McDougall, D.; Hattab, H.; Hershberger, M. T.; ...
The use of graphene for microelectronics and spintronic applications requires strategies for metals to wet graphene and to grow layer-by-layer. This is especially important when metals will be used as electrical contacts or as spin filters. Extensive work in the literature so far has shown that this is very challenging, since practically all metals grow 3D, with multi-height islands forming easily. Reasons for the 3D morphology are the much weaker metal carbon bond when compared to the metal cohesive energy and the role of Coulomb repulsion of the poorly screened charges at the metal graphene interface. We employed the complementarymore » techniques of SPA-LEED and STM to study the growth of Dy on graphene. It was found that under kinetic limitations it is possible to fully cover graphene with a bilayer Dy film, by growing well below room temperature in stepwise deposition experiments. Lastly, the Dy film, however, is amorphous but ways to crystallize it within the 2D morphology are possible, since long range order improves at higher growth temperature.« less
Sotto, M.; Croset, B.
The self-organisation of nitrogen nanostructures at different coverages on a (100) copper surface is studied by spot profile analysing low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). The existence of two surface states with a domain of coverage leading to coexistence of the two states as already observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) [Leibsle and Robinson, Phys. Rev. B 47 (1993) 15 865; Leibsle et al., Surf. Sci. 317 (1994) 309; Leibsle, Surf. Sci. 440 (1999) L835] and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) [Sotto et al., Surf. Sci. 371 (1997) 36] is confirmed. In the first state, the surface is organised in square shape islands separated by bare copper <100> rows. This work shows that the surface periodicity depends on the preparation of the nitrogen overlayer. When nitrogen coverage is obtained by adsorption with a sample temperature near 320°C, the periodicity does not vary with coverage and is found to be equal to 55±2 Å. At coverages below 0.75±0.05 and if the nitrogen is deposited at room temperature followed by an anneal at 320°C, during long periods of time, the periodicity evolves to large values (˜97±3 Å). During thermal desorption, the long range order with decreasing coverage is maintained but the surface periodicity also evolves continuously to large values (˜100 Å). However, a surface periodicity of 55±2 Å seems to be a characteristic length of this system. The second surface state corresponds to large c(2×2)N domains separated by <110> trenches [Leibsle and Robinson, Phys. Rev. B 47 (1993) 15 865; Leibsle et al., Surf. Sci. 317 (1994) 309; Leibsle, Surf. Sci. 440 (1999) L835]. Nitrogen adsorption on a (410) stepped face induces a reconstruction into a (810) face with double step height. The complex behaviour of this film growth is discussed in the light of existing theories about the driving force leading to nanostructuration.
Hattab, H.; Hupalo, M.; Hershberger, M. T.; ...
A novel type of very fast nucleation was recently found in Pb/Si(111) with 4- to 7-layer high islands becoming crystalline in an “explosive” way, when the Pb deposited amount in the wetting layer is compressed to θ c ~ 1.22 ML, well above the metallic Pb(111) density. This “explosive” nucleation is very different from classical nucleation when island growth is more gradual and islands grow in size by single adatom aggregation . In order to identify the key parameters that control the nucleation we used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). It wasmore » found that the number and duration of steps in iterative deposition used to approach θc and the flux rate have dramatic effects on the crystallization process. Larger depositions over shorter times induce greater spatial coverage fluctuations, so local areas can reach the critical coverage θ c easier. This can trigger the collective motion of the wetting layer from far away to build the Pb islands “explosively”. Here, the SPA-LEED experiments show that even low flux experiments in iterative deposition experiments can trigger transfer of material to the superstable 7-layer islands, as seen from the stronger satellite rings close to the (00) spot.« less
Tringides, Michael C.
Highly uniform height Pb(111) islands (which can differ by bilayer height increments) of flat tops and steep edges can be grown on Pb/Si(111) at low temperatures 120K
Hupalo, M.; Hershberger, M. T.; Hattab, H.; McDougall, D. C.; Horn von Hoegen, M.; Tringides, M. C.
The growth of graphene on SiC was studied in detail with SPA LEED to understand the transition from zero to monolayer graphene with increasing temperature starting at 1200°C. Both the changing diffraction spots with annealing and their line shapes are studied in detail until a fully completed monolayer is obtained with only 6x6 spots remaining. In particular we focus on two strong features not investigated previously: (i) superstructures spots at n/13 locations present between the specular and the graphene spots. These spots are possibly related to different coincidence lattices before graphene locks into its final 6x6 orientation. (ii) The presence of a very broad background intensity covering ~60% of the BZ both around the specular and graphene spots whose origin is still unknown. Detailed studies of the dependence of this background component on energy and comparison between the graphene and specular spots suggest that the origin is not due to the standard variation with electron energy, i.e. a g(s) curve caused by the topography. Throughout the literature this broad background has been seen in graphene grown in different types of substrates. We comment on possible reasons for the origin of the background. Ames Laboratory is operated by the US-DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.
Kilian, L.; Stahl, U.; Kossev, I.; Sokolowski, M.; Fink, R.; Umbach, E.
The structural order of 1,4,9,10-naphthalene-tetracarboxylicacid-dianhydride (NTCDA) monolayers on Ag(1 1 1) has been investigated by spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). For increasing coverage, we find a sequence of three highly ordered structures: a commensurate structure (α), a uniaxially incommensurate structure (α 2), and an incommensurate structure (β) with coverages of 0.9 ML, 0.95 ML, and 1 (saturated) monolayer (ML), respectively. In the high coverage regime, the structures coexist and a coverage increase causes a change of their relative fractions. The α and β structures were known before [U. Stahl, D. Gador, A. Soukopp, R. Fink, E. Umbach, Surf. Sci. 414 (1998) 423], but the β structure was proposed as commensurate, since its very small misfit with respect to a commensurate structure could not be resolved. This misfit leads to a periodic modulation, causing additional Moiré satellites in the diffraction pattern. This finding demonstrates the importance of high resolution methods for the geometry determination of large organic adsorbates.
temperatures and pressures known only as a polymeric substance, is similarly obtained in high purity by heating the polymer to its melting point (105-110’ C...filaments for Curie- point pyrolysis’ J.Anal.Appl.Pyrolysis. 5 (1983) 1-7 (with Helge Egsgaard) 4) ’Heterogeneous catalysis in gas phase reactions studied...by Curie- point pyrolysis. Gas phase pyrolysis of methyl dithio- acetat’ J.Anal.Appl.Pyrolysis. 5 (1983) 257-259 (with Helge Egsgaard) 5) ’Continuous
This dissertation consists of three parts. First, we study magnetic domains in Nd 2Fe 14B single crystals using high resolution magnetic force microscopy (MFM). In addition to the elongated, wavy nano-domains reported by a previous MFM study, we found that the micrometer size, star-shaped fractal pattern is constructed of an elongated network of nano-domains about 20 nm in width, with resolution-limited domain walls thinner than 2 nm. Second, we studied extra Dirac cones of multilayer graphene on SiC surface by ARPES and SPA-LEED. We discovered extra Dirac cones on Fermi surface due to SiC 6 x 6 and graphene 6√more » 3 6√ 3 coincidence lattice on both single-layer and three-layer graphene sheets. We interpreted the position and intensity of the Dirac cone replicas, based on the scattering vectors from LEED patterns. We found the positions of replica Dirac cones are determined mostly by the 6 6 SiC superlattice even graphene layers grown thicker. Finally, we studied the electronic structure of MoTe 2 by ARPES and experimentally con rmed the prediction of type II Weyl state in this material. By combining the result of Density Functional Theory calculations and Berry curvature calculations with out experimental data, we identi ed Fermi arcs, track states and Weyl points, all features predicted to exist in a type II Weyl semimetal. This material is an excellent playground for studies of exotic Fermions.« less
Matsumiya, Masahiko; Takagi, Ryuzo
For the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent metallic nuclear fuels in molten salt baths it is important to investigate the behavior of the electrochemically negative elements Eu and Sr, which are significant fission products. Voltammetric and chronopotentiometric studies have shown that the reduction of Eu 2+ and Sr 2+ on liquid Pb cathodes in molten chloride baths at 1073 K follows the alloy formation reaction: Eu 2+ + 2e- + 3Pb → EuPb 3 and Sr 2+ + 2e- + 3Pb → SrPb 3 . In the present work these alloy formation reactions were studiedby electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Analysis of the spectra showed that the electronic exchange of Eu 2+ /Eu and Sr 2+ /Sr is quasi-re-versible. Moreover, the experimental results allowed the determination of the kinetic parameters of EU 2+ /EU and Sr 2+ /Sr, the diffusion coefficients of these species in molten chloride baths, and also the diffusion layer thickness.
Arregui, C.; Ramiro, J. B.; Alcázar, A.; Méndez, A.; Muñoz-Martínez, J. F.; Carrascosa, M.
This paper describes the dielectrophoretic potential created by the evanescent electric field acting on a particle near a photovoltaic crystalsurface depending on the crystal cut. This electric field is obtained from the steady state solution of the Kukhtarev equations for thephotovoltaic effect, where the diffusion term has been disregarded. First, the space charge field generated by a small, square, light spotwhere d << l (being d a side of the square and l the crystal thickness) is studied. The surface charge density generated in both geometriesis calculated and compared as their relation determines the different properties of the dielectrophoretic potential for both cuts. The shapeof the dielectrophoretic potential is obtained and compared for several distances to the sample. Afterwards other light patterns are studiedby the superposition of square spots, and the resulting trapping profiles are analysed. Finally the surface charge densities and trappingprofiles for different d/l relations are studied.
Nair, Ramya G.; Nigam, Sandeep; Sudarsan, V.; Vatsa, R. K.
Dysprosium doped YBO3 luminescent particleis synthesized via poly-ol method and by subsequent annealing at 800°C. The synthesized material has been characterized for structure properties using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)spectroscopy. Photoluminescence properties of these samples are studiedby means of steady state measurements and decay curve. The phosphor shows characteristic transitions of Dy3+ in the excitation and emission spectra. Colour purity is determined in terms of yellow/blue ratio, which is found to be 1.8. The higher ratio of yellow/blue indicates that Dy3+ preferentially occupies the asymmetric site in host lattice. The average lifetime is found to be 1.1ms. The chromatic properties of the phosphor have been found to have chromaticity coordinates x = 0.245, y = 0.274.
Martín-Cora, Francisco J; Pazos, Angel
The main aim of this investigation was to delineate the distribution of the 5-HT7 receptor in human brain. Autoradiographic studies in guinea-pig and rat brain were also carried out in order to revisit and compare the anatomical distribution of 5-HT7 receptors in different mammalian species.Binding studies were performed in rat frontal cortex membranes using 10 nM [3H]mesulergine in the presence of raclopride (10 μM) and DOI (0.8 μM). Under these conditions, a binding site with pharmacological characteristics consistent with those of the 5-HT7 receptors was identified (rank order of binding affinity values: 5-CT>5-HT>5-MeOT>mesulergine ≈methiothepin>8-OH-DPAT=spiperone ≈(+)-butaclamol≫imipramine ≈(±)-pindolol≫ondansetron ≈clonidine ≈prazosin).The autoradiographic studies revealed that the anatomical distribution of 5-HT7 receptors throughout the human brain was heterogenous. High densities were found over the caudate and putamen nuclei, the pyramidal layer of the CA2 field of the hippocampus, the centromedial thalamic nucleus, and the dorsal raphe nucleus. The inner layer of the frontal cortex, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the subthalamic nucleus and superior colliculus, among others, presented intermediate concentrations of 5-HT7 receptors. A similar brain anatomical distribution of 5-HT7 receptors was observed in all three mammalian species studied.By using [3H]mesulergine, we have mapped for the first time the anatomical distribution of 5-HT7 receptors in the human brain, overcoming the limitations previously found in radiometric studies with other radioligands, and also revisiting the distribution in guinea-pig and rat brain. PMID:14656806