences has developed a phospholipid ether analog platform that is both diagnostic and therapeutic. CLR1502 is a near-infrared fluorescent molecule, whereas 124/131I-CLR1404 is under clinical investigation as a PET tracer/therapeutic agent imaged by SPECT. We investigated the use of CLR1502 for the detection of intestinal cancers in a murine model and 131I-CLR1404 in a patient with metastatic CRC. Mice that develop multiple intestinal tumors ranging from adenomas to locally advanced adenocarcinomas were utilized. After 96 hours post CLR1502 injection, the intestinal tumors were analyzed using a Spectrum IVIS (Perkin Elmer) and a Fluobeam (Fluoptics). The intensity of the fluorescent signal was correlated with the histological characteristics for each tumor. Colon adenocarcinomas demonstrated increased accumulation of CLR1502 compared to non-invasive lesions (total radiant efficiency: 1.76×1010 vs 3.27×109 respectively, p = 0.006). Metastatic mesenteric tumors and uninvolved lymph nodes were detected with CLR1502. In addition, SPECT imaging with 131I-CLR1404 was performed as part of a clinical trial in patients with advanced solid tumors. 131I-CLR1404 was shown to accumulate in metastatic tumors in a patient with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Together, these compounds might enhance our ability to properly resect CRCs through better localization of the primary tumor and improved lymph node identification as well as detect distant disease. PMID:25286226

  11. Dose- and time-dependent pharmacokinetics of apigenin trimethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Elhennawy, Mai Gamal; Lin, Hai-Shu

    2018-06-15

    Apigenin trimethyl ether (5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone, ATE), one of the key polymethoxyflavones present in black ginger (rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora) possesses various health-promoting activities. To optimize its medicinal application, the pharmacokinetics of ATE was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats with emphases to identify the impacts from dose and repeated dosing on its major pharmacokinetic parameters. Plasma ATE levels were monitored by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Upon single intravenous administration (2 mg/kg), plasma levels of ATE declined through an apparent first-order process while dose-escalation to 4 and 8 mg/kg led to its non-linear disposition, which could be described by the Michaelis-Menten model. Similarly, dose-dependent oral pharmacokinetics was confirmed and when the dose was escalated from 5 to 15 and 45 mg/kg, much longer mean residence time (MRT 0→last ), higher dose-normalized maximal plasma concentration (C max /Dose) and exposure (AUC/Dose) were observed at 15 and/or 45 mg/kg. One-week daily oral administration of ATE at 15 mg/kg caused its accelerated elimination and the plasma exposure (AUC) after intravenous (2 mg/kg) and oral administration (15 mg/kg) dropped ~40 and 60%, respectively. As ATE displayed both dose- and time-dependent pharmacokinetics, caution is needed in the medicinal applications of ATE and/or black ginger. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Survey of bisphenol a diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods.

    PubMed

    Summerfield, W; Goodson, A; Cooper, I

    1998-10-01

    2,2-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane bis(2,3-epoxypropyl) ether (BADGE) is used in the manufacture of lacquers for coating the inside of food and beverage cans. In June 1996 the EC Scientific Committee for Food temporarily increased the specific migration limit applying to BADGE to 1 mg/kg pending consideration of additional toxicological data. In order to find out if there is migration of BADGE from can coatings into foods, a 'worst case' sampling exercise has been conducted to survey those canned foods where the propensity for migration of BADGE was judged to be highest. The foods surveyed include canned fish in oil, meat and milk and, altogether, BADGE was determined in 181 retail samples. Analysis for BADGE was conducted, in duplicate, by HPLC with fluorescence detection with confirmation of BADGE identity by GC/MS analysis using selected ion monitoring. BADGE was found at levels exceeding 1 mg/kg in seven of the 15 canned anchovy samples and five of the 22 sardine samples purchased during the period September 1995-July 1996. Infrared analysis of the can coatings provided strong evidence that the higher BADGE levels found were associated with use of PVC organosol lacquers, although in some cases cans coated with organosols gave low BADGE results. For canned sardine samples found to contain greater than 0.5 mg/kg BADGE in the total contents, a replicate can was opened and separate analyses performed on the drained fish and the oil. The results clearly showed that BADGE concentrations in the oil were about 20 times higher than in the drained fish. Further samples of canned sardines and anchovies were purchased in June/July 1997 and, in all cases, BADGE levels were found to be below 1 mg/kg. In the other retail canned foods, BADGE was not detectable (DL = 0.02 mg/kg) or detected at concentrations well below the temporary SML of 1 mg/kg.

  13. Planck's constant and the three waves (TWs) of Einstein's covariant ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, L.

    1985-11-01

    The implications of a three-wave model for elementary particles, satisfying the principles of both quantum mechanics and General Relativity (GR), are discussed. In GR, the ether is the fundamental source of all activity, where particles (waves) arise at singularities. Inertia and gravity are field properties of the ether. In flat regions of the space-time geodesic, wave excitations correspond to the presence of particles. A momentum-carrying excitation which occurs in the ether is a superluminal radiation (phase- or B-waves) which transports neither energy nor mass. Superposition of the B-waves produces soliton-like excitations on the ether to form C-waves, i.e., particles. The particle-waves travel through space-time on D-waves, and experience reflection, refraction and interference only where B-waves have interacted with the ether. The original particles, photons-maximons, existed at the Big Bang and had physical properties which are describable in terms of Planck's quantities.

  14. Synthesis and blood pressure lowering activity of benzylic ethers of 2-diethylaminoethanol and a related diamine.

    PubMed

    El-Antably, S M; Soine, T O; Shaath, N A; Gupta, P K

    1975-08-01

    Based upon the unpublished finding that 3'-hydroxy-4'-(beta-diethylaminoethoxy)-3',4'-dihydroseselin possessed a potent blood pressure lowering effect in the cat at a dose of 1 mg/kg, the present study examined the activities of several related compounds. These compounds were derived by dissection of the parent compound to give four benzylic ethers of 2-diethylaminoethanol and a diamine, derived by replacing the ether oxygen of the parent compound with an N--CH3 function. The simplest compounds were the benzyl and 2,6-dimethoxybenzyl ethers of the aminoalcohol. Closely related to the benzyl compound was a congener with a hydroxymethyl group on the benzylic carbon. The beta-diethylaminoethyl ether of 4-chromanol was the most complex of the ethers. The blood pressure measurements were carried out on male cats and compared to papaverine hydrochloride as a standard. In all cases, the most potent blood pressure lowering activity resided in the parent compound, which was not greatly superior to the diamine but substantially more active than the other compounds.

  15. Development of an EtherCAT enabled digital servo controller for the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteis, Peter G.; Mello, Melinda J.

    2012-09-01

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is gaining wide spread popularity in the automation industry as a real time field bus based on low cost, Ethernet hardware. EtherCAT maximizes use of 100Mbps Ethernet hardware by using a collision free ring topology, efficient Ethernet frame utilization (> 95%), and data exchange "on the fly". These characteristics enable EtherCAT to achieve Master to Slave node data exchange rates of > 1000 Hz. The Green Bank Telescope, commissioned in 2000, utilizes an analog control system for motion control of 8 elevation and 16 azimuth motors. This architecture, while sufficient for observations at frequencies up to 50GHz, has significant limitations for the current scientific goals of observing at 115GHz. Accordingly, the Green Bank staff has embarked on a servo upgrade project to develop a digital servo system which accommodates development and implementation of advanced control algorithms. This paper describes how the new control system requirements, use of existing infrastructure and budget constraints led us to define a distributed motion control architecture where EtherCAT real-time Ethernet was selected as the communication bus. Finally, design details are provided that describe how NRAO developed a custom EtherCAT-enabled motor controller interface for the GBT's legacy motor drives in order to provide technical benefits and flexibility not available in commercial products.

  16. Ether bond effects in quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquid-propanol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimura, Hiroaki; Kohki, Erica; Nakada, Ayumu; Tamatani, Kentaro; Abe, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) of quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquid (IL)-propanol solutions were examined. The ILs contained cations with or without ether bonds; the anion in all the ILs was bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI-). The cations without ether groups are tributylmethyl ammonium (N4441+), triethylpentyl phosphonium (P2225+), triethyloctyl phosphonium (P2228+), and tributylmethyl phosphonium (P4441+). The cations containing ether groups are N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium, (N122(2O1)+), triethyl(methoxymethyl) phosphonium (P222(1O1)+), and triethyl(2-methoxyethyl) phosphonium, (P222(2O1)+). Propanol isomer effect was observed to affect the LLEs, reflecting the geometrical factors and hydrophobicities of 1-propanol and 2-propanol. According to Raman spectroscopy, the TFSI- anion conformers in the mixtures were altered in the presence of ether bonds in the cations. The universal quasichemical (UNIQUAC) interaction parameters are consistent with significant factors affecting IL-propanol solutions, such as the type of cation (ammonium or phosphonium), ether bonds, TFSI- conformers, and propanol isomer effects.

  17. Metabolism of nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides by dioxin-degrading bacterium Sphingomonas wittichii RW1.

    PubMed

    Keum, Young Soo; Lee, Young Ju; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2008-10-08

    Nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides, including chlomethoxyfen, nitrofen, and oxyfluorfen are potent herbicides. Some metabolites and parent compounds are considered as possible mutagens and endocrine disruptors. Both properties pose serious hygienic and environmental risks. Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a well-known degrader of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and diphenyl ethers. However, no detailed research of its metabolic activity has been performed against pesticides with a diphenyl ether scaffold. In this study, we report S. wittichii RW1 as a very potent diphenyl ether herbicide-metabolizing bacterium with broad substrate specificity. The structures of metabolites were determined by instrumental analysis and synthetic standards. Most pesticides were rapidly removed from the culture medium in the order of nitrofen > oxyfluorfen > chlomethoxyfen. In general, herbicides were degraded through the initial reduction and N-acetylation of nitro groups, followed by ether bond cleavage. Relatively low concentrations of phenolic and catecholic metabolites throughout the study suggested that these metabolites were rapidly metabolized and incorporated into primary metabolism. These results indicate that strain RW1 has very versatile metabolic activities over a wide range of environmental contaminants.

  18. Broadband Microwave Spectroscopy as a Tool to Study Intermolecular Interactions in the Diphenyl Ether - Water System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, Mariyam; Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    Many biological processes, such as chemical recognition and protein folding, are mainly controlled by the interplay of hydrogen bonds and dispersive forces. This interplay also occurs between organic molecules and solvent water molecules. Broadband rotational spectroscopy studies of weakly bound complexes are able to accurately reveal the structures and internal dynamics of molecular clusters isolated in the gas phase. Amongst them, water clusters with organic molecules are of particular interest. In this work, we investigate the interplay between different types of weak intermolecular interactions and how it controls the preferred interaction sites of aromatic ethers, where dispersive interactions may play a significant role. We present our results on diphenyl ether (C_{12}H_{10}O, 1,1'-Oxydibenzene) complexed with up to three molecules of water. Diphenyl ether is a flexible molecule, and it offers two competing binding sites for water: the ether oxygen and the aromatic π system. In order to determine the structure of the diphenyl ether-water complexes, we targeted transitions in the 2-8 GHz range using broadband rotational spectroscopy. We identify two isomers with one water, one with two water, and one with three water molecules. Further analysis from isotopic substitution measurements provided accurate structural information. The preferred interactions, as well as the observed structural changes induced upon complexation, will be presented and discussed.

  19. Maleate/vinyl ether UV-cured coatings: Effects of composition on curing and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Noren, G.K.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of the composition of the maleate polyester and the vinyl ether terminated compound on their UV-curing and properties has been investigated. Linear unsaturated polyester resins based on maleic anhydride and 1,5-pentane diol were synthesized. The molecular weight of the unsaturated polyesters was varied by changing the ratio of maleic anhydride to 1,5-pentane diol and the double bond equivalent weight was varied by replacing maleic anhydride with succinic anhydride. Coating formulations containing these unsaturated polyesters, triethylene glycol divinyl ether and a free radical photoinitiator were crosslinked in the presence of UV light. The coatings were very brittle, exhibiting tensilemore » strengths in the range of 1.5-4.0 MPa and elongations of only 3-7%. Diethyl maleate and isobutyl vinyl ether were effective diluents for reducing viscosity but reduced the cure speed. A vinyl ether urethane oligomer was synthesized and enhanced the flexibility and toughness of the coatings when substituted for triethylene glycol divinyl ether.« less

  20. Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether: a toxicological review.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Douglas

    2007-05-01

    A number of oxygenated compounds (oxygenates) are available for use in gasoline to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions, reduce the aromatic compound content, and avoid the use of organo-lead compounds, while maintaining high octane numbers. Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) is one such compound. The current use of ETBE in gasoline or petrol is modest but increasing, with consequently similar trends in the potential for human exposure. Inhalation is the most likely mode of exposure, with about 30% of inhaled ETBE being retained by the lungs and distributed around the body. Following cessation of exposure, the blood concentration of ETBE falls rapidly, largely as a result of its metabolism to tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) and acetaldehyde. TBA may be further metabolized, first to 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol and then to 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, the two dominant metabolites found in urine of volunteers and rats. The rapid oxidation of acetaldehyde suggests that its blood concentration is unlikely to rise above normal as a result of human exposure to sources of ETBE. Single-dose toxicity tests show that ETBE has low toxicity and is essentially nonirritant to eyes and skin; it did not cause sensitization in a maximization test in guinea pigs. Neurological effects have been observed only at very high exposure concentrations. There is evidence for an effect of ETBE on the kidney of rats. Increases in kidney weight were seen in both sexes, but protein droplet accumulation (with alpha(2u)-globulin involvement) and sustained increases in cell proliferation occurred only in males. In liver, centrilobular necrosis was induced in mice, but not rats, after exposure by inhalation, although this lesion was reported in some rats exposed to very high oral doses of ETBE. The proportion of liver cells engaged in S-phase DNA synthesis was increased in mice of both sexes exposed by inhalation. ETBE has no specific effects on reproduction, development, or genetic material. Carcinogenicity studies

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in U.S. mothers' milk.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Ryan, John Jake; Birnbaum, Linda; Rosen, Robin

    2003-01-01

    No previous reports exist on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in human milk from individual U.S. mothers. This article on PBDEs is an extension of our previous studies on concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other chlorinated organic compounds in human milk in a number of countries. PBDE commercial products are used as flame retardants in flexible polyurethane foam (penta-BDE), in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resins (octa-BDE), and in high-impact polystyrene resins (deca-BDE). Their use is permitted in the United States but is banned in some European countries because of presumed toxicity, demonstrated persistence, and bioaccumulation. Different commercial products can be found in various consumer products such as television sets, computers, computer monitors and printers, carpets, and upholstery. Analyses of human levels of these compounds suggest low but rising levels in European human milk, which may have peaked, at least in Sweden, in the late 1990s. Very few data exist on levels of PBDEs in humans in the United States, and none from milk from individual nursing mothers. To address this issue, we analyzed 47 individual milk samples from nursing mothers, 20-41 years of age, from a milk bank in Austin, Texas, and a community women's health clinic in Dallas, Texas. Up to 13 PBDE congeners were measured. The concentrations of the sum of PBDE congeners varied from 6.2 to 419 ng/g (or parts per billion) lipid, with a median of 34 ng/g and a mean of 73.9 ng/g lipid. The PBDE levels in breast milk from Texas were similar to levels found in U.S. blood and adipose tissue lipid from California and Indiana and are 10-100 times greater than human tissue levels in Europe. Their detection in breast milk raises concern for potential toxicity to nursing infants, given the persistence and bioaccumulative nature of some of the PBDE congeners. These results indicate a need for more detailed investigation of the levels of PBDE in

  2. The hydrolysis of geminal ethers: a kinetic appraisal of orthoesters and ketals.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Sonia L; Costello, James F; Butts, Craig P; Lam, Joseph K W; Ratcliffe, Norman M

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach to protecting jet fuel against the effects of water contamination is predicated upon the coupling of the rapid hydrolysis reactions of lipophilic cyclic geminal ethers, with the concomitant production of a hydrophilic acyclic hydroxyester with de-icing properties (Fuel Dehydrating Icing Inhibitors - FDII). To this end, a kinetic appraisal of the hydrolysis reactions of representative geminal ethers was undertaken using a convenient surrogate for the fuel-water interface (D2O/CD3CN 1:4). We present here a library of acyclic and five/six-membered cyclic geminal ethers arranged according to their hydroxonium catalytic coefficients for hydrolysis, providing for the first time a framework for the development of FDII. A combination of (1)H NMR, labelling and computational studies was used to assess the effects that may govern the observed relative rates of hydrolyses.

  3. The hydrolysis of geminal ethers: a kinetic appraisal of orthoesters and ketals

    PubMed Central

    Repetto, Sonia L; Butts, Craig P; Lam, Joseph K W; Ratcliffe, Norman M

    2016-01-01

    Summary A novel approach to protecting jet fuel against the effects of water contamination is predicated upon the coupling of the rapid hydrolysis reactions of lipophilic cyclic geminal ethers, with the concomitant production of a hydrophilic acyclic hydroxyester with de-icing properties (Fuel Dehydrating Icing Inhibitors - FDII). To this end, a kinetic appraisal of the hydrolysis reactions of representative geminal ethers was undertaken using a convenient surrogate for the fuel–water interface (D2O/CD3CN 1:4). We present here a library of acyclic and five/six-membered cyclic geminal ethers arranged according to their hydroxonium catalytic coefficients for hydrolysis, providing for the first time a framework for the development of FDII. A combination of 1H NMR, labelling and computational studies was used to assess the effects that may govern the observed relative rates of hydrolyses. PMID:27559399

  4. Update on POCIT portable optical communicators: VideoBeam and EtherBeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecherle, G. Stephen; Holcomb, Terry L.

    2000-05-01

    LDSC is developing the POCITTM (Portable Optical Communication Integrated Transceiver) family of products which includes VideoBeamTM and the latest addition, EtherBeamTM. Each is a full duplex portable laser communicator: VideoBeamTM providing near-broadcast- quality analog video and stereo audio, and EtherBeamTM providing standard Ethernet connectivity. Each POCITTM transceiver consists of a 3.5-pound unit with a binocular- type form factor, which can be manually pointed, tripod- mounted or gyro-stabilized. Both units have an operational range of over two miles (clear air) with excellent jam- resistance and low probability of interception characteristics. The transmission wavelength of 1550 nm enables Class 1 eyesafe operation (ANSI, IEC). The POCITTM units are ideally suited for numerous military scenarios, surveillance/espionage, industrial precious mineral exploration, and campus video teleconferencing applications. VideoBeam will be available second quarter 2000, followed by EtherBeam in third quarter 2000.

  5. Interaction of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Aerobic Granular Sludge: Biosorption and Microbial Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Cui, Qingjie; Zheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    As a new category of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous global environmental contaminants. No literature is available on the aerobic biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). Herein, we investigated the interaction of PBDEs with aerobic granular sludge. The results show that the removal of BDE-209 from wastewater is mainly via biosorption onto aerobic granular sludge. The uptake capacity increased when temperature, contact time, and sludge dosage increased or solution pH dropped. Ionic strength had a negative influence on BDE-209 adsorption. The modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was appropriate to describe the adsorption kinetics. Microbial debromination of BDE-209 did not occur during the first 30 days of operation. Further study found that aerobic microbial degradation of 4,4′-dibromodiphenyl ether happened with the production of lower BDE congeners. PMID:25009812

  6. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by cellulose ethers: stability, structure and in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Borreani, Jennifer; Espert, María; Salvador, Ana; Sanz, Teresa; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-04-19

    The effect of cellulose ethers in oil-in-water emulsions on stability during storage and on texture, microstructure and lipid digestibility during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was investigated. All the cellulose ether emulsions showed good physical and oxidative stability during storage. In particular, the methylcellulose with high methoxyl substituents (HMC) made it possible to obtain emulsions with high consistency which remained almost unchanged during gastric digestion, and thus could enhance fullness and satiety perceptions at gastric level. Moreover, the HMC emulsion slowed down lipid digestion to a greater extent than a conventional protein emulsion or the emulsions stabilised by the other cellulose ethers. Therefore, HMC emulsions could be used in weight management to increase satiation capacity and decrease lipid digestion.

  7. MOF-based catalysts for selective hydrogenolysis of carbon–oxygen ether bonds

    DOE PAGES

    Stavila, Vitalie; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan; Davis, Ryan W.; ...

    2015-11-23

    We demonstrate that metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) can catalyze hydrogenolysis of aryl ether bonds under mild conditions. Mg-IRMOF-74(I) and Mg-IRMOF-74(II) are stable under reducing conditions and can cleave phenyl ethers containing β-O-4, α-O-4, and 4-O-5 linkages to the corresponding hydrocarbons and phenols. Reaction occurs at 10 bar H 2 and 120 °C without added base. DFT-optimized structures and charge transfer analysis suggest that the MOF orients the substrate near Mg 2+ ions on the pore walls. Ti and Ni doping further increase conversions to as high as 82% with 96% selectivity for hydrogenolysis versus ring hydrogenation. Thus repeated cycling induces nomore » loss of activity, making this a promising route for mild aryl-ether bond scission.« less

  8. [Questions on the first operation with ethyl ether as anaesthetic by Dr. Peter Parker].

    PubMed

    Chen, Q

    2017-01-28

    Ethyl ether was the first accepted effective general anaesthetic. It was introduced into China by an America missionary, Dr. Peter Parker. This was one of the historical events of medical communication between China and the West. In the records of the first operation with ether, however, Dr. Parker unusually omitted the patient's medical record number and the date of the operation, while those of other operations with ether anesthetics were all available. This was very unusual for a doctor like Peter Parker who always recorded every important case in detail in the hospital reports. It seems that he deliberately rather than carelessly omitted the information for some reasons. Based on the analysis of Parker's reports, a conclusion is made that the anesthetic effect of the case was actually ineffective. Furthermore, possible answers to this are outlined and question by discussion based on the situation that Parker faced in the late Qing era.

  9. Triclosan and Hydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Lake and Esturaine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, W. A.; Kerrigan, J. F.; McNeill, K.; Erickson, P. R.; Grandbois, M.

    2014-12-01

    Halogenated diphenyl ethers are a class of emerging contaminants that includes the antibacterial compound triclosan and the flame retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Both triclosan and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are known to form dioxins when exposed to sunlight in aqueous solution. Thus, it is important to understand the sources and presence of these compounds in the environment, especially because OH-BDEs are breakdown products of PBDEs and also naturally produced compounds. In this work, the levels of OH-BDEs were determined in lake sediments from Minnesota and esturaine sediments from San Francisco Bay. Both surface sediments over a broad spatial area and sediment cores were collected and analyzed. Triclosan was used as a marker of wastewater as a source of the targeted emerging contaminants. The relationship between triclosan and OH-BDE levels provides insight into the importance of natural and anthropogenic influences on the levels of OH-BDEs.

  10. The action of ether and methoxyflurane on synaptic transmission in isolated preparations of the mammalian cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, C D; Russell, W J; Smaje, J C

    1975-01-01

    1. The actions of ether and methoxyflurane on the evoked potentials of in vitro preparations of the guinea-pig olfactory cortex were studied. Following stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract (l.o.t.) evoked potentials could be recorded from the cortical surface; these potentials consisted of an initial wave (the compound action potential of the l.o.t.) followed by a negative field potential which was associated with the synchronous excitation of many superficial excitatory synapses (population e.p.s.p.). Superimposed on the population e.p.s.p. was a number of positive peaks. These positive peaks reflect the synchronous discharge of many neurones and so have been called population spikes. 2. When ether or methoxyflurane was added to the gas stream that superfused the surface of the preparations, the population e.p.s.p.s. and population spikes were depressed at lower concentrations than those required to depress the compound action potential of the afferent fibres. 3. The evoked activity of individual cells in the cortex was depressed by ether and methoxyflurane. However, five of the twelve cells tested in ether showed an increase in their evoked activity at concentrations below 4-5%, but at higher concentrations these cells also became depressed. 4. Both ether and methoxyflurane depressed the sensitivity of cortical neurones to iontophoretically applied L-glutamate and may similarly depress the sensitivity of the post-synaptic membrane to the released transmitter substance. 5. Neither anaesthetic appeared to increase the threshold depolarization required for nerve impulse generation. Thus, the decrease of the discharge of the post-synaptic cells was primarily caused by a depression of chemical transmission. 6. Ether caused some cells in the cortex to alter their normal pattern of synaptically evoked discharge and both anaesthetics induced similar changes during excitation by glutamate. PMID:168356

  11. FTIR cryospectroscopic and ab initio studies of desflurane-dimethyl ether H-bonded complexes.

    PubMed

    Melikova, S M; Rutkowski, K S; Rospenk, M

    2017-09-05

    The IR spectra of mixtures of desflurane and dimethyl ether are studied with the help of FTIR cryospectroscopy in liquefied Kr at T~118-158K. Comparative analysis of the experimental data and results of ab initio calculations show that either of the two C-H groups of desflurane is involved in heterodimer formation of comparable strengths. The blue frequency shift is found for stretching vibrations of those C-H donors which directly participate in H-bond formation. Additionally the complexes are stabilized by weaker contacts between hydrogen atoms of dimethyl ether and fluorine atoms of desflurane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether and its degradation products in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, C.D.; Isabelle, L.M.; Pankow, J.F.; Rose, D.L.; Tratnyek, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method can also give simultaneous identification of polar compounds that might occur as degradation products of gasoline oxygenates, such as TBA, TBF, TAA, methyl acetate, and acetone. When the method was applied to effluent from a column microcosm prepared with core material from an urban site in New Jersey, conversion of MTBE to TBA was observed after a lag period of 35 days. However, to date, analyses of water samples from six field sites using the DAI-GC/MS method have not produced evidence for the expected products of in situ degradation of MTBE.An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method

  13. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1998-04-28

    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  14. Antibacterial activity of berberine-NorA pump inhibitor hybrids with a methylene ether linking group.

    PubMed

    Samosorn, Siritron; Tanwirat, Bongkot; Muhamad, Nussara; Casadei, Gabriele; Tomkiewicz, Danuta; Lewis, Kim; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Prammananan, Therdsak; Gornall, Karina C; Beck, Jennifer L; Bremner, John B

    2009-06-01

    Conjugation of the NorA substrate berberine and the NorA inhibitor 5-nitro-2-phenyl-1H-indole via a methylene ether linking group gave the 13-substituted berberine-NorA inhibitor hybrid, 3. A series of simpler arylmethyl ether hybrid structures were also synthesized. The hybrid 3 showed excellent antibacterial activity (MIC Staphylococcus aureus, 1.7 microM), which was over 382-fold more active than the parent antibacterial berberine, against this bacterium. This compound was also shown to block the NorA efflux pump in S. aureus.

  15. [Study on the constituents of petroleum ether fraction of Buxus microphylla].

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi-Kai; Liang, Jun; Su, Xiao-Jian; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Hui-Qin

    2009-07-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the petroleum ether fraction of Buxus microphylla. The petroleum ether fraction of Buxus microphylla was isolated and identified by silica gel column chromatography. And the anticancer activity of different chemical constituents was measured by MTT reduction test. Eight compounds were isolated and identified as lupeol (1), butulin (3), beta-sitosterol (4), stigmasterol (5), dibutyl phthalate (6), 3beta, 30-dihydroxy-lup-20 (29) ene (7), daucosterol (8). Compound 7 inhibited KB cells' proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Compounds 2 - 5, 7, 8 are isolated from this genus for the first time. Compound 7 has certainly anticancer effects.

  16. Convenient Route to Di- and Triorganosilyl Ethyl Ethers and the Corresponding Di- and Triorganosilanes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-22

    example R2 R’SiH. Early reports indicated that formation of R3SiCI or R2SiCI 2 compounds by the addition of organolithium or Grignard reagents to...corresponding Grignard reagents are far less effective for the substiution reactions. 7 3 Table I. Conversion of (CH3 CH20) 4Si to Organosilyl Ethyl Ethers (X...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Tetraethoxysilane was treated with alkyl- and aryllithium reagents for the preparation of organosilyl ethyl ethers of the

  17. Preliminary report of clinical application of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether in photodynamic therapy for alimentary cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ying; Li, Junheng; Xu, De-Yu; Zhang, Zi-Qi; Huang, Yingcai; Wang, Kai

    1995-03-01

    A new sensitizer, hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), purified by the Second Military Medical University was used with a gold vapor laser for PDT in 8 cases of alimentary cancers. The results showed that 2 cases of early stage gastric cancer and 1 case of rectal polyps with malignancy revealed CR, SR was obtained in 1 case of esophageal cancer and 4 others were MR. No sunburn occurred within the 8 patients who received 12 doses of HMME at 5 mg/kg 2 - 3 hours prior to laser treatment and who were kept away from sun light only 6 hours. Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether is an effective single compound and safer for PDT.

  18. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, Robert H.; Brown, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and primary, secondary and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  19. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1989-10-17

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and primary, secondary and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  20. EFFECTS OF 2,2',4,4'-TETRABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ON CAR AND PXR REGULATED GENE EXPRESSION IN WEANLING FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF 2,2',4,4,'-TETRABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ON CAR AND PXR REGULATED GENE EXPRESSION IN WEANLING FEMALE RATS. V M RICHARDSON1, K M CROFTON2, AND M J DEVITO1. USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD1/NTD2,RTP, NC, USA. The polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) mixture DE-71 (PBDEs) cause endo...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10209 - Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed... Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin (generic... identified generically as epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10209 - Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed... Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin (generic... identified generically as epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10209 - Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed... Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin (generic... identified generically as epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10209 - Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed... Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin (generic... identified generically as epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol...

  5. Isoflurane is a suitable alternative to ether for anesthetizing rats prior to euthanasia for gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Aoshi, Taiki; Hamaguchi, Isao; Saito, Masumichi; Mizukami, Takuo; Momose, Haruka; Ishii, Ken J; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Diethyl ether (ether) had been widely used in Japan for anesthesia, despite its explosive properties and toxicity to both humans and animals. We also had used ether as an anesthetic for euthanizing rats for research in the Toxicogenomics Project (TGP). Because the use of ether for these purposes will likely cease, it is required to select an alternative anesthetic which is validated for consistency with existing TGP data acquired under ether anesthesia. We therefore compared two alternative anesthetic candidates, isoflurane and pentobarbital, with ether in terms of hematological findings, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expressions. As a result, few differences among the three agents were observed. In hematological and serum biochemistry analysis, no significant changes were found. In gene expression analysis, four known genes were extracted as differentially expressed genes in the liver of rats anesthetized with ether, isoflurane, or pentobarbital. However, no significant relationships were detected using gene ontology, pathway, or gene enrichment analyses by DAVID and TargetMine. Surprisingly, although it was expected that the lung would be affected by administration via inhalation, only one differentially expressed gene was extracted in the lung. Taken together, our data indicate that there are no significant differences among ether, isoflurane, and pentobarbital with respect to effects on hematological parameters, serum biochemistry parameters, and gene expression. Based on its smallest affect to existing data and its safety profile for humans and animals, we suggest isoflurane as a suitable alternative anesthetic for use in rat euthanasia in toxicogenomics analysis.

  6. Cooked carrots volatiles. AEDA and odor activity comparisons. Identification of Linden Ether as an important aroma component

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    MS with GC-RI evidence was found for the presence of Linden ether in cooked carrot. Evaluation of the GC effluent from cooked carrot volatiles using Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) found Linden ether with the highest Flavor Dilution (FD) factor. Others with 10 fold lower FD factors were B-i...

  7. 40 CFR 63.63 - Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl... Quantity Designations, Source Category List § 63.63 Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE,2-Butoxyethanol...

  8. Mechanisms of selective cleavage of C–O bonds in di-aryl ethers in aqueous phase

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jiayue; Zhao, Chen; Mei, Donghai

    2014-01-01

    A novel route for cleaving the C-O aryl ether bonds of p-substituted H-, CH 3-, and OH- diphenyl ethers has been explored over Ni/SiO 2 catalysts at very mild conditions. The C-O bond of diphenyl ether is cleaved by parallel hydrogenolysis and hydrolysis (hydrogenolysis combined with HO* addition) on Ni. The rates as a function of H 2 pressure from 0 to 10 MPa indicate that the rate-determining step is the C-O bond cleavage on Ni. H* atoms compete with the organic reactant for adsorption leading to a maximum in the rate with increasing H 2 pressure. In contrast tomore » diphenyl ether, hydrogenolysis is the exclusive route for cleaving an ether C-O bond of di-p-tolyl ether to form p-cresol and toluene. 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl ether undergoes sequential surface hydrogenolysis, first to phenol and HOC 6H 4O* (adsorbed), which is then cleaved to phenol (C 6H 5O* with added H*) and H 2O (O* with two added H*) in a second step. Density function theory supports the operation of this pathway. Notably, addition of H* to HOC 6H 4O* is less favorable than a further hydrogenolytic C-O bond cleavage. The TOFs of three aryl ethers with Ni/SiO 2 in water followed the order 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl ether (69 h -1) > diphenyl ether (26 h -1) > di-p-tolyl ether (1.3 h -1), in line with the increasing apparent activation energies, ranging from 93 kJ∙mol -1 (4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl ether) < diphenyl ether (98 kJ∙mol -1) to di-p-tolyl ether (105 kJ∙mol -1). D.M. thanks the support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) and by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). EMSL is a national scientific user facility

  9. Formulation and evaluation of C-Ether fluids as lubricants useful to 260 C. [air breathing engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, F. S.; Miller, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Three base stocks were evaluated in bench and bearing tests to determine their suitability for use at bulk oil temperatures (BOT) from -40 C to +260 C. A polyol ester gave good bearing tests at a bulk temperature of 218 C, but only a partially successful run at 274 C. These results bracket the fluid's maximum operating temperature between these values. An extensive screening program selected lubrication additives for a C-ether (modified polyphenyl ether) base stock. One formulation lubricated a bearing for 111 hours at 274 C (BOT), but this fluid gave many deposit related problems. Other C-ether blends produced cage wear or fatigue failures. Studies of a third fluid, a C-ether/disiloxane blend, consisted of bench oxidation and lubrication tests. These showed that some additives react differently in the blend than in pure C-ethers.

  10. Polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits made of polyether ether ketone tubing with a 0.25 mm opening resulting in an improved separation performance in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2016-05-01

    Tiny polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits have been prepared by modified catalytic sulfonation of the inner surface of polyether ether tubing (1.6 mm od, 0.25 mm id) followed by modified formation of organic monolith and cutting of the tubing into slices. The frit was placed below the central hole of the column outlet union and supported by a combination of a silica capillary (0.365 mm od, 0.05 mm id) and a polyether ether ketone sleeve (1.6 mm od, 0.38 mm id) tightened with a nut and a ferrule when the column was packed to prevent sinking of the frit element into the union hole (0.25 mm opening) otherwise. The column packed this way with the frits investigated in this study has shown better separation performance owing to the reduced frit volume in comparison to the column packed with a commercial stainless-steel screen frit. This study establishes the strategy of disposable microcolumns in which cheap disposable frits are used whenever the column is re-packed to yield columns of even better chromatographic performance than the columns with commercial frits. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. CCQM-K102: polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Marina; Shegunova, Penka; Conneely, Patrick; Becker, Roland; Maldonado Torres, Mauricio; Arce Osuna, Mariana; On, Tang Po; Man, Lee Ho; Baek, Song-Yee; Kim, Byungjoo; Hopley, Christopher; Liscio, Camilla; Warren, John; Le Diouron, Véronique; Lardy-Fontan, Sophie; Lalere, Béatrice; Mingwu, Shao; Kucklick, John; Vamathevan, Veronica; Matsuyama, Shigetomo; Numata, Masahiko; Brits, Martin; Quinn, Laura; Fernandes-Whaley, Maria; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Binici, Burcu; Konopelko, Leonid; Krylov, Anatoli; Mikheeva, Alena

    2017-01-01

    The key comparison CCQM-K102: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediment was coordinated by the JRC, Directorate F - Health, Consumers & Reference Materials, Geel (Belgium) under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM). Thirteen National Metrology institutes or Designated Institutes and the JRC participated. Participants were requested to report the mass fraction (on a dry mass basis) of BDE 47, 99 and 153 in the freshwater sediment study material. The sediment originated from a river in Belgium and contained PBDEs (and other pollutants) at levels commonly found in environmental samples. The comparison was designed to demonstrate participants' capability of analysing non-polar organic molecules in abiotic dried matrices (approximate range of molecular weights: 100 to 800 g/mol, polarity corresponding to pKow < -2, range of mass fraction: 1-1000 μg/kg). All participants (except one using ultrasonic extraction) applied Pressurised Liquid Extraction or Soxhlet, while the instrumental analysis was performed with GC-MS/MS, GC-MS or GC-HRMS. Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry approach was used for quantification (except in one case). The assigned Key Comparison Reference Values (KCRVs) were the medians of thirteen results for BDE 47 and eleven results for BDE 99 and 153, respectively. BDE 47 was assigned a KCRV of 15.60 μg/kg with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.41 μg/kg, BDE 99 was assigned a KCRV of 33.69 μg/kg with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.81 μg/kg and BDE 153 was assigned a KCRV of 6.28 μg/kg with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.28 μg/kg. The k-factor for the estimation of the expanded uncertainty of the KCRVs was chosen as k = 2. The degree of equivalence (with the KCRV) and its uncertainty were calculated for each result. Most of the participants to CCQM-K102 were able to demonstrate or confirm their capabilities in the analysis of non-polar organic

  12. Isolation and characterization of an ether-type polyurethane-degrading micro-organism and analysis of degradation mechanism by Alternaria sp.

    PubMed

    Matsumiya, Y; Murata, N; Tanabe, E; Kubota, K; Kubo, M

    2010-06-01

    To degrade ether-type polyurethane (ether-PUR), ether-PUR-degrading micro-organism was isolated. Moreover, ether-PUR-degrading mechanisms were analysed using model compounds of ether-PUR. A fungus designated as strain PURDK2, capable of changing the configuration of ether-PUR, has been isolated. This isolated fungus was identified as Alternaria sp. Using a scanning electron microscope, the grid structure of ether-PUR was shown to be melted and disrupted by the fungus. The degradation of ether-PUR by the fungus was analysed, and the ether-PUR was degraded by the fungus by about 27.5%. To analyse the urethane-bond degradation by the fungus, a degraded product of ethylphenylcarbamate was analysed using GC/MS. Aniline and ethanol were detected by degradation with the supernatant, indicating that the fungus secreted urethane-bond-degrading enzyme(s). PURDK2 also degraded urea bonds when diphenylmethane-4,4'-dibutylurea was used as a substrate. The enzyme(s) from PURDK2 degraded urethane and urea bonds to convert the high molecular weight structure of ether-PUR to small molecules; and then the fungus seems to use the small molecules as an energy source. Ether-PUR-degrading fungus, strain PURDK2, was isolated, and the urethane- and urea-bonds-degrading enzymes from strain PURDK2 could contribute to the material recycling of ether-PUR.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495) is...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495) is...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495) is...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  1. Uptake and efflux of rhenium in cells exposed to rhenium diseleno-ether and tissue distribution of rhenium and selenium after rhenium diseleno-ether treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Collery, Philippe; Bastian, Gérard; Santoni, François; Mohsen, Ahmed; Wei, Ming; Collery, Thomas; Tomas, Alain; Desmaele, Didier; D'Angelo, Jean

    2014-04-01

    We proposed a new water-soluble rhenium diseleno-ether compound (with one atom of Re and two atoms of Se) and investigated the uptake of Re into the nucleus of malignant cells in culture exposed to the compound for 48 h and its efflux from the nucleus after a post-exposure period of 48 h, as DNA is the main target of Re. We also studied the distribution of both Re and Se in the main organs after an oral administration of 10 or 40 mg/kg Re diseleno-ether to mice for four weeks, five days-a-week. Re and Se concentrations were assayed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, comparing two related groups. We observed that Re was well incorporated into the nucleus of malignant cells in the most sensitive cells MCF-7, derived from human breast cancer, and that there was no efflux of Re. In contrast, in MCF-7 resistant cells (MCF-7 Mdr and MCF-7 R), A549 and HeLa cells, there was significant efflux of Re from the nucleus after the wash-out period. In mice, an important and dose-dependent uptake of both Re and Se was observed in the liver, with lower concentrations in kidneys. The lowest concentrations were observed in blood, lung, spleen and bones. There was a significant increase of Re concentrations in the blood, liver and kidney in mice treated with Re diseleno-ether at the dose of 40 mg/kg/24 h versus those treated at the dose of 10 mg/kg/24 h. There was a significant increase of Se concentrations in all tissues with the dose of Re diseleno-ether of 10 mg/kg/24 h versus controls, and a significant increase in the liver in mice treated with dose of Re diseleno-ether of 40 mg/kg/24h versus those treated with 10 mg/kg/24 h. We are the first to demonstrate that a compound combining Re and Se in a single molecule, is able to deliver Re and Se to the organism via an oral route, for cancer treatment.

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS DOES IMPAIRS SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LTP IN HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants bioaccumulate in wildlife and in humans and reduce circulating levels of thyroxine (T4). The present work examined hippocampal function in adult offspring of LE rats treated daily by oral gavage with 0, 30 or 100 mg/kg of a ...

  3. The Rod Contraction-Clock Retardation Ether Theory and the Special Theory of Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlichson, Herman

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the historical rod contraction-block retardation (RC-CR) ether theory to illustrate its relationship to the special theory of relativity and the possibility of experimental differences between them. Indicates that the RC-CR theory is worthy of the attention of both physicists and science philosophers. (CC)

  4. Ferrographic analysis of wear debris from boundary lubrication experiments with a five-ring polyphenyl ether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The types of wear particles generated by a five-ring polyphenyl ether in boundary lubrication experiments in various atmospheres were determined by ferrographic analysis. The types of wear particles observed included cylindrical or rocklike organometallic debris, adhesive and cutting wear particles, and some spherical debris. Interpretations as to the mechanism of generation of the various types of particles are presented.

  5. BIODEGRADATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER AND BTEX AT VARYING HYDRAULIC RETENTION TIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of biologically degrading methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contaminated groundwater is dependent on the ability to degrade MTBE and its byproducts in the presence of other gasoline contaminants. This study investigates a mixed culture degrading both MTBE and benzene...

  6. BIODEGRADATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER USING AN INNOVATIVE BIOMASS CONCENTRATOR REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was investigated using a pilot-scale Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR). The reactor was operated for a year at a flow rate of 2500 L/d of Cincinnati dechlorinated tap water and an influent MTBE concentration o...

  7. Neurochemical Changes Following a Single Dose Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether 47 in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Previous studies in our laboratory, and in the literature, have shown that exposure to a specific PBDE congener (PBDE 47) during a cri...

  8. TREATMENT OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER CONTAMINATED WATER USING PHOTOCATALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of photo-oxidation treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water was investigated in three ways, 1) using a slurry falling film photo-reactor, 2) a batch solar reactor system, and 3) a combination of air-stripping and gas phase photooxidation system. MTBE-c...

  9. ATTENUATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER IN WATER USING SUNLIGHT AND A PHOTOCATALYST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a gasoline additive has resulted in increasing pollution of ground water. Most of the conventional treatment technologies are inefficient or costly when the initial concentration of MTBE is low (<200 ug/L). In order to find an eco-frie...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955) is...

  11. Synthesis and electronic factors in thermal cyclodimerization of functionalized aromatic trifluorovinyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Spraul, Bryan K; Suresh, S; Jin, Jianyong; Smith, Dennis W

    2006-05-31

    A series of 19 p-substituted aromatic trifluorovinyl ether compounds were prepared from versatile intermediate p-Br-C(6)H(4)-O-CF=CF(2) and underwent thermal radical mediated cyclodimerization to new difunctional compounds containing the 1,2-disubstituted perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) linkage. The synthetic scope demonstrates the functional group transformation tolerance of the fluorovinyl ether, and the dimers are useful as monomers for traditional step-growth polymerization methods. (19)F NMR spectra confirmed that p-substitution affects the trifluorovinyl ether group chemical shifts. The first kinetic studies and substituent effects on thermal cyclodimerization were performed, and the results indicated that electron-withdrawing groups slow the rate of cyclodimerization. The data were further analyzed using the Hammett equation, and reaction constants (rho) of -0.46 at 120 degrees C and -0.59 at 130 degrees C were calculated. This study presents the first liner free energy relationship reported for the cyclodimerization of aromatic trifluorovinyl ethers to PFCB compounds.

  12. Neurobehavioral Development following Exposure of Male Mice to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether 47 on Postnatal Day 10

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Previous studies in our laboratory and in the literature have shown that exposure to a specific PBDE congener, PBDE 47, during a crit...

  13. SYMPOSIUM #127 – ARE POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS FROM HOUSEHOLD DUST BIOAVAILABLE AND BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, household dust has been implicated as a major source of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure in humans. This finding may have important implications for young children, who are thought to ingest more dust than adults and may be more susceptible to some of the ...

  14. CHANGES IN MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE IN CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONAL CULTURES BY POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flame-retardants and have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk; clarifying the nature of the risks posed is important for clean-up and remediation. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown t...

  15. Oxime Ethers of (E)-11-Isonitrosostrychnine as Highly Potent Glycine Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mohsen, Amal M Y; Mandour, Yasmine M; Sarukhanyan, Edita; Breitinger, Ulrike; Villmann, Carmen; Banoub, Maha M; Breitinger, Hans-Georg; Dandekar, Thomas; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Sotriffer, Christoph; Jensen, Anders A; Zlotos, Darius P

    2016-12-23

    A series of (E)-11-isonitrosostrychnine oxime ethers, 2-aminostrychnine, (strychnine-2-yl)propionamide, 18-oxostrychnine, and N-propylstrychnine bromide were synthesized and evaluated pharmacologically at human α1 and α1β glycine receptors in a functional fluorescence-based and a whole-cell patch-clamp assay and in [ 3 H]strychnine binding studies. 2-Aminostrychnine and the methyl, allyl, and propargyl oxime ethers were the most potent α1 and α1β antagonists in the series, displaying IC 50 values similar to those of strychnine at the two receptors. Docking experiments to the strychnine binding site of the crystal structure of the α3 glycine receptor indicated the same orientation of the strychnine core for all analogues. For the most potent oxime ethers, the ether substituent was accommodated in a lipophilic receptor binding pocket. The findings identify the oxime hydroxy group as a suitable attachment point for linking two strychnine pharmacophores by a polymethylene spacer and are, therefore, important for the design of bivalent ligands targeting glycine receptors.

  16. 2,2\\',4,4\\',5,5\\'-Hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,2 ' , 4,4 ' , 5,5 ' - Hexabromodiphenyl ether ( BDE - 153 ) ; CASRN 68631 - 49 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I (

  17. 2,2\\',3,3\\',4,4\\',5,5\\',6,6\\'-Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 008F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF DECABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 209 ) ( CAS No . 1163 - 19 - 5 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This d

  18. DERMAL, ORAL AND INHALATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive used to increase octane and reduce carbon monoxide emissions and ozone precursors, has contaminated drinking water and can lead to exposure by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. To determine its dermal, oral, and inhal...

  19. PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURES TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans can be exposed by inhalation, ingestion, or dermal absorption to methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an oxygenated fuel additive, from contaminated water sources. The purpose of this research was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model describing in human...

  20. DERMAL, ORAL, AND INHALATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive, used to increase octane and reduce carbon monoxide emissions and ozone precursors has contaminated drinking water leading to exposure by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. To determine its dermal, oral, and inhalation ki...

  1. COMPARATIVE IMMUNOSUPPRESSION OF VARIOUS GLYCOL ETHERS ORALLY ADMINISTERED TO FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral dosing of adult rats F344 rats with the glycol ether 2-methoxyethanol (ME) or its principal metabolite 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA) results in the suppression of the primary plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide (TNP_LPS). n the present study,...

  2. A National Probabilistic Study of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Fish from US Lakes and Reservoirs

    EPA Science Inventory

    National estimates were developed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes and Great Salt Lake) using an unequal probability design. Predator (fillet) and bottom-dweller (w...

  3. Development of a stereoselective and scalable process for the preparation of a methylcyclobutanol-pyridyl ether.

    PubMed

    Kuethe, Jeffrey T; Basu, Kallol; Orr, Robert K; Ashley, Eric; Poirier, Marc; Tan, Lushi

    2018-02-15

    The evolution of a scalable process for the preparation of methylcyclobutanol-pyridyl ether 1 is described. Key aspects of this development including careful control of the stereochemistry, elimination of chromatography, and application to kilogram-scale synthesis are addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Poly(ether ester) Ionomers as Water-Soluble Polymers for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing Processes.

    PubMed

    Pekkanen, Allison M; Zawaski, Callie; Stevenson, André T; Dickerman, Ross; Whittington, Abby R; Williams, Christopher B; Long, Timothy E

    2017-04-12

    Water-soluble polymers as sacrificial supports for additive manufacturing (AM) facilitate complex features in printed objects. Few water-soluble polymers beyond poly(vinyl alcohol) enable material extrusion AM. In this work, charged poly(ether ester)s with tailored rheological and mechanical properties serve as novel materials for extrusion-based AM at low temperatures. Melt transesterification of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8k) and dimethyl 5-sulfoisophthalate afforded poly(ether ester)s of sufficient molecular weight to impart mechanical integrity. Quantitative ion exchange provided a library of poly(ether ester)s with varying counterions, including both monovalent and divalent cations. Dynamic mechanical and tensile analysis revealed an insignificant difference in mechanical properties for these polymers below the melting temperature, suggesting an insignificant change in final part properties. Rheological analysis, however, revealed the advantageous effect of divalent countercations (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and Zn 2+ ) in the melt state and exhibited an increase in viscosity of two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, time-temperature superposition identified an elevation in modulus, melt viscosity, and flow activation energy, suggesting intramolecular interactions between polymer chains and a higher apparent molecular weight. In particular, extrusion of poly(PEG 8k -co-CaSIP) revealed vast opportunities for extrusion AM of well-defined parts. The unique melt rheological properties highlighted these poly(ether ester) ionomers as ideal candidates for low-temperature material extrusion additive manufacturing of water-soluble parts.

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In September 2016, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) released the draft Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE). Consistent with the 2013 IRIS Enhancements, draft IRIS assessments are released prior to e...

  6. Tissue distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in male ratsand implications for biomonitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of widely-used flame retardants which have been found to persist, bioaccumulate, and potentially affect development in animals. Exposure to PBDEs can be through both diet and the environment and is generally estimated by measuri...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955) is...

  8. IRIS Health Assessment of 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-47) CASRN 5436-43-12,2',4,4',5-Pentabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-99) CASRN 60348-60-92,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-153) CASRN 68631-49-22,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) CASRN 1163-19-5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in furniture foam (pentaBDE), plastics for TV cabinets, consumer electronics, wire insulation, and backcoatings for draperies and upholstery (decaBDE), and plastics for personal computers and small appliances (oc...

  9. DETERMINATION OF SURFACTANT SODIUM LAURYL ETHER SULFATE BY ION PAIRING CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the determination of the anionic Steol CS-330 surfactant is described. CS-330 is a complex mixture of oligomers due to the various sizes of fatty alcohols and the number of moles of the ethoxylation. The main component of CS-330 is sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES)....

  10. Photosynthesis Involvement in the Mechanism of Action of Diphenyl Ether Herbicides 1

    PubMed Central

    Ensminger, Michael P.; Hess, F. Dan

    1985-01-01

    Photosynthesis is not required for the toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides, nor are chloroplast thylakoids the primary site of diphenyl ether herbicide activity. Isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplast fragments produced malonyl dialdehyde, indicating lipid peroxidation, when paraquat (1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium ion) or diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] were added to the medium, but no malonyl dialdehyde was produced when chloroplast fragments were treated with the methyl ester of acifluorfen (methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoic acid), oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene], or MC15608 (methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-chlorobenzoate). In most cases the toxicity of acifluorfen-methyl, oxyfluorfen, or MC15608 to the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos (Moewus) did not decrease after simultaneous treatment with diuron. However, diuron significantly reduced cell death after paraquat treatment at all but the highest paraquat concentration tested (0.1 millimolar). These data indicate electron transport of photosynthesis is not serving the same function for diphenyl ether herbicides as for paraquat. Additional evidence for differential action of paraquat was obtained from the superoxide scavenger copper penicillamine (copper complex of 2-amino-3-mercapto-3-methylbutanoic acid). Copper penicillamine eliminated paraquat toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons but did not reduce diphenyl ether herbicide toxicity. PMID:16664206

  11. Photosynthesis involvement in the mechanism of action of diphenyl ether herbicides.

    PubMed

    Ensminger, M P; Hess, F D

    1985-05-01

    Photosynthesis is not required for the toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides, nor are chloroplast thylakoids the primary site of diphenyl ether herbicide activity. Isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplast fragments produced malonyl dialdehyde, indicating lipid peroxidation, when paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium ion) or diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] were added to the medium, but no malonyl dialdehyde was produced when chloroplast fragments were treated with the methyl ester of acifluorfen (methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoic acid), oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene], or MC15608 (methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-chlorobenzoate). In most cases the toxicity of acifluorfen-methyl, oxyfluorfen, or MC15608 to the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos (Moewus) did not decrease after simultaneous treatment with diuron. However, diuron significantly reduced cell death after paraquat treatment at all but the highest paraquat concentration tested (0.1 millimolar). These data indicate electron transport of photosynthesis is not serving the same function for diphenyl ether herbicides as for paraquat. Additional evidence for differential action of paraquat was obtained from the superoxide scavenger copper penicillamine (copper complex of 2-amino-3-mercapto-3-methylbutanoic acid). Copper penicillamine eliminated paraquat toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons but did not reduce diphenyl ether herbicide toxicity.

  12. [Determination of biphenyl ether herbicides in water using HPLC with cloud-point extraction].

    PubMed

    He, Cheng-Yan; Li, Yuan-Qian; Wang, Shen-Jiao; Ouyang, Hua-Xue; Zheng, Bo

    2010-01-01

    To determine residues of multiple biphenyl ether herbicides simultaneously in water using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with cloud-point extraction. The residues of eight biphenyl ether herbicides (including bentazone, fomesafen, acifluorfen, aclonifen, bifenox, fluoroglycofenethy, nitrofen, oxyfluorfen) in water samples were extracted with cloud-point extraction of Triton X-114. The analytes were separated and determined using reverse phase HPLC with ultraviolet detector at 300 nm. Optimized conditions for the pretreatment of water samples and the parameters of chromatographic separation applied. There was a good linear correlation between the concentration and the peak area of the analytes in the range of 0.05-2.00 mg/L (r = 0.9991-0.9998). Except bentazone, the spiked recoveries of the biphenyl ether herbicides in the water samples ranged from 80.1% to 100.9%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 2.70% to 6.40%. The detection limit of the method ranged from 0.10 microg/L to 0.50 microg/L. The proposed method is simple, rapid and sensitive, and can meet the requirements of determination of multiple biphenyl ether herbicides simultaneously in natural waters.

  13. Stereospecific nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of alkyl ethers: enantioselective synthesis of diarylethanes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Buck L H; Swift, Elizabeth C; Waetzig, Joshua D; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2011-01-26

    Secondary benzylic ethers undergo stereospecific substitution reactions with Grignard reagents in the presence of nickel catalysts. Reactions proceed with inversion of configuration and high stereochemical fidelity. This reaction allows for facile enantioselective synthesis of biologically active diarylethanes from readily available optically enriched carbinols.

  14. INHALATION EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND DIBROMOCHLOROMETHANE (DBCM) USING CONTINUOUS BREATH ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been added to gasoline to help meet national ambient air quality standards in those parts of the U.S. that are non-compliant for carbon monoxide. Although MTBE has provided important health benefits in terms of reduced haza...

  15. LACK OF ALTERATIONS IN THYROID HORMONES FOLLOWING A SINGLE POSTNATAL EXPOSURE TO POLYBROMIANTED DIPHENYL ETHER 47.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. There has been a rapid accumulation of these chemicals in the environment and high levels of PBDEs have been found in the adipose tiss...

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) was released for external peer review in June 2017. EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the ETB...

  17. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1983-01-01

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C.sub.4 hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether.

  18. STRUCTURES AND BINDING ENERGIES OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER-WATER COMPLEXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a well-known environmental contaminant owing to its high solubility in water. Since the early 1990s, MTBE has been added to gasoline to improve air quality in some metropolitan areas of the United States. Improved air quality was, however, achiev...

  19. INFLUENCE OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) ON LAKE WATER ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as an octane booster in gasoline in the United States since the 1970s. MTBE use increased greatly in the 1990s with the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The MTBE enhanced a more complete combustion of fuel hydroc...

  20. Isolation and identification of the antibacterial active compound from petroleum ether extract of neem oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Qun; Xu, Jiao; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Jia, Ren-Yong; Lu, Yang; Yang, Fan; Du, Yong-Hua; Zou, Ping; Lv, Cheng; Hu, Ting-Xiu; Liu, Shu-Liang; Shu, Gang; Yi, Geng

    2010-10-01

    From a petroleum ether extract of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) the new tetrahydrofuranyl diester 1 was isolated as an anti-bacterial constituent. 1 showed significant activities against three standard bacterial strains, including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella enteritidis CMCC (B) 50041. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxidation mechanism of diethyl ether: a complex process for a simple molecule.

    PubMed

    Di Tommaso, Stefania; Rotureau, Patricia; Crescenzi, Orlando; Adamo, Carlo

    2011-08-28

    A large number of organic compounds, such as ethers, spontaneously form unstable peroxides through a self-propagating process of autoxidation (peroxidation). Although the hazards of organic peroxides are well known, the oxidation mechanisms of peroxidizable compounds like ethers reported in the literature are vague and often based on old experiments, carried out in very different conditions (e.g. atmospheric, combustion). With the aim to (partially) fill the lack of information, in this paper we present an extensive Density Functional Theory (DFT) study of autoxidation reaction of diethyl ether (DEE), a chemical that is largely used as solvent in laboratories, and which is considered to be responsible for various accidents. The aim of the work is to investigate the most probable reaction paths involved in the autoxidation process and to identify all potential hazardous intermediates, such as peroxides. Beyond the determination of a complex oxidation mechanism for such a simple molecule, our results suggest that the two main reaction channels open in solution are the direct decomposition (β-scission) of DEE radical issued of the initiation step and the isomerization of the peroxy radical formed upon oxygen attack (DEEOO˙). A simple kinetic evaluation of these two competing reaction channels hints that radical isomerization may play an unexpectedly important role in the global DEE oxidation process. Finally industrial hazards could be related to the hydroperoxide formation and accumulation during the chain propagation step. The resulting information may contribute to the understanding of the accidental risks associated with the use of diethyl ether.

  2. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in U.S. Meat and Poultry: Levels, Congener Patterns, and Temporal Trends

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Statistical surveys for dioxin residues in domestic meat and poultry were conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2002 and again in 2008. Because polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are also found in animal products and because the production of PentaBDE and OctaBDE formulations in th...

  3. REDUCTIVE ACTIVATION OF DIOXYGEN FOR DEGRADATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER BY BIFUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bifunctional aluminum is prepared by sulfating aluminum metal with sulfuric acid. The use of bifunctional aluminum to degrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the presence of dioxygen has been examined using batch systems. Primary degradation products were tert-butyl alcohol, ...

  4. Synthesis and application of polyepoxide cardanol glycidyl ether as biobased polyepoxide reactive diluent for epoxy resin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyepoxide cardanol glycidyl ether (PECGE), a novel cardanol derivative, was synthesized and used as reactive diluent for petroleum-based epoxy resin in this work. The synthetic condition was first optimized, and the resultant PECGE diluent was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectro...

  5. Chemical Aspects of General Anesthesia: Part 1. From Ether to Halothane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsvold, Robert; Ostercamp, Daryl L.

    2006-01-01

    The history and evolution of general anesthesia, which invokes a variety of drugs, each compound having a specific purpose from muscle relaxation to unconsciousness is discussed. Some of the popular anesthetics discussed are ether, chloroform, halocarbons, gaseous nitrous oxide, halothane, and mixture of 70% nitrous oxide and 30% oxygen.

  6. PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION OF METHYL-TERT-BUTYL ETHER FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photo-oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water was investigated to determine the feasibility of using photocatalysis for the treatment of MTBE-contaminated drinking water. The feasibility assessment was conducted using slurries of titanium dioxide in both a photo-...

  7. Screening of ligands for the Ullmann synthesis of electron-rich diaryl ethers.

    PubMed

    Otto, Nicola; Opatz, Till

    2012-01-01

    In the search for new ligands for the Ullmann diaryl ether synthesis, permitting the coupling of electron-rich aryl bromides at relatively low temperatures, 56 structurally diverse multidentate ligands were screened in a model system that uses copper iodide in acetonitrile with potassium phosphate as the base. The ligands differed largely in their performance, but no privileged structural class could be identified.

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In September 2016, EPA released the draft IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) for public comment and discussion. The draft assessment was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent ...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from ot...

  10. An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether (Egbe)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This position paper, An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, was developed in support of the EPA's evaluation of a petition from the American Chemistry Council requesting to delist EGBE per the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Titl...

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  12. OCCURRENCE OF METYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AT FIVE MARINAS IN LAKE TEXOMA

    EPA Science Inventory



    Occurrence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in five marinas was monitored between June 1999 and November 2000 in Lake Texoma located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas. MTBE is a commonly used gasoline additive and a suspected carcinogen. Lake water was collected at loc...

  13. Development of an electrochemical immunoassay for the detection of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental substances that were commonly used as fire retardants in a wide number of commercial products. Their low reactivity, high hydrophobicity and bioaccumulative properties cause their ubiquity in the air, water, food and lead to extensi...

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) (External Review Draft, 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  15. Leaching characteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from flame-retardant plastics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Osako, Masahiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the effect of leachant on the leachability of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), we determined the leaching concentrations of PBDEs from flame-retardant plastic samples (TV housings and raw materials before molding processing) that are regarded as a source of PBDEs in landfill sites. The leachants used were distilled water, 20% methanol solution, and dissolved humic solution (DHS) of 1000 mg/l based on organic carbon. The leaching test conditions were a liquid-to-solid ratio of 100:1, and a contact period of five days, with twice-daily agitation in a temperature-controlled room of 30 degrees C without pH or ionic strength control. The leaching concentrations of PBDEs increased with increased content, and were found to be remarkably enhanced when methanol and DHS were used instead of distilled water. The enhancement of leachability in the presence of the latter was attributed to the cosolvency effect, and complex formations between the PBDEs and dissolved humic matter (DHM). PBDE concentrations in the leachate obtained from the leaching test and an actual landfill site revealed a significant presence of congeners below heptabromodiphenyl ethers (H7BDEs), detected in the leachate of the actual landfill, while significant amounts of nonabromodiphenyl ethers (N9BDEs) and decabromodiphenyl ether (D10BDE) were detected in the leachate of the leaching test.

  16. Rapid and selective lead (II) colorimetric sensor based on azacrown ether-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, A.; Khodaei, M. M.; Karami, Ch; Workentin, M. S.; Shamsipur, M.; Sadeghi, M.

    2010-08-01

    A gold nanoparticle (AuNPs)-based simple and fast colorimetric sensor for selective detecting of Pb(II) in aqueous solution has been developed. Monodisperse AuNPs (approx. 2.0 nm diameter) has been prepared facilely and further modified with an alkanethiol-bearing monoazacrown ether terminus. These AuNPs are shown to selectively sense Pb2 + through color change, which is visually discernible by an appearance of the surface plasmon band (SPB) at 520 nm. The recognition mechanism is attributed to the unique structure of the monoazacrown ether attached to AuNPs and metal sandwich coordination between two azacrown ether moieties that are attached to separate nanoparticles. This inter-particle cross-linking results in an aggregation and apparent color change from brown to purple. Additionally, TEM experiments support the optical absorption data proving the aggregation between azacrown ether-capped gold nanoparticles. This AuNP-based colorimetric assay is a facile and robust method and allows fast detection of Pb2 + at ambient temperatures. More importantly, the developed technique does not utilize enzymatic reactions, light-sensitive dye molecules, lengthy protocols or sophisticated instrumentation.

  17. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS (EXTERNAL PEER REVIEW)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessments of four congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers: tetraBDE (BDE-47), pentaBDE (BDE-99), hexaBDE (BDE-153), and decaBDE (BDE-209), that will appear on ...

  18. REFINED PBPK MODEL OF AGGREGATE EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aggregate (multiple pathway) exposures to methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in air and water occur via dermal, inhalation, and oral routes. Previously, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to quantify the kinetic behavior of MTBE and its primary met...

  19. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1983-03-01

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

  20. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955) is...